Science.gov

Sample records for alkali scrubbing processes

  1. Sulfur oxides scrubbing process

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, P.E.

    1986-07-15

    A process is described for removing sulfur oxides and solid particulates from a gaseous effluent. The steps of the process consist of: contacting within a venturi structure a gaseous effluent containing sulfur oxides with a liquid scrubbing mixture; passing the admixture of the gaseous effluent and liquid scrubbing mixture through a constricted passage of the venturi structure to increase the velocity thereof; separating the admixture into a liquid portion and a gas portion; delivering the gas portion of the separation step to a packed tower beneath the packed section thereof; contacting the gas portion with liquid scrubbing mixture in the packed section of the tower to form a gaseous overhead effluent substantially free of sulfur oxides and a bottoms liquid; combining the bottom liquid from the packed section of the tower with the liquid portion from the separating step to form a combined liquid bottoms; adjusting the pH of the combined liquid bottoms with a basic solution to form a liquid scrubbing mixture, the basic solution selected from the group consisting of alkali metal hydroxides, ammonium hydroxide, and ammonia; and dividing the liquid scrubbing mixture into a tower bottoms products, a first recycle stream providing the liquid scrubbing mixture to the first contacting step, and a second recycle stream providing the liquid scrubbing mixture to the second contacting step.

  2. Gas scrubbing apparatus and process

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.P.; Cox, K.K.

    1991-05-21

    This patent describes a scrubbing apparatus for purifying gas. It comprises: a tower through which gas moves upwardly, a first conical baffle mounted in the upper portion of the tower with its apex projecting downwardly for spreading gas flowing upward through the tower to the baffler, a first surface encircling the first conical baffle and located sufficiently close to the base of the baffle as to form a venturi passage past the periphery of the conical baffle base, a liquid collecting trough adjacent to the first surface for collecting liquid precipitated from air passing the first conical baffle, the tower including an upper section having a passage located above the base of the first conical baffle and having a cross section substantially smaller than the base of the first conical baffle, and a second conical baffle in the upper tower section of a size smaller than the base of the first conical baffle, a second surface encircling the second conical baffle and located sufficiently close to the base of the second conical baffle as to form a venturi passage past the base of the second conical baffle, a liquid collecting trough adjacent to the second surface for collecting liquid precipitated from air passing the second conical baffle, and an outlet from the upper chamber of the tower of a size in cross section smaller than the base of the second conical baffle.

  3. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  4. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  5. Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The report describes a dual alkali (or double alkali) flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from the flue gas by a soluble sodium-based scrubbing liquor. The collected SO2 is precipitated as calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), or a mixed crystal of both salts, and is purged from the system.

  6. Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Eakman, James M.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.

    1979-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

  7. Processing device with self-scrubbing logic

    SciTech Connect

    Wojahn, Christopher K.

    2016-03-01

    An apparatus includes a processing unit including a configuration memory and self-scrubber logic coupled to read the configuration memory to detect compromised data stored in the configuration memory. The apparatus also includes a watchdog unit external to the processing unit and coupled to the self-scrubber logic to detect a failure in the self-scrubber logic. The watchdog unit is coupled to the processing unit to selectively reset the processing unit in response to detecting the failure in the self-scrubber logic. The apparatus also includes an external memory external to the processing unit and coupled to send configuration data to the configuration memory in response to a data feed signal outputted by the self-scrubber logic.

  8. Capsule report: Adipic acid-enhanced lime/limestone test results at the EPA alkali scrubbing test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A.; Wang, S.C.

    1982-04-01

    The fifth in a series of reports describing the results of the Shawnee Lime and Limestone Wet Scrubbing Test Program, the report describes the results of adipic acid-enhanced limestone wet scrubbing systems. A primary objective of the program was to enhance sulfur oxide removal and improve the reliability and economics of lime and limestone wet scrubbing systems by use of adipic acid as a chemical additive.

  9. Process for recovering alkali metals and sulfur from alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2016-10-25

    Alkali metals and sulfur may be recovered from alkali monosulfide and polysulfides in an electrolytic process that utilizes an electrolytic cell having an alkali ion conductive membrane. An anolyte solution includes an alkali monosulfide, an alkali polysulfide, or a mixture thereof and a solvent that dissolves elemental sulfur. A catholyte includes molten alkali metal. Applying an electric current oxidizes sulfide and polysulfide in the anolyte compartment, causes alkali metal ions to pass through the alkali ion conductive membrane to the catholyte compartment, and reduces the alkali metal ions in the catholyte compartment. Liquid sulfur separates from the anolyte solution and may be recovered. The electrolytic cell is operated at a temperature where the formed alkali metal and sulfur are molten.

  10. Carbon Capture by a Continuous, Regenerative Ammonia-Based Scrubbing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Resnik, K.P.; Yeh, J.T.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-10-01

    Overview: To develop a knowledge/data base to determine whether an ammonia-based scrubbing process is a viable regenerable-capture technique that can simultaneously remove carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides, and trace pollutants from flue gas.

  11. Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.; Gorbaty, Martin L.; Tsou, Joe M.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

  12. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.

    1977-01-01

    Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level.

  13. FMC limestone double-alkali flue gas desulfurization process: Pilot plant testing: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Troupe, J.S.; Shepley, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents pilot plant testing of a 3 MW (9500 acfm equivalent flue gas flow) FMC limestone double alkali FGD process operating on a slipstream of a commercial 420 MW boiler burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The report discusses the rationale behind EPRI's decision to participate in the testing aspects of this project, the history of the development of limestone double alkali technology, and the chemistry involved in this technology's operation. The largest part of the report is devoted to the results obtained from tests conducted during 65 days of pilot plant operation. All of the major raw and reduced operating and analytical data taken during testing are reproduced in the appendices to the report, along with quality assurance information to support the validity of the data obtained. The report discusses the test results in detail and presents technical observations regarding their implications. The FMC limestone double alkali FGD process (1) can consistently remove 92 to 93% of SO/sub 2/ from high-sulfur coal flue gas, (2) can achieve high limestone utilization and low soda ash losses, (3) produces a manageable waste filter cake, (4) is highly tolerant of upsets in limestone feed, soda ash makeup, and regeneration residence time, and (5) presents no unusual safety or environmental problems. The process, like conventional limestone scrubbing, shows some adverse effects of increasing soluble magnesium concentration on solids quality and requires a finely ground limestone feed material to achieve high limestone utilization. However, neither limestone grind nor magnesium concentration appears to affect SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency. The report suggests specific lines of future developmental work and future demonstration testing to enhance the attractiveness of this process to the electric utility industry. A bibliography of limestone double alkali literature is included. 3 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; Williams, B. Ken

    2011-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act due to loss and degradation of scrub habitat. This study concerned the development of an optimal strategy for the restoration and management of scrub habitat at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which contains one of the few remaining large populations of scrub-jays in Florida. There are documented differences in the reproductive and survival rates of scrubjays among discrete classes of scrub height (<120 cm or "short"; 120-170 cm or "optimal"; .170 cm or "tall"; and a combination of tall and optimal or "mixed"), and our objective was to calculate a state-dependent management strategy that would maximize the long-term growth rate of the resident scrub-jay population. We used aerial imagery with multistate Markov models to estimate annual transition probabilities among the four scrub-height classes under three possible management actions: scrub restoration (mechanical cutting followed by burning), a prescribed burn, or no intervention. A strategy prescribing the optimal management action for management units exhibiting different proportions of scrub-height classes was derived using dynamic programming. Scrub restoration was the optimal management action only in units dominated by mixed and tall scrub, and burning tended to be the optimal action for intermediate levels of short scrub. The optimal action was to do nothing when the amount of short scrub was greater than 30%, because short scrub mostly transitions to optimal height scrub (i.e., that state with the highest demographic success of scrub-jays) in the absence of intervention. Monte Carlo simulation of the optimal policy suggested that some form of management would be required every year. We note, however, that estimates of scrub-height transition probabilities were subject to several sources of uncertainty, and so we explored the management implications of alternative sets of transition probabilities

  15. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO{sub 2} into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results.

  16. Study of an ammonia-based wet scrubbing process in a continuous flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Resnik, Kevin P.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2013-03-01

    A continuous gas and liquid flow, regenerative scrubbing process for CO{sub 2} capture was demonstrated at the bench-scale level. An aqueous ammonia-based solution captures CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas in an absorber and releases a nearly pure stream of CO{sub 2} in the regenerator. After the regeneration, the solution of ammonium compounds is recycled to the absorber. The design of a continuous flow unit was based on earlier exploratory results from a semi-batch reactor, where a CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} simulated flue gas mixture flowed through a well-mixed batch of ammonia-based solution. During the semi-batch tests, the solution was cycled between absorption and regeneration steps to measure the carrying capacity of the solution at various initial ammonia concentrations and temperatures. Consequentially, a series of tests were conducted on the continuous unit to observe the effect of various parameters on CO{sub 2} removal efficiency and regenerator effectiveness within the flow system. The parameters that were studied included absorber temperature, regenerator temperature, initial NH{sub 3} concentration, simulated flue gas flow rate, liquid solvent inventory in the flow system, and height of the packed-bed absorber. From this testing and subsequent testing, ammonia losses from both the absorption and regeneration steps were quantified, and attempts were made to maintain steady state during operations. Implications of experimental results with respect to process design are discussed.

  17. Combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing process

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.; Bittenson, S.; Lani, B.

    1998-04-01

    A new wet scrubber process has been developed and undergone preliminary testing to verify the viability of a zero discharge system for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. The process combines the Dravo ThioClear{reg_sign} process with Tecogen`s TecoLytic{trademark} process. The integration of these two technologies results a system that removes both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} while producing only salable byproducts. These by-products are wall board grade gypsum, magnesium hydroxide and up to 60 weight percent fertilizer grade calcium nitrate solution. Hence, a zero waste, zero discharge wet scrubber system is being demonstrated. The core of the integrated technology consists of two parts. The first part is the ThioClear process. In this process, a highly alkaline magnesium sulfite solution is used to capture the SO{sub 2} in a high velocity (greater than 15 ft/s with a nominal design of 25 ft/s) horizontal scrubber. Once captured, the sulfites are oxidized to sulfates in an oxidizing vessel. The effluent from the oxidizer is reacted with a magnesium-enhanced lime slurry to raise the pH to about 10.5. At this higher pH, 6 to Mg magnesium hydroxide precipitates and 80g or larger gypsum precipitates are formed. Subsequent product purification produces salable gypsum and magnesium hydroxide. The flue gas continues through the high velocity horizontal scrubber passing through the TecoLytic {trademark} section. In this section, high voltage is applied to produce highly reactive excited species. These species interact with the water vapor present to produce hydroxyl radicals while simultaneously oxidizing the NO to NO{sub 2}. The hydroxyl radicals rapidly oxidize the NO{sub 2} to nitric acid which is scrubbed in the second stage of the horizontal scrubber with a calcium nitrate - lime solution.

  18. A combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing process

    SciTech Connect

    Breault, R.W.; Bittenson, S.; Lani, B.

    1998-07-01

    A new wet scrubber process has been developed and undergone preliminary testing to verify the viability of a zero discharge system for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. The process combines the Dravo ThioClear{reg{underscore}sign} process with Tecogen's TecoLytic{trademark} process. The integration of these two technologies results a system that removes both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} while producing only salable byproducts. These by-products are wall board grade gypsum, magnesium hydroxide and up to 60 weight percent fertilizer grade calcium nitrate solution. Hence, a zero waste, zero discharge wet scrubber system is being demonstrated. The core of the integrated technology consists of two parts. The first part is the ThioClear process. In this process, a highly alkaline magnesium sulfite solution is used to capture the SO{sub 2} in a high velocity (greater than 15 ft/s with a nominal design of 25 ft/s) horizontal scrubber. Once captured, the sulfites are oxidized to sulfates in an oxidizing vessel. The effluent from the oxidizer is reacted with a magnesium-enhanced lime slurry to raise the pH to about 10.5. At this higher pH, 6 to 10{micro} magnesium hydroxide precipitates and 80{micro} or larger gypsum precipitates are formed. Subsequent product purification produces salable gypsum and magnesium hydroxide. The flue gas continues through the high velocity horizontal scrubber passing through the TecoLytic{trademark} section. In this section, high voltage is applied to produce highly reactive excited species. These species interact with the water vapor present to produce hydroxyl radicals while simultaneously oxidizing the NO to NO{sub 2}. The hydroxyl radicals rapidly oxidize the NO{sub 2} to nitric acid which is scrubbed in the second stage of the horizontal scrubber with a calcium nitrate--lime solution. Bench scale tests have shown high potential. A pilot plant facility has been installed at Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company's Miami Fort facility. Pilot tests at

  19. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  20. Formation of alkali-metal nanoparticles in alkali-silicate glasses under electron irradiation and thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkareva, E. S.; Sidorov, A. I.; Ignat'ev, A. I.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Podsvirov, O. A.

    2017-02-01

    Experiments and numerical simulation show that the irradiation of alkali-containing glasses using electrons at an energy of 35 keV and the subsequent thermal processing at a temperature above the vitrification point lead to the formation of spherical metal (lithium, sodium, and potassium) nanoparticles with oxide sheaths that exhibit plasmon resonances in the visible spectral range. Glasses containing two alkali metals exhibit mutual effect of metals on the formation of nanoparticles with two compositions due to the difference of ion radii and mobilities of metal ions.

  1. Economic evaluation and comparison of alternative limestone-scrubbing options

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, T.A.; Torstrick, R.L.; Sudhoff, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The preliminary-grade economics (accuracy: -15%, +30%) of various alternative limestone scrubbing options (absorber type, with and without forced oxidation, and with and without adipic acid enhancement) are examined using the current design and economic premises established for the continuing series of economic evaluations performed by TVA for EPA. The economics are projected using the Shawnee lime/limestone computer model, which is based on long-term operating data from the EPA Alkali Scrubbing Test Facility at the TVA Shawnee Steam Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. The capital investment for the base-case limestone scrubbing process (500 MW, 3.5% sulfur coal, 1979 NSPS, spray tower, forced oxidation, landfill) is $206/kW. The first-year and levelized annual revenue requirements are 10.59 and 15.09 mills/kWh respectively. Costs for the equivalent limestone scrubbing process using a Turbulent Contact Absorber (TCA) are lower while those for the venturi - spray tower absorber are higher. The forced-oxidation landfill disposal option has a lower capital investment than the unoxidized pond disposal option for all cases studied; however, the first-year and levelized annual revenue requirements are slightly higher for the forced-oxidation landfill process for most coal applications. For the spray tower limestone process to achieve a specified SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency, it is more economical to increase the limestone stoichiometry and minimize the absorber L/G. The use of adipic acid or possibly dibasic acid (DBA) as an additive to enhance SO/sub 2/ removal in the limestone scrubbing process is an economically attractive option. The use of adipic acid remains economically attractive even if both a high unit cost and a high degradation factor for adpic acid are assumbed.

  2. Catalytically enhanced packed tower scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Stitt, E.H.; Taylor, F.J.; Kelly, K.

    1996-12-31

    An enhanced wet scrubbing process for the treatment of gas streams containing odours and low level VOC`s is presented. It comprises essentially a single scrubbing column and a fixed bed catalytic reactor through which the dilute alkaline bleach scrubbing liquor is recirculated. The process has significant cost advantages over conventional chemical scrubbing technology, and copes well with peaks in odour levels. Traditional bleach scrubbing, and the improvements in process chemistry and the flowsheet afforded by inclusion of the catalyst, are discussed. The catalyst enables many of the well known problems associated with bleach scrubbing to be overcome, and facilitates odour removal efficiencies of greater than 99% in a single column. Pilot plant data from trials on sewage treatment works are presented. These show clearly the ability of the catalytically enhanced process to achieve sulphide and odour removals in excess of 99% in the single column. Case studies of some of the existing commercial installations are given, indicating the wide range of applications, industries and scale of the installed units. Comparative data are presented, measured on a commercial unit for the conventional operation of a bleach scrubber, and with the retrofitted catalyst in use. These data show clearly the benefits of the catalytic process in terms of removal efficiencies; and hence by inference also in equipment size and costs. The catalytic process is also shown to achieve very high removal efficiencies of organo-sulphides in a single column. 8 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  4. [Effect of degradation succession process on the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration in alpine Potentilla fruticosa scrub meadow].

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Luo, Xu-Peng; Cao, Guang-Min; Wu, Qin; Hu, Qi-Wu; Zhuo, Ma-Cuo; Li, Hui-Mei

    2015-03-01

    Grazing is one of the main artificial driving forces for the degradation succession process of alpine meadow. In order to quantitatively study the temperature sensitivity of alpine meadow ecosystem respiration in different degradation stages, we conducted the research in Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station, CAS from July 2003 to July 2004. The static chamber-chromatography methodology was used to observe the seasonal changes of alpine scrub ecosystem respiration flux during different degradation stages. The results showed that: (1) The seasonal changes of ecosystem respiration flux in different degradation stages of alpine shrub presented a unimodal curve. The maximum appeared in August and the minimum appeared during the period from October to next April. The degradation succession process significantly decreased the ecosystem respiratory CO2 release rate. The respiratory rate ranges of alpine Potentilla fruticosa scrub (GG), Kobresia capillifolia meadow (GC) and bare land (GL) were 34.21-1 168.23, 2.30-1 112.38 and 20.40-509.72 mg (m2 x h)(-1), respectively. The average respiration rate of GG was 1.29 and 2.56 times of that of GC and GL, respectively; (2) Temperature was the main factor that affected the ecosystem respiration rate, and contributed 25% - 79% of the variation of the ecosystem respiration. The degradation succession process significantly changed the correlation between ecosystem respiration rate and temperature. The correlation (R2) between ecosystem respiration rate and each temperature indicator (T(s), T(d) and T(a)) was reduced by 47.23%, 46.95% and 55.28%, respectively when the ground vegetation disappeared and the scrub was degraded into secondary bare land; (3) The difference of Q10 between warm and cool seasons was significant (P < 0.05), and the value of cold season was larger than that of warm season. Degradation succession process apparently changed the temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration. The Q10 values of GG, GC

  5. Alkali corrosion resistant coatings and ceramic foams having superfine open cell structure and method of processing

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Jr., Jesse J.; Hirschfeld, Deidre A.; Li, Tingkai

    1993-12-07

    Alkali corrosion resistant coatings and ceramic foams having superfine open cell structure are created using sol-gel processes. The processes have particular application in creating calcium magnesium zirconium phosphate, CMZP, coatings and foams.

  6. Scrubbing away pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-12-01

    A grid scrubbing method that is said to consume less energy and incur less downtime for maintenance than traditional tower technologies is being used to control industrial emissions at pulp and paper plants and at other factories. The catenary-grid-scrubber system is designed to enhance mixing of flue gas with the reagent chemicals, reduce hardware size, and cut capital costs. Flue gas from an industrial process is sent to the catenary grid scrubber, where velocity and pressure create a fluidized bed of water and chemical reagent in the grid to remove pollutants.

  7. Wellness Circles: The Alkali Lake Model in Community Recovery Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben, Leon W.; And Others

    The case study described here was conducted as a doctoral research project at Northern Arizona University. The study documents the success of the Shuswop Indian Band of Alkali Lake, British Columbia (Canada), in their 15-year battle with alcoholism, once the people themselves decided on recovery. The study looks back at the 95 percent recovery…

  8. Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

    2012-07-01

    Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper.

  9. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  10. Dissolution Process of Palladium in Hydrochloric Acid: A Route via Alkali Metal Palladates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Ryo; Miki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Hisashi; Tai, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    To improve the safety of the Pd recovery processes that use toxic oxidizers, dissolution of Pd in hydrochloric acid with alkali metal palladates was investigated. Alkali metal palladates were prepared by calcining a mixture of Pd black and alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) carbonates in air. Almost the entire amount of Pd was converted into Li2PdO2 after calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Li2CO3. In contrast, PdO was obtained by calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Na and K carbonates. Our results indicated that Li2CO3 is the most active reagent among the examined alkali metal carbonates for the formation of palladates. In addition, dissolution of the resulting Li2PdO2 in HCl solutions was evaluated under various conditions. In particular, Li2PdO2 rapidly dissolved in diluted (0.1 M) HCl at ambient temperature. Solubility of Pd of Li2PdO2 was found to be 99 pct or larger after dissolution treatment at 353 K (80 °C) for 5 minutes; in contrast, PdO hardly dissolved in 0.1 M HCl. The dissolution mechanism of Li2PdO2 in HCl was also elucidated by analysis of crystal structures and particulate properties. Since our process is completely free from toxic oxidizers, the dissolution process via alkali metal palladates is much safer than currently employed methods.

  11. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  12. Scrubbing liquors for nitrogen tetroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Once it was determined that the wet scrubbing concept was the most practical solution to the N2O4 emission problem, it became important to optimize the composition of the scrubbing liquor. Several reagents were cited in the literature as being advantageous in scrubbing NO2. Experiments were conducted on a model wet scrubber in order to verify and rank the performances of these scrubbing liquors. The most efficient scrubbing liquor found experimentally was a 10% sodium sulfite solution.

  13. Extraction of DBP and MBP from actinides: application to the recovery of actinides from TBP-sodium carbonate scrub solutions. [Aralex process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Mason, G.W.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Leonard, R.A.; Bernstein, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory scale counter-current extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, utilizes 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP) from acidified Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP to complex actinides and thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process is relatively simple and involves inexpensive and readily available chamicals. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. One such application is the removal of detergents from laundry or clean-up solutions contaminated with actinides.

  14. Solidification/stabilization of chromite ore processing residue using alkali-activated composite cementitious materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Zhuang, RanLiang; Muhammad, Faheem; Yu, Lin; Shiau, YanChyuan; Li, Dongwei

    2017-02-01

    Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) produced in chromium salt production process causes a great health and environmental risk with Cr(VI) leaching. The solidification/stabilization (S/S) of COPR using alkali-activated blast furnace slag (BFS) and fly ash (FA) based cementitious material was investigated in this study. The optimum percentage of BFS and FA for preparing the alkali-activated BFS-FA binder had been studied. COPR was used to replace the amount of BFS-FA or ordinary Portland cement (OPC) for the preparation of the cementitious materials, respectively. The immobilization effect of the alkali-activated BFS-FA binder on COPR was much better than that of OPC based cementitious material. The potential for reusing the final treatment product as a readily available construction material was evaluated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) analysis indicated that COPR had been effectively immobilized. The solidification mechanism is the combined effect of reduction, ion exchange, precipitation, adsorption and physical fixation in the alkali-activated composite cementitious material.

  15. Thermal degradation of the solvent employed in the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process and its effect on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping of cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-02

    As part of the ongoing development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process, the thermal stability of the process solvent was investigated and shown to be adequate for industrial application. The solvent was thermally treated at 35 C over a period of 13 months whilst in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS 15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). The effect of thermal treatment was evaluated by assessing batch extract/scrub/strip performance as a function of time, by monitoring the sodium extraction capacity of the solvent, and by analysis of the solvent using electrospray mass spectrometry. Current studies indicate that the NGS solvent should be thermally robust for a period of XXX months at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) pilot plant located at Savannah River Site. Furthermore, the guanidine suppressor appears to be the solvent component most significantly impacted by thermal treatment of the solvent, showing significant degradation over time.

  16. Thermal degradation of the solvent employed in the next-generation caustic-side solvent extraction process and its effect on the extraction, scrubbing, and stripping of cesium

    DOE PAGES

    Roach, Benjamin D.; Williams, Neil J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2015-09-02

    As part of the ongoing development of the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NGS) process, the thermal stability of the process solvent was investigated and shown to be adequate for industrial application. The solvent was thermally treated at 35 C over a period of 13 months whilst in dynamic contact with each of the aqueous phases of the current NGS process, namely SRS 15 (a highly caustic waste simulant), sodium hydroxide scrub solution (0.025 M), and boric acid strip solution (0.01 M). The effect of thermal treatment was evaluated by assessing batch extract/scrub/strip performance as a function of time, by monitoringmore » the sodium extraction capacity of the solvent, and by analysis of the solvent using electrospray mass spectrometry. Current studies indicate that the NGS solvent should be thermally robust for a period of XXX months at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) pilot plant located at Savannah River Site. Furthermore, the guanidine suppressor appears to be the solvent component most significantly impacted by thermal treatment of the solvent, showing significant degradation over time.« less

  17. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon in volume at low cost were studied. Experiments were performed to evaluate product separation and collection processes, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes, determine the effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction, and make preliminary engineering and economic analyses of a scaled-up process.

  18. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  19. Gas scrubbing device

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.A.

    1984-04-03

    An improved scrubbing device suitable for use in modular paint spray booths for extracting particulate matter entrained in a gas stream. The device includes an angularly inclined flood sheet adapted to be flooded with a continuous sheet of liquid and formed with a trough having a plurality of removable venturis disposed in spaced relationship through which the gas stream passes in a manner to effect atomization of the liquid flowing therethrough for scrubbing and extracting the particulate matter in the gas stream. Each venturi can be readily removed for periodic cleaning and service as well as replacement by alternative venturi configurations to modify the scrubbing characteristics thereof consistent with changes in the type and loading of particulate matter in the gas stream thereby achieving continuous optimum operating efficiency.

  20. Alkali-solubilized organic matter from sludge and its degradability in the anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongzhe; Zhou, Yan; Tan, Youming; Pathak, Santosh; Majid, Maszenan Bin Abdul; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates alkali-solubilized dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its fate in the anaerobic treatment process. DOM was fractionated into high molecular weight (HMW) protein-like substances (PL), HMW saccharide-like substances (SL), low molecular weight (LMW) PL, LMW SL, and humic acid-like substances (HAL). The results indicate alkali-solubilized DOM is primarily composed of LMW PL, HMW SL, and HAL. Alkaline pretreatment improved the overall anaerobic degradability of DOM in sludge (removal efficiency of total DOM increased by 28.4%). However, certain DOM fractions (mainly HMW PL and HAL) exhibited low degradability during anaerobic treatment, primarily caused by the low degradability of aromatic groups (such as aromatic amine groups from tryptophan-like PL). Alkaline pretreatment also resulted in an increase of residual DOM, which is mainly composed of HAL (52.9%) and HMW SL (49.9%).

  1. Effect of alkali cations on heterogeneous photo-Fenton process mediated by Prussian blue colloids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shou-Qing; Cheng, Shi; Feng, Lian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Zhi-Gang

    2010-10-15

    This article evaluates Prussian blue (iron hexacyanoferrate) colloids as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine B. The emphasis is laid on the effects of alkali metal cations on the photo-Fenton process. The facts show that alkali cations strongly affect the degradation rate of organic species. The degradation rates of Rhodamine B, Malachite Green, and Methyl Orange in the presence of KCl, KNO(3), and K(2)SO(4), respectively, are faster than their degradation rates in the presence of the corresponding sodium salts. The average degradation rates of Rhodamine B in 0.2 M KCl, NaCl, RbCl, and CsCl solution, decline in sequence, and the rate in KCl solution is greater than that without any salt added deliberately. Thus, potassium ions accelerate the degradation rate, but sodium, rubidium, and cesium ions slow the rate. The order of the rates is R(K)>R>R(Na)>R(Rb)>R(Cs), which is consistent with that of the voltammetric oxidation currents of Prussian blue in the corresponding cation solutions. This phenomenon is attributed to the molecular recognition of the microstructure in Prussian blue nanoparticles to the alkali cations. The reaction mechanism of the photo-Fenton process has also been explored.

  2. Spacecraft surgical scrub system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbate, M.

    1980-01-01

    Ease of handling and control in zero gravity and minimizing the quantity of water required were prime considerations. The program tasks include the selection of biocidal agent from among the variety used for surgical scrub, formulation of a dispensing system, test, and delivery of flight dispensers. The choice of an iodophore was based on effectiveness on single applications, general familiarity among surgeons, and previous qualification for space use. The delivery system was a choice between the squeeze foamer system and impregnated polyurethane foam pads. The impregnated foam pad was recommended because it is a simpler system since the squeeze foamer requires some applicator to effectively clean the skin surfaces, whereas the form pad is the applicator and agent combined. Testing demonstrated that both systems are effective for use as surgical scrubs.

  3. Duodenal Perforation Precipitated by Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Rajat, Raghunath; Deepu, David; Jonathan, Arul Jeevan; Prabhakar, Abhilash Kundavaram Paul

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness usually presenting with fever, myalgia, headache, and a pathognomonic eschar. Severe infection may lead to multiple organ failure and death. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in the form of gastric mucosal erosions and ulcerations owing to vasculitis resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding is common. This process may worsen a pre-existent asymptomatic peptic ulcer, causing duodenal perforation, and present as an acute abdomen requiring surgical exploration. We report the case of a patient with no previous symptoms or risk factors for a duodenal ulcer, who presented with an acute duodenal perforation, probably precipitated by scrub typhus infection.

  4. Sodium-limestone double alkali flue gas desulfurization process with improved limestone utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Biolchini, R.J.; Boward, W.L. Jr.; Wang, K.H.

    1987-08-18

    This patent describes a sodium-limestone double alkali process for the continuous desulfurization of flue gas, having the steps of absorbing sulfur dioxide from an SO/sub 2/-containing gas stream in an absorber with an aqueous solution of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite, diverting at least a portion of the absorber effluent solution for regeneration with limestone, introducing limestone into the diverted absorber effluent solution to convert bisulfite to sulfite, separating by-product solids from the limestone-treated solution, and returning regenerated solution to the absorber, the improvement for increasing the utilization of the limestone used during the regeneration operation.

  5. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  6. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN POVIDONE-IODINE AND MANUGEL 85 ON SURGICAL SCRUB

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Bahar; Sahbaei, Faezeh; Zare, Mohamad Zare; Abdoli, Azam; Heidari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Direct transmission through skin contact is one of ways for disease transmission. Medical staffs have contact with many patients, so their hand can be a factor for the transmission of disease. Surgical scrub is a process that leads to destruction immigrant and stable microbus of hands and arms through friction washing by use of antiseptic solution prior to surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of disinfection of Povidone-Iodine and Manugel 85 in surgical scrub. Methods: This study was a clinical trial that done before and after Surgical scrub. 33 person of surgical team in hospital were surveyed during. Four samples were done for every person: first before surgical scrub with Povidone-Iodine solution, second immediately after surgical scrub, then after one week third test done before surgical scrub with Manugel 85, and forth one immediately after surgical scrub. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis and SPSS analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that the effect of Povidone-Iodine and Manugel 85, separately, before and after surgical scrub on number of colonies is significant. But the effect of these two solutions on behalf of number of colonies was not significant. The 100% grown cultures before surgical scrub with Povidone-Iodine solution and 90.91% before surgical scrub with Manugel 85 were staphylococcus. Conclusion: The disinfection effect of Povidone-Iodine and Manuge l85 on surgical scrub is the same. PMID:27999482

  8. Simultaneous stack gas scrubbing wastewater purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Variations of a process for removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and using it to treat municipal waste water are described. The once-through system lowers the pH of the scrubbing water from minor depressions to a pH of about 2.5 under certain conditions. A recycle system uses iron for catalytic oxidation of sulfurous acid to sulfuric acid allowing very large amounts of sulfur dioxide to be absorbed in a small portion of water. The partial recycle system uses municipal wastewater and iron as a scrubbing medium, followed by neutralization of the wastewater with lime to produce an iron hydroxide precipitation which, when removed, produces tertiary quality treated wastewater. The SO2 scrubber is described, test results are analyzed, and a preliminary capital cost estimate for the three processes is included.

  9. Separation of iodine from mercury containing scrubbing solutions

    DOEpatents

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive iodines can be recovered from a nitric acid scrub solution containing mercuric nitrate by passing a current through the scrub solution to react the iodine with the mercuric nitrate to form mercuric iodate which precipitates out. The mercuric iodate can then be reacted to recover the radioiodine for further processing into a form suitable for long-term storage and to recover the mercury for recycling.

  10. Scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Yun, Na-Ra; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jun-Young; Han, Mi Ah; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2013-12-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi induces vasculitis leading to symptoms of systemic organ invasion including meningitis and meningoencephalitis. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of scrub typhus patients to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and the therapeutic outcomes, and to determine the predictor factors. Cases were 22 patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and controls were 303 patients without meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of pneumonitis was associated with the occurrence of scrub typhus meningitis and meningoencephalitis (odds ratio [OR] 8.9; P < 0.001; confidence interval [CI] 2.9-27.2). Although appropriate antimicrobials such as doxycycline agents were administered at an early stage, meningitis or meningoencephalitis still occurred in some cases. Physicians should be aware that meningitis or meningoencephalitis may develop during appropriate drug therapy such as doxycycline. Close observation and great care are essential for patients with risk factors, particularly pneumonitis.

  11. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with MBS scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, P.R.

    1998-12-31

    Sodium metabisulfite (MBS)-assisted water scrubbing was selected as the most cost-effective and reliable technology for removal of dilute formaldehyde emissions from a resin manufacturing plant. Dilute formaldehyde emission streams (e.g., from process hoods, sample hoods, and other miscellaneous captured sources) required treatment in order to meet the anticipated Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards and state air toxic requirements. Other conventional technologies (e.g., thermal oxidation, carbon adsorption, and biofiltration) were considered, but later discarded because they were cost prohibitive or technically impractical. Segregation of dilute volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from other more concentrated VOC and HAP emissions facilitated the use of technologies tailored to the characteristics of each stream type, and thereby provided significant cost savings. While past experience has shown that simple water scrubbing of dilute formaldehyde emissions would not meet generally accepted treatment performance (90+% control), removals in excess of 95% can be readily achieved with the addition of a reactant like MBS to the scrubbing liquor. MBS in solution reacts with formaldehyde absorbed by the scrubber water to form a bisulfite salt, rendering the reacted formaldehyde non-volatile. The reaction accelerates mass transfer of formaldehyde into the scrubbing liquid, thereby decreasing the size and cost of emission control equipment. Design of such systems should also consider the chemistry of the make-up water (and scrubber water) used in the process. Recirculating water scrubbers can be susceptible to carbonate scaling and other inorganic fouling experienced in similar water treatment systems (e.g., air strippers). The addition of salts to the recirculating scrubber solutions can be controlled to limit potential sulfur dioxide emissions and deposits.

  12. Surgical hand scrub practices in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan; McLaren, Sandra G; Nelson, Carl L

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the practice of surgical hand scrubbing among orthopaedic surgeons, faculty, residents, and nurses met the institution's recommended 5-minute scrub policy and how often a 2-minute surgical hand scrub was used. Forty-eight subjects' hand scrub times were recorded discreetly for a total of 125 observations. All individuals scrubbed for a mean of 2.54 minutes and all scrubbed less than the 5-minute institutionally recommended policy. We found that 35.2% scrubbed less than 2 minutes and 64.8% scrubbed greater than 2 minutes. The subjects studied were polled to determine whether they knew the scrub policy, the minimum effective scrub time, and their perception of how long they scrub. Three of the 16 respondents correctly answered the question regarding the hospital's recommended policy regarding scrub time of 5 minutes. All stated they thought they scrubbed at least 2 minutes and all agreed that at least a 2-minute scrub should be done.

  13. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W.; Ma, H.A.; Jia, X.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF{sub 2} > MgF{sub 2}. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides.

  14. Post-Harvest Processing Methods for Reduction of Silica and Alkali Metals in Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neal; Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Shaw, Peter Gordon

    2002-04-01

    Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950°C is desirable, corresponding to SiO2:K2O of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, %-solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

  15. Post-harvest processing methods for reduction of silica and alkali metals in wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David N; Shaw, Peter G; Lacey, Jeffrey A

    2003-01-01

    Silica and alkali metals in wheat straw limit its use for bioenergy and gasification. Slag deposits occur via the eutectic melting of SiO2 with K2O, trapping chlorides at surfaces and causing corrosion. A minimum melting point of 950 degrees C is desirable, corresponding to an SiO2:K2O weight ratio of about 3:1. Mild chemical treatments were used to reduce Si, K, and Cl, while varying temperature, concentration, % solids, and time. Dilute acid was more effective at removing K and Cl, while dilute alkali was more effective for Si. Reduction of minerals in this manner may prove economical for increasing utilization of the straw for combustion or gasification.

  16. Gas suspension absorption as effective as scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, B.

    1996-01-01

    A cost-shared demonstration project undertaken jointly by AirPol Inc., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Department of Energy at the Shawnee Fossil Plant successfully demonstrated gas suspension absorption technology`s ability to remove more than 90% of sulfur dioxide from flue gas. The performance is roughly equivalent to wet scrubbing. The process operates with a high degree of reliability and removes almost all trace metals from the flue gas for about 30% less cost than conventional wet limestone flue gas desulfurization.

  17. Development and implementation of a scrub habitat compensation plan for Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Breininger, David R.; Adrian, Frederic W.; Schaub, Ron; Duncan, Brean W.

    1994-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC), located on Merritt Island on the east coast of central Florida, is one of three remaining major populations of the Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens), listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) since 1987. Construction of new facilities by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on KSC over the next five years has the potential to impact up to 193 ac (78.1 ha) of Scrub Jay habitat. Under an early consultation process with the Endangered Species Office of the USFWS, NASA agreed to a compensation plan for loss of Scrub Jay habitat. The compensation plan required NASA to restore or create scrub on KSC at a 2:1 ratio for that lost. The compensation plan emphasized restoration of scrub habitat that is of marginal or declining suitability to Scrub Jays because it has remained unburned. Although prescribed burning has been conducted by the USFWS Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) for more than ten years, significant areas of scrub remain unburned because they have been excluded from fire management units or because landscape fragmentation and a period of fire suppression allowed scrub to reach heights and diameters that are fire resistant. For such areas, mechanical cutting followed by prescribed burning was recommended for restoration. A second part of the restoration plan is an experimental study of scrub reestablishment (i.e., creation) on abandoned, well drained agricultural sites by planting scrub oaks and other scrub plants. The compensation plan identified 260 ac (105 ha) of scrub restoration in four areas and a 40 ac (16 ha) scrub creation site. Monitoring of restoration sites required under the plan included: establishing permanent vegetation sample transects before treatment and resampling annually for ten years after treatment, and color banding Scrub Jays to determine territories prior to treatment followed by monitoring reproductive success and survival for

  18. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  19. Recovery of alumina and alkali in Bayer red mud by the formation of andradite-grossular hydrogarnet in hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ran; Zheng, Shili; Ma, Shuhua; Zhang, Yi

    2011-05-30

    Bayer red mud (RM) is an alumina refinery waste product rich in aluminum oxides and alkalis which are present primarily in the form of sodium hydro-aluminosilicate desilication product (DSP). A hydrothermal process was employed to recover alumina and alkali from "Fe-rich" and "Fe-lean" RM, the two representative species of RM produced in China. The hydrothermal process objective phase is andradite-grossular hydrogarnet characterized by the isomorphic substitution of Al and Fe. Batch experiments were used to evaluate the main factors influencing the recovery process, namely reaction temperature, caustic ratio (molar ratio of Na(2)O to Al(2)O(3) in sodium solution), sodium concentration and residence time. The results revealed that the Na(2)O content of 0.5 wt% and A/S of 0.3 (mass ratio of Al(2)O(3) to SiO(2)) in leached residue could be achieved with Fe-rich RM under optimal conditions. However, the hydrothermal treatment of Fe-lean RM proved less successful unless the reaction system was enriched with iron. Subsequent experiments examined the effects of the ferric compound's content and type on the substitution ratio.

  20. Doxycycline Prophylaxis of Scrub Typhus.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-18

    precludes the prophylactic use of this antibiotic (6,7). Tetracyclines are currently the drugs of choice for therapy of scrub typhus (8). In this...had pre-existing antibody (titers ə:50) to R. tsutsugamushi. All subjects were given single test doses of 200 mg doxycycline and 500 mg tetracycline ...week long course of tetracycline brought about rapid recovery in all seven subjects, and there were no further relapses. The three subjects with milder

  1. Structural and Magnetic Diversity in Alkali-Metal Manganate Chemistry: Evaluating Donor and Alkali-Metal Effects in Co-complexation Processes.

    PubMed

    Uzelac, Marina; Borilovic, Ivana; Amores, Marco; Cadenbach, Thomas; Kennedy, Alan R; Aromí, Guillem; Hevia, Eva

    2016-03-24

    By exploring co-complexation reactions between the manganese alkyl Mn(CH2SiMe3)2 and the heavier alkali-metal alkyls M(CH2SiMe3) (M=Na, K) in a benzene/hexane solvent mixture and in some cases adding Lewis donors (bidentate TMEDA, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2,2,2] octane (DABCO)) has produced a new family of alkali-metal tris(alkyl) manganates. The influences that the alkali metal and the donor solvent impose on the structures and magnetic properties of these ates have been assessed by a combination of X-ray, SQUID magnetization measurements, and EPR spectroscopy. These studies uncover a diverse structural chemistry ranging from discrete monomers [(TMEDA)2 MMn(CH2SiMe3)3] (M=Na, 3; M=K, 4) to dimers [{KMn(CH2SiMe3)3 ⋅C6 H6}2] (2) and [{NaMn(CH2SiMe3)3}2 (dioxane)7] (5); and to more complex supramolecular networks [{NaMn(CH2SiMe3)3}∞] (1) and [{Na2Mn2 (CH2SiMe3)6 (DABCO)2}∞] (7)). Interestingly, the identity of the alkali metal exerts a significant effect in the reactions of 1 and 2 with 1,4-dioxane, as 1 produces coordination adduct 5, while 2 forms heteroleptic [{(dioxane)6K2Mn2 (CH2SiMe3)4(O(CH2)2OCH=CH2)2}∞] (6) containing two alkoxide-vinyl anions resulting from α-metalation and ring opening of dioxane. Compounds 6 and 7, containing two spin carriers, exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling of their S=5/2 moments with varying intensity depending on the nature of the exchange pathways.

  2. Ecological considerations in scrub typhus*

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Robert; Wisseman, Charles L.

    1968-01-01

    Scrub typhus infection is now known to occur in geographical and ecological areas where its presence was hitherto unsuspected—north and west of the Indus River and in south-eastern Siberia; in semi-desert, montane desert, and alpine terrain high in the Himalayas, as well as in primary jungle. Additional data are presented to support the hypothesis that “ecological islands”, containing basically similar faunas of rodents and ectoparasites, exist on scattered mountains in the Pakistan Himalayas, despite the intervening “barriers” of desert, broad rivers and massive peaks. Since scrub typhus has been demonstrated in some of these isolated areas, it is felt that the infection may exist, unrecognized, in neighbouring countries as well. A number of larval trombiculid mites, largely species of the subgenus Leptotrombidium, are believed to be vectors, in addition to the well-known L. (L.) deliense and L. (L.) akamushi. The host-range of natural infection in ground-dwelling small mammals, especially rodents, is very broad in endemic areas. An important factor of time, and not only of space, may be involved in an endemic locus, the disease undergoing a sequential evolution involving different chiggers and rodents over a period of years. It is pointed out that new irrigation schemes, road construction, and agricultural projects may introduce scrub typhus into an area or greatly increase its endemicity if the infection is already present. PMID:5303404

  3. Phase Transformation and Morphology of Calcium Phosphate Prepared by Electrochemical Deposition Process Through Alkali Treatment and Calcination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui-Ting; Wang, Moo-Chin; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Wang, Szu-Hao; Shih, Wei-Jen; Li, Wong-Long

    2014-04-01

    The phase transformation and morphology of calcium phosphate prepared by the electrochemical deposition (ECD) process through alkali treatment and calcination have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the ECD process, when the excess OH- was produced, the reaction of 10Ca2++6PO{4/3-}+2OH-→Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 takes place on the Ti-6Al-4V and the HA is deposited. The XRD results reveal that the as-deposit was mostly composed of dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (Ca2H4P2O9; DCPD) and the minor phase of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; HA). After NaOH treatment, all DCPD were converted to HA. Moreover, the content of HA phase increases with ECD potential. After being calcined at 673 K and 873 K (400 °C and 600 °C) for 4 hours, the phase of HA maintained the major phase for an alkali-treated deposited sample. After being calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 4 hours, some HA decomposed and caused the minor phases of β-tricalcium phosphate ( β-Ca3(PO4)2; β-TCP), calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7; CPP), and calcium oxide (CaO) formation. The β-TCP becomes the major phase with residual HA and CaO after being calcined at 1273 K (1000 °C) for 4 hours. The crack forms due to the release of absorbed water from the interior to top surface of sample. For the as-alkali treatment samples, the microstructures were affected by ECD potentials; when the deposited samples after alkali treatment and calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 4 hours, the microstructure presents the need-like "preforming HA" (pre-HA) from the matrix of plate-like postforming HA (post-HA).

  4. Process for obtaining molybdenum as a useful product from molybdeniferous solutions containing alkali metal carbonate, sulphate, hydroxide or hydrogen carbonate and possibly uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, P.

    1984-02-21

    A process is claimed for obtaining molybdenum as a useful product from aqueous solutions to be purified, according to claim 1 of French patent No. 2,404,601, which contain, besides molybdenum, alkali metal carbonate, sulphate, hydroxide or hydrogen carbonate and which may also contain uranium, and inorganic and/or organic impurities. These solutions are treated at a temperature which is at most equal to the boiling temperature by means of lime to convert the alkali metal carbonate into hydroxide and to precipitate the insoluble calcium salts formed, then separating and washing the first precipitate which essentially contains calcium carbonate, from an alkali metal hydroxide-enriched liquor, which is concentrated by evaporation at the same time as the washing liquor of the first precipitate, to produce an alkali metal hydroxide content which is at most equal to 50%, to produce a second precipitate formed by a mixture of alkali metal molybdate and sulphate, characterized in that said solid mixture is dispersed in an acid aqueous liquor which is heated at from 120/sup 0/C to 250/sup 0/C under pressure to cause precipitation of anhydrous Mo0/sub 3/ which is subsequently separated from the mother liquor which essentially contains alkali metal sulphate.

  5. Influence of cathode on the electro-generation of peroxydisulfuric acid oxidant and its application for effective removal of SO2 by room temperature electro-scrubbing process.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Subramanian; Muthuraman, Govindan; Moon, Il Shik

    2015-12-15

    Peroxydisulfuric acid oxidant (H2S2O8) was electro-generated using boron doped diamond (BDD) anode in an undivided electrolytic cell under the optimized conditions and used for the oxidative removal of gaseous SO2. The influence of the nature of cathode material on the formation yield of H2S2O8 was investigated with Ti, Pt, Zr and DSA electrodes in a flow type electrolytic cell under batch recirculation mode. Among the various cathodes employed Ti exhibited a good performance and the formation yield was nearly doubled (0.19 M) compared to the reported value of 0.07 M. The optimization of electrode area ratio between the anode and cathode brought out the fact that for nearly 8 times smaller Ti cathode (8.75:1) the achieved yield was ∼65% higher than the 1:1 ratio of anode and cathode. The highest concentration of 6.8% (0.48 M) H2S2O8 was seen for 35 cm(2) BDD anode with 4 cm(2) Ti at 20 °C with the measured redox potential value of +1200 mV. The oxidative removal of SO2 in an electro-scrubbing column attached to the online production of peroxydisulfuric acid under the optimized conditions of cell parameters shows that SO2 removal efficiency was nearly 100% for 25 and 50 ppm inlet concentrations and 96% for 100 ppm at the room temperature of 25 °C.

  6. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg0 using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao; Xiang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg0 removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg0 removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg0 removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg0 removal in comparison to SO2. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag2CO3 hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag2CO3 showed the highest Hg0 removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag2CO3 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag0 NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (rad O2-) may play a key role in Hg0 removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg0 removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag2CO3 hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  7. Modeling of SO(2) scrubbing in spray towers.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Amitava; Biswas, Manindra N

    2007-09-20

    The present article aims at developing simple realistic models in order to describe the gaseous removal process of SO(2) by absorption with and without chemical reaction in spray towers. Effects of droplet size, droplet velocity, superficial gas velocity, liquid flow rate and tower height on the performance of such a system are theoretically predicted. Model calculations bring out some very interesting facets of gas scrubbing as functions of droplet diameter and velocity. Four distinct regimes, viz. droplet lean, dense droplet, rigid droplet and droplet inertia controlling regimes, are found important in spray scrubbing process. Model calculation also elucidates the existence of rigid droplet (sphere) for a distinct droplet size at a specific droplet velocity. Theoretical considerations reveal that best performance can be achieved in the droplet inertia-controlling regime. Effect of turbulence on scrubbing is also considered for modeling. The model development and experimental data are limited to use of water-soluble alkaline scrubbing. However, the predicted values agree reasonably well with the available experimental data at lower gas and liquid flow rates for relatively smaller droplets. Models can also be applied to any gas-liquid spray absorption process subject to the assumptions and conditions necessary to describe the specific physico-chemical hydrodynamics of the system. However, incorporation of various droplet interactions can further refine the models for better prediction of removal efficiency.

  8. Modelling magmatic gas scrubbing in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Rossella; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Valenza, Mariano; Bergsson, Baldur; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Rakel Guðjónsdóttir, Sylvía

    2015-04-01

    In volcano-hosted hydrothermal systems, the chemistry of deeply rising magmatic gases is extensively modified by gas-water-rock interactions taking place within the hydrothermal reservoir, and/or at shallow groundwaters conditions. These reactions can scrub reactive, water-soluble species (S, halogens) from the magmatic gas phase, so that their quantitative assessment is central to understanding the chemistry of surface gas manifestations, and brings profound implications to the interpretation of volcanic-hydrothermal unrests. Here, we present the results of numerical simulations of magmatic gas scrubbing, in which the reaction path modelling approach (Helgeson, 1968) is used to reproduce hydrothermal gas-water-rock interactions at both shallow (temperature up to 109°C; low-T model runs) and deep reservoir (temperature range: 150-250 °C; high-T model runs) conditions. The model was built based upon the EQ3/6 software package (Wolery and Daveler, 1992), and consisted into a step by step addition of a high-temperature magmatic gas to an initial meteoric water, in the presence of a dissolving aquifer rock. The model outputted, at each step of gas addition, the chemical composition of a new aqueous solution formed after gas-water-rock interactions; which, upon reaching gas over-pressuring (PgasTOT > Psat(H2O) at run T), is degassed (by single-step degassing) to separate a scrubbed gas phase. As an application of the model results, the model compositions of the separated gases are finally compared with compositions of natural gas emissions from Hekla volcano (T< 100°C) and from Krisuvik geothermal system (T> 100°C), resulting into an excellent agreement. The compositions of the model solutions are also in fair agreement with compositions of natural thermal water samples. We conclude that our EQ3/6-based reaction path simulations offer a realistic representation of gas-water-rock interaction processes occurring underneath active magmatic-hydrothermal systems

  9. Processes that Intervene in the Generation of the Photoacoustic Effect in Alkali Halides with F-Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Luis F.

    2004-01-01

    The photoacoustic effect, produced by the F-center in alkali halide crystals, is analyzed using the configuration coordinate model. By using the configuration coordinate model it is possible to explain the temperature increase of the sample when the sample is illuminated and the F-centers absorb light. Also this model explains the piston effect upon the atmosphere that surrounds the sample when the sample is illuminated. The temperature increase and the piston effect, produced during the development of the photoacoustic effect, cause the sound wave generation in the atmosphere that surrounds the sample when the F-centers absorb light. Using this model, the temperature increase value for a KCl sample and the displacement of the faces of the crystal during the process for the following crystals: KCl, KBr, KI and NaCl, have been determined.

  10. Electric fatigue process in lead-free alkali niobate ceramics at various pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Alexander; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2015-10-01

    Electric fatigue tests are important for evaluating the reliability of piezoceramics. However, these tests have not been the focus of studies of lead-free alkali niobate (NKN) ceramics so far. For this purpose, two different materials, Li0.06Na0.47K0.47NbO3 (LNKN6) and Na0.55K0.45NbO3 + 0.25% MnO (Mn-NKN), have been examined at various uniaxial pressures ranging from 0.1 to 100 MPa and various temperatures ranging from room temperature to 150 °C. It was shown that the harder ferroelectric Mn-NKN could maintain its piezoelectric properties at pressures up to 25 MPa. When bipolar fatigue occurred under pressures over the coercive stress of ∼30 MPa, the sample depolarized and formed microcracks. In contrast, the softer LNKN6 did not show fatigue at higher pressures between 25 and 50 MPa. However, in both materials, higher temperatures enhanced domain wall and charge carrier movements and conclusively domain wall pinning.

  11. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  12. Scrubbing noise of externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the aeroacoustic mechanism that produces externally blown flap (EBF) scrubbing noise, i.e. a surface-radiated noise which is generally strongest normal to UTW deflected flaps. Scrubbing noise was not radiated from portions of the surface adjacent to strong, locally coherent turbulent eddies. Instead, scrubbing noise seemed to come from weak loading fluctuations that were coherent along the scrubbed span. These loading fluctuations probably were induced by the convected large-scale vortex structure of the attached exhaust jet. Deflecting a UTW flap would reduce the distance between the vortex trajectory and the flap surface, increasing the resulting dipole noise and rotating its directivity. In contrast, deflecting a USB flap would increase this distance, so that observable scrubbing noise would be radiated only from the undeflected forward portion of the wing.

  13. Amine scrubbing for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Rochelle, Gary T

    2009-09-25

    Amine scrubbing has been used to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas and hydrogen since 1930. It is a robust technology and is ready to be tested and used on a larger scale for CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. The minimum work requirement to separate CO2 from coal-fired flue gas and compress CO2 to 150 bar is 0.11 megawatt-hours per metric ton of CO2. Process and solvent improvements should reduce the energy consumption to 0.2 megawatt-hour per ton of CO2. Other advanced technologies will not provide energy-efficient or timely solutions to CO2 emission from conventional coal-fired power plants.

  14. Chlor-Alkali Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesh, S.; Tilak, B. V.

    1983-01-01

    Chlor-alkali technology is one of the largest electrochemical industries in the world, the main products being chlorine and caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) generated simultaneously by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. This technology is reviewed in terms of electrochemical principles and manufacturing processes involved. (Author/JN)

  15. Support for Systematic Code Reviews with the SCRUB Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzmann, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    SCRUB is a code review tool that supports both large, team-based software development efforts (e.g., for mission software) as well as individual tasks. The tool was developed at JPL to support a new, streamlined code review process that combines human-generated review reports with program-generated review reports from a customizable range of state-of-the-art source code analyzers. The leading commercial tools include Codesonar, Coverity, and Klocwork, each of which can achieve a reasonably low rate of false-positives in the warnings that they generate. The time required to analyze code with these tools can vary greatly. In each case, however, the tools produce results that would be difficult to realize with human code inspections alone. There is little overlap in the results produced by the different analyzers, and each analyzer used generally increases the effectiveness of the overall effort. The SCRUB tool allows all reports to be accessed through a single, uniform interface (see figure) that facilitates brows ing code and reports. Improvements over existing software include significant simplification, and leveraging of a range of commercial, static source code analyzers in a single, uniform framework. The tool runs as a small stand-alone application, avoiding the security problems related to tools based on Web browsers. A developer or reviewer, for instance, must have already obtained access rights to a code base before that code can be browsed and reviewed with the SCRUB tool. The tool cannot open any files or folders to which the user does not already have access. This means that the tool does not need to enforce or administer any additional security policies. The analysis results presented through the SCRUB tool s user interface are always computed off-line, given that, especially for larger projects, this computation can take longer than appropriate for interactive tool use. The recommended code review process that is supported by the SCRUB tool consists of

  16. Low temperature multi-alkali photocathode processing technique for sealed intensified CCD tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doliber, D. L.; Dozier, E. E.; Wenzel, H.; Beaver, E. A.; Hier, R. G.

    1989-01-01

    A low temperature photocathode process has been used to fabricate an intensified CCD visual photocathode image tube, by incorporating a thinned, backside-illumined CCD as the target anode of a digicon tube of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) design. The CCD digicon tube employs the HST's sodium bialkali photocathode and MgF2 substrate, thereby allowing a direct photocathode quantum efficiency comparison between photocathodes produced by the presently employed low temperature process and those of the conventional high temperature process. Attention is given to the processing chamber used, as well as the details of gas desorption and photocathode processing.

  17. Scrub typhus hepatitis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jong-Hoon; Lim, Sung-Chul; Yun, Na-Ra; Shin, Sung-Heui; Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Dong-Min

    2012-09-28

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi). We report herein the case of a woman who presented with fever and elevated serum levels of liver enzymes and who was definitively diagnosed with scrub typhus by histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimens, serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-O. tsutsugamushi antibody showed focally scattered positive immunoreactions in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes. This case suggests that scrub typhus hepatitis causes mild focal inflammation due to direct liver damage without causing piecemeal necrosis or interface hepatitis. Thus, scrub typhus hepatitis differs from acute viral hepatitis secondary to liver damage due to host immune responses, which causes severe lobular disarray with diffuse hepatocytic degeneration, necrosis and apoptosis as well as findings indicative of hepatic cholestasis, such as hepatic bile plugs or brown pigmentation of hepatocytes.

  18. [Novel process utilizing alkalis assisted hydrothermal process to stabilize heavy metals both from municipal solid waste or medical waste incinerator fly ash and waste water].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Jin, Jian; Li, Xiao-dong; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2010-08-01

    An alkalis assisted hydrothermal process was induced to stabilize heavy metals both from municipal solid waste or medical waste incinerator fly ash and waste water. The results showed that alkalis assisted hydrothermal process removed the heavy metals effectively from the waste water, and reduced leachability of fly ash after process. The heavy metal leachabilities of fly ash studied in this paper were Mn 17,300 microg/L,Ni 1650 microg/L, Cu 2560 microg/L, Zn 189,000 microg/L, Cd 1970 microg/L, Pb 1560 microg/L for medical waste incinerator fly ash; Mn 17.2 microg/L, Ni 8.32 microg/L, Cu 235.2 microg/L, Zn 668.3 microg/L, Cd 2.81 microg/L, Pb 7200 microg/L for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash. After hydrothermal process with experimental condition [Na2CO3 dosage (5 g Na2CO3/50 g fly ash), reaction time = 10 h, L/S ratio = 10/1], the heavy metal removal efficiencies of medical waste incinerator fly ash were 86.2%-97.3%, and 94.7%-99.6% for municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash. The leachabilities of both two kinds of fly ash were lower than that of the Chinese national limit. The mechanism of heavy metal stabilization can be concluded to the chemisorption and physically encapsulation effects of aluminosilicates during its formation, crystallization and aging process, the high pH value has some contribution to the heavy metal removal and stabilization.

  19. An Unusual Presentation of Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Giridhar Reddy; Boddu, Srikrishna Raghavendra; Belle, Jayaprakash

    2016-01-01

    Presentation of scrub typhus associated with brachial neuritis is extremely rare with only a few cases reported so far. Here, we report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented with fever and right shoulder pain. Laboratory parameters showed leucocytosis with ELISA and PCR for scrub typhus positive. Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) study was suggestive of brachial neuritis. She was given doxycycline therapy for 10 days following which her shoulder pain resolved. PMID:27790497

  20. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  1. Combined effect of alkali pretreatment and sodium chloride addition on the olive fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Chammem, N; Kachouri, M; Mejri, M; Peres, C; Boudabous, A; Hamdi, M

    2005-07-01

    Green olives of the Tunisian variety "Meski" were treated according to a Spanish-style green olive preservation process by using an alkaline treatment (1.5, 2 and 2.5% (w/v) NaOH) to eliminate bitterness, combined with different brine concentrations (6, 9 and 12% (w/v) NaCl). A spontaneous fermentation by the environmental microflora took place. Results showed that 2% NaOH solution and 9% sodium chloride brine was an optimal combination inducing the best growth of Lactobacillus species (10(8) CFU/ml) and acidity of 0.726 g lactic acid/100 ml brine. In all trials and independently of the treatment, Lb. plantarum was the most dominant strain of Lactobacillus. Moreover, pretreatment with lye and lactic fermentation of olives contributed to coliform elimination.

  2. [Thermo-alkali-stable catalase from Thermoascus aurantiacus and its potential use in textile bleaching process].

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Li, Yin; Du, Guo-Cheng; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Jian

    2004-05-01

    The effect of growth and fermentation conditions on the production of catalase by T. aurantiacus WSH 03-01 was investigated in shaking flasks. Catalase activity reached 1594 u/mL when the culture was grown on a complex carbon source containing 20 g/L dextrin and 1% (V/V) ethanol, which was 23% higher than the sum produced on 20 g/L dextrin and 1% (V/V) ethanol, respectively. It was concluded that dextrin might act as a major carbon source in the complex, while ethanol was rather a stimulator than a carbon source. The stimulation effect of ethanol on catalase production was postulated to be two aspects; catalase-dependent alcohol metabolism is activated by acute alcohol, thus more catalase need to be synthesized for that use, named direct induction. As for indirect induction, which may result from little amount of H2O2 generation in process of NADH regeneration in respiratory chain. Peptone was shown to be a favorable nitrogen source for catalase production and its optimum concentration was found to be 10 g/L. Catalase production by T. aurantiacus WSH 03-01 was further improved by optimizing the initial pH, volume of medium in flasks as well as the concentration of external H2O2. Under the optimum culture conditions, the activity of catalase reached 2762 u/mL, which was nearly 6.8 times higher than that of the initiate conditions. Furthermore, the potential application of this novel catalase in the treatment of textile bleaching effluents was evaluated. Thermo-and alkaline stability of this catalase was compared with the commercial available catalases produced from bovine and Aspergillus niger. The crude enzyme from T. aurantiacus WSH 03-01 showed stronger stabilities at (70 degrees C, 80 degrees C, 90 degrees C) and (pH 9.0, pH 10.0, pH 11.0) than the other two types of catalases, indicating a great application potential in the clean production process of textile industry.

  3. Endemic Scrub Typhus in South America.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Dittrich, Sabine; López, Javier; Phuklia, Weerawat; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Velásquez, Katia; Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Abarca, Katia

    2016-09-08

    Scrub typhus is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms that are transmitted by the larvae of trombiculid mites. Endemic scrub typhus was originally thought to be confined to the so called "tsutsugamushi triangle" within the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, however, two individual cases were detected in the Middle East and South America, which suggested that the pathogen was present farther afield. Here, we report three autochthonous cases of scrub typhus caused by O. tsutsugamushi acquired on Chiloé Island in southern Chile, which suggests the existence of an endemic focus in South America. (Funded by the Chilean Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica and the Wellcome Trust.).

  4. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    experimental data from the wet scrubbing system would be useful in the design and operation of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system. The process model, validated using experimental data, would be a key design tool for the design and optimization of a pilot scale vegetable oil based system.

  5. STATUS OF SO2 SCRUBBING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the extent of current sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubber applications on electricity generating units in the U.S. and abroad. The technical performance of recent SO2 scrubber installations is discussed. Recently reported technical innovations to SO2 scrubbing tech...

  6. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  7. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  8. Milk-alkali syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  9. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, Phase 1 and Phase 2. Final report, October 1979 - February 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, C.R.; Gould, R.K.; Felder, W.

    1981-03-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  10. Structural elucidation of Eucalyptus lignin and its dynamic changes in the cell walls during an integrated process of ionic liquids and successive alkali treatments.

    PubMed

    Li, Han-Yin; Wang, Chen-Zhou; Chen, Xue; Cao, Xue-Fei; Sun, Shao-Ni; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-12-01

    An integrated process based on ionic liquids ([Bmim]Cl and [Bmim]OAc) pretreatment and successive alkali post-treatments (0.5, 2.0, and 4.0% NaOH at 90°C for 2h) was performed to isolate lignins from Eucalyptus. The structural features and spatial distribution of lignin in the Eucalyptus cell wall were investigated thoroughly. Results revealed that the ionic liquids pretreatment promoted the isolation of alkaline lignin from the pretreated samples without obvious structural changes. Additionally, the integrated process resulted in syringyl-rich lignin macromolecules with more β-O-4' linkages and less phenolic hydroxyl groups. Confocal Raman microscopy analysis showed that the dissolution behavior of lignin was varied in the morphologically distinct regions during the successive alkali treatments, and lignin dissolved was mainly stemmed from the secondary wall regions. These results provided some useful information for understanding the mechanisms of delignification during the integrated process and enhancing the potential utilizations of lignin in future biorefineries.

  11. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOEpatents

    Soung, W.Y.

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased, preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  12. Exchange Processes in Shibasaki's Rare Earth Alkali Metal BINOLate Frameworks and Their Relevance in Multifunctional Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jerome R; Gu, Jun; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J; Walsh, Patrick J

    2015-06-10

    Shibasaki's rare earth alkali metal BINOLate (REMB) catalysts (REMB; RE = Sc, Y, La - Lu; M = Li, Na, K; B = 1,1-bi-2-naphtholate; RE/M/B = 1/3/3) are among the most successful enantioselective catalysts and have been employed in a broad range of mechanistically diverse reactions. Despite the phenomenal success of these catalysts, several fundamental questions central to their reactivity remain unresolved. Combined reactivity and spectroscopic studies were undertaken to probe the identity of the active catalyst(s) in Lewis-acid (LA) and Lewis-acid/Brønsted-base (LA/BB) catalyzed reactions. Exchange spectroscopy provided a method to obtain rates of ligand and alkali metal self-exchange in the RE/Li frameworks, demonstrating the utility of this technique for probing solution dynamics of REMB catalysts. Isolation of the first crystallographically characterized REMB complex with substrate bound enabled stoichiometric and catalytic reactivity studies, wherein we observed that substrate deprotonation by the catalyst framework was necessary to achieve selectivity. Our spectroscopic observations in LA/BB catalysis are inconsistent with previous mechanistic proposals, which considered only tris(BINOLate) species as active catalysts. These findings significantly expand our understanding of the catalyst structure in these privileged multifunctional frameworks and identify new directions for development of new catalysts.

  13. Rickettsial Diseases: Scrub Typhus and Trench Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    propagation in six day embryonated chicken eggs . Freshly harvested scrub typhus infected yolk sac was homogenized and used at a 10% concentration to...of Rickettsia tsusgaushi were propagated in embryonated chick eggs and used’for infecting cultured cells. Infected McCoy cell extracts containing...Gilliam, Kato and Karp strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were propagated in embryonated chick eggs and used for infecting cultured cells. Infected

  14. Non-technical skills for scrub practitioners.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Guy

    2012-12-01

    The non-technical skills of situational awareness and the formation of effective interpersonal relationships are essential to enhance surgical outcomes. However, most scrub practitioners demonstrate only tacit awareness of these skills and develop such qualities on an informal basis. Application of non-technical skills may be assessed formally, using a structured framework, to transform normative behaviour and to strengthen barriers against the latent threats that may result from fallible humans working in inadequate organisational systems.

  15. Scrub typhus presenting as an acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Kundavaram, Abhilash Pp; Das, Sohini; George, Varghese M

    2014-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, which presents as an acute febrile illness with headache, myalgia, breathlessness, and an eschar, a pathognomonic sign, in a varying proportion of patients. However, this illness can present unusually with fever and severe abdominal pain mimicking acute abdomen. A careful search for an eschar in all patients with an acute febrile illness would provide a valuable diagnostic clue and avoid unnecessary investigations and surgical exploration.

  16. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards.

  17. Performance evaluation of anaerobic hybrid reactors with different packing media for treating wastewater of mild alkali treated rice straw in ethanol fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhuri; Balasubramanian, Velmurugan; Mehta, Himali; Dixit, Garima; Madamwar, Datta; Shah, Amita R

    2014-01-01

    Four anaerobic hybrid reactors with different packing media viz. gravel (R1), pumice stone (R2), polypropylene saddles (R3) and ceramic saddles (R4) were operated in semi-continuous mode. Biomethanation potential of the wastewater generated during alkali-treatment of rice straw in ethanol production process was investigated at ambient conditions. The reactors were operated with varying organic loading rates (0.861-4.313 g COD l(-1) d(-1)) and hydraulic retention time (3-15 days). Higher COD removal efficiency (69.2%) and methane yield (0.153 l CH4 g(-1) CODadded) were achieved in reactor R2 at 15 days HRT. Modified Stover-Kincannon model was applied to estimate the bio-kinetic coefficients and fitness of the model was checked by the regression coefficient for all the reactors. The model showed an excellent correlation between the experimental and predicted values. The present study demonstrated the treatment of wastewater from alkali treated rice straw for production of biogas.

  18. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  19. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, Raymond D.; McPheeters, Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  20. Chest radiographic manifestations of scrub typhus

    PubMed Central

    Abhilash, KPP; Mannam, PR; Rajendran, K; John, RA; Ramasami, P

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20–72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed. Results: The study cohort contained 398 patients. Common presenting complaints included fever (100%), generalized myalgia (83%), headache (65%), dyspnea (54%), cough (24.3%), and altered sensorium (14%). Almost half of the patients (49.4%) had normal chest radiographs. Common radiological pulmonary abnormalities included pleural effusion (14.6%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (14%), airspace opacity (10.5%), reticulonodular opacities (10.3%), peribronchial thickening (5.8%), and pulmonary edema (2%). Cardiomegaly was noted in 3.5% of patients. Breathlessness, presence of an eschar, platelet counts of <20,000 cells/cumm, and total serum bilirubin >2 mg/dL had the highest odds of having an abnormal chest radiograph. Patients with an abnormal chest X-ray had a higher requirement of noninvasive ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 13.98; 95% confidence interval CI: 5.89–33.16), invasive ventilation (OR: 18.07; 95% CI: 6.42–50.88), inotropes (OR: 8.76; 95% CI: 4.35–17.62), higher involvement of other organ systems, longer duration of hospital stay (3.18 ± 3 vs. 7.27 ± 5.58 days; P < 0.001), and higher mortality (OR: 4.63; 95% CI: 1.54–13.85). Conclusion: Almost half of the patients with scrub typhus have abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiography should be included as part of basic evaluation at presentation in patients with scrub typhus, especially in those with breathlessness, eschar, jaundice, and severe

  1. Magmatic gas scrubbing: Implications for volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, R.B.; Gerlach, T.M.; Reed, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the abundance of SO2(g) in magmatic gases, precursory increases in magmatic SO2(g) are not always observed prior to volcanic eruption, probably because many terrestrial volcanoes contain abundant groundwater or surface water that scrubs magmatic gases until a dry pathway to the atmosphere is established. To better understand scrubbing and its implications for volcano monitoring, we model thermochemically the reaction of magmatic gases with water. First, we inject a 915??C magmatic gas from Merapi volcano into 25??C air-saturated water (ASW) over a wide range of gas/water mass ratios from 0.0002 to 100 and at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Then we model closed-system cooling of the magmatic gas, magmatic gas-ASW mixing at 5.0 MPa, runs with varied temperature and composition of the ASW, a case with a wide range of magmatic-gas compositions, and a reaction of a magmatic gas-ASW mixture with rock. The modeling predicts gas and water compositions, and, in one case, alteration assemblages for a wide range of scrubbing conditions; these results can be compared directly with samples from degassing volcanoes. The modeling suggests that CO2(g) is the main species to monitor when scrubbing exists; another candidate is H2S(g), but it can be affected by reactions with aqueous ferrous iron. In contrast, scrubbing by water will prevent significant SO2(g) and most HCl(g) emissions until dry pathways are established, except for moderate HCl(g) degassing from pH 100 t/d (tons per day) of SO2(g) in addition to CO2(g) and H2S(g) should be taken as a criterion of magma intrusion. Finally, the modeling suggests that the interpretation of gas-ratio data requires a case-by-case evaluation since ratio changes can often be produced by several mechanisms; nevertheless, several gas ratios may provide useful indices for monitoring the drying out of gas pathways. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Desulfurizing Coal With an Alkali Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental coal-desulfurization process uses alkalies and steam in fluidized-bed reactor. With highly volatile, high-sulfur bituminous coal, process removed 98 percent of pyritic sulfur and 47 percent of organic sulfur. Used in coal liquefaction and in production of clean solid fuels and synthetic liquid fuels. Nitrogen or steam flows through bed of coal in reactor. Alkalies react with sulfur, removing it from coal. Nitrogen flow fluidizes bed while heating or cooling; steam is fluidizing medium during reaction.

  3. Clinical Score to Differentiate Scrub Typhus and Dengue: A Tool to Differentiate Scrub Typhus and Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Shubhanker; Gautam, Ira; Jambugulam, Mohan; Abhilash, Kundavaram Paul Prabhakar; Jayaseeelan, Vishalakshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dengue and scrub typhus share similar clinical and epidemiological features, and are difficult to differentiate at initial presentation. Many places are endemic to both these infections where they comprise the majority of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses. Materials and Methods: We aimed to develop a score that can differentiate scrub typhus from dengue. In this cross-sectional study, 188 cases of scrub typhus and 201 cases of dengue infection who presented to the emergency department or medicine outpatient clinic from September 2012 to April 2013 were included. Univariate followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify clinical features and laboratory results that were significantly different between the two groups. Each variable was assigned scores based on the strength of association and receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (ROC-AUC) was generated and compared. Six scoring models were explored to ascertain the model with the best fit. Results: Model 2 was developed using the following six variables: oxygen saturation (>90%, ≤90%), total white blood cell count (<4000, 4001–7000 and >7000 cells/cumm), hemoglobin (≤14 and >14 g/dL), total bilirubin (<2 and ≥2 mg/dL), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (>200 and ≥200 IU/dL), and altered sensorium (present or absent). Each variable was assigned scores based on its strength of association. The AUC-ROC curve (95% confidence interval) for model 2 was 0.84 (0.79–0.89). At the cut off score of 13, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% and 77% respectively, with a higher score favoring dengue. Conclusion: In areas of high burden of ST and dengue, model 2 (the “clinical score to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue fever”) is a simple and rapid clinical scoring system that may be used to differentiate scrub typhus and dengue at initial presentation. PMID:28250620

  4. Acute Q Fever and Scrub Typhus, Southern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chung-Hsu; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chang, Lin-Li; Chen, Wei-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Acute Q fever and scrub typhus are zoonoses endemic to southern Taiwan. Among the 137 patients with acute Q fever (89, 65.0%) or scrub typhus (43, 31.4%), we identified 5 patients (3.6%) who were co-infected with Coxiella burnetii and Orientia tsutsugamushi. PMID:19861068

  5. Incinerator system arrangement with dual scrubbing chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Domnitch, I.

    1987-01-13

    An incinerator arrangement is described comprising: an incinerator housing located near the lowest point in a building, the housing containing incinerator elements therein; a chute-flue having a first end in communication with the incinerator housing, a second end at the top of the building for evacuation of combustion gases to the atmosphere therethrough, and at least one intermediately located waste disposal opening through which waste is dropped into the incinerator housing; the incinerator elements including: a main combustion chamber, an opening between the main combustion chamber and the first end of the chute-flue and a flue-damper covering the opening. The flue-damper is biased in a closed position and being operable by the weight of waste to admit the waste into the combustion chamber; a scrubbing chamber located exteriorly along the top of the combustion chamber and having a first opening into the combustion chamber and a second opening into the chute-flue; and water spraying means in the scrubbing chamber for directing a water spray at the combustion gases to wash particulate matter from the gases before the gases enter the chute-flue whereby the water spraying means which are located adjacent the combustion chamber are protected against freezing and the elements.

  6. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalzer, D.K.; Steindler, M.J.; Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-12-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an alternative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no high temperature/high pressure (HTHP) sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-reaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial-grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6{und M}-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed in the following.

  7. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalzer, D.K.; Steindler, M.J.; Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an alternative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no high temperature/high pressure (HTHP) sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-reaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial-grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6[und M]-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed in the following.

  8. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of PFBC technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an altemative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. As shown in Fig. 1, the RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no HTHP sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-leaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6M-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite [8]. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  9. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-11-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of PFBC technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an altemative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. As shown in Fig. 1, the RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no HTHP sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-leaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6M-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite [8]. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  10. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jaewon; Kim, Soojun; Kim, Gilho; Singh, Vijay P.; Hong, Seungjin; Kim, Hung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered. PMID:26132479

  11. Use of scrubs and related apparel in health care facilities.

    PubMed

    Belkin, N L

    1997-10-01

    There is no scientific evidence that the use of scrubs or other related apparel contributes to either the cause or the prevention of infections associated with health care facilities. However, because this type of apparel is now used so commonly as a replacement for the more traditional type of uniform, its original function as an ensemble worn by surgical personnel no longer prevails. The variety of these applications actually raises a new series of issues and challenges that would be best resolved by a multidisciplinary health care group with representatives from administration, nursing, medicine, materials management, human resources, infection control, and other affected departments. The purpose of this report is to facilitate this process.

  12. Scrub Typhus Meningitis in South India — A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Stalin; Muthu, Vivekanandan; Iqbal, Nayyar; Remalayam, Bhavith; George, Tarun

    2013-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is prevalent in India although definite statistics are not available. There has been only one study on scrub typhus meningitis 20 years ago. Most reports of meningitis/meningoencephalitis in scrub typhus are case reports Methods A retrospective study done in Pondicherry to extract cases of scrub typhus admitted to hospital between February 2011 and January 2012. Diagnosis was by a combination of any one of the following in a patient with an acute febrile illness- a positive scrub IgM ELISA, Weil-Felix test, and an eschar. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits. Results Sixty five cases of scrub typhus were found, and 17 (17/65) had meningitis. There were 33 males and 32 females. Thirteen had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 54 cells/µL, 98%, 88 mg/dL, 0.622 and 3.5 U/mL respectively. Computed tomography was normal in patients with altered sensorium and cranial nerve deficits. Patients with meningitis had lesser respiratory symptoms and signs and higher urea levels. All patients had received doxycycline except one who additionally received chloramphenicol. Conclusion Meningitis in scrub typhus is mild with quick and complete recovery. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis, except for ADA levels. In the Indian context where both scrub typhus and tuberculosis are endemic, ADA and scrub IgM may be helpful in identifying patients with scrub meningitis and in avoiding prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningitis. PMID:23799119

  13. A new effective process for production of curdlan oligosaccharides based on alkali-neutralization treatment and acid hydrolysis of curdlan particles in water suspension.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Li; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Zong, Yu; Li, Wei-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Biologically active β-1,3-oligosaccharides with rapidly growing biomedical applications are produced from hydrolysis of curdlan polysaccharide. The water-insoluble curdlan impedes its hydrolysis efficiency which is enhanced by our newly developed alkali-neutralization treatment process to increase the stability of curdlan suspension to more than 20 days, while the untreated control settled within 5 min. A putative double-layer structure model comprising of a compact core and a hydrated outer layer was proposed to describe the treated curdlan particles based on sedimentation and scanning electron microscopy observation. This model was verified by single- and two-step acid hydrolysis, indicative of the reduced susceptibility to hydrolysis when close to the compact core. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, thin-layer chromatography analyses, and effective HPLC procedure led to the development of improved process to produce purified individual β-1,3-oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization from 2 to 10 and potential for biomedical applications from curdlan hydrolyzate. Our new curdlan oligosaccharide production process offers an even better alternative to the previously published processes.

  14. Alkali Metal Handling Practices at NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvail, Patrick G.; Carter, Robert R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is NASA s principle propulsion development center. Research and development is coordinated and carried out on not only the existing transportation systems, but also those that may be flown in the near future. Heat pipe cooled fast fission cores are among several concepts being considered for the Nuclear Systems Initiative. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a capability to handle high-purity alkali metals for use in heat pipes or liquid metal heat transfer loops. This capability is a low budget prototype of an alkali metal handling system that would allow the production of flight qualified heat pipe modules or alkali metal loops. The processing approach used to introduce pure alkali metal into heat pipe modules and other test articles are described in this paper.

  15. Economic evaluation of limestone and lime flue-gas-desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, T.A.; Stephenson, C.D.; Sudhoff, F.A.; Veitch, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    The preliminary-grade economics (accuracy: -15%, +30%) of various alternative limestone scrubbing options (absorber type, with and without forced oxidation, and with and without adipic acid enhancemet) are examined using the current design and economic premises established for the continuing series of economic evaluations performed by TVA for EPA. The economics are projected using the Shawnee lime/limestone computer model, which is based on long-term operating data from the EPA Alkali Scrubbing Test Facility at the TVA Shawnee Steam Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. The capital investment for the base-case limestone scrubbing process (500 MW, 3.5% sulfur coal, 1979 NSPS, spray tower, forced oxidation, landfill) is $206/kW. The first-year and levelized annual revenue requirements are 10.59 and 15.09 mills/kWh, respectively. Costs for the equivalent limestone scrubbing process using a Turbulent Contact Absorber (TCA) are lower while those for the venturi - spray tower absorber are higher. The forced-oxidation landfill disposal option has a lower capital investment than the unoxidized pond disposal option for all cases studied; however, the first-year and levelized annual revenue requirements are slightly higher for the forced-oxidation landfill process for most coal applications. For the spray tower limestone process to achieve a specified SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency, it is more economical to increase the limestone stoichiometry and minimize the absorber L/G. The use of adipic acid or possibly dibasic acid (DBA) as an additive to enhance SO/sub 2/ removal in the limestone scrubbing process is an economically attractive option. The use of adipic acid remains economically attractive even if both a high unit cost and a high degradation factor for adipic acid are assumed. 176 references, 35 figures, 56 tables.

  16. Comparative evaluation of surgical scrub preparations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A F; Rosenberg, A; Alatary, S D

    1978-01-01

    The efficacy of 0.75 per cent available povidone-iodine scrub solution, 4 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate detergent solution and 3 per cent hexachlorophene emulsion against resident and transient flora of the hand has been compared using two currently accepted study designs. Chlorhexidine gluconate produced the greatest initial reductions against resident flora, followed by povidone-iodine and hexachlorophene, respectively. In subsequent washings, all three treatments further reduced the flora, chlorhexidine giving the greatest reduction on any test day. On gloved hands, there was significant regrowth following the use of povidone-iodine; there was no such significant regrowth on gloved hands which had been washed with chlorhexidine gluconate or hexachlorophene. Against transient flora, chlorhexidine gluconate gave the lowest over-all counts, followed by povidone-iodine and hexachlorophene, respectively. The reductions in bacteria counts increased following the repetitive use of chlorhexidine; no such trend was noted with either povidone-iodine or hexachlorophene.

  17. Masticophis flagellum selects florida scrub habitat at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of space by individual animals strongly influences the spatial extent, abundance, and growth rates of their populations. We analyzed the spatial ecology and habitat selection of Masticophis flagellum (the coachwhip) at three different scales to determine which habitats are most important to this species. Home ranges and mean daily displacements of M. flagellum in Florida were large compared to individuals in other populations of this species. Home ranges contained a greater proportion of Florida scrub habitat than did the study site as a whole, and individuals selected Florida scrub habitat within their home ranges. For both selection of the home range within the study site and selection of habitats within the home range, mesic cutthroat and hydric swamp habitats were avoided. Standardized selection ratios of Florida scrub patches were positively correlated with lizard abundance. Several non-mutually exclusive mechanisms, including foraging success (prey abundance, prey vulnerability, and foraging efficiency), abundance of refugia, and thermoregulatory opportunity may underlie the selection of Florida scrub by M. flagellum. Historic rarity and anthropogenic loss and fragmentation of Florida scrub habitat, coupled with the long-distance movements, large home ranges, and selection of Florida scrub by M. flagellum, indicate that large contiguous tracts of land containing Florida scrub will be essential for the persistence of M. flagellum in central Florida. ?? 2009 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  18. Comparison of process configurations for ethanol production from acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with and without β-glucosidase expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqiang; Liu, Cheng; Hong, Jiefang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Kun; Huang, Xinyu; Zou, Shaolan; Zhang, Minhua

    2013-08-01

    β-Glucosidase was shown to have synergistic effects with commercial cellulase in the hydrolysis of acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob, especially at the dose of 5 U/g biomass and 5 or 10 FPU/g biomass. An integrating yeast strain 45# expressing β-glucosidase was constructed that utilized cellobiose quickly and efficiently. Process configurations were compared under conditions of 10% solid content, 10 FPU cellulase/g biomass, 5 U β-glucosidase/g biomass (only used for parental strain W303-1A), 1g/kg yeast loading and 3.3g/kg urea supplementation. While separate hydrolysis and fermentation was optimal for W303-1A and the ethanol titer and yield reached 3.22 g/100g and 75.6% (expressed as a percentage of the theoretical yield), respectively, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was optimal for strain 45# and the ethanol titer and yield reached 3.31 g/100g and 77.7%, respectively. These results are valuable in optimization of the process configuration and improving the yeast strain selected for cellulosic ethanol production.

  19. Assessing scrub practitioner non-technical skills: a literature review.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A review by Catchpole et al (2009) into the causes and types of harm experienced by the surgical patient emphasised the high risk nature of the perioperative period. Investigations into recent failures at NHS organisations have emphasised the relevance of non-technical skills education in improving clinical performance and patient outcomes. However, scrub practitioner non-technical skills are often developed on a tacit basis, making assessment of performance difficult. This literature review identifies strategies that facilitate assessment of non-technical skills during surgery. Recommendations are made that will assist scrub practitioners in using a validated scrub practitioner non-technical skills assessment framework reliably.

  20. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for extremely complicated scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Oh, Won-Sup; Yie, Kilsoo

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a mite-borne disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Although early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy improve the prognosis for the majority of patients, life-threatening complications are not uncommon. Here, we present a case of successfully performed veno-veno type extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for scrub typhus-induced complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, sudden cardiac arrest, and multiorgan dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in complicated scrub typhus.

  1. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  2. Testing of heat exchanger systems for reheating flue gases from wet scrubbing desulfurization plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Than, K.

    1982-09-01

    Two heat exchanger systems: the cyclic process of GEA and, the plate heat exchanger of Kablitz/Thyssen, for reheating flue gases, which have been cooled to about 50 to 55 C due to wet scrubbing, to the required temperature at the outlet of the stack by extracting the sensible heat of the hot flue gases were tested. The problem of building materials and on keeping clean the heat exchanger surface are emphasized.

  3. Direct molecular hydrogen sulphide scrubbing with hollowfibre membranes.

    PubMed

    Boucif, N; Jefferson, B; Parsons-, S A; Judd, S J; Stuetz, R M

    2001-01-01

    The emission of hydrogen sulphide is a major problem associated with anaerobic treatment of sulphate and sulphite containing wastewaters. Conventional absorbing processes, such as packed towers, spray towers or bubble columns, are all constrained by factors such as flooding and foaming. Membrane systems, on the other hand, enable independent control of the liquid and gas flow rate and a step change order of magnitude increase in the specific surface area of the contact process. The membrane acts as a gas absorber with a design similar to a shell and tube heat exchanger. On the other hand, they are limited by facets of the membrane such as its resistance to mass transfer and permselectivity, as well as its cost. The work presented in this paper refers to an absorption process based on a non-wetted hollow fibre membrane for the scrubbing of hydrogen sulphide from air, with water as the contact solvent. Results presented describe the performance of the unit in terms of overall transfer and outlet liquid concentration as a function of circulation regime, gas flow rate, liquid flow rate and specific surface area. In particular, results are presented using traditional plots of Sherwood number (Sh) against Graetz (Gr) number for the liquid flowing in the lumens, such that experimental and available empirical descriptions of the process performance are directly compared. Results suggest that, as expected, very efficient mass transfer is obtained. However, the mass transfer was found to reach a maximum value against Gr, contrary to available empirical models.

  4. Precision measurements of cross-sections for inelastic processes in collisions of alkali metal ions with atoms of rare gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomsadze, R. A.; Gochitashvili, M. R.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.

    2017-01-01

    A multifaceted experimental study of collisions of Na+ and K+ ions in the energy range of 0.5-10 keV with He and Ar atoms is presented. Absolute cross-sections for charge-exchange, ionization, stripping and excitation processes were measured using a refined version of the transfer electric field method, angle- and energy-dependent collection of product ions, energy loss and optical spectroscopy methods. The experimental data and the schematic correlation diagrams are employed to analyze and determine the mechanisms for these processes.

  5. Should surgeons scrub with chlorhexidine or iodine prior to surgery?

    PubMed

    Jarral, Omar A; McCormack, David J; Ibrahim, Sammra; Shipolini, Alex R

    2011-06-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether chlorhexidine gluconate is equivalent or superior to the use of povidone-iodine during surgical hand scrub. A total of 593 papers were found using the reported searches of which eight represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results are tabulated. We conclude that whilst both chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine reduce bacterial count after scrubbing, the effect of chlorhexidine is both more profound and longer lasting. The studies found analysed the difference in reduction in colony forming units or bacterial count following surgical scrub in order to conclude that chlorhexidine was superior. Four studies went further to analyse cumulative and residual activity by testing for bacterial reduction after using a scrub solution for a number of days, an area in which chlorhexidine showed consistent advantages over povidone-iodine. These findings are given more credibility by the clinical finding of a recent meta-analysis of over 5000 patients in which chlorhexidine as an antiseptic skin preparation was associated with significantly reduced surgical site infection (SSI) in clean-contaminated surgery. Despite this, there is no evidence suggesting the use of chlorhexidine during hand scrub reduces SSI, which perhaps explains why guidelines from the World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association for Perioperative Practice do not recommend one specific antimicrobial over another for hand scrub.

  6. Apparatus enables accurate determination of alkali oxides in alkali metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.; Gahn, R. F.; Graab, J. W.; Maple, W. E.; Rosenblum, L.

    1966-01-01

    Evacuated apparatus determines the alkali oxide content of an alkali metal by separating the metal from the oxide by amalgamation with mercury. The apparatus prevents oxygen and moisture from inadvertently entering the system during the sampling and analytical procedure.

  7. Jet Surface Interaction-Scrubbing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Generation of sound due to scrubbing of a jet flow past a nearby solid surface is investigated within the framework of the generalized acoustic analogy theory. The analysis applies to the boundary layer noise generated at and near a wall, and excludes the scattered noise component that is produced at the leading or the trailing edge. While compressibility effects are relatively unimportant at very low Mach numbers, frictional heat generation and thermal gradient normal to the surface could play important roles in generation and propagation of sound in high speed jets of practical interest. A general expression is given for the spectral density of the far-field sound as governed by the variable density Pridmore- Brown equation. The propagation Green's function should be solved numerically starting with the boundary conditions on the surface and subject to specified mean velocity and temperature profiles between the surface and the observer. The equivalent sources of aerodynamic sound are associated with non-linear momentum flux and enthalpy flux terms that appear in the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. These multi-pole sources should be modeled and evaluated with input from a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver with an appropriate turbulence model.

  8. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  9. Ideas about Acids and Alkalis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplis, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Investigates students' ideas, conceptions, and misconceptions about acids and alkalis before and after a teaching sequence in a small-scale research project. Concludes that student understanding of acids and alkalis is lacking. (DDR)

  10. Changes of the surface structure of corn stalk in the cooking process with active oxygen and MgO-based solid alkali as a pretreatment of its biomass conversion.

    PubMed

    Pang, Chunsheng; Xie, Tujun; Lin, Lu; Zhuang, Junping; Liu, Ying; Shi, Jianbin; Yang, Qiulin

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a novel, efficient and environmentally friendly process for the cooking of corn stalk that uses active oxygen (O2 and H2O2) and a recoverable solid alkali (MgO). The structural changes on the surface of corn stalk before and after cooking were characterized by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The results showed that lignin and extractives were effectively removed, especially those on the surface of corn stalk. Additionally, the changes included becoming fibrillar, the exposure of cellulose and hemi-cellulose and the pitting corrosion on the surface, etc. The results also showed that the removal reaction is from outside to inside, but the main reaction is possibly on the surface. Furthermore, the results of active oxygen cooking with a solid alkali are compared with those of alkaline cooking in the paper.

  11. Hybrid alkali-hydrodynamic disintegration of waste-activated sludge before two-stage anaerobic digestion process.

    PubMed

    Grübel, Klaudiusz; Suschka, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The first step of anaerobic digestion, the hydrolysis, is regarded as the rate-limiting step in the degradation of complex organic compounds, such as waste-activated sludge (WAS). The aim of lab-scale experiments was to pre-hydrolyze the sludge by means of low intensive alkaline sludge conditioning before applying hydrodynamic disintegration, as the pre-treatment procedure. Application of both processes as a hybrid disintegration sludge technology resulted in a higher organic matter release (soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)) to the liquid sludge phase compared with the effects of processes conducted separately. The total SCOD after alkalization at 9 pH (pH in the range of 8.96-9.10, SCOD = 600 mg O2/L) and after hydrodynamic (SCOD = 1450 mg O2/L) disintegration equaled to 2050 mg/L. However, due to the synergistic effect, the obtained SCOD value amounted to 2800 mg/L, which constitutes an additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolution of about 35 %. Similarly, the synergistic effect after alkalization at 10 pH was also obtained. The applied hybrid pre-hydrolysis technology resulted in a disintegration degree of 28-35%. The experiments aimed at selection of the most appropriate procedures in terms of optimal sludge digestion results, including high organic matter degradation (removal) and high biogas production. The analyzed soft hybrid technology influenced the effectiveness of mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a positive way and ensured the sludge minimization. The adopted pre-treatment technology (alkalization + hydrodynamic cavitation) resulted in 22-27% higher biogas production and 13-28% higher biogas yield. After two stages of anaerobic digestion (mesophilic conditions (MAD) + thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD)), the highest total solids (TS) reduction amounted to 45.6% and was received for the following sample at 7 days MAD + 17 days TAD. About 7% higher TS reduction was noticed compared with the sample after 9

  12. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  13. Formation of lysinoalanine in egg white under alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the formation mechanism of lysinoalanine (LAL) in eggs during the alkali treatment process, NaOH was used for the direct alkali treatment of egg white, ovalbumin, and amino acids; in addition, the amount of LAL formed during the alkali treatment process was measured. The results showed that the alkali treatment resulted in the formation of LAL in the egg white. The LAL content increased with increasing pH and temperature, with the LAL content first increasing and then leveling off with increasing time. The amount of LAL formed in the ovalbumin under the alkali treatment condition accounted for approximately 50.51% to 58.68% of the amount of LAL formed in the egg white. Thus, the LAL formed in the ovalbumin was the main source for the LAL in the egg white during the alkali treatment process. Under the alkali treatment condition, free L-serine, L-cysteine, and L-cystine reacted with L-lysine to form LAL; therefore, they are the precursor amino acids of LAL formed in eggs during the alkali treatment process.

  14. Effects of Data Scrubbing on Reliability in Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Junkil; Park, Chanik

    Silent data corruptions, which are induced by latent sector errors, phantom writes, DMA parity errors and so on, can be detected by explicitly issuing a read command to a disk controller and comparing the corresponding data with their checksums. Because some of the data stored in a storage system may not be accessed for a long time, there is a high chance of silent data corruption occurring undetected, resulting in data loss. Therefore, periodic checking of the entire data in a storage system, known as data scrubbing, is essential to detect such silent data corruptions in time. The errors detected by data scrubbing will be recovered by the replica or the redundant information maintained to protect against permanent data loss. The longer the period between data scrubbings, the higher the probability of a permanent data loss. This paper proposes a Markov failure and repair model to conservatively analyze the effect of data scrubbing on the reliability of a storage system. We show the relationship between the period of a data scrubbing operation and the number of data replicas to manage the reliability of a storage system by using the proposed model.

  15. Carbon dioxide scrubbing capabilities of two new nonpowered technologies.

    PubMed

    Norfleet, William; Horn, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Current guidance for survivors aboard a disabled submarine (DISSUB) recommends the use of the "stir-and-fan" method of carbon dioxide (CO2) scrubbing in which the contents of canisters of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) are dispersed onto horizontal surfaces. This technique is objectionable because it releases large quantities of fine, caustic LiOH dust and it utilizes LiOH inefficiently. This report presents the results of laboratory studies of the CO2 scrubbing capabilities of two new products that might improve on "stir-and-fan": the Battelle Curtain (BC) and the Micropore Reactive Plastic Curtain (RPC). Experiments took place within a sealed hyperbaric chamber. CO2 was added to the chamber at a known mass flow that reproduced what might be encountered in a "worst-case" DISSUB scenario. Natural convection alone circulated gas within the chamber. The mass of BCs or RPCs necessary to limit CO2 to 3% for about 2 days was determined. The total scrubbing capacity (mass of CO2 scrubbed per unit mass of agent) of the BC was 0.756 +/- 0.012 (mean +/- SD), and the comparable value for the RPC was 0.808 +/- 0.007. Both products provided a scrubbing capacity that is close to the stoichiometric limit of the reaction (0.919). Neither product released sufficient caustic dust to prevent handling by a trained individual wearing no personal protective equipment.

  16. Retrofit experience on two major WTE facilities in the UK using heat recovery economizers and dry scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Heap, B.M.; Finnis, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    The paper examines the decision making philosophy in choosing dry scrubbing technology for the flue gas cleaning process for the 4 plants upgraded, particularly for the two largest facilities at Coventry and Edmonton, London. At both these facilities the additional energy recovery possible from the adoption of totally dry scrubbing technology in place of the recognized BATNEEC of spray tower with lime slurry scrubbing, became a major decision influencing factor. The extent of work involved in bringing an existing facility into conformity with the new emissions to air legislation is detailed, and clearly demonstrates that this work is not simply an end of pipe solution, but entails the integration of several different modern technologies. Difficulties encountered during 2 years installation on a continuously operating waste disposal facility, without disruption to waste processing, energy recovery, production or revenue are highlighted, and the importance of a true project partnership between the client and the supplier. Emissions testing results are documented, clearly demonstrating that totally dry scrubbing technology for the treatment of incineration flue gases is more than capable of attaining the necessary maximum emission limits and maximizing the potential energy recovery from the waste in a manner which corresponds to declared Governmental policy. The lessons learned in the UK can be directly applied to the North American retrofit market

  17. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOEpatents

    Soung, Wen Y.

    1984-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them (46, 53, 61, 69) with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide (63) to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased (81), preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated (84) to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process (86, 18, 17) where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  18. CO2 study shows effects on scrub oak environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    CO2 study site manager and plant physiologist Graham Hymus (left) examines scrub oak foliage while project engineer David Johnson (right) looks on. The life sciences study is showing that rising levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, caused by the burning of fossil fuels, could spur plant growth globally. The site of KSC's study is a natural scrub oak area near the Vehicle Assembly Building. Twelve-foot areas of scrub oak have been enclosed in 16 open-top test chambers into which CO2 has been blown. Five scientists from NASA and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Md., work at the site to monitor experiments and keep the site running. Scientists hope to continue the study another five to 10 years. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 57- 00.

  19. A case of scrub typhus complicated by acute calculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Jin; Cho, Young Hye; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Jeong, Dong Wook; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Lee, Yu Hyun

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of acute calculous cholecystitis through scrub typhus. A 69-year-old woman presented with a history of general myalgia, fever, and right abdominal pain. She referred to our hospital for surgical treatment of clinically suspected acute cholecystitis. Physicians concluded the cause of cholecystitis as gall bladder (GB) stone and proper antibiotics treatment of scrub typhus was started later. The patient developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi organ failure through scrub typhus. Five days after admission, the patient was treated with proper antibiotics and discharged on the 13th day after starting doxycycline treatment without any sequelae. In areas endemic for tsutsugamushi disease, even though a patient with GB stone presents with symptoms of acute cholecystitis, careful history and physical examination are required to reveal the existence of eschars or skin eruptions.

  20. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  1. (abstract) Fundamental Mechanisms of Electrode Kinetics and Alkali Metal Atom Transport at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of electrode kinetics and mass transport of alkali metal oxidation and alkali metal cation reduction at the solid electrolyte/porous electrode boundary as well as alkali metal transport through porous metal electrodes has important applications in optimizing device performance in alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) cells which are high temperature, high current density electrochemical cells. Basic studies of these processes also affords the opportunity to investigate a very basic electrochemical reaction over a wide range of conditions; and a variety of mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. The temperature range of these investigations covers 700K to 1240K; the alkali metal vapor pressures range from about 10(sup -2) to 10(sup 2) Pa; and electrodes studied have included Mo, W, Mo/Na(sub 2)MoO(sub 4), W/Na(sub 2)WO(sub 4), WPt(sub x), and WRh(sub x) (1.0 < x < 6.0 ) with Na at Na-beta'-alumina, and Mo with K at K-beta'-alumina. Both liquid metal/solid electrolyte/alkali metal vapor and alkali metal vapor/solid electrolyte/vapor cells have been used to characterize the reaction and transport processes. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes.

  2. Alkalis in alternative biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Bryers, R.W.; Baxter, L.L.; Jenkins, B.M.; Oden, L.L.

    1994-12-31

    The alkali content and behavior of inorganic material of annually produced biofuels severely limits their use for generating electrical power in conventional furnaces. A recent eighteen-month investigation of the chemistry and firing characteristics of 26 different biofuels has been conducted. Firing conditions were simulated in the laboratory for eleven biofuels. This paper describes some results from the investigation including fuel properties, deposits, deposition mechanisms, and implications for biomass boiler design, fuel sampling and characterizations. Urban wood fuel, agricultural residues, energy crops, and other potential alternate fuels are included in the study. Conventional methods for establishing fuel alkali content and determining ash sticky temperatures were deceptive. The crux of the problem was found to be the high concentration of potassium in biofuels and its reactions with other fuel constituents which lower the ``sticky temperature`` of the ash to the 650 C to 760 C (1,200 F-1,400 F).

  3. [Raman spectra of endospores of Bacillus subtilis by alkali stress].

    PubMed

    Dong, Rong; Lu, Ming-qian; Li, Feng; Shi, Gui-yu; Huang, Shu-shi

    2013-09-01

    To research the lethal mechanism of spores stressed by alkali, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) combined with principal components analysis (PCA) was used to study the physiological process of single spore with alkali stress. The results showed that both spores and germinated spores had tolerance with alkali in a certain range, but the ability of spores was obviously lower than that of spores due to the release of their Ca2+ -DPA which plays a key role in spores resistance as well as spores resistance to many stresses; A small amount of Ca2+ -DPA of spores was observed to release after alkali stress, however, the behavior of release was different with the normal Ca2+ -DPA release behavior induced by L-alanine; The data before and after alkali stress of the spores and g. spores with PCA reflected that alkali mainly injured the membrane of spores, and alkali could be easily enter into the inner structure of spores to damage the structure of protein backbone and injure the nucleic acid of spores. We show that the alkali could result in the small amount of Ca2+ -DPA released by destroying the member channel of spores.

  4. Alkali-vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Komashko, A.; Krupke, W. F.

    2010-02-01

    We report on the results from several of our alkali laser systems. We show highly efficient performance from an alexandrite-pumped rubidium laser. Using a laser diode stack as a pump source, we demonstrate up to 145 W of average power from a CW system. We present a design for a transversely pumped demonstration system that will show all of the required laser physics for a high power system.

  5. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Patients Suspected of Having Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Wi, Yu Mi; Woo, Hye In; Park, Dahee; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2016-11-01

    To determine prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in South Korea, we examined serum samples from patients with fever and insect bite history in scrub typhus-endemic areas. During the 2013 scrub typhus season, prevalence of this syndrome among patients suspected of having scrub typhus was high (23.0%), suggesting possible co-infection.

  6. Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome in Patients Suspected of Having Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Wi, Yu Mi; Woo, Hye In; Park, Dahee; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    To determine prevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in South Korea, we examined serum samples from patients with fever and insect bite history in scrub typhus–endemic areas. During the 2013 scrub typhus season, prevalence of this syndrome among patients suspected of having scrub typhus was high (23.0%), suggesting possible co-infection. PMID:27767909

  7. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  8. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

    2012-09-11

    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  9. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  10. Scrub Typhus Leading to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Trishna; Laskar, Basanta; Khan, Abdul M.; Dutta, Prafulla

    2017-01-01

    To determine the contribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, as a cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Assam, India, we conducted a retrospective study of hospital patients with symptoms of AES during 2013–2015. Our findings suggest that O. tsutsugamushi infection leads to AES and the resulting illness and death. PMID:27875108

  11. The Surgical Scrub. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on the surgical scrub. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, a student performance checklist, suggested activities, an additional resources list, and student…

  12. Retrospective Cognition by Food-Caching Western Scrub-Jays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kort, S.R.; Dickinson, A.; Clayton, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Episodic-like memory, the retrospective component of cognitive time travel in animals, needs to fulfil three criteria to meet the behavioral properties of episodic memory as defined for humans. Here, we review results obtained with the cache-recovery paradigm with western scrub-jays and conclude that they fulfil these three criteria. The jays…

  13. A reactor system for studying the interactions between alkali vapors and ceramic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shadman, F.; Punjak, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of interaction between alkali vapors and several ceramic compounds are studied. A unique micro-gravimetric reactor is designed and utilized for this study. Bauxite and kaolin are very good adsorbents for alkali chlorides and are potentially good additives for control of alkali during coal combustion and gasification. The experimental data shows that the alkali capturing process is a combination of physisorption, chemisorption and chemical reaction. An analytical model is developed assuming a multi-layer adsorption of alkali on substrate followed by a rate-controlling rection on the surface. The experimental results and model predictions are in good agreement.

  14. Synthesis of Scrub-Oak Ecosystem Responses to Elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Hungate, Bruce

    2014-11-07

    This report summarizes a synthesis project of a long-term global change experiment conducted at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, investigating how increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influences the functioning of a fire-dominated scrub-oak ecosystem. The experiment began in 1996 and ended in 2007. Results presented here summarize the effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth, soil processes, carbon and nutrient cycling, and other responses. Products include archived data from the experiment, as well as six publications in the peer-reviewed literature.

  15. Preparation of alkali metal dispersions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Landel, R. F. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for producing alkali metal dispersions of high purity. The dispersions are prepared by varying the equilibrium solubility of the alkali metal in a suitable organic solvent in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The equilibrium variation is produced by temperature change. The size of the particles is controlled by controlling the rate of temperature change.

  16. Ultrasonic coal washing to leach alkali elements from coals.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, S; Reddy, V Midhun; Nagarajan, R

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of fly ash particles onto heat-transfer surfaces is often one of the reasons for unscheduled shut-downs of coal-fired boilers. Fouling deposits encountered in convective sections of a boiler are characterized by arrival of ash particles in solidified (solid) state. Fouling is most frequently caused by condensation and chemical reaction of alkali vapors with the deposited ash particles creating a wet surface conducive to collect impacting ash particles. Hence, the amount of alkali elements present in coals, which, in turn, is available in the flue gas as condensable vapors, determines the formation and growth of fouling deposits. In this context, removal of alkali elements becomes vital when inferior coals having high-ash content are utilized for power generation. With the concept of reducing alkali elements present in a coal entering the combustor, whereby the fouling deposits can either be minimized or be weakened due to absence of alkali gluing effect, the ultrasonic leaching of alkali elements from coals is investigated in this study. Ultrasonic water-washing and chemical-washing, in comparison with agitation, are studied in order to estimate the intensification of the alkali removal process by sonication.

  17. Scrub typhus: a common cause of illness in indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Brown, G W; Robinson, D M; Huxsoll, D L; Ng, T S; Lim, K J

    1976-01-01

    An explanation was sought for the disparity between the low reported incidence of scrub typhus and the high prevalence of antibody to Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in the rural population of Malaysia. A combination of isolation of the organism, titration of antibody by indirect immunofluorescence, and the Weil-Felix test was used to confirm infections. Scrub typhus was found to be very common, causing 23% of all febrile illnesses at one hospital. The infection was particularly prevalent in oil-palm workers, causing an estimated 400 cases annually in a population of 10,000 people living on one plantation. The clinical syndrome, whether mild or severe, was difficult to distinguish from that due to other infections. Eschars, rashes and adenopathy were uncommon. When used to examine early sera, the Weil-Felix test failed to confirm the diagnosis in most infections.20

  18. Scrub typhus meningitis in a renal transplant recipient

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapriya, J.; Dineshkumar, T.; Sakthirajan, R.; Murugan, S.; Jayaprakash, V.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection commonly seen in Asia. The clinical presentation ranges from nonspecific febrile illness to potentially fatal multiorgan involvement such as liver, kidney, or lung. Central nervous system involvement is uncommon. We report a 45-year-old female renal transplant recipient who presented with fever, headache, meningeal signs, graft dysfunction, and eschar. IgM antibodies against Orientia tsutsugamushi were positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Despite oral doxycycline therapy for 5 days, she did not improve but responded well to intravenous azithromycin. To the best of our knowledge, scrub typhus as a cause of meningitis in a renal transplant recipient has not been reported so far. PMID:28356672

  19. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  20. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  1. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  2. Management of Florida Scrub for Threatened and Endangered Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    greatest consequence of such poor soil conditions may be a reduction in propagation by seed in scrub species. Many species spread vegetatively by...rosemary, cannot resprout in this way and must rely on seeds for regeneration. These species have adapted special mechanisms to facilitate...fire regime. Seeders typically do not survive fire and must rely on either a persistent seed bank or a method for distant dispersal to persist in a

  3. Clearcut stand size and scrub-successional bird assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of clearcut stand size on species richness, reproductive effort, and relative abundance of scrub-successional birds and the entire bird assemblage at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. We used standardized mist-net grids to mark and recapture birds in clearcuts replanted with longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in stands of 2 to 57 ha that were two to six years old. Species richness for the entire bird assemblage was not explained by stand size (P = 0.67), stand age (P = 0.95), or the interaction of these two variables (P = 0.90). Similarly, species richness of scrub-successional birds was not explained by stand size (P = 0.63), stand age (P = 0.55), or the interaction of stand size and stand age (P = 0.35). Regressing species richness on clearcut stand size, we found a significant negative relationship between these variables for the entire bird assemblage (P = 0.01) and for scrub-successional birds (P = 0.02). The ratio of juveniles to adults in mist-net samples varied by year (P = 0.04), but neither clearcut size (P = 0.23) nor the interaction of clearcut size and year (P = 0.25) was related to the ratio of juveniles to adults in the sample. We found no relationship between the frequency of capture of any category of birds and stand size (scrub-successional, P = 0.52; woodland, P = 0.77; combined sample, P = 0.55). Neither bird-species richness, reproductive effort, nor relative abundance differed across clearcut stand sizes. Clearcut stand size does not appear to be an important management variable if variation in species richness, reproductive effort, or relative abundance are objectives. We suggest that even-aged forestry is a useful tool for managing birds in the southeastern United States.

  4. Risk of Relapse Associated with Doxycycline Therapy for Scrub Typhus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    143150-9 202 Rickettsiae ard Rickettsial Diseases I. INTRODUCTION Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin) or oxytetracycline (Terra- mycin) are the drugs...doses of oxytetracycline in a double blind, randomized trial conducted in a population of scrub typhus patients who were exposed in the Pescadores... oxytetracycline , 500 mg every 6 hrs for 7 days (OXY, 23 patients). Drug and placebo were manufactured in such a way and administered every 6 hrs for 7

  5. Habitat model for the Florida Scrub Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The Florida Scrub Jay is endemic to Florida. The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides habitat for one of the three largest populations of the Florida Scrub Jay. This threatened bird occupies scrub, slash pine flatwoods, disturbed scrub, and coastal strand on KSC. Densities of Florida Scrub Jays were shown to vary with habitat characteristics but not necessarily with vegetation type. Relationships between Florida Scrub Jay densities and habitat characteristics were used to develop a habitat model to provide a tool to compare alternative sites for new facilities and to quantify environmental impacts. This model is being tested using long term demographic studies of colorbanded Florida Scrub Jays. Optimal habitat predicted by the model has greater than or equal to 50 percent of the shrub canopy comprised of scrub oaks, 20-50 percent open space or scrub oak vegetation within 100 m of a ruderal edge, less than or equal to 15 percent pine canopy cover, a shrub height of 120-170 cm, and is greater than or equal to 100 m from a forest. This document reviews life history, social behavior, food, foraging habitat, cover requirements, characteristics of habitat on KSC, and habitat preferences of the Florida Scrub Jay. Construction of the model and its limitations are discussed.

  6. The effect of silver impregnation of surgical scrub suits on surface bacterial contamination.

    PubMed

    Freeman, A I; Halladay, L J; Cripps, P

    2012-06-01

    Silver-impregnated fabrics are widely used for their antibacterial and antifungal effects, including for clinical clothing such as surgical scrub suits (scrubs). This study investigated whether silver impregnation reduces surface bacterial contamination of surgical scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital. Using agar contact plates, abdominal and lumbar areas of silver-impregnated nylon or polyester/cotton scrubs were sampled for surface bacterial contamination before (0 h) and after 4 and 8h of use. The number of bacterial colonies on each contact plate was counted after 24 and 48 h incubation at 37°C. Standard basic descriptive statistics and mixed-effects linear regression were used to investigate the association of possible predictors of the level of bacterial contamination of the scrubs with surface bacterial counts. Silver-impregnated scrubs had significantly lowered bacterial colony counts (BCC) at 0 h compared with polyester/cotton scrubs. However, after 4 and 8h of wear, silver impregnation had no effect on BCC. Scrub tops with higher BCC at 0 h had significantly higher BCC at 4 and 8h, suggesting that contamination present at 0 h persisted during wear. Sampling from the lumbar area was associated with lower BCC at all three time points. Other factors (contamination of the scrub top with a medication/drug, restraint of patients, working in the anaesthesia recovery area) also affected BCC at some time points. Silver impregnation appeared to be ineffective in reducing bacterial contamination of scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital.

  7. Hint-seeking behaviour of western scrub-jays in a metacognition task.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive processes during memory retrieval can be tested by examining whether or not animals can assess their knowledge state when they are faced with a memory test. In a typical foraging task, food is hidden in one of the multiple tubes and the subjects are given an opportunity to check the contents of the tubes before choosing the one that they thought contained food. Following the findings from our previous study that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) can make prospective metacognition judgements, this study tested the scrub-jays' concurrent metacognition judgements. In a series of experiments, uncertainty about the food location was induced in three ways: by making the baiting process visibly unavailable, by inserting a delay between the baiting and food retrieval, and by moving the location of the bait. The jays looked into the tubes more often during the conditions that were consistent with high uncertainty. In addition, their looking behaviour was associated not with the sight of food but with information about the location of the food. These findings suggest that the jays can differentiate the states of knowing and not knowing about certain information and take appropriate action to complement their missing knowledge.

  8. Serological Evidence of Scrub Typhus among Cases of PUO in the Kashmir Valley- A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Nargis; Kanth, Farhath; Farooq, Rumana; Haq, Inam Ul; Shah, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rickettsial infections are being increasingly recognized as a cause of acute febrile illnesses and should be considered a distinct possibility in patients presenting with suggestive clinical features. Their diagnosis remains a challenge in a country like ours where tests like immunofluorescence assay cannot be routinely done. Results of serological tests, when correlated with patients clinical profile can aid in the timely diagnosis of scrub typhus. Aim To find out the extent to which scrub typhus contributes to Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO) in patients admitted to or attending the OPD of our hospital using simple tests like Weil-Felix Agglutination Test (WFT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Srinagar, over a period of eight months (1st March to 31st October 2015). Serum samples from patients suffering from Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO) were processed for the detection of Scrub typhus. A total of 162 samples were included in the study. These were subjected to WFT using OX-K strain. The serum samples were diluted 1/20 to 1/640 and a titre of ≥ 1:160 was considered as positive. The samples were also tested for IgM and IgG antibodies for scrub typhus by ELISA and tube agglutination test was done to detect typhoid fever and brucellosis. Results Of the 162 serum samples tested 22.8% tested positive scrub typhus by WFT. IgM ELISA and IgG was positive in 8 (4.9%) and 15 (9.3%) samples respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of WFT; taking IgM ELISA as a reference standard were 75%, 79.9%, 16.2% and 98.4% respectively. Conclusion Scrub typhus is prevalent in our state and the results of WFT supplemented by those of ELISA can aid in its diagnosis. However the results of these tests should always be regarded in light of the clinical condition of the patient. PMID

  9. [Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge by acid-alkali pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guang-Huan; Zhou, Xing-Qiu; Wu, Jian-Dong

    2012-06-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge, acid-alkali pretreatment method was studied. Three different pretreatment methods (alkali alone,acid-alkali, alkali-acid) were compared to investigate their impacts on hydrolysis and acidification of activated sludge. In addition, their influences on methane-producing in subsequent anaerobic digestion process were also studied. The results showed that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of alkaline treatment alone was about 16% higher than the combining of acid and alkali treatment, SCOD concentration increased to 5406.1 mg x L(-1) after 8 d pretreatment. After treated by acid (pH 4.0, 4 d) and alkali (pH 10.0, 4 d), the acetic acid production and its content in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were higher than other pretreatment methods. And the acetic acid production (as COD/VSS) could reach 74.4 mg x g(-1), accounting for 60.5% of SCFAs. After acid-alkali pretreatment, the C: N ratio of the sludge mixed liquor was about 25, and the C: P ratio was between 35-40, which was more favorable than C: N and C: P ratio of alkali alone and alkali-acid to subsequent anaerobic digestion. The control experiments showed that, after acid-alkali pretreatment, anaerobic digestion cumulative methane yield (CH4/VSS(in)) reached to 136.1 mL x g(-1) at 15 d, which was about 2.5-, 1.6-, and 1.7-fold of the blank (unpretreated), alkali alone pretreatment and alkali-acid pretreatment, respectively. After acid-alkali pretreatment for 8 d and anaerobic digestion for 15 d, the removal efficiency of VSS was about 60.9%, and the sludge reduction effect was better than other pretreatments. It is obvious that the acid-alkali pretreatment method was more favorable to anaerobic digestion and sludge reduction.

  10. The 4843 Alkali Metal Storage Facility Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The 4843 AMSF has been used primarily to provide a centralized building to receive and store dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste, including sodium and lithium, which has been generated at the Fast Flux Test Facility and at various other Hanford Site operations that used alkali metals. Most of the dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste received consists of retired equipment from liquid sodium processes. The unit continues to store material. In general, only solid alkali metal waste that is water reactive is stored at the 4843 AMSF. The 4843 AMSF will be closed in a manner consistent with Ecology guidelines and regulations (WAC 173-303-610). The general closure procedure is detailed as follows.

  11. Uranium recovery from wet process phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Carrington, O.F.; Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.

    1981-03-24

    Improvement in the process for recovering uranium from wetprocess phosphoric acid solution derived from the acidulation of uraniferous phosphate ores by the use of two ion exchange liquidliquid solvent extraction circuits in which in the first circuit (A) the uranium is reduced to the uranous form; (B) the uranous uranium is recovered by liquid-liquid solvent extraction using a mixture of mono- and di-(Alkyl-phenyl) esters of orthophosphoric acid as the ion exchange agent; and (C) the uranium oxidatively stripped from the agent with phosphoric acid containing an oxidizing agent to convert uranous to uranyl ions, and in the second circuit (D) recovering the uranyl uranium from the strip solution by liquid-liquid solvent extraction using di(2ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide as a synergist; (E) scrubbing the uranium loaded agent with water; (F) stripping the loaded agent with ammonium carbonate, and (G) calcining the formed ammonium uranyl carbonate to uranium oxide, the improvement comprising: (1) removing the organics from the raffinate of step (B) before recycling the raffinate to the wet-process plant, and returning the recovered organics to the circuit to substantially maintain the required balance between the mono and disubstituted esters; (2) using hydogren peroxide as the oxidizing agent in step (C); (3) using an alkali metal carbonate as the stripping agent in step (F) following by acidification of the strip solution with sulfuric acid; (4) using some of the acidified strip solution as the scrubbing agent in step (E) to remove phosphorus and other impurities; and (5) regenerating the alkali metal loaded agent from step (F) before recycling it to the second circuit.

  12. Relation between the electroforming voltage in alkali halide-polymer diodes and the bandgap of the alkali halide

    SciTech Connect

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jingxin; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Gomes, Henrique L.; De Leeuw, Dago M.

    2014-12-08

    Electroforming of indium-tin-oxide/alkali halide/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes has been investigated by bias dependent reflectivity measurements. The threshold voltages for electrocoloration and electroforming are independent of layer thickness and correlate with the bandgap of the alkali halide. We argue that the origin is voltage induced defect formation. Frenkel defect pairs are formed by electron–hole recombination in the alkali halide. This self-accelerating process mitigates injection barriers. The dynamic junction formation is compared to that of a light emitting electrochemical cell. A critical defect density for electroforming is 10{sup 25}/m{sup 3}. The electroformed alkali halide layer can be considered as a highly doped semiconductor with metallic transport characteristics.

  13. Effects of chemical composition on the environments of D+ and H+ in alkali silicate glasses: with implications for D/H fractionation in magmatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Losq, C.; Cody, G. D.; Mysen, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    The δD is an important probe for studying the cycle of water within the Earth and between planetary bodies. D/H fractionation between silicate melts, minerals, aqueous fluids and gases governed the δD-evolution of the various geochemical reservoirs. It is usually assumed that D+ and H+ have the same chemical properties and structural environments in silicate melts and aqueous fluids, so that the only mass-dependent fractionation takes place with values approaching 1 at magmatic temperatures. However, recent in situ studies reveal important D/H fractionation between silicate melts and aqueous fluids even at high temperature. H and D MAS NMR data from sodium silicate glasses also shown that D+ and H+ occupy different structural positions in the structure of silicate glasses. This suggests that mass-dependent fractionation is not the only factor governing D/H fractionation in magmatic systems. To assess how the chemical composition and the structure of alkali silicate glasses affect the environments of H+ and D+, the H and D MAS NMR spectra of M2Si4O9 glasses (M = Li, Na or K) with different concentrations of pure H2O or D2O (from 3.3 up to 17.6 mol%) were recorded. Other spectra were acquired from M2Si4O9 glasses with 17.6 mol%(1H,1D)2O. Signals at ~1, ~3.5, ~5, ~12 and ~16 ppm in 1H MAS NMR spectra are assigned to H+ in H2O molecules and Si-OH groups in the glasses. These five signals indicates protons distribution between at least five environments with O…O distances ranging from ~305 to ~240 pm. The ionic radius of alkali affects the distribution of H+ between those environments. D MAS NMR spectra reveal that by exchanging H+ with D+, the intensity of the 16 ppm NMR line increases, whereas the intensity of the 5 ppm line decreases. Consequently, D+ seems to be more concentrated than H+ in environments with small O...O distances. In other words, the structural environments of H+ and D+ in the silicate glasses, and hence in melts at their glass transition

  14. STS-103 Discovery Launch Scrub Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A press conference held on December 16, 1999, to explain the reason behind NASA's decision to delay the Discovery's launching by a period of 24 hrs is presented. According to Ron Dittemore, Space Shuttle Program Manager, the STS-103 team delayed the launch because they need extra time to check one vendor's manufacturing processes, after an x-ray inspection revealed that an improper weld rod was used to weld one of the pressuring lines (called NPS lines) in the ET (external tank). Mr. Dittemore explained that since it is in the ET (not a major load carrying structure and rebuild after each flight), it did not pose any danger to the STS-103 flight. However, the same vendor also manufactured some parts of the orbiter and the team wanted to make sure that the quality of the vendor's manufacturing processes is robust before launching the orbiter to space. He also answered some reporters' questions.

  15. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard

    2017-01-17

    A method for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock. The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  16. Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training.

  17. Petrological processes in mantle plume heads: Evidence from study of mantle xenoliths in the late Cenozoic alkali Fe-Ti basalts in Western Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2015-04-01

    It is consensus now that within-plate magmatism is considered with ascending of mantle plumes and adiabatic melting of their head. At the same time composition of the plumes' matter and conditions of its adiabatic melting are unclear yet. The major source of objective information about it can be mantle xenoliths in alkali basalts and basanites which represent fragments of material of the plume heads above magma-generation zone. They are not represent material in melting zone, however, carry important information about material of modern mantle plumes, its phase composition and components, involved in melting. Populations of mantle xenoliths in basalts are characterized by surprising sameness in the world and represented by two major types: (1) dominated rocks of ``green'' series, and (2) more rare rocks of ``black'' series, which formed veins in the ``green'' series matrix. It can evidence about common composition of plume material in global scale. In other words, the both series of xenoliths represent two types of material of thermochemical mantle plumes, ascended from core-mantle boundary (Maruyama, 1994; Dobretsov et al., 2001). The same types of xenoliths are found in basalts and basanites of Western Syria (Sharkov et al., 1996). Rocks of ``green'' series are represented by Sp peridotites with cataclastic and protogranular structures and vary in composition from dominated spinel lherzolites to spinel harzburgites and rare spinel pyroxenites (websterites). It is probably evidence about incomplete homogenizing of the plume head matter, where material, underwent by partial melting, adjoins with more fertile material. Such heterogeneity was survived due to quick cooling of upper rim of the plume head in contact with relatively cold lithosphere. Essential role among xenoliths of the ``black'' series play Al-Ti-augite and water-bearing phases like hornblende (kaersutute) and Ti-phlogopite. Rocks of this series are represented by wehrlite, clinopyroxenite, amphibole

  18. CLEAR LIQUOR SCRUBBING WITH ANHYDRITE PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. SKARUPA; T.R. CAREY

    1998-08-01

    This project is funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC) under a cost-sharing PRDA with Radian International. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding and technical oversight. The project is part of FETC's Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. This project was submitted in response to Area 4 of DOE's Mega-PRDA: Advanced High-Performance SO{sub 2} Control Concepts. The goals of this research area are to develop advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes that achieve greater than 99% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, are 25% cheaper than commercial FGD systems, and provide a valuable byproduct that will be recycled rather than disposed. Area 4 also included the development of a byproduct process that could be added to FGD systems to produce high value byproducts for reuse rather than disposal.

  19. Efficient destruction of CF4 through in situ generation of alkali metals from heated alkali halide reducing mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Churl; Choi, Wonyong

    2002-03-15

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are the most potent green house gases that are very recalcitrant at destruction. An effective way of converting PFCs using hot solid reagents into safe products has been recently introduced. By investigating the thermal reductive destruction of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) we provided new insight and more physicochemical consideration on this novel process. The complete destruction of CF4was successfully achieved by flowing the gas through a heated reagent bed (400-950 degrees C) that contained powder mixtures of alkali halides, CaO, and Si. The silicon acted as a reducing agent of alkali halides for the in-situ production of alkali metals, and the calcium oxide played the role of a halide ion acceptor. The absence of any single component in this ternary mixture drastically reduced the destruction efficiency of CF4. The CF4 destruction efficiencies with the solid reagent containing the alkali halide, MX, increased in the order of Li approximately Na < K < Cs for alkali cations and I < Br < Cl < F for halide anions. This trend agreed with the endothermicity of the alkali metal generation reaction: the higher the endothermicity, the lower the destruction efficiency. Alkali metal generation was indirectly detected by monitoring H2 production from its reaction with water. The production of alkali metals increased with NaF, KF, and CsF in this order. The CsF/CaO/Si system exhibited the complete destruction of CF4 at as low as 600 degrees C. The solid product analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of CaF2 and the depletion of Si with black carbon particles formed in the solid reagent residue. No CO/CO2 and toxic HF and SiF4 formation were detected in the exhaust gas.

  20. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  1. Alkali-aggregate reactivity of typical siliceious glass and carbonate rocks in alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Duyou; Liu, Yongdao; Zheng, Yanzeng; Xu, Zhongzi; Shen, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    For exploring the behaviour of alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) in alkali-activated geopolymeric materials and assessing the procedures for testing AAR in geopolymers, the expansion behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer mortars with pure silica glass and typical carbonate rocks were studied respectively by curing at various conditions, i.e. 23°C and 38°C with relative humidity over 95%, immersed in 1M NaOH solution at 80°C. Results show that, at various curing conditions, neither harmful ASR nor harmful ACR was observed in geopolymers with the criteria specified for OPC system. However, with the change of curing conditions, the geopolymer binder and reactive aggregates may experience different reaction processes leading to quite different dimensional changes, especially with additional alkalis and elevated temperatures. It suggests that high temperature with additional alkali for accelerating AAR in traditional OPC system may not appropriate for assessing the alkali-aggregate reactivity behaviour in geopolymers designed for normal conditions. On the other hand, it is hopeful to control the dimensional change of geopolymer mortar or concrete by selecting the type of aggregates and the appropriate curing conditions, thus changing the harmful AAR in OPC into beneficial AAR in geopolymers and other alkali-activated cementitious systems.

  2. Dancing eyes and dancing feet in scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Koti, Neeraja; S Mareddy, Aswani; K Nagri, Shivashankara; U Kudru, Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old male, presented to us with complaints of fever for five days and breathlessness for one day. During the hospital stay, he developed myoclonic jerks in all four limbs, head titubation, and saccadomania. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain ruled out structural lesions and cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) analysis ruled out meningo-encephalitis. Weil Felix was strongly positive, OX K titres were one in 640, and IgM for scrub typhus was positive. He was treated with doxycycline for one week. On follow-up he was found to be doing well with resolution of opsoclonus myoclonus.

  3. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Scrub Typhus Transmission in Mainland China, 2006-2014

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen-Biao; Haque, Ubydul; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yun-Xi; Li, Xin-Lou; Sun, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan-Song; Clements, Archie C. A.; Li, Shen-Long; Zhang, Wen-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region including China, and the number of reported cases has increased dramatically in the past decade. However, the spatial-temporal dynamics and the potential risk factors in transmission of scrub typhus in mainland China have yet to be characterized. Objective This study aims to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of reported scrub typhus cases in mainland China between January 2006 and December 2014, to detect the location of high risk spatiotemporal clusters of scrub typhus cases, and identify the potential risk factors affecting the re-emergence of the disease. Method Monthly cases of scrub typhus reported at the county level between 2006 and 2014 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. Time-series analyses, spatiotemporal cluster analyses, and spatial scan statistics were used to explore the characteristics of the scrub typhus incidence. To explore the association between scrub typhus incidence and environmental variables panel Poisson regression analysis was conducted. Results During the time period between 2006 and 2014 a total of 54,558 scrub typhus cases were reported in mainland China, which grew exponentially. The majority of cases were reported each year between July and November, with peak incidence during October every year. The spatiotemporal dynamics of scrub typhus varied over the study period with high-risk clusters identified in southwest, southern, and middle-eastern part of China. Scrub typhus incidence was positively correlated with the percentage of shrub and meteorological variables including temperature and precipitation. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate areas in China that could be targeted with public health interventions to mitigate the growing threat of scrub typhus in the country. PMID:27479297

  4. Climate variability, animal reservoir and transmission of scrub typhus in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoning; Ma, Yu; Tao, Xia; Wu, Xinwei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the relationships between climate variability, animal reservoirs and scrub typhus incidence in Southern China. Methods We obtained data on scrub typhus cases in Guangzhou every month from 2006 to 2014 from the Chinese communicable disease network. Time-series Poisson regression models and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) were used to evaluate the relationship between risk factors and scrub typhus. Results Wavelet analysis found the incidence of scrub typhus cycled with a period of approximately 8–12 months and long-term trends with a period of approximately 24–36 months. The DLNM model shows that relative humidity, rainfall, DTR, MEI and rodent density were associated with the incidence of scrub typhus. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the incidence scrub typhus has two main temporal cycles. Determining the reason for this trend and how it can be used for disease control and prevention requires additional research. The transmission of scrub typhus is highly dependent on climate factors and rodent density, both of which should be considered in prevention and control strategies for scrub typhus. PMID:28273079

  5. A randomized-crossover trial to decrease bacterial contamination on hospital scrubs

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Mallory A.; Thom, Kerri A.; Zhan, Min; Johnson, J. Kristie

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare worker attire may become contaminated with pathogenic organisms during a normal shift. We performed a randomized-crossover study to assess whether treatment with an antimicrobial coating would decrease bacterial contamination on scrubs. Thirty percent of all scrubs were contaminated; there was no difference in the rate of contamination between intervention/control. PMID:25333437

  6. A Spatiotemporal Database to Track Human Scrub Typhus Using the VectorMap Application

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Daryl J.; Foley, Desmond H.; Richards, Allen L.

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a potentially fatal mite-borne febrile illness, primarily of the Asia-Pacific Rim. With an endemic area greater than 13 million km2 and millions of people at risk, scrub typhus remains an underreported, often misdiagnosed febrile illness. A comprehensive, updatable map of the true distribution of cases has been lacking, and therefore the true risk of disease within the very large endemic area remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a database and map to track human scrub typhus. An online search using PubMed and the United States Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System was performed to identify articles describing human scrub typhus cases both within and outside the traditionally accepted endemic regions. Using World Health Organization guidelines, stringent criteria were used to establish diagnoses for inclusion in the database. The preliminary screening of 181 scrub typhus publications yielded 145 publications that met the case criterion, 267 case records, and 13 serosurvey records that could be georeferenced, describing 13,739 probable or confirmed human cases in 28 countries. A map service has been established within VectorMap (www.vectormap.org) to explore the role that relative location of vectors, hosts, and the pathogen play in the transmission of mite-borne scrub typhus. The online display of scrub typhus cases in VectorMap illustrates their presence and provides an up-to-date geographic distribution of proven scrub typhus cases. PMID:26678263

  7. Bayesian spatial modelling and the significance of agricultural land use to scrub typhus infection in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wardrop, Nicola A; Kuo, Chi-Chien; Wang, Hsi-Chieh; Clements, Archie C A; Lee, Pei-Fen; Atkinson, Peter M

    2013-11-01

    Scrub typhus is transmitted by the larval stage of trombiculid mites. Environmental factors, including land cover and land use, are known to influence breeding and survival of trombiculid mites and, thus, also the spatial heterogeneity of scrub typhus risk. Here, a spatially autoregressive modelling framework was applied to scrub typhus incidence data from Taiwan, covering the period 2003 to 2011, to provide increased understanding of the spatial pattern of scrub typhus risk and the environmental and socioeconomic factors contributing to this pattern. A clear spatial pattern in scrub typhus incidence was observed within Taiwan, and incidence was found to be significantly correlated with several land cover classes, temperature, elevation, normalized difference vegetation index, rainfall, population density, average income and the proportion of the population that work in agriculture. The final multivariate regression model included statistically significant correlations between scrub typhus incidence and average income (negatively correlated), the proportion of land that contained mosaics of cropland and vegetation (positively correlated) and elevation (positively correlated). These results highlight the importance of land cover on scrub typhus incidence: mosaics of cropland and vegetation represent a transitional land cover type which can provide favourable habitats for rodents and, therefore, trombiculid mites. In Taiwan, these transitional land cover areas tend to occur in less populated and mountainous areas, following the frontier establishment and subsequent partial abandonment of agricultural cultivation, due to demographic and socioeconomic changes. Future land use policy decision-making should ensure that potential public health outcomes, such as modified risk of scrub typhus, are considered.

  8. Alkali Metal Cluster Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. In this thesis, we apply the tight-binding Hubbard model to alkali metal clusters with Hartree-Fock self-consistent methods and perturbation methods for the numerical calculations. We have studied the relation between the equilibrium structures and the range of the hopping matrix elements in the Hubbard Hamiltonian. The results show that the structures are not sensitive to the interaction range but are determined by the number of valence electrons each atom has. Inertia tensors are used to analyse the symmetries of the clusters. The principal axes of the clusters are determined and they are the axes of rotational symmetries of clusters if the clusters have any. The eigenvalues of inertia tensors which are the indication of the deformation of clusters are compared between our model and the ellipsoidal jellium model. The agreement is good for large clusters. At a finite temperature, the thermal motion fluctuates the structures. We defined a fluctuation function with the distance matrix of a cluster. The fluctuation has been studied with the Monte-Carlo simulation method. Our studies show that the clusters remain in the solid state when temperature is low. The small values of fluctuation functions indicates the thermal vibration of atoms around their equilibrium positions. If the temperature is high, the atoms are delocalized. The cluster melts and enters the liquid region. The cluster melting is simulated by the Monte-Carlo simulation with the fluctuation function we defined. Energy levels of clusters are calculated from the Hubbard model. Ionization potentials and magic numbers are also obtained from these energy levels. The results confirm that the Hubbard model is a good approximation for a small cluster. The excitation energy is presented by the difference between the original level and excited level, and the electron-hole interactions. We also have studied cooling of clusters

  9. Analyzing the effectiveness of a frame-level redundancy scrubbing technique for SRAM-based FPGAs

    DOE PAGES

    Tonfat, Jorge; Lima Kastensmidt, Fernanda; Rech, Paolo; ...

    2015-12-17

    Radiation effects such as soft errors are the major threat to the reliability of SRAM-based FPGAs. This work analyzes the effectiveness in correcting soft errors of a novel scrubbing technique using internal frame redundancy called Frame-level Redundancy Scrubbing (FLR-scrubbing). This correction technique can be implemented in a coarse grain TMR design. The FLR-scrubbing technique was implemented on a mid-size Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA device used as a case study. The FLR-scrubbing technique was tested under neutron radiation and fault injection. Implementation results demonstrated minimum area and energy consumption overhead when compared to other techniques. The time to repair the fault ismore » also improved by using the Internal Configuration Access Port (ICAP). Lastly, neutron radiation test results demonstrated that the proposed technique is suitable for correcting accumulated SEUs and MBUs.« less

  10. Analyzing the effectiveness of a frame-level redundancy scrubbing technique for SRAM-based FPGAs

    SciTech Connect

    Tonfat, Jorge; Lima Kastensmidt, Fernanda; Rech, Paolo; Reis, Ricardo; Quinn, Heather Marie

    2015-12-17

    Radiation effects such as soft errors are the major threat to the reliability of SRAM-based FPGAs. This work analyzes the effectiveness in correcting soft errors of a novel scrubbing technique using internal frame redundancy called Frame-level Redundancy Scrubbing (FLR-scrubbing). This correction technique can be implemented in a coarse grain TMR design. The FLR-scrubbing technique was implemented on a mid-size Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA device used as a case study. The FLR-scrubbing technique was tested under neutron radiation and fault injection. Implementation results demonstrated minimum area and energy consumption overhead when compared to other techniques. The time to repair the fault is also improved by using the Internal Configuration Access Port (ICAP). Lastly, neutron radiation test results demonstrated that the proposed technique is suitable for correcting accumulated SEUs and MBUs.

  11. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary.

  12. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Stanley W.

    1995-01-01

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible.

  13. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, S.W.

    1995-04-18

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible. 4 figs.

  14. The effect of silver impregnation of surgical scrub suits on surface bacterial contamination

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, A.I.; Halladay, L.J.; Cripps, P.

    2012-01-01

    Silver-impregnated fabrics are widely used for their antibacterial and antifungal effects, including for clinical clothing such as surgical scrub suits (scrubs). This study investigated whether silver impregnation reduces surface bacterial contamination of surgical scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital. Using agar contact plates, abdominal and lumbar areas of silver-impregnated nylon or polyester/cotton scrubs were sampled for surface bacterial contamination before (0 h) and after 4 and 8 h of use. The number of bacterial colonies on each contact plate was counted after 24 and 48 h incubation at 37 °C. Standard basic descriptive statistics and mixed-effects linear regression were used to investigate the association of possible predictors of the level of bacterial contamination of the scrubs with surface bacterial counts. Silver-impregnated scrubs had significantly lowered bacterial colony counts (BCC) at 0 h compared with polyester/cotton scrubs. However, after 4 and 8 h of wear, silver impregnation had no effect on BCC. Scrub tops with higher BCC at 0 h had significantly higher BCC at 4 and 8 h, suggesting that contamination present at 0 h persisted during wear. Sampling from the lumbar area was associated with lower BCC at all three time points. Other factors (contamination of the scrub top with a medication/drug, restraint of patients, working in the anaesthesia recovery area) also affected BCC at some time points. Silver impregnation appeared to be ineffective in reducing bacterial contamination of scrubs during use in a veterinary hospital. PMID:22015140

  15. High-temperature interactions of alkali vapors with solids during coal combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Punjak, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    A temperature and concentration programmed reaction method is used to investigate the mechanism by which organically bound alkali is released from carbonaceous substrates. Vaporization of the alkali is preceded by reduction of oxygen-bearing groups during which CO is generated. A residual amount of alkali remains after complete reduction. This residual level is greater for potassium, indicating that potassium has stronger interactions with graphitic substrates that sodium. Other mineral substrates were exposed to high temperature alkali chloride vapors under both nitrogen and simulated flue gas atmospheres to investigate their potential application as sorbents for the removal of alkali from coal conversion flue gases. The compounds containing alumina and silica are found to readily adsorb alkali vapors and the minerals kaolinite, bauxite and emathlite are identified as promising alkali sorbents. The fundamentals of alkali adsorption on kaolinite, bauxite and emathlite are compared and analyzed both experimentally and through theoretical modeling. The experiments were performed in a microgravimetric reactor system; the sorbents were characterized before and after alkali adsorption using scanning Auger microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, mercury porosimetry and atomic emission spectrophotometry. The results show that the process is not a simple physical condensation, but a complex combination of several diffusion steps and reactions.

  16. Transcriptome alteration in a rice introgression line with enhanced alkali tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunhong; Lin, Xiuyun; Ou, Xiufang; Hu, Lanjuan; Wang, Jinming; Yang, Chunwu; Wang, Shucai; Liu, Bao

    2013-07-01

    Alkali stress inhibits plant growth and development and thus limits crop productivity. To investigate the possible genetic basis of alkali tolerance in rice, we generated an introgressed rice line (K83) with significantly enhanced tolerance to alkali stress compared to its recipient parental cultivar (Jijing88). By using microarray analysis, we examined the global gene expression profiles of K83 and Jijing88, and found that more than 1200 genes were constitutively and differentially expressed in K83 in comparison to Jijing88 with 572 genes up- and 654 down-regulated. Upon alkali treatment, a total of 347 genes were found up- and 156 down-regulated in K83 compared to 591 and 187, respectively, in Jijing88. Among the up-regulated genes in both K83 and Jijing88, only 34 were constitutively up-regulated in K83, suggesting that both the constitutive differentially expressed genes in K83 and those induced by alkali treatment are most likely responsible for enhanced alkali tolerance. A gene ontology analysis based on all annotated, differentially expressed genes revealed that genes with expression alterations were enriched in pathways involved in metabolic processes, catalytic activity, and transport and transcription factor activities, suggesting that these pathways are associated with alkali stress tolerance in rice. Our results illuminated the novel genetic aspects of alkali tolerance in rice and established a repertory of potential target genes for biotechnological manipulations that can be used to generate alkali-tolerant rice cultivars.

  17. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    DOEpatents

    Joshi, Ashok V [Salt Lake City, UT; Balagopal, Shekar [Sandy, UT; Pendelton, Justin [Salt Lake City, UT

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  19. Electrical Resistivity of Alkali Elements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    rubidium, cesium, and francium ) and contains recommended reference values (or provisional or typical values). The compiled data include all the...and information on the electrical resistivity of alkali elements (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium ) and contains...107Ic. Magnetic Flux Density Dependence o.. .. ... .... 112 4.6. Francium ..........................115j a. Temperature Dependence

  20. Structural Investigation of Alkali Activated Clay Minerals for Application in Water Treatment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Dembovska, L.

    2015-11-01

    Alkali activation technology can be applied for a wide range of alumo-silicates to produce innovative materials with various areas of application. Most researches focuse on the application of alumo-silicate materials in building industry as cement binder replacement to produce mortar and concrete [1]. However, alkali activation technology offers high potential also in biotechnologies [2]. In the processes where certain pH level, especially alkaline environment, must be ensured, alkali activated materials can be applied. One of such fields is water treatment systems where high level pH (up to pH 10.5) ensures efficient removal of water pollutants such as manganese [3]. Previous investigations had shown that alkali activation technology can be applied to calcined clay powder and aluminium scrap recycling waste as a foam forming agent to create porous alkali activated materials. This investigation focuses on the structural investigation of calcined kaolin and illite clay alkali activation processes. Chemical and mineralogical composition of both clays were determined and structural investigation of alkali activated materials was made by using XRD, DTA, FTIR analysis; the microstructure of hardened specimens was observed by SEM. Physical properties of the obtained material were determined. Investigation indicates the essential role of chemical composition of the clay used in the alkali activation process, and potential use of the obtained material in water treatment systems.

  1. Limestone scrubbing for 2000 flue gas desulfurization system. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 1, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-16

    As emission limits for sulfur dioxide from utility coal-fired boilers become lower due to increased regulation and environmental concern around the globe, power generating companies require increasingly cost-effective pollution control technology in order to maintain or reduce the cost of electricity to the end user. Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization, or WFGD, is the preferred sulfur dioxide removal technology for utilities in the US and worldwide. This is a result of its extensive reference list, lower risks, and lower evaluated overall costs. For more than two decades ABB has supplied WFGD systems and currently has greater than 29,000 MWe of scrubbing capacity in operation. Given the industry`s ever-present need for lower costs, ABB funds a continuous research and development program focused on technology advancements that will reduce both capital and operating costs for its customers. As a result of this effort the LS-2 Concept WFGD System was developed through revolutionary design changes in every significant subprocess of conventional WFGD technology. To demonstrate the cumulative effects of all the individual advancements of the LS-2 Concept and to prove the process`s viability and cost-efficiency under representative US power plant conditions, the Limestone Scrubbing for 2000 project was initiated. This report is the final submittal to the Ohio Coal Development Office to document the results of this demonstrate project. The four-phase project execution, from the initial design and procurement through erection and extensive testing, proceeded as scheduled and on budget. The project resulted in a successful reference program that illustrates, in detail, the improved efficiencies and costs of the LS-2 advancements.

  2. Effects of DDT on bird population of scrub forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Stewart, R.E.

    1949-01-01

    An oil spray of DDT was applied at the rate of five pounds per acre to a 90-acre tract of 5-year-old scrub and sapling growth at Beltsville, Maryland. Bird population studies were carried on in a 30-acre plot at the center of the sprayed area, and in a 30-acre check area of the same habitat one-half mile away. Of the five commonest species in the sprayed area, the Maryland yellowthroat, prairie warbler, and house wren were reduced 80 per cent, and the red-eyed towhee was apparently reduced 35 per cent; while no appreciable change in the numbers of yellow-breasted chats was noted. The total decrease for the five commonest species, which represented 77 per cent of the original population, was 65 per cent.

  3. Formation and stability of high-spin alkali clusters.

    PubMed

    Schulz, C P; Claas, P; Schumacher, D; Stienkemeier, F

    2004-01-09

    Helium nanodroplet isolation has been applied to agglomerate alkali clusters at temperatures of 380 mK. The very weak binding to the surface of the droplets allows a selection of only weakly bound, high-spin states. Here we show that larger clusters of alkali atoms in high-spin states can be formed. The lack of strong bonds from pairing electrons makes these systems nonmetallic, van der Waals-like complexes of metal atoms. We find that sodium and potassium readily form such clusters containing up to 25 atoms. In contrast, this process is suppressed for rubidium and cesium. Apparently, for these heavy alkalis, larger high-spin aggregates are not stable and depolarize spontaneously upon cluster formation.

  4. Formation and Stability of High-Spin Alkali Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, C. P.; Claas, P.; Schumacher, D.; Stienkemeier, F.

    2004-01-01

    Helium nanodroplet isolation has been applied to agglomerate alkali clusters at temperatures of 380mK. The very weak binding to the surface of the droplets allows a selection of only weakly bound, high-spin states. Here we show that larger clusters of alkali atoms in high-spin states can be formed. The lack of strong bonds from pairing electrons makes these systems nonmetallic, vanderWaals like complexes of metal atoms. We find that sodium and potassium readily form such clusters containing up to 25atoms. In contrast, this process is suppressed for rubidium and cesium. Apparently, for these heavy alkalis, larger high-spin aggregates are not stable and depolarize spontaneously upon cluster formation.

  5. The Effects of Surgical Hand Scrubbing Protocols on Skin Integrity and Surgical Site Infection Rates: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang Qin; Mehigan, Sinead

    2016-05-01

    This systematic review aimed to critically appraise and synthesize updated evidence regarding the effect of surgical-scrub techniques on skin integrity and the incidence of surgical site infections. Databases searched include the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central. Our review was limited to eight peer-reviewed, randomized controlled trials and two nonrandomized controlled trials published in English from 1990 to 2015. Comparison models included traditional hand scrubbing with chlorhexidine gluconate or povidone-iodine against alcohol-based hand rubbing, scrubbing with a brush versus without a brush, and detergent-based antiseptics alone versus antiseptics incorporating alcohol solutions. Evidence showed that hand rubbing techniques are as effective as traditional scrubbing and seem to be better tolerated. Hand rubbing appears to cause less skin damage than traditional scrub protocols, and scrub personnel tolerated brushless techniques better than scrubbing using a brush.

  6. Thermal effects in Cs DPAL and alkali cell window damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Rotondaro, M. D.; Shaffer, M. K.; Knize, R. J.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments on power scaling of Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs) revealed some limiting parasitic effects such as alkali cell windows and gain medium contamination and damage, output power degradation in time and others causing lasing efficiency decrease or even stop lasing1 . These problems can be connected with thermal effects, ionization, chemical interactions between the gain medium components and alkali cells materials. Study of all these and, possibly, other limiting effects and ways to mitigate them is very important for high power DPAL development. In this talk we present results of our experiments on temperature measurements in the gain medium of operating Cs DPAL at different pump power levels in the range from lasing threshold to the levels causing damage of the alkali cell windows. For precise contactless in situ temperature measurements, we used an interferometric technique, developed in our lab2 . In these experiments we demonstrated that damage of the lasing alkali cell starts in the bulk with thermal breakdown of the hydrocarbon buffer gas. The degradation processes start at definite critical temperatures of the gain medium, different for each mixture of buffer gas. At this critical temperature, the hydrocarbon and the excited alkali metal begin to react producing the characteristic black soot and, possibly, some other chemical compounds, which both harm the laser performance and significantly increase the harmful heat deposition within the laser medium. This soot, being highly absorptive, is catastrophically heated to very high temperatures that visually observed as bulk burning. This process quickly spreads to the cell windows and causes their damage. As a result, the whole cell is also contaminated with products of chemical reactions.

  7. Dengue and Scrub Typhus Coinfection in a Patient Presenting with Febrile Illness

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever and scrub typhus are common causes of acute febrile illness of unclear origin in Asia. Though coinfections of many vector-borne diseases have been described, articles on dengue and scrub typhus coinfection are distinctly limited. In case of coinfection with dengue and scrub typhus, vigilant monitoring of vitals, platelets transfusion, and timely treatment with doxycycline are necessary. High degree of suspicion has to be made for coinfection in a patient presenting with febrile illness with thrombocytopenia and deranged laboratory parameters in postmonsoon season in endemic regions in Asia. PMID:28386493

  8. Scrub Typhus Presenting with Bilateral Lateral Rectus Palsy in A Female

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jaya; Barman, Bhupen; Mondal, Sumantro; Sivam, Rondeep Kumar Nath

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease is endemic in several parts of India usually presenting with acute symptoms. Fever, maculopapular rash, eschar, history of tick exposure and supportive diagnostic tests usually leads to diagnosis. Scrub typhus should be included in the differential diagnosis in occasions when a patient presents with fever with or without eschar and isolated cranial nerve palsy. Here we are reporting a case of Scrub typhus who presented with fever and altered sensorium of short duration, eschar formation and bilateral lateral rectus palsy. Patient was treated with doxycycline with complete reversal of neurodeficit. PMID:27190871

  9. A New Population Estimate for the Florida Scrub Jay on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The variable circular plot method was used to sample avifauna within different vegetation types determined from aerial imagery. The Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens) population was estimated to range between 1,415 and 3,603 birds. Approximately half of the scrub and slash pine habitat appeared to be unused by Florida Scrub Jay, probably because the slash pine cover was too dense or the oak cover was too sparse. Results from the study suggest that the entire state population may be much lower than believed because the size of two of the three largest populations may have been overestimated.

  10. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. Methods We applied Pearson’s product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. Results In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively

  11. Influence of temperature on alkali stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes cells may induce alkali stress adaptation when exposed to sublethal concentrations of alkaline cleaners and sanitizers that may be frequently used in the food processing environment. In the present study, the effect of temperature on the induction and the stability of such alk...

  12. Chlor-Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Sanchez, C. M.; Exposito, E.; Frias-Ferrer, A.; Gonzalez-Garaia, J.; Monthiel, V.; Aldaz, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for students in the last year of degree program in chemical engineering, chemistry, or industrial chemistry is presented. It models the chlor-alkali process, one of the most important industrial applications of electrochemical technology and the second largest industrial consumer of electricity after aluminium industry.

  13. Results of limestone clear liquor scrubbing tests at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O.W. Jr.; Skarupa, R.C.; Wilhelm, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    In a continuing effort to offer lower cost SO{sub 2} control alternatives for its member utilities, EPRI has developed and tested a limestone clear liquor scrubbing using the 0.4-MW{sub e} mini-pilot FGD system at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center. In the first-phase of testing, existing equipment was used to evaluate the feasibility of the process concept. Following the encouraging Phase I results, a pilot-scale sludge bed limestone reactor was designed and fabricated for a second-phase of testing. Tests have been conducted in both inhibited and forced oxidation modes. Variables investigated include: type of organic acid, buffer concentration, solid-phase residence time, pH, L/G, and chloride level. Results show that the clear liquor process can achieve SO{sub 2} removal and solids properties equivalent to or better than that of an enhanced slurry process without scale build-up. Preliminary economics indicate that the clear liquor gypsum process could reduce overall capital and operating expense by 5 to 10% relative to an organic acid-enhanced slurry process and by 15 to 20% relative to a conventional, unenhanced limestone process.

  14. Positron-alkali atom scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  15. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  16. Effect of Latitude and Seasonal Variation on Scrub Typhus, South Korea, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Jeung, Ye Sul; Kim, Choon-Mee; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Seok-Won; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Dong-Min

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea, scrub typhus is one of the most common rickettsial diseases. The number of scrub typhus patients has increased in South Korea, a total of 69,210 cases were reported from 2001 to 2013. The seasonality and relation of scrub typhus cases to latitude were analyzed in this article using data obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System website of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The incidence of scrub typhus tended to increase in the later months of the year, especially in October-December. In general, lower latitudes were associated with a later peak incidence. Our results suggest for the first time that the monthly observed incidence tended to increase in the later months of the year as the latitude decreased, and on a yearly basis in Korea.

  17. Wigner Distribution Functions as a Tool for Studying Gas Phase Alkali Metal Plus Noble Gas Collisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    time, energy must be provided to the laser system from an external source. The process of exciting constituents of the active medium into a higher...This process is repeated as long as the photons aren’t lost to the laser system. This implies that the third property that a laser must have is an...optical feedback system in order to maintain the stimulated emission process . Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) has an active

  18. Meteorological factors and risk of scrub typhus in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is becoming the most common vector born disease in Guangzhou, southern China. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of Scrub typhus in the subtropical city of Guangzhou for the period 2006–2012, and assist public health prevention and control measures. Methods Scrub typhus reported cases during the period of 2006–2012 in Guangzhou were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). Simultaneous meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, sunshine, and rainfall were obtained from the documentation of the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and scrub typhus. Results Annual incidence rates of scrub typhus from 2006 to 2012 were 3.25, 2.67, 3.81, 4.22, 4.41, 5.12, and 9.75 (per 100 000) respectively. Each 1°C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 14.98% (95% CI 13.65% to 16.33%) in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, while a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 8.03% (95% CI −8.75% to −7.31%). Similarly, a 1 hour rise in sunshine corresponded to an increase of 0.17% or 0.54%, and a 1 millimeter rise in rainfall corresponded to an increase of 0.05% or 0.10%, in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. Conclusion Our study provided evidence that climatic factors were associated with occurrence of scrub typhus in Guangzhou city, China. Temperature, duration of sunshine, and rainfall were positively associated with scrub typhus incidence, while atmospheric pressure was inversely associated with scrub typhus incidence. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of scrub typhus transmission. PMID:24620733

  19. A clinical evaluation of chlorhexidine gluconate spray as compared with iodophor scrub for preoperative skin preparation.

    PubMed

    Brown, T R; Ehrlich, C E; Stehman, F B; Golichowski, A M; Madura, J A; Eitzen, H E

    1984-04-01

    In a prospective, randomized study, 737 patients who were evaluated had the operative site prepared preoperatively by either a 0.5 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate spray or povidone-iodine scrub. The wound infection rate in these two comparable groups was not statistically different, although slightly favoring the spray technique (6.0 versus 8.1 per cent). The spray technique challenges the conventional preoperative scrub and offers further advantages of increased effectiveness while also offering savings of time and expense.

  20. Scrub-shrub bird habitat associations at multiple spatial scales in beaver meadows in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chandler, R.B.; King, D.I.; DeStefano, S.

    2009-01-01

    Most scrub-shrub bird species are declining in the northeastern United States, and these declines are largely attributed to regional declines in habitat availability. American Beaver (Castor canadensis; hereafter "beaver") populations have been increasing in the Northeast in recent decades, and beavers create scrub-shrub habitat through their dam-building and foraging activities. Few systematic studies have been conducted on the value of beaver-modified habitats for scrub-shrub birds, and these data are important for understanding habitat selection of scrub-shrub birds as well as for assessing regional habitat availability for these species. We conducted surveys in 37 beaver meadows in a 2,800-km2 study area in western Massachusetts during 2005 and 2006 to determine the extent to which these beaver-modified habitats are used by scrub-shrub birds, as well as the characteristics of beaver meadows most closely related to bird use. We modeled bird abundance in relation to microhabitat-, patch-, and landscape-context variables while adjusting for survey-specific covariates affecting detectability using N-mixture models. We found that scrub-shrub birds of regional conservation concern occupied these sites and that birds responded differently to microhabitat, patch, and landscape characteristics of beaver meadows. Generally, scrub-shrub birds increased in abundance along a gradient of increasing vegetation complexity, and three species were positively related to patch size. We conclude that these habitats can potentially play an important role in regional conservation of scrub-shrub birds and recommend that conservation priority be given to larger beaver meadows with diverse vegetation structure and composition. ?? 2009 by The American Ornithologists' Union. All rights reserved.

  1. Does a robotic scrub nurse improve economy of movements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachs, Juan P.; Jacob, Mithun; Li, Yu-Ting; Akingba, George

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Robotic assistance during surgery has been shown to be a useful resource to both augment the surgical skills of the surgeon through tele-operation, and to assist the surgeon handling the surgical instruments to the surgeon, similar to a surgical tech. We evaluated the performance and effect of a gesture driven surgical robotic nurse in the context of economy of movements, during an abdominal incision and closure exercise with a simulator. Methods: A longitudinal midline incision (100 mm) was performed on the simulated abdominal wall to enter the peritoneal cavity without damaging the internal organs. The wound was then closed using a blunt needle ensuring that no tissue is caught up by the suture material. All the instruments required to complete this task were delivered by a robotic surgical manipulator directly to the surgeon. The instruments were requested through voice and gesture recognition. The robotic system used a low end range sensor camera to extract the hand poses and for recognizing the gestures. The instruments were delivered to the vicinity of the patient, at chest height and at a reachable distance to the surgeon. Task performance measures for each of three abdominal incision and closure exercises were measured and compared to a human scrub nurse instrument delivery action. Picking instrument position variance, completion time and trajectory of the hand were recorded for further analysis. Results: The variance of the position of the robotic tip when delivering the surgical instrument is compared to the same position when a human delivers the instrument. The variance was found to be 88.86% smaller compared to the human delivery group. The mean task completion time to complete the surgical exercise was 162.7+/- 10.1 secs for the human assistant and 191.6+/- 3.3 secs (P<.01) when using the robotic standard display group. Conclusion: Multimodal robotic scrub nurse assistant improves the surgical procedure by reducing the number of movements

  2. Process for removing sulfur from a hydrocarbon feedstream using a sulfur sorbent with alkali metal components or alkaline earth metal components

    SciTech Connect

    Field, L.A.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a process for removing sulfur and sulfur compounds from a naphtha feed. It comprises: contacting a naphtha feed with a platinum on alumina catalyst in the presence of added hydrogen so as to convert thiophenic or organic sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide under mild reforming conditions wherein the temperature is no greater than about 500[degrees]C and the pressure is no greater than about 250 psig; and contacting the naphtha with a sulfur sorbent which comprises a Group I-A or Group II-A metal supported on a porous refractory inorganic oxide support to remove hydrogen sulfide from the naphtha feed.

  3. Rapid Increase in Scrub Typhus Incidence in Mainland China, 2006–2014

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Cheng; Qian, Quan; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J.; Han, Zhi-Hai; Haque, Ubydul; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Hu, Wen-Biao; Liu, Yun-Xi; Sun, Yan-Song; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Shen-Long

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a vector-borne disease, which has recently reemerged in China. In this study, we describe the distribution and incidence of scrub typhus cases in China from 2006 to 2014 and quantify differences in scrub typhus cases with respect to sex, age, and occupation. The results of our study indicate that the annual incidence of scrub typhus has increased during the study period. The number of cases peaked in 2014, which was 12.8 times greater than the number of cases reported in 2006. Most (77.97%) of the cases were reported in five provinces (Guangdong, Yunnan, Anhui, Fujian, and Shandong). Our study also demonstrates that the incidence rate of scrub typhus was significantly higher in females compared to males (P < 0.001) and was highest in the 60–69 year age group, and that farmers had a higher incidence rate than nonfarmers (P < 0.001). Different seasonal trends were identified in the number of reported cases between the northern and southern provinces of China. These findings not only demonstrate that China has experienced a large increase in scrub typhus incidence, but also document an expansion in the geographic distribution throughout the country. PMID:26711517

  4. A comparative study of hepatitis caused by scrub typhus and viral hepatitis A in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Byeon, Yu Mi; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2011-11-01

    We compared clinical features and laboratory findings of 104 patients with hepatitis A and 197 patients with scrub typhus. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and jaundice were common in patient with hepatitis A, and fever and headache were significantly more common in patients with scrub typhus. At presentation, an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level ≥ 500 U/L was observed in 1% of scrub typhus patients and in 87.5% of hepatitis A patients (P < 0.001). A bilirubin level ≥ 1.3 mg/dL was observed in 16.8% of scrub typhus patients and 90.4% of hepatitis A patients. The ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio was ≤ 5 in 97.4% of the patients with scrub typhus and > 5 in 95.2% of those with hepatitis A (P < 0.001). Fever, headache, rash, and eschar are findings that indicate scrub typhus. An ALT level ≥ 500 U/L (adjusted odds ratio = 0.011) a bilirubin level ≥ 1.3 (adjusted odds ratio = 0.024), an ALT:lactate dehydrogenase ratio > 5, and hepatomegaly are indications of viral hepatitis A.

  5. Meteorological factors affecting scrub typhus occurrence: a retrospective study of Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, 1984-2014.

    PubMed

    Seto, J; Suzuki, Y; Nakao, R; Otani, K; Yahagi, K; Mizuta, K

    2017-02-01

    Climate change, by its influence on the ecology of vectors might affect the occurrence of vector-borne diseases. This study examines the effects of meteorological factors in Japan on the occurrence of scrub typhus, a mite-borne zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Using negative binomial regression, we analysed the relationships between meteorological factors (including temperature, rainfall, snowfall) and spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, during 1984-2014. The average temperature in July and August of the previous year, cumulative rainfall in September of the previous year, snowfall throughout the winter, and maximum depth of snow cover in January and February were positively correlated with the number of scrub typhus cases. By contrast, cumulative rainfall in July of the previous year showed a negative relationship to the number of cases. These associations can be explained by the life-cycle of Leptotrombidium pallidum, a predominant vector of spring-early summer cases of scrub typhus in northern Japan. Our findings show that several meteorological factors are useful to estimate the number of scrub typhus cases before the endemic period. They are applicable to establish an early warning system for scrub typhus in northern Japan.

  6. A single standardized practical training for surgical scrubbing according to EN1500: Effect Quantification, value of the standardized method and comparison with clinical reference groups

    PubMed Central

    Fichtner, Andreas; Haupt, Elke; Karwath, Tobias; Wullenk, Katharina; Pöhlmann, Christoph; Jatzwauk, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The standardized training of practical competences in skills labs is relatively new among German Medical Faculties. The broad acceptance and outstanding evaluation results do not provide objective data on the efficiency and cost-efficiency of these trainings. This study aims on the quantification of the teaching effect of the surgical scrubbing technique EN1500 and its comparison with clinical references of OR personnel. Methods: 161 4th year medical students were randomized into intervention and control group. The intervention group received a 45 minute standardized peer-teaching training of practical competences necessary in the OR including the scrubbing according to EN1500. Fluorescence dye was mixed in the disinfectant solution. After hand disinfection, standardized fotographs and semi-automated digital processing resulted in quantification of the insufficiently covered hand area. These results were compared with the control group that received the training after the test. In order to provide information on the achieved clinical competence level, the results were compared with the two clinical reference groups. Results: The intervention group remained with 4,99% (SD 2,34) insufficiently covered hand area after the training compared to the control group 7,33% (SD 3,91), p<0,01. There was no significant difference between control group and reference groups: surgeons 9,32% (SD 4,97), scrub nurses 8,46% (SD 4,66). The student intervention group showed results that were significantly better than the clinical references. The methodic mistake remained negligible. In the sub-group analysis, the students with low or medium experience in surgical scrubbing and hand disinfection derived highest benefit from the training, whereas students with no or high experience did benefit less. All participants showed better results on hand palms compared to back of hand areas. Discussion: A single standardized peer-teaching of surgical scrubbing and hand disinfection according to EN

  7. Sulfur-emission-control technology for coal-conversion plants. [List of 60 processes with uses, brief description and flowsheet; 63 references

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, R.C.; Herman, D.R.; Smock, M.E.

    1981-10-01

    The degree of commercialization and the industrial applications of each control technology are summarized in Table 2. The technologies which have been used or planned for coal conversion facilities are listed in Table 3. The Chiyoda Thoroughbred 101 was the most used process for flue gas SO/sub 2/ control, followed by the Citrate process. Both are recovery processes. However, throwaway processes are much more common for flue gas desulfurization. Therefore, both the dual alkali process and a conventional lime/limestone process should be included when evaluating control technology options. Thus, the SO/sub x/ removal processes recommended for further study are: (1) Chiyoda Thoroughbred 101; (2) Citrate; (3) generalized dual-alkali (e.g., CEA-ADL); and (4) conventional lime/limestone scrubbing. From Table 3, the Rectisol, Stretford, Benfield, Selexol, Claus and Amoco sulfur recovery processes were most often chosen for acid gas removal and sulfur recovery. These processes are all widely commercialized. For tail gas clean-up from sulfur recovery plants, the SCOT, IFP, Beavon and W-L SO/sub 2/ recovery processes were most often specified for coal conversion facilities, as shown in Table 3. They are all fully commercialized and applicable technologies, as shown in Table 2. The control technologies selected for further detailed examination cover the general types of sulfur control schemes potentially applicable to coal conversion facilities. Further, they are all commercially available.

  8. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    1992-01-01

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases.

  9. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1991-01-22

    This invention relates to a regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor 5 concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC 10 exhaust gases.

  10. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  11. Prevention of intraoperative wound contamination with chlorhexidine shower and scrub.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, R A

    1988-04-01

    In a prospective, controlled, clinical trial, we found that preoperative showering and scrubbing with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate was more effective than povidone-iodine or triclocarban medicated soap in reducing skin colonization at the site of surgical incision. Mean log colony counts of the incision site were one half to one log lower for patients who showered with chlorhexidine compared to those who showered with the other regimens. No growth was observed on 43% of the post shower skin cultures from patients in the chlorhexidine group compared with 16% of the cultures from patients who had povidone-iodine showers and 5% of those from patients who used medicated soap and water. The frequency of positive intraoperative wound cultures was 4% with chlorhexidine, 9% with povidone-iodine and 14% with medicated soap and water. This study demonstrates that chlorhexidine gluconate is a more effective skin disinfectant than either povidone-iodine or triclocarban soap and water and that its use is associated with lower rates of intraoperative wound contamination.

  12. Host defenses in experimental scrub typhus: histopathological correlates.

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, P J; Shirai, A; Hilderbrandt, P K; Osterman, J V

    1976-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection of BALB/c mice with 1,000 50% mouse lethal doses of the Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi was inevitably lethal, and associated pathological alterations were confined to the peritoneal cavity. These included: (i) continuous proliferation of rickettsial organisms in peritoneal macrophages until death; (ii) hepatic granulomas appearing 6 days after infection and increasing in size and number until death; (iii) splenomegaly, resulting principally from proliferation of lymphoid tissue, and (iv) terminal peritonitis. Under two circumstances, i.p. infections with R. tsutsugamushi were not lethal: (i) infection with 100 50% mouse infectious doses of the Gilliam strain, which, in fact, resulted in immune protection against otherwise lethal Karp challenge; and (ii) Karp infection of animals immunized with the Gilliam strain. In both cases, the associated pathological abnormalities were, as with primary Karp infection, restricted to the peritoneal cavity. Also similar was the striking splenomegaly due to lymphoid proliferation, which was particularly prominent in immunized animals. In contrast to primary and lethal Karp infection, however, these infections were characterized by: (i) minimal and transient proliferation of rickettsial organisms in peritoneal macrophages; (ii) disappearance of hepatic granulomas; and (iii) absence of peritonitis. It was concluded that the survival of an animal bearing an i.p. infection of scrub typhus depended on its ability to concentrate a sufficiently vigorous immune response in the peritoneal cavity, resulting in the evolution of rickettsiacidal macrophages capable of suppressing the infection. Images PMID:1270135

  13. Nitrosamine formation in amine scrubbing at desorber temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fine, Nathan A; Goldman, Mark J; Rochelle, Gary T

    2014-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is a thermodynamically efficient and industrially proven method for carbon capture, but amine solvents can nitrosate in the desorber, forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines. The kinetics of reactions involving nitrite and monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methylethanolamine (MMEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were determined under desorber conditions. The nitrosations of MEA, DEA, and MMEA are first order in nitrite, carbamate species, and hydronium ion. Nitrosation of MDEA, a tertiary amine, is not catalyzed by the addition of CO2 since it cannot form a stable carbamate. Concentrated and CO2 loaded MEA was blended with low concentrations of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine (HeGly), hydroxyethyl-ethylenediamine (HEEDA), and DEA, secondary amines common in MEA degradation. Nitrosamine yield was proportional to the concentration of secondary amine and was a function of CO2 loading and temperature. Blends of tertiary amines with piperazine (PZ) showed n-nitrosopiperazine (MNPZ) yields close to unity, validating the slow nitrosation rates hypothesized for tertiary amines. These results provide a useful tool for estimating nitrosamine accumulation over a range of amine solvents.

  14. Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

  15. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress

    PubMed Central

    de Mello Luvielmo, Márcia; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; de Oliveira Toyama, Daniela; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24 h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress. PMID:26887232

  16. Structure of xanthan gum and cell ultrastructure at different times of alkali stress.

    PubMed

    Luvielmo, Márcia de Mello; Borges, Caroline Dellinghausen; Toyama, Daniela de Oliveira; Vendruscolo, Claire Tondo; Scamparini, Adilma Regina Pippa

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali stress on the yield, viscosity, gum structure, and cell ultrastructure of xanthan gum was evaluated at the end of fermentation process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis 280-95. Although greater xanthan production was observed after a 24h-alkali stress process, a lower viscosity was observed when compared to the alkali stress-free gum, regardless of the alkali stress time. However, this outcome is not conclusive as further studies on gum purification are required to remove excess sodium, verify the efficiency loss and the consequent increase in the polymer viscosity. Alkali stress altered the structure of xanthan gum from a polygon-like shape to a star-like form. At the end of the fermentation, early structural changes in the bacterium were observed. After alkali stress, marked structural differences were observed in the cells. A more vacuolated cytoplasm and discontinuities in the membrane cells evidenced the cell lysis. Xanthan was observed in the form of concentric circles instead of agglomerates as observed prior to the alkali stress.

  17. Outer-core emission spectra of heavy alkali metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, R. L.; First, P. N.; Flynn, C. P.

    1988-09-01

    We report np5(n+1)s2-->np6(n+1)s emission spectra of K (n=3), Rb (n=4), and Cs (n=5), and compare emission-band characteristics through the series Na-Cs using earlier data for Na. The normalized band profiles of the different alkali metals are remarkably similar when scaled by the Fermi energy EF. However, the spin-orbit partner intensity ratios are far from the ideal value 2, reaching approximately 60 for Rb and above 65 for Cs, mainly owing to Coster-Kronig decays from higher levels. We confirm that the Mahan-Nozières-De Dominicis ``anomaly'' at EF is generally weaker in emission than in absorption. It decreases through the series to become undetectable for emission from Cs. A systematic increase of the core-hole-lifetime width occurs through the column of alkali metals from a reported estimate of 10 meV for Na to a value of 50 meV for Cs. A study of the Fermi-edge shape between 20 and 300 K reveals temperature-dependent phonon broadening in generally good agreement with theoretical predictions. Incomplete relaxation plays only a minor role in the edge processes of the heavy alkali metals. Additional Fermi-edge broadening and the shifted emission edges of surface atoms are observed for alkali-metal films 10-100 Å thick.

  18. Heat pipes containing alkali metal working fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A technique for improving high temperature evaporation-condensation heat-transfer devices which have important and unique advantage in terrestrial and space energy processing is described. The device is in the form of a heat pipe comprising a sealed container or envelope which contains a capillary wick. The temperature of one end of the heat pipe is raised by the input of heat from an external heat source which is extremely hot and corrosive. A working fluid of a corrosive alkali metal, such as lithium, sodium, or potassium transfers this heat to a heat receiver remote from the heat source. The container and wick are fabricated from a superalloy containing a small percentage of a corrosion inhibiting or gettering element. Lanthanum, scandium, yttrium, thorium, and hafnium are utilized as the alloying metal.

  19. Alkali element constraints on Earth-Moon relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Drake, M. J.; Jones, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Given their range of volatilities, alkali elements are potential tracers of temperature-dependent processes during planetary accretion and formation of the Earth-Moon system. Under the giant impact hypothesis, no direct connection between the composition of the Moon and the Earth is required, and proto-lunar material does not necessarily experience high temperatures. Models calling for multiple collisions with smaller planetesimals derive proto-lunar materials mainly from the Earth's mantle and explicitly invoke vaporization, shock melting and volatility-related fractionation. Na/K, K/Rb, and Rb/Cs should all increase in response to thermal volatization, so theories which derive the Moon substantially from Earth's mantle predict these ratios will be higher in the Moon than in the primitive mantle of the Earth. Despite the overall depletion of volatile elements in the Moon, its Na/K and K/Rb are equal to or less than those of Earth. A new model presented here for the composition of Earth's continental crust, a major repository of the alkali elements, suggests the Rb/Cs of the Moon is also less than that of Earth. Fractionation of the alkali elements between Earth and Moon are in the opposite sense to predictions based on the relative volatilities of these elements, if the Moon formed by high-T processing of Earth's mantle. Earth, rather than the Moon, appears to carry a signature of volatility-related fractionation in the alkali elements. This may reflect an early episode of intense heating on Earth with the Moon's alkali budget accreting from cooler material.

  20. Phonon spectra of alkali metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeković, S.; Vukajlović, F.; Veljković, V.

    1982-10-01

    In this work we used a simple local model pseudopotential which includes screening for the phonon spectra calculations of alkali metals. The results obtained are in very good agreement with experimental data. In some branches of phonon spectra the differences between theoretical and experimental results are within 1-2%, while the maximum error is about 6%. The suggested form of the pseudopotential allows us to describe the phonon spectra of Na, K and Rb with only one, and, at the same time, a unique, parameter. In this case, the maximum disagreements from experiment are 9% for Na, 8% for K and 7% for Rb.

  1. An investigation of some sterically hindered amines as potential carbon dioxide scrubbing compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of the carbon dioxide cycling process and to reduce amine emissions, a series of nonvolatile amino acid salts with sterically hindered amine groups were investigated to determine their potential as direct replacements for monoethanolamine (MEA) in submarine-based CO{sub 2} scrubbers. Absorption from atmospheres containing various levels of CO{sub 2} was measured to assess the total capacities and absorption rates of amine solutions. The regeneration rates and extent of CO{sub 2} desorption were established by heating these solutions. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was used to establish reaction products and solution compositions after both absorption and desorption. Methyl groups substituted adjacent to the amine were found to increase solution absorption capacities but with an overall reduction in absorption rate. Poor absorption rates at low CO{sub 2} levels and precipitation problems would prevent the {alpha}-dimethylamines examined from being used in existing submarine scrubbers. These amines, however, show potential as replacements in industrial CO{sub 2} scrubbing processes.

  2. [Surgical scrub: evaluation of its adequacy in preventing biological risks in surgery: I. Its use in surgery].

    PubMed

    Paz, M S; Lacerda, R A; Monteiro, C E; da Conceição, V P

    2000-03-01

    The study elaborated approaches for adequate use of the surgical scrub and it evaluated, through systematized observation, the performance of the surgical team during the surgery. The adopted procedure was very valid, allowing to recognize positive and problematic aspects. Except the protecting glasses, all the other components of the surgical scrub were used. The subject located in the use form, where caps and masks were more problematic among anaesthesists and circulate nurses; apron and gloves among surgeons and, mainly, scrub nurses.

  3. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew J.; Paris, Daniel H.; Newton, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease’s non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max) of 0–70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9–19)). Conclusions Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This

  4. Antiseptic Effect of Conventional Povidone-Iodine Scrub, Chlorhexidine Scrub, and Waterless Hand Rub in a Surgical Room: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jui-Chen; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Huang, Yen-Jung; Loh, El-Wui; Wen, Hsiao-Yun; Wang, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Yin-Tai; Hsieh, Wen-Shyang; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Effective perioperative hand antisepsis is crucial for the safety of patients and medical staff in surgical rooms. The antimicrobial effectiveness of different antiseptic methods, including conventional hand scrubs and waterless hand rubs, has not been well evaluated. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the 3 antiseptic methods among surgical staff of Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital. For each method used, a group of 80 participants was enrolled. INTERVENTION Surgical hand cleansing with conventional 10% povidone-iodine scrub, conventional 4% chlorhexidine scrub, or waterless hand rub (1% chlorhexidine gluconate and 61% ethyl alcohol). RESULTS Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were collected using the hand imprinting method before and after disinfection and after surgery. After surgical hand disinfection, the mean CFU counts of the conventional chlorhexidine (0.5±0.2, P<0.01) and waterless hand rub groups (1.4±0.7, P<0.05) were significantly lower than that of the conventional povidone group (4.3±1.3). No significant difference was observed in the mean CFU count among the groups after surgery. Similar results were obtained when preexisting differences before disinfection were considered in the analysis of covariance. Furthermore, multivariate regression indicated that the antiseptic method (P=.0036), but not other variables, predicted the mean CFU count. CONCLUSIONS Conventional chlorhexidine scrub and waterless hand rub were superior to a conventional povidone-iodine product in bacterial inhibition. We recommend using conventional chlorhexidine scrub as a standard method for perioperative hand antisepsis. Waterless hand rub may be used if the higher cost is affordable. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:417-422.

  5. Serological Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus in Southern India: Evaluation of InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test and Comparison with other Serological Tests

    PubMed Central

    Anitharaj, Velmurugan; Pradeep, Jothimani; Park, Sungman; Kim, Seung-Han; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Eun-Ye; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Scrub Typhus (ST) is being reported from different parts of India in the recent past. However, the diagnosis and confirmation of ST cases require specific serological and molecular diagnostic tests. Both rapid and conventional ELISA tests need to be properly evaluated. Aim Evaluation of a new ST IgM Immunochromatography (ICT) test kit (InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test) and compare it with another rapid kit, conventional ELISA kit and Weil-Felix (WF) test. Materials and Methods This prospective study was carried out in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, during November 2015 to June 2016. Clinically suspected 220 ST patients were examined by a new kit, InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test, taking the conventional InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM ELISA as reference. Additional comparison was made with ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid, and WF test (single OXK titers ≥1:320). Statistical analysis was performed (Chi-square, Spearman’s correlation and Kappa) using IBM SPSS Statistics 17 for Windows (SPSS Inc; Chicago, USA). Results Percentage Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive and Negative Predictive Values for InBios, ImmuneMed and WF were 99.25, 93.02, 95.68, 98.77; 94.87, 94.19, 96.21, 92.05 and 50.38, 95.51, 94.29, 56.67 respectively. A total of 134 patients were positive in reference standard InBios IgM ELISA. Conclusion This new rapid ST IgM kit validated for the first time in India, showed good sensitivity and specificity. As a Point-of-Care (PoC) test, the kit would be helpful in both urban and remote rural parts of India. PMID:28050364

  6. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered.

  7. Alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide double alkoxide precursors to alkali metal yttrium oxide nanomaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Neville, Michael L.; Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; ...

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a series of alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide ([AY(ONep)4]) compounds were developed as precursors to alkali yttrium oxide (AYO2) nanomaterials. The reaction of yttrium amide ([Y(NR2)3] where R=Si(CH3)3) with four equivalents of H-ONep followed by addition of [A(NR2)] (A=Li, Na, K) or Ao (Ao=Rb, Cs) led to the formation of a complex series of AnY(ONep)3+n species, crystallographically identified as [Y2Li3(μ3-ONep)(μ3-HONep)(μ-ONep)5(ONep)3(HONep)2] (1), [YNa2(μ3-ONep)4(ONep)]2 (2), {[Y2K3(μ3-ONep)3(μ-ONep)4(ONep)2(ηξ-tol)2][Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4]•ηx-tol]} (3), [Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4] (3a), [Y2Rb3(μ4-ONep)3(μ-ONep)6] (4), and [Y2Cs4(μ6-O)(μ3-ONep)6(μ3-HONep)2(ONep)2(ηx-tol)4]•tol (5). Compounds 1–5 were investigated as single source precursors to AYOx nanomaterials following solvothermal routes (pyridine, 185 °C for 24h). The final products after thermal processing weremore » found by powder X-ray diffraction experiments to be Y2O3 with variable sized particles based on transmission electron diffraction. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies indicated that the heavier alkali metal species were present in the isolated nanomaterials.« less

  8. What factors within the peri-operative environment influence the training of scrub nurses?

    PubMed

    Pupkiewicz, Joanna; Kitson, Alison; Perry, Josephine

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to extrapolate factors within the peri-operative environment which influence the acclimatisation of novice scrub nurses by exploring the lived experience of learning from both a novice and expert perspective. Insights to the cultural perioperative environment which have not previously been explored can be identified. Comparing how novices view their environment with how expert mentors see it is useful in order to plan targeted learning goals. Two groups were considered; one group consisting of 6 novice scrub nurses and the other consisting of 7 senior scrub nurses teaching novices in a large tertiary teaching public hospital in South Australia. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were digitally recorded and field notes were taken. A Heideggerian structural approach with a vanManen immersive aspect was taken for the data collection and Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory of interpretation was utilised for data analysis. Five emergent themes were isolated from the data: Challenges to proficiency, Fear, Expectations, Support and Adaptation. The study revealed that novice scrub learning is externally modulated by their perioperative cultural surroundings and the support of the senior staff. Senior scrub staff investment in educating novices was dictated by their perception of novice attitude.

  9. Post-Fire Recovery in Coastal Sage Scrub: Seed Rain and Community Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Conlisk, Erin; Swab, Rebecca; Martínez-Berdeja, Alejandra; Daugherty, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance is a primary mechanism structuring ecological communities. However, human activity has the potential to alter the frequency and intensity of natural disturbance regimes, with subsequent effects on ecosystem processes. In Southern California, human development has led to increased fire frequency close to urban areas that can form a positive feedback with invasive plant spread. Understanding how abiotic and biotic factors structure post-fire plant communities is a critical component of post-fire management and restoration. In this study we considered a variety of mechanisms affecting post-fire vegetation recovery in Riversidean sage scrub. Comparing recently burned plots to unburned plots, we found that burning significantly reduced species richness and percent cover of exotic vegetation the first two years following a 100-hectare wildfire. Seed rain was higher in burned plots, with more native forb seeds, while unburned plots had more exotic grass seeds. Moreover, there were significant correlations between seed rain composition and plant cover composition the year prior and the year after. Collectively, this case study suggests that fire can alter community composition, but there was not compelling evidence of a vegetation-type conversion. Instead, the changes in the community composition were temporary and convergence in community composition was apparent within two years post-fire. PMID:27649564

  10. Spray scrubbing of the nitrogen oxides into NaClO2 solution under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chien, T W; Chu, H; Hsueh, H T

    2001-01-01

    The operating conditions of this study were closed to the typical operating conditions of flue gas desulfurization system in the coal-fired power plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the absorption performance of lean NO in an aqueous solution of acidic sodium chlorite using a bench-scale spraying column. The NO conversion and NOx removal efficiency were increasing with the increasing NO concentration, retention time, sodium chlorite concentration, operating temperature, and decreasing initial pH of solution. As the sodium chlorite concentration were higher than 0.4 M, the NO conversion and NOx removal efficiency were 100% and 80%, respectively. The NO conversion and NOx removal efficiency under initial pH 4-7 were higher than that of initial pH > 7. It meant that this process might be suitable to combining with traditional wet flue gas desulfurization system. As the NO2/NOx ratio in the effluent gas was closed to 0.5, it might be suitable to be absorbed in the second scrubbing column operated under alkaline condition.

  11. Scrubbing of contaminants from contaminated air streams with aerogel materials with optional photocatalytic destruction

    DOEpatents

    Attia, Yosry A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for separating a vaporous or gaseous contaminant from an air stream contaminated therewith. This method includes the steps of: (a) passing said contaminated air into a contact zone in which is disposed an aerogel material capable of selecting adsorbing said contaminant from air and therein contacting said contaminated air with an aerogel material; and (b) withdrawing from said zone, air depleted of said contaminant. For present purposes, "contaminant" means a material not naturally occurring in ambient air and/or a material naturally occurring in air but present at a concentration above that found in ambient air. Thus, the present invention scrubs (or treats) air for the purpose of returning it to its ambient composition. Also disclosed herein is a process for the photocatalytic destruction of contaminants from an air stream wherein the contaminated air stream is passed into a control cell or contact zone in which is disposed a photocatalytic aerogel and exposing said aerogel to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for photocatalytically destroying the adsorbed contaminant, and withdrawing from said cell an exhaust air stream depleted in said contaminant.

  12. Integrated oil production and upgrading using molten alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard

    2016-10-04

    A method that combines the oil retorting process (or other process needed to obtain/extract heavy oil or bitumen) with the process for upgrading these materials using sodium or other alkali metals. Specifically, the shale gas or other gases that are obtained from the retorting/extraction process may be introduced into the upgrading reactor and used to upgrade the oil feedstock. Also, the solid materials obtained from the reactor may be used as a fuel source, thereby providing the heat necessary for the retorting/extraction process. Other forms of integration are also disclosed.

  13. Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome after Scrub Typhus Infection

    PubMed Central

    You, Hyun Seon; Lee, Tae Won; Jo, Won Yong; Kim, Bo Ra; Suh, Young Sun; Bae, In-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    There have been a small number of cases of scrub typhus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), most of which were treated successfully using adequate antibiotics. Here, we report a case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated HPS after scrub typhus infection that was not improved using antirickettsial treatment. A 73-year-old male who had been diagnosed with scrub typhus according to an eschar and a positive serology was transferred to our institution because of a persistent fever despite 7-day doxycycline therapy. Physical and laboratory data showed hepatosplenomegaly, bicytopenia, hyperferritinemia, and hypofibrinogenemia. A bone marrow examination (BM) revealed hypercellular marrow with hemophagocytosis and histiocyte infiltration. EBV was detected in BM aspirates using polymerase chain reaction. After a diagnosis of HPS was made, the patient was treated successfully using high-dose steroids. PMID:27883370

  14. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub Lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae)

    DOE PAGES

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; ...

    2015-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. In conclusion, these loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used tomore » determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine.« less

  15. Polyarthritis and massive small bowel bleed: An unusual combination in scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Nayyar; Titus, Solomon; Basheer, Aneesh; George, Sanjoy; George, Sanjoy; Mookkappan, Sudhagar; Nair, Shashikala; Alexander, Thomas; Ramdas, Anita; Periyasamy, Sivakumar; Anitha, Patricia; Kanungo, Reba

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by the intracellular parasite Orientia tsutsugamushi. Although most cases present with mild symptoms and signs and recover spontaneously, some cases can be severe with multi-organ dysfunction and a protracted course, which may be fatal if left untreated. Apart from fever and constitutional symptoms, atypical presentations allow this disease to mimic several common conditions. We report a case of scrub typhus in an 18-year-old male who presented with severe polyarthritis involving all large joints and a massive lower gastrointestinal bleed from ulcers in the terminal ileum, secondary to vasculitis in the small bowel. This combination of pathologies has not previously been reported in cases of scrub typhus. The patient improved following surgical intervention and specific anti-rickettsial therapy with azithromycin.

  16. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with a leukemoid reaction in an infant with scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Pazhaniyandi, Sunitha; Lenin, Ramamoorthi; Sivathanu, Shobhana

    2015-01-01

    A two-month-old male infant presented with a clinical picture suggestive of fever without focus. Treatment was initiated with broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics. The infant subsequently developed septic shock, hepatosplenomegaly and tachypnoea with oxygen dependency. There was laboratory evidence of anemia, thrombocytopenia and a leukemoid reaction. Infection induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with a leukemoid reaction was suspected because of fever, splenomegaly and bicytopenia in conjunction with elevated serum triglycerides and ferritin. Empiric therapy with doxycycline caused a rapid resolution of the fever, and the diagnosis of scrub typhus was confirmed by a positive scrub IgM ELISA. HLH with a leukemoid reaction secondary to scrub typhus has not previously been reported in early infancy.

  17. High seroprevalence of antibodies against spotted fever and scrub typhus bacteria in patients with febrile Illness, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thiga, Jacqueline W; Mutai, Beth K; Eyako, Wurapa K; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L; Waitumbi, John N

    2015-04-01

    Serum samples from patients in Kenya with febrile illnesses were screened for antibodies against bacteria that cause spotted fever, typhus, and scrub typhus. Seroprevalence was 10% for spotted fever group, <1% for typhus group, and 5% for scrub typhus group. Results should help clinicians expand their list of differential diagnoses for undifferentiated fevers.

  18. A Business Case Analysis to Determine the Feasibility of a Scrub Management System at Brooke Army Medical Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-07

    Designated Areas lor Scrub Issue i : FHSI 2. I West ?. Cardiac Cath Lab> 4. Cardiology Radiology 5. Centralized Materiel Services 6. CCUs...Scrub Management System 37 BAMC Memo 52-2 4-. Neiirosnrgciy Clinic 15. Bum Tinuma Unit 46 Cinq Rullis -4". 9J V School -IS. Veterinary Clinic

  19. Acid and alkali doped PBI electrolyte in electrochemical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Baozhong

    In this work the conductivity of blank PBI membrane, acid doped PBI and alkaline doped PBI was systematically studied. A new methodology for sorption kinetics study in electrolyte solution has been established by monitoring the conductivity change during the sorption process. The model of the doping process and mechanism of conductivity are proposed. The performance of PBI (doped under optimum conditions) in fuel cell as PEM was evaluated. The experimental results show that the blank PBI in acid solution is an ionic insulator. It clarified the long time confusion in this area. The acid doped PBI membrane is an ionic conductor. The conductivity increases with the concentration of the acid solution. In high concentration acid solution, the conductivity increases with the type of acid in the order: H2SO 4 > H3PO4 > HClO4 > HNO3 > HCl. The kinetics of the doping process was studied, by a continuous method. The ionic conductivity mechanism was established. The PBI membranes doped with H2SO4 and H3PO4 exhibit better performance than NafionRTM. The doped FBI has more resistance to CO poison. 3% CO in H2 has little effect on the H3PO 4 doped PBI membrane at 185°C. The conductivity of the alkali doped PBI membrane changes with the concentration of the alkaline solution and the type of the alkalis. The conductivity has a maximum in KOH and NaOH solution. The maximum conductivity in KOH is higher than in NaOH and LiOH. It is about 5 times of that of NafionRTM in alkaline solution. The two-step sorption process in alkaline solution was observed. The first step is the permeation process of the alkalis in the PBI membrane. The permeation is the results of diffusion and interaction. It is concluded that the permeation process is controlled by the rate of interaction between the alkali and PBI molecule. The second step is the relaxation process in the membrane. This step contributes more to the conductivity for the membrane than the first step. The ionic conductivity mechanism

  20. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT PROGRAM REAL WASTE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  1. Sample Results From The Next Generation Solvent Program Real Waste Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  2. Replacing personally-identifying information in medical records, the Scrub system.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, L.

    1996-01-01

    We define a new approach to locating and replacing personally-identifying information in medical records that extends beyond straight search-and-replace procedures, and we provide techniques for minimizing risk to patient confidentiality. The straightforward approach of global search and replace properly located no more than 30-60% of all personally-identifying information that appeared explicitly in our sample database. On the other hand, our Scrub system found 99-100% of these references. Scrub uses detection algorithms that employ templates and specialized knowledge of what constitutes a name, address, phone number and so forth. PMID:8947683

  3. Evaluation of a waterless, scrubless chlorhexidine gluconate/ethanol surgical scrub for antimicrobial efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mulberrry, G; Snyder, A T; Heilman, J; Pyrek, J; Stahl, J

    2001-12-01

    A new waterless surgical hand preparation containing 1% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and 61% ethyl alcohol was evaluated for antimicrobial efficacy in comparison with a standard 4% CHG surgical scrub and a 61% ethyl alcohol control. Clinical studies were based on the Tentative Final Monograph for Health-Care Antiseptic Drug Products (TFM) (proposed rule) and the Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Surgical Hand Scrub Formulations (ASTM E1115-91). Two randomized, blinded, well-controlled clinical studies involving 137 healthy subjects were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of the CHG/ethanol hand preparation in producing an immediate and persistent reduction in the normal bacterial flora of the hands. The CHG/ethanol hand preparation was applied without scrubbing or the use of water, and a standard 4% CHG reference product was applied with a scrub brush in 2 traditional 3-minute surgical scrubs. In 1 study, a 61% ethanol vehicle control treatment was applied without scrubbing or use of water. During a 5-day period, each study subject performed a series of 11 surgical scrubs with 1 of the test treatments. After the first treatment on days 1, 2, and 5, surgical gloves were worn for 3 or 6 hours. Bacterial samples were taken with the glove-juice technique at 1 minute, 3 hours, and 6 hours after treatment. The immediate bactericidal effect of the CHG/ethanol hand preparation after a single application resulted in a 2.5-log reduction in normal flora. This bactericidal effect persisted throughout the studies and eventually increased to a 3.6-log reduction after the 11th scrub on day 5. The log reductions of the CHG/ethanol hand preparation proved to be significantly better (P <.05) than that of the 4% CHG product at each sampling interval on days 1 and 2 and the sampling at 6 hours on day 5 and significantly better than the 61% ethanol vehicle at all times. The combination of 1% CHG and 61% ethanol had significantly greater microbial reduction than

  4. Clear-Cut Stand Size and Scrub-Successional Bird Assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz,D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    1999-03-08

    We investigated the effects of clear-cut size on species richness, reproductive effort, and relative abundance of scrub-scrub birds at the Savannah River Site. Stands varied in size from 2 to 57 ha that were 2 to 6 years old. Species richness was not explained by stand size or stand age. In regressing stand size on bird species richness, we found a significant negative relationship for the bird community. Frequency of capture was unrelated to stand size. Clear-cut stand size does not appear to be an important variable in forest management with respect to the bird community.

  5. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2006-07-26

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  6. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2007-10-23

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  7. Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz, Greg A.; Stalnaker, Donald M.; Guild, Eric M.; Oliker, Benjamin Q.; Moran, Paul J.; Townsend, Steven W.; Hostutler, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple variants of the Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) have recently been demonstrated at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Highlights of this ongoing research effort include: a) a 571W rubidium (Rb) based Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) with a gain (2α) of 0.48 cm-1, b) a rubidium-cesium (Cs) Multi-Alkali Multi-Line (MAML) laser that simultaneously lases at both 795 nm and 895 nm, and c) a 1.5 kW resonantly pumped potassium (K) DPAL with a slope efficiency of 50%. The common factor among these experiments is the use of a flowing alkali test bed.

  8. Alkali metal for ultraviolet band-pass filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick (Inventor); Fraschetti, George A. (Inventor); Mccann, Timothy A. (Inventor); Mayall, Sherwood D. (Inventor); Dunn, Donald E. (Inventor); Trauger, John T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alkali metal filter having a layer of metallic bismuth deposited onto the alkali metal is provided. The metallic bismuth acts to stabilize the surface of the alkali metal to prevent substantial surface migration from occurring on the alkali metal, which may degrade optical characteristics of the filter. To this end, a layer of metallic bismuth is deposited by vapor deposition over the alkali metal to a depth of approximately 5 to 10 A. A complete alkali metal filter is described along with a method for fabricating the alkali metal filter.

  9. Chlorine behavior during co-hydrothermal treatment of high alkali coal and PVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, N.; Zhao, P. T.; Li, Z. Z.; Li, T.

    2016-08-01

    The hydrothermal treatment (HT) is an effective method to remove chlorine from chlorinated wastes under mild conditions. However, the alkali was required to improve the dechlorination efficiency. Meanwhile, the alkalis contents removed was necessary to realize the clean and highly efficient utilization of coal. This work was trying to investigate the feasibility of simultaneously removal alkalis and chlorine by co-hydrothermal treatment of PVC and high-alkali coal. The effect of operating conditions including the HT temperature, the holding time and particle sizes of coal on the dechlorination efficiency (DE) of PVC during the HT process was experimentally studied in this work. The results show that the DE increased with the rise of: 1) particle sizes (0.054~0.22mm), 2) holding time (30~90 min) and 3) temperature (240~300 °C). In detail, under 300 °C and 60min of holding time, the 85.18% of DE with first PS was lower than the 93.93% of DE with second PS and 100% of DE with third PS. The organic chlorine mainly transferred into chloridion in aqueous solution in HT process. All the results indicate that it is a prospective way to simultaneously removal alkalis and chlorine by co-hydrothermal treatment of chlorinated wastes and high-alkali coal.

  10. Alkali Metal Cation Transport and Homeostasis in Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Ariño, Joaquín; Ramos, José; Sychrová, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The maintenance of appropriate intracellular concentrations of alkali metal cations, principally K+ and Na+, is of utmost importance for living cells, since they determine cell volume, intracellular pH, and potential across the plasma membrane, among other important cellular parameters. Yeasts have developed a number of strategies to adapt to large variations in the concentrations of these cations in the environment, basically by controlling transport processes. Plasma membrane high-affinity K+ transporters allow intracellular accumulation of this cation even when it is scarce in the environment. Exposure to high concentrations of Na+ can be tolerated due to the existence of an Na+, K+-ATPase and an Na+, K+/H+-antiporter, which contribute to the potassium balance as well. Cations can also be sequestered through various antiporters into intracellular organelles, such as the vacuole. Although some uncertainties still persist, the nature of the major structural components responsible for alkali metal cation fluxes across yeast membranes has been defined within the last 20 years. In contrast, the regulatory components and their interactions are, in many cases, still unclear. Conserved signaling pathways (e.g., calcineurin and HOG) are known to participate in the regulation of influx and efflux processes at the plasma membrane level, even though the molecular details are obscure. Similarly, very little is known about the regulation of organellar transport and homeostasis of alkali metal cations. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date vision of the mechanisms responsible for alkali metal cation transport and their regulation in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to establish, when possible, comparisons with other yeasts and higher plants. PMID:20197501

  11. Improved alkali-metal/silicate binders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of inorganic binders utilizes potassium or sodium oxide/silicate dispersion and employs high mole ratio of silicon dioxide to alkali-metal binder. Binders are stable, inexpensive, extremely water resistant, and easy to apply.

  12. Alkali metal propellants for MPD thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, J. E.; Pivirotto, T. J.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments performed in the United States in the 1960s and early 1970s and in the Soviet Union with alkali metal-fuelled MPD thrusters indicate performance levels substantially better than those achieved with gaseous propellants. Cathode wear appears to be less in engines with alkali metal propellants also. A critical review of the available data indicates that the data are consistent and reliable. An analysis of testing and systems-level considerations shows that pumping requirements for testing are substantially decreased and reductions in tankage fraction can be expected. In addition, while care must be exercised in handling the alkali metals, it is not prohibitively difficult or hazardous. The greatest disadvantage seems to be the potential for spacecraft contamination, but there appear to be viable strategies for minimizing the impact of propellant deposition on spacecraft surfaces. Renewed examination of alkali metal-fuelled MPD thrusters for ambitious SEI missions is recommended.

  13. AmeriFlux US-KS2 Kennedy Space Center (scrub oak)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Drake, Bert [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center; Hinkle, Ross [University of Central Florida

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KS2 Kennedy Space Center (scrub oak). Site Description - The Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak site is located within the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on the east coast of central Florida. Situated in a 10 ha scrub oak ecosystem, the surrounding stand was completely burned by a prescribed fire in 1996. The purpose of the burn was to control understory fuel load, which has been a common practice since 1969. Within a few weeks of the 1996 burn, the stand began to naturally regenerate from roots and rhizomes. Most scrub oak stands in the region undergo a 7 to 10 year disturbance cycle, mostly related to fire or hurricane activity. A severe drought gripped most of Florida beginning in 1998 until the later half of 2001 resulting in four years of relatively low amount of annual rainfall. Exceptionally high annual rainfall amount in 2004 was the result of a pair of hurricanes that hit the area in August and September of 2004. Prevaling wind directions for the site are as follows: W to NW in the winter, afternoon E sea breeze in the summer.

  14. A new Antaeotricha species from Florida sandhills and scrub (Lepidoptera, Depressariidae, Stenomatinae)

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, James E.; Dickel, Terhune S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Antaeotricha floridella sp. n. is described and diagnosed from the closely similar Antaeotricha albulella (Walker). The species is distributed in xeric sandhill and scrub habitats in peninsular Florida, USA, and larvae feed on Quercus species. Keys are given for pale-winged Stenomatinae and similar Gelechioidea based on external characters and genitalia. PMID:26668543

  15. Azithromycin Activities against Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains Isolated in Cases of Scrub Typhus in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Watt, George; Kantipong, Pacharee; Jongsakul, Krisada; Watcharapichat, Pochaman; Phulsuksombati, Duangporn

    1999-01-01

    Azithromycin was given to mice and humans infected with strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi from northern Thailand, where drug-resistant scrub typhus occurs. Azithromycin and doxycycline yielded comparable mouse survival rates (73 and 79%, respectively; P > 0.5). Symptoms, signs, and fever in two pregnant women abated rapidly with azithromycin. Prospective human trials are needed. PMID:10543774

  16. The Effects of Elevated CO2 on a Subtropical Scrub Oak-Palmetto Plant Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vieglais, David; Hinkle, C. Ross; Drake, Bert

    1995-01-01

    A 2.5 year (1992-1995) pilot study was conducted on the effects of twice ambient CO2 on native scrub oak-palmetto vegetation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The effects suggest that rising atmospheric CO2 will increase terrestrial carbon and alter the distribution of carbon among the different pools of carbon.

  17. Scrub typhus masquerading as HELLP syndrome and puerperal sepsis in an asymptomatic malaria patient

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Habib Md. Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations. PMID:27413718

  18. Scrub typhus masquerading as HELLP syndrome and puerperal sepsis in an asymptomatic malaria patient.

    PubMed

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations.

  19. Buffered flue gas scrubbing system using adipic acid by-product stream

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.H. Jr.; Danly, D.E.

    1983-12-27

    A by-product stream from the production of adipic acid from cyclohexane, containing glutaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid, is employed as a buffer in lime or limestone flue gas scrubbing for the removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion gases.

  20. Diagnosis of scrub typhus by immunohistochemical staining of Orientia tsutsugamushi in cutaneous lesions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Park, Chol-Jin; Lim, Sung-Chul; Park, Kyung-Hee; Jang, Won-Jong; Lee, Seung-Hyun

    2008-10-01

    We assessed the clinical usefulness of immunohistochemical staining on skin biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of scrub typhus compared with indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA), the definitive diagnostic method for scrub typhus, in a prospective study of 125 patients with possible scrub typhus in 2005 and 2006. Skin biopsy specimens were obtained from 63 patients. To minimize the effects caused by antibiotics on immunohistochemical results, 46 patients were assessed before antibiotic administration (4 patients received antibiotic therapy before admission; 13 underwent skin biopsy after antibiotic administration at our hospital). Compared with IFA results, immunohistochemical results on maculopapular skin lesions demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.65 and a specificity of 1. Immunohistochemical results on eschars demonstrated a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 1. For immunohistochemical staining performed on skin lesions within 3 or 4 days of administration of antibiotics that are effective for Rickettsia, the antibiotics did not greatly influence diagnostic sensitivity. Immunohistochemical staining of skin biopsy specimens, particularly that of eschars, is sensitive and specific, and this technique can be reliable for confirming the diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  1. Povidone-iodine surgical scrub solution prevents fogging of the scope's lens during laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Mohammadhosseini, Bijan

    2010-06-01

    Easy cleaning of the scope's lens in a syringe to prevent condensation during laparoscopic surgery is a simple and good way to use antifog solution more easily during laparoscopic surgery. This report explains a more inexpensive way to overcome condensation during laparoscopic surgery. Rubbing povidone-iodine surgical scrub solution on the scope's lens prevents its fogging during laparoscopic surgery.

  2. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub.

  3. Differences in Attentional Strategies by Novice and Experienced Operating Theatre Scrub Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Ranieri Y. I.; Park, Taezoon; Wickens, Christopher D.; Ong, Lay Teng; Chia, Soon Noi

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nursing experience on attention allocation and task performance during surgery. The prevention of cases of retained foreign bodies after surgery typically depends on scrub nurses, who are responsible for performing multiple tasks that impose heavy demands on the nurses' cognitive resources. However, the…

  4. Alkali Metal Variation and Twisting of the FeNNFe Core in Bridging Diiron Dinitrogen Complexes.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Sean F; Rodgers, Kenton R; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun; Mercado, Brandon Q; Grubel, Katarzyna; Holland, Patrick L

    2016-03-21

    Alkali metal cations can interact with Fe-N2 complexes, potentially enhancing back-bonding or influencing the geometry of the iron atom. These influences are relevant to large-scale N2 reduction by iron, such as in the FeMoco of nitrogenase and the alkali-promoted Haber-Bosch process. However, to our knowledge there have been no systematic studies of a large range of alkali metals regarding their influence on transition metal-dinitrogen complexes. In this work, we varied the alkali metal in [alkali cation]2[LFeNNFeL] complexes (L = bulky β-diketiminate ligand) through the size range from Na(+) to K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). The FeNNFe cores have similar Fe-N and N-N distances and N-N stretching frequencies despite the drastic change in alkali metal cation size. The two diketiminates twist relative to one another, with larger dihedral angles accommodating the larger cations. In order to explain why the twisting has so little influence on the core, we performed density functional theory calculations on a simplified LFeNNFeL model, which show that the two metals surprisingly do not compete for back-bonding to the same π* orbital of N2, even when the ligand planes are parallel. This diiron system can tolerate distortion of the ligand planes through compensating orbital energy changes, and thus, a range of ligand orientations can give very similar energies.

  5. Selective release of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge with combined thermal and alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minwook; Han, Dong-Woo; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-08-01

    Selective release characteristics of phosphorus and nitrogen from waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated during combined thermal and alkali treatment. Alkali (0.001-1.0N NaOH) treatment and combined thermal-alkali treatment were applied to WAS for releasing total P(T-P) and total nitrogen(T-N). Combined thermal-alkali treatment released 94%, 76%, and 49% of T-P, T-N, and COD, respectively. Release rate was positively associated with NaOH concentration, while temperature gave insignificant effect. The ratio of T-N and COD to T-P that released with alkali treatment ranged 0.74-0.80 and 0.39-0.50, respectively, while combined thermal-alkali treatment gave 0.60-0.90 and 0.20-0.60, respectively. Selective release of T-P and T-N was negatively associated with NaOH. High NaOH concentration created cavities on the surface of WAS, and these cavities accelerated the release rate, but reduced selectivity. Selective release of P and N from sludge has a beneficial effect on nutrient recovery with crystallization processes and it can also enhance methane production.

  6. Alkali Metal Variation and Twisting of the FeNNFe Core in Bridging Diiron Dinitrogen Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Alkali metal cations can interact with Fe–N2 complexes, potentially enhancing back-bonding or influencing the geometry of the iron atom. These influences are relevant to large-scale N2 reduction by iron, such as in the FeMoco of nitrogenase and the alkali-promoted Haber–Bosch process. However, to our knowledge there have been no systematic studies of a large range of alkali metals regarding their influence on transition metal–dinitrogen complexes. In this work, we varied the alkali metal in [alkali cation]2[LFeNNFeL] complexes (L = bulky β-diketiminate ligand) through the size range from Na+ to K+, Rb+, and Cs+. The FeNNFe cores have similar Fe–N and N–N distances and N–N stretching frequencies despite the drastic change in alkali metal cation size. The two diketiminates twist relative to one another, with larger dihedral angles accommodating the larger cations. In order to explain why the twisting has so little influence on the core, we performed density functional theory calculations on a simplified LFeNNFeL model, which show that the two metals surprisingly do not compete for back-bonding to the same π* orbital of N2, even when the ligand planes are parallel. This diiron system can tolerate distortion of the ligand planes through compensating orbital energy changes, and thus, a range of ligand orientations can give very similar energies. PMID:26925968

  7. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Duyou; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-06-15

    Surface alteration of typical aggregates with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity, i.e. Spratt limestone (SL) and Pittsburg dolomitic limestone (PL), were studied by XRD and SEM/EDS after autoclaving in KOH, NaOH and LiOH solutions at 150 deg. C for 150 h. The results indicate that: (1) NaOH shows the strongest attack on both ASR and ACR aggregates, the weakest attack is with LiOH. For both aggregates autoclaved in different alkali media, the crystalline degree, morphology and distribution of products are quite different. More crystalline products are formed on rock surfaces in KOH than that in NaOH solution, while almost no amorphous product is formed in LiOH solution; (2) in addition to dedolomitization of PL in KOH, NaOH and LiOH solutions, cryptocrystalline quartz in PL involves in reaction with alkaline solution and forms typical alkali-silica product in NaOH and KOH solutions, but forms lithium silicate (Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) in LiOH solution; (3) in addition to massive alkali-silica product formed in SL autoclaved in different alkaline solutions, a small amount of dolomite existing in SL may simultaneously dedolomitize and possibly contribute to expansion; (4) it is promising to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to distinguish the alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity of aggregate when both ASR and ACR might coexist.

  8. Lithological influence of aggregate in the alkali-carbonate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. . E-mail: angel.lopez@aidico.es; Climent, V. . E-mail: vcliment@grupogla.com; Verdu, P.

    2006-08-15

    The reactivity of carbonate rock with the alkali content of cement, commonly called alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR), has been investigated. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) can also contribute in the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in carbonate rock, mainly due to micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz or clay content in carbonate aggregate. Both ACR and ASR can occur in the same system, as has been also evidenced on this paper. Carbonate aggregate samples were selected using lithological reactivity criteria, taking into account the presence of dedolomitization, partial dolomitization, micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz. Selected rocks include calcitic dolostone with chert (CDX), calcitic dolostone with dedolomitization (CDD), limestone with chert (LX), marly calcitic dolostone with partial dolomitization (CD), high-porosity ferric dolostone with clays (FD). To evaluate the reactivity, aggregates were studied using expansion tests following RILEM AAR-2, AAR-5, a modification using LiOH AAR-5Li was also tested. A complementary study was done using petrographic monitoring with polarised light microscopy on aggregates immersed in NaOH and LiOH solutions after different ages. SEM-EDAX has been used to identify the presence of brucite as a product of dedolomitization. An ACR reaction showed shrinkage of the mortar bars in alkaline solutions explained by induced dedolomitization, while an ASR process typically displayed expansion. Neither shrinkage nor expansion was observed when mortar bars were immersed in solutions of lithium hydroxide. Carbonate aggregate classification with AAR pathology risk has been elaborated based on mechanical behaviours by expansion and shrinkage. It is proposed to be used as a petrographic method for AAR diagnosis to complement the RILEM AAR1 specifically for carbonate aggregate. Aggregate materials can be classified as I (non-reactive), II (potentially reactive), and III (probably reactive), considering induced dedolomitization ACR

  9. Efficiency Enhancement Mechanism for Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate)/Silicon Nanowires Hybrid Solar Cells Using Alkali Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yurong; Gong, Xiu; Qin, Ruiping; Liu, Hairui; Xia, Congxin; Ma, Heng

    2016-05-01

    The efficiency enhancement mechanism of the alkali-treated Si nanowire (SiNW) solar cells is discussed and analyzed in detail, which is important to control the useful photovoltaic process. All the results demonstrate that the photovoltaic performance enhancement of alkali-treated SiNW device steps from the formation of the good core-shell heterojunction, which consequently enhances the junction area, promotes fast separating and transporting of electron and hole pairs, and reduces the carrier surface combination. It also indicates that alkali treatment for SiNWs is a promising processing as an economical method for the formation of good core-shell SiNW/polymer heterojunction.

  10. Efficiency Enhancement Mechanism for Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate)/Silicon Nanowires Hybrid Solar Cells Using Alkali Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yurong; Gong, Xiu; Qin, Ruiping; Liu, Hairui; Xia, Congxin; Ma, Heng

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency enhancement mechanism of the alkali-treated Si nanowire (SiNW) solar cells is discussed and analyzed in detail, which is important to control the useful photovoltaic process. All the results demonstrate that the photovoltaic performance enhancement of alkali-treated SiNW device steps from the formation of the good core-shell heterojunction, which consequently enhances the junction area, promotes fast separating and transporting of electron and hole pairs, and reduces the carrier surface combination. It also indicates that alkali treatment for SiNWs is a promising processing as an economical method for the formation of good core-shell SiNW/polymer heterojunction.

  11. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus. PMID:27478327

  12. Multistate modeling of habitat dynamics: Factors affecting Florida scrub transition probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Duncan, B.W.; Stolen, Eric D.; Carter, G.M.; Hunt, D.K.; Drese, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Many ecosystems are influenced by disturbances that create specific successional states and habitat structures that species need to persist. Estimating transition probabilities between habitat states and modeling the factors that influence such transitions have many applications for investigating and managing disturbance-prone ecosystems. We identify the correspondence between multistate capture-recapture models and Markov models of habitat dynamics. We exploit this correspondence by fitting and comparing competing models of different ecological covariates affecting habitat transition probabilities in Florida scrub and flatwoods, a habitat important to many unique plants and animals. We subdivided a large scrub and flatwoods ecosystem along central Florida's Atlantic coast into 10-ha grid cells, which approximated average territory size of the threatened Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a management indicator species. We used 1.0-m resolution aerial imagery for 1994, 1999, and 2004 to classify grid cells into four habitat quality states that were directly related to Florida Scrub-Jay source-sink dynamics and management decision making. Results showed that static site features related to fire propagation (vegetation type, edges) and temporally varying disturbances (fires, mechanical cutting) best explained transition probabilities. Results indicated that much of the scrub and flatwoods ecosystem was resistant to moving from a degraded state to a desired state without mechanical cutting, an expensive restoration tool. We used habitat models parameterized with the estimated transition probabilities to investigate the consequences of alternative management scenarios on future habitat dynamics. We recommend this multistate modeling approach as being broadly applicable for studying ecosystem, land cover, or habitat dynamics. The approach provides maximum-likelihood estimates of transition parameters, including precision measures, and can be used to assess

  13. Emission control system for nitrogen oxides using enhanced oxidation, scrubbing, and biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Cabezas, J.

    2009-05-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) constitutes about 90% of the nitrogen oxide (NOx) species in the flue gases emitted from combustion processes, but NO is difficult to remove in existing scrubbers due to its low solubility. NO may be oxidized with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) into soluble species that can be partially removed in wet scrubbers simultaneously with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and biofilters located downstream of the scrubber can increase the removal efficiency. This article presents the results of a bench-scale evaluation of such an integrated system combining enhanced oxidation, scrubbing, and biofiltration. Main components of the bench-scale system consisted of a quartz tube in a furnace to simulate the NO oxidation stage and two vertical packed bed cylinders constituting the scrubber and the biofilter. Inlet synthetic gas had a concentration of 50 mu L/L of NO. Overall removal efficiency by the integrated system was in the range of 53% to 93% with an average of 79%, absorption accounted for 43% and biofiltration for 36% of the total removal. Key parameters in the operation of the system are the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:NO mole ratio, the reaction temperature, the liquid to gas flow ratio, and the biofilter residence time. Experimental results suggest a path for optimization of the technology focusing simultaneously in minimizing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} use in the enhanced oxidation stage, reducing water consumption in the scrubber stage and balancing the residence times in the three stages of the integrated system.

  14. The Impact of the Source of Alkali on Sludge Batch 3 Melt Rate (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M

    2005-04-01

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) melt rate tests in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) have indicated that improvements in melt rate can be achieved through an increase in the total alkali of the melter feed. Higher alkali can be attained by the use of an ''underwashed'' sludge, a high alkali frit, or a combination of the two. Although the general trend between melt rate and total alkali (in particular Na{sub 2}O content) has been demonstrated, the question of ''does the source of alkali (SOA) matter?'' still exists. Therefore the purpose of this set of tests was to determine if the source of alkali (frit versus sludge) can impact melt rate. The general test concept was to transition from a Na{sub 2}O-rich frit to a Na{sub 2}O-deficient frit while compensating the Na{sub 2}O content in the sludge to maintain the same overall Na{sub 2}O content in the melter feed. Specifically, the strategy was to vary the amount of alkali in frits and in the sludge batch 3 (SB3) sludge simulant (midpoint or baseline feed was SB3/Frit 418 at 35% waste loading) so that the resultant feeds had the same final glass composition when vitrified. A set of SOA feeds using frits ranging from 0 to 16 weight % Na{sub 2}O (in 4% increments) was first tested in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) to determine if indeed there was an impact. The dry-fed MRF tests indicated that if the alkali is too depleted from either the sludge (16% Na{sub 2}O feed) or the frit (the 0% Na{sub 2}O feed), then melt rate was negatively impacted when compared to the baseline SB3/Frit 418 feed currently being processed at DWPF. The MRF melt rates for the 4 and 12% SOA feeds were similar to the baseline SB3/Frit 418 (8% SOA) feed. Due to this finding, a smaller subset of SOA feeds that could be processed in the DWPF (4 and 12% SOA feeds) was then tested in the Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF). The results from a previous SMRF test with SB3/Frit 418 (Smith et al. 2004) were used as the

  15. Alkalis in Coal and Coal Cleaning Products / Alkalia W Węglu I Productach Jego Wzbogacania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bytnar, Krzysztof; Burmistrz, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    In the coking process, the prevailing part of the alkalis contained in the coal charge goes to coke. The content of alkalis in coal (and also in coke) is determined mainly by the content of two elements: sodium and potasium. The presence of these elements in coal is connected with their occurrence in the mineral matter and moisture of coal. In the mineral matter and moisture of the coals used for the coke production determinable the content of sodium is 26.6 up to 62. per cent, whereas that of potassium is 37.1 up to 73.4 per cent of the total content of alkalis. Major carriers of alkalis are clay minerals. Occasionally alkalis are found in micas and feldspars. The fraction of alkalis contained in the moisture of the coal used for the production of coke in the total amount of alkalis contained there is 17.8 up to 62.0 per cent. The presence of sodium and potassium in the coal moisture is strictly connected with the presence of the chloride ions. The analysis of the water drained during process of the water-extracting from the flotoconcentrate showed that the Na to K mass ratio in the coal moisture is 20:1. Increased amount of the alkalis in the coal blends results in increased content of the alkalis in coke. This leads to the increase of the reactivity (CRI index), and to the decrease of strength (CSR index) determined with the Nippon Steel Co. method. W procesie koksowania przeważająca część zawartych we wsadzie węglowym alkaliów przechodzi do koksu. Zawartość alkaliów w węglu, a co za tym idzie i w koksie determinowana jest głównie zawartością dwóch pierwiastków: sodu i potasu. Obecność tych pierwiastków w węglu wiąże się z występowaniem ich w substancji mineralnej i wilgoci węgla. W substancji mineralnej oraz wilgoci węgli stosowanych do produkcji koksu, oznaczona zawartość sodu wynosi od 26.6 do 62.9%, a zawartość potasu od 37.1 do 73.4% alkaliów ogółem. Głównymi nośnikami alkaliów w substancji mineralnej są minera

  16. Optical response of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass

    SciTech Connect

    Burchianti, A; Marinelli, C; Mariotti, E; Bogi, A; Marmugi, L; Giomi, S; Maccari, M; Veronesi, S; Moi, L

    2014-03-28

    We study the influence of optical radiation on adsorption and desorption processes of alkali metal atoms confined in nanoporous glass matrices. Exposure of the sample to near-IR or visible light changes the atomic distribution inside the glass nanopores, forcing the entire system to evolve towards a different state. This effect, due to both atomic photodesorption and confinement, causes the growth and evaporation of metastable nanoparticles. It is shown that, by a proper choice of light characteristics and pore size, these processes can be controlled and tailored, thus opening new perspectives for fabrication of nanostructured surfaces. (nanoobjects)

  17. Comparison of two alcohol-based surgical scrub solutions with an iodine-based scrub brush for presurgical antiseptic effectiveness in a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Gupta, C; Czubatyj, A M; Briski, L E; Malani, A K

    2007-01-01

    The antiseptic effectiveness and acceptability of a commercial alcohol-based waterless (ABWL) and an alcohol-based water-aided (ABWA) scrub solution were compared with a brush-based iodine solution (BBIS) under conditions encountered in community hospital operating rooms. This randomized partially blinded study was based on guidelines from the American Society for Testing and Methods. The three scrub solutions were compared for antimicrobial efficacy, using criteria within the Food and Drug Administration's Tentative Final Monograph for Healthcare Antiseptic Products (FDA-TFM), and for participants' acceptance of the products. Volunteer surgical staff that worked daily in the same operating room for the entire duration of the study were enrolled. In total, 1126 surgical scrub procedures were performed over the duration of the study. Only the ABWL met all of the FDA-TFM criteria. The BBIS performed better than both of the alcohol-based solutions at the end of Day 1 (P=0.03), but the ABWL was more efficacious than the ABWA and the BBIS at the end of Days 2 and 5 (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively). When colony-count reductions were compared over the entire duration of the study, there was no significant difference between the three solutions (P=0.2). The participants found the ABWL easiest to use (P<0.001), with the fewest adverse effects on skin (P=0.007), and it was their preferred product (P<0.001). Although both of the commercially available alcohol-based solutions may be considered as acceptable alternatives to the BBIS for presurgical antisepsis, the ABWL was found to have significantly higher user acceptability.

  18. Electron- and Photon-stimulated Desorption of Alkali Atoms from Lunar Sample and a Model Mineral Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    We report recent results on an investigation of source mechanisms for the origin of alkali atoms in the tenuous planetary atmospheres, with focus on non-thermal processes (photon stimulated desorption (PSD), electron stimulated desorption (ESD), and ion sputtering). Whereas alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO) are far more abundant in lunar samples than alkali oxides (Na2O, K2O), the atmosphere of the Moon contains easily measurable concentrations of Na and K, while Ca and Mg are undetected there; traces of Ca have recently been seen in the Moon's atmosphere (10-3 of Na). The experiments have included ESD, PSD and ion sputtering of alkali atoms from model mineral surface (amorphous SiO2) and from a lunar basalt sample obtained from NASA. The comparison is made between ESD and PSD efficiency of monovalent alkalis (Na, K) and divalent alkaline earths (Ba, Ca).The ultrahigh vacuum measurement scheme for ESD and PSD of Na atoms includes a highly sensitive alkali metal detector based on surface ionization, and a time-of-flight technique. For PSD measurements, a mercury arc light source (filtered and chopped) is used. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by ultraviolet photons or by low energy electrons (E>4 eV) causes desorption of hot alkali atoms. This results are consistent with the model developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and from water ice: electron- or photon-induced charge transfer from the substrate to the ionic adsorbate causes formation of a neutral alkali atom in a repulsive configuration, from which desorption occurs. The two-electron charge transfer to cause desorption of divalent alkaline eath ions is a less likely process.The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  19. Scrubbing masks magmatic degassing during repose at Cascade-Range and Aleutian-Arc volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, Robert B.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, William C.; Ritchie, B.E.; Counce, Dale; Poreda, R.J.; Iven, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Between 1992 and 1998, we sampled gas discharges from ≤173°C fumaroles and springs at 12 quiescent but potentially restless volcanoes in the Cascade Range and Aleutian Arc (CRAA) including Mount Shasta, Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Augustine Volcano, Mount Griggs, Trident, Mount Mageik, Aniakchak Crater, Akutan, and Makushin. For each site, we collected and analyzed samples to characterize the chemical (H2O, CO2, H2S, N2, CH4, H2, HCl, HF, NH3, Ar, O2, He) and isotopic (δ13C of CO2, 3He/4He, 40Ar/36Ar, δ34S, δ13C of CH4, δ15N, and δD and δ18O of water) compositions of the gas discharges, and to create baseline data for comparison during future unrest. The chemical and isotopic data show that these gases contain a magmatic component that is heavily modified from scrubbing by deep hydrothermal (150° - 350°C) water (primary scrubbing) and shallow meteoric water (secondary scrubbing). The impact of scrubbing is most pronounced in gas discharges from bubbling springs; gases from boiling-point fumaroles and superheated vents show progressively less impact from scrubbing. The most effective strategies for detecting gas precursors to future CRAA eruptions are to measure periodically the emission rates of CO2 and SO2, which have low and high respective solubilities in water, and to monitor continuously CO2 concentrations in soils around volcanic vents. Timely resampling of fumaroles can augment the geochemical surveillance program by watching for chemical changes associated with drying of fumarolic pathways (all CRAA sites), increases in gas geothermometry temperatures (Mount Mageik, Trident, Mount Baker, Mount Shasta), changes in δ13C of CO2 affiliated with magma movement (all CRAA site), and increases in 3He/4He coupled with intrusion of new magma (Mount Rainier, Augustine Volcano, Makushin, Mount Shasta). Repose magmatic degassing may discharge substantial amounts of S and Cl into the edifices of Mount Baker and several other CRAA

  20. Comparative antibacterial efficacy of a 2-minute surgical scrub with chlorhexidine gluconate, povidone-iodine, and chloroxylenol sponge-brushes.

    PubMed

    Aly, R; Maibach, H I

    1988-08-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate (Hibiclens), povidone-iodine (E-Z Scrub 201), and chloroxylenol (ParaSoft) sponge-brushes were compared for antibacterial efficacy in 2-minute surgical scrubs. Thirty-nine volunteers completed a 7-day baseline period and a 5-day treatment period. Thirteen participants were assigned to a chlorhexidine group, 12 to a povidone-iodine group, and 14 to a chloroxylenol group. Subjects followed a standardized protocol, performing 11 scrubs during the treatment period. Bacterial counts were taken by the glove-juice procedure immediately after scrubbing and at 3 and 6 hours later on days 1, 2, and 5. The use of chlorhexidine achieved significantly (p less than 0.01) greater adjusted mean log10 bacterial count reductions than did povidone-iodine and chloroxylenol at all sampling times, with greater reductions as the study progressed.

  1. Effectiveness of Internal vs. External SEU Scrubbing Mitigation Strategies in a Xilinx FPGA: Design, Test, and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; Poivey C.; Petrick, D.; Espinosa, D.; Lesea, Austin; LaBel, K. A.; Friendlich, M; Kim, H; Phan, A.

    2008-01-01

    We compare two scrubbing mitigation schemes for Xilinx FPGA devices. The design of the scrubbers is briefly discussed along with an examination of mitigation limitations. Proton and Heavy Ion data are then presented and analyzed.

  2. Alkali metal vapors - Laser spectroscopy and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stwalley, W. C.; Koch, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the rapidly expanding use of lasers for spectroscopic studies of alkali metal vapors. Since the alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium) are theoretically simple ('visible hydrogen'), readily ionized, and strongly interacting with laser light, they represent ideal systems for quantitative understanding of microscopic interconversion mechanisms between photon (e.g., solar or laser), chemical, electrical and thermal energy. The possible implications of such understanding for a wide variety of practical applications (sodium lamps, thermionic converters, magnetohydrodynamic devices, new lasers, 'lithium waterfall' inertial confinement fusion reactors, etc.) are also discussed.

  3. Contrasting Spatial Distribution and Risk Factors for Past Infection with Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus in Vientiane City, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Vallée, Julie; Thaojaikong, Thaksinaporn; Moore, Catrin E.; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Richards, Allen L.; Souris, Marc; Fournet, Florence; Salem, Gérard; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul J.; Newton, Paul N.

    2010-01-01

    Background The aetiological diagnostic of fevers in Laos remains difficult due to limited laboratory diagnostic facilities. However, it has recently become apparent that both scrub and murine typhus are common causes of previous undiagnosed fever. Epidemiological data suggests that scrub typhus would be more common in rural areas and murine typhus in urban areas, but there is very little recent information on factors involved in scrub and murine typhus transmission, especially where they are sympatric - as is the case in Vientiane, the capital of the Lao PDR. Methodology and Principal Findings We therefore determined the frequency of IgG seropositivity against scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi) and murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi), as indices of prior exposure to these pathogens, in randomly selected adults in urban and peri-urban Vientiane City (n = 2,002, ≥35 years). Anti-scrub and murine typhus IgG were detected by ELISA assays using filter paper elutes. We validated the accuracy of ELISA of these elutes against ELISA using serum samples. The overall prevalence of scrub and murine typhus IgG antibodies was 20.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Scrub typhus seropositivity was significantly higher among adults living in the periphery (28.4%) than in the central zone (13.1%) of Vientiane. In contrast, seroprevalence of murine typhus IgG antibodies was significantly higher in the central zone (30.8%) as compared to the periphery (14.4%). In multivariate analysis, adults with a longer residence in Vientiane were at significant greater risk of past infection with murine typhus and at lower risk for scrub typhus. Those with no education, living on low incomes, living on plots of land with poor sanitary conditions, living in large households, and farmers were at higher risk of scrub typhus and those living in neighborhoods with high building density and close to markets were at greater risk for murine typhus and at lower risk of scrub typhus past infection

  4. Alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete containing high-alkali cement and granite aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Owsiak, Z

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses results of the research into the influence of high-alkali Portland cement on granite aggregate. The deformation of the concrete structure occurred after 18 months. The research was carried out by means of a scanning electron microscope equipped with a high-energy dispersive X-ray analyzer that allowed observation of unpolished sections of concrete bars exhibiting the cracking pattern typical of the alkali-silica reaction. Both the microscopic observation and the X-ray elemental analysis confirm the presence of alkali-silica gel and secondary ettringite in the cracks.

  5. Techniques of ground-truth measurements of desert-scrub structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottermann, J.; Deering, D.; Eck, T.; Ringrose, S.

    1987-01-01

    Inversion of remote sensing data taken over a desert scrub surface in Texas with a multidirectionally viewing field radiometer, PARABOLA, yields the value of 0.12 for the protrusion parameter, s, (the projection on a vertical plane of plants per unit area) if isotropy (Lambert law) is assumed for the underlying soil. However, a significantly higher value of s, in the range 0.15 to 0.20, can be inferred if the soil is assumed anisotropic. It is concluded that in remote sensing of sparse vegetation, it is important to know the reflectance characteristics of the underlying soil. Other techniques that can be used to infer desert scrub vegetation structure include various photographic techniques, and measurements of reflected radiance from zenith for a range of solar elevation angles on a clear day.

  6. On the phylogenetic position of the scrub-birds (Passeriformes: Menurae: Atrichornithidae) of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; ten, Have J.

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships of the scrub-birds Atrichornis were investigated using complete sequences of the recombination-activating gene RAG-1 and the proto-oncogene c-mos for two individuals of the noisy scrub-bird Atrichornis clamosus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Atrichornis was sister to the genus Menura (the lyrebirds) and that these two genera (the Menurae) were sister to the rest of the oscine passerines. A sister relationship between Atrichornis and Menura supports the traditional view, based on morphology and DNA hybridization, that these taxa are closely related. Similarly, a sister relationship with the remaining oscine passerines agrees with the morphological distinctiveness of Atrichornis and Menura, although this result contradicts conclusions based on DNA hybridization studies. Although Atrichornis is very well known morphologically, previous conclusions regarding its relationships were hampered by a lack of comparative knowledge of other passerines, making concurrence of the sequence data of particular significance. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2007.

  7. Spray scrubbing of particulate-laden SO(2) using a critical flow atomizer.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Amitava; Biswas, Manindra Nath

    2008-08-01

    The performance of a spray tower using an energy efficient two-phase critical flow atomizer on the scrubbing of particulate-laden SO(2) using water and dilute NaOH is reported in this article. Experimentation revealed that SO(2) removal was enhanced due to presence of particles (fly-ash) and almost 100% removal efficiency was achieved in water scrubbing. The removal efficiency is elucidated in reference to atomizing air pressure, droplet diameter and droplet velocity besides other pertinent variables of the system studied. The presence of fly-ash particles improved the removal efficiency to about 20% within the range of variables studied. Empirical and semi-empirical correlations were developed for predicting the removal efficiency in water and dilute NaOH respectively. Predicted data fitted excellently well with experimental values. The performance of the spray tower is compared with the performances of existing systems and very encouraging results are obtained.

  8. Reliability of sound attenuation in Florida scrub habitat and behavioral implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Brian S.

    2003-05-01

    Attenuation over distance in natural habitat is often difficult to predict when measured without respect to sound frequency. The physical-acoustic structure of Florida scrub habitat is described and both attenuation and reliability of attenuation are measured as a function of sound frequency, over several distances, speaker elevations, and microphone elevations. The spatial context of sound propagation in Florida scrub habitat is discussed and a model designed to describe contributions to overall attenuation from individual factors is presented. Sound frequencies below ~3.5 kHz attenuate more reliably than higher sound frequencies, suggesting that animals should pay greatest attention to relatively low sound frequencies when they assess attenuation or estimate sound-pressure level.

  9. A comparison of avian hematozoan epizootiology in two California coastal scrub communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Super, Paul E.; van Riper, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Passerine birds within two California (USA) coastal scrub ecosystems, an island and a mainland site, were examined for hematozoa from 1984 to 1990. Island birds had a significantly lower hematozoan prevalence than mainland birds. This prevalence difference can be related to a lack of appropriate hematozoan vectors on the island. Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. were the most commonly encountered hematozoa; four new species of Leucocytozoon spp. and one new Haemoproteus sp. were found in five host families. No transmission of hematozoan parasites was detected at the island site during the study. At the mainland coastal scrub site, Leucocytozoon spp. was transmitted each year while Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. transmission varied between years. There was evidence that some species of birds acquired infections outside of their breeding season. Results of this study lend further support to the prediction of decreased disease on remote island ecosystems.

  10. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Littlejohn, David; Shi, Yao

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH.sub.3. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20.degree. and 90.degree. C. to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution.

  11. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  12. Alkali-metal silicate binders and methods of manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A paint binder is described which uses a potassium or sodium silicate dispersion having a silicon dioxide to alkali-metal oxide mol ratio of from 4.8:1 to 6.0:1. The binder exhibits stability during both manufacture and storage. The process of making the binder is predictable and repeatable and the binder may be made with inexpensive components. The high mol ratio is achieved with the inclusion of a silicon dioxide hydrogel. The binder, which also employs a silicone, is in the final form of a hydrogel sol.

  13. A misplaced locking pin found near ET causes decision to scrub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A locking pin can be seen in the background, almost as a shadow, next to the orbiter aft ET attachment. Locking pins are used to secure handrails on the platforms while work is being performed. The misplaced pin was noticed during an inspection prior to launch, causing the decision to scrub about 90 minutes before liftoff. Launch was rescheduled for Oct. 11 at 7:17 p.m.

  14. An Intradermal Inoculation Mouse Model for Immunological Investigations of Acute Scrub Typhus and Persistent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rockx-Brouwer, Dedeke; Xu, Guang; Goez-Rivillas, Yenny; Drom, Claire; Shelite, Thomas R.; Valbuena, Gustavo; Walker, David H.; Bouyer, Donald H.

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative bacterium that is transmitted to mammalian hosts during feeding by Leptotrombidium mites and replicates predominantly within endothelial cells. Most studies of scrub typhus in animal models have utilized either intraperitoneal or intravenous inoculation; however, there is limited information on infection by the natural route in murine model skin or its related early host responses. Here, we developed an intradermal (i.d.) inoculation model of scrub typhus and focused on the kinetics of the host responses in the blood and major infected organs. Following ear inoculation with 6 x 104 O. tsutsugamushi, mice developed fever at 11–12 days post-infection (dpi), followed by marked hypothermia and body weight loss at 14–19 dpi. Bacteria in blood and tissues and histopathological changes were detected around 9 dpi and peaked around 14 dpi. Serum cytokine analyses revealed a mixed Th1/Th2 response, with marked elevations of MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and IL-10 at 9 dpi, followed by increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, G-CSF, RANTES/CCL5, KC/CCL11, IL-1α/β, IL-2, TNF-α, GM-CSF), as well as modulatory cytokines (IL-9, IL-13). Cytokine levels in lungs had similar elevation patterns, except for a marked reduction of IL-9. The Orientia 47-kDa gene and infectious bacteria were detected in several organs for up to 84 dpi, indicating persistent infection. This is the first comprehensive report of acute scrub typhus and persistent infection in i.d.-inoculated C57BL/6 mice. This is a significant improvement over current murine models for Orientia infection and will permit detailed studies of host immune responses and infection control interventions. PMID:27479584

  15. Determination of Cutoff of ELISA and Immunofluorescence Assay for Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Chaudhry, Rama; Thakur, Chandan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015) were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (Fuller Labs, USA) with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA). Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:27621559

  16. Developmental toxicity evaluation of a scrubbing solution used in petroleum refineries.

    PubMed

    Bui, Q Q; Clark, C R; Stump, D G; Ulrich, C E; Nemec, M D

    1998-02-06

    The developmental toxicity potential of a scrubbing solution used extensively in petroleum refineries to remove CO2 from hydrogen gas streams was evaluated via inhalation. Pregnant female CD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were exposed to aerosols of a "used" scrubbing solution at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mg/l for 6 h/d on d 6-19 of pregnancy. Control animals were exposed to filtered air under the same exposure conditions. Dams were sacrificed on d 20 of pregnancy and a laparohysterectomy was performed. The mass median aerodynamic diameter of the aerosol revealed that all particles ranged from 1.6 to 2.8 microm, with geometric standard deviations between 2.0 and 2.3 microm. The overall pregnancy rate was high (>95%) and equivalent across all groups. All pregnant dams had live litters, and 22-24 litters were examined in each group. Treatment-related clinical signs consisted of rales, observed at all exposure levels, and gasping noted only at the 0.3 mg/l exposure level. The occurrence of rales was presumably a localized effect on the respiratory tract and likely due to the irritating properties of the scrubbing solution. Maternal toxicity was exhibited in the 0.3 mg/l group, including reduced body weight, weight gain, and food consumption and one possible treatment-related death on gestation d 17. At scheduled necropsy, there were no treatment-related gross pathological observations and no statistically significant reproductive and developmental effects. The incidences of fetuses with skeletal variations involving the sternum were clustered in two litters at the highest exposure level with atypically low term fetal body weights. Under the conditions of this investigation, potassium carbonate scrubbing solution is not a selective developmental toxicant.

  17. Q Fever, Scrub Typhus, and Rickettsial Diseases in Children, Kenya, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Maina, Alice N; Farris, Christina M; Odhiambo, Antony; Jiang, Ju; Laktabai, Jeremiah; Armstrong, Janice; Holland, Thomas; Richards, Allen L; O'Meara, Wendy P

    2016-05-01

    To increase knowledge of undifferentiated fevers in Kenya, we tested paired serum samples from febrile children in western Kenya for antibodies against pathogens increasingly recognized to cause febrile illness in Africa. Of patients assessed, 8.9%, 22.4%, 1.1%, and 3.6% had enhanced seroreactivity to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group rickettsiae, typhus group rickettsiae, and scrub typhus group orientiae, respectively.

  18. Season-dependent and independent responses of Mediterranean scrub to light conditions.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, María; Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Jáuregui, Juan; Rodríguez, Herminia; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor

    2016-05-01

    Semi-arid plant species cope with excess of solar radiation with morphological and physiological adaptations that assure their survival when other abiotic stressors interact. At the leaf level, sun and shade plants may differ in the set of traits that regulate environmental stressors. Here, we evaluated if leaf-level physiological seasonal response of Mediterranean scrub species (Myrtus communis, Halimium halimifolium, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus salvifolius) depended on light availability conditions. We aimed to determine which of these responses prevailed independently of the marked seasonality of Mediterranean climate, to define a leaf-level strategy in the scrub community. Thirty six leaf response variables - involving gas exchange, water status, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and leaf structure - were seasonally measured in sun exposed and shaded plants under field conditions. Physiological responses showed a common pattern throughout the year, in spite of the marked seasonality of the Mediterranean climate and of species-specific differences in the response to light intensity. Variables related to light use, CO2 assimilation, leaf pigment content, and LMA (leaf mass area) presented differences that were consistent throughout the year, although autumn was the season with greater contrast between sun and shade plants. Our data suggest that in Mediterranean scrub shade plants the lutein pool could have an important role in the photoprotection of the photosynthetic tissues. There was a negative linear correlation between the ratio lutein/total chlorophylls and the majority of leaf level variables. The combined effect of abiotic stress factors (light and drought or light and cold) was variable-specific, in some cases enhancing differences between sun and shade plants, while in others leading to unified strategies in all scrub species.

  19. Radiation hazards to vascular surgeon and scrub nurse in mobile fluoroscopy equipped hybrid vascular room

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Bin; Lee, Jaehoon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to identify the radiation hazards to vascular surgeons and scrub nurses working in mobile fluoroscopy equipped hybrid vascular operation rooms; additionally, to estimate cumulative cancer risk due to certain exposure dosages. Methods The study was conducted prospectively in 71 patients (53 men and 18 women) who had undergone vascular intervention at our hybrid vascular theater for 6 months. OEC 9900 fluoroscopy was used as mobile C-arm. Exposure dose (ED) was measured by attaching optically stimulated luminescence at in and outside of the radiation protectors. To measure X-ray scatter with the anthropomorphic phantom model, the dose was measured at 3 distances (20, 50, 100 cm) and 3 angles (horizontal, upward 45°, downward 45°) using a personal gamma radiation dosimeter, Ecotest CARD DKG-21, for 1, 3, 5, 10 minutes. Results Lifetime attributable risk of cancer was estimated using the approach of the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation report VII. The 6-month ED of vascular surgeons and scrub nurses were 3.85, 1.31 mSv, respectively. The attenuation rate of lead apron, neck protector and goggle were 74.6%, 60.6%, and 70.1%, respectively. All cancer incidences among surgeons and scrub nurses correspond to 2,355 and 795 per 100,000 persons. The 10-minute dose at 100-cm distance was 0.004 mSv at horizontal, 0.009 mSv at downward 45°, 0.003 mSv at upward 45°. Conclusion Although yearly radiation hazards for vascular surgeons and scrub nurses are still within safety guidelines, protection principles can never be too stringent when aiming to minimize the cumulative harmful effects. PMID:28289670

  20. Genotype Diversity and Distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi Causing Scrub Typhus in Thailand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Division 1 and Department of Enteric Disease , 2 Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Science, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; Viral and Rickettsial Diseases ...2011 Scrub typhus, caused by antigenically disparate isolates of Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a widely distributed mite-borne human disease in the Asia...30). The pathogen also may be transmitted horizontally between mites and infected verte- brate hosts (10, 11). This mite-borne disease is found

  1. Etiologies of acute undifferentiated fever and clinical prediction of scrub typhus in a non-tropical endemic area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ho-Chul; Chon, Sung-Bin; Oh, Won Sup; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Ho-Jin

    2015-02-01

    Scrub typhus usually presents as acute undifferentiated fever. This cross-sectional study included adult patients presenting with acute undifferentiated fever defined as any febrile illness for ≤ 14 days without evidence of localized infection. Scrub typhus cases were defined by an antibody titer of a ≥ fourfold increase in paired sera, a ≥ 1:160 in a single serum using indirect immunofluorescence assay, or a positive result of the immunochromatographic test. Multiple regression analysis identified predictors associated with scrub typhus to develop a prediction rule. Of 250 cases with known etiology of acute undifferentiated fever, influenza (28.0%), hepatitis A (25.2%), and scrub typhus (16.4%) were major causes. A prediction rule for identifying suspected cases of scrub typhus consisted of age ≥ 65 years (two points), recent fieldwork/outdoor activities (one point), onset of illness during an outbreak period (two points), myalgia (one point), and eschar (two points). The c statistic was 0.977 (95% confidence interval = 0.960-0.994). At a cutoff value ≥ 4, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.7% (79.0-98.1%) and 90.9% (86.0-94.3%), respectively. Scrub typhus, the third leading cause of acute undifferentiated fever in our region, can be identified early using the prediction rule.

  2. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was

  3. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  8. Jet Surface Interaction Scrubbing Noise from High Aspect-Ratio Rectangular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bozak, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Concepts envisioned for the future of civil air transport consist of unconventional propulsion systems in the close proximity of the airframe. Distributed propulsion system with exhaust configurations that resemble a high aspect ratio rectangular jet are among geometries of interest. Nearby solid surfaces could provide noise shielding for the purpose of reduced community noise. Interaction of high-speed jet exhaust with structure could also generate new sources of sound as a result of flow scrubbing past the structure, and or scattered noise from sharp edges. The present study provides a theoretical framework to predict the scrubbing noise component from a high aspect ratio rectangular exhaust in proximity of a solid surface. The analysis uses the Greens function (GF) to the variable density Pridmore-Brown equation in a transversely sheared mean flow. Sources of sound are defined as the auto-covariance function of second-rank velocity fluctuations in the jet plume, and are modeled using a RANS-based acoustic analogy approach. Acoustic predictions are presented in an 8:1 aspect ratio rectangular exhaust at three subsonic Mach numbers. The effect of nearby surface on the scrubbing noise component is shown on both reflected and shielded sides of the plate.

  9. Efficacy of a surgical scrub including 2% chlorhexidine acetate for canine superficial pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Nobuo; Nagata, Masahiko; Terada, Yuri; Shibata, Sanae; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2010-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of a surgical scrub containing 2% chlorhexidine acetate (2CA; Nolvasan® Surgical Scrub; Fort Dodge Animal Health, USA) was evaluated for the topical management of canine superficial pyoderma. The first study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. The control was a shampoo containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (4CG; Skin Clinic Shampoo; CHD MEDICS, Goyang, Korea). Ten dogs with symmetrical lesions of canine superficial pyoderma were allocated to receive either 2CA or the control shampoo applied to either side of the body twice weekly for 1 week. Both the owners and the investigators subjectively scored skin lesions including pruritus, erythema, crusted papules and scales on a scale of 0-3. The 2CA and 4CG resulted in almost the same degree of improvement of skin lesions, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. The second study was an open trial of 2CA monotherapy in eight dogs with cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group-associated superficial pyoderma. The 2CA monotherapy was applied every 2 days for 2 weeks. Five dogs improved with 2CA monotherapy, one partially improved and two did not. No adverse reactions were seen in either trial. This suggests that a 2CA surgical scrub could be a useful and safe topical adjunct therapy for dogs with superficial pyoderma involving cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group.

  10. Evaluation of a standard scrubbing method for the recovery of aerobic skin flora.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, J; Mercier, G M; Crémieux, A

    1987-01-01

    The most reliable method for sampling skin flora is still a matter of debate, although the subject is of importance in many fields ranging from clinical to basic research. For the evaluation of normal skin flora, Williamson and Kligman's scrub method is the most commonly used. In order to determine the value of this method, standardized for the evaluation of topical antimicrobial agents on aerobic skin flora, we compared its results to those obtained both from bacterial counts and from microscopic studies on biopsies performed at the same site. After different experiments had established the optimal experimental conditions on human and pig skin, a comparative study on six healthy subjects was carried out in the peri-umbilical area. The mean log numbers of aerobic bacteria in the scrub samples and in the biopsies were respectively, 3.1 and 2.9, which were not statistically significant. These numerical results were similar to those obtained by electron microscopy. Hence, the standard scrub method may be considered satisfactory for the recovery of aerobic bacteria from healthy human skin.

  11. Alkali content of alpine ultramafic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, W.; Mountjoy, W.

    1965-01-01

    The lower limit of abundance of sodium and potassium in ultramafic rocks is less than the threshold amount detectable by conventional analytical methods. By a dilutionaddition modification of the flame-spectrophotometric method, sodium and potassium have been determined in 40 specimens of alpine ultramafic rocks. Samples represent six regions in the United States and one in Australia, and include dunite, peridotite, pyroxenite, and their variably serpentinized and metamorphosed derivatives. The median value found for Na2O is 0.004 per cent, and the range of Na2O is 0.001-0.19. The median value for K2O is 0.0034 per cent and the range is 0.001-0.031 per cent. Alkali concentrations are below 0.01 per cent Na2O in 28 samples and below 0.01 per cent K2O in 35. Derivation of basalt magma from upper-mantle material similar to such ultramafic rocks, as has been postulated, is precluded by the relative amounts of sodium and potassium, which are from 200 to 600 times more abundant in basalt than in the ultramafic rocks. Similar factors apply to a number of other elements. No reasonable process could produce such concentrations in, for example, tens of thousands of cubic miles of uniform tholeiitic basalt. The ultramafic rocks might have originated either as magmatic crystal precipitates or as mantle residues left after fusion and removal of basaltic magma. Injection of ultramafic rocks to exposed positions is tectonic rather than magmatic. ?? 1965.

  12. Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

    2014-11-18

    In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

  13. Computational studies of solid-state alkali conduction in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhi; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-25

    The facile conduction of alkali ions in a crystal host is of crucial importance in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, the dominant form of energy storage today. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of computational approaches to study solid-state alkali diffusion. We demonstrate how these methods have provided useful insights into the design of materials that form the main components of a rechargeable alkali-ion battery, namely the electrodes, superionic conductor solid electrolytes and interfaces. We will also provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. Here, the scope of this review includes the monovalent lithium- and sodium-ion chemistries that are currently of the most commercial interest.

  14. Computational studies of solid-state alkali conduction in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhi; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-25

    The facile conduction of alkali ions in a crystal host is of crucial importance in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, the dominant form of energy storage today. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of computational approaches to study solid-state alkali diffusion. We demonstrate how these methods have provided useful insights into the design of materials that form the main components of a rechargeable alkali-ion battery, namely the electrodes, superionic conductor solid electrolytes and interfaces. We will also provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. Here, the scope of this review includes the monovalent lithium- and sodium-ion chemistries that aremore » currently of the most commercial interest.« less

  15. Ingestion of caustic alkali farm products.

    PubMed

    Neidich, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the Poison Prevention Packaging Act took effect, the number of ingestions of caustic alkali from household products has been significantly reduced. Commercial caustic alkalis used on farms, however, were not included in this legislation. Fourteen children over a 5 year period were seen after ingestion of commercial caustic alkalis used on farms. Seven of the children had ingested liquid pipeline cleaners and seven had ingested solid agents used for a variety of reasons. Six of seven children ingesting liquid agents did so from nonoriginal containers into which the caustic had been transferred for convenience. All seven children ingesting solid agents did so from the original container. Eight of the 14 children were found to have second-degree or worse esophageal involvement. Both solid and liquid caustic agents used commercially on farms can cause significant morbidity. Development of a child-resistant container for daily transfer of liquid pipeline agents could be helpful in preventing injuries from liquid pipeline cleaners. Pediatric gastroenterologists as well as primary care physicians in rural areas should be familiar with this type of injury and should take an active role in instructing parents of children living on farms to prevent such injuries. Extension of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act to caustic alkalis used on farms needs to be considered.

  16. Cohesive Energy of the Alkali Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a method, considered appropriate for presentation to undergraduate students in materials science and related courses, for the calculation of cohesive energies of the alkali metals. Uses a description based on the free electron model and gives results to within 0.1 eV of the experimental values. (Author/GS)

  17. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-05-12

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization.

  18. Scrub-successional bird community dynamics in young and mature longleaf pine-wiregrass savannahs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Public agencies are required to manage for threatened and endangered species and for biodiversity. However, at times, management for threatened and endangered species precludes consideration of other species. We investigated how managing for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) and biodiversity at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, affected communities of bird species that use early-successional scrub habitat (hereafter, scrub-successional species). Management for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the SRS involved both (1) manipulating mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Andropogon spp.) stands via canopy thinning, removal of midstory trees, and prescribed burning; and (2) even-aged timber harvesting. The former management practice encouraged red-cockaded woodpeckers to establish new colonies in previously unoccupied stands (hereafter, 'recruitment' stands). The latter management practice is used to remove off-site planted pines and replant with preferred longleaf pines. We conducted a constant-effort mist net study in recruitment and regenerating stands (stands clearcut and planted with longleaf pine) during the breeding seasons of 1995-96. We hypothesized that the scrub-successional bird community in recruitment stands would have greater species richness and higher survival and reproductive rates per species than in regenerating stands. However, recruitment stands always had fewer scrub-successional species (1995:36 species; 1996:31 species) than regenerating stands (1995:54 species; 1996:55 species), and all species that occurred in recruitment stands also occurred in regenerating stands. Species which commonly occurred in both recruitment and regenerating stands had similar adult:juvenile ratios (P > 0.15) and relative proportion of adults in breeding condition (P > 0.05). We detected no difference in survival rates of Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis), indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), and of 'combined' scrub

  19. Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ami M.; Adeseun, Gbemisola A.; Goldfarb, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The ingestion of calcium, along with alkali, results in a well-described triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal insufficiency. Over time, the epidemiology and root cause of the syndrome have shifted, such that the disorder, originally called the milk-alkali syndrome, is now better described as the calcium-alkali syndrome. The calcium-alkali syndrome is an important cause of morbidity that may be on the rise, an unintended consequence of shifts in calcium and vitamin D intake in segments of the population. We review the pathophysiology of the calcium-alkali syndrome. PMID:24288027

  20. Electronic and structural ground state of heavy alkali metals at high pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Fabbris, G.; Lim, J.; Veiga, L. S. I.; ...

    2015-02-17

    Here, alkali metals display unexpected properties at high pressure, including emergence of low symmetry crystal structures, that appear to occur due to enhanced electronic correlations among the otherwise nearly-free conduction electrons. We investigate the high pressure electronic and structural ground state of K, Rb, and Cs using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements together with ab initio theoretical calculations. The sequence of phase transitions under pressure observed at low temperature is similar in all three heavy alkalis except for the absence of the oC84 phase in Cs. Both the experimental and theoretical results point to pressure-enhanced localization of themore » valence electrons characterized by pseudo-gap formation near the Fermi level and strong spd hybridization. Although the crystal structures predicted to host magnetic order in K are not observed, the localization process appears to drive these alkalis closer to a strongly correlated electron state.« less

  1. Electronic and structural ground state of heavy alkali metals at high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbris, G.; Lim, J.; Veiga, L. S. I.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-02-17

    Here, alkali metals display unexpected properties at high pressure, including emergence of low symmetry crystal structures, that appear to occur due to enhanced electronic correlations among the otherwise nearly-free conduction electrons. We investigate the high pressure electronic and structural ground state of K, Rb, and Cs using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements together with ab initio theoretical calculations. The sequence of phase transitions under pressure observed at low temperature is similar in all three heavy alkalis except for the absence of the oC84 phase in Cs. Both the experimental and theoretical results point to pressure-enhanced localization of the valence electrons characterized by pseudo-gap formation near the Fermi level and strong spd hybridization. Although the crystal structures predicted to host magnetic order in K are not observed, the localization process appears to drive these alkalis closer to a strongly correlated electron state.

  2. Coulomb explosion during the early stages of the reaction of alkali metals with water.

    PubMed

    Mason, Philip E; Uhlig, Frank; Vaněk, Václav; Buttersack, Tillmann; Bauerecker, Sigurd; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-03-01

    Alkali metals can react explosively with water and it is textbook knowledge that this vigorous behaviour results from heat release, steam formation and ignition of the hydrogen gas that is produced. Here we suggest that the initial process enabling the alkali metal explosion in water is, however, of a completely different nature. High-speed camera imaging of liquid drops of a sodium/potassium alloy in water reveals submillisecond formation of metal spikes that protrude from the surface of the drop. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that on immersion in water there is an almost immediate release of electrons from the metal surface. The system thus quickly reaches the Rayleigh instability limit, which leads to a 'coulomb explosion' of the alkali metal drop. Consequently, a new metal surface in contact with water is formed, which explains why the reaction does not become self-quenched by its products, but can rather lead to explosive behaviour.

  3. 420nm alkali blue laser based on two-photon absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yan-nan; Li, Yi-min; Liu, Tong; Gong, Fa-quan; Jia, Chun-yan; Hu, Shu; Gai, Bao-dong; Guo, Jing-wei; Liu, Wan-fa

    2015-02-01

    Based on two-photon absorption, a 420nm blue laser of alkali Rb vapor was demonstrated, and a dye laser was used as the pumping laser. Utilizing the energy level structure of Rb atom, lasering mechanism and two-photon absorption process are analyzed. Absorbing two 778.1nm photons, Rb atoms were excited from 52 S1/2 to 52 D5/2, then relaxed to 62 P3/2 with mid infrared photon radiation. 420nm blue laser was achieved by the transition 62 P3/2-->52 S1/2. To improve efficiency of the blue laser, two-photon resonant excitation pumped alkali vapor blue lasers are proposed, which will be good beam quality, high efficiency and scalable blue lasers. The development of diode pumped alkali vapor blue laser is expected.

  4. Effect of the alkali metal activator on the properties of fly ash-based geopolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaarsveld, J.G.S. van; Deventer, J.S.J. van

    1999-10-01

    The alkali and alkali earth metal cations present during the formation of most known aluminosilicate structures have a very significant effect on both the physical and chemical properties of the final product. Geopolymers are no exception, although this effect has not been thoroughly quantified and in the case of waste-based geopolymers it has not received any significant attention. The present study investigates the effect of mainly Na{sup +} and K{sup +} on the physical and chemical properties of fly ash-based geopolymeric binders both before and after setting has occurred. A variety of tests were conducted, including rheological measurements, various leaching tests, compressive strength testing, specific surface area determinations, and infrared spectroscopy (IR). It is concluded that the alkali metal cation controls and affects almost all stages of geopolymerization, from the ordering of ions and soluble species during the dissolution process to playing a structure-directing role during gel hardening and eventual crystal formation.

  5. The behaviour of alkali metals in biomass conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hald, P.

    1995-12-31

    Alkali metals present in biomass contribute to problems as agglomeration, deposition and corrosion. In order to reduce the problems. It is of interest to describe the behavior of alkali metals in the conversion systems. Useful tools for die description are equilibrium calculations combined with measurements of gaseous alkali metal and analyses of solid materials. A comprehensive equilibrium study has been conducted and the results organized in tables, showing which alkali metal components can be present, dependent on the temperature and the ratios alkali metal to sulphur and alkali metal to chlorine. The tables presented can be used as a catalogue, giving easy access to equilibrium results. A sampling method for die measurement of gaseous alkali metal is described and the sampling efficiency is given. The developed tools are demonstrated for a straw gasifier and a fluidized bed combustor using a coal/straw mixture as a fuel.

  6. Computerized Shawnee lime/limestone scrubbing model users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, W.L.; Torstrick, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    The manual gives a general description of a computerized model for estimating design and cost of lime or limestone scrubber systems for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). It supplements PB80-123037 by extending the number of scrubber options which can be evaluated. It includes spray tower and venturi/spray-tower absorbers, forced oxidation systems, systems with absorber loop additives (MgO or adipic acid), revised design and economic premises, and other changes reflecting process improvements and variations. It describes all inputs and outputs, along with detailed procedures for using the model and all its options. The model is based on prototype scrubber data from the EPA/Shawnee test facility and should be useful to utility companies, as well as to architectural and engineering contractors who are involved in selecting and designing FGD facilities. As key features, the model provides estimates of capital investment and operating revenue requirements. It also provides a material balance, equipment list, and a breakdown of costs by processing areas. The primary uses of the model are to project comparative economics of lime and limestone FGD processes and to evaluate system alternatives prior to the development of a detailed design.

  7. Increased Nucleosomes and Neutrophil Activation Link to Disease Progression in Patients with Scrub Typhus but Not Murine Typhus in Laos.

    PubMed

    Paris, Daniel H; Stephan, Femke; Bulder, Ingrid; Wouters, Diana; van der Poll, Tom; Newton, Paul N; Day, Nicholas P J; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is essential in protection against rickettsial illnesses, but the role of neutrophils in these intracellular vasculotropic infections remains unclear. This study analyzed the plasma levels of nucleosomes, FSAP-activation (nucleosome-releasing factor), and neutrophil activation, as evidenced by neutrophil-elastase (ELA) complexes, in sympatric Lao patients with scrub typhus and murine typhus. In acute scrub typhus elevated nucleosome levels correlated with lower GCS scores, raised respiratory rate, jaundice and impaired liver function, whereas neutrophil activation correlated with fibrinolysis and high IL-8 plasma levels, a recently identified predictor of severe disease and mortality. Nucleosome and ELA complex levels were associated with a 4.8-fold and 4-fold increased risk of developing severe scrub typhus, beyond cut off values of 1,040 U/ml for nucleosomes and 275 U/ml for ELA complexes respectively. In murine typhus, nucleosome levels associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and the duration of illness, while ELA complexes correlated strongly with inflammation markers, jaundice and increased respiratory rates. This study found strong correlations between circulating nucleosomes and neutrophil activation in patients with scrub typhus, but not murine typhus, providing indirect evidence that nucleosomes could originate from neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) degradation. High circulating plasma nucleosomes and ELA complexes represent independent risk factors for developing severe complications in scrub typhus. As nucleosomes and histones exposed on NETs are highly cytotoxic to endothelial cells and are strongly pro-coagulant, neutrophil-derived nucleosomes could contribute to vascular damage, the pro-coagulant state and exacerbation of disease in scrub typhus, thus indicating a detrimental role of neutrophil activation. The data suggest that increased neutrophil activation relates to disease progression and severe complications, and

  8. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrish, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.

  9. Effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights from alkali pretreated rice straw hydrolyzate on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Wan, Yinhua

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Different alkali lignins fractions, which were obtained from cascade ultrafiltration, were added into the dilute acid pretreated (DAP) and alkali pretreated (AP) rice straws respectively during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the addition of alkali lignins enhanced the hydrolysis and the enhancement for hydrolysis increased with increasing molecular weights of alkali lignins, with maximum enhancement being 28.69% for DAP and 20.05% for AP, respectively. The enhancement was partly attributed to the improved cellulase activity, and filter paper activity increased by 18.03% when adding lignin with highest molecular weight. It was found that the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was correlated with the adsorption affinity of cellulase on alkali lignins, and the difference in surface charge and hydrophobicity of alkali lignins were responsible for the difference in affinity between cellulase and lignins.

  10. Feed Preparation for Source of Alkali Melt Rate Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M. E.; Lambert, D. P.

    2005-02-26

    The purpose of the Source of Alkali testing was to prepare feed for melt rate testing in order to determine the maximum melt-rate for a series of batches where the alkali was increased from 0% Na{sub 2}O in the frit (low washed sludge) to 16% Na{sub 2}O in the frit (highly washed sludge). This document summarizes the feed preparation for the Source of Alkali melt rate testing. The Source of Alkali melt rate results will be issued in a separate report. Five batches of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product and four batches of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product were produced to support Source of Alkali (SOA) melt rate testing. Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) simulant and frit 418 were used as targets for the 8% Na{sub 2}O baseline run. For the other four cases (0% Na{sub 2}O, 4% Na{sub 2}O, 12% Na{sub 2}O, and 16% Na{sub 2}O in frit), special sludge and frit preparations were necessary. The sludge preparations mimicked washing of the SB3 baseline composition, while frit adjustments consisted of increasing or decreasing Na and then re-normalizing the remaining frit components. For all batches, the target glass compositions were identical. The five SRAT products were prepared for testing in the dry fed melt-rate furnace and the four SME products were prepared for the Slurry-fed Melt-Rate Furnace (SMRF). At the same time, the impacts of washing on a baseline composition from a Chemical Process Cell (CPC) perspective could also be investigated. Five process simulations (0% Na{sub 2}O in frit, 4% Na{sub 2}O in frit, 8% Na{sub 2}O in frit or baseline, 12% Na{sub 2}O in frit, and 16% Na{sub 2}O in frit) were completed in three identical 4-L apparatus to produce the five SRAT products. The SRAT products were later dried and combined with the complementary frits to produce identical glass compositions. All five batches were produced with identical processing steps, including off-gas measurement using online gas chromatographs. Two slurry-fed melter feed batches, a 4% Na

  11. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  12. Geopolymers and Related Alkali-Activated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provis, John L.; Bernal, Susan A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of new, sustainable, low-CO2 construction materials is essential if the global construction industry is to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities, which is incurred particularly through the production of Portland cement. One type of non-Portland cement that is attracting particular attention is based on alkali-aluminosilicate chemistry, including the class of binders that have become known as geopolymers. These materials offer technical properties comparable to those of Portland cement, but with a much lower CO2 footprint and with the potential for performance advantages over traditional cements in certain niche applications. This review discusses the synthesis of alkali-activated binders from blast furnace slag, calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash, including analysis of the chemical reaction mechanisms and binder phase assemblages that control the early-age and hardened properties of these materials, in particular initial setting and long-term durability. Perspectives for future research developments are also explored.

  13. NOx scrubbing at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, T. E.; Counce, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Concern over the level of emission of nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities has focused the efforts of research, development and engineering on ways of reducing their concentration in off-gas streams. Research began back in January of 1976. A scrubber design which incorporated the research work began in mid September of 1978. The scrubber is presently being fabricated and will become a part of the Integrated Process Demonstration (IPD) facility. This paper will present an introduction to the chemistry of NO/sub x/ and will discuss the problems associated with its removal from off-gas streams. The IPD NO/sub x/ off-gas system components will be presented and the system interfaces with the other IPD systems will be shown. The computer model used to design the scrubber will be discussed and the results from the program will be presented. The paper will conclude with a brief description of other scrubber applications and will mention areas of continuing research.

  14. Effects of fire on composition, biomass, and nutrients in oak scrub vegetation on John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Four stands of oak scrub two, four, eight, and 25 years since fire were sampled with permanent 15 m line transects. Percent cover by species was determined. Plant samples were analyzed for a variety of substances. Transects were resurveyed in 1985 for vegetation parameters. Nutrient pools in biomass were calculated from biomass data and tissue nutrient concentrations. Soil nutrient pools were calculated from nutrient concentrations and bulk density. Species distribution and soil chemical properties were found to be closely related to water table depth. The following fire-related conclusions are reached: (1) major structural changes occur in scrub after fire in that shrub height is reduced and requires four to six years to exceed 1 m; (2) reduction in shrub height affects the suitability of scrub for the Florida scrub jay (3) live biomass increases with time since fire; (4) nutrient concentrations in live biomass do not change with time since fire; (5) species composition and richness are little changed after fire; and (6) imposition of a continued regime of burning on a three-year cycle may have adverse impacts not indicated by the recovery of scrub from a single fire.

  15. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus among Hospitalized Patients with Acute Undifferentiated Fever in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Sugihiro; Cuong, Ngo Chi; Tra, Doan Thu; Doan, Yen Hai; Shimizu, Kenta; Tuan, Nguyen Quang; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Mai, Le Quynh; Duc-Anh, Dang; Ando, Shuji; Arikawa, Jiro; Parry, Christopher M; Ariyoshi, Koya; Thuy, Pham Thanh

    2015-05-01

    A descriptive study on rickettsiosis was conducted at the largest referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of specific rickettsiosis. Between March 2001 and February 2003, we enrolled 579 patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF), excluding patients with malaria, dengue fever, and typhoid fever, and serologically tested for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi. Of the patients, 237 (40.9%) and 193 (33.3%) had scrub and murine typhus, respectively, and 149 (25.7%) had neither of them (non-scrub and murine typhus [non-ST/MT]). The proportion of murine typhus was highest among patients living in Hanoi whereas that of scrub typhus was highest in national or regional border areas. The presence of an eschar, dyspnea, hypotension, and lymphadenopathy was significantly associated with a diagnosis of scrub typhus (OR = 46.56, 10.90, 9.01, and 7.92, respectively). Patients with murine typhus were less likely to have these findings but more likely to have myalgia, rash, and relative bradycardia (OR = 1.60, 1.56, and 1.45, respectively). Scrub typhus and murine typhus were shown to be common causes of AUF in northern Vietnam although the occurrence of spotted fever group rickettsiae was not determined. Clinical and epidemiological information may help local clinicians make clinical diagnosis of specific rickettsioses in a resource-limited setting.

  16. Molecular characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes causing scrub typhus outbreak in southern region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Usha, K.; Kumar, E.; Kalawat, Usha; Kumar, B. Siddhartha; Chaudhury, A.; Gopal, D. V. R. Sai

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Local epidemiology of the circulating serotypes of scrub typhus is not available from most parts of India. We conducted this study for the diagnosis of scrub typhus using IgM ELISA and to detect O. tsutsugamushi serotypes circulating in southern Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: Samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus and were subjected to IgM ELISA to measure IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed targeting strain-specific regions in ELISA-positive samples. Results: Of a total of 663 samples, 258 (38.91%) were found to be positive by IgM ELISA. Serotypes could be detected in 230 (34.69%) samples only. Only two serotypes, Karp and Kawasaki, were found in the serum samples, with the former being predominant. The dual infection of Karp and Kawasaki serotypes was found in seven patients. Other serotypes such as Gilliam, Kuroki and Kato were not detected in the samples. Interpretation & conclusion: The nested PCR products proved useful in presumptively identifying the endemic O. tsutsugamushi serotypes. The present study could be significant in understanding scrub typhus epidemiology in this region. PMID:28256470

  17. The Correlation of Endoscopic Findings and Clinical Features in Korean Patients with Scrub Typhus: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi-induced systemic vasculitis, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract and the endoscopic findings associated with scrub typhus are not well understood. We performed a prospective study and recommend performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for all possible scrub typhus patients, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms, endoscopic findings and clinical severity based on organ involvement and ICU admission were analyzed. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in up to 76.4% of scrub typhus patients. The major endoscopic findings were ulcers (43/127, 33.9%). Interestingly, 7.1% (9/127) of the patients presented with esophageal candidiasis. There was no correlation between the presence or absence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the endoscopic grade (P = 0.995). However, there was a positive correlation between the clinical severity and the endoscopic findings (P = 0.001). Sixty-three percent of the patients presented with erosion or ulcers on prospectively performed endoscopic evaluations, irrespective of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms did not reflect the need for endoscopy. Scrub typhus patients could have significant endoscopic abnormalities even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:27195943

  18. A Novel Approach to Surgical Instructions for Scrub Nurses by Using See-Through-Type Head-Mounted Display.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Sasaki, Asami; Sato, Chikage; Yamazaki, Mutsuko; Takayasu, Junya; Tanaka, Naofumi; Okabayashi, Norie; Hirano, Hiromi; Saito, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2015-08-01

    In order to facilitate assists in surgical procedure, it is important for scrub nurses to understand the operation procedure and to share the operation status with attending surgeons. The potential utility of head-mounted display as a new imaging monitor has been proposed in the medical field. This study prospectively evaluated the usefulness of see-through-type head-mounted display as a novel intraoperative instructional tool for scrub nurses. From January to March 2014, scrub nurses who attended gasless laparoendoscopic single-port radical nephrectomy and radical prostatectomy wore the monocular see-through-type head-mounted display (AiRScouter; Brother Industries Ltd, Nagoya, Japan) displaying the instruction of the operation procedure through a crystal panel in front of the eye. Following the operation, the participants completed an anonymous questionnaire, which evaluated the image quality of the head-mounted display, the helpfulness of the head-mounted display to understand the operation procedure, and adverse effects caused by the head-mounted display. Fifteen nurses were eligible for the analysis. The intraoperative use of the head-mounted display could help scrub nurses to understand the surgical procedure and to hand out the instruments for the operation with no major head-mounted-display wear-related adverse event. This novel approach to support scrub nurses will help facilitate technical and nontechnical skills during surgery.

  19. Effect of basic alkali-pickling conditions on the production of lysinoalanine in preserved eggs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2015-09-01

    During the pickling process, strong alkali causes significant lysinoalanine (LAL) formation in preserved eggs, which may reduce the nutritional value of the proteins and result in a potential hazard to human health. In this study, the impacts of the alkali treatment conditions on the production of LAL in preserved eggs were investigated. Preserved eggs were prepared using different times and temperatures, and alkali-pickling solutions with different types and concentrations of alkali and metal salts, and the corresponding LAL contents were measured. The results showed the following: during the pickling period of the preserved egg, the content of LAL in the egg white first rapidly increased and then slowly increased; the content of LAL in the egg yolk continued to increase significantly. During the aging period, the levels of LAL in both egg white and egg yolk slowly increased. The amounts of LAL in the preserved eggs were not significantly different at temperatures between 20 and 25ºC. At higher pickling temperatures, the LAL content in the preserved eggs increased. With the increase of alkali concentration in the alkali-pickling solution, the LAL content in the egg white and egg yolk showed an overall trend of an initial increase followed by a slight decrease. The content of LAL produced in preserved eggs treated with KOH was lower than in those treated with NaOH. NaCl and KCl produced no significant effects on the production of LAL in the preserved eggs. With increasing amounts of heavy metal salts, the LAL content in the preserved eggs first decreased and then increased. The LAL content generated in the CuSO4 group was lower than that in either the ZnSO4 or PbO groups.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Alkali Shock and Alkali Adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes 10403S

    PubMed Central

    Giotis, Efstathios S.; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Natesan, Senthil; Wilkinson, Brian J.; Blair, Ian S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Alkali stress is an important means of inactivating undesirable pathogens in a wide range of situations. Unfortunately, Listeria monocytogenes can launch an alkaline tolerance response, significantly increasing persistence of the pathogen in such environments. This study compared transcriptome patterns of alkali and nonalkali-stressed L. monocytogenes 10403S cells, to elucidate the mechanisms by which Listeria adapts and/or grows during short- or long-term alkali stress. Transcription profiles associated with alkali shock (AS) were obtained by DNA microarray analysis of midexponential cells suspended in pH 9 media for 15, 30, or 60 min. Transcription profiles associated with alkali adaptation (AA) were obtained similarly from cells grown to midexponential phase at pH 9. Comparison of AS and AA transcription profiles with control cell profiles identified a high number of differentially regulated open-reading frames in all tested conditions. Rapid (15 min) changes in expression included upregulation of genes encoding for multiple metabolic pathways (including those associated with Na+/H+ antiporters), ATP-binding cassette transporters of functional compatible solutes, motility, and virulence-associated genes as well as the σB controlled stress resistance network. Slower (30 min and more) responses to AS and adaptation during growth in alkaline conditions (AA) involved a different pattern of changes in mRNA concentrations, and genes involved in proton export. PMID:20677981

  1. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    DOEpatents

    Ballif, III, John L.; Yuan, Wei W.

    1980-01-01

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  2. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-07-01

    One approach to fission power system design uses alkali metal heat pipes for the core primary heat-transfer system. Heat pipes may also be used as radiator elements or auxiliary thermal control elements. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where information that is more detailed can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstration purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Nasa Project Prometheus point designs. (author)

  3. Thermal positron interactions with alkali covered tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Iida, Shimpei; Terabe, Hiroki; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2016-11-01

    The branching ratios of positron reemission, positronium emission, positronium negative ion emission and capture to the surface state for thermalized positrons at polycrystalline tungsten surfaces coated with Na, K and Cs have been measured. The data shows that the ratios depend on the coverage of the alkali-metal coating. The fraction of the emitted positronium increases with the coverage of the coating up to 90%.

  4. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    One approach to space fission power system design is predicated on the use of alkali metal heat pipes, either as radiator elements, thermal management components, or as part of the core primary heat-transfer system. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where more detailed information can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstrational purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Project Prometheus point designs.

  5. Surface modification by alkali and heat treatments in titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Lee, Baek-Hee; Do Kim, Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hwan Lee, Kyu

    2002-09-05

    Pure titanium and titanium alloys are normally used for orthopedic and dental prostheses. Nevertheless, their chemical, biological, and mechanical properties still can be improved by the development of new preparation technologies. This has been the limiting factor for these metals to show low affinity to living bone. The purpose of this study is to improve the bone-bonding ability between titanium alloys and living bone through a chemically activated process and a thermally activated one. Two kinds of titanium alloys, a newly designed Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy and a commercially available Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy, were used in this study. In this study, surface modification of the titanium alloys by alkali and heat treatments (AHT), alkali treated in 5.0M NaOH solution, and heat treated in vacuum furnace at 600 degrees C, is reported. After AHT, the effects of the AHT on the bone integration property were evaluated in vitro. Surface morphologies of AHT were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical compositional surface changes were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Titanium alloys with surface modification by AHT showed improved bioactive behavior, and the Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy had better bioactivity than the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy in vitro.

  6. Biological neutralization of chlor-alkali industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-11-01

    The present work reports biological neutralization of chlor-alkali industrial effluent by an alkaliphilic bacterium, isolated from the Gujarat coast, which was identified as Enterococcus faecium strain R-5 on the basis of morphological, biochemical and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolate was capable of bringing down the pH of waste water from 12.0 to 7.0 within 3 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources, with simultaneous reduction in total dissolved solutes (TDS) up to 19-22%. This bacterium produced carboxylic acid, as revealed by FT-IR analysis, which facilitated neutralization of alkaline effluent. The presence of unconventional raw materials viz. Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse as carbon and nitrogen sources could effectively neutralize alkaline effluent and thus making the bioremediation process economically viable. The time required for neutralization varied with size of inoculum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on biological neutralization of a chlor-alkali industrial effluent.

  7. Petrology and geochemistry of alkali gabbronorites from Lunar Breccia 67975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Odette B.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Flohr, Marta K.

    Clasts of an unusual type of lunar highlands igneous rock, alkali gabbronorite, have been found in Apollo 16 breccia 67975. The alkali gabbronorites form two distinct subgroups, magnesian and ferroan. Modes and bulk compositions are highly varied. The magnesian alkali gabbronorites are composed of bytownitic plagioclase (Or2-5An82-89), hypersthene (Wo3-5En49-62), augite (Wo39-42En36-44), a silica mineral, and trace Ba-rich K-feldspar. The ferroan alkali gabbronorites are composed of ternary plagioclase (Or11-22An65-74), pigeonite (Wo6-9En35-47), augite (Wo38-40En29-35), Ba-rich K-feldspar, and a silica mineral. Trace minerals in both subgroups are apatite, REE-rich whitlockite, and zircon. The magnesian and ferroan alkali gabbronorites appear to have formed by progressive differentiation of the same, or closely related, parent magmas; the compositional data indicate that these magmas were REE-rich. The ternary plagioclase is probably a high-temperature metastable phase formed during crystallization. In composition and mineralogy, the 67975 alkali gabbronorites show many similarities to Apollo 12 and 14 alkali norites, alkali gabbronorites, and alkali anorthosites, and all these rocks together constitute a distinctive alkali suite. In addition, the alkali gabbronorites show some similarities to KREEP basalts, Mg-norites, and some felsites. These data suggest genetic links between some or all of these types of pristine rocks. Two types of relationships are possible. The first is that alkali-suite rocks crystallized in plutons of KREEP basalt magma, and KREEP basalts are their extrusive equivalents. The second is that the alkali-suite rocks and some felsites all crystallized in plutons of Mg-norite parent magmas, and KREEP basalt magmas formed by remelting of these plutons. Additional studies are needed to resolve which of these hypotheses is correct.

  8. Petrology and geochemistry of alkali gabbronorites from lunar breccia 67975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Odette B.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Flohr, Marta K.

    1987-09-01

    Clasts of an unusual type of lunar highlands igneous rock, alkali gabbronorite, have been found in Apollo 16 breccia 67975. The alkali gabbronorites form two distinct subgroups, magnesian and ferroan. Modes and bulk compositions are highly varied. The magnesian alkali gabbronorites are composed of bytownitic plagioclase (Or2-5An82-89), hypersthene (Wo3-5En49-62), augite (Wo39-42En36-44), a silica mineral, and trace Ba-rich K-feldspar. The ferroan alkali gabbronorites are composed of ternary plagioclase (Or11-22An65-74), pigeonite (Wo6-9En35-47), augite (Wo38-40En29-35), Ba-rich K-feldspar, and a silica mineral. Trace minerals in both subgroups are apatite, REE-rich whitlockite, and zircon. The magnesian and ferroan alkali gabbronorites appear to have formed by progressive differentiation of the same, or closely related, parent magmas; the compositional data indicate that these magmas were REE-rich. The ternary plagioclase is probably a high-temperature metastable phase formed during crystallization. In composition and mineralogy, the 67975 alkali gabbronorites show many similarities to Appllo 12 and 14 alkali norites, alkali gabbronorites, and alkali anorthosites, and all these rocks together constitute a distinctive alkali suite. In addition, the alkali gabbronorites, show some similarities to KREEP basalts, Mg-norites, and some felsites. These data suggest genetic links between some or all of these types of pristine rocks. Two types of relationships are possible. The first is that alkali-suite rocks crystallized in plutons of KREEP basalt magma, and KREEP basalts are their extrusive equivalents. The second is that the alkali-suite rocks and some felsites all crystallized in plutons of Mg-norite parent magmas, and KREEP basalt magmas formed by remelting of these plutons. Additional studies are needed to resolve which of these hypotheses is correct.

  9. Nutrient enrichment intensifies hurricane impact in scrub mangrove ecosystems in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Feller, Ilka C; Dangremond, Emily M; Devlin, Donna J; Lovelock, Catherine E; Proffitt, C Edward; Rodriguez, Wilfrid

    2015-11-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate coasts. Despite repeated demonstrations of their ecologic and economic value, multiple stressors including nutrient over-enrichment threaten these and other coastal wetlands globally. These ecosystems will be further stressed if tropical storm intensity and frequency increase in response to global climate changes. These stressors will likely interact, but the outcome of that interaction is uncertain. Here, we examined potential interaction between nutrient over-enrichment and the September 2004 hurricanes. Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne made landfall along Florida's Indian River Lagoon and caused extensive damage to a long-term fertilization experiment in a mangrove forest, which previously revealed that productivity was nitrogen (N) limited across the forest and, in particular, that N enrichment dramatically increased growth rates and aboveground biomass of stunted Avicennia germinans trees in the interior scrub zone. During the hurricanes, these trees experienced significant defoliation with three to four times greater reduction in leaf area index (LAI) than control trees. Over the long-term, the +N scrub trees took four years to recover compared to two years for controls. In the adjacent fringe and transition zones, LAI was reduced by > 70%, but with no differences based on zone or fertilization treatment. Despite continued delayed mortality for at least five years after the storms, LAI in the fringe and transition returned to pre-hurricane conditions in two years. Thus, nutrient over-enrichment of the coastal zone will increase the productivity of scrub mangroves, which dominate much of the mangrove landscape in Florida and the Caribbean; however, that benefit is offset by a decrease in their resistance and resilience to hurricane damage that has the potential to destabilize the system.

  10. Scrub typhus associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A report of six pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yingkang; Huang, Li; Fan, Huifeng; Lu, Gen; Xu, Yi; Wu, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening immune disorder that may be inherited or secondary to infection, malignancy or rheumatological disease. The aim of the present study was to highlight the clinical features of scrub typhus-associated HLH in children. A retrospective study was performed on 6 pediatric patients with scrub typhus-associated HLH. For each patient, medical records were reviewed and analyzed, and demographic, clinical and laboratory data and outcomes were collected. The duration of fever prior to admission ranged between 4 and 12 days. All patients exhibited persistent or intermittent fever, eschar, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy at the time of diagnosis. Five patients experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) during hospitalization. Thrombocytopenia was detected in all patients with cytopenia involving two or three cell types, simultaneously. Coagulopathy with prolonged prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were noted in all patients. Markedly elevated serum ferritin levels (>1,500 µg/ml) were identified in all patients. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (>1,000 U/l) was detected in 4 (66.7%) patients and elevated alanine aminotransferase was exhibited by 5 (83/3%) patients. Lung infiltrates and consolidation were the most common imaging findings. Only 1 patient succumbed, with DIC and multi-organ failure. Of the survivors, 1 patient was lost to follow-up, and the remaining patients are in remission with excellent general health, to date. In conclusion, HLH should be considered in severe pediatric cases of scrub typhus. Upon the early recognition of this syndrome, prompt and supportive treatment in the pediatric intensive care unit are vital. PMID:27698778

  11. Ocular surface discomfort and Demodex: effect of tea tree oil eyelid scrub in Demodex blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Wee, Sung Wook; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between ocular discomfort and ocular Demodex infestation, and therapeutic effects of tea tree oil (TTO) in Demodex blepharitis patients. Three hundred and thirty-five patients with ocular discomfort were evaluated for ocular Demodex infestation and subjective symptoms with ocular surface discomfort index (OSDI) score. Among them, Demodex-infested patients were randomized to receive either eyelid scrubbing with TTO (TTO group,106 patients) or without TTO (Control group, 54 patients) for 1 month. Demodex were found in 84% of patients with ocular discomfort. The number of Demodex was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.04) and OSDI score (P = 0.024). After eyelid scrub treatment, Demodex count was reduced from 4.0 ± 2.5 to 3.2 ± 2.3 in the TTO group (P = 0.004) and from 4.3 ± 2.7 to 4.2 ± 2.5 in the control group (P = 0.27). Also, OSDI score was reduced from 34.5 ± 10.7 to 24.1 ± 11.9 in the TTO group (P = 0.001) and from 35.3 ± 11.6 to 27.5 ± 12.8 in the control group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, Demodex number showed a significant positive correlation with age and subjective ocular discomfort. The tea tree oil eyelid scrub treatment is effective for eliminating ocular Demodex and improving subjective ocular symptoms.

  12. Murine models of scrub typhus associated with host control of Orientia tsutsugamushi infection

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, Nicole L.; Bouyer, Donald H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus, a febrile illness of substantial incidence and mortality, is caused by infection with the obligately intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is estimated that there are more than one million cases annually transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites in the Asia-Pacific region. The antigenic and genetic diversity of the multiple strains of O. tsutsugamushi hinders the advancement of laboratory diagnosis, development of long-lasting vaccine-induced protection, and interpretation of clinical infection. Despite the life-threatening severity of the illness in hundreds of thousands of cases annually, 85–93% of patients survive, often without anti-rickettsial treatment. To more completely understand the disease caused by Orientia infection, animal models which closely correlate with the clinical manifestations, target cells, organ involvement, and histopathologic lesions of human cases of scrub typhus should be employed. Previously, our laboratory has extensively characterized two relevant C57BL/6 mouse models using O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain: a route-specific intradermal model of infection and persistence and a hematogenously disseminated dose-dependent lethal model. Principal findings To complement the lethal model, here we illustrate a sublethal model in the same mouse strain using the O. tsutsugamushi Gilliam strain, which resulted in dose-dependent severity of illness, weight loss, and systemic dissemination to endothelial cells of the microcirculation and mononuclear phagocytic cells. Histopathologic lesions included expansion of the pulmonary interstitium by inflammatory cell infiltrates and multifocal hepatic lesions with mononuclear cellular infiltrates, renal interstitial lymphohistiocytic inflammation, mild meningoencephalitis, and characteristic typhus nodules. Significance These models parallel characteristics of human cases of scrub typhus, and will be used in concert to understand differences in

  13. A new surgical handwashing and hand antisepsis from scrubbing to rubbing.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kiyonori; Ogawa, Rho; Norose, Yoshihiro; Tajiri, Takashi

    2004-06-01

    In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines for surgical handwashing and hand antisepsis on the Internet. According to these guidelines, we revised our surgical handwashing method from scrubbing with brushes to rubbing with antiseptic. The new method consists of scrubbing around the nails with brushes and rubbing the hands and arms with antiseptic from the elbow to the antebrachium. A total of 182 surgeons and operating-room nurses participated in the current study. Bacterial contamination was investigated using the glove-juice method. The new surgical handwashing method is simple, and requires only a short time to perform (2 minutes 50 seconds). The bacterial examination confirmed that rubbing the hands with antiseptic was significantly more effective than scrubbing with brushes. In terms of sterilization or prolonged effects, 4% chlor-hexidine gluconate (CHG) was superior to 7.5% povidone-iodine (PVI) throughout a 3-hour period after hand antisepsis. Although bacterial counts were increased 3 hours after the beginning of surgery, additional hand rubbing with 0.2% chlorhexidine-83% ethanol (Hibisoft(TM)) was effective in suppressing the number of bacteria. Hibisoft(TM) successfully prolonged sterilization for more than 3 hours. For long surgical procedures, CHG should be used as an antiseptic and gloves should be changed every 3 hours, alcohol-based hand rubbing should also be performed 3 hours after the initial handwashing. This new technique will be included in the OSCE curriculum to ensure its standardization. Moreover, in-depth education regarding central operating-room practices is desired.

  14. Habitat-specific breeder survival of Florida Scrub-Jays: Inferences from multistate models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Carter, G.M.; Oddy, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying habitat-specific survival and changes in habitat quality within disturbance-prone habitats is critical for understanding population dynamics and variation in fitness, and for managing degraded ecosystems. We used 18 years of color-banding data and multistate capture-recapture models to test whether habitat quality within territories influences survival and detection probability of breeding Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) and to estimate bird transition probabilities from one territory quality state to another. Our study sites were along central Florida's Atlantic coast and included two of the four largest metapopulations within the species range. We developed Markov models for habitat transitions and compared these to bird transition probabilities. Florida Scrub-Jay detection probabilities ranged from 0.88 in the tall territory state to 0.99 in the optimal state; detection probabilities were intermediate in the short state. Transition probabilities were similar for birds and habitat in grid cells mapped independently of birds. Thus, bird transitions resulted primarily from habitat transitions between states over time and not from bird movement. Survival ranged from 0.71 in the short state to 0.82 in the optimal state, with tall states being intermediate. We conclude that average Florida Scrub-Jay survival will remain at levels that lead to continued population declines because most current habitat quality is only marginally suitable across most of the species range. Improvements in habitat are likely to be slow and difficult because tall states are resistant to change and the optimal state represents an intermediate transitional stage. The multistate modeling approach to quantifying survival and habitat transition probabilities is useful for quantifying habitat transition probabilities and comparing them to bird transition probabilities to test for habitat selection in dynamic environments. ?? 2009 by the Ecological society ot America.

  15. Ocular Surface Discomfort and Demodex: Effect of Tea Tree Oil Eyelid Scrub in Demodex Blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Wee, Sung Wook; Chun, Yeoun Sook

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between ocular discomfort and ocular Demodex infestation, and therapeutic effects of tea tree oil (TTO) in Demodex blepharitis patients. Three hundred and thirty-five patients with ocular discomfort were evaluated for ocular Demodex infestation and subjective symptoms with ocular surface discomfort index (OSDI) score. Among them, Demodex-infested patients were randomized to receive either eyelid scrubbing with TTO (TTO group,106 patients) or without TTO (Control group, 54 patients) for 1 month. Demodex were found in 84% of patients with ocular discomfort. The number of Demodex was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.04) and OSDI score (P = 0.024). After eyelid scrub treatment, Demodex count was reduced from 4.0 ± 2.5 to 3.2 ± 2.3 in the TTO group (P = 0.004) and from 4.3 ± 2.7 to 4.2 ± 2.5 in the control group (P = 0.27). Also, OSDI score was reduced from 34.5 ± 10.7 to 24.1 ± 11.9 in the TTO group (P = 0.001) and from 35.3 ± 11.6 to 27.5 ± 12.8 in the control group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, Demodex number showed a significant positive correlation with age and subjective ocular discomfort. The tea tree oil eyelid scrub treatment is effective for eliminating ocular Demodex and improving subjective ocular symptoms. PMID:23255861

  16. Dissemination of Orientia tsutsugamushi and Inflammatory Responses in a Murine Model of Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Kolbaum, Julia; Gharaibeh, Mohammad; Neumann, Melanie; Glatzel, Markus; Fleischer, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Central aspects in the pathogenesis of scrub typhus, an infection caused by Orientia (O.) tsutsugamushi, have remained obscure. Its organ and cellular tropism are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetics of bacterial dissemination and associated inflammatory responses in infected tissues in an experimental scrub typhus mouse model, following infection with the human pathogenic strain Karp. We provide a thorough analysis of O. tsutsugamushi infection in inbred Balb/c mice using footpad inoculation, which is close to the natural way of infection. By a novel, highly sensitive qPCR targeting the multi copy traD genes, we quantitatively monitored the spread of O. tsutsugamushi Karp from the skin inoculation site via the regional lymph node to the internal target organs. The highest bacterial loads were measured in the lung. Using confocal imaging, we also detected O. tsutsugamushi at the single cell level in the lung and found a predominant macrophage rather than endothelial localization. Immunohistochemical analysis of infiltrates in lung and brain revealed differently composed lesions with specific localizations: iNOS-expressing macrophages were frequent in infiltrative parenchymal noduli, but uncommon in perivascular lesions within these organs. Quantitative analysis of the macrophage response by immunohistochemistry in liver, heart, lung and brain demonstrated an early onset of macrophage activation in the liver. Serum levels of interferon (IFN)-γ were increased during the acute infection, and we showed that IFN-γ contributed to iNOS-dependent bacterial growth control. Our data show that upon inoculation to the skin, O. tsutsugamushi spreads systemically to a large number of organs and gives rise to organ-specific inflammation patterns. The findings suggest an essential role for the lung in the pathogenesis of scrub typhus. The model will allow detailed studies on host-pathogen interaction and provide further insight into the

  17. Transport properties of alkali metal doped fullerides

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Daluram Yadav, Nishchhal

    2015-07-31

    We have studied the intercage interactions between the adjacent C{sub 60} cages and expansion of lattice due to the intercalation of alkali atoms based on the spring model to estimate phonon frequencies from the dynamical matrix for the intermolecular alkali-C{sub 60} phonons. We considered a two-peak model for the phonon density of states to investigate the nature of electron pairing mechanism for superconducting state in fullerides. Coulomb repulsive parameter and the electron phonon coupling strength are obtained within the random phase approximation. Transition temperature, T{sub c}, is obtained in a situation when the free electrons in lowest molecular orbital are coupled with alkali-C{sub 60} phonons as 5 K, which is much lower as compared to reported T{sub c} (20 K). The superconducting pairing is mainly driven by the high frequency intramolecular phonons and their effects enhance it to 22 K. The importance of the present study, the pressure effect and normal state transport properties are calculated within the same model leading superconductivity.

  18. Chemically induced fracturing in alkali feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidl, K. S.; Schaeffer, A.-K.; Petrishcheva, E.; Habler, G.; Fischer, F. D.; Schreuer, J.; Abart, R.

    2014-01-01

    Fracturing in alkali feldspar during Na+-K+ cation exchange with a NaCl-KCl salt melt was studied experimentally. Due to a marked composition dependence of the lattice parameters of alkali feldspar, any composition gradient arising from cation exchange causes coherency stress. If this stress exceeds a critical level fracturing occurs. Experiments were performed on potassium-rich gem-quality alkali feldspars with polished (010) and (001) surfaces. When the feldspar was shifted toward more sodium-rich compositions over more than about 10 mole %, a system of parallel cracks with regular crack spacing formed. The cracks have a general (h0l) orientation and do not correspond to any of the feldspar cleavages. The cracks are rather oriented (sub)-perpendicular to the direction of maximum tensile stress. The critical stress needed to initiate fracturing is about 325 MPa. The critical stress intensity factor for the propagation of mode I cracks, K Ic, is estimated as 2.30-2.72 MPa m1/2 (73-86 MPa mm1/2) from a systematic relation between characteristic crack spacing and coherency stress. An orientation mismatch of 18° between the crack normal and the direction of maximum tensile stress is ascribed to the anisotropy of the longitudinal elastic stiffness which has pronounced maxima in the crack plane and a minimum in the direction of the crack normal.

  19. Apollo/Saturn 5 space vehicle countdown. Volume 2: Turnaround from scrub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The procedures required to prepare a space vehicle for subsequent launch attempt after cancelling lift-off activities are presented. The cancellation must occur after the start of cryogenic loading, but prior to initiation of ignition sequences. The sequence of operations necessary to return the space vehicle to a predetermined configuration at which time the launch count can be resumed or rescheduled for following launch opportunities is developed. The considerations and constraints that are the basis for the scrub/turnaround times are described.

  20. Surgical hand rubbing compared with surgical hand scrubbing: comparison of efficacy and costs.

    PubMed

    Tavolacci, M P; Pitrou, I; Merle, V; Haghighat, S; Thillard, D; Czernichow, P

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of surgical hand rubbing (SHR) with the efficacy of surgical hand scrubbing (SHS), and to determine the costs of both techniques for surgical hand disinfection. A review of studies reported in the literature that compared the efficacy of SHS and SHR was performed using MEDLINE. The costs of SHR and SHS were estimated based on standard hospital costs. The literature showed that SHR had immediate efficacy that was similar to that of SHS, but SHR had a more lasting effect. SHR reduced costs by 67%. In conclusion, SHR is a cost-effective alternative to SHS.

  1. Alkali Halide FLIR Lens Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    testing. Also, an identification number is written on the edge. Then the sealant is cured at 70 to 800C for 15 minutes. Only the coated area is...3/PE/PPE failed beginning at isolated points, which presumably were due to imperfections in the coating. Thus, it was inferred that this coating...in isolated spots because of defects in the coating layers. To optimize the coating process, improvement of coating procedures leading toward defect

  2. Extreme early solar system chemical fractionation recorded by alkali-rich clasts contained in ordinary chondrite breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Misawa, Keiji; Okano, Osamu; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Simon, Justin I.; Tappa, Michael J.; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2017-01-01

    New K-Ca and Rb-Sr isotopic analyses have been performed on alkali-rich igneous rock fragments in the Yamato (Y)-74442 and Bhola LL-chondritic breccias to better understand the extent and timing of alkali enrichments in the early solar system. The Y-74442 fragments yield a K-Ca age of 4.41 ± 0.28 Ga for λ(40K) = 0.5543 Ga-1 with an initial 40Ca/44Ca ratio of 47.1618 ± 0.0032. Studying the same fragments with the Rb-Sr isotope system yields an age of 4.420 ± 0.031 Ga for λ(87Rb) = 0.01402 Ga-1 with an initial ratio of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7203 ± 0.0044. An igneous rock fragment contained in Bhola shows a similar alkali fractionation pattern to those of Y-74442 fragments but does not plot on the K-Ca or Rb-Sr isochron of the Y-74442 fragments. Calcium isotopic compositions of whole-rock samples of angrite and chondrites are primordial, indistinguishable from mantle-derived terrestrial rocks, and here considered to represent the initial composition of bulk silicate Earth. The initial ε40Ca value determined for the source of the alkali clasts in Y-74442 that is ∼0.5 ε-units higher than the solar system value implies an early alkali enrichment. Multi-isotopic studies on these alkali-rich fragments reveal that the source material of Y-74442 fragments had elemental ratios of K/Ca = 0.43 ± 0.18, Rb/Sr = 3.45 ± 0.66 and K/Rb ∼ 170, that may have formed from mixtures of an alkali-rich component (possibly an alkali-enriched gaseous reservoir produced by fractionation of early nebular condensates) and chondritic components that were flash-heated during an impact event on the LL-chondrite parent body ∼4.42 Ga ago. Further enrichments of potassium and rubidium relative to calcium and strontium as well as a mutual alkali-fractionation (K/Rb ∼ 50 and heavier alkali-enrichment) would have likely occurred during subsequent cooling and differentiation of this melt. Alkali fragments in Bhola might have undergone similar solid-vapor fractionation processes to those of Y

  3. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete (II) expansion and microstructure of concrete microbar

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Duyou . E-mail: duyoulu@njut.edu.cn; Mei Laibao; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Mo Xiangyin; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-06-15

    The effect of the type of alkalis on the expansion behavior of concrete microbars containing typical aggregate with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity was studied. The results verified that: (1) at the same molar concentration, sodium has the strongest contribution to expansion due to both ASR and ACR, followed by potassium and lithium; (2) sufficient LiOH can completely suppress expansion due to ASR whereas it can induce expansion due to ACR. It is possible to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to clarify the ACR contribution when ASR and ACR may coexist. It has been shown that a small amount of dolomite in the fine-grained siliceous Spratt limestone, which has always been used as a reference aggregate for high alkali-silica reactivity, might dedolomitize in alkaline environment and contribute to the expansion. That is to say, Spratt limestone may exhibit both alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactivity, although alkali-silica reactivity is predominant. Microstructural study suggested that the mechanism in which lithium controls ASR expansion is mainly due to the favorable formation of lithium-containing less-expansive product around aggregate particles and the protection of the reactive aggregate from further attack by alkalis by the lithium-containing product layer.

  4. Western scrub-jays do not appear to attend to functionality in Aesop’s Fable experiments

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Brigit D.; Schlinger, Barney A.; Rensel, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Western scrub-jays are known for their highly discriminatory and flexible behaviors in a caching (food storing) context. However, it is unknown whether their cognitive abilities are restricted to a caching context. To explore this question, we tested scrub-jays in a non-caching context using the Aesop’s Fable paradigm, where a partially filled tube of water contains a floating food reward and objects must be inserted to displace the water and bring the food within reach. We tested four birds, but only two learned to drop stones proficiently. Of these, one bird participated in 4/5 experiments and one in 2/5 experiments. Both birds passed one experiment, but without attending to the functional differences of the objects, and failed the other experiments. Scrub-jays were not motivated to participate in these experiments, suggesting that either this paradigm was ecologically irrelevant or perhaps their flexibility is restricted to a caching context. PMID:26925331

  5. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered scrub Lupine, Lupinus aridorum (Fabaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Ricono, Angela; Bupp, Glen; Peterson, Cheryl; Nunziata, Schyler O.; Lance, Stacey L.; Pruett, Christin L.

    2015-04-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in scrub lupine (Lupinus aridorum, Fabaceae), an endemic species to Florida that is listed as endangered in the United States, to assess connectivity among populations, identify hybrids, and examine genetic diversity. We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci polymorphic in scrub lupine or in closely related species (i.e., sky-blue lupine [L. diffusus] and Gulf Coast lupine [L. westianus]). Loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, ranging from two to 14 alleles per locus and 0.01 to 0.86 observed heterozygosity. In conclusion, these loci are the first developed for Florida species of lupine and will be used to determine differentiation among species and to aid in conservation of the endangered scrub lupine.

  6. Scrub typhus induced by peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in the immunocompromised patient: diagnostic usefulness of nested polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seung-Ji; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Jung, Sook-In; Jang, Hee Chang; Ji, Soo Young; Ahn, Jae Sook; Kim, Hyeoung Joon; Shin, Jong-Hee; Kim, Dong Min

    2010-02-01

    Scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi) is a Gram-negative rickettsial disease in parts of Asia, transmitted from wild rodents to human by mites. This is a case report of scrub typhus contraction in an acute leukemia patient by transfusion of peripheral blood stem cells collected during the incubation period. Although human-to-human transmission of scrub typhus by needle-stick injury or transplacental transmission has previously been reported, this is the first case confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. This type of incident shows the need to heighten awareness of the threat of rickettsial agents in transfused blood. Nested PCR is a useful diagnostic method to confirm the diagnosis during incubation period and in the early phase of disease, especially for immunocompromised patients.

  7. Method for the safe disposal of alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry R.

    1977-01-01

    Alkali metals such as those employed in liquid metal coolant systems can be safely reacted to form hydroxides by first dissolving the alkali metal in relatively inert metals such as lead or bismuth. The alloy thus formed is contacted with a molten salt including the alkali metal hydroxide and possibly the alkali metal carbonate in the presence of oxygen. This oxidizes the alkali metal to an oxide which is soluble within the molten salt. The salt is separated and contacted with steam or steam-CO.sub.2 mixture to convert the alkali metal oxide to the hydroxide. These reactions can be conducted with minimal hydrogen evolution and with the heat of reaction distributed between the several reaction steps.

  8. Solvent- and catalyst-free mechanochemical synthesis of alkali metal monohydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Hlova, Ihor Z.; Castle, Andra; Goldston, Jennifer F.; Gupta, Shalabh; Prost, Timothy; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Scott Chumbley, L.; Pruski, Marek; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2016-07-06

    Alkali metal monohydrides, AH (A = Li–Cs) have been synthesized in quantitative yields at room temperature by reactive milling of alkali metals in the presence of hydrogen gas at 200 bar or less. The mechanochemical approach reported here eliminates problems associated with the malleability of alkali metals — especially Li, Na, and K — and promotes effective solid–gas reactions, ensuring their completion. This is achieved by incorporating a certain volume fraction of the corresponding hydride powder as a process control agent, which allows continuous and efficient milling primarily by coating the surface of metal particles, effectively blocking cold welding. Formation of high-purity crystalline monohydrides has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and volumetric analyses of reactively desorbed H2 from as-milled samples. The proposed synthesis method is scalable and particularly effective for extremely air-sensitive materials, such as alkali and alkaline earth metal hydrides. Furthermore, the technique may also be favorable for production in continuous reactors operating at room temperature, thereby reducing the total processing time, energy consumption and, hence, the cost of production of these hydrides or their derivatives and composites.

  9. Solvent- and catalyst-free mechanochemical synthesis of alkali metal monohydrides

    DOE PAGES

    Hlova, Ihor Z.; Castle, Andra; Goldston, Jennifer F.; ...

    2016-07-06

    Alkali metal monohydrides, AH (A = Li–Cs) have been synthesized in quantitative yields at room temperature by reactive milling of alkali metals in the presence of hydrogen gas at 200 bar or less. The mechanochemical approach reported here eliminates problems associated with the malleability of alkali metals — especially Li, Na, and K — and promotes effective solid–gas reactions, ensuring their completion. This is achieved by incorporating a certain volume fraction of the corresponding hydride powder as a process control agent, which allows continuous and efficient milling primarily by coating the surface of metal particles, effectively blocking cold welding. Formationmore » of high-purity crystalline monohydrides has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and volumetric analyses of reactively desorbed H2 from as-milled samples. The proposed synthesis method is scalable and particularly effective for extremely air-sensitive materials, such as alkali and alkaline earth metal hydrides. Furthermore, the technique may also be favorable for production in continuous reactors operating at room temperature, thereby reducing the total processing time, energy consumption and, hence, the cost of production of these hydrides or their derivatives and composites.« less

  10. A Modular Control Platform for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    A Modular Control Platform for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser Joshua Shapiro, Scott W. Teare New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy...gain media, such as is done in diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), has been proposed and early experiments have shown promising results. However...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Modular Control Platform for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser 5a

  11. Determination of the common and rare alkalies in mineral analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.; Stevens, R.E.

    1934-01-01

    Methods are described which afford a determination of each member of the alkali group and are successful in dealing with the quantities of the rare alkalies found in rocks and minerals. The procedures are relatively rapid and based chiefly on the use of chloroplatinic acid, absolute alcohol and ether, and ammonium sulfate. The percentages of all the alkalies found in a number of minerals are given.

  12. Canine epidermal lipid sampling by skin scrub revealed variations between different body sites and normal and atopic dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we evaluated a minimally invasive epidermal lipid sampling method called skin scrub, which achieved reproducible and comparable results to skin scraping. The present study aimed at investigating regional variations in canine epidermal lipid composition using the skin scrub technique and its suitability for collecting skin lipids in dogs suffering from certain skin diseases. Eight different body sites (5 highly and 3 lowly predisposed for atopic lesions) were sampled by skin scrub in 8 control dogs with normal skin. Additionally, lesional and non-lesional skin was sampled from 12 atopic dogs and 4 dogs with other skin diseases by skin scrub. Lipid fractions were separated by high performance thin layer chromatography and analysed densitometrically. Results No significant differences in total lipid content were found among the body sites tested in the control dogs. However, the pinna, lip and caudal back contained significantly lower concentrations of ceramides, whereas the palmar metacarpus and the axillary region contained significantly higher amounts of ceramides and cholesterol than most other body sites. The amount of total lipids and ceramides including all ceramide classes were significantly lower in both lesional and non-lesional skin of atopic dogs compared to normal skin, with the reduction being more pronounced in lesional skin. The sampling by skin scrub was relatively painless and caused only slight erythema at the sampled areas but no oedema. Histological examinations of skin biopsies at 2 skin scrubbed areas revealed a potential lipid extraction from the transition zone between stratum corneum and granulosum. Conclusions The present study revealed regional variations in the epidermal lipid and ceramide composition in dogs without skin abnormalities but no connection between lipid composition and predilection sites for canine atopic dermatitis lesions. The skin scrub technique proved to be a practicable sampling method for canine

  13. Determination of Scrub typhus Suggests a New Epidemic Focus in the Anhui Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Min; Che, Li; Zhang, Jinhai; Hu, Jianli; Srinivas, Swaminath; Xu, Ruiyao; Guo, Henbing; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Changjun; Feng, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, 19 cases of a scrub typhus epidemic occurred within a week at a sports school in Mingguang County, Anhui Province, where no previous incidence of this mite borne disease had been reported. Sero-surveillance in 2009 indicated that 10 of the 100 school students possessed anti-Orientia tsutsugamushi antibodies. From 2009 to 2013, 60 small animals and 2250 mites were collected in the vicinity of the school. 5 of the Apodemus agrarius samples and 1 group of Leptotrombidium linhuaikongense tested positive via PCR for O. tsutsugamushi. Two strains of O. tsutsugamushi were identified by injecting Kun Ming (KM) mice peritoneally with the organs of either Apodemus agrarius or Leptotrombidium linhuaikongense. Apart from sharing 98% homology with the O. tsutsugamushi Yongworl strain, genes encoding the membrane protein from the two O. tsutsugamushi isolates shared >99% sequence homology with each other, reflecting the consistency of the pathogen in both the vector and the host. In addition, we also characterized a chronic scrub typhus infection in a local patient. The membrane protein gene fragment from the patient’s blood shared 99% homology with O. tsutsugamushi Gilliam strain, suggesting that more than one O. tsutsugamushi strain is present at this location. PMID:26860982

  14. [Case of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus) presenting with fever and pain indistinguishable from trigeminal neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Arai, Motomi; Nakamura, Asuka; Shichi, Daisuke

    2007-06-01

    A 64-year-old man visited our clinic with a 9-day history of headache and fever. He had frequent, severe, electric shock-like pain in his left eye, forehead, and scalp. The body temperature was 37.1 degrees. Cranial nerve functions were intact. Limb weakness and stiff neck were absent. There were injection of the conjunctiva, a red rash on the trunk, and an eschar in the axilla. Abnormal laboratory findings included AST 40 IU, ALT 44 IU, CRP 16.0 mg/dl, WBC 11,090/microl, and proteinuria. CT scan was unremarkable. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed 2 polymorphs/microl, 6 lymphocytes/microl, 65 mg/dl of glucose, and 42 mg/dl of protein. A diagnosis of scrub typhus was made. Treatment with minocycline brought about prompt disappearance of the fever and dramatic clinical improvement. Increased antibody titers confirmed the diagnosis. Although almost all patients present with high fever and severe headache, only a small number of patients have CSF pleocytosis. The present case illustrates that pain in scrub typhus is, on rare occasions, indistinguishable from trigeminal neuralgia. Neurologists should have a high index of suspicion in patients with fever and headache during the epidemic season and should be familiar with the systemic symptoms and signs.

  15. Strong fungal specificity and selectivity for algal symbionts in Florida scrub Cladonia lichens.

    PubMed

    Yahr, Rebecca; Vilgalys, Rytas; Depriest, Paula T

    2004-11-01

    Symbiosis is a major theme in the history of life and can be an important force driving evolution. However, across symbioses, it is difficult to tease apart the mechanisms that structure the interactions among potential partners. We used genetic similarity and frequency-based methods to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the patterns of association among several co-occurring Cladonia lichen fungi and their algal photobionts in six disjunct Florida scrub sites. The patterns of association were described by the degree of specificity, i.e. the phylogenetic range of associated partners, and of selectivity, i.e. the frequency of association among partners. Six fungal species associated with only one algal internal transcribed spacer clade, with the remaining two fungi being associated with two algal clades. In all cases, the fungi associated in unequal frequencies with the observed algal photobiont genotypes within those clades--suggesting that both specificity and selectivity were higher than expected. Fungal species can be grouped into three significantly different specificity classes: photobiont specialists, intermediates and generalists. In contrast to the pronounced specificity for photobionts among fungal species, the different Florida scrub sites do not harbour distinct photobiont pools, and differential photobiont availability cannot explain the patterning of lichen associations at this spatial scale. Therefore, we conclude that fungal specificity and selectivity for algal photobionts are major factors in determining the local composition of symbiotic partnerships.

  16. Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant community recovery in California coastal sage scrub lands?

    PubMed

    McCullough, Sarah A; Endress, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California coastal sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant community recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant community recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower (P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed (P < 0.01). We conclude that postfire mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to coastal sage scrub recovery on the study area.

  17. Bacterial contamination of surgical scrub suits worn outside the operating theatre: a randomised crossover study.

    PubMed

    Hee, H I; Lee, S; Chia, S N; Lu, Q S; Liew, A P Q; Ng, A

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the bacterial contamination of surgical scrub suits worn outside the operating theatre. We randomised 16 anaesthetists on separate occasions into one of 3 groups: restricted to the operating theatre only; theatre and surgical wards; and theatre and departmental office. For each group, sample fabric pieces attached to the chest, waist and hip areas of each suit were removed at 150 min intervals between 08:30 and 16:00 on the day of study, and sent for microbiological assessment. Mean bacterial counts increased significantly over the course of the working day (p = 0.036), and were lower in the chest compared to the hip (p = 0.007) and waist areas (p = 0.016). The mean (SD) bacterial counts, expressed as colony-forming units per cm(2) at 16:00 on the day of study, were 25.2 (43.5) for those restricted to theatre and 18.5 (25.9) and 17.9 (31.0) for those allowed out to visit the ward and office, respectively (p = 0.370). We conclude that visits to ward and office did not significantly increase bacterial contamination of scrub suits.

  18. Measurement of alkali vapors in PFBC flue gas and their removal with a fixed granular-bed sorber, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Alkali-metal compounds, such as chlorides and sulfates of sodium and potassium, present in the flue gas of coal combustion could cause hot corrosion of a gas turbine. The current industrial gas-turbine specification limit for alkali-metal compounds in the combustion gas entering a turbine is equivalent to 0.024 ppmW. Spacil and Luthra predict that the quantity of alkali vapor in the flue gas from PFBC could be up to two orders of magnitude greater than this allowable level. In contrast, the recent calculations by Scandrett and Clift suggest that, if the aerosol alkali particulate could be removed, the residual alkali vapor in the flue gas would be less than the limit. Measurements of the alkali vapor in PFBC flue gas have been made by several institutions. The measured alkali vapor concentration in the flue gas is in the order of 0.1 to 10 ppmW. Normally, a conventional batch-type extraction of the flue gas, followed by the analysis of the condensate, has been used in these measurements. It was not until recently that a real-time, on-line alkali analyzer was developed and tested in the gas stream of both coal gasification and combustion. A fixed granular-bed sorber is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the control of the alkali vapor in PFBC flue gas. After an extensive screening study, activated bauxite was found to be the most effective sorbent in capturing the NaCl, KCl, and K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ vapors that were doped into a simulated PFBC flue gas. Activated bauxite was also demonstrated to be easily and effectively regenerated for reuse by a simple water-leaching process. A capture efficiency of greater than 99.8% CaCl vapor has been achieved. The effectiveness of activated bauxite for alkali-vapor capture has been confirmed by others. 21 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Study on alkali removal technology from coal gasification gas

    SciTech Connect

    Inai, Motoko; Kajibata, Yoshihiro; Takao, Shoichi; Suda, Masamitsu

    1999-07-01

    The authors have proposed a new coal based combined cycle power plant concept. However, there are certain technical problems that must be overcome to establish this system. Major technical problem of the system is hot corrosion of gas turbine blades caused by sulfur and alkali vapor, because of high temperature dust removal without sulfur removal from the coal gas. So the authors have conducted several fundamental studies on dry type alkali removal sorbents for the purposed of reducing the corrosion on gas turbine blades. Based on the fundamental studies the authors found preferable alkali removal sorbents, and made clear their alkali removal performance.

  20. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, David C.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  1. Alkali cation specific adsorption onto fcc(111) transition metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mills, J N; McCrum, I T; Janik, M J

    2014-07-21

    The presence of alkali cations in electrolyte solutions is known to impact the rate of electrocatalytic reactions, though the mechanism of such impact is not conclusively determined. We use density functional theory (DFT) to examine the specific adsorption of alkali cations to fcc(111) electrode surfaces, as specific adsorption may block catalyst sites or otherwise impact surface catalytic chemistry. Solvation of the cation-metal surface structure was investigated using explicit water models. Computed equilibrium potentials for alkali cation adsorption suggest that alkali and alkaline earth cations will specifically adsorb onto Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces in the potential range of hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution catalysis in alkaline solutions.

  2. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, D.C.; Mailhe, C.C.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1985-07-10

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  3. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting.

  4. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  5. Pretreatment of corn stover by combining ionic liquid dissolution with alkali extraction.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xinglian; Henderson, Wesley A

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment plays an important role in the efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuels. A highly effective pretreatment method is reported for corn stover which combines mild alkali-extraction followed by ionic liquid (IL) dissolution of the polysaccharides and regeneration (recovery of the polysaccharides as solids). Air-dried, knife-milled corn stover was soaked in 1% NaOH at a moderate condition (90°C, 1 h) and then thoroughly washed with hot deionized (DI) water. The alkali extraction solublized 75% of the lignin and 37% of the hemicellulose. The corn stover fibers became softer and smoother after the alkali extraction. Unextracted and extracted corn stover samples were separately dissolved in an IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C(4) mimCl), at 130°C for 2 h and then regenerated with DI water. The IL dissolution process did not significantly change the chemical composition of the materials, but did alter their structural features. Untreated and treated corn stover samples were hydrolyzed with commercial enzyme preparations including cellulases and hemicellulases at 50°C. The glucose yield from the corn stover sample that was both alkali-extracted and IL-dissolved was 96% in 5 h of hydrolysis. This is a highly effective methodology for minimizing the enzymatic loading for biomass hydrolysis and/or maximizing the conversion of biomass polysaccharides into sugars.

  6. Mechanism and preparation of liquid alkali-free liquid setting accelerator for shotcrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ying; Ding, Bei; Gan, Jiezhong; Guo, Zhaolai; Zheng, Chunyang; Jiang, Haidong

    2017-03-01

    A new alkali-free liquid accelerator for shotcrete was prepared through normal temperature drop process by using the nano activated alumina and the modified alcohol amine as the main raw materials. The effect of alkali-free liquid accelerator on the cement setting time and the mechanical properties of mortar, the effect of the penetration strength on the shotcrete rebound were investigated. And the accelerating mechanism of the as-prepared alkali-free liquid accelerator was also analyzed via XRD and SEM characterization methods. The experimental results indicated that the hydration of C3A was accelerated by the polyamine complexation of accelerator, resulting in forming a large number of acicular ettringite and reducing the amount of Ca(OH)2 crystal, which would not affect the later hydration of cement. When the content of alkali-free liquid accelerator was 6%, the initial setting time and final setting time were less than 3min and 8min respectively, and 1d and 28d compressive strength ratios reached 207.6% and 114.2% respectively; beside that, the shotcrete rebound was very low because of the high penetration strength within 30min.

  7. Alkali-Activated Aluminium-Silicate Composites as Insulation Materials for Industrial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembovska, L.; Bajare, D.; Pundiene, I.; Bumanis, G.

    2015-11-01

    The article reports on the study of thermal stability of alkali-activated aluminium- silicate composites (ASC) at temperature 800-1100°C. ASC were prepared by using calcined kaolinite clay, aluminium scrap recycling waste, lead-silicate glass waste and quartz sand. As alkali activator, commercial sodium silicate solution modified with an addition of sodium hydroxide was used. The obtained alkali activation solution had silica modulus Ms=1.67. Components of aluminium scrap recycling waste (aluminium nitride (AlN) and iron sulphite (FeSO3)) react in the alkali media and create gases - ammonia and sulphur dioxide, which provide the porous structure of the material [1]. Changes in the chemical composition of ASC during heating were identified and quantitatively analysed by using DTA/TG, dimension changes during the heating process were determined by using HTOM, pore microstructure was examined by SEM, and mineralogical composition of ASC was determined by XRD. The density of ASC was measured in accordance with EN 1097-7. ASC with density around 560 kg/m3 and heat resistance up to 1100°C with shrinkage less than 5% were obtained. The intended use of this material is the application as an insulation material for industrial purposes at elevated temperatures.

  8. Mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated fly ash geopolymers.

    PubMed

    Komljenović, M; Bascarević, Z; Bradić, V

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the properties of geopolymer obtained by alkali-activation of fly ash (FA), i.e. the influence of characteristics of the representative group of FA (class F) from Serbia, as well as that of the nature and concentration of various activators on mechanical and microstructural properties of geopolymers. Aqueous solutions of Ca(OH)(2), NaOH, NaOH+Na(2)CO(3), KOH and sodium silicate (water glass) of various concentrations were used as alkali activators. It was established that the nature and concentration of the activator was the most dominant parameter in the alkali-activation process. In respect of physical characteristics of FA, the key parameter was fineness. The geopolymer based on FA with the highest content of fine particles (<43 microm), showed the highest compressive strength in all cases. Regardless of FA characteristics, nature and concentration of the activator, the alkali-activation products were mainly amorphous. The formation of crystalline phases (zeolites) occurred in some cases, depending on the reaction conditions. The highest compressive strength was obtained using sodium silicate. Together with the increase of sodium silicate SiO(2)/Na(2)O mass ratio, the atomic Si/Al ratio in the reaction products was also increased. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, high strength was directly related to the high Si/Al ratio.

  9. [Study on near-infrared absorption mechanism of alkali lignin].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-sheng; Xie, Yi-min; Liu, Huan-bin; Wu, Hong

    2006-06-01

    The results showed that o-quinone and q-quinone had strong absorption while vanillin had nearly no absorption in the 800-900 nm range of near-infrared spectroscopy through the comparison of their near-infrared absorption spectra. It was proved that quinone structure of alkali lignin had strong absorption in the 800-900 nm range of near-infrared spectroscopy. The change in the absorbency of oleander milled wood lignin treated with NaOH and Na2 S before and after is greater than that in the absorbency of ginkgo milled wood lignin treated with NaOH and Na2 S before and after because more quinone structure was formed in the process of oleander milled wood lignin treated with NaOH and Na2 S. The finding well explained that cooking liquor of hardwood was much stronger than that of softwood while their pulp kappa number was very near.

  10. 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-01

    Since 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company has been a major contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and has served as co-operator of the 3718-F Alkali Metal Treatment and Storage Facility, the waste management unit addressed in this closure plan. The closure plan consists of a Part A Dangerous waste Permit Application and a RCRA Closure Plan. An explanation of the Part A Revision (Revision 1) submitted with this document is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. The closure plan consists of 9 chapters and 5 appendices. The chapters cover: introduction; facility description; process information; waste characteristics; groundwater; closure strategy and performance standards; closure activities; postclosure; and references.

  11. Alkali Halide Nanotubes: Structure and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A.; Henkes, Aline Verônica; da Silveira, Enio F.; Nascimento, Marco Antonio Chaer

    2013-01-01

    Accurate density functional theory (DFT) and coupled-cluster (CCSD) calculations on a series of (LiF)n=2,36 neutral clusters suggest that nanotube structures with hexagonal and octagonal transversal cross sections show stability equal to or greater than that of the typical cubic form of large LiF crystals. The nanotube stability was further corroborated by quantum dynamic calculations at room temperature. The fact that stable nanotube structures were also found for other alkali halides (e.g., NaCl and KBr) suggests that this geometry may be widely implemented in material sciences. PMID:24376901

  12. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  13. Intensity Scaling for Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    unphased diode lasers is absorbed in the near IR by atomic potassium, rubidium , or cesium. The gain cell for a DPAL system using a heat pipe design is...demonstrated linear scaling of a rubidium laser to 32 times threshold.3 In our present work, we explore scaling to pump in- tensities of >100kW/cm2. The...of output power. Each alkali atom in the laser medium may be required to cycle as many as 1010 pump photons per second. We demonstrated a rubidium

  14. High power diode pumped alkali vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Krupke, B.

    2008-05-01

    Diode pumped alkali lasers have developed rapidly since their first demonstration. These lasers offer a path to convert highly efficient, but relatively low brightness, laser diodes into a single high power, high brightness beam. General Atomics has been engaged in the development of DPALs with scalable architectures. We have examined different species and pump characteristics. We show that high absorption can be achieved even when the pump source bandwidth is several times the absorption bandwidth. In addition, we present experimental results for both potassium and rubidium systems pumped with a 0.2 nm bandwidth alexandrite laser. These data show slope efficiencies of 67% and 72% respectively.

  15. Electrodes For Alkali-Metal Thermoelectric Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Wheeler, Bob L.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Lamb, James L.; Bankston, C. Perry; Cole, Terry

    1989-01-01

    Combination of thin, porous electrode and overlying collector grid reduces internal resistance of alkali-metal thermoelectric converter cell. Low resistance of new electrode and grid boosts power density nearly to 1 W/cm2 of electrode area at typical operating temperatures of 1,000 to 1,300 K. Conductive grid encircles electrode film on alumina tube. Bus wire runs along tube to collect electrical current from grid. Such converters used to transform solar, nuclear, and waste heat into electric power.

  16. Cathodoluminescence characterization of experimentally shocked alkali feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayama, M.; Nishido, H.; Sekine, T.; Ninagawa, K.

    2009-12-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and microscopy provide important information to know the existence and distribution of defects and trace elements in materials. CL features of materials depend on varieties of luminescence centers, host chemical compositions and crystal fields, all of which are closely related to the genetic processes. Advanced investigations on CL of shock-induced silica minerals have been attempted to estimate their shock pressures, although very few studies have been reported for feldspars. In this study, CL and Raman spectra of experimentally shocked alkali feldspar were measured to evaluate the shock metamorphic effect. A single crystal of sanidine (Or81Ab19) from Eifel, Germany was selected as a starting material for shock recovery experiments at peak pressures of about 10, 20, 32 and 40 GPa by a propellant gun. Polished thin sections of recovered samples were used for CL and Raman measurements. CL was collected in the range from 300 to 800 nm by a secondary electron microscopy-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) system. CL spectra of unshocked sample consist of two emission bands at around 420 nm in blue region and 720 nm in red-IR region assigned to Al-O--Al defect and Fe3+ impurity center, respectively. There are three features between unshocked and shocked sanidine. (1) The blue emission is absent in the shocked samples. (2) The peak wavelength of the red-IR emission shifts to a short wavelength side with an increase in shock pressure up to 20 GPa, suggesting the alteration of the crystal field related to Fe3+ activator by shock metamorphic effect. The Raman spectrum of the unshocked sample exhibits pronounced peaks at around 180, 205, 290, 490 and 520 cm-1. The intensities of these peaks decrease with an increase in shock pressure. The shocked samples above 32 GPa show only two weak peaks at around 490 and 580 cm-1 which were also observed in maskelynite in Martian meteorites. Shock pressure causes partly breaking of the framework structure

  17. Impact of elevated CO2 on a Florida Scrub-oak Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Bert G

    2013-01-01

    Since May of 1996, we have conducted an experiment in Florida Scrub Oak to determine the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and climate change on carbon, water, and nutrient cycling in this important terrestrial ecosystem. Florida scrub oak is the name for a collective of species occupying much of the Florida peninsula. The dominant tree species are oaks and the dwarf structure of this community makes it an excellent system in which to test hypotheses regarding the potential capacity of woody ecosystems to assimilate and sequester anthropogenic carbon. Scrub oak is fire dependent with a return cycle of 10-15 years, a time which would permit an experiment to follow the entire cycle. Our site is located on Cape Canaveral at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. After burning in 1995, we built 16 open top chambers, half of which have been fumigated with pure CO2 sufficient to raise the concentration around the plants to 350 ppm above ambient. In the intervening 10 years we have non destructively measured biomass of shoots and roots, ecosystem gas exchange using chambers and eddy flux, leaf photosynthesis and respiration, soil respiration, and relevant environmental factors such as soil water availability, temperature, light, etc. The overwhelming result from analysis of our extensive data base is that elevated CO2 has had a profound impact on this ecosystem that, overall, has resulted in increased carbon accumulation in plant shoots, roots and litter. Our measurements of net ecosystem gas exchange also indicate that the ecosystem has accumulated carbon much in excess of the increased biomass or soil carbon suggesting a substantial export of carbon through the porous, sandy soil into the water table several meters below the surface. A major discovery is the powerful interaction between the stimulation of growth, photosynthesis, and respiration by elevated CO2 and other environmental factors particularly precipitation and nitrogen. Our measurements focused attention on

  18. 50 CFR 21.46 - Depredation order for depredating scrub jays and Steller's jays in Washington and Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section between August 1 and December 1 in any year, in the Washington counties of Clark, Cowlitz, and Lewis; and the Oregon counties of Benton, Clackamas, Lane, Linn, Marion, Multnomah, Polk, Washington, and Yamhill. (b) That scrub jays and Steller's jays taken pursuant to this section shall not...

  19. Buffer additives for lime/limestone slurry scrubbing synthesis, mass transfer, and degradation. Final report Oct 80-Oct 83

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, G.T.; Smith, R.J.; Weems, W.T.; Hsiang, M.W.; Lee, T.

    1984-04-01

    The report gives results of experimental studies, performed with buffer additives, useful for flue gas desulfurization by lime/limestone slurry scrubbing. The most attractive acids for further testing are adipic, mixtures of waste dibasic organic, sulfosuccinic, hydroxypropionic, and hydroxyacetic acids.

  20. Element pool changes within a scrub-oak ecosystem after 11 years of elevated CO2 exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated CO2 effects on soil element pool size and fluxes are equivocal. We measured above and belowground pools of non-nitrogen macro and micronutrients in a Florida scrub-oak ecosystem exposed to twice-ambient CO2 concentrations for 11 years. We quantified element pools in above ground biomass of ...

  1. Long-term trends in annual reproductive output of the scrub hickory: factors influencing variation in size of nut crop.

    PubMed

    Layne, James N; Abrahamson, Warren G

    2004-09-01

    Reproductive output by the Florida-endemic scrub hickory (Carya floridana Sargent) was studied over a 28-yr period in three south-central Florida vegetation associations: southern ridge sandhill, sand pine scrub, and scrubby flatwoods. The objectives were to describe multi-annual patterns of variation in nut production, identify factors involved in this variation, and investigate differences in patterns among associations. Peaks (higher values bracketed by lower values) in nut production occurred in 7 yr in sandhill and scrub and 8 yr in scrubby flatwoods during the 22-yr period for which we had continuous data. Of the total of 22 peaks in the three associations combined, 17 occurred at intervals of 2 or 3 yr, and peaks occurred in the same years in 18 of the 22 cases. Periodicities of nut production generated by spectral analyses (Fourier transforms) generally agreed with the observed peaks. Numbers of nuts per bearing ramet, proportion of ramets bearing nuts, ramet height, and light availability were positively correlated with nut production. Weather variables, specifically winter rainfall and minimum spring temperatures, accounted for a total of about one-quarter to one-half of the variance in nut production depending on the vegetation association. Following a prescribed fire in a sandhill plot, scrub hickory quickly regained fruit production, but over a 5-yr period following the fire nut production by ramets in the largest size class was reduced compared with the unburned control plot.

  2. Simulation of Electron Cloud Density Distributions in RHIC Dipoles at Injection and Transition and Estimates for Scrubbing Times

    SciTech Connect

    He,P.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.

    2009-01-02

    In this report we summarize electron-cloud simulations for the RHIC dipole regions at injection and transition to estimate if scrubbing over practical time scales at injection would reduce the electron cloud density at transition to significantly lower values. The lower electron cloud density at transition will allow for an increase in the ion intensity.

  3. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of an outbreak with scrub typhus in previously unrecognized areas, Jiangsu province, China 2013.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianli; Tan, Zhongming; Ren, Dafei; Zhang, Xiang; He, Yilin; Bao, Changjun; Liu, Dapeng; Yi, Qianhua; Qian, Weijuan; Yin, Jun; Xu, Zhen; Yu, Chunxia; Wang, Shenjiao; Wu, Bin; Yang, Haiyu; Yue, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Wendong; Zhu, Yefei; Zhou, Minghao; Tang, Fenyang

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has emerged recently in Jingjiang City, China where the disease had not been known to exist. We analyzed epidemiological data, clinical characteristics and risk factors of scrub typhus outbreak in Jingjiang City, 2013. The 271 clinically diagnosed patients were predominantly farmers 50 to 69 years old and the peak of onset was early to mid-November. For the 187 laboratory-confirmed cases, the major clinical manifestations of the patients were fever (100%), eschar (88.2%), rash (87.7%), chills (87.7%), and headache (66.8%). A community-based case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of the scrub typhus outbreak. Bundling or moving waste straw (OR=9.0, 95%CI 4.6-17.8) and living at the edge of village (OR=0.6, 95%CI 0.4-0.9) posed the highest risks through single- and multi-variable conditional logistic regression. Phylogenetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene showed that the new cluster (GB-C2) and the previously reported cluster (GB-C1) of O. tsutsugamushi were associated with this outbreak. These findings are useful for the establishment of a detailed control strategy for scrub typhus infection in previously unrecognized areas of Jiangsu Province, China.

  4. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Swift, W.M.; Lee, S.H.D.; Jonke, A.A.

    1980-07-01

    This work supports the program to develop methods for the cleanup of combustion gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors so that the cleaned gases can be used for downstream gas turbines. This report presents the results of studies to develop granular sorbents for removing gaseous alkali metal compounds from high-temperature high-pressure combustion gases. Activated bauxite, one of the sorbents found to be effective, can be reused after removal of the alkali compound by a water-leaching process. Results of testing of this leaching process are reported. An experimental appartus for testing sorbents at high pressure has been built; results of preliminary tests are reported.

  5. Alkali sorber (RABSAM), September 1, 1990--August 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a regenerable activated-bauxite sorber alkali monitor that requires no high-temperature/high-pressure sampling line for the reliable in situ measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in the exhaust from the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of coal. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  7. Self-discharge in bimetallic cells containing alkali metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, M. S.; Hesson, J. C.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of thermally regenerative bimetallic cells with alkali metal anodes shows a relation between the current drawn and the rate of discharge under open-circuit conditions. The self-discharge rate of the cell is due to the dissolution and ionization of alkali metal atoms in the fused-salt electrolyte

  8. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Svitlyk, V.; Pomjakushina, E.; Puzniak, R.; Conder, K.

    2016-07-01

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2-y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations.

  9. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.

    2015-11-01

    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  10. Measurement of alkali vapor in PFBC flue gas and its control by a fixed granular bed of activated bauxite

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A fixed granular-bed sorber, with regenerable activated bauxite as the sorbent, for the control of the alkali vapor in the flue gas produced during pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) of coal is being developed. In a gas stream closely simulating the actual PFBC flue gas, activated bauxite is shown to capture NaCl vapor by (1) chemical fixation of the vapor with the intrinsic clay minerals, probably to form thermally stable, water-insoluble sodium aluminosilicates and (2) chemical conversion of NaCl vapor into a condensed-phase sodium sulfate, which has a much lower vapor pressure than does NaCl. The latter predominates the capture process, and the captured sodium sulfate can be easily removed by simple water-leaching to restore the porosity of activated bauxite for reuse. A high-temperature (less than or equal to 900/sup 0/C) and high-pressure (less than or equal to 10 atm) laboratory-scale, fixed, granular-bed alkali sorber has been operated with the Argonne National Laboratory PFBC combustor to (1) measure the alkali vapor concentration in the PFBC flue gas on a real-time, on-line basis, and (2) demonstrate the alkali sorber for the control of alkali vapor from an actual PFBC flue gas. The alkali (Na + K) vapor concentration in particulate filtered hot flue gas was measured to be <10 ppbW with the Ames analyzer. The same measurement with the APST was higher between 90 to 170 ppbW. Therefore, the possibility of sink for sodium vapor in the PFBC/alkali sorber system must be considered. 32 refs.

  11. Aqueous Biphasic Systems for the Synthesis of Formates by Catalytic CO2 Hydrogenation: Integrated Reaction and Catalyst Separation for CO2 -Scrubbing Solutions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Martin; Blas Molinos, Beatriz; Westhues, Christian; Franciò, Giancarlo; Leitner, Walter

    2017-03-22

    Aqueous biphasic systems were investigated for the production of formate-amine adducts by metal-catalyzed CO2 hydrogenation, including typical scrubbing solutions as feedstocks. Different hydrophobic organic solvents and ionic liquids could be employed as the stationary phase for cis-[Ru(dppm)2 Cl2 ] (dppm=bis-diphenylphosphinomethane) as prototypical catalyst without any modification or tagging of the complex. The amines were found to partition between the two phases depending on their structure, whereas the formate-amine adducts were nearly quantitatively extracted into the aqueous phase, providing a favorable phase behavior for the envisaged integrated reaction/separation sequence. The solvent pair of methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) and water led to the most practical and productive system and repeated use of the catalyst phase was demonstrated. The highest single batch activity with a TOFav of approximately 35 000 h(-1) and an initial TOF of approximately 180 000 h(-1) was achieved in the presence of NEt3 . Owing to higher stability, the highest productivities were obtained with methyl diethanolamine (Aminosol CST 115) and monoethanolamine (MEA), which are used in commercial scale CO2 -scrubbing processes. Saturated aqueous solutions (CO2 overpressure 5-10 bar) of MEA could be converted into the corresponding formate adducts with average turnover frequencies up to 14×10(3)  h(-1) with an overall yield of 70 % based on the amine, corresponding to a total turnover number of 150 000 over eleven recycling experiments. This opens the possibility for integrated approaches to carbon capture and utilization.

  12. Accurate measurements of Primary Standard Gas Mixtures (PSMs) of CH4 in synthetic and scrubbed real air analyzed by two independent measuring techniques: CRDS and GC-FID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Edgar; Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Choteau, Tiphaine; Wielgosz, Robert Ian

    2014-05-01

    In 2013 the BIPM organized the international comparison CCQM-K82 designed to evaluate the level of comparability between National Metrology Institutes (NMI) preparative capabilities for gravimetric methane in air primary reference mixtures in the range (1800-2200) nmol mol-1. This required the development of a measurement facility to compare standards, which was validated prior to the comparison with a suite of ten standards of methane in air prepared gravimetrically by NIST. The mixtures were intentionally prepared in two different air matrices, half in scrubbed real air and half in synthetic, to demonstrate that the use of synthetic air based standards did not introduced any bias for the measurement of atmospheric methane concentrations. The BIPM facility is based on two analytical techniques used under repeatability conditions, namely, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) and gas chromatography (GC-FID). GC-FID measurements were performed following a traditional protocol including ratios to a stable control cylinder, giving a typical relative uncertainty of 0.025%. CRDS measurements were performed with the same protocol, but also in a much shorter process that did not use any control cylinder, allowing the reduction of the relative uncertainty to 0.01%. Using the ten standards as references to construct a calibration line, all protocols resulted in a good linearity with very similar residuals. In particular, no effect of the air matrix was observed, as could be especially expected in CRDS due to different pressure broadening parameters, demonstrating the close matching between synthetic and scrubbed real air matrices.

  13. Effects of alkali treatments on Ag nanowire transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Kang, Jun-gu; Eom, Tae-yil; Moon, Bongjin; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we employ various alkali materials (alkali metals with different base strengths, and ammonia gas and solution) to improve the conductivity of silver nanowire (Ag NW)-networked films. The alkali treatment appears to remove the surface oxide and improve the conductivity. When applied with TiO2 nanoparticles, the treatment appears more effective as the alkalis gather around wire junctions and help them weld to each other via heat emitted from the reduction reaction. The ammonia solution treatment is found to be quick and aggressive, damaging the wires severely in the case of excessive treatment. On the other hand, the ammonia gas treatment seems much less aggressive and does not damage the wires even after a long exposure. The results of this study highlight the effectiveness of the alkali treatment in improving of the conductivity of Ag NW-networked transparent conductive films.

  14. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  15. Evaluation of the adsorption capacity of alkali-treated waste materials for the adsorption of sulphamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Lisha

    2012-01-01

    The present work is to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of a hazardous antibacterial, sulphamethoxazole, from the wastewater by the Adsorption technique. The Adsorption technique was used to impound the dangerous antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya (DOS), an agricultural waste, and Water Hyacinth (WH), a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10 to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents, i.e. DOS, Alkali-treated DOS, WH and Alkali-treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. DOS showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali-treated Deoiled Soya exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity, which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali-treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 and 12 kJ mol, which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Kinetic study reveals that the reaction follows pseudo-second-order rate equation. Moreover, mass transfer studies performed for the ongoing processes show that the mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali-treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90-98%. About 87-97% of sulphamethoxazole was recovered from column by desorption.

  16. Alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide double alkoxide precursors to alkali metal yttrium oxide nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Neville, Michael L.; Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Cramer, Roger

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a series of alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide ([AY(ONep)4]) compounds were developed as precursors to alkali yttrium oxide (AYO2) nanomaterials. The reaction of yttrium amide ([Y(NR2)3] where R=Si(CH3)3) with four equivalents of H-ONep followed by addition of [A(NR2)] (A=Li, Na, K) or Ao (Ao=Rb, Cs) led to the formation of a complex series of AnY(ONep)3+n species, crystallographically identified as [Y2Li33-ONep)(μ3-HONep)(μ-ONep)5(ONep)3(HONep)2] (1), [YNa23-ONep)4(ONep)]2 (2), {[Y2K33-ONep)3(μ-ONep)4(ONep)2(ηξ-tol)2][Y4K24-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4]•ηx-tol]} (3), [Y4K24-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4] (3a), [Y2Rb34-ONep)3(μ-ONep)6] (4), and [Y2Cs46-O)(μ3-ONep)63-HONep)2(ONep)2x-tol)4]•tol (5). Compounds 1–5 were investigated as single source precursors to AYOx nanomaterials following solvothermal routes (pyridine, 185 °C for 24h). The final products after thermal processing were found by powder X-ray diffraction experiments to be Y2O3 with variable sized particles based on transmission electron diffraction. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies indicated that the heavier alkali metal species were present in the isolated nanomaterials.

  17. An outbreak of scrub typhus in Bishnupur district of Manipur, India, 2007.

    PubMed

    Singh, S Ibungochouba; Devi, K Purnamala; Tilotama, Rajkumari; Ningombam, Somorjit; Gopalkrishna, Y; Singh, Thokchom Biren; Murhekar, Manoj V

    2010-07-01

    Seasonal outbreaks of febrile illness with eschar have been occurring in Bishnupur district of Manipur since 2001. The aetiology of these outbreaks was unknown. We investigated a similar outbreak in 2007 in order to confirm the aetiology and identify its risk factors. We identified 38 patients who met the case definition (attack rate: 3.4/1000), including two deaths (case fatality ratio = 5.3%). Half of the female patients had eschar on the perineal area. The clinical picture and Weil-Felix positivity suggested that the outbreak was due to scrub typhus. The disease was more common among individuals who defecated or urinated in the jungle or bushy areas from a squatting position. We recommended educating the community about the common symptoms of the disease, encouraging them to seek early treatment from public health facilities and suggested that they be taught to avoid defecating/urinating from a squatting position in the jungle.

  18. Estimating Occupancy of Gopher Tortoise (Gorpherus polyphemus) Burrows in Coastal Scrub and Slash Pine Flatwoods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1991-01-01

    One hundred twelve plots were established in coastal scrub and slash pine flatwoods habitats on the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to evaluate relationships between the number of burrows and gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) density. All burrows were located within these plots and were classified according to tortoise activity. Depending on season, bucket trapping, a stick method, a gopher tortoise pulling device, and a camera system were used to estimate tortoise occupancy. Correction factors (% of burrows occupied) were calculated by season and habitat type. Our data suggest that less than 20% of the active and inactive burrows combined were occupied during seasons when gopher tortoises were active. Correction factors were higher in poorly-drained areas and lower in well-drained areas during the winter, when gopher tortoise activity was low. Correction factors differed from studies elsewhere, indicating that population estimates require correction factors specific to the site and season to accurately estimate population size.

  19. STS-101 crew returns from Launch Pad 39A after launch was scrubbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-101 crew returns to the Operations and Checkout Building after the launch was scrubbed due to cross winds at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility gusting above 20 knots. Flight rules require cross winds at the SLF to be no greater than 15 knots in case of a contingency Shuttle landing. Shown leaving the Astrovan are (left to right) Mission Specialists James S. Voss and Yuri Usachev of Russia; Pilot Scott J. Horowitz; and Commander James D. Halsell Jr. in the doorway. Weather conditions will be reevaluated for another launch try on April 25. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station. The mission is expected to last about 10 days.

  20. STS-101 crew returns from Launch Pad 39A after launch was scrubbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-101 crew returns to the Operations and Checkout Building after the launch was scrubbed due to cross winds at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility gusting above 20 knots. Flight rules require cross winds at the SLF to be no greater than 15 knots in case of a contingency Shuttle landing. Shown at left is Commander James D. Halsell Jr. At right is astronaut James Wetherbee, deputy director of the Johnson Space Center. Weather conditions will be reevaluated for another launch try on April 25. The mission will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies and to prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk. This will be the third assembly flight to the Space Station. The mission is expected to last about 10 days.

  1. Regenerable device for scrubbing breathable air of CO2 and moisture without special heat exchanger equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tepper, E. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The device concerns the circulation of cabin air through canisters which absorb and adsorb carbon dioxide, together with excess moisture, and return the scrubbed air to the cabin for recirculation. A coating on an inert substrate in granular form absorbs and adsorbs the impurities at standard temperatures and pressures, but desorbs such impurities at low pressures (vacuum) and standard temperatures. This fact is exploited by making the device in a stack of cells consisting of layers or cells which are isolated from one another flow-wise and are connected to separate manifolds and valving systems into two separate subsets. A first subset may be connected for the flow breathable air therethrough until the polyethyleneimine of its cells is saturated with CO2 and H2O. During the same period the second subset of cells is manifolded to a vacuum source.

  2. The use of seawater as a carbon dioxide scrubbing medium for underwater life support

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckols, M.L.

    1996-09-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that seawater could be used to scrub carbon dioxide form cabin air in underwater habitats. Seawater has the capacity to absorb carbon dioxide in quantities directly dependent on a number of variables, the most significant of which is the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide in the gas. The absorption capacities of freshwater and seawater are determined in this study in relation to the variables of carbon dioxide partial pressure, water temperature and pH for use in simple engineering design calculations. A conceptual carbon dioxide scrubber is proposed which involves the direct absorption of carbon dioxide in small concentrations in diffused air by a pressurized seawater tower. This conceptual design can potentially offer a low-energy seawater carbon dioxide scrubber to be externally or internally mounted on an underwater habitat.

  3. Alkaline scrubbing of in-situ oil shale retort offgas at Geokinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Taback, H.; Goldstick, R.; Bates, E.

    1985-08-01

    The paper discusses the use of EPA's mobile wet scrubber on a 200-acfm slipstream of Geokinetics' retort offgas to investigate the H2S removal efficiency and selectivity (percent H2S removal/percent CO2 removal) as a function of liquid/gas contact time, alkaline solution OH(minus) concentration, and the specific scrubbing chemical. A venturi and spray tower were used to produce contact times of about 0.003 and 0.2 second, respectively. Three alkaline solutions (NaOH, KOH, and NH4OH) were employed on each contactor at various concentrations for a total of 22 runs. To analyze these results and provide design criteria for future alkaline scrubbers a sophisticated computer model employing the penetration theory for liquid-phase mass transfer was developed.

  4. Single-field sterile-scrub, preparation, and dwell for laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; McCutcheon, Stacey Paris; McCutcheon, John G; Charvonia, Beth E

    2012-01-01

    Type VII laparoscopic hysterectomy is classified as a "clean-contaminated" procedure because the surgery involves contact with both the abdominal and vaginal fields. Because the vulva has traditionally been perceived as a separate but contaminated field, operating room guidelines have evolved to require that surgeons gloved and gowned at the abdominal field either avoid contact with the urethral catheter, the uterine manipulator, and the introitus or change their gloves and even re-gown after any contact with those fields. In the belief that the perception of the vaginal field as contaminated stems from inadequate preoperative preparation instructions, we have developed a rigorous abdomino-perineo-vaginal field preparation technique to improve surgical efficiency and prevent surgical site infections. This thorough scrub, preparation, and dwell technique enables the entire abdomino-perineo-vaginal field to be safely treated as a single sterile field while maintaining a low rate of surgical site infection, and should be further investigated in randomized studies.

  5. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  6. Measurement of alkali vapors in PFBC exhaust. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    Under the auspices of the US Department of Energy through Morgantown Energy Technology Center, laboratory-scale studies were conducted to develop a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA) for use in an in situ regenerable activated-bauxite sorber alkali monitor (RABSAM). The RABSAM is a sampling probe that does not require a high-temperature/high-pressure sampling line for reliable measurement of alkali vapor in the exhaust of pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC). The RABA can be generated from the commercial grade activated bauxite by deactivating (or reacting) clay impurities in activated bauxite with NaCl or LiCl vapor. Under the atmospheric deactivation process, however, only a partial deactivation of clay impurities is achieved, probably due to limited access of NaCl or LiCl vapor into micropores of activated bauxite. Because LiCl vapor chemically reacts with alumina substrate of activated bauxite, resulting in pore enlargement, loss of pore surface area, and a decrease in the subsequent NaCl-vapor sorption capacity of the RABA, NaCl is a more suitable deactivation agent than LiCl vapor. In a simulated PFBC exhaust environment, the RABA behaves similarly to fresh activated bauxite in capturing NaCl vapor from the simulated PFBC exhaust. Based on results of this work, we recommend generating chemically and thermally stable RABA by deactivating clay impurities of commercial grade activated bauxite with NaCl or KCl vapor under simulated PFBC exhaust environment, that is, high-temperature, high-pressure, and high concentrations of NaCl or KCl vapor in simulated PFBC exhaust compositions.

  7. Combined heat recovery and dry scrubbing for MWCs to meet the new EPA guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Finnis, P.J.; Heap, B.M.

    1997-12-01

    Both the UK and US Municipal Waste Combuster (MWC) markets have undergone upgraded regulatory control. In the UK, the government`s Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) regime, enforced by the 1990 Environmental Protection Act (EPA) Standard IPR5/3 moved control of emissions of MWCs from local councils to the government Environmental Authority (EA). Existing MWCs had until December 1, 1996 to complete environmental upgrades. Simultaneously, the European Community (EC) was finalizing more stringent legislation to take place in the year 2001. In the US, the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue emission guidelines for new and existing facilities. Existing facilities are likely to have only until the end of 1999 to complete upgrades. In North America, Procedair Industries Corp had received contracts from Kvaerner EnviroPower AB, for APC systems of four new Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) fluid bed boilers that incorporated low outlet temperature economizers as part of the original boiler equipment. The Fayetteville, North Carolina facility was designed for 200,000 tpy. What all these facilities have in common is low economizer outlet temperatures of 285{degrees}F coupled with a Total Dry Scrubbing System. MWC or RDF facilities using conventional spray dryer/fabric filter combinations have to have economizer gas outlet temperatures about 430{degrees}F to allow for evaporation of the lime slurry in the spray dryer without the likelihood of wall build up or moisture carry over. Since the Totally Dry Scrubbing System can operate with economizer gas outlet temperatures about 285{degrees}F, the added energy available for sale from adding low outlet temperature economizer heat recovery can be considerable. This paper focuses on Procedair`s new plant and retrofit experience using `Dry Venturi Reactor/Fabric Filter` combinations with the lower inlet temperature operating conditions.

  8. Are surgical scrubbing and pre-operative disinfection of the skin in orthopaedic surgery reliable?

    PubMed

    Salvi, M; Chelo, C; Caputo, F; Conte, M; Fontana, C; Peddis, G; Velluti, C

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to establish the actual effectiveness of pre-surgical disinfection of the patient and surgeon's hands. We evaluated bacterial density and composition on the skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy and the left hand of two surgeons after standard disinfection with povidone-iodine. Three samples were taken after the first 6-min scrub in the first surgical operation from the periungual space of the 1 degrees finger, from the interdigital space between the 2 degrees and 3 degrees fingers and from the transverse palmar crest of the left hand of two surgeons for seven consecutive surgical sessions, for a total of 42 samples, and two samples from the pre-patellar skin and from the popliteal skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, for a total of 30 samples. Pre-surgical handwashing and disinfection procedures were identical in each case. Pre-surgical disinfection of the patient's skin with povidone-iodine was shown to be completely effective, with 100% of samples negative. Samples taken from the interdigital space and the palmar crest (100% of samples negative) demonstrated the efficacy of disinfection of the surgeon's hands with povidone-iodine, while the periungual space was contaminated in 50% of the samples. The bacterial strains isolated belong to the staphylococcus genus in 100% of the cases, with pathogenic strains in 29.6% of the cases. Standard pre-surgical disinfection of skin in areas easily accessible to the disinfectant is sufficient in itself to guarantee thorough sanitization. Standard scrubbing of the surgeon's hands is insufficient in eliminating bacterial contamination, including pathogenic germs, in the periungual space, where it is probably difficult for the disinfectant to come into contact with the skin.

  9. Alkali oxide-tantalum oxide and alkali oxide-niobium oxide ionic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. S.; Parker, H. S.; Brower, W. S.; Minor, D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for new cationic conducting phases in alkali-tantalate and niobate systems. The phase equilibrium diagrams were constructed for the six binary systems Nb2O5-LiNbO3, Nb2O5-NaNbO3, Nb2O5-KNbO3, Ta2O5-NaTaO3, Ta2O5-LiTaO3, and Ta2O5-KTaO3. Various other binary and ternary systems were also examined. Pellets of nineteen phases were evaluated (by the sponsoring agency) by dielectric loss measurements. Attempts were made to grow large crystals of eight different phases. The system Ta2O5-KTaO3 contains at least three phases which showed peaks in dielectric loss vs. temperature. All three contain structures related to the tungsten bronzes with alkali ions in non-stoichiometric crystallographic positions.

  10. Time-resolved photoemission study of the electronic structure and dynamics of chemisorbed alkali atoms on Ru(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengmin; Wang, Cong; Cui, Xuefeng; Wang, Yanan; Argondizzo, Adam; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and photoexcitation dynamics of alkali atoms (Rb and Cs) chemisorbed on transition-metal Ru(0001) single-crystal surface by angle- and time-resolved multiphoton photoemission. Three- and four-photon photoemission (3PP and 4PP) spectroscopic features due to the σ and π resonances arising from the n s and n p states of free alkali atoms are observed from ˜2 eV below the vacuum level in the zero-coverage limit. As the alkali coverage is increased to a maximum of 0.02 monolayers, the resonances are stabilized by formation of a surface dipole layer, but in contrast to alkali chemisorption on noble metals, both resonances form dispersive bands with nearly free-electron mass. Density functional theory calculations attribute the band formation to substrate-mediated interaction involving hybridization with the unoccupied d bands of the substrate. Time-resolved measurements quantify the phase and population relaxation times in the three-photon photoemission (3PP) process via the σ and π resonances. Differences between alkali-atom chemisorption on noble and transition metals are discussed.

  11. Comparison of two single-use scrub suits in terms of effect on air-borne bacteria in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Tammelin, A; Blomfeldt, A-M

    2017-03-01

    A low level of air-borne bacteria in the operating room air can be achieved if all staff wear clothes made of low-permeability material (i.e. clean air suits). This study investigated if there was a difference in protective efficacy between two single-use scrubs made of polypropylene by testing them during routinely performed orthopaedic surgical procedures. No significant difference in the colony-forming unit count/m(3) air was found between the two scrubs, so the choice can be based on which scrub type is more comfortable for staff.

  12. Volcanic Origin of Alkali Halides on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The recent observation of NaCl (gas) on Io confirms our earlier prediction that NaCl is produced volcanically. Here we extend our calculations by modeling thermochemical equilibrium of O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, and I as a function of temperature and pressure in a Pele-like volcanic gas with O/S/Na/Cl/K = 1.518/1/0.05/0.04/0.005 and CI chondritic ratios of the other (as yet unobserved) alkalis and halogens. For reference, the nominal temperature and pressure for Pele is 1760 plus or minus 210 K and 0.01 bars based on Galileo data and modeling.

  13. Ionic alkali halide XUV laser feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.T.; Gylys, V.T.; Bower, R.D.; Harris, D.G.; Blauer, J.A.; Turner, C.E.; Hindy, R.N.

    1989-11-10

    The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of a select set of ionic alkali halide XUV laser concepts by obtaining the relevant kinetic and spectroscopic parameters required for a proof-of-principle and conceptual design. The proposed lasers operate in the 80--200 nm spectral region and do not require input from outside radiation sources for their operation. Frequency up-conversion and frequency mixing techniques and therefore not considered in the work to be described. An experimental and theoretical study of a new type of laser operating in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region has been conducted. The lasing species are singly ionized alkali halide molecules such as Rb{sup 2+}F{sub {minus}}, Rb{sup 2+}Br{sup {minus}} and Cs{sup 2+}F{sup {minus}}. These species are similar in electronic structure to the rare gas halide excimers, such as XeF and Krf, except that the ionic molecules emit at wavelengths of 80--200 nm, much shorter than the conventional rare-gas halide excimer laser. The radiative lifetime of these molecules are typically near 1 ns, which is about an order of magnitude shorter than that for rare-gas halide systems. The values of the cross section for stimulated emission are on the order of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}cm{sup 2}. Because of the fundamental similarity to existing UV lasers, these systems show promise as a high power, efficient XUV lasers. 55 refs., 50 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Alkali elemental and potassium isotopic compositions of Semarkona chondrules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of K isotope ratios in 28 Semarkona chondrules with a wide range of petrologic types and bulk compositions as well as the compositions of CPX-mesostasis pairs in 17 type I Semarkona chondrules, including two chondrules with radial alkali zonation and 19 type II chondrules. Despite the wide range in K/Al ratios, no systematic variations in K isotopic compositions were found. Semarkona chondrules do not record a simple history of Rayleigh-type loss of K. Experimentally determined evaporation rates suggest that considerable alkali evaporation would have occurred during chondrule formation. Nevertheless, based on Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients, the alkali contents of the cores of most chondrules in Semarkona were probably established at the time of final crystallization. However, Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients also show that alkali zonation in type I Semarkona chondrules was produced by entry of alkalis after solidification, probably during parent body alteration. This alkali metasomatism may have gone to completion in some chondrules. Our preferred explanation for the lack of systematic isotopic enrichments, even in alkali depleted type I chondrule cores, is that they exchanged with the ambient gas as they cooled. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2005.

  15. Bi-alkali antimonide photocathode growth: An X-ray diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, Susanne; Wong, Jared; Feng, Jun; Karkare, Siddharth; Padmore, Howard; Ruiz-Osés, Miguel; Smedley, John; Muller, Erik; Ding, Zihao; Gaowei, Mengjia; Attenkofer, Klaus; Liang, Xue; Xie, Junqi; Kühn, Julius

    2016-07-21

    Bi-alkali antimonide photocathodes are one of the best known sources of electrons for high current and/or high bunch charge applications like Energy Recovery Linacs or Free Electron Lasers. Despite their high quantum efficiency in visible light and low intrinsic emittance, the surface roughness of these photocathodes prohibits their use as low emittance cathodes in high accelerating gradient superconducting and normal conducting radio frequency photoguns and limits the minimum possible intrinsic emittance near the threshold. Also, the growth process for these materials is largely based on recipes obtained by trial and error and is very unreliable. In this paper, using X-ray diffraction, we investigate the different structural and chemical changes that take place during the growth process of the bi-alkali antimonide material K2CsSb. Our measurements give us a deeper understanding of the growth process of alkali-antimonide photocathodes allowing us to optimize it with the goal of minimizing the surface roughness to preserve the intrinsic emittance at high electric fields and increasing its reproducibility.

  16. Bi-alkali antimonide photocathode growth: An X-ray diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, Susanne; Wong, Jared; Feng, Jun; Karkare, Siddharth; Padmore, Howard; Ruiz-Osés, Miguel; Smedley, John; Muller, Erik; Ding, Zihao; Gaowei, Mengjia; Attenkofer, Klaus; Liang, Xue; Xie, Junqi; Kühn, Julius

    2016-07-21

    Bi-alkali antimonide photocathodes are one of the best known sources of electrons for high current and/or high bunch charge applications like Energy Recovery Linacs or Free Electron Lasers. Despite their high quantum efficiency in visible light and low intrinsic emittance, the surface roughness of these photocathodes prohibits their use as low emittance cathodes in high accelerating gradient superconducting and normal conducting radio frequency photoguns and limits the minimum possible intrinsic emittance near the threshold. Also, the growth process for these materials is largely based on recipes obtained by trial and error and is very unreliable. In this paper, using X-ray diffraction, we investigate the different structural and chemical changes that take place during the growth process of the bi-alkali antimonide material K2CsSb. Our measurements give us a deeper understanding of the growth process of alkali-antimonide photocathodes allowing us to optimize it with the goal of minimizing the surface roughness to preserve the intrinsic emittance at high electric fields and increasing its reproducibility.

  17. Coordination effect-regulated CO2 capture with an alkali metal onium salts/crown ether system

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; Jiang, Deen; Zhu, Xiang; Tian, Chengcheng; Brown, Suree; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; He, Liang-Nian; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A coordination effect was employed to realize equimolar CO2 absorption, adopting easily synthesized amino group containing absorbents (alkali metal onium salts). The essence of our strategy was to increase the steric hindrance of cations so as to enhance a carbamic acid pathway for CO2 capture. Our easily synthesized alkali metal amino acid salts or phenolates were coordinated with crown ethers, in which highly sterically hindered cations were obtained through a strong coordination effect of crown ethers with alkali metal cations. For example, a CO2 capacity of 0.99 was attained by potassium prolinate/18-crown-6, being characterized by NMR, FT-IR, and quantum chemistry calculations to go through a carbamic acid formation pathway. The captured CO2 can be stripped under very mild conditions (50 degrees C, N-2). Thus, this protocol offers an alternative for the development of technological innovation towards efficient and low energy processes for carbon capture and sequestration.

  18. Theoretical analysis of oxygen diffusion at startup in an alkali metal heat pipe with gettered alloy walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    The diffusion of oxygen into, or out of, a gettered alloy exposed to oxygenated alkali liquid metal coolant, a situation arising in some high temperature heat transfer systems, was analyzed. The relation between the diffusion process and the thermochemistry of oxygen in the alloy and in the alkali metal was developed by making several simplifying assumptions. The treatment is therefore theoretical in nature. However, a practical example pertaining to the startup of a heat pipe with walls of T-111, a tantalum alloy, and lithium working fluid illustrates the use of the figures contained in the analysis.

  19. Removal of ethylene and bioaerosol by chlorine dioxide using a chemical scrubbing system in a fruit and vegetable storage facility.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsu-Hua; Wu, Li-Chun; You, Ya-Ting; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2009-02-15

    Ethylene (C2H4) and bioaerosol are commonly present in the inside atmosphere of postharvest fruit and vegetable storage facilities, which may affect the aging of postharvest fruit and human health. We have assessed the feasibility of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as the scrubbing solution in a chemical scrubbing tower for simultaneously removing C2H4 and bioaerosol emissions from a gas stream. Parameters such as the ClO2concentration, contact time, and liquid-to-gas (L/G) ratio were examined with the aim of determining the optimal operating conditions. Using the system reported here, the optimal C2H4 removal efficiency was 99.5% when 500 ppm ClO2 was used at a reaction time of 30-60 s under a continuous non-recycle ClO2 flow mode. In terms of C2H4 removal, a greater L/G resulted in a higher C2H4 removal efficiency up to the optimal ratio of 12.5. In terms of the simultaneous removal of C2H4 and bioaerosol, the removal efficiency of C2H4 was 99.2% and those for the bioaersols of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 99.92 and 99.10%, respectively, under a continuous non-recycle flow mode. Our results also indicate that oxidation reduction potential (ORP) can be a valuable indicator for the timing of the replacement of the scrubbing solution in the system under a continuous recycle flow mode. Additional confirmation of the feasibility of the ORP as an indicator of C2H4 and bioaerosol removal in situ was obtained in a 3-month test of our system in continuous recycle flow mode with the periodical replacement of scrubbing solution, ClO2. The removal efficiencies for C2H4, bacterial and fungus aerosol, and total hydrocarbon compounds (THC) were 83.4, 96.8, 96.1, and 76.5%, respectively. Our results prove that ClO2 is an excellent scrubbing solution in the chemical scrubbing tower for the removal of C2H4 emissions and bioaerosol. We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of this system in a fruit and vegetable storage facility.

  20. Near atomically smooth alkali antimonide photocathode thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun; Karkare, Siddharth; Nasiatka, James; Schubert, Susanne; Smedley, John; Padmore, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Nano-roughness is one of the major factors degrading the emittance of electron beams that can be generated by high efficiency photocathodes, such as the thermally reacted alkali antimonide thin films. In this paper, we demonstrate a co-deposition based method for producing alkali antimonide cathodes that produce near atomic smoothness with high reproducibility. We calculate the effect of the surface roughness on the emittance and show that such smooth cathode surfaces are essential for operation of alkali antimonide cathodes in high field, low emittance radio frequency electron guns and to obtain ultracold electrons for ultrafast electron diffraction applications.

  1. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.K.

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  2. Control of alkali species in gasification systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turn, S.; Kinoshita, C.; Ishimura, D. Zhou, J.; Hiraki, T.; Masutani, S.

    2000-07-13

    Gas-phase alkali metal compounds contribute to fouling, slagging, corrosion, and agglomeration problems in energy conversion facilities. One mitigation strategy applicable at high temperature is to pass the gas stream through a fixed bed sorbent or getter material, which preferentially absorbs alkali via physical adsorption or chemisorption. This report presents results of an experimental investigation of high-temperature alkali removal from a hot filtered gasifier product gas stream using a packed bed of sorbent material. Two getter materials, activated bauxite and emathlite, were tested at two levels of space time by using two interchangeable reactors of different internal diameters. The effect of getter particle size was also investigated.

  3. Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Virkar, Anil V.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1983-11-04

    An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

  4. Isolation of Bacillus sp. strains capable of decomposing alkali lignin and their application in combination with lactic acid bacteria for enhancing cellulase performance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Choi, Dubok; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2014-01-01

    Effective biological pretreatment method for enhancing cellulase performance was investigated. Two alkali lignin-degrading bacteria were isolated from forest soils in Japan and named CS-1 and CS-2. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that CS-1 and CS-2 were Bacillus sp. Strains CS-1 and CS-2 displayed alkali lignin degradation capability. With initial concentrations of 0.05-2.0 g L(-1), at least 61% alkali lignin could be degraded within 48 h. High laccase activities were observed in crude enzyme extracts from the isolated strains. This result indicated that alkali lignin degradation was correlated with laccase activities. Judging from the net yields of sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis, the most effective pretreatment method for enhancing cellulase performance was a two-step processing procedure (pretreatment using Bacillus sp. CS-1 followed by lactic acid bacteria) at 68.6%. These results suggest that the two-step pretreatment procedure is effective at accelerating cellulase performance.

  5. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas: activated bauxite sorbent regeneration. Quarterly report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Lee, S.H.D.

    1981-05-01

    This work supports the program to develop methods for the cleanup of combustion gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors so that the cleaned gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines. Presented here are the results of studies to develop granular sorbents for removing gaseous alkali metal compounds from these combustion gases in a granular-bed filter. Activated bauxite bed material can be reused after the alkali compound is removed by a water-leaching process. In experiments to study the kinetics of leaching, the effects of adsorbed NaCl loading, leaching temperature, and the leaching water to sorbent ratio on the rate of leaching are reported. Also reported are water retention in bauxite after leaching and the effect of volatile alkalis in makeup activated bauxite on the alkali level in flue gas expanded in the gas turbine.

  6. Wavelength diversity in optically pumped alkali vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perram, Glen P.

    2017-01-01

    Alternative wavelengths for optically pumped alkali vapor lasers have been developed using single photon excitation of higher lying P-states, stimulated Raman processes, two-photon excitation of S and D states, and electric quadruple excitation on S-D transitions. Two photon excitation of Cs 72D leads to competing and cascade lasing producing red and infrared lasers operating on the D-P transitions, followed by ultraviolet, blue, the standard near infrared DPAL transitions operating on P-S transitions. The S-D pump transitions are fully bleached at pump intensities exceeding 1 MW/cm2, allowing for lasing transitions that terminate on the ground state. The kinetics of these systems are complex due to competition for population inversion among the many optical transitions. An optically pumped mid-infrared rubidium pulsed, mirrorless laser has also been demonstrated in a heat pipe along both the 62P3/2 - 62S1/2 transition at 2.73 μm and the 62P1/2 - 62S1/2 transition at 2.79 μm with a maximum energy of 100 nJ. Performance improves dramatically as the rubidium vapor density is increased, in direct contradiction with the prior work. No scaling limitations associated with energy pooling or ionization kinetics have been observed. Practical application for infrared counter measures depends on the further development of blue diode pump sources. Finally, stimulated electronic Raman scattering and hyper-Raman processes in potassium vapor near the D1 and D2 lines have been observed using a stable resonator and pulsed laser excitation. First and second order Stokes and anti-Stokes lines were observed simultaneously and independently for a pump laser tuning range exceeding 70 cm-1. When the pump is tuned between the K D1 and D2 lines, an efficient hyper-Raman process dominates with a slope efficiency that exceeds 10%. Raman shifted laser may be useful as a target illuminator or atmospheric compensation beacon for a high power diode pumped alkali laser.

  7. Sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2012-04-01

    Pretreatment processes are key technologies for generating fermentable sugars based on lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we developed a novel method for empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) using sequential pretreatment with dilute acid and then alkali. Dilute sulfuric acid was used in the first step, which removed 90% of the hemicellulose and 32% of the lignin, but left most of the cellulose under the optimum pretreatment condition. Sodium hydroxide was then applied in the second step, which extracted lignin effectively with a 70% delignification yield, partially disrupting the ordered fibrils of the EPFBF and thus enhancing the enzyme digestibility of the cellulose. The sequentially pretreated biomass consisted of 82% cellulose, less than 1% hemicellulose, and 30% lignin content afterward. The pretreated biomasses morphologically revealed rough, porous, and irregularly ordered surfaces for enhancing enzyme digestibility. These results indicate that the sequentially acid/alkali-pretreated EPFBF could be broadly useful as a novel biomass.

  8. Enhanced saccharification of rice straw and hull by microwave-alkali pretreatment and lignocellulolytic enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anita; Tuteja, Shuchi; Singh, Namita; Bishnoi, Narsi R

    2011-01-01

    In this study, statistical design of experiments was employed to plan experiments and optimize the microwave-alkali pretreatment of rice straw and hulls. Process parameters important in pretreatment of biomass were identified by a Plackett-Burman design and the parameters with significant effects were optimized using a box-behnken design (BBD). Experimental results show that alkali concentration (AC), irradiation time (IT) and substrate concentration (SC) were main factors governing the saccharification of rice straw and hulls. Optimum conditions of pretreatment were AC 2.75%, IT 22.50 min and SC 30 g/L, as optimized by BBD. The growth and production of lignocellulolytic enzymes from Aspergillus heteromorphus, solid state fermentation (SSF) was performed using rice straw and hulls pretreated under optimum conditions. Cellulases and xylanase reached the highest enzyme activity at 6th day of fermentation while maximum manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase activity occurred at 12th day.

  9. Three-body recombination in cold helium-helium-alkali-metal-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Suno, Hiroya; Esry, B. D.

    2009-12-15

    Three-body recombination in helium-helium-alkali-metal collisions at cold temperatures is studied using the adiabatic hyperspherical representation. The rates for the three-body recombination processes {sup 4}He+{sup 4}He+X->{sup 4}He+{sup 4}HeX and {sup 4}He+{sup 4}He+X->{sup 4}He{sub 2}+X, with X={sup 7}Li, {sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 85}Rb, and {sup 133}Cs, are calculated at nonzero collision energies by including not only zero total angular momentum, J=0, states but also J>0 states. The three-body recombination rates show a relatively weak dependence on the alkali-metal species, differing from each other only by about one order of magnitude, except for the {sup 4}He-{sup 4}He-{sup 23}Na system.

  10. Impurity detection in alkali-metal vapor cells via nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, B.; Ishikawa, K.

    2016-11-01

    We use nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of alkali metals sealed in glass vapor cells to perform in situ identification of chemical contaminants. The alkali Knight shift varies with the concentration of the impurity, which in turn varies with temperature as the alloy composition changes along the liquidus curve. Intentional addition of a known impurity validates this approach and reveals that sodium is often an intrinsic contaminant in cells filled with distilled, high-purity rubidium or cesium. Measurements of the Knight shift of the binary Rb-Na alloy confirm prior measurements of the shift's linear dependence on Na concentration, but similar measurements for the Cs-Na system demonstrate an unexpected nonlinear dependence of the Knight shift on the molar ratio. This non-destructive approach allows monitoring and quantification of ongoing chemical processes within the kind of vapor cells which form the basis for precise sensors and atomic frequency standards.

  11. Recovery of alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud by the calcification-carbonation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Ting-an; Wang, Yan-xiu; Lü, Guo-zhi; Zhang, Wei-guang

    2016-03-01

    Red mud produced in the Bayer process is a hazardous solid waste because of its high alkalinity; however, it is rich in valuable components such as titanium, iron, and aluminum. In this study, a novel calcification-carbonation method was developed to recover alkali and alumina from Bayer red mud under mild reaction conditions. Batch experiments were performed to evaluate the potential effects of important parameters such as temperature, amount of CaO added, and CO2 partial pressure on the recovery of alkali and alumina. The results showed that 95.2% alkali and 75.0% alumina were recovered from red mud with decreases in the mass ratios of Na2O to Fe2O3 and of Al2O3 to Fe2O3 from 0.42 and 0.89 to 0.02 and 0.22, respectively. The processed red mud with less than 0.5wt% Na2O can potentially be used as a construction material.

  12. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  13. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, Lamar T.

    1988-01-01

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  14. Accuracy of AccessBio Immunoglobulin M and Total Antibody Rapid Immunochromatographic Assays for the Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Median no. of Median (range) reciprocal Infection group or specimens days of fever Verification scrub typhus lgM titer on Geographical source...five for the murine typhus group, seven for the leptospirosis group, nine for the malaria group, four for the dengue fever group, and five for the...diagnoses of a variety of acute tropical fevers prevalent in Southeast Asia suggest that the AccessBio scrub typhus IgM ICT is suitably accurate for

  15. Dry Scrubbing of Aluminum Cell Gases: Design and Operating Characteristics of a Novel Gas/Solids Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, W. D.; Reeve, Martin R.; Dethloff, F. H.; Leinum, Magne

    1982-11-01

    Engineering details of a pilot plant reactor are described. It comprises a vertical cylindrical vessel with a tangential bottom gas entry. Countercurrent spiraling gas-solids flow is achieved. Reacted solids can be withdrawn from the bottom or the top using a rising axial gas jet. The reactor was evaluated by testing in a dry scrubber system treating 14,000 m3/h of gas from prebake cells. At inlet concentrations of 30-60 mg/m3 it achieved 99.5% scrubbing efficiency with aluminas of a surface area of 45-80 m2/g at feed rates considerably less than cell requirements. Potential benefits are: 1) control of metal purity by segregation of scrubber catch to selected cells, 2) scrubbing high HF inlet concentrations at full feed rate, and 3) meeting more stringent working environment and stack emission requirements.

  16. Effect of cavitation on removal of alkali elements from coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivalli, H.; Nirmal, L.; Nagarajan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The main impurities in coal are sulphur, ash and alkali. On combustion, the volatile forms of these impurities are either condensed on the boilers, or emitted in the form of potentially hazardous gases. The alkali elements present in coal help the fly ash particles adhere to boiler surfaces by providing a wet surface on which collection of these particles can take place. Use of ultrasonic techniques in cleaning of coal has stirred interest among researchers in recent times. Extraction of alkali elements by cavitation effect using low-frequency ultrasound, in the presence of reagents (HNO3 and H2O2) is reported in this paper. Powdered coal was dissolved with the reagent and exposed to ultrasonic fields of various frequencies at different time intervals. The treated solution is filtered and tested for alkali levels.

  17. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

    1995-08-22

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  18. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H.; Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R.

    2015-11-02

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  19. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1995-01-01

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  20. Hall Determination of Atomic Radii of Alkali Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    I will propose here an alternative method for determining atomic radii of alkali metals based on the Hall measurements of their free electron densities and the knowledge of their crystal structure. (Contains 2 figures.)