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Sample records for alkali scrubbing solution

  1. Process for defoaming acid gas scrubbing solutions and defoaming solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, E.R.; Robbins, M.L.

    1980-06-17

    The foam in acid gas scrubbing solutions created during an acid gas scrubbing process is reduced or eliminated by the addition of certain polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene block copolymers as defoaming agents. The defoaming agents are particularly effective when the acid gas scrubbing solution contains an amine having a large hydrophobic moiety.

  2. Separation of iodine from mercury containing scrubbing solutions

    DOEpatents

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive iodines can be recovered from a nitric acid scrub solution containing mercuric nitrate by passing a current through the scrub solution to react the iodine with the mercuric nitrate to form mercuric iodate which precipitates out. The mercuric iodate can then be reacted to recover the radioiodine for further processing into a form suitable for long-term storage and to recover the mercury for recycling.

  3. Treatment of odorous sulphur compounds by chemical scrubbing with hydrogen peroxide--stabilisation of the scrubbing solution.

    PubMed

    Charron, Isabelle; Couvert, Annabelle; Laplanche, Alain; Renner, Christophe; Patria, Lucie; Requieme, Benoît

    2006-12-15

    To slow down the hydrogen peroxide decomposition in basic aqueous conditions, the addition of stabilizers and co-stabilizers in the scrubbing solution was investigated. Results found with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) were quite promising but several problems still remained. Based on these observations, this study focused on the research of a better stabilizer. Several ways were investigated: the use of silicate solutions employed in pulp industries, the addition of co-stabilizers to sodium silicate, or the use of an another stabilizer (the poly-alpha-hydroxyacrylic acid). Experiments revealed that the poly-alpha-hydroxyacrylic acid is the best stabilizing compound.

  4. Ion Pairing in Alkali Nitrate Electrolyte Solutions.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Yi Qin

    2016-03-10

    In this study, we investigate the thermodynamics of alkali nitrate salt solutions, especially the formation of contact ion pairs between alkali cation and nitrate anion. The ion-pairing propensity shows an order of LiNO3 < NaNO3 < KNO3. Such results explain the salt activity coefficients and suggest that the empirical "law of matching water affinity" is followed by these alkali nitrate salt solutions. The spatial patterns of contact ion pairs are different in the three salt solutions studied here: Li(+) forms the contact ion pair with only one oxygen of the nitrate while Na(+) and K(+) can also be shared by two oxygens of the nitrate. In reproducing the salt activity coefficient using Kirkwood-Buff theory, we find that it is essential to include electronic polarization for Li(+) which has a high charge density. The electronic continuum correction for nonpolarizable force field significantly improves the agreement between the calculated activity coefficients and their experimental values. This approach also improves the performance of the force field on salt solubility. From these two aspects, this study suggests that electronic continuum correction can be a promising approach to force-field development for ions with high charge densities. PMID:26901167

  5. Ion Pairing in Alkali Nitrate Electrolyte Solutions.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Yi Qin

    2016-03-10

    In this study, we investigate the thermodynamics of alkali nitrate salt solutions, especially the formation of contact ion pairs between alkali cation and nitrate anion. The ion-pairing propensity shows an order of LiNO3 < NaNO3 < KNO3. Such results explain the salt activity coefficients and suggest that the empirical "law of matching water affinity" is followed by these alkali nitrate salt solutions. The spatial patterns of contact ion pairs are different in the three salt solutions studied here: Li(+) forms the contact ion pair with only one oxygen of the nitrate while Na(+) and K(+) can also be shared by two oxygens of the nitrate. In reproducing the salt activity coefficient using Kirkwood-Buff theory, we find that it is essential to include electronic polarization for Li(+) which has a high charge density. The electronic continuum correction for nonpolarizable force field significantly improves the agreement between the calculated activity coefficients and their experimental values. This approach also improves the performance of the force field on salt solubility. From these two aspects, this study suggests that electronic continuum correction can be a promising approach to force-field development for ions with high charge densities.

  6. Comparison of the germicidal activity of prepodyne and betadine surgical scrub solutions.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, L; Knight, R A

    1975-05-01

    Two iodophoric surgical scrubs soaps, Prepodyne and Betadine, were evaluated for bacteriocidal activity in a modified phenol coefficient test. A standard inoculum of each of 18 species of microorganisms was mixed with a 1:8 dilution of each iodophor and subcultured after one, three, and five minutes of exposure. Complete cidal activty was exhibited by both Prepodyne and Betadine. Twenty-five subjects were tested in hand washing experiments using Betadine and Prepodyne surgical scrub solutions. Quantitative fingerprint cultures were obtained before and after hand washing. Betadine resulted in an 85.2 per cent plus or minus 24 per cent decrease; Prepodyne, and 83.6 per cent plus or minus 21 per cent decrease. It can'be concluded from this data that there is no difference in bacteriocidal effectiveness between the two scrub soaps.

  7. An investigation on NO removal by wet scrubbing using NaClO2 seawater solution.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhitao; Yang, Shaolong; Zheng, Dekang; Pan, Xinxiang; Yan, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to investigate the NO removal by wet scrubbing using NaClO2 seawater solution in a cyclic scrubbing mode. Results show that, when the concentration of NaClO2 in scrubbing solution is higher than 10 mM, a complete removal of NO can be achieved during the cyclic scrubbing process. The breakthrough time for seawater with 15 mM NaClO2 is enhanced by 34.3 % compared with that for NaClO2 freshwater. The extension of the breakthrough time for NaClO2 seawater is mainly ascribed to the improved utilization of NaClO2 in the solution. The good buffering ability of seawater could suppress the acidic decomposition of NaClO2 into ClO2 effectively. The analysis of reaction products indicates that the main anions in the spent liquor are chloride ions and nitrate ions. The calculation of NaClO2 utilization according to the ion chromatography also agrees well with the experimental results of breakthrough times. PMID:27386234

  8. Scrubbing liquors for nitrogen tetroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Once it was determined that the wet scrubbing concept was the most practical solution to the N2O4 emission problem, it became important to optimize the composition of the scrubbing liquor. Several reagents were cited in the literature as being advantageous in scrubbing NO2. Experiments were conducted on a model wet scrubber in order to verify and rank the performances of these scrubbing liquors. The most efficient scrubbing liquor found experimentally was a 10% sodium sulfite solution.

  9. Cellulose aerogels from aqueous alkali hydroxide-urea solution.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Kimura, Satoshi; Wada, Masahisa; Kuga, Shigenori; Zhang, Lina

    2008-01-01

    Highly porous and strong cellulose aerogels were prepared by gelation of cellulose from aqueous alkali hydroxide/urea solution, followed by drying with supercritical CO2. Their morphology, pore structure, and physical properties were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption measurements, UV/Vis spectrometry, and tensile tests. The cellulose hydrogel was composed of interconnected about 20 nm wide. By using supercritical CO2 drying, the network structure in the hydrogel was well preserved in the aerogel. The results are preliminary but demonstrate the ability of this method to give cellulose aerogels of large surface areas (400-500 m2 g(-1)) which may be useful as adsorbents, heat/sound insulators, filters, catalyst supports, or carbon aerogel precursors. PMID:18605678

  10. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete (II) expansion and microstructure of concrete microbar

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Duyou . E-mail: duyoulu@njut.edu.cn; Mei Laibao; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Mo Xiangyin; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-06-15

    The effect of the type of alkalis on the expansion behavior of concrete microbars containing typical aggregate with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity was studied. The results verified that: (1) at the same molar concentration, sodium has the strongest contribution to expansion due to both ASR and ACR, followed by potassium and lithium; (2) sufficient LiOH can completely suppress expansion due to ASR whereas it can induce expansion due to ACR. It is possible to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to clarify the ACR contribution when ASR and ACR may coexist. It has been shown that a small amount of dolomite in the fine-grained siliceous Spratt limestone, which has always been used as a reference aggregate for high alkali-silica reactivity, might dedolomitize in alkaline environment and contribute to the expansion. That is to say, Spratt limestone may exhibit both alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactivity, although alkali-silica reactivity is predominant. Microstructural study suggested that the mechanism in which lithium controls ASR expansion is mainly due to the favorable formation of lithium-containing less-expansive product around aggregate particles and the protection of the reactive aggregate from further attack by alkalis by the lithium-containing product layer.

  11. Structure and properties of alizarin complex formed with alkali metal hydroxides in methanol solution.

    PubMed

    Jeliński, Tomasz; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Quantum chemical computations were used for prediction of the structure and color of alizarin complex with alkali metal hydroxides in methanolic solutions. The color prediction relying on the single Gaussian-like band once again proved the usefulness of the PBE0 density functional due to the observed smallest color difference between computed and experimentally derived values. It was found that the alkali metal hydroxide molecules can bind to the two oxygen atoms of both hydroxyl groups of alizarin or to one of these atoms and the oxygen atom from the keto group in a complex with three methanol molecules. This means that two electronic transitions need to be taken into account when considering the spectra of the studied complexes. The resulting bond lengths and angles are correlated with the properties of the alkali metal atoms. The molar mass, the atomic radius, and the Pauling electronegativity of studied metals are quite accurate predictors of the geometric properties of hydroxide complexes with alizarin in methanol solution. Graphical abstract The spectra of the neutral and monoanionic form of alizarin together with color changes resulting from addition of different metal hydroxides and represented in CIE color space. PMID:27178415

  12. Structure and properties of alizarin complex formed with alkali metal hydroxides in methanol solution.

    PubMed

    Jeliński, Tomasz; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Quantum chemical computations were used for prediction of the structure and color of alizarin complex with alkali metal hydroxides in methanolic solutions. The color prediction relying on the single Gaussian-like band once again proved the usefulness of the PBE0 density functional due to the observed smallest color difference between computed and experimentally derived values. It was found that the alkali metal hydroxide molecules can bind to the two oxygen atoms of both hydroxyl groups of alizarin or to one of these atoms and the oxygen atom from the keto group in a complex with three methanol molecules. This means that two electronic transitions need to be taken into account when considering the spectra of the studied complexes. The resulting bond lengths and angles are correlated with the properties of the alkali metal atoms. The molar mass, the atomic radius, and the Pauling electronegativity of studied metals are quite accurate predictors of the geometric properties of hydroxide complexes with alizarin in methanol solution. Graphical abstract The spectra of the neutral and monoanionic form of alizarin together with color changes resulting from addition of different metal hydroxides and represented in CIE color space.

  13. Ultraviolet emission from porous silicon photosynthesized in aqueous alkali fluoride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Kaoru; Tomioka, Katsuhiro; Adachi, Sadao

    2006-07-01

    Stable ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence (PL) has been observed at room temperature in porous silicon (PSi) fabricated by photoetching in aqueous alkali fluoride solutions. The aqueous solutions used are 1 M NaF and 1 M KF. They give an alkaline reaction caused by partial hydrolysis. The PL peaks at {approx}3.3 eV have a full width at half maximum of {approx}0.1 eV, which is much smaller than those reported previously ({>=}0.5 eV). Spectral analyses suggest that both quantum confinement and surface passivation effects enable the observation of UV emission in NaF- and KF-prepared PSi samples.

  14. Extraction of DBP and MBP from actinides: application to the recovery of actinides from TBP-sodium carbonate scrub solutions. [Aralex process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Mason, G.W.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Leonard, R.A.; Bernstein, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory scale counter-current extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, utilizes 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP) from acidified Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP to complex actinides and thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process is relatively simple and involves inexpensive and readily available chamicals. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. One such application is the removal of detergents from laundry or clean-up solutions contaminated with actinides.

  15. Low-frequency dynamics of aqueous alkali chloride solutions as probed by terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kann, Z. R.; Skinner, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Terahertz (far infrared) spectroscopy provides a useful tool for probing both ionic motions in solution and the effect of ionic solutes on the dynamics of the solvent. In this study, we calculate terahertz spectra of aqueous alkali chloride solutions using classical but novel (the water model includes three-body interactions, the ion parameterization is non-standard, and the dipole surface is polarizable) molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated spectra compare reasonably well to experimental spectra. Decomposition of the calculated spectra is used to gain a deeper understanding of the physical phenomena underlying the spectra and the connection to, for instance, the vibrational density of states for the ions. The decomposed results are also used to explain many of the cation-dependent trends observed in the experimental spectra.

  16. Low-frequency dynamics of aqueous alkali chloride solutions as probed by terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kann, Z R; Skinner, J L

    2016-06-21

    Terahertz (far infrared) spectroscopy provides a useful tool for probing both ionic motions in solution and the effect of ionic solutes on the dynamics of the solvent. In this study, we calculate terahertz spectra of aqueous alkali chloride solutions using classical but novel (the water model includes three-body interactions, the ion parameterization is non-standard, and the dipole surface is polarizable) molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated spectra compare reasonably well to experimental spectra. Decomposition of the calculated spectra is used to gain a deeper understanding of the physical phenomena underlying the spectra and the connection to, for instance, the vibrational density of states for the ions. The decomposed results are also used to explain many of the cation-dependent trends observed in the experimental spectra. PMID:27334173

  17. Thermal gelation of chitosan in an aqueous alkali-urea solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Chong; Han, Qiuyan; Guan, Ying; Zhang, Yongjun

    2014-11-01

    Chitosan can readily dissolve in a precooled aqueous alkali-urea solution, a solvent that has previously been developed to dissolve cellulose. Upon heating, the resulting solutions quickly become a gel. The thermal gelling of the chitosan solutions was studied by rheology. Initially, a temperature ramp test was used to determine the gelation temperatures (Tgel). It was found that Tgel does not significantly change with chitosan concentration. The in situ formed gels liquefy on cooling, but the liquefication temperature (Tliq) is considerably lower than Tgel, indicating a large hysteresis in the cooling process. In addition, Tliq decreases with increasing polymer concentration. The kinetics of thermal gelation was then studied by isothermal curing. The solution gels were cured not only at temperatures above the Tgel, which was determined in the temperature ramp test, but also at temperatures far below the Tgel, provided that the solution is cured at the temperature for a long enough time. The solutions become gel faster when cured at higher temperatures. When cured at the same temperature, higher concentration solutions become gel faster. The apparent activation energy for the thermal gelation of the chitosan solutions was determined to be ∼200 kJ mol(-1). Physical gels of pure chitosan were obtained by repeated soaking the in situ formed gels in water. Preliminary test shows that new gels are highly biocompatible. PMID:25182118

  18. Molecular dispersion energy parameters for alkali and halide ions in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, S.; Deublein, S.; Hasse, H.; Vrabec, J.

    2014-01-28

    Thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions containing alkali and halide ions are determined by molecular simulation. The following ions are studied: Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Rb{sup +}, Cs{sup +}, F{sup −}, Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, and I{sup −}. The employed ion force fields consist of one Lennard-Jones (LJ) site and one concentric point charge with a magnitude of ±1 e. The SPC/E model is used for water. The LJ size parameter of the ion models is taken from Deublein et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 084501 (2012)], while the LJ energy parameter is determined in the present study based on experimental self-diffusion coefficient data of the alkali cations and the halide anions in aqueous solutions as well as the position of the first maximum of the radial distribution function of water around the ions. On the basis of these force field parameters, the electric conductivity, the hydration dynamics of water molecules around the ions, and the enthalpy of hydration is predicted. Considering a wide range of salinity, this study is conducted at temperatures of 293.15 and 298.15 K and a pressure of 1 bar.

  19. The effects of lithium hydroxide solution on alkali silica reaction gels created with opal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Lyndon D.; Beaudoin, James J.; Grattan-Bellew, Patrick

    2004-04-01

    The reaction of Nevada opal with calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide solutions was investigated. In addition, opal was exposed to a combined solution of these three hydroxides. The progress of the three reactions was followed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), {sup 29}Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results indicated the presence of a low-angle peak exclusive to the lithium-based reactions. The NMR results suggested a change in the silicate structure in the presence of lithium. These techniques indicated that the reaction of the alkali with the opal starting material is inhibited and perhaps stopped in the presence of lithium hydroxide. SEM revealed that the morphology of the reaction products on the surface of the reacted opal grains is markedly different invariably. It was concluded that evidence to support the theory of a protective layer exists and that the nature of the layer varies with ion type.

  20. Properties of alkali-solubilized collagen solution crosslinked by N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yihui; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wentao; Li, Guoying

    2011-03-01

    The effect of N-hydroxysuccinimide activated adipic acid (NHS-AA) on the properties of alkali-solubilized collagen solutions was examined. The residual amino group content in crosslinked collagen, determined by trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) assay, was decreased with increasing NHS-AA concentration. The results from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) indicated that the maximum denaturation temperature ( T d) of crosslinked collagen solution was about 4.2°C higher than that of un-crosslinked collagen solution (36.6°C). Moreover, the values of storage modulus ( G'), loss modulus ( G″) and complex viscosity ( η*), obtained by means of dynamic frequency sweeps, were increased as NHS-AA concentration added up to 1.5 mM, and then decreased slightly when further increased NHS-AA concentration. Besides, for collagen solution crosslinked with 1.5 mM NHS-AA, dynamic denaturation temperature ( T dd) was about 1.1°C lower than T d (40.8°C), and the Arrhenius-type time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle was applied to yield the activation energy to be 474.4 kJmol-1.

  1. Structural properties and adsorption capacity of holocellulose aerogels synthesized from an alkali hydroxide-urea solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Gu-Joong; Kim, Dae-Young; Hwang, Jae-Hyun; Kang, Joo-Hyon

    2014-05-01

    A tulip tree was used to synthesize a holocellulose aerogel from an aqueous alkali hydroxide-urea solution with the substitution of an organic solvent followed by freeze-drying. For comparison, the synthesized holocellulose aerogels were divided into two groups according to the source of the hydrogel, an upper suspended layer and a bottom concentrated layer of the centrifuged solution of cellulose and NaOH/urea solvents. We investigated the effects of the temperature of the pre-cooled NaOH/urea solution ( i.e., dissolution temperature) on the pore structure and the adsorption capacity of the holocellulose aerogel. A nano-fibrillar network structure of the holocellulose aerogel was observed, with little morphological difference in pore structure for different dissolution temperatures. Both micropores and mesopores were observed in the holocellulose aerogel. The specific surface area of the holocellulose aerogel was generally greater at lower dissolution temperatures. In a series of adsorption tests using methylene blue, the holocellulose aerogel showed the greatest adsorption capacity at the lowest dissolution temperature tested (-2°C). However, the dissolution temperature generally had little effect on the adsorption capacity. The holocellulose aerogel produced from the upper suspended layer of the centrifuged hydrogel solution showed a greater porosity and adsorption capacity than the one produced from the bottom concentrated layer. Overall, the aerogel made by utilizing a delignified tulip tree display a high surface area and a high adsorption property, indicating its possible application in eco-friendly adsorption materials.

  2. [Fluorescence enhancement of flavoxate hydrochloride in alkali solution and its application in pharmaceutical analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-hong; Sun, Chong-mei; Wei, Yong-ju

    2015-10-01

    Fluorescence enhancement reaction of flavoxate hydrochloride (FX) in strong alkali solution was studied, the mechanism of the reaction was investigated, and a novel fluorimetric method for analysis of FX in drug sample was established. FX has no intrinsic fluorescence, but it can slowly produce fluorescence in strong alkali solution. Heating can promote the fluorescence enhancement reaction. In 3D fluorescence spectra of the decomposition product of FX, two fluorescence peaks, located respectively at excitation wavelengths λex/ emission wavelength λem =223/410 nm, and 302/410 nm, were observed. Using quinine sulfate as a reference, fluorescence quantum yield of the decomposition product was measured to be 0.50. The structural characteriza- tion and spectral analysis of the decomposition product reveal that ester bond hydrolysis reaction of FX is firstly occurred during heating process, forming 3-methylflavone-8-carboxylic acid (MFA), then a cleavage reaction of the γ-pyrone ring of MFA occurred, producing α, β-unsaturated ketone. This product includes adjacent hydroxyl benzoic acid group in its molecule, which can form intramolecular hydrogen bond under alkaline condition, so that increase the conjugate degree and enhance the rigidity of the molecule, and thereby cause fluorescence enhancement. Based on this fluorescence enhancement reaction, a fluorimetric method was proposed for the determination of FX. A linear calibration curve covered the concentration range 0.020 3-0.487 µg · mL. The regression equation was I(F) = 23.9 + 5357.3 c, with correlation coefficient r = 0.999 7 (n = 8), detection limit D = 1.1 ng · mL(-1). The method was applied to the analysis of FX tablets, with a spiked recovery rate of 100.2%. The reliability of the method was verified by a UV-spectrophotometric method.

  3. [Fluorescence enhancement of flavoxate hydrochloride in alkali solution and its application in pharmaceutical analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-hong; Sun, Chong-mei; Wei, Yong-ju

    2015-10-01

    Fluorescence enhancement reaction of flavoxate hydrochloride (FX) in strong alkali solution was studied, the mechanism of the reaction was investigated, and a novel fluorimetric method for analysis of FX in drug sample was established. FX has no intrinsic fluorescence, but it can slowly produce fluorescence in strong alkali solution. Heating can promote the fluorescence enhancement reaction. In 3D fluorescence spectra of the decomposition product of FX, two fluorescence peaks, located respectively at excitation wavelengths λex/ emission wavelength λem =223/410 nm, and 302/410 nm, were observed. Using quinine sulfate as a reference, fluorescence quantum yield of the decomposition product was measured to be 0.50. The structural characteriza- tion and spectral analysis of the decomposition product reveal that ester bond hydrolysis reaction of FX is firstly occurred during heating process, forming 3-methylflavone-8-carboxylic acid (MFA), then a cleavage reaction of the γ-pyrone ring of MFA occurred, producing α, β-unsaturated ketone. This product includes adjacent hydroxyl benzoic acid group in its molecule, which can form intramolecular hydrogen bond under alkaline condition, so that increase the conjugate degree and enhance the rigidity of the molecule, and thereby cause fluorescence enhancement. Based on this fluorescence enhancement reaction, a fluorimetric method was proposed for the determination of FX. A linear calibration curve covered the concentration range 0.020 3-0.487 µg · mL. The regression equation was I(F) = 23.9 + 5357.3 c, with correlation coefficient r = 0.999 7 (n = 8), detection limit D = 1.1 ng · mL(-1). The method was applied to the analysis of FX tablets, with a spiked recovery rate of 100.2%. The reliability of the method was verified by a UV-spectrophotometric method. PMID:26837181

  4. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  5. Studies of the surgical scrub.

    PubMed

    Tucci, V J; Stone, A M; Thompson, C; Isenberg, H D; Wise, L

    1977-09-01

    A study comparing the relative efficacy of a five versus a ten minute surgical scrub was carried out using random sampling of personnel scrubbing for routine scheduled hospital surgical procedures. Scrubbing for five minutes was found to be equally as effective as scrubbing for ten minutes. Betadine was compared to pHisoHex as a scrubbing agent and found to be statistically more effective in degerming the skin following a five minute scrub. As a result of this study, a routine preoperative surgical scrub of five minutes' duration, using Betadine as the scrubbing agent, is recommended.

  6. Washing of Petroleum and Arsenic Contaminated Soil with Ultrasound and Alkali Phosphate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung Hwa; Kim, Jae Gon; Cho, Yong-chan; Chon, Chul-Min; Nam, In-Hyun; Keum, Mi Jung

    2015-04-01

    Soil washing of fine textured soil has been a challenging remedial strategy due to its low remediation efficiency. We adapted ultrasound and dispersion solution to increase the remediation efficiency of the soil washing. The ultrasound and dispersion agent may enhance the dispersion of the aggregate into individual particles and may enhance release of contaminants from the aggregate. We collected the arsenic (As) contaminated silt loam soil from a smelting site, spiked with 1% of diesel and incubated for 6 months. We tested the dispersion rate and the release of diesel with the incubated soil at various pH and concentrations of orthophosphate, pyrophosphate and hexametaphosphate with or without the ultrasound of 28 kHz and 400 W. The As concentrations of coarse (> medium silt) and fine (solution. The application of ultrasound sharply increased the dispersion rate and diesel release comparing with no ultrasound. The optimum condition of the soil washing was turned out to be pH 11_10 mM Na-hexametaphosphate with the ultrasound. The concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon of the incubated soil reduced from 3101.3 mg kg-1 to 14.0 mg kg-1 after 10 minute washing at the optimum condition. The fine fraction had much higher As concentration than the coarse fraction: 44.4 mg kg-1 for the fine fraction and 14.4 mg kg-1 for the coarse fraction. The results of this study indicate that the ultrasound and alkali phosphate solution increase the soil washing efficiency and can be a promising technology for the remediation of fine textured contaminated soils. Key Words : Ultrasound, Phosphate solution, Soil washing, Mixed contaminants

  7. The Origin of Alkali and Ocean Island Basalts: Contradictions and Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, K.; Langmuir, C. H.; Goldstein, S. L.; Lagatta, A.

    2001-12-01

    OIB are generally thought to be derived as melts of subducted ocean crust. Nd and Sr isotopes are consistent with this model and require long term source depletion. But this model is difficult to reconcile with OIB chemical compositions. (1) Sun and Hanson (1974), in the first attempt at trace element inversion, showed that the OIB mantle source is LREE enriched . But recycled MORB are LREE depleted. (2) OIB incompatible element ratios are not consistent with recycled MORB converted to eclogite or pyroxenite, which would melt to large extents in the upwelling mantle, and highly incompatible elements would not be fractionated. (3). Primitive OIB have magnesian major element compositions that suggest equilibration with peridotite, and are generally inconsistent with being partial melts of recycled MORB. (4) Volatiles are released during subduction, so recycled materials should be volatile poor, and primitive noble gas signitures should be absent. Instead, OIB are volatile- and 3He-rich. These are the geochemical aspects of the OIB Paradox. There are also geological contradictions. While OIB are believed to come from plumes derived from recycled ocean crust, the OIB magma type is not restricted to hot spot locations. OIB-like lavas occur throughout the ocean floor, in and behind convergent margins, in continental rifts, and elsewhere- as also pointed out by Sun and Hanson. A solution to these contradictions is that OIB reservoirs form by addition of low degree melts of subducted ocean crust to surrounding mantle. Generically, this model accounts for the problems listed above. Low degree melts contain most of the radiogenic elements and therefore impart the isotope signature of the recycled materials. The low degree melts do not modify the major element composition of the mantle significantly, and therefore allow OIB to be melts of peridotite. Very low extents of melting are able to fractionate highly incompatible elements and create relatively constant incompatible

  8. Spacecraft surgical scrub system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbate, M.

    1980-01-01

    Ease of handling and control in zero gravity and minimizing the quantity of water required were prime considerations. The program tasks include the selection of biocidal agent from among the variety used for surgical scrub, formulation of a dispensing system, test, and delivery of flight dispensers. The choice of an iodophore was based on effectiveness on single applications, general familiarity among surgeons, and previous qualification for space use. The delivery system was a choice between the squeeze foamer system and impregnated polyurethane foam pads. The impregnated foam pad was recommended because it is a simpler system since the squeeze foamer requires some applicator to effectively clean the skin surfaces, whereas the form pad is the applicator and agent combined. Testing demonstrated that both systems are effective for use as surgical scrubs.

  9. [Effect of myosin alkali light chains on myosin subfragment 1 interaction with actin in solution and in ghost muscle fiber].

    PubMed

    Levistkiĭ, D I; Borovikov, Iu S; Nikolaeva, O P; Golitsyna, N L; Poglazov, B F

    1990-09-01

    At low ionic strength (7-25 mM) Mg2(+)-ATPase of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) isoforms containing alkali light chain A1 [S1(A1)] is activated by actin 1.5-2.5 times as strongly as Mg2(+)-ATPase of S1 isoforms containing alkali light chain A2[S1(A2)]. Data from analytical ultracentrifugation suggest that at low ionic strength in the absence of ATP in solution S1(A1) displays a higher affinity for F-actin than S1(A2). Such a higher affinity of S1(A1) for F-actin was also demonstrated by experiments, in which the interaction of S1 isoforms fluorescently labeled by 1.5-IAEDANS with F-actin of ghost fibers (single glycerinated muscle fibers containing F-actin but devoid of myosin) was studied. Using polarization microfluorimetry, it was shown that the interaction of both S1 isoforms with ghost fiber F-actin induces similar changes in the parameters of polarized tryptophan fluorescence. At the same time the mobility of the fluorescent probe, 1.5-IAEDANS, specifically attached to the SH-group of Cys-374 in the C-terminal region of action is markedly decreased by S1(A1) and is only slightly affected by S1(A2). The data obtained suggest that S1(A1) and S1(A2) interact with the C-terminal region of the actin molecule in different ways, i.e. S1(A1) is attached more firmly than S1(A2). This may be due to the existence of contacts between the alkali light chain of A1 of S1(A1) and the C-terminal region of actin as well as to the absence of such contacts in the case of S1(A2).

  10. Tuning indium tin oxide work function with solution-processed alkali carbonate interfacial layers for high-efficiency inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Wang, Yixin; Huang, Xun; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei

    2013-12-01

    Selective electron collection by an interfacial layer modified indium tin oxide cathode is critically important for achieving high-efficiency inverted structure organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Here, we demonstrate that solution-processed alkali carbonates, such as Li2CO3, Na2CO3, K2CO3, Rb2CO3, Cs2CO3, are good interfacial layer materials. Both carbonate concentration and annealing conditions can affect cathode work function and surface roughness. By proper optimization, different alkali carbonates can be almost equally effective as the cathode interfacial layer. Furthermore, good device performance can be achieved at a low annealing temperature (<50 ° C), which allows for potential applications in solution-processed inverted OPV cells on plastic substrates. This work indicates that alkali carbonates, not just cesium carbonate, are valid choices as the cathode interlayer in inverted OPV devices.

  11. Bioactive surface modification of Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy through alkali solution treatments.

    PubMed

    Takematsu, E; Katsumata, K; Okada, K; Niinomi, M; Matsushita, N

    2016-05-01

    Bioactive surface modification of Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy (TNTZ) was performed through three different alkali solution treatments, including the electrochemical (E), hydrothermal (H), and hydrothermal-electrochemical (HE) processes; all of the processes lead to the formation of sodium-contained amorphous titanium oxide layers on TNTZ samples. The TNTZ samples subjected to the E, H, and HE processes exhibit a flat surface, smooth and fine mesh-like structure surface, and rough mesh-like structure surface, respectively. In the bioactive test, namely, simulated body fluid test, apatite inductivity increases as the surface morphology becomes rough. The order of inductivity for the three processes was HE>H>E. The surface chemical composition also affects the apatite induction ability. The surface with fewer niobium species exhibits better apatite inductivity. PMID:26952470

  12. Bioactive surface modification of Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy through alkali solution treatments.

    PubMed

    Takematsu, E; Katsumata, K; Okada, K; Niinomi, M; Matsushita, N

    2016-05-01

    Bioactive surface modification of Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy (TNTZ) was performed through three different alkali solution treatments, including the electrochemical (E), hydrothermal (H), and hydrothermal-electrochemical (HE) processes; all of the processes lead to the formation of sodium-contained amorphous titanium oxide layers on TNTZ samples. The TNTZ samples subjected to the E, H, and HE processes exhibit a flat surface, smooth and fine mesh-like structure surface, and rough mesh-like structure surface, respectively. In the bioactive test, namely, simulated body fluid test, apatite inductivity increases as the surface morphology becomes rough. The order of inductivity for the three processes was HE>H>E. The surface chemical composition also affects the apatite induction ability. The surface with fewer niobium species exhibits better apatite inductivity.

  13. Solution-Derived, Chloride-Containing Minerals as a Waste Form for Alkali Chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Lepry, William C.

    2012-10-01

    Sodalite [Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2] and cancrinite [(Na,K)6Ca2Al6Si6O24Cl4] are environmentally stable, chloride-containing minerals and are a logical waste form option for the mixed alkali chloride salt waste stream that is generated from a proposed electrochemical separations process during nuclear fuel reprocessing. Due to the volatility of chloride salts at moderate temperatures, the ideal processing route for these salts is a low-temperature approach such as the sol-gel process. The sodalite structure can be easily synthesized by the sol-gel process; however, it is produced in the form of a fine powder with particle sizes on the order of 1–10 µm. Due to the small particle size, these powders require additional treatment to form a monolith. In this study, the sol-gel powders were pressed into pellets and fired to achieve > 90% of theoretical density. The cancrinite structure, identified as the best candidate mineral form in terms of waste loading capacity, was only produced on a limited basis following the sol-gel process and converted to sodalite upon firing. Here we discuss the sol-gel process specifics, chemical durability of select waste forms, and the steps taken to maximize chloride-containing phases, decrease chloride loss during pellet firing, and increase pellet densities.

  14. Scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Yun, Na-Ra; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jun-Young; Han, Mi Ah; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2013-12-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi induces vasculitis leading to symptoms of systemic organ invasion including meningitis and meningoencephalitis. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of scrub typhus patients to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and the therapeutic outcomes, and to determine the predictor factors. Cases were 22 patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and controls were 303 patients without meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of pneumonitis was associated with the occurrence of scrub typhus meningitis and meningoencephalitis (odds ratio [OR] 8.9; P < 0.001; confidence interval [CI] 2.9-27.2). Although appropriate antimicrobials such as doxycycline agents were administered at an early stage, meningitis or meningoencephalitis still occurred in some cases. Physicians should be aware that meningitis or meningoencephalitis may develop during appropriate drug therapy such as doxycycline. Close observation and great care are essential for patients with risk factors, particularly pneumonitis.

  15. Should surgeons scrub with chlorhexidine or iodine prior to surgery?

    PubMed

    Jarral, Omar A; McCormack, David J; Ibrahim, Sammra; Shipolini, Alex R

    2011-06-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether chlorhexidine gluconate is equivalent or superior to the use of povidone-iodine during surgical hand scrub. A total of 593 papers were found using the reported searches of which eight represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results are tabulated. We conclude that whilst both chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine reduce bacterial count after scrubbing, the effect of chlorhexidine is both more profound and longer lasting. The studies found analysed the difference in reduction in colony forming units or bacterial count following surgical scrub in order to conclude that chlorhexidine was superior. Four studies went further to analyse cumulative and residual activity by testing for bacterial reduction after using a scrub solution for a number of days, an area in which chlorhexidine showed consistent advantages over povidone-iodine. These findings are given more credibility by the clinical finding of a recent meta-analysis of over 5000 patients in which chlorhexidine as an antiseptic skin preparation was associated with significantly reduced surgical site infection (SSI) in clean-contaminated surgery. Despite this, there is no evidence suggesting the use of chlorhexidine during hand scrub reduces SSI, which perhaps explains why guidelines from the World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association for Perioperative Practice do not recommend one specific antimicrobial over another for hand scrub.

  16. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Ashok V.; Balagopal, Shekar; Pendelton, Justin

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  17. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  18. X-ray and neutron scattering studies of the hydration structure of alkali ions in concentrated aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Ansell, S; Barnes, A C; Mason, P E; Neilson, G W; Ramos, S

    2006-12-01

    The presence of ions in water provides a rich and varied environment in which many natural processes occur with important consequences in biology, geology and chemistry. This article will focus on the structural properties of ions in water and it will be shown how the 'difference' methods of neutron diffraction with isotopic substitution (NDIS) and anomalous X-ray diffraction (AXD) can be used to obtain direct information regarding the radial pair distribution functions of many cations and anions in solution. This information can subsequently be used to calculate coordination numbers and to determine ion-water conformation in great detail. As well as enabling comparisons to be made amongst ions in particular groups in the periodic table, such information can also be contrasted with results provided by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques. To illustrate the power of these 'difference' methods, reference will be made to the alkali group of ions, all of which have been successfully investigated by the above methods, with the exception of the radioactive element francium. Additional comments will be made on how NDIS measurements are currently being combined with MD simulations to determine the structure around complex ions and molecules, many of which are common in biological systems. PMID:16815625

  19. Alkali metal Rankine cycle boiler technology challenges and some potential solutions for space nuclear power and propulsion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, James R.

    1994-07-01

    Alkali metal boilers are of interest for application to future space Rankine cycle power conversion systems. Significant progress on such boilers was accomplished in the 1960's and early 1970's, but development was not continued to operational systems since NASA's plans for future space missions were drastically curtailed in the early 1970's. In particular, piloted Mars missions were indefinitely deferred. With the announcement of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) in July 1989 by President Bush, interest was rekindled in challenging space missions and, consequently in space nuclear power and propulsion. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) were proposed for interplanetary space vehicles, particularly for Mars missions. The potassium Rankine power conversion cycle became of interest to provide electric power for NEP vehicles and for 'dual-mode' NTP vehicles, where the same reactor could be used directly for propulsion and (with an additional coolant loop) for power. Although the boiler is not a major contributor to system mass, it is of critical importance because of its interaction with the rest of the power conversion system; it can cause problems for other components such as excess liquid droplets entering the turbine, thereby reducing its life, or more critically, it can drive instabilities-some severe enough to cause system failure. Funding for the SEI and its associated technology program from 1990 to 1993 was not sufficient to support significant new work on Rankine cycle boilers for space applications. In Fiscal Year 1994, funding for these challenging missions and technologies has again been curtailed, and planning for the future is very uncertain. The purpose of this paper is to review the technologies developed in the 1960's and 1970's in the light of the recent SEI applications. In this way, future Rankine cycle boiler programs may be conducted most efficiently. This report is aimed at evaluating alkali metal boiler

  20. Alkali Metal Rankine Cycle Boiler Technology Challenges and Some Potential Solutions for Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Alkali metal boilers are of interest for application to future space Rankine cycle power conversion systems. Significant progress on such boilers was accomplished in the 1960's and early 1970's, but development was not continued to operational systems since NASA's plans for future space missions were drastically curtailed in the early 1970's. In particular, piloted Mars missions were indefinitely deferred. With the announcement of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) in July 1989 by President Bush, interest was rekindled in challenging space missions and, consequently in space nuclear power and propulsion. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) were proposed for interplanetary space vehicles, particularly for Mars missions. The potassium Rankine power conversion cycle became of interest to provide electric power for NEP vehicles and for 'dual-mode' NTP vehicles, where the same reactor could be used directly for propulsion and (with an additional coolant loop) for power. Although the boiler is not a major contributor to system mass, it is of critical importance because of its interaction with the rest of the power conversion system; it can cause problems for other components such as excess liquid droplets entering the turbine, thereby reducing its life, or more critically, it can drive instabilities-some severe enough to cause system failure. Funding for the SEI and its associated technology program from 1990 to 1993 was not sufficient to support significant new work on Rankine cycle boilers for space applications. In Fiscal Year 1994, funding for these challenging missions and technologies has again been curtailed, and planning for the future is very uncertain. The purpose of this paper is to review the technologies developed in the 1960's and 1970's in the light of the recent SEI applications. In this way, future Rankine cycle boiler programs may be conducted most efficiently. This report is aimed at evaluating alkali metal boiler

  1. Alkali modified hydrochar of grape pomace as a perspective adsorbent of Pb(2+) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jelena T; Stojanović, Mirjana D; Milojković, Jelena V; Petrović, Marija S; Šoštarić, Tatjana D; Laušević, Mila D; Mihajlović, Marija L

    2016-11-01

    Hydrochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization of grape pomace was considered as novel sorbent of Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. In order to enhance the adsorption capacity, hydrochar was chemically modified using 2 M KOH solution. Both materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. Batch experiments were performed to examine the effect of sorbent dosage, pH and contact time. Obtained results showed that the KOH treatment increased the sorption capacity of hydrochar from 27.8 mg g(-1) up to 137 mg g(-1) at pH 5. Adsorption of lead on either of the materials was achieved through ion-exchange mechanism, chemisorption and Pb(2+)-π interaction. The Sips isotherm model gave the best fit with the experimental data obtained for Pb(2+) sorption using activated hydrochar. The adsorption kinetic followed a pseudo second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters implied that the Pb(2+) binding for hydrochar surface was spontaneous and exothermic process. Findings from this work suggest that the hydrothermal carbonization is a promising route for production of efficient Pb (2+) sorbents for wastewater treatment. PMID:27494605

  2. Long-lived submicrometric bubbles in very diluted alkali halide water solutions.

    PubMed

    Duval, Eugène; Adichtchev, Sergey; Sirotkin, Sergey; Mermet, Alain

    2012-03-28

    Solutions of LiCl and of NaCl in ultrapure water were studied through Rayleigh/Brillouin scattering as a function of the concentration (molarity, M) of dissolved salt from 0.2 M to extremely low concentration (2 × 10(-17) M). The Landau-Placzek ratio, R/B, of the Rayleigh scattering intensity over the total Brillouin was measured thanks to the dynamically controlled stability of the used Fabry-Perot interferometer. It was observed that the R/B ratio follows two stages as a function of increasing dilution rate: after a strong decrease between 0.2 M and 2 × 10(-5) M, it increases to reach a maximum between 10(-9) M and 10(-16) M. The first stage corresponds to the decrease of the Rayleigh scattering by the ion concentration fluctuations with the decrease of salt concentration. The second stage, at lower concentrations, is consistent with the increase of the Rayleigh scattering by long-lived sub-microscopic bubbles with the decrease of ion concentration. The origin of these sub-microscopic bubbles is the shaking of the solutions, which was carried out after each centesimal dilution. The very long lifetime of the sub-microscopic bubbles and the effects of aging originate in the electric charge of bubbles. The increase of R/B with the decrease of the low salt concentration corresponds to the increase of the sub-microscopic bubble size with the decrease of concentration, which is imposed by the bubble stability due to the covering of the surface bubble by negative ions.

  3. Is surface layering of aqueous alkali halides determined by ion pairing in the bulk solution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Eva; Stage, Christiane; Motschmann, Hubert; Rieder, Julian; Buchner, Richard

    2014-11-01

    This contribution aims to elucidate the connection between ion-ion-solvent interactions in the bulk of aqueous electrolyte solutions and the properties of their liquid-air interface. In particular, we were interested in the conditions under which ion pairs form at the surface and whether this is linked to ion pairing in the bulk. For this reason different combinations of hard (Cl-, Li+) and soft ions (I-, Cs+) were investigated. Ion hydration and possible ion association in the bulk was probed with dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. This technique monitors the cooperative reorientation of the dipolar solvent molecules and detects all ion-pair species possibly present in the solution. At the interface, the formation of contact ion pairs was investigated by infrared-visible-sum frequency spectroscopy (SFG). This nonlinear optical technique possesses an inherent surface specificity and can be used for the characterization of interfacial water. The intensity of the SFG-active vibrational stretching modes depends on the number of oriented water molecules. The electric field at the surface of a charged aqueous interface aligns the water dipoles, which in turn increases the SFG response. Hence, the enhancement of the oscillator strengths of the water vibrational modes can be used to draw some conclusions on the strengths and geometrical extension of the electric field. The formation of ion pairs at the interface reduces the intensity of the band associated with hydrogen-bonded water. The underlying theory is presented. The combined data show that there are no contact ion pairs in the bulk of the fluid and—at best—only small amounts of solvent shared ion pairs. On the other hand, the combination of hard/hard or soft/soft ions leads to the formation of ion pairs at the liquid-air interface.

  4. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  5. Water and magmas: insights about the water solution mechanisms in alkali silicate melts from infrared, Raman, and 29Si solid-state NMR spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Losq, Charles; Mysen, Bjorn O.; Cody, George D.

    2015-12-01

    Degassing of water during the ascent of hydrous magma in a volcanic edifice produces dramatic changes in the magma density and viscosity. This can profoundly affect the dynamics of volcanic eruptions. The water exsolution history, in turn, is driven by the water solubility and solution mechanisms in the silicate melt. Previous studies pointed to dissolved water in silicate glasses and melts existing as molecules (H2Omol species) and hydroxyl groups, OH. These latter OH groups commonly are considered bonded to Si4+ but may form other bonds, such as with alkali or alkaline-earth cations, for instance. Those forms of bonding influence the structure of hydrous melts in different ways and, therefore, their properties. As a result, exsolution of water from magmas may have different eruptive consequences depending on the initial bonding mechanisms of the dissolved water. However, despite their importance, the solution mechanisms of water in silicate melts are not clear. In particular, how chemical composition of melts affects water solubility and solution mechanism is not well understood. In the present experimental study, components of such information are reported via determination of how water interacts with the cationic network of alkali (Li, Na, and K) silicate quenched melts. Results from 29Si single-pulse magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si SP MAS NMR), infrared, and Raman spectroscopies show that decreasing the ionic radius of alkali metal cation in silicate melts results in decreasing fraction of water dissolved as OH groups. The nature of OH bonding also changes as the alkali ionic radius changes. Therefore, as the speciation and bonding of water controls the degree of polymerization of melts, water will have different effects on the transport properties of silicate melts depending on their chemical composition. This conclusion, in turn, may affect volcanic phenomena related to the viscous relaxation of hydrous magmas, such as for instance the

  6. Process for recovering alkali metals and sulfur from alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2016-10-25

    Alkali metals and sulfur may be recovered from alkali monosulfide and polysulfides in an electrolytic process that utilizes an electrolytic cell having an alkali ion conductive membrane. An anolyte solution includes an alkali monosulfide, an alkali polysulfide, or a mixture thereof and a solvent that dissolves elemental sulfur. A catholyte includes molten alkali metal. Applying an electric current oxidizes sulfide and polysulfide in the anolyte compartment, causes alkali metal ions to pass through the alkali ion conductive membrane to the catholyte compartment, and reduces the alkali metal ions in the catholyte compartment. Liquid sulfur separates from the anolyte solution and may be recovered. The electrolytic cell is operated at a temperature where the formed alkali metal and sulfur are molten.

  7. CO2 Extraction from Ambient Air Using Alkali-Metal Hydroxide Solutions Derived from Concrete Waste and Steel Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolaroff, J. K.; Lowry, G. V.; Keith, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, deep reductions in CO2 emissions are required in the coming decades. Carbon sequestration will play a crucial role in this reduction. Early adoption of carbon sequestration in low-cost niche markets will help develop the technology and experience required for large-scale deployment. One such niche may be the use of alkali metals from industrial waste streams to form carbonate minerals, a safe and stable means of sequestering carbon. In this research, the potential of using two industrial waste streams---concrete and steel slag---for sequestering carbon is assessed. The scheme is outlined as follows: Ca and Mg are leached with water from a finely ground bed of steel slag or concrete. The resulting solution is sprayed through air, capturing CO2 and forming solid carbonates, and collected. The feasibility of this scheme is explored with a combination of experiments, theoretical calculations, cost accounting, and literature review. The dissolution kinetics of steel slag and concrete as a function of particle size and pH is examined. In stirred batch reactors, the majority of Ca which dissolved did so within the first hour, yielding between 50 and 250 (mg; Ca)/(g; slag) and between 10 and 30 (mg; Ca)/(g; concrete). The kinetics of dissolution are thus taken to be sufficiently fast to support the type of scheme described above. As proof-of-concept, further experiments were performed where water was dripped slowly through a stagnant column of slag or concrete and collected at the bottom. Leachate Ca concentrations in the range of 15 mM were achieved --- sufficient to support the scheme. Using basic physical principles and numerical methods, the quantity of CO2 captured by falling droplets is estimated. Proportion of water loss and required pumping energy is similarly estimated. The results indicate that sprays are capable of capturing CO2 from the air and that the water and energy requirements are tractable. An example system for

  8. Scrub Typhus Seroprevalence in Healthy Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Mallika; Anandan, Shalini; Daniel, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an important cause of acute febrile illness in India. This preliminary study determines the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in healthy Indian adults by measuring IgM and IgG antibodies to scrub typhus by ELISA in 100 healthy blood donors. Our study demonstrates a 15% seroprevalence of scrub typhus in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings especially in children. PMID:26557523

  9. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  10. SO2 REMOVAL WITH COAL SCRUBBING

    SciTech Connect

    Eung Ha Cho; Hari Prashanth Sundaram; Aubrey L. Miller

    2001-07-01

    This project is based on an effective removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas with coal as the scrubbing medium instead of lime, which is used in the conventional FGD processes. A laboratory study proves that coal scrubbing is an innovative technology that can be implemented into a commercial process in place of the conventional lime scrubbing flue gas desulfurization process. SO{sub 2} was removed from a gas stream using an apparatus, which consisted of a 1-liter stirred reactor immersed in a thermostated oil bath. The reactor contained 60 g of 35-65 mesh coal in 600 ml of water. The apparatus also had 2 bubblers connected to the outlet of the reactor, each containing 1500 ml of 1 molar NaOH solution. The flow rate of the gas was 30 ml/sec, temperature was varied from 21 C to 73 C. Oxygen concentration ranged from 3 to 20% while SO{sub 2} concentration, from 500 to 2000 ppm. SO{sub 2} recovery was determined by analyzing SO{sub 2} concentration in the liquid samples taken from the bubblers. The samples taken from the reactor were analyzed for iron concentrations, which were then used to calculate fractions of coal pyrite leached. It was found that SO{sub 2} removal was highly temperature sensitive, giving 13.1% recovery at 21 C and 99.2% recovery at 73 C after 4 hours. The removal of SO{sub 2} was accomplished by the catalysis of iron that was produced by leaching of coal pyrite with combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. This leaching reaction was found to be controlled by chemical reaction with apparent activation energy of 11.6 kcal/mole. SO{sub 2} removal increased with increasing O{sub 2} concentration up to 10% and leveled off upon further increase. The effect of SO{sub 2} concentration on its removal was minimal.

  11. Comparative evaluation of surgical scrub preparations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A F; Rosenberg, A; Alatary, S D

    1978-01-01

    The efficacy of 0.75 per cent available povidone-iodine scrub solution, 4 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate detergent solution and 3 per cent hexachlorophene emulsion against resident and transient flora of the hand has been compared using two currently accepted study designs. Chlorhexidine gluconate produced the greatest initial reductions against resident flora, followed by povidone-iodine and hexachlorophene, respectively. In subsequent washings, all three treatments further reduced the flora, chlorhexidine giving the greatest reduction on any test day. On gloved hands, there was significant regrowth following the use of povidone-iodine; there was no such significant regrowth on gloved hands which had been washed with chlorhexidine gluconate or hexachlorophene. Against transient flora, chlorhexidine gluconate gave the lowest over-all counts, followed by povidone-iodine and hexachlorophene, respectively. The reductions in bacteria counts increased following the repetitive use of chlorhexidine; no such trend was noted with either povidone-iodine or hexachlorophene.

  12. Evaluation of a technique to measure tropospheric hydroxyl radicals using an aqueous phase salicylic acid scrubbing solution, HPLCseparation and fluorescence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, R. A.; Schiller, C. L.; Harris, G. W.

    2003-04-01

    A novel method for monitoring gas phase hydroxyl radicals was examined using a liquid-phase salicylic acid solution to trap tropospheric OH. Quantification occurred following HPLC seperaration and fluorescence detection of one of the products, 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid. Although the sensitivity was sufficient to measure typical daytime OH concentrations, the method was hindered by a number of interferences. While most of these were identified and eliminated, an interference from methylperoxy radicals was discovered that could not be removed. The validity of previous reports of OH detection using this method is therefore brought into question.

  13. Modelling magmatic gas scrubbing in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Rossella; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Valenza, Mariano; Bergsson, Baldur; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Rakel Guðjónsdóttir, Sylvía

    2015-04-01

    In volcano-hosted hydrothermal systems, the chemistry of deeply rising magmatic gases is extensively modified by gas-water-rock interactions taking place within the hydrothermal reservoir, and/or at shallow groundwaters conditions. These reactions can scrub reactive, water-soluble species (S, halogens) from the magmatic gas phase, so that their quantitative assessment is central to understanding the chemistry of surface gas manifestations, and brings profound implications to the interpretation of volcanic-hydrothermal unrests. Here, we present the results of numerical simulations of magmatic gas scrubbing, in which the reaction path modelling approach (Helgeson, 1968) is used to reproduce hydrothermal gas-water-rock interactions at both shallow (temperature up to 109°C; low-T model runs) and deep reservoir (temperature range: 150-250 °C; high-T model runs) conditions. The model was built based upon the EQ3/6 software package (Wolery and Daveler, 1992), and consisted into a step by step addition of a high-temperature magmatic gas to an initial meteoric water, in the presence of a dissolving aquifer rock. The model outputted, at each step of gas addition, the chemical composition of a new aqueous solution formed after gas-water-rock interactions; which, upon reaching gas over-pressuring (PgasTOT > Psat(H2O) at run T), is degassed (by single-step degassing) to separate a scrubbed gas phase. As an application of the model results, the model compositions of the separated gases are finally compared with compositions of natural gas emissions from Hekla volcano (T< 100°C) and from Krisuvik geothermal system (T> 100°C), resulting into an excellent agreement. The compositions of the model solutions are also in fair agreement with compositions of natural thermal water samples. We conclude that our EQ3/6-based reaction path simulations offer a realistic representation of gas-water-rock interaction processes occurring underneath active magmatic-hydrothermal systems

  14. Optimum conditions to prepare high yield, phase pure α-Ni(OH) 2 nanoparticles by urea hydrolysis and electrochemical ageing in alkali solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayalakshmi, M.; Venugopal, N.; Reddy, B. Ramachandra; Rao, M. Mohan

    Phase pure alpha nickel hydroxide (α-Ni(OH) 2) is synthesized by a hydrothermal method using urea and nickel nitrate in an autoclave. Optimum conditions to obtain high yield and phase pure α-Ni(OH) 2 are identified by varying experimental parameters such as urea concentration, ramp time, and temperature. In a typical experiment, a 94% yield of phase pure α-Ni(OH) 2 is successfully prepared. The nickel content, analyzed by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy, is 44% in all samples. The α-Ni(OH) 2 nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The BET surface area and tap density of the nickel hydroxide nanoparticles are also determined. Electrochemical characterization is undertaken via cyclic voltammetry for which the nanoparticles are immobilized on the surface of paraffin impregnated graphite electrodes in 1.0 M alkali solutions. The ageing of the alpha phase occurs within 27 min (30 cycles) of exposure in alkali solutions.

  15. Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Eakman, James M.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.

    1979-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

  16. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOEpatents

    Soung, W.Y.

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased, preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  17. Scrubbing noise of externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the aeroacoustic mechanism that produces externally blown flap (EBF) scrubbing noise, i.e. a surface-radiated noise which is generally strongest normal to UTW deflected flaps. Scrubbing noise was not radiated from portions of the surface adjacent to strong, locally coherent turbulent eddies. Instead, scrubbing noise seemed to come from weak loading fluctuations that were coherent along the scrubbed span. These loading fluctuations probably were induced by the convected large-scale vortex structure of the attached exhaust jet. Deflecting a UTW flap would reduce the distance between the vortex trajectory and the flap surface, increasing the resulting dipole noise and rotating its directivity. In contrast, deflecting a USB flap would increase this distance, so that observable scrubbing noise would be radiated only from the undeflected forward portion of the wing.

  18. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.

    1977-01-01

    Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level.

  19. Enthalpies of formation of CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19 (hibonite) by high temperature, alkali borate solution calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, C. A.; Kleppa, O. J.; Grossman, L.; Mysen, B. O.; Lattimer, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Enthalpies of formation were determined for two calcium aluminate phases, CaAl4O7 and CaAl12O19, using high-temperature alkali borate solution calorimetry. The aluminates were synthesized by multiple-cycle heating and grinding stoichiometric mixtures of CaCO3 and Al2O3, and the products were characteized by X-ray diffraction and SEM microbeam analysis. The data on impurities (CaAl4O7 was found to be about 89.00 percent pure by weight and the CaAl12O19 samples about 91.48 percent pure) were used to correct the heat of solution values of the synthetic products. The enthalpies of formation, at 1063 K, from oxides, were found to be equal to -(25.6 + or - 4.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl4O7 and -(33.0 + or - 9.7) kJ/g.f.w. for CaAl12O19; the respective standard enthalpies of formation from elements, at 298 K, were estimated to be -4007 + or - 5.2 kJ/g.f.w. and -10,722 + or - 12 kJ/g.f.w.

  20. Changes in the shape of atomic lines of alkali metals in sonoluminescence spectra of solutions of surfactants and halogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazachek, M. V.; Gordeychuk, T. V.

    2013-11-01

    The multibubble sonoluminescence spectra of aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate, of the mixture of sodium dodecyl sulfate with lithium and potassium chlorides, and of sodium and potassium halogenides were measured near the lines of metals at an ultrasonic frequency of 20 kHz. The Na, Li, and K lines in spectra of surfactant solutions are noticeably narrower than those obtained in solutions of metal chlorides. The width of Na lines in spectra of metal fluorides, chlorides, and iodides remains constant, while that of the K line increases with increasing atomic weight of a halogen. The results are discussed in the context of the effect that the bonding strength of an atom possibly has on the formation of metal lines in sonoluminescence spectra.

  1. Selective Chemical Conversion of Sugars in Aqueous Solutions without Alkali to Lactic Acid Over a Zn-Sn-Beta Lewis Acid-Base Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenjie; Shen, Zheng; Peng, Boyu; Gu, Minyan; Zhou, Xuefei; Xiang, Bo; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important platform molecule in the synthesis of a wide range of chemicals. However, in aqueous solutions without alkali, its efficient preparation via the direct catalysis of sugars is hindered by a side dehydration reaction to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural due to Brønsted acid, which originates from organic acids. Herein, we report that a previously unappreciated combination of common two metal mixed catalyst (Zn-Sn-Beta) prepared via solid-state ion exchange synergistically promoted this reaction. In water without a base, a conversion exceeding 99% for sucrose with a lactic acid yield of 54% was achieved within 2 hours at 190 °C under ambient air pressure. Studies of the acid and base properties of the Zn-Sn-Beta zeolite suggest that the introduction of Zn into the Sn-Beta zeolite sequentially enhanced both the Lewis acid and base sites, and the base sites inhibited a series of side reactions related to fructose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and its subsequent decomposition.

  2. Selective Chemical Conversion of Sugars in Aqueous Solutions without Alkali to Lactic Acid Over a Zn-Sn-Beta Lewis Acid-Base Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenjie; Shen, Zheng; Peng, Boyu; Gu, Minyan; Zhou, Xuefei; Xiang, Bo; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important platform molecule in the synthesis of a wide range of chemicals. However, in aqueous solutions without alkali, its efficient preparation via the direct catalysis of sugars is hindered by a side dehydration reaction to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural due to Brønsted acid, which originates from organic acids. Herein, we report that a previously unappreciated combination of common two metal mixed catalyst (Zn-Sn-Beta) prepared via solid-state ion exchange synergistically promoted this reaction. In water without a base, a conversion exceeding 99% for sucrose with a lactic acid yield of 54% was achieved within 2 hours at 190 °C under ambient air pressure. Studies of the acid and base properties of the Zn-Sn-Beta zeolite suggest that the introduction of Zn into the Sn-Beta zeolite sequentially enhanced both the Lewis acid and base sites, and the base sites inhibited a series of side reactions related to fructose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and its subsequent decomposition. PMID:27222322

  3. Selective Chemical Conversion of Sugars in Aqueous Solutions without Alkali to Lactic Acid Over a Zn-Sn-Beta Lewis Acid-Base Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenjie; Shen, Zheng; Peng, Boyu; Gu, Minyan; Zhou, Xuefei; Xiang, Bo; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important platform molecule in the synthesis of a wide range of chemicals. However, in aqueous solutions without alkali, its efficient preparation via the direct catalysis of sugars is hindered by a side dehydration reaction to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural due to Brønsted acid, which originates from organic acids. Herein, we report that a previously unappreciated combination of common two metal mixed catalyst (Zn-Sn-Beta) prepared via solid-state ion exchange synergistically promoted this reaction. In water without a base, a conversion exceeding 99% for sucrose with a lactic acid yield of 54% was achieved within 2 hours at 190 °C under ambient air pressure. Studies of the acid and base properties of the Zn-Sn-Beta zeolite suggest that the introduction of Zn into the Sn-Beta zeolite sequentially enhanced both the Lewis acid and base sites, and the base sites inhibited a series of side reactions related to fructose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and its subsequent decomposition. PMID:27222322

  4. Selective Chemical Conversion of Sugars in Aqueous Solutions without Alkali to Lactic Acid Over a Zn-Sn-Beta Lewis Acid-Base Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenjie; Shen, Zheng; Peng, Boyu; Gu, Minyan; Zhou, Xuefei; Xiang, Bo; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-05-25

    Lactic acid is an important platform molecule in the synthesis of a wide range of chemicals. However, in aqueous solutions without alkali, its efficient preparation via the direct catalysis of sugars is hindered by a side dehydration reaction to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural due to Brønsted acid, which originates from organic acids. Herein, we report that a previously unappreciated combination of common two metal mixed catalyst (Zn-Sn-Beta) prepared via solid-state ion exchange synergistically promoted this reaction. In water without a base, a conversion exceeding 99% for sucrose with a lactic acid yield of 54% was achieved within 2 hours at 190 °C under ambient air pressure. Studies of the acid and base properties of the Zn-Sn-Beta zeolite suggest that the introduction of Zn into the Sn-Beta zeolite sequentially enhanced both the Lewis acid and base sites, and the base sites inhibited a series of side reactions related to fructose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and its subsequent decomposition.

  5. Chemical equilibrium model for interfacial activity of crude oil in aqueous alkaline solution: the effects of pH, alkali and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-11-01

    A chemical equilibrium model for interfacial activity of crude in aqueous alkaline solution is proposed. The model predicts the observed effects of pH and concentrations of alkali and salt on the interfacial tension (IFT). The model proposed was shown to describe the observed effects of acid content, pH, and sodium ions on the interfacial activity of crude oil in water. Once the pH of the interface reaches the pKa of the acids, sometimes with the help of addition of some salt, the IFT experiences a sudden steep drop to the range of 10/sup -2/ dynes/cm. After that, further addition of sodium either in the form of NaOH or NaCl is going to increase the IFT due to a shift of equilibriumn to the formation of undissociated soap. This was confirmed by the difference in the observed effect of sodium on the IFT of the extracted soap molecules which are dissociated easily and those which are associated highly and precipitated easily. These soap molecules have dissociation constant values ranging from below 10/sup -2/ to above one. 13 references.

  6. Ecological considerations in scrub typhus*

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Robert; Wisseman, Charles L.

    1968-01-01

    Certain features, characteristic of outbreaks of scrub typhus, can be explained by the behaviour of the chigger vectors which are remarkably hardy and can survive weeks of freezing or immersion in water. The established vectors are all species of the genus Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium), i.e., L. (L.) akamushi (Brumpt, 1910), L. (L.) deliense (Walch, 1922), L. (L.) pallidum (Nagayo et al., 1919), and L. (L.) scutellare (Nagayo et al., 1921). These chiggers (i.e. larval mites) infest a broad variety of birds and mammals, and tend to be found in clusters on certain specific sites on the host. However, the precise site for any species of mite varies with the host, and it is believed that the grooming habits of the infested animal account for this “site preference”. The degree of infestation cannot validly be ascribed to the size of the host. L. (L.) pavlovskyi (Schluger, 1948), L. (L.) orientale (Schluger, 1948), L. (L.) arenicola Traub, 1960, and L. (L.) tosa (Sasa & Kowashima, 1951) are regarded as probable vectors. Other species, some belonging to other genera, are under suspicion in this regard. L. (L.) subintermedium (Jameson & Toshioka, 1954) and certain other chiggers were found in “ecological islands” in all montane habitats studied in West Pakistan, despite the intervening high mountains, broad rivers and belts of semi-desert. The infection-rate of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in vector species in nature is believed to be low, and chiggers may be serving as reservoirs of infection and not just as vectors. PMID:5303405

  7. Alkali hydrolysis of trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Karasch, Christian; Popovic, Milan; Qasim, Mohamed; Bajpai, Rakesh K

    2002-01-01

    Data for alkali hydrolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in aqueous solution at pH 12.0 under static (pH-controlled) as well as dynamic (pH-uncontrolled) conditions are reported. The experiments were conducted at two different molar ratios of TNT to hydroxyl ions at room temperature. The TNT disappeared rapidly from the solution as a first-order reaction. The complete disappearance of aromatic structure from the aqueous solution within 24 h was confirmed by the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectra of the samples. Cuvet experiments in a UV-VIS spectrophotometer demonstrated the formation of Meisenheimer complex, which slowly disappeared via formation of aromatic compounds with fewer nitro groups. The known metabolites of TNT were found to accumulate only in very small quantities in the liquid phase.

  8. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  9. Properties of films composed of cellulose nanowhiskers and a cellulose matrix regenerated from alkali/urea solution.

    PubMed

    Qi, Haisong; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lina; Kuga, Shigenori

    2009-06-01

    All-cellulose composite films were prepared, for the first time, from native cellulose nanowhiskers and cellulose matrix regenerated from aqueous NaOH-urea solvent system on the basis of their temperature-dependent solubility. The cellulose whiskers retained their needlelike morphology with mean length and diameter of 300 and 21 nm as well as native crystallinity when added to the latter solution at ambient temperature. The structure and physical properties of the nanocomposite films were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and tensile tests. The composite films were isotropic and transparent to visible light and showed good mechanical properties as a result of the reinforcement by the whiskers. By varying the ratio of the cellulose whiskers to regenerated cellulose matrix (cellulose II), the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the nanocomposite films could be tuned to reach 124 MPa and 5 GPa, respectively. The tensile strength of the nanocomposite films could reach 157 MPa through a simple drawing process, with the calculated Hermans' orientation parameter of 0.30. This work provided a novel pathway for the preparation of biodegradable all-cellulose nanocomposites, which are expected to be useful as biomaterials and food ingredients.

  10. Endemic Scrub Typhus in South America.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Dittrich, Sabine; López, Javier; Phuklia, Weerawat; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Velásquez, Katia; Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Abarca, Katia

    2016-09-01

    Scrub typhus is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms that are transmitted by the larvae of trombiculid mites. Endemic scrub typhus was originally thought to be confined to the so called "tsutsugamushi triangle" within the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, however, two individual cases were detected in the Middle East and South America, which suggested that the pathogen was present farther afield. Here, we report three autochthonous cases of scrub typhus caused by O. tsutsugamushi acquired on Chiloé Island in southern Chile, which suggests the existence of an endemic focus in South America. (Funded by the Chilean Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica and the Wellcome Trust.).

  11. Endemic Scrub Typhus in South America.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Dittrich, Sabine; López, Javier; Phuklia, Weerawat; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Velásquez, Katia; Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Abarca, Katia

    2016-09-01

    Scrub typhus is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms that are transmitted by the larvae of trombiculid mites. Endemic scrub typhus was originally thought to be confined to the so called "tsutsugamushi triangle" within the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, however, two individual cases were detected in the Middle East and South America, which suggested that the pathogen was present farther afield. Here, we report three autochthonous cases of scrub typhus caused by O. tsutsugamushi acquired on Chiloé Island in southern Chile, which suggests the existence of an endemic focus in South America. (Funded by the Chilean Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica and the Wellcome Trust.). PMID:27602667

  12. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT PROGRAM REAL WASTE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  13. Sample Results From The Next Generation Solvent Program Real Waste Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  14. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub. PMID:22724306

  15. BEAM SCRUBBING FOR RHIC POLARIZED PROTON RUN.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,S.Y.FISCHER,W.HUANG,H.ROSER,T.

    2004-07-05

    One of the intensity limiting factor of RHIC polarized proton beam is the electron cloud induced pressure rise. A beam scrubbing study shows that with a reasonable period of time of running high intensity 112-bunch proton beam, the pressure rise can be reduced, allowing higher beam intensity.

  16. Acute Pancreatitis Due to Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Atif Shaikh Iqbal; Kundavaram, Abhilash Paul Prabhakar; Sathyendra, Sowmya; Abraham, Ooriapadickal C

    2014-01-01

    Scrub typhus is endemic in large parts of India and can cause multi-organ failure and death. Acute pancreatitis as a complication is very rare and is potentially fatal. This case series describes seven adult patients who presented with an acute febrile illness and were diagnosed to have scrub typhus with acute pancreatitis. The mean age of the seven patients with acute pancreatitis was 49.4 years, and mean duration of fever prior to presentation was 7.7 days. All seven patients had abdominal pain, and three had a pathognomonic eschar. The mean serum lipase level was 1,509 U/L (normal value: <190 U/L) and the mean serum amylase level was 434 U/L (normal value: <200 U/L). Six patients had evidence of multi-organ dysfunction. Hematological and respiratory system dysfunction was seen in five patients, hepatic and renal dysfunction in four, and central nervous system dysfunction in three patients. Three patients who had ≥4 organs involved, died (mortality rate: 42.8%). Our case series shows that pancreatitis in scrub typhus is an extremely rare complication and when present, is associated with increased mortality (42.8%). Physicians may be familiar with the various complications of scrub typhus but less so with acute pancreatitis and hence may be underdiagnosed. PMID:24741229

  17. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  18. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  19. STATUS OF SO2 SCRUBBING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the extent of current sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubber applications on electricity generating units in the U.S. and abroad. The technical performance of recent SO2 scrubber installations is discussed. Recently reported technical innovations to SO2 scrubbing tech...

  20. [Surveillance of scrub typhus in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Chen, H L; Chen, H Y; Horng, C B

    1993-11-01

    Although scrub typhus, a rickettsial exanthematous febrile disease, has designated as a reportable communicable disease in Taiwan since 1955, only Pescadores island, Hualien and Taitung counties had more reported and confirmed cases. Suspected dengue fever and scrub typhus serum specimens sent from the Bureau of Health and health stations to this institute from January 1991 to December 1992 were tested for antibody to scrub typhus by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFA). The results showed that: 1) there were serologically positive cases in many counties except Hsinchu and Iilan, 2) the disease occurred mostly from July to October, 3) more males than females were infected and their age ranged from 21 to 60 years old with a peak of the twenties and 4) higher incidence rate in children under five years old was observed in Pescadores and Orchid islands. The above data call the attention of people and physicians to be aware of the fact that there were probable scrub typhus cases in every county in Taiwan.

  1. The alkali metals: 200 years of surprises.

    PubMed

    Dye, James L

    2015-03-13

    Alkali metal compounds have been known since antiquity. In 1807, Sir Humphry Davy surprised everyone by electrolytically preparing (and naming) potassium and sodium metals. In 1808, he noted their interaction with ammonia, which, 100 years later, was attributed to solvated electrons. After 1960, pulse radiolysis of nearly any solvent produced solvated electrons, which became one of the most studied species in chemistry. In 1968, alkali metal solutions in amines and ethers were shown to contain alkali metal anions in addition to solvated electrons. The advent of crown ethers and cryptands as complexants for alkali cations greatly enhanced alkali metal solubilities. This permitted us to prepare a crystalline salt of Na(-) in 1974, followed by 30 other alkalides with Na(-), K(-), Rb(-) and Cs(-) anions. This firmly established the -1 oxidation state of alkali metals. The synthesis of alkalides led to the crystallization of electrides, with trapped electrons as the anions. Electrides have a variety of electronic and magnetic properties, depending on the geometries and connectivities of the trapping sites. In 2009, the final surprise was the experimental demonstration that alkali metals under high pressure lose their metallic character as the electrons are localized in voids between the alkali cations to become high-pressure electrides!

  2. The alkali metals: 200 years of surprises.

    PubMed

    Dye, James L

    2015-03-13

    Alkali metal compounds have been known since antiquity. In 1807, Sir Humphry Davy surprised everyone by electrolytically preparing (and naming) potassium and sodium metals. In 1808, he noted their interaction with ammonia, which, 100 years later, was attributed to solvated electrons. After 1960, pulse radiolysis of nearly any solvent produced solvated electrons, which became one of the most studied species in chemistry. In 1968, alkali metal solutions in amines and ethers were shown to contain alkali metal anions in addition to solvated electrons. The advent of crown ethers and cryptands as complexants for alkali cations greatly enhanced alkali metal solubilities. This permitted us to prepare a crystalline salt of Na(-) in 1974, followed by 30 other alkalides with Na(-), K(-), Rb(-) and Cs(-) anions. This firmly established the -1 oxidation state of alkali metals. The synthesis of alkalides led to the crystallization of electrides, with trapped electrons as the anions. Electrides have a variety of electronic and magnetic properties, depending on the geometries and connectivities of the trapping sites. In 2009, the final surprise was the experimental demonstration that alkali metals under high pressure lose their metallic character as the electrons are localized in voids between the alkali cations to become high-pressure electrides! PMID:25666067

  3. Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.; Gorbaty, Martin L.; Tsou, Joe M.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

  4. Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin

    1964-01-01

    The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

  5. Simultaneous stack gas scrubbing wastewater purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Variations of a process for removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and using it to treat municipal waste water are described. The once-through system lowers the pH of the scrubbing water from minor depressions to a pH of about 2.5 under certain conditions. A recycle system uses iron for catalytic oxidation of sulfurous acid to sulfuric acid allowing very large amounts of sulfur dioxide to be absorbed in a small portion of water. The partial recycle system uses municipal wastewater and iron as a scrubbing medium, followed by neutralization of the wastewater with lime to produce an iron hydroxide precipitation which, when removed, produces tertiary quality treated wastewater. The SO2 scrubber is described, test results are analyzed, and a preliminary capital cost estimate for the three processes is included.

  6. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan; Harde, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49%) had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score). At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group.

  7. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan; Harde, Yogesh

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49%) had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score). At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group. PMID:27630462

  8. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan; Harde, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49%) had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score). At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group. PMID:27630462

  9. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards.

  10. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan; Harde, Yogesh

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49%) had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score). At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group.

  11. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  12. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-11-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of PFBC technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an altemative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. As shown in Fig. 1, the RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no HTHP sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-leaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6M-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite [8]. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  13. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of PFBC technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an altemative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. As shown in Fig. 1, the RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no HTHP sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-leaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6M-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite [8]. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  14. Alkali cation specific adsorption onto fcc(111) transition metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mills, J N; McCrum, I T; Janik, M J

    2014-07-21

    The presence of alkali cations in electrolyte solutions is known to impact the rate of electrocatalytic reactions, though the mechanism of such impact is not conclusively determined. We use density functional theory (DFT) to examine the specific adsorption of alkali cations to fcc(111) electrode surfaces, as specific adsorption may block catalyst sites or otherwise impact surface catalytic chemistry. Solvation of the cation-metal surface structure was investigated using explicit water models. Computed equilibrium potentials for alkali cation adsorption suggest that alkali and alkaline earth cations will specifically adsorb onto Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces in the potential range of hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution catalysis in alkaline solutions.

  15. Magmatic gas scrubbing: Implications for volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, R.B.; Gerlach, T.M.; Reed, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the abundance of SO2(g) in magmatic gases, precursory increases in magmatic SO2(g) are not always observed prior to volcanic eruption, probably because many terrestrial volcanoes contain abundant groundwater or surface water that scrubs magmatic gases until a dry pathway to the atmosphere is established. To better understand scrubbing and its implications for volcano monitoring, we model thermochemically the reaction of magmatic gases with water. First, we inject a 915??C magmatic gas from Merapi volcano into 25??C air-saturated water (ASW) over a wide range of gas/water mass ratios from 0.0002 to 100 and at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Then we model closed-system cooling of the magmatic gas, magmatic gas-ASW mixing at 5.0 MPa, runs with varied temperature and composition of the ASW, a case with a wide range of magmatic-gas compositions, and a reaction of a magmatic gas-ASW mixture with rock. The modeling predicts gas and water compositions, and, in one case, alteration assemblages for a wide range of scrubbing conditions; these results can be compared directly with samples from degassing volcanoes. The modeling suggests that CO2(g) is the main species to monitor when scrubbing exists; another candidate is H2S(g), but it can be affected by reactions with aqueous ferrous iron. In contrast, scrubbing by water will prevent significant SO2(g) and most HCl(g) emissions until dry pathways are established, except for moderate HCl(g) degassing from pH 100 t/d (tons per day) of SO2(g) in addition to CO2(g) and H2S(g) should be taken as a criterion of magma intrusion. Finally, the modeling suggests that the interpretation of gas-ratio data requires a case-by-case evaluation since ratio changes can often be produced by several mechanisms; nevertheless, several gas ratios may provide useful indices for monitoring the drying out of gas pathways. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOEpatents

    Soung, Wen Y.

    1984-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them (46, 53, 61, 69) with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide (63) to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased (81), preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated (84) to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process (86, 18, 17) where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  17. Solvation at nanoscale: Alkali-halides in water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Partanen, Leena; Mikkelae, Mikko-Heikki; Huttula, Marko; Tchaplyguine, Maxim; Zhang Chaofan; Andersson, Tomas; Bjoerneholm, Olle

    2013-01-28

    The solvation of alkali-halides in water clusters at nanoscale is studied by photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The Na 2p, K 3p, Cl 2p, Br 3d, and I 4d core level binding energies have been measured for salt-containing water clusters. The results have been compared to those of alkali halide clusters and the dilute aqueous salt solutions. It is found that the alkali halides dissolve in small water clusters as ions.

  18. Recovery of anhydrous Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from SO{sub 2}-scrubbing liquor by extractive crystallization: Liquid-liquid equilibria for aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, and/or sulfite plus acetone, 2-propanol, or tert-butyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, S.; Cos, R.; Prausnitz, J.M. |; Schiozer, A.L.; Jaecksch, W.L.

    1996-11-01

    Sodium carbonate is a superior scrubbing agent for removing SO{sub 2} from combustion gases, but the resulting sodium sulfate (or sulfite) must be recovered for environmental reasons. Recovery by evaporative crystallization is energy-intensive; extractive crystallization provides an attractive alterative when technically feasible. Liquid/liquid equilibrium data were determined for two-phase mixtures containing aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate, sulfate, or sulfite and a polar organic solvent: acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methylpropan-1-ol (i.e., tert-butyl alcohol). In the salt-saturated two-phase region, data were obtained between the lower consolute temperature and 60 C (50 C for acetone). data were also obtained at 35 C for liquid/liquid systems that were subsaturated with their respective salts and for liquid/liquid systems with overall molar ratios of sodium sulfite/sodium sulfate fixed at 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25. In the latter systems, it was found that the sulfite/sulfate ratios in the organic and aqueous phases were the same, i.e., there is no selectivity by these solvents for one salt relative to the other. The data show that any one of these solvents can be used to extract water from a concentrated solution of either sodium sulfite or sodium sulfate in a countercurrent extractor at 35 C, causing the anhydrous salt to crystallize. The wet solvent can be dried for recycle in a similar countercurrent operation at 35 C, using a saturated solution of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as the drying agent. The number of moles of carbonate required for drying does not exceed the number of moles of sulfite-plus-sulfate precipitated. The process energy is about 0% of that required for single-stage evaporative crystallization of the same liquor.

  19. Removal of mercury(II) from aqueous solutions and chlor-alkali industry effluent by steam activated and sulphurised activated carbons prepared from bagasse pith: kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Anoop Krishnan, K; Anirudhan, T S

    2002-05-27

    The adsorption of mercury from aqueous solutions and chlor-alkali industry effluent on steam activated and sulphurised steam activated carbons prepared from bagasse pith have been studied comparatively. The uptake of mercury(II) (Hg(II)) was maximum by steam activated carbon in presence of SO(2) and H(2)S (SA-SO(2)-H(2)S-C) followed by steam activated carbon in presence of SO(2) (SA-SO(2)-C), steam activated carbon in presence of H(2)S (SA-H(2)S-C) and steam activated carbon (SA-C) at the same concentration, pH and temperature of the solution. Adsorption experiments demonstrate that the adsorption process corresponds to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and equilibrium results correspond to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Kinetic parameters as a function of initial concentration, for all adsorbents were calculated. Batch studies indicated that the optimum pH range for the adsorption of Hg(II) on sulphurised carbons was between 4 and 9 and for sulphur free carbon was between 6 and 9 at 30 degrees C. The adsorptive behaviour of the activated carbons is explained on the basis of their chemical nature and porous texture. Decrease in ionic strength and increase in temperature of the solution has been found to improve the uptake of Hg(II). Synthetic and chlor-alkali industrial wastewaters were also treated by sulphurised activated carbons to demonstrate their efficiencies in removing Hg(II) from wastewaters. Some feasibility experiments have been carried out with a view to recover the adsorbed Hg(II) and regenerate the spent activated carbons using 0.2M HCl solution. The data obtained point towards viable adsorbents, which are both effective as well as economically attractive for Hg(II) removal from wastewaters.

  20. Incinerator system arrangement with dual scrubbing chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Domnitch, I.

    1987-01-13

    An incinerator arrangement is described comprising: an incinerator housing located near the lowest point in a building, the housing containing incinerator elements therein; a chute-flue having a first end in communication with the incinerator housing, a second end at the top of the building for evacuation of combustion gases to the atmosphere therethrough, and at least one intermediately located waste disposal opening through which waste is dropped into the incinerator housing; the incinerator elements including: a main combustion chamber, an opening between the main combustion chamber and the first end of the chute-flue and a flue-damper covering the opening. The flue-damper is biased in a closed position and being operable by the weight of waste to admit the waste into the combustion chamber; a scrubbing chamber located exteriorly along the top of the combustion chamber and having a first opening into the combustion chamber and a second opening into the chute-flue; and water spraying means in the scrubbing chamber for directing a water spray at the combustion gases to wash particulate matter from the gases before the gases enter the chute-flue whereby the water spraying means which are located adjacent the combustion chamber are protected against freezing and the elements.

  1. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  2. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jaewon; Kim, Soojun; Kim, Gilho; Singh, Vijay P.; Hong, Seungjin; Kim, Hung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered. PMID:26132479

  3. A comparison of 5-minute povidone-iodine scrub and 1-minute povidone-iodine scrub followed by alcohol foam.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, N; Kramer, J W; Kjellberg, S I

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a 1-minute scrub with povidone-iodine followed by alcohol foam is as effective as a 5-minute scrub with povidone-iodine in reducing skin bacterial counts. A 1-minute scrub with povidone-iodine followed by alcohol foam and a 5-minute scrub with povidone-iodine was done. In the first study, cultures were obtained after 1 hour, and in the second study, cultures were obtained after 2 hours. Cultures were obtained by imprinting the first, second, and third fingers on nutrient agar plates. Bacterial counts were then obtained at 24 and 48 hours. The study involved two groups of 12 participants and a total of 37 patients over a period of 5 months. The results show that there was no significant difference between the number of colonies cultured for the 1-minute scrub compared with the 5-minute scrub for either the 1-hour or the 2-hour study. In fact, the total number of bacterial colonies was less after the 1-minute scrub with alcohol foam than after the standard 5-minute scrub in both the 1-hour group (10 vs. 18) and the 2-hour group (18 vs. 44).

  4. System for removing solids from a used lime or limestone slurry scrubbing liquor in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.D.

    1981-10-13

    The flue gas desulfurization process using a lime or limestone slurry scrubbing solution produces used liquor containing calcium sulfite or sulfate (Typically gypsum). Precipitated particles are removed by feeding the used scrubbing liquor to an agitated crystallization zone to grow crystals and directing part of the used scrubbing liquor from that zone to a quiescent crystallization zone, in which particles are settled back into the agitated zone. An underflow stream from the agitated zone containing large crystals is combined with an overflow stream from the quiescent zone, which combined stream is clarified with the fines being returned to the scrubber and the large crystals being removed as a waste product. Apparatus for performing the above process in which the agitated and quiescent crystallization zones form part of a single crystallization vessel, and the two zones are separated by a baffle.

  5. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  6. Reduction of Fe(III)EDTA(-) in a NO(x) scrubbing solution by magnetic Fe3O4-chitosan microspheres immobilized mixed culture of iron-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jing, Guohua; Zhou, Jin; Zhou, Zuoming; Lin, Tianming

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic Fe(3)O(4)-chitosan microspheres were prepared by co-precipitating of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions with NaOH in the presence of chitosan. The saturated magnetization of the resulting material was 20.0 emu/g. Then these magnetic microspheres were employed to immobilize iron-reducing bacteria to improve the biological reduction of Fe(III)EDTA(-), which was one of the key steps in nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) removal by the integrated chemical absorption-biological reduction process. The immobilized bacteria performed well on Fe(III)EDTA(-) reduction than free bacteria, even under unfavorable pH and temperatures. Furthermore, the effects of NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), SO(3)(-), and S(2-), the potential inhibition compounds in the scrubber solution, on the reduction of Fe(III)EDTA(-) by the immobilized and free bacteria were also studied. PMID:22281145

  7. Effects of alkali treatments on Ag nanowire transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Kang, Jun-gu; Eom, Tae-yil; Moon, Bongjin; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we employ various alkali materials (alkali metals with different base strengths, and ammonia gas and solution) to improve the conductivity of silver nanowire (Ag NW)-networked films. The alkali treatment appears to remove the surface oxide and improve the conductivity. When applied with TiO2 nanoparticles, the treatment appears more effective as the alkalis gather around wire junctions and help them weld to each other via heat emitted from the reduction reaction. The ammonia solution treatment is found to be quick and aggressive, damaging the wires severely in the case of excessive treatment. On the other hand, the ammonia gas treatment seems much less aggressive and does not damage the wires even after a long exposure. The results of this study highlight the effectiveness of the alkali treatment in improving of the conductivity of Ag NW-networked transparent conductive films.

  8. Use of hydrogen peroxide in scrubbing towers for odor removal in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Charron, I; Féliers, C; Couvert, A; Laplanche, A; Patria, L; Requieme, B

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to replace sodium hypochlorite (NaCIO) with hydrogen peroxide (H202) in chemical scrubbing towers, in order to avoid the formation of chlorinated species, harmful for human health. Some previous studies have already shown the ability of H2O2 to treat the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) pollution. However, an important decomposition of the oxidant was observed in the scrubbing solution (carbonates, transition metal and high pH are responsible for this decomposition) leading to high reactant consumption. Consequently, this study first focused on research into a compound able to reduce the hydrogen peroxide degradation. Experiments were conducted on a pilot unit (3,000 m3 h(-1)) in a wastewater treatment plant. The sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) proved to be a good scrubbing solution stabilizer. A very good removal of hydrogen sulfide (up to 98%) was also obtained. Finally, the study resulted in the determination of the best operating conditions to achieve both an efficient and economical process.

  9. Masticophis flagellum selects florida scrub habitat at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of space by individual animals strongly influences the spatial extent, abundance, and growth rates of their populations. We analyzed the spatial ecology and habitat selection of Masticophis flagellum (the coachwhip) at three different scales to determine which habitats are most important to this species. Home ranges and mean daily displacements of M. flagellum in Florida were large compared to individuals in other populations of this species. Home ranges contained a greater proportion of Florida scrub habitat than did the study site as a whole, and individuals selected Florida scrub habitat within their home ranges. For both selection of the home range within the study site and selection of habitats within the home range, mesic cutthroat and hydric swamp habitats were avoided. Standardized selection ratios of Florida scrub patches were positively correlated with lizard abundance. Several non-mutually exclusive mechanisms, including foraging success (prey abundance, prey vulnerability, and foraging efficiency), abundance of refugia, and thermoregulatory opportunity may underlie the selection of Florida scrub by M. flagellum. Historic rarity and anthropogenic loss and fragmentation of Florida scrub habitat, coupled with the long-distance movements, large home ranges, and selection of Florida scrub by M. flagellum, indicate that large contiguous tracts of land containing Florida scrub will be essential for the persistence of M. flagellum in central Florida. ?? 2009 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  10. Spatial Distribution Analysis of Scrub Typhus in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hong Sung; Chu, Chaeshin; Han, Dong Yeob

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzes the spatial distribution of scrub typhus in Korea. Methods: A spatial distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi occurrence using a geographic information system (GIS) is presented, and analyzed by means of spatial clustering and correlations. Results: The provinces of Gangwon-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do show a low incidence throughout the year. Some districts have almost identical environmental conditions of scrub typhus incidence. The land use change of districts does not directly affect the incidence rate. Conclusion: GIS analysis shows the spatial characteristics of scrub typhus. This research can be used to construct a spatial-temporal model to understand the epidemic tsutsugamushi. PMID:24159523

  11. Assessing scrub practitioner non-technical skills: a literature review.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A review by Catchpole et al (2009) into the causes and types of harm experienced by the surgical patient emphasised the high risk nature of the perioperative period. Investigations into recent failures at NHS organisations have emphasised the relevance of non-technical skills education in improving clinical performance and patient outcomes. However, scrub practitioner non-technical skills are often developed on a tacit basis, making assessment of performance difficult. This literature review identifies strategies that facilitate assessment of non-technical skills during surgery. Recommendations are made that will assist scrub practitioners in using a validated scrub practitioner non-technical skills assessment framework reliably. PMID:26016259

  12. Elucidation of transport mechanism and enhanced alkali ion transference numbers in mixed alkali metal-organic ionic molten salts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Forsyth, Maria

    2016-07-28

    Mixed salts of Ionic Liquids (ILs) and alkali metal salts, developed as electrolytes for lithium and sodium batteries, have shown a remarkable ability to facilitate high rate capability for lithium and sodium electrochemical cycling. It has been suggested that this may be due to a high alkali metal ion transference number at concentrations approaching 50 mol% Li(+) or Na(+), relative to lower concentrations. Computational investigations for two IL systems illustrate the formation of extended alkali-anion aggregates as the alkali metal ion concentration increases. This tends to favor the diffusion of alkali metal ions compared with other ionic species in electrolyte solutions; behavior that has recently been reported for Li(+) in a phosphonium ionic liquid, thus an increasing alkali transference number. The mechanism of alkali metal ion diffusion via this extended coordination environment present at high concentrations is explained and compared to the dynamics at lower concentrations. Heterogeneous alkali metal ion dynamics are also evident and, somewhat counter-intuitively, it appears that the faster ions are those that are generally found clustered with the anions. Furthermore these fast alkali metal ions appear to correlate with fastest ionic liquid solvent ions. PMID:27375042

  13. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  14. Apparatus enables accurate determination of alkali oxides in alkali metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.; Gahn, R. F.; Graab, J. W.; Maple, W. E.; Rosenblum, L.

    1966-01-01

    Evacuated apparatus determines the alkali oxide content of an alkali metal by separating the metal from the oxide by amalgamation with mercury. The apparatus prevents oxygen and moisture from inadvertently entering the system during the sampling and analytical procedure.

  15. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil.

  16. Ionic molecular interactions in solutions of alkali metal iodides in N-methylpyrrolidone at 298.15 K according to calorimetry and densimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, A. N.; Rassokhina, L. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    The heat capacity and density of the ternary solutions of NaI-KI- N-methylpyrrolidone (MP), NaI-RbI-MP, KI-RbI-MP, and KI-BaI2-MP at 298.15 K were studied by calorimetry and densimetry. The changes in the heat capacity and volume during the formation of the ternary systems from binary solutions were calculated and discussed. Ion association was found to dominate during the mixing of electrolyte solutions of this type in MP, with ion resolvation occasionally producing a significant effect on ion association.

  17. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  18. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  19. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  20. Effectiveness of Septisol Antiseptic Foam as a Surgical Scrub Agent

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Norman E.; Gravens, Daniel L.

    1973-01-01

    Septisol antiseptic foam (0.23% hexachlorophene in a 46% ethyl alcohol base) is a new surgical scrub agent for both primary and re-entry use that is designed to minimize the harsh effects to the skin of the conventional scrub while retaining effective antibacterial properties. A preliminary surgical scrub study of 1-week duration yielded an immediate reduction in resident flora of 92% from an average single scrub coupled with a residual bacteriostatic effect from repeated use that gave a plateau at 57% of the pretest resident population level. A separate study demonstrated complete elimination of both gram-positive and gram-negative transients from the skin with a single application of the product. In an 8-week surgical scrub study, equal effectiveness was shown between Septisol antiseptic foam and a standard 3% hexachlorophene detergent. However, Septisol antiseptic foam offers considerable advantage in minimizing the harsh effects to the skin of the conventional surgical scrub and results in a substantially lower hemic level of hexachlorophene in the user than that obtained with 3% hexachlorophene detergent. Sampling was conducted by the fingerprint impression plate technique of Gale. PMID:4584593

  1. Jet Surface Interaction-Scrubbing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Generation of sound due to scrubbing of a jet flow past a nearby solid surface is investigated within the framework of the generalized acoustic analogy theory. The analysis applies to the boundary layer noise generated at and near a wall, and excludes the scattered noise component that is produced at the leading or the trailing edge. While compressibility effects are relatively unimportant at very low Mach numbers, frictional heat generation and thermal gradient normal to the surface could play important roles in generation and propagation of sound in high speed jets of practical interest. A general expression is given for the spectral density of the far-field sound as governed by the variable density Pridmore- Brown equation. The propagation Green's function should be solved numerically starting with the boundary conditions on the surface and subject to specified mean velocity and temperature profiles between the surface and the observer. The equivalent sources of aerodynamic sound are associated with non-linear momentum flux and enthalpy flux terms that appear in the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. These multi-pole sources should be modeled and evaluated with input from a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver with an appropriate turbulence model.

  2. Chlor-Alkali Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesh, S.; Tilak, B. V.

    1983-01-01

    Chlor-alkali technology is one of the largest electrochemical industries in the world, the main products being chlorine and caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) generated simultaneously by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. This technology is reviewed in terms of electrochemical principles and manufacturing processes involved. (Author/JN)

  3. Raman and infrared spectroscopic investigations on aqueous alkali metal phosphate solutions and density functional theory calculations of phosphate-water clusters.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Wolfram W; Irmer, Gert

    2007-12-01

    Phosphate (PO(4)(3-)) solutions in water and heavy water have been studied by Raman and infrared spectroscopy over a broad concentration range (0.0091-5.280 mol/L) including a hydrate melt at 23 degrees C. In the low wavenumber range, spectra in R-format have been constructed and the R normalization procedure has been briefly discussed. The vibrational modes of the tetrahedral PO(4)(3-)(aq) (T(d) symmetry) have been assigned and compared to the calculated values derived from the density functional theory (DFT) method for the unhydrated PO(4)(3-)(T(d)) and phosphate-water clusters: PO(4)(3-).H(2)O (C(2v)), PO(4)(3-).2H(2)O (D(2d)), PO(4)(3-).4H(2)O (D(2d)), PO(4)(3-).6H(2)O (T(d)), and PO(4)(3-).12H(2)O (T), a cluster with a complete first hydration sphere of water molecules. A cluster with a second hydration sphere of 12 water molecules and 6 in the first sphere, PO(4)(3-).18H(2)O (T), has also been calculated. Agreement between measured and calculated vibrational modes is best in the case of the PO(4)(3-).12H(2)O cluster and the PO(4)(3-).18H(2)O cluster but far less so in the case of the unhydrated PO(4)(3-) or phosphate-water cluster with a lower number of water molecules than 12. The asymmetric, broad band shape of v(1)(a(1)) PO(4)(3-) in aqueous solutions has been measured as a function of concentration and the asymmetric and broad band shape was explained. However, the same mode in heavy water has only half the full width at half-height compared to the mode in normal water. The PO(4)(3-) is strongly hydrated in aqueous solutions. This has been verified by Raman spectroscopy comparing v(2)(H(2)O), the deformation mode of water, and the stretching modes, the v(1)OH and v(3)OH of water, in K(3)PO(4) solutions as a function of concentration and comparison with the same modes in pure water. A mode at approximately 240 cm(-1) (isotropic R spectrum) has been detected and assigned to the restricted translational mode of the strong hydrogen bonds formed between

  4. Dynamic chiral-at-metal stability of tetrakis(d/l-hfc)Ln(III) complexes capped with an alkali metal cation in solution.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiji; Zou, Fang; Wan, Shigang; Ouyang, Jie; Lin, Lirong; Zhang, Hui

    2012-06-14

    Chiral tetrakis(β-diketonate) Ln(III) complexes Δ-[NaLa(d-hfc)(4)(CH(3)CN)] (1) and Λ-[NaLa(l-hfc)(4) (CH(3)CN)] (2) (d/l-hfc(-) = 3-heptafluo-robutylryl-(+)/(-)-camphorate) are a pair of enantiomers and crystallize in the same Sohncke space group (P2(1)2(1)2(1)) with dodecahedral (DD) geometry. Typically positive and negative exciton splitting patterns around 320 nm were observed in the solid-state circular dichroism (CD) spectra of complexes 1 and 2, which indicate that their shell configurational chiralities are Δ and Λ, respectively. The apparent bisignate couplets in the solid-state CD spectra of [CsLn(d-hfc)(4)(H(2)O)] [Ln = La (3), Yb (5)] and [CsLn(l-hfc)(4)(H(2)O)] [Ln = La (4), Yb (6)] show that they are a pair of enantiomers and their absolute configurations are denoted Δ and Λ, respectively. The crystallographic data of 5 reveals that its coordination polyhedron is the square antiprism (SAP) geometry and it undergoes a phase transition from triclinic (α phase, P1) to monoclinic (β phase, C2) upon cooling. The difference between the two phases is brought about by the temperature dependent behaviour of the coordination water molecules, but this did not affect the configurational chirality of the Δ-SAP-[Yb(d-hfc)(4)](-) moiety. Furthermore, time-dependent CD, UV-vis and (19)F NMR were applied to study the solution behavior of these complexes. It was found that the chiral-at-metal stability of the three pairs of complexes is different and affected by both the Ln(3+) and M(+) ion size. The results show that the Cs(+) cation can retain the metal center chirality and stablize the structures of [Ln(d/l-hfc)(4)](-) or the dissociated tris(d/l-hfc)Ln(III) species in solution for a longer time than that of the Na(+) cation, and it is important that the Cs(+) ion successfully lock the configurational chirality around the Yb(3+) center of the complex species in solution. This is reasoned by the short Cs(+)···FC, Cs(+)···O-Yb and Cs(+)···Yb(3

  5. Alkali-vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Komashko, A.; Krupke, W. F.

    2010-02-01

    We report on the results from several of our alkali laser systems. We show highly efficient performance from an alexandrite-pumped rubidium laser. Using a laser diode stack as a pump source, we demonstrate up to 145 W of average power from a CW system. We present a design for a transversely pumped demonstration system that will show all of the required laser physics for a high power system.

  6. Role of mag-enhanced lime scrubbing in the FGD industry

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Smith, K.; Stowe, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    The mag-enhanced lime scrubbing process has been in commercial use in the US since the early 1970`s. At present over 14,000 MW of coal-fired utility plants in the US burning high sulfur coal (2.5--4.0% S) utilize this process with an excellent emission compliance and cost performance record to date. Dravo Lime Company (DLC) being the largest supplier of lime to this industry continues to conduct extensive R and D in this area and provides technical support service to these users. The success of the mag-enhanced lime process is largely attributed to the dual alkali effect of the Mg-Ca ions with a very distinct role for the highly soluble Mg ion in the scrubber liquor. It is well known that the high solubility of the magnesium ions provides alkalinities in the scrubbing liquor far in excess of the limestone systems. As a result of this high alkalinity liquor the mag-lime scrubbers need a much lower liquid to gas ratio, have lower scrubber pressure drop, consume lower parasitic load, are able to handle very high inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations, show little scaling tendency, etc. The scrubbers, recirculation pumps, piping, etc., are much smaller and the systems have lower capital and operating costs over comparable limestone systems. This system typically has a high availability and the process is less severe mechanically on the scrubber, pumps, nozzles, piping than comparable limestone processes. DLC`s patented ThioClear{reg_sign} process is an improvement over the conventional Thiosorbic process in use today. The ThioClear process while providing all of the advantages of the Thiosorbic process uses a nearly clear liquor to scrub and can use an innovative Horizontal Scrubber at gas velocities of up to 7.62--9.14 m/s (25--30 FPS). This process produces an excellent quality gypsum for wall board, cement or other applications and can also produce valuable Mg(OH){sub 2} as by-product. This paper discusses the merits of Thiosorbic/ThioClear processes, innovations with

  7. Removal of ethylene and bioaerosol by chlorine dioxide using a chemical scrubbing system in a fruit and vegetable storage facility.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsu-Hua; Wu, Li-Chun; You, Ya-Ting; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2009-02-15

    Ethylene (C2H4) and bioaerosol are commonly present in the inside atmosphere of postharvest fruit and vegetable storage facilities, which may affect the aging of postharvest fruit and human health. We have assessed the feasibility of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as the scrubbing solution in a chemical scrubbing tower for simultaneously removing C2H4 and bioaerosol emissions from a gas stream. Parameters such as the ClO2concentration, contact time, and liquid-to-gas (L/G) ratio were examined with the aim of determining the optimal operating conditions. Using the system reported here, the optimal C2H4 removal efficiency was 99.5% when 500 ppm ClO2 was used at a reaction time of 30-60 s under a continuous non-recycle ClO2 flow mode. In terms of C2H4 removal, a greater L/G resulted in a higher C2H4 removal efficiency up to the optimal ratio of 12.5. In terms of the simultaneous removal of C2H4 and bioaerosol, the removal efficiency of C2H4 was 99.2% and those for the bioaersols of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 99.92 and 99.10%, respectively, under a continuous non-recycle flow mode. Our results also indicate that oxidation reduction potential (ORP) can be a valuable indicator for the timing of the replacement of the scrubbing solution in the system under a continuous recycle flow mode. Additional confirmation of the feasibility of the ORP as an indicator of C2H4 and bioaerosol removal in situ was obtained in a 3-month test of our system in continuous recycle flow mode with the periodical replacement of scrubbing solution, ClO2. The removal efficiencies for C2H4, bacterial and fungus aerosol, and total hydrocarbon compounds (THC) were 83.4, 96.8, 96.1, and 76.5%, respectively. Our results prove that ClO2 is an excellent scrubbing solution in the chemical scrubbing tower for the removal of C2H4 emissions and bioaerosol. We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of this system in a fruit and vegetable storage facility. PMID:19132588

  8. CO2 study shows effects on scrub oak environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    CO2 study site manager and plant physiologist Graham Hymus (left) examines scrub oak foliage while project engineer David Johnson (right) looks on. The life sciences study is showing that rising levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, caused by the burning of fossil fuels, could spur plant growth globally. The site of KSC's study is a natural scrub oak area near the Vehicle Assembly Building. Twelve-foot areas of scrub oak have been enclosed in 16 open-top test chambers into which CO2 has been blown. Five scientists from NASA and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Md., work at the site to monitor experiments and keep the site running. Scientists hope to continue the study another five to 10 years. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 57- 00.

  9. Urbanization of Scrub Typhus Disease in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Won; Ha, Na-Young; Ryu, Boyeong; Bang, Ji Hwan; Song, Hoyeon; Kim, Yuri; Kim, Gwanghun; Oh, Myoung-don; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Lee, Jong-koo

    2015-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is an endemic disease in Asia. It has been a rural disease, but indigenous urban cases have been observed in Seoul, South Korea. Urban scrub typhus may have a significant impact because of the large population. Methods Indigenous urban scrub typhus was epidemiologically identified in Seoul, the largest metropolitan city in South Korea, using national notifiable disease data from 2010 to 2013. For detailed analysis of clinical features, patients from one hospital that reported the majority of cases were selected and compared to a historic control group. Chigger mites were prospectively collected in the city using a direct chigger mite-collecting trap, and identified using both phenotypic and 18S rDNA sequencing analyses. Their infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi was confirmed by sequencing the 56-kDa antigen gene. Results Eighty-eight cases of urban scrub typhus were determined in Seoul. The possible sites of infection were mountainous areas (56.8%), city parks (20.5%), the vicinity of one’s own residence (17.0%), and riversides (5.7%). Eighty-seven chigger mites were collected in Gwanak mountain, one of the suspected infection sites in southern Seoul, and seventy-six (87.4%) of them were identified as Helenicula miyagawai and eight (9.2%) as Leptotrombidium scutellare. Pooled DNA extracted from H. miyagawai mites yielded O. tsutsugamushi Boryong strain. Twenty-six patients from one hospital showed low APACHE II score (3.4 ± 2.7), low complication rate (3.8%), and no hypokalemia. Conclusions We identified the presence of indigenous urban scrub typhus in Seoul, and a subgroup of them had mild clinical features. The chigger mite H. miyagawai infected with O. tsutsugamushi within the city was found. In endemic area, urban scrub typhus needs to be considered as one of the differential febrile diseases and a target for prevention. PMID:26000454

  10. Effect of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate predisinfection skin scrub prior to hepatectomy: a double-blinded, randomized control study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Shui; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Yao-Li

    2014-01-01

    This trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) with normal saline (NS) as a predisinfection skin-scrub solution prior to standard presurgical skin preparation. Data was collected at a single transplantation center where patients electing resection of hepatic tumors were recruited between October 2011 and September 2012. In total, 100 patients were consecutively enrolled for random assignment to either 4% CHG or NS as a predisinfection skin-scrub solution prior to surgery. Our aim was to assess the comparative antiseptic efficacy of CHG in this setting, focusing on cutaneous microbial colonization (at baseline, preoperatively, and postoperatively) and postsurgical site infections as primary outcome measures. Positivity rates of baseline, preoperative, and postoperative cultures were similar for both groups, showing significant declines (relative to baseline) after skin preparation and no significant postsurgical rebound. Rates of surgical site infection were also similar in both groups (CHG, 6.0%; NS, 4.1%; P = 1.0). For patients with hepatic tumors undergoing hepatectomy, the effect of 4% CHG as a predisinfection scrub solution was similar to that of NS in terms of skin decontamination and surgical site infections.

  11. Effect of 4% Chlorhexidine Gluconate Predisinfection Skin Scrub Prior to Hepatectomy: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ching-Shui; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Yao-Li

    2014-01-01

    This trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) with normal saline (NS) as a predisinfection skin-scrub solution prior to standard presurgical skin preparation. Data was collected at a single transplantation center where patients electing resection of hepatic tumors were recruited between October 2011 and September 2012. In total, 100 patients were consecutively enrolled for random assignment to either 4% CHG or NS as a predisinfection skin-scrub solution prior to surgery. Our aim was to assess the comparative antiseptic efficacy of CHG in this setting, focusing on cutaneous microbial colonization (at baseline, preoperatively, and postoperatively) and postsurgical site infections as primary outcome measures. Positivity rates of baseline, preoperative, and postoperative cultures were similar for both groups, showing significant declines (relative to baseline) after skin preparation and no significant postsurgical rebound. Rates of surgical site infection were also similar in both groups (CHG, 6.0%; NS, 4.1%; P = 1.0). For patients with hepatic tumors undergoing hepatectomy, the effect of 4% CHG as a predisinfection scrub solution was similar to that of NS in terms of skin decontamination and surgical site infections. PMID:25437588

  12. Is it time for brushless scrubbing with an alcohol-based agent?

    PubMed

    Gruendemann, B J; Bjerke, N B

    2001-12-01

    The practice of surgical scrubbing in perioperative settings is changing rapidly. This article presents information about eliminating the traditional scrub brush technique and using an alcohol formulation for surgical hand scrubs. Also covered are antimicrobial agents, relevant US Food and Drug Administration classifications, skin and fingernail care, and implementation of changes. The article challenges surgical team members to evaluate a new and different approach to surgical hand scrubbing.

  13. Effect of cavitation on removal of alkali elements from coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivalli, H.; Nirmal, L.; Nagarajan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The main impurities in coal are sulphur, ash and alkali. On combustion, the volatile forms of these impurities are either condensed on the boilers, or emitted in the form of potentially hazardous gases. The alkali elements present in coal help the fly ash particles adhere to boiler surfaces by providing a wet surface on which collection of these particles can take place. Use of ultrasonic techniques in cleaning of coal has stirred interest among researchers in recent times. Extraction of alkali elements by cavitation effect using low-frequency ultrasound, in the presence of reagents (HNO3 and H2O2) is reported in this paper. Powdered coal was dissolved with the reagent and exposed to ultrasonic fields of various frequencies at different time intervals. The treated solution is filtered and tested for alkali levels.

  14. Scrub Typhus in the Republic of Palau, Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Kuartei, Stevenson; Togamae, Ishmael; Sengebau, Maireng; Demma, Linda; Nicholson, William; O'Leary, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In October 2001, an outbreak of febrile illness began in the southwest islands group of the Republic of Palau. Through October 2003, a total of 15 southwest islanders experienced fever >39.5°C and abdominal distress, both lasting >7days. Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, was subsequently identified as the cause. PMID:15504273

  15. Retrospective Cognition by Food-Caching Western Scrub-Jays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kort, S.R.; Dickinson, A.; Clayton, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Episodic-like memory, the retrospective component of cognitive time travel in animals, needs to fulfil three criteria to meet the behavioral properties of episodic memory as defined for humans. Here, we review results obtained with the cache-recovery paradigm with western scrub-jays and conclude that they fulfil these three criteria. The jays…

  16. Effect of chlorhexidine scrub on postoperative bacterial counts.

    PubMed

    Dahl, J; Wheeler, B; Mukherjee, D

    1990-05-01

    Chlorhexidine surgical scrub was left on the surgeon's hands in 50 orthopedic and vascular surgical procedures to determine whether the number of bacteria on the hands could be decreased postoperatively. After a standard 5-minute scrub, one hand was randomly rinsed prior to gloving; the other was lightly patted with a sterile towel, leaving some foam on the hand. The surgeon then gloved and performed the procedure in the usual manner. After the operation, both hands were immersed in a tryptic soy broth for 30 seconds. The broth was then cultured for bacterial species and number. Cases in which glove puncture occurred were not cultured. The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. There were fewer bacterial colonies isolated from the hand coated with chlorhexidine scrub versus the other; this difference was statistically significant (p less than 0.005). There also seemed to be a trend towards higher bacterial counts after longer operations; however, the difference was not significant. Neither surgeon noted any evidence of dermatitis during the study. These results suggest that leaving chlorhexidine scrub on the hands during surgery can lead to lower bacterial counts on the surgeon's hands and less chance of wound contamination should glove puncture occur.

  17. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  18. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  19. Chemical-oxidative scrubbing for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from raw biogas: potentials and economics.

    PubMed

    Miltner, M; Makaruk, A; Krischan, J; Harasek, M

    2012-01-01

    In the present work chemical-oxidative scrubbing as a novel method for the desulphurisation of raw biogas is presented with a special focus on the process potentials and economics. The selective absorption of hydrogen sulphide from gas streams containing high amounts of carbon dioxide using caustic solutions is not trivial but has been treated in literature. However, the application of this method to biogas desulphurisation has not been established so far. Based on rigorous experimental work, an industrial-scale pilot plant has been designed, erected and commissioned at a biogas plant with biogas upgrading and gas grid injection in Austria. Data collected from the 12-month monitored operation has been used to elaborate performance as well as economic parameters for the novel desulphurisation method. The proposed technology offers significant operational advantages regarding the degree of automation and the flexibility towards fluctuations in process boundary conditions. Furthermore, the economic assessment revealed the high competitiveness of the chemical-oxidative scrubbing process compared with other desulphurisation technologies with the named advantageous operational behaviour.

  20. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; Williams, B. Ken

    2011-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act due to loss and degradation of scrub habitat. This study concerned the development of an optimal strategy for the restoration and management of scrub habitat at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which contains one of the few remaining large populations of scrub-jays in Florida. There are documented differences in the reproductive and survival rates of scrubjays among discrete classes of scrub height (<120 cm or "short"; 120-170 cm or "optimal"; .170 cm or "tall"; and a combination of tall and optimal or "mixed"), and our objective was to calculate a state-dependent management strategy that would maximize the long-term growth rate of the resident scrub-jay population. We used aerial imagery with multistate Markov models to estimate annual transition probabilities among the four scrub-height classes under three possible management actions: scrub restoration (mechanical cutting followed by burning), a prescribed burn, or no intervention. A strategy prescribing the optimal management action for management units exhibiting different proportions of scrub-height classes was derived using dynamic programming. Scrub restoration was the optimal management action only in units dominated by mixed and tall scrub, and burning tended to be the optimal action for intermediate levels of short scrub. The optimal action was to do nothing when the amount of short scrub was greater than 30%, because short scrub mostly transitions to optimal height scrub (i.e., that state with the highest demographic success of scrub-jays) in the absence of intervention. Monte Carlo simulation of the optimal policy suggested that some form of management would be required every year. We note, however, that estimates of scrub-height transition probabilities were subject to several sources of uncertainty, and so we explored the management implications of alternative sets of transition probabilities

  1. Support for Systematic Code Reviews with the SCRUB Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzmann, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    SCRUB is a code review tool that supports both large, team-based software development efforts (e.g., for mission software) as well as individual tasks. The tool was developed at JPL to support a new, streamlined code review process that combines human-generated review reports with program-generated review reports from a customizable range of state-of-the-art source code analyzers. The leading commercial tools include Codesonar, Coverity, and Klocwork, each of which can achieve a reasonably low rate of false-positives in the warnings that they generate. The time required to analyze code with these tools can vary greatly. In each case, however, the tools produce results that would be difficult to realize with human code inspections alone. There is little overlap in the results produced by the different analyzers, and each analyzer used generally increases the effectiveness of the overall effort. The SCRUB tool allows all reports to be accessed through a single, uniform interface (see figure) that facilitates brows ing code and reports. Improvements over existing software include significant simplification, and leveraging of a range of commercial, static source code analyzers in a single, uniform framework. The tool runs as a small stand-alone application, avoiding the security problems related to tools based on Web browsers. A developer or reviewer, for instance, must have already obtained access rights to a code base before that code can be browsed and reviewed with the SCRUB tool. The tool cannot open any files or folders to which the user does not already have access. This means that the tool does not need to enforce or administer any additional security policies. The analysis results presented through the SCRUB tool s user interface are always computed off-line, given that, especially for larger projects, this computation can take longer than appropriate for interactive tool use. The recommended code review process that is supported by the SCRUB tool consists of

  2. Mixed alkali effect in nonconventional alkali gallotitanate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaji, Fumiaki; Hasegawa, Shinya; Yoko, Toshinobu; Sakka, Sumio . Inst. for Chemical Research)

    1993-02-01

    The mixed alkali effect on electrical conductivity, that is, the reduction of conductivity due to alkali mixing, was observed in Na[sub 2]O-K[sub 2]O-Ga[sub 2]O[sub 3]-TiO[sub 2] glasses, which are nonconventional in the sense that glass-forming oxides defined by Zachariasen are not involved. The magnitude of the reduction in conductivity of the present glasses due to alkali mixing was similar to that of corresponding mixed alkali silicate and phosphate glasses. The activation energy for electrical conduction showed a maximum around the composition Na/(Na + K) = 0.5, where the conductivity was at a minimum.

  3. Alkali-aggregate reactivity of typical siliceious glass and carbonate rocks in alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Duyou; Liu, Yongdao; Zheng, Yanzeng; Xu, Zhongzi; Shen, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    For exploring the behaviour of alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) in alkali-activated geopolymeric materials and assessing the procedures for testing AAR in geopolymers, the expansion behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer mortars with pure silica glass and typical carbonate rocks were studied respectively by curing at various conditions, i.e. 23°C and 38°C with relative humidity over 95%, immersed in 1M NaOH solution at 80°C. Results show that, at various curing conditions, neither harmful ASR nor harmful ACR was observed in geopolymers with the criteria specified for OPC system. However, with the change of curing conditions, the geopolymer binder and reactive aggregates may experience different reaction processes leading to quite different dimensional changes, especially with additional alkalis and elevated temperatures. It suggests that high temperature with additional alkali for accelerating AAR in traditional OPC system may not appropriate for assessing the alkali-aggregate reactivity behaviour in geopolymers designed for normal conditions. On the other hand, it is hopeful to control the dimensional change of geopolymer mortar or concrete by selecting the type of aggregates and the appropriate curing conditions, thus changing the harmful AAR in OPC into beneficial AAR in geopolymers and other alkali-activated cementitious systems.

  4. Enthalpies of formation of CaAl sub 4 O sub 7 and CaAl sub 12 O sub 19 (hibonite) by high temperature, alkali borate solution calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, C.A.; Kleppa, O.J.; Mysen, B.O.; Lattimer, J.M.; Grossman, L. )

    1988-06-01

    The enthalpies of formation of CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7} and CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} (hibonite), by alkali borate solution calorimetry at 1063 K are discussed. Using these experimental enthalpy data for CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7} and estimated values for CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}, the standard enthalpies of formation of these compounds from the elements at 298 K are derived. Comparison with high-temperature galvanic cell data for the Gibbs energy of formation of CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19} allows a calculation of the standard entropy of hibonite. This value is only about 2% larger than the oxide sum. Hence it is inferred that the standard entropy of hibonite at 298 K is probably only slightly larger than oxide sum value of 343.7 J/K g.f.w. The present data were used to extrapolate Kumar and Kay's (1985) data for the Gibbs energies of formation of hibonite and CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7} to the temperature range 1500-1700 K. These data were then used in equilibrium thermodynamic calculations of the condensation of a gas of solar composition. Contrary to calculations of Kornacki and Fegley (1984), who used thermodynamic data of Allibert et al. (1981) for calcium aluminates, the authors results show no stability field for CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7} in a gas of solar composition at 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}5} atm total pressure. At 10{sup {minus}3} atm pressure, hibonite forms by reaction of corundum with the gas at 1725 K, begins to react with the gas to form gehlenite at 1607 K and disappears completely in a reaction to form spinel at 1494 K. The absence of CaAl{sub 4}O{sub 7}, from hibonite-, spinel-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites cannot be used as an argument against a condensation origin for these objects.

  5. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  6. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  7. Severe scrub typhus infection: Clinical features, diagnostic challenges and management

    PubMed Central

    Peter, John Victor; Sudarsan, Thomas I; Prakash, John Anthony J; Varghese, George M

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus infection is an important cause of acute undifferentiated fever in South East Asia. The clinical picture is characterized by sudden onset fever with chills and non-specific symptoms that include headache, myalgia, sweating and vomiting. The presence of an eschar, in about half the patients with proven scrub typhus infection and usually seen in the axilla, groin or inguinal region, is characteristic of scrub typhus. Common laboratory findings are elevated liver transaminases, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis. About a third of patients admitted to hospital with scrub typhus infection have evidence of organ dysfunction that may include respiratory failure, circulatory shock, mild renal or hepatic dysfunction, central nervous system involvement or hematological abnormalities. Since the symptoms and signs are non-specific and resemble other tropical infections like malaria, enteric fever, dengue or leptospirosis, appropriate laboratory tests are necessary to confirm diagnosis. Serological assays are the mainstay of diagnosis as they are easy to perform; the reference test is the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of IgM antibodies. However in clinical practice, the enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay is done due to the ease of performing this test and a good sensitivity and sensitivity when compared with the IFA. Paired samples, obtained at least two weeks apart, demonstrating a ≥ 4 fold rise in titre, is necessary for confirmation of serologic diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is the tetracycline group of antibiotics or chloramphenicol although macrolides are used alternatively. In mild cases, recovery is complete. In severe cases with multi-organ failure, mortality may be as high as 24%. PMID:26261776

  8. Severe scrub typhus infection: Clinical features, diagnostic challenges and management.

    PubMed

    Peter, John Victor; Sudarsan, Thomas I; Prakash, John Anthony J; Varghese, George M

    2015-08-01

    Scrub typhus infection is an important cause of acute undifferentiated fever in South East Asia. The clinical picture is characterized by sudden onset fever with chills and non-specific symptoms that include headache, myalgia, sweating and vomiting. The presence of an eschar, in about half the patients with proven scrub typhus infection and usually seen in the axilla, groin or inguinal region, is characteristic of scrub typhus. Common laboratory findings are elevated liver transaminases, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis. About a third of patients admitted to hospital with scrub typhus infection have evidence of organ dysfunction that may include respiratory failure, circulatory shock, mild renal or hepatic dysfunction, central nervous system involvement or hematological abnormalities. Since the symptoms and signs are non-specific and resemble other tropical infections like malaria, enteric fever, dengue or leptospirosis, appropriate laboratory tests are necessary to confirm diagnosis. Serological assays are the mainstay of diagnosis as they are easy to perform; the reference test is the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of IgM antibodies. However in clinical practice, the enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay is done due to the ease of performing this test and a good sensitivity and sensitivity when compared with the IFA. Paired samples, obtained at least two weeks apart, demonstrating a ≥ 4 fold rise in titre, is necessary for confirmation of serologic diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is the tetracycline group of antibiotics or chloramphenicol although macrolides are used alternatively. In mild cases, recovery is complete. In severe cases with multi-organ failure, mortality may be as high as 24%.

  9. Clearcut stand size and scrub-successional bird assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of clearcut stand size on species richness, reproductive effort, and relative abundance of scrub-successional birds and the entire bird assemblage at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. We used standardized mist-net grids to mark and recapture birds in clearcuts replanted with longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in stands of 2 to 57 ha that were two to six years old. Species richness for the entire bird assemblage was not explained by stand size (P = 0.67), stand age (P = 0.95), or the interaction of these two variables (P = 0.90). Similarly, species richness of scrub-successional birds was not explained by stand size (P = 0.63), stand age (P = 0.55), or the interaction of stand size and stand age (P = 0.35). Regressing species richness on clearcut stand size, we found a significant negative relationship between these variables for the entire bird assemblage (P = 0.01) and for scrub-successional birds (P = 0.02). The ratio of juveniles to adults in mist-net samples varied by year (P = 0.04), but neither clearcut size (P = 0.23) nor the interaction of clearcut size and year (P = 0.25) was related to the ratio of juveniles to adults in the sample. We found no relationship between the frequency of capture of any category of birds and stand size (scrub-successional, P = 0.52; woodland, P = 0.77; combined sample, P = 0.55). Neither bird-species richness, reproductive effort, nor relative abundance differed across clearcut stand sizes. Clearcut stand size does not appear to be an important management variable if variation in species richness, reproductive effort, or relative abundance are objectives. We suggest that even-aged forestry is a useful tool for managing birds in the southeastern United States.

  10. An in-use microbiological comparison of two surgical hand disinfection techniques in cardiothoracic surgery: hand rubbing versus hand scrubbing.

    PubMed

    Carro, C; Camilleri, L; Traore, O; Badrikian, L; Legault, B; Azarnoush, K; Dualé, C; De Riberolles, C

    2007-09-01

    Surgical site infection after heart surgery increases morbidity and mortality. The method of presurgical hand disinfection could influence the infection risk. From February to April 2003, we compared the microbiological efficacy of hand-rubbing (R) and hand-scrubbing (S) procedures. The surgical team alternately used hand-scrubbing or hand-rubbing techniques every two weeks. Fingertip impressions were taken before and immediately after hand disinfection, every 2h and at the end of the operation. Acceptability of hand rubbing was assessed by a questionnaire. Mean durations of surgical procedures were 259+/-68 and 244+/-69min for groups S and R respectively (P=0.43). Bacterial counts immediately after hand disinfection were comparable with the two techniques, but significantly lower in group R at the end of surgery. No differences were observed between the percentages of negative samples taken after 2h, 4h and at the end of surgery between the two groups. Bacterial skin flora reduction immediately after hand disinfection, after 2h and 4h of operating time and at the end of surgery was better in group R, but the difference was not statistically significant. Before surgery, the hand-rubbing method with alcohol solution preceded by hand washing with mild neutral soap is as effective as hand scrubbing to reduce bacterial counts on hands. It decreased the bacterial counts both immediately after hand disinfection and at the end of long cardiothoracic surgical procedures. The acceptability of hand rubbing was excellent and it can be considered to be a valid alternative to the conventional hand-scrubbing protocol.

  11. Habitat model for the Florida Scrub Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The Florida Scrub Jay is endemic to Florida. The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides habitat for one of the three largest populations of the Florida Scrub Jay. This threatened bird occupies scrub, slash pine flatwoods, disturbed scrub, and coastal strand on KSC. Densities of Florida Scrub Jays were shown to vary with habitat characteristics but not necessarily with vegetation type. Relationships between Florida Scrub Jay densities and habitat characteristics were used to develop a habitat model to provide a tool to compare alternative sites for new facilities and to quantify environmental impacts. This model is being tested using long term demographic studies of colorbanded Florida Scrub Jays. Optimal habitat predicted by the model has greater than or equal to 50 percent of the shrub canopy comprised of scrub oaks, 20-50 percent open space or scrub oak vegetation within 100 m of a ruderal edge, less than or equal to 15 percent pine canopy cover, a shrub height of 120-170 cm, and is greater than or equal to 100 m from a forest. This document reviews life history, social behavior, food, foraging habitat, cover requirements, characteristics of habitat on KSC, and habitat preferences of the Florida Scrub Jay. Construction of the model and its limitations are discussed.

  12. Effect of surgical scrub on microbial population under the fingernails.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Cutright, D E; D'Alessandro, S M

    1979-09-01

    The effectiveness of two methods of presurgical hand preparation, the 10 minute routine scrub and the 90 second Hydroscrub, in reducing microbial numbers under the fingernails was determined. Bacteriologic cultures of 162 subungual areas of nine subjects revealed prescrub microbial counts of up to 1.9 X 10(5) colony-forming units per area. After the surgical scrub, bacterial concentrations were reduced to a different degree among the persons tested. The mean values of 3.0 X 10(3) to 7.8 X 10(3) colony-forming units immediately after scrub indicated that neither of the two methods tested reduced the microbial population under the fingernails of most persons to acceptable levels. The finding of high postscrub microbial counts under the fingernails is of particular interest and significance in view of the relatively low counts on the fingertips. On the basis of the results of this study, we conclude that degerming of the areas under the fingernails by present methods is not satisfactory. The implication of these findings is discussed.

  13. Scrub Typhus antibody in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Heisey, G B; Gan, E; Shirai, A; Groves, M G

    1981-06-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, sera from 113 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), trapped in Peninsular Malaysia, were screened for the presence of antibody to six prototype strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi combined into three polyvalent groupings: I--Karp, TA716, and TA763; II--Gilliam; and III--TA678 and TH1817. Fifteen percent (17/113) of the monkeys had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:50 to one or more of the antigenic groups. Although a titer greater than or equal to 1:150 is generally considered indicative or prior Rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection, we selected a less than 1:25 titer as a conservative standard to insure non-infected animals. Using this criterion, 62 (55%) of the 113 monkeys were accepted for use in scrub typhus studies. The high prevalence of antibody to scrub typhus in the semi-arboreal cynomolgus monkey is in marked contrast to the low prevalence reported in the strictly arboreal silvered leaf monkeys (Presbytis cristatus). The results of this study indicate that cynomolgus monkeys should be rigorously screened for evidence of prior infection before they are included in experimental scrub typhus studies.

  14. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  15. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  16. ELECTROLYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Alter, H.W.; Barney, D.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the treatment of radioactivc waste nitric acid solutions. The nitric acid solution is neutralized with an alkali metal hydroxide in an amount sufficient to precipitate insoluble hydroxides, and after separation of the precipitate the solution is electrolyzed to convert the alkali nitrate formed, to alkali hydroxide, gaseous ammonla and oxygen. The solution is then reusable after reducing the volume by evaporating the water and dissolved ammonia.

  17. Scrub typhus as a possible aetiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome: two cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-S; Lee, J-H; Lee, H-S; Chang, H; Kim, Y-S; Cho, K-H; Ahn, S-H; Song, J-H; Yoo, M; Han, J-K; Park, H-Y

    2009-09-01

    Neurological complications of scrub typhus are reported to be rare. Peripheral nervous system involvement has been reported in only one case. We present two cases of Guillan-Barré syndrome (GBS) associated with scrub typhus. In both cases, the findings of an elevated indirect immunofluorescent antibody titer for Orientia tsutsugamushi and nerve conduction study showing sensory-motor polyneuropathy, have led us to believe that scrub typhus could be one of the antecedent illnesses associated with GBS.

  18. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.

    2015-11-01

    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  19. Decalcification resistance of alkali-activated slag.

    PubMed

    Komljenović, Miroslav M; Baščarević, Zvezdana; Marjanović, Nataša; Nikolić, Violeta

    2012-09-30

    This paper analyses the effects of decalcification in concentrated 6M NH(4)NO(3) solution on mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated slag (AAS). Portland-slag cement (CEM II/A-S 42.5 N) was used as a benchmark material. Decalcification process led to a decrease in strength, both in AAS and in CEM II, and this effect was more pronounced in CEM II. The decrease in strength was explicitly related to the decrease in Ca/Si atomic ratio of C-S-H gel. A very low ratio of Ca/Si ~0.3 in AAS was the consequence of coexistence of C-S-H(I) gel and silica gel. During decalcification of AAS almost complete leaching of sodium and tetrahedral aluminum from C-S-H(I) gel also took place. AAS showed significantly higher resistance to decalcification in relation to the benchmark CEM II due to the absence of portlandite, high level of polymerization of silicate chains, low level of aluminum for silicon substitution in the structure of C-S-H(I), and the formation of protective layer of polymerized silica gel during decalcification process. In stabilization/solidification processes alkali-activated slag represents a more promising solution than Portland-slag cement due to significantly higher resistance to decalcification. PMID:22818592

  20. Physiological Evaluation of Alkali-Salt Tolerance of Thirty Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guofu; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Xunzhong; Yao, Fengjiao; Huang, Yan; Ervin, Erik H.; Zhao, Bingyu

    2015-01-01

    Soil salt-alkalization is a major limiting factor for crop production in many regions. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season C4 perennial rhizomatous bunchgrass and a target lignocellulosic biofuel species. The objective of this study was to evaluate relative alkali-salt tolerance among 30 switchgrass lines. Tillers of each switchgrass line were transplanted into pots filled with fine sand. Two months after transplanting, plants at E5 developmental stage were grown in either half strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution with 0 mM Na+ (control) or half strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution with 150 mM Na+ and pH of 9.5 (alkali-salt stress treatment) for 20 d. Alkali-salt stress damaged cell membranes [higher electrolyte leakage (EL) ], reduced leaf relative water content (RWC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr). An alkali-salt stress tolerance trait index (ASTTI) for each parameter was calculated based on the ratio of the value under alkali-salt stress and the value under non-stress conditions for each parameter of each line. Relative alkali-salt tolerance was determined based on principal components analysis and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and their ASTTI values. Significant differences in alkali-salt stress tolerance were found among the 30 lines. Lowland lines TEM-SEC, Alamo, TEM-SLC and Kanlow were classified as alkali-salt tolerant. In contrast, three lowland lines (AM-314/MS-155, BN-13645-64) and two upland lines (Caddo and Blackwell-1) were classified as alkali-salt sensitive. The results suggest wide variations exist in alkali-salt stress tolerance among the 30 switchgrass lines. The approach of using a combination of principal components and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and related ASTTI is feasible for evaluating alkali-salt tolerance in switchgrass. PMID:26146987

  1. Physiological Evaluation of Alkali-Salt Tolerance of Thirty Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Lines.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guofu; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Xunzhong; Yao, Fengjiao; Huang, Yan; Ervin, Erik H; Zhao, Bingyu

    2015-01-01

    Soil salt-alkalization is a major limiting factor for crop production in many regions. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season C4 perennial rhizomatous bunchgrass and a target lignocellulosic biofuel species. The objective of this study was to evaluate relative alkali-salt tolerance among 30 switchgrass lines. Tillers of each switchgrass line were transplanted into pots filled with fine sand. Two months after transplanting, plants at E5 developmental stage were grown in either half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 0 mM Na+ (control) or half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 150 mM Na+ and pH of 9.5 (alkali-salt stress treatment) for 20 d. Alkali-salt stress damaged cell membranes [higher electrolyte leakage (EL)], reduced leaf relative water content (RWC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr). An alkali-salt stress tolerance trait index (ASTTI) for each parameter was calculated based on the ratio of the value under alkali-salt stress and the value under non-stress conditions for each parameter of each line. Relative alkali-salt tolerance was determined based on principal components analysis and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and their ASTTI values. Significant differences in alkali-salt stress tolerance were found among the 30 lines. Lowland lines TEM-SEC, Alamo, TEM-SLC and Kanlow were classified as alkali-salt tolerant. In contrast, three lowland lines (AM-314/MS-155, BN-13645-64) and two upland lines (Caddo and Blackwell-1) were classified as alkali-salt sensitive. The results suggest wide variations exist in alkali-salt stress tolerance among the 30 switchgrass lines. The approach of using a combination of principal components and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and related ASTTI is feasible for evaluating alkali-salt tolerance in switchgrass. PMID:26146987

  2. Development and implementation of a scrub habitat compensation plan for Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Breininger, David R.; Adrian, Frederic W.; Schaub, Ron; Duncan, Brean W.

    1994-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC), located on Merritt Island on the east coast of central Florida, is one of three remaining major populations of the Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens), listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) since 1987. Construction of new facilities by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on KSC over the next five years has the potential to impact up to 193 ac (78.1 ha) of Scrub Jay habitat. Under an early consultation process with the Endangered Species Office of the USFWS, NASA agreed to a compensation plan for loss of Scrub Jay habitat. The compensation plan required NASA to restore or create scrub on KSC at a 2:1 ratio for that lost. The compensation plan emphasized restoration of scrub habitat that is of marginal or declining suitability to Scrub Jays because it has remained unburned. Although prescribed burning has been conducted by the USFWS Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) for more than ten years, significant areas of scrub remain unburned because they have been excluded from fire management units or because landscape fragmentation and a period of fire suppression allowed scrub to reach heights and diameters that are fire resistant. For such areas, mechanical cutting followed by prescribed burning was recommended for restoration. A second part of the restoration plan is an experimental study of scrub reestablishment (i.e., creation) on abandoned, well drained agricultural sites by planting scrub oaks and other scrub plants. The compensation plan identified 260 ac (105 ha) of scrub restoration in four areas and a 40 ac (16 ha) scrub creation site. Monitoring of restoration sites required under the plan included: establishing permanent vegetation sample transects before treatment and resampling annually for ten years after treatment, and color banding Scrub Jays to determine territories prior to treatment followed by monitoring reproductive success and survival for

  3. Study of an ammonia-based wet scrubbing process in a continuous flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    A continuous gas and liquid flow, regenerative scrubbing process for CO{sub 2} capture was demonstrated at the bench-scale level. An aqueous ammonia-based solution captures CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas in an absorber and releases a nearly pure stream of CO{sub 2} in the regenerator. After the regeneration, the solution of ammonium compounds is recycled to the absorber. The design of a continuous flow unit was based on earlier exploratory results from a semi-batch reactor, where a CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} simulated flue gas mixture flowed through a well-mixed batch of ammonia-based solution. During the semi-batch tests, the solution was cycled between absorption and regeneration steps to measure the carrying capacity of the solution at various initial ammonia concentrations and temperatures. Consequentially, a series of tests were conducted on the continuous unit to observe the effect of various parameters on CO{sub 2} removal efficiency and regenerator effectiveness within the flow system. The parameters that were studied included absorber temperature, regenerator temperature, initial NH{sub 3} concentration, simulated flue gas flow rate, liquid solvent inventory in the flow system, and height of the packed-bed absorber. From this testing and subsequent testing, ammonia losses from both the absorption and regeneration steps were quantified, and attempts were made to maintain steady state during operations. Implications of experimental results with respect to process design are discussed.

  4. Detection of alkali-silica reaction swelling in concrete by staining

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Jr., George D.; Carey, J. William

    1998-01-01

    A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobaltinitrite and rhodamine B is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na--K--Ca--Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca--Si gels are identified by pink staining.

  5. Detection of alkali-silica reaction swelling in concrete by staining

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, G.D. Jr.; Carey, J.W.

    1998-04-14

    A method using concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium cobalt nitrite and rhodamine B is described which can be used to identify concrete that contains gels formed by the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). These solutions present little health or environmental risk, are readily applied, and rapidly discriminate between two chemically distinct gels; K-rich, Na-K-Ca-Si gels are identified by yellow staining, and alkali-poor, Ca-Si gels are identified by pink staining.

  6. Hydrothermal chemistry, structures, and luminescence studies of alkali hafnium fluorides.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Christopher C; McMillen, Colin D; Chen, Hongyu; Anker, Jeffery N; Kolis, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the hydrothermal chemistry of alkali hafnium fluorides, including the synthesis and structural characterization of five new alkali hafnium fluorides. Two ternary alkali hafnium fluorides are described: Li(2)HfF(6) in space group P31m with a = 4.9748(7) Å and c = 4.6449(9) Å and Na(5)Hf(2)F(13) in space group C2/m with a = 11.627(2) Å, b = 5.5159(11) Å, and c = 8.4317(17) Å. Three new alkali hafnium oxyfluorides are also described: two fluoroelpasolites, K(3)HfOF(5) and (NH(4))(3)HfOF(5), in space group Fm3m with a = 8.9766(10) and 9.4144(11) Å, respectively, and K(2)Hf(3)OF(12) in space group R3m with a = 7.6486(11) Å and c = 28.802(6) Å. Infrared (IR) spectra were obtained for the title solids to confirm the structure solutions. Comparison of these materials was made based on their structures and synthesis conditions. The formation of these species in hydrothermal fluids appears to be dependent upon both the concentration of the alkali fluoride mineralizer solution and the reaction temperature. Both X-ray and visible fluorescence studies were conducted on compounds synthesized in this study and showed that fluorescence was affected by a variety of factors, such as alkali metal size, the presence/absence of oxygen in the compound, and the coordination environment of Hf(4+).

  7. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  8. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Scrub Typhus Transmission in Mainland China, 2006-2014

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen-Biao; Haque, Ubydul; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yun-Xi; Li, Xin-Lou; Sun, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan-Song; Clements, Archie C. A.; Li, Shen-Long; Zhang, Wen-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region including China, and the number of reported cases has increased dramatically in the past decade. However, the spatial-temporal dynamics and the potential risk factors in transmission of scrub typhus in mainland China have yet to be characterized. Objective This study aims to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of reported scrub typhus cases in mainland China between January 2006 and December 2014, to detect the location of high risk spatiotemporal clusters of scrub typhus cases, and identify the potential risk factors affecting the re-emergence of the disease. Method Monthly cases of scrub typhus reported at the county level between 2006 and 2014 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. Time-series analyses, spatiotemporal cluster analyses, and spatial scan statistics were used to explore the characteristics of the scrub typhus incidence. To explore the association between scrub typhus incidence and environmental variables panel Poisson regression analysis was conducted. Results During the time period between 2006 and 2014 a total of 54,558 scrub typhus cases were reported in mainland China, which grew exponentially. The majority of cases were reported each year between July and November, with peak incidence during October every year. The spatiotemporal dynamics of scrub typhus varied over the study period with high-risk clusters identified in southwest, southern, and middle-eastern part of China. Scrub typhus incidence was positively correlated with the percentage of shrub and meteorological variables including temperature and precipitation. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate areas in China that could be targeted with public health interventions to mitigate the growing threat of scrub typhus in the country. PMID:27479297

  9. An investigation of some sterically hindered amines as potential carbon dioxide scrubbing compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of the carbon dioxide cycling process and to reduce amine emissions, a series of nonvolatile amino acid salts with sterically hindered amine groups were investigated to determine their potential as direct replacements for monoethanolamine (MEA) in submarine-based CO{sub 2} scrubbers. Absorption from atmospheres containing various levels of CO{sub 2} was measured to assess the total capacities and absorption rates of amine solutions. The regeneration rates and extent of CO{sub 2} desorption were established by heating these solutions. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was used to establish reaction products and solution compositions after both absorption and desorption. Methyl groups substituted adjacent to the amine were found to increase solution absorption capacities but with an overall reduction in absorption rate. Poor absorption rates at low CO{sub 2} levels and precipitation problems would prevent the {alpha}-dimethylamines examined from being used in existing submarine scrubbers. These amines, however, show potential as replacements in industrial CO{sub 2} scrubbing processes.

  10. Recovery of Ga(III) by Raw and Alkali Treated Citrus limetta Peels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alkali treated Citrus limetta peels were used for recovery of Ga(III) from its aqueous solution. The raw and alkali treated peels were characterized for functional groups. The efficiency of adsorption increased from 47.62 mg/g for raw peels to 83.33 mg/g for alkali treated peels. Between pH 1 and 3, the adsorption increased and thereafter decreased drastically. The adsorption followed pseudosecond order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm gave the best fit for the experimental data. Desorption studies showed 95.28% desorption after 3 cycles for raw peels while it was 89.51% for alkali treated peels. Simulated Bayer liquor showed 39.57% adsorption for gallium ions on raw peels which was enhanced to 41.13% for alkali treated peels. PMID:27382624

  11. Epidemiology of scrub typhus in eastern Taiwan, 2000-2004.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong-Sheng; Wang, Pei-Hua; Tseng, Shu-Jen; Ko, Ching-Fen; Teng, Hwa-Jen

    2006-08-01

    The epidemiology of scrub typhus in eastern Taiwan was studied by analyzing the data from the CDC Web reporting system. A total of 1,396 cases with 403 confirmed cases were reported in the period of 2000 to 2004. The cases were commonly found in all counties with the highest number in Yuli Township, Hualien County (53 cases) and Taitung City, Taitung County (40 cases). Monthly changes in the number of cases showed epidemic periods in the spring with a peak in May, and again in the fall, with an October-November peak. The occurrence of disease varied with age, gender, and occupation. Our results showed that the infection rates in the elderly (50-69 years old), males (62.8%), and farmers (25.6%) were higher than those in other age groups, females, and other occupations. Five major clinical symptoms, fever, headache, eschar, rash, and lymphadenopathy, were observed in 90.1, 61.9, 23.1, 21.6, and 10.7% of the cases, respectively. Almost 90% (89.3%) of the cases showed 1-3 clinical symptoms and some showed 4-5 symptoms (10%). Only one patient with no symptoms (0.8%) was found. This paper reports the status of scrub typhus in eastern Taiwan, and suggests that a health education program could train individuals to self-recognize the disease symptoms. PMID:16936341

  12. Low temperature dry scrubbing reaction kinetics and mechanisms, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Prudich, M.E.; Sampson, K.J.; Reddy, S.N.; Maldei, M.; Ben-Said, L. )

    1992-10-01

    Dry scrubbing that takes place after the air preheater (<350[degree]F) is the mode of operation that is of primary interest to this research project. At the relatively low temperatures that occur in this region of operation the rate of the gas-solid reaction that drives SO[sub 2] capture in the convective (800 to 1200[degree]F) and the combustion (1600 to 2400[degree]F) zones is too slow to be significant. The presence of significant amounts of either liquid-phase or vapor-phase water is required in order to mediate SO[sub 2] capture and to produce reasonable capture rates. A mathematical process model describing the cross-flow, moving-bed Limestone Emission Control (LEC) process has been formulated. This process model incorporates the resistance-in-series SO[sub 2] capture kinetic model described in the Project Year [number sign]1 final report. The kinetic model formulated during Project Year [number sign]1 pointed to limestone solubility and rate of solubilization as being key factors in determining the rate of SO[sub 2] capture in wetted limestone (LEC) scrubbing systems. In Project Year [number sign]2, limestone solubilities and rates of solubilization are being determined for a suite of Ohio limestones.

  13. A randomized crossover trial to decrease bacterial contamination on hospital scrubs.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Mallory A; Thom, Kerri A; Zhan, Min; Johnson, J Kristie

    2014-11-01

    Healthcare worker attire may become contaminated with pathogenic organisms during a normal shift. We performed a randomized crossover study to assess whether treatment with an antimicrobial coating would decrease bacterial contamination on scrubs. Thirty percent of all scrubs were contaminated; there was no difference in the rate of contamination between the intervention and control groups.

  14. A Spatiotemporal Database to Track Human Scrub Typhus Using the VectorMap Application

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Daryl J.; Foley, Desmond H.; Richards, Allen L.

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a potentially fatal mite-borne febrile illness, primarily of the Asia-Pacific Rim. With an endemic area greater than 13 million km2 and millions of people at risk, scrub typhus remains an underreported, often misdiagnosed febrile illness. A comprehensive, updatable map of the true distribution of cases has been lacking, and therefore the true risk of disease within the very large endemic area remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a database and map to track human scrub typhus. An online search using PubMed and the United States Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System was performed to identify articles describing human scrub typhus cases both within and outside the traditionally accepted endemic regions. Using World Health Organization guidelines, stringent criteria were used to establish diagnoses for inclusion in the database. The preliminary screening of 181 scrub typhus publications yielded 145 publications that met the case criterion, 267 case records, and 13 serosurvey records that could be georeferenced, describing 13,739 probable or confirmed human cases in 28 countries. A map service has been established within VectorMap (www.vectormap.org) to explore the role that relative location of vectors, hosts, and the pathogen play in the transmission of mite-borne scrub typhus. The online display of scrub typhus cases in VectorMap illustrates their presence and provides an up-to-date geographic distribution of proven scrub typhus cases. PMID:26678263

  15. Alkali and transition metal phospholides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezkishko, I. A.; Zagidullin, A. A.; Milyukov, V. A.; Sinyashin, O. G.

    2014-06-01

    Major tendencies in modern chemistry of alkali and transition metal phospholides (phosphacyclopentadienides) are systematized, analyzed and generalized. Basic methods of synthesis of these compounds are presented. Their chemical properties are considered with a special focus on their complexing ability. Potential applications of phospholides and their derivatives are discussed. The bibliography includes 184 references.

  16. Strategies for utilizing ferrous*EDTA chelate as an additive in combined SO sub 2 /NO sub x aqueous scrubbing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Medelsohn, M.H.; Harkness, J.B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Ferrous*EDTA chelate has been found to be an effective scrubbing agent for nitric oxide gas. A major problem encountered in its practical application is that that ferrous ion oxidizes in solution to the ferric species, thus decreasing the NO{sub x} removal of the scrubbing solution. This paper discusses three strategies for overcoming this problem. Dow Chemical has studied the use of an electrolytic cell to reduce ferric ions to the corresponding ferrous species. Workers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center have studied in situ bisulfite reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions at elevated temperature (70{degrees}C). We have studied NO{sub x} removal from simulated flue gas mixtures under various oxidizing conditions and have found that addition of an organic, polyphenolic compound to an aqueous scrubbing solution containing Fe(II)*EDTA leads to a sustained NO{sub x} removal significantly higher than was found without the secondary additive. The improved performance of Fe(II)*EDTA under these conditions is attributed to the known capabilities of these organic compounds to both inhibit oxidation by dissolved oxygen and to rapidly reduce any ferric ions back to the original ferrous species. Advantages of a NO{sub x}-control process based upon an additive in an SO{sub 2}-control chemistry over serial processes are discussed. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary.

  18. Acid and alkali doped PBI electrolyte in electrochemical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Baozhong

    In this work the conductivity of blank PBI membrane, acid doped PBI and alkaline doped PBI was systematically studied. A new methodology for sorption kinetics study in electrolyte solution has been established by monitoring the conductivity change during the sorption process. The model of the doping process and mechanism of conductivity are proposed. The performance of PBI (doped under optimum conditions) in fuel cell as PEM was evaluated. The experimental results show that the blank PBI in acid solution is an ionic insulator. It clarified the long time confusion in this area. The acid doped PBI membrane is an ionic conductor. The conductivity increases with the concentration of the acid solution. In high concentration acid solution, the conductivity increases with the type of acid in the order: H2SO 4 > H3PO4 > HClO4 > HNO3 > HCl. The kinetics of the doping process was studied, by a continuous method. The ionic conductivity mechanism was established. The PBI membranes doped with H2SO4 and H3PO4 exhibit better performance than NafionRTM. The doped FBI has more resistance to CO poison. 3% CO in H2 has little effect on the H3PO 4 doped PBI membrane at 185°C. The conductivity of the alkali doped PBI membrane changes with the concentration of the alkaline solution and the type of the alkalis. The conductivity has a maximum in KOH and NaOH solution. The maximum conductivity in KOH is higher than in NaOH and LiOH. It is about 5 times of that of NafionRTM in alkaline solution. The two-step sorption process in alkaline solution was observed. The first step is the permeation process of the alkalis in the PBI membrane. The permeation is the results of diffusion and interaction. It is concluded that the permeation process is controlled by the rate of interaction between the alkali and PBI molecule. The second step is the relaxation process in the membrane. This step contributes more to the conductivity for the membrane than the first step. The ionic conductivity mechanism

  19. Effects of DDT on bird population of scrub forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Stewart, R.E.

    1949-01-01

    An oil spray of DDT was applied at the rate of five pounds per acre to a 90-acre tract of 5-year-old scrub and sapling growth at Beltsville, Maryland. Bird population studies were carried on in a 30-acre plot at the center of the sprayed area, and in a 30-acre check area of the same habitat one-half mile away. Of the five commonest species in the sprayed area, the Maryland yellowthroat, prairie warbler, and house wren were reduced 80 per cent, and the red-eyed towhee was apparently reduced 35 per cent; while no appreciable change in the numbers of yellow-breasted chats was noted. The total decrease for the five commonest species, which represented 77 per cent of the original population, was 65 per cent.

  20. Enhancement of tensile strength of lignocellulosic jute fibers by alkali-steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Saha, Prosenjit; Manna, Suvendu; Chowdhury, Sougata Roy; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Debasis; Adhikari, Basudam

    2010-05-01

    The physico-chemical properties of jute fibers treated with alkali (NaOH) solution have been investigated in this study. The treatments were applied under ambient and elevated temperatures and high pressure steaming conditions. To the knowledge of these authors the influence of alkali-steam treatment on the uniaxial tensile strength of natural ligno-cellulosic fibers, such as jute, has not been investigated earlier. The results from this investigation indicate that a 30 min dipping of the fibers in 0.5% alkali solution followed by 30 min alkali-steam treatment leads to an increase in the tensile strength of up to 65%. The increase appears to be due to fiber separation and removal of non-cellulosic materials, which, in turn, resulted in an increased crystallinity.

  1. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  2. Assesment of Alkali Resistance of Basalt Used as Concrete Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    al-Swaidani, Aref M.; Baddoura, Mohammad K.; Aliyan, Samira D.; Choeb, Walid

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to report a part of an ongoing research on the influence of using crushed basalt as aggregates on one of durability-related properties of concrete (i.e. alkali-silica reaction which is the most common form of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction). Alkali resistance has been assessed through several methods specified in the American Standards. Results of petrographic examination, chemical test (ASTM C289) and accelerated mortar bar test (ASTM C1260) have particularly been reported. In addition, the weight change and compressive strength of 28 days cured concrete containing basaltic aggregates were also reported after 90 days of exposure to 10% NaOH solution. Dolomite aggregate were used in the latter test for comparison. The experimental results revealed that basaltic rocks quarried from As-Swaida'a region were suitable for production of aggregates for concrete. According to the test results, the studied basalt aggregates can be classified as innocuous with regard to alkali-silica reaction. Further, the 10% sodium hydroxide attack did not affect the compressive strength of concrete.

  3. Alkali-activated binders by use of industrial by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Buchwald, A.; Schulz, M

    2005-05-01

    Cement kiln dust (CKD) materials are used as alkaline accelerators for latent hydraulic substances and as alkali activators for different alumosilicate materials, including ground-granulated blast furnace slag, low-calcium fly ash and metakaolin. The dusts differ in their phase composition, especially in the amount of reactive phases and the kind and amount of alkali salts. The quantitative phase composition, pore solution composition and strength behavior of the activated blends is reported.

  4. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques.

    PubMed

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis.

  5. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. Methods We applied Pearson’s product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. Results In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively

  6. A New Population Estimate for the Florida Scrub Jay on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The variable circular plot method was used to sample avifauna within different vegetation types determined from aerial imagery. The Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens) population was estimated to range between 1,415 and 3,603 birds. Approximately half of the scrub and slash pine habitat appeared to be unused by Florida Scrub Jay, probably because the slash pine cover was too dense or the oak cover was too sparse. Results from the study suggest that the entire state population may be much lower than believed because the size of two of the three largest populations may have been overestimated.

  7. Scrub Typhus Presenting with Bilateral Lateral Rectus Palsy in A Female

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jaya; Barman, Bhupen; Mondal, Sumantro; Sivam, Rondeep Kumar Nath

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease is endemic in several parts of India usually presenting with acute symptoms. Fever, maculopapular rash, eschar, history of tick exposure and supportive diagnostic tests usually leads to diagnosis. Scrub typhus should be included in the differential diagnosis in occasions when a patient presents with fever with or without eschar and isolated cranial nerve palsy. Here we are reporting a case of Scrub typhus who presented with fever and altered sensorium of short duration, eschar formation and bilateral lateral rectus palsy. Patient was treated with doxycycline with complete reversal of neurodeficit. PMID:27190871

  8. Determination of Atmospheric Hydroxyl Radical by Liquid Phase Scrubbing and High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohui

    A new in situ method for determining atmospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) was developed. This method is based on liquid phase scrubbing technique and high performance liquid chromatography (LPS-HPLC). The sampling system employs glass bubblers to trap atmospheric OH into a buffered solution containing the chemical probe, salicylic acid (o-hydroxybenzoic acid, OHBA). The reaction of OHBA with OH produces a stable fluorescent product, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA), which is determined by reverse phase HPLC and fluorescence detection. The atmospheric OH concentration ( (OH)) is inferred from the resulting 2,5-DHBA amount in the aqueous scrubbing solution, fraction of 2,5-DHBA in the products, air sampling flow rate, sampling time, local pressure and temperature, etc. HPLC separation efficiency and fluorescence detection sensitivity for 2,5-DHBA have been studied. The results indicate that: the reagent blank can be controlled by suitable recrystallization; pH affects both separation and detection processes; the fluorometer should be adjusted to reach its highest signal-to-noise ratio by light source selection, flow cell size selection, wavelength selection, etc. Preliminary column switch experiments reveal the possibility to automate the whole sampling and detection system to enhance the temporal resolution. During an intercomparison of tropospheric OH measurement techniques at the Caribou site, CO (relatively unpolluted air) in Fall 1993, overlapping data were obtained with long path absorption and ion-assisted coupled with MS methods. LPS -HPLC day-time (OH) s, which range from {< }10^6 to 6times10 ^6 radicals/cm^3, agree well with those derived from the other two methods, especially the latter. LPS-HPLC (OH) depends linearly on the combined effects of solar flux, ozone and water vapor, however, it has a nonlinear dependence on NO _{x} and hydrocarbons. These results are consistent with that predicted from photochemical models. Experimental results and model

  9. Chemiluminescence from excited c 2- -alkali cation complexes formed in alkali atom-halocarbon flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K. K.; Balling, L. C.; Wright, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Vapor phase reactions between alkali atoms and several halocarbon molecules containing C-C bonds have been observed to produce chemiluminescence which appears to originate from C 2-- (alkali) + complexes.

  10. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    1992-01-01

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases.

  11. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  12. Lithological influence of aggregate in the alkali-carbonate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. . E-mail: angel.lopez@aidico.es; Climent, V. . E-mail: vcliment@grupogla.com; Verdu, P.

    2006-08-15

    The reactivity of carbonate rock with the alkali content of cement, commonly called alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR), has been investigated. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) can also contribute in the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in carbonate rock, mainly due to micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz or clay content in carbonate aggregate. Both ACR and ASR can occur in the same system, as has been also evidenced on this paper. Carbonate aggregate samples were selected using lithological reactivity criteria, taking into account the presence of dedolomitization, partial dolomitization, micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz. Selected rocks include calcitic dolostone with chert (CDX), calcitic dolostone with dedolomitization (CDD), limestone with chert (LX), marly calcitic dolostone with partial dolomitization (CD), high-porosity ferric dolostone with clays (FD). To evaluate the reactivity, aggregates were studied using expansion tests following RILEM AAR-2, AAR-5, a modification using LiOH AAR-5Li was also tested. A complementary study was done using petrographic monitoring with polarised light microscopy on aggregates immersed in NaOH and LiOH solutions after different ages. SEM-EDAX has been used to identify the presence of brucite as a product of dedolomitization. An ACR reaction showed shrinkage of the mortar bars in alkaline solutions explained by induced dedolomitization, while an ASR process typically displayed expansion. Neither shrinkage nor expansion was observed when mortar bars were immersed in solutions of lithium hydroxide. Carbonate aggregate classification with AAR pathology risk has been elaborated based on mechanical behaviours by expansion and shrinkage. It is proposed to be used as a petrographic method for AAR diagnosis to complement the RILEM AAR1 specifically for carbonate aggregate. Aggregate materials can be classified as I (non-reactive), II (potentially reactive), and III (probably reactive), considering induced dedolomitization ACR

  13. Scrub typhus infection presenting as acute heart failure: A case report and systematic review of literature of cardiopulmonary involvement in scrub typhus infection.

    PubMed

    Ray, Animesh; Nangia, Vivek; Chatterji, R S; Dalal, Navin

    2016-01-01

    We describe a middle aged previoulsy healthy female patient who presented with clinical features suggestive of acute heart failure. Investigations revealed very high NT pro-BNP, right heart enlargement, bilateral pulmonary alveolar edema and bilateral pleural effusion. In view of falling platelet counts and exudative pleural effusion inflammatory/infective causes were considered. Her Weil Felix test was strongly positive and IgM for scrub typhus also returned positive. She was started on doxycycline to which there was dramatic improvement. Thus in this case scrub typhus infection presented as acute right heart failure and the cause seemed elusive at the outset. We also systematically reviewed the existing literature on cardio-pulmonary manifestations of scrub typhus infection. PMID:27578941

  14. View of STS-1 Launch Day MCC activities ending in a scrub on the mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    View of STS-1 Launch Day Mission Control Center (MCC) activities ending in a scrub on the mission. Photo is of controllers standing in the back of Mission Control with visitor seating in the background.

  15. Carbon Capture by a Continuous, Regenerative Ammonia-Based Scrubbing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Resnik, K.P.; Yeh, J.T.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-10-01

    Overview: To develop a knowledge/data base to determine whether an ammonia-based scrubbing process is a viable regenerable-capture technique that can simultaneously remove carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides, and trace pollutants from flue gas.

  16. Effect of Latitude and Seasonal Variation on Scrub Typhus, South Korea, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Jeung, Ye Sul; Kim, Choon-Mee; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Seok-Won; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Dong-Min

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea, scrub typhus is one of the most common rickettsial diseases. The number of scrub typhus patients has increased in South Korea, a total of 69,210 cases were reported from 2001 to 2013. The seasonality and relation of scrub typhus cases to latitude were analyzed in this article using data obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System website of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The incidence of scrub typhus tended to increase in the later months of the year, especially in October-December. In general, lower latitudes were associated with a later peak incidence. Our results suggest for the first time that the monthly observed incidence tended to increase in the later months of the year as the latitude decreased, and on a yearly basis in Korea.

  17. Does a robotic scrub nurse improve economy of movements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachs, Juan P.; Jacob, Mithun; Li, Yu-Ting; Akingba, George

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Robotic assistance during surgery has been shown to be a useful resource to both augment the surgical skills of the surgeon through tele-operation, and to assist the surgeon handling the surgical instruments to the surgeon, similar to a surgical tech. We evaluated the performance and effect of a gesture driven surgical robotic nurse in the context of economy of movements, during an abdominal incision and closure exercise with a simulator. Methods: A longitudinal midline incision (100 mm) was performed on the simulated abdominal wall to enter the peritoneal cavity without damaging the internal organs. The wound was then closed using a blunt needle ensuring that no tissue is caught up by the suture material. All the instruments required to complete this task were delivered by a robotic surgical manipulator directly to the surgeon. The instruments were requested through voice and gesture recognition. The robotic system used a low end range sensor camera to extract the hand poses and for recognizing the gestures. The instruments were delivered to the vicinity of the patient, at chest height and at a reachable distance to the surgeon. Task performance measures for each of three abdominal incision and closure exercises were measured and compared to a human scrub nurse instrument delivery action. Picking instrument position variance, completion time and trajectory of the hand were recorded for further analysis. Results: The variance of the position of the robotic tip when delivering the surgical instrument is compared to the same position when a human delivers the instrument. The variance was found to be 88.86% smaller compared to the human delivery group. The mean task completion time to complete the surgical exercise was 162.7+/- 10.1 secs for the human assistant and 191.6+/- 3.3 secs (P<.01) when using the robotic standard display group. Conclusion: Multimodal robotic scrub nurse assistant improves the surgical procedure by reducing the number of movements

  18. Meteorological factors and risk of scrub typhus in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is becoming the most common vector born disease in Guangzhou, southern China. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of Scrub typhus in the subtropical city of Guangzhou for the period 2006–2012, and assist public health prevention and control measures. Methods Scrub typhus reported cases during the period of 2006–2012 in Guangzhou were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). Simultaneous meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, sunshine, and rainfall were obtained from the documentation of the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and scrub typhus. Results Annual incidence rates of scrub typhus from 2006 to 2012 were 3.25, 2.67, 3.81, 4.22, 4.41, 5.12, and 9.75 (per 100 000) respectively. Each 1°C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 14.98% (95% CI 13.65% to 16.33%) in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, while a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 8.03% (95% CI −8.75% to −7.31%). Similarly, a 1 hour rise in sunshine corresponded to an increase of 0.17% or 0.54%, and a 1 millimeter rise in rainfall corresponded to an increase of 0.05% or 0.10%, in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. Conclusion Our study provided evidence that climatic factors were associated with occurrence of scrub typhus in Guangzhou city, China. Temperature, duration of sunshine, and rainfall were positively associated with scrub typhus incidence, while atmospheric pressure was inversely associated with scrub typhus incidence. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of scrub typhus transmission. PMID:24620733

  19. A clinical evaluation of chlorhexidine gluconate spray as compared with iodophor scrub for preoperative skin preparation.

    PubMed

    Brown, T R; Ehrlich, C E; Stehman, F B; Golichowski, A M; Madura, J A; Eitzen, H E

    1984-04-01

    In a prospective, randomized study, 737 patients who were evaluated had the operative site prepared preoperatively by either a 0.5 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate spray or povidone-iodine scrub. The wound infection rate in these two comparable groups was not statistically different, although slightly favoring the spray technique (6.0 versus 8.1 per cent). The spray technique challenges the conventional preoperative scrub and offers further advantages of increased effectiveness while also offering savings of time and expense.

  20. Scrub-shrub bird habitat associations at multiple spatial scales in beaver meadows in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chandler, R.B.; King, D.I.; DeStefano, S.

    2009-01-01

    Most scrub-shrub bird species are declining in the northeastern United States, and these declines are largely attributed to regional declines in habitat availability. American Beaver (Castor canadensis; hereafter "beaver") populations have been increasing in the Northeast in recent decades, and beavers create scrub-shrub habitat through their dam-building and foraging activities. Few systematic studies have been conducted on the value of beaver-modified habitats for scrub-shrub birds, and these data are important for understanding habitat selection of scrub-shrub birds as well as for assessing regional habitat availability for these species. We conducted surveys in 37 beaver meadows in a 2,800-km2 study area in western Massachusetts during 2005 and 2006 to determine the extent to which these beaver-modified habitats are used by scrub-shrub birds, as well as the characteristics of beaver meadows most closely related to bird use. We modeled bird abundance in relation to microhabitat-, patch-, and landscape-context variables while adjusting for survey-specific covariates affecting detectability using N-mixture models. We found that scrub-shrub birds of regional conservation concern occupied these sites and that birds responded differently to microhabitat, patch, and landscape characteristics of beaver meadows. Generally, scrub-shrub birds increased in abundance along a gradient of increasing vegetation complexity, and three species were positively related to patch size. We conclude that these habitats can potentially play an important role in regional conservation of scrub-shrub birds and recommend that conservation priority be given to larger beaver meadows with diverse vegetation structure and composition. ?? 2009 by The American Ornithologists' Union. All rights reserved.

  1. Alkali-Metal Spin Maser.

    PubMed

    Chalupczak, W; Josephs-Franks, P

    2015-07-17

    Quantum measurement is a combination of a read-out and a perturbation of the quantum system. We explore the nonlinear spin dynamics generated by a linearly polarized probe beam in a continuous measurement of the collective spin state in a thermal alkali-metal atomic sample. We demonstrate that the probe-beam-driven perturbation leads, in the presence of indirect pumping, to complete polarization of the sample and macroscopic coherent spin oscillations. As a consequence of the former we report observation of spectral profiles free from collisional broadening. Nonlinear dynamics is studied through exploring its effect on radio frequency as well as spin noise spectra. PMID:26230788

  2. Alkali-Metal Spin Maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalupczak, W.; Josephs-Franks, P.

    2015-07-01

    Quantum measurement is a combination of a read-out and a perturbation of the quantum system. We explore the nonlinear spin dynamics generated by a linearly polarized probe beam in a continuous measurement of the collective spin state in a thermal alkali-metal atomic sample. We demonstrate that the probe-beam-driven perturbation leads, in the presence of indirect pumping, to complete polarization of the sample and macroscopic coherent spin oscillations. As a consequence of the former we report observation of spectral profiles free from collisional broadening. Nonlinear dynamics is studied through exploring its effect on radio frequency as well as spin noise spectra.

  3. A Hematogenously Disseminated Orientia tsutsugamsushi-Infected Murine Model of Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Shelite, Thomas R.; Saito, Tais B.; Mendell, Nicole L.; Gong, Bin; Xu, Guang; Soong, Lynn; Valbuena, Gustavo; Bouyer, Donald H.; Walker, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, is a mite-borne rickettsia transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites. Approximately one-third of the world's population is at risk of infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi, emphasizing its importance in global health. In order to study scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp strain has been used extensively in mouse studies with various inoculation strategies and little success in inducing disease progression similar to that of human scrub typhus. The objective of this project was to develop a disease model with pathology and target cells similar to those of severe human scrub typhus. This study reports an intravenous infection model of scrub typhus in C57BL/6 mice. This mouse strain was susceptible to intravenous challenge, and lethal infection occurred after intravenous inoculation of 1.25×106 focus (FFU) forming units. Signs of illness in lethally infected mice appeared on day 6 with death occurring ∼6 days later. Immunohistochemical staining for Orientia antigens demonstrated extensive endothelial infection, most notably in the lungs and brain. Histopathological analysis revealed cerebral perivascular, lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, focal hemorrhages, meningoencephalitis, and interstitial pneumonia. Disseminated infection of endothelial cells with Orientia in C57BL/6 mice resulted in pathology resembling that of human scrub typhus. The use of this model will allow detailed characterization of the mechanisms of immunity to and pathogenesis of O. tsutsugamushi infection. PMID:25010338

  4. Thermal inactivation of alkali phosphatases under various conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Tarasevich, B. N.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Poltorak, O. M.

    2009-02-01

    The thermal inactivation of alkali phosphatases from bacteria Escherichia coli (ECAP), bovine intestines (bovine IAP), and chicken intestines (chicken IAP) was studied in different buffer solutions and in the solid state. The conclusion was made that these enzymes had maximum stability in the solid state, and, in a carbonate buffer solution, their activity decreased most rapidly. It was found that the bacterial enzyme was more stable than animal phosphatases. It was noted that, for ECAP, four intermediate stages preceded the loss of enzyme activity, and, for bovine and chicken IAPs, three intermediate stages were observed. The activation energy of thermal inactivation of ECAP over the range 25-70°C was determined to be 80 kJ/mol; it corresponded to the dissociation of active dimers into inactive monomers. Higher activation energies (˜200 kJ/mol) observed at the initial stage of thermal inactivation of animal phosphatases resulted from the simultaneous loss of enzyme activity caused by dimer dissociation and denaturation. It was shown that the activation energy of denaturation of monomeric animal alkali phosphatases ranged from 330 to 380 kJ/mol depending on buffer media. It was concluded that the inactivation of solid samples of alkali phosphatases at 95°C was accompanied by an about twofold decrease in the content of β structures in protein molecules.

  5. Crystal growth of sulfide materials from alkali polysulfide liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The fluids experiment system was designed for low temperature solution growth, nominally aqueous solution growth. The alkali polysulfides, compositions in the systems Na2S-S and K2S-S form liquids in the temperature range of 190 C to 400 C. These can be used as solvents for other important classes of materials such as transition metal and other sulfides which are not soluble in aqueous media. Among these materials are luminescent and electroluminescent crystals whose physical properties are sensitive functions of crystal perfection and which could, therefore, serve as test materials for perfection improvement under microgravity conditions.

  6. Prevention of intraoperative wound contamination with chlorhexidine shower and scrub.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, R A

    1988-04-01

    In a prospective, controlled, clinical trial, we found that preoperative showering and scrubbing with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate was more effective than povidone-iodine or triclocarban medicated soap in reducing skin colonization at the site of surgical incision. Mean log colony counts of the incision site were one half to one log lower for patients who showered with chlorhexidine compared to those who showered with the other regimens. No growth was observed on 43% of the post shower skin cultures from patients in the chlorhexidine group compared with 16% of the cultures from patients who had povidone-iodine showers and 5% of those from patients who used medicated soap and water. The frequency of positive intraoperative wound cultures was 4% with chlorhexidine, 9% with povidone-iodine and 14% with medicated soap and water. This study demonstrates that chlorhexidine gluconate is a more effective skin disinfectant than either povidone-iodine or triclocarban soap and water and that its use is associated with lower rates of intraoperative wound contamination.

  7. Direct molecular hydrogen sulphide scrubbing with hollowfibre membranes.

    PubMed

    Boucif, N; Jefferson, B; Parsons-, S A; Judd, S J; Stuetz, R M

    2001-01-01

    The emission of hydrogen sulphide is a major problem associated with anaerobic treatment of sulphate and sulphite containing wastewaters. Conventional absorbing processes, such as packed towers, spray towers or bubble columns, are all constrained by factors such as flooding and foaming. Membrane systems, on the other hand, enable independent control of the liquid and gas flow rate and a step change order of magnitude increase in the specific surface area of the contact process. The membrane acts as a gas absorber with a design similar to a shell and tube heat exchanger. On the other hand, they are limited by facets of the membrane such as its resistance to mass transfer and permselectivity, as well as its cost. The work presented in this paper refers to an absorption process based on a non-wetted hollow fibre membrane for the scrubbing of hydrogen sulphide from air, with water as the contact solvent. Results presented describe the performance of the unit in terms of overall transfer and outlet liquid concentration as a function of circulation regime, gas flow rate, liquid flow rate and specific surface area. In particular, results are presented using traditional plots of Sherwood number (Sh) against Graetz (Gr) number for the liquid flowing in the lumens, such that experimental and available empirical descriptions of the process performance are directly compared. Results suggest that, as expected, very efficient mass transfer is obtained. However, the mass transfer was found to reach a maximum value against Gr, contrary to available empirical models.

  8. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  9. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, Raymond D.; McPheeters, Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  10. Alkali-metal ion coordination in uranyl(VI) poly-peroxide complexes in solution. Part 1: the Li⁺, Na⁺ and K⁺--peroxide-hydroxide systems.

    PubMed

    Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Vallet, Valerie; Szabó, Zoltán; Grenthe, Ingmar

    2015-01-28

    The alkali metal ions Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) have a profound influence on the stoichiometry of the complexes formed in uranyl(VI)-peroxide-hydroxide systems, presumably as a result of a templating effect, resulting in the formation of two complexes, M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]2(-) where the uranyl units are linked by one peroxide bridge, μ-η(2)-η(2), with the second peroxide coordinated "end-on", η(2), to one of the uranyl groups, and M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]4(3-), with a four-membered ring of uranyl ions linked by μ-η(2)-η(2) peroxide bridges. The stoichiometry and equilibrium constants for the reactions: M(+) + 2UO2(2+) + 2HO2(-) + 2H2O → M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]2(-) + 4H(+) (1) and M(+) + 4UO2(2+) + 4HO2(-) + 4H2O → M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]4(3-) + 8H(+) (2) have been measured at 25 °C in 0.10 M (tetramethyl ammonium/M(+))NO3 ionic media using reaction calorimetry. Both reactions are strongly enthalpy driven with large negative entropies of reaction; the observation that ΔH(2) ≈ 2ΔH(1) suggests that the enthalpy of reaction is approximately the same when peroxide is added in bridging and "end-on" positions. The thermodynamic driving force in the reactions is the formation of strong peroxide bridges and the role of M(+) cations is to provide a pathway with a low activation barrier between the reactants and in this way "guide" them to form peroxide bridged complexes; they play a similar role as in the synthesis of crown-ethers. Quantum chemical (QC) methods were used to determine the structure of the complexes, and to demonstrate how the size of the M(+)-ions affects their coordination geometry. There are several isomers of Na[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]2(-) and QC energy calculations show that the ones with a peroxide bridge are substantially more stable than the ones with hydroxide bridges. There are isomers with different coordination sites for Na(+) and the one with coordination to the peroxide bridge and two uranyl oxygen atoms is the most stable one.

  11. The e-SCRUB Machine: an 800-kV, 500-kW average power pulsed electron beam generator for flue-gas scrubbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, James R.; Briggs, Ray; Crewson, Walter F.; Johnson, R. D.; Ratafia-Brown, J. A.; Richardson, W. K.; Rienstra, W. W.; Ballard, Perry G.; Cukr, Jeffrey; Cassel, R. L.; Schlitt, Leland; Genuario, R. D.; Morgan, R. D.; Tripoli, G. A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper gives an overview of electron beam dry scrubbing (EBDS) to remove SOx and NOx from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. It also describes the e-SCRUB program, a program currently underway to commercialize this process with an integrated pulsed electron beam. The electron beam, together with injected water and ammonia, causes chemical reactions which convert the SOx and NOx into commercial grade agricultural fertilizer, a usable byproduct. The e-SCRUB facility is a test bed to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of a repetitive, reliable pulsed electron beam generator operating at average power levels of up to 1 MW. This facility contains the electron beam generator and all the auxiliary and support systems required by the machine, including a computer driven central experiment control system, a 100,000 SCFM flowing dry nitrogen load which simulates the characteristics of a power plant flue, and a 2 MVA dedicated electrical service to power the machine. The e-SCRUB electron beam machine is designed to produce an 800 kV pulsed electron beam with a repetition rate of 667 pps. The energy per pulse deposited into the flue gas is approximately 750 J. The pulsed power system converts the utility power input to a 667 pps, 800 kV pulse train which powers the electron gun. The functional units of the pulsed power system will be discussed in the paper, along with some preliminary experimental results.

  12. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew J.; Paris, Daniel H.; Newton, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease’s non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max) of 0–70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9–19)). Conclusions Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This

  13. Assessing the effectiveness of scrub management at the landscape scale using rapid field assessment and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Redhead, John; Cuevas-Gonzales, Maria; Smith, Geoffrey; Gerard, France; Pywell, Richard

    2012-04-30

    Controlling scrub encroachment is a major challenge for conservation management on chalk grasslands. However, direct comparisons of scrub removal methods have seldom been investigated, particularly at the landscape scale. Effective monitoring of grassland scrub is problematic as it requires simultaneous information on large scale patterns in scrub cover and fine-scale changes in the grassland community. This study addressed this by combining analysis of aerial imagery with rapid field surveys in order to compare the effectiveness of four scrub management strategies on Defence Training Estate Salisbury Plain, UK. Study plots were sited within areas undergoing management and in unmanaged controls. Controls showed dramatic increases in scrub cover, with encroachment of a mean 1096 m(2) per hectare over ten years. Whilst all management strategies were effective in reducing scrub encroachment, they differed in their ability to influence regeneration of scrub and grassland quality. There was a general trend, evident in both the floral community and scrub levels, of increased effectiveness with increasing management intensity. The dual methodology proved highly effective, allowing rapid collection of data over a range of variables and spatial scales unavailable to each method individually. The methodology thus demonstrates potential for a useful monitoring tool.

  14. Effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. J.; Wahab, M. A. A.; Mahmod, S.; Idris, M. I.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Alkali and heat treatments were first introduced by Kim et al. to prepare a bioactive surface on titanium. This method has been proven very effective and widely used in other studies to promote titanium osteointegration. This study aims to investigate further the effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of high purity titanium. High purity titanium foils were immersed in NaOH aqueous solutions of 0.5 M, 5 M and 15 M at 60°C and 80 °C for 1, 3 and 7 days. The surface morphology was examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The obtained phases were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the spectra range of 4000-600 cm-1 at 4 cm-1 resolution and 50 scans. At the same soaking temperature and soaking time, a thicker porous network was observed with increasing concentration of NaOH. At the same soaking temperature, a much porous structure was observed with increasing soaking time. At constant alkali concentration, more homogenously distributed porous surface structure was observed with increasing soaking temperature.

  15. Effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K. J. Wahab, M. A. A. Mahmod, S. Idris, M. I. Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-22

    Alkali and heat treatments were first introduced by Kim et al. to prepare a bioactive surface on titanium. This method has been proven very effective and widely used in other studies to promote titanium osteointegration. This study aims to investigate further the effect of alkali treatment on surface morphology of high purity titanium. High purity titanium foils were immersed in NaOH aqueous solutions of 0.5 M, 5 M and 15 M at 60°C and 80 °C for 1, 3 and 7 days. The surface morphology was examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The obtained phases were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in the spectra range of 4000-600 cm{sup −1} at 4 cm{sup −1} resolution and 50 scans. At the same soaking temperature and soaking time, a thicker porous network was observed with increasing concentration of NaOH. At the same soaking temperature, a much porous structure was observed with increasing soaking time. At constant alkali concentration, more homogenously distributed porous surface structure was observed with increasing soaking temperature.

  16. Antimicrobial potency of alkali ion substituted calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Gbureck, Uwe; Knappe, Oliver; Grover, Liam M; Barralet, Jake E

    2005-12-01

    Potassium and sodium containing nanoapatite cements were produced by the reaction of mechanically activated CaNaPO(4) (CSP), CaKPO(4) (CPP) and Ca(2)KNa(PO(4))(2) (CPCP) with a 2.5% Na(2)HPO(4) solution. The cements exhibited clinically acceptable setting times of approximately 5 min and compressive strengths of 5-10 MPa. The antimicrobial properties of the cements were tested with the agar diffusion test using Streptococcus salvarius, Staphylococcus epidermis and Candida albicans. All types of alkali ion containing cements showed a significantly higher antimicrobial potency with inhibition zones of approx. 4-11 mm than a commercial calcium hydroxide cement which resulted in small inhibition zones around the cement samples of a maximum of 1.5 mm. The antimicrobial properties of all the cements were not found to diminish even after longer incubation times. This behaviour was attributed to the formation of soluble alkaline metal phosphates during setting which increased the pH value in the agar gel around the alkali containing calcium phosphate cement to 8.5-10.7 compared to 6.5-8.0 for the Ca(OH)(2) product. The high antimicrobial potency of alkali-calcium phosphate cements may find an application in dentistry as pulp capping agents, root fillers or cavity liners. PMID:16005511

  17. Chlorine behavior during co-hydrothermal treatment of high alkali coal and PVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, N.; Zhao, P. T.; Li, Z. Z.; Li, T.

    2016-08-01

    The hydrothermal treatment (HT) is an effective method to remove chlorine from chlorinated wastes under mild conditions. However, the alkali was required to improve the dechlorination efficiency. Meanwhile, the alkalis contents removed was necessary to realize the clean and highly efficient utilization of coal. This work was trying to investigate the feasibility of simultaneously removal alkalis and chlorine by co-hydrothermal treatment of PVC and high-alkali coal. The effect of operating conditions including the HT temperature, the holding time and particle sizes of coal on the dechlorination efficiency (DE) of PVC during the HT process was experimentally studied in this work. The results show that the DE increased with the rise of: 1) particle sizes (0.054~0.22mm), 2) holding time (30~90 min) and 3) temperature (240~300 °C). In detail, under 300 °C and 60min of holding time, the 85.18% of DE with first PS was lower than the 93.93% of DE with second PS and 100% of DE with third PS. The organic chlorine mainly transferred into chloridion in aqueous solution in HT process. All the results indicate that it is a prospective way to simultaneously removal alkalis and chlorine by co-hydrothermal treatment of chlorinated wastes and high-alkali coal.

  18. Laboratory measurements of alkali metal containing vapors released during biomass combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A.

    1996-12-31

    Alkali metals, in particular potassium, have been implicated as key ingredients for enhancing fouling and slagging of heat transfer surfaces in power generating facilities that convert biomass to electricity. When biomass is used as a fuel in boilers, the deposits formed reduce efficiency, and in the worst case lead to unscheduled plant downtime. Blending biomass with other fuels is often used as a strategy to control fouling and slagging problems. Depending on the combustor, sorbents can be added to the fuel mixture to sequester alkali metals. Another possibility is to develop methods of hot gas cleanup that reduce the amount of alkali vapor to acceptable levels. These solutions to fouling and slagging, however, would greatly benefit from a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of alkali release during biomass combustion. Identifying these alkali vapor species and understanding how these vapors enhance deposit formation would also be beneficial. The approach is to directly sample the hot gases liberated from the combustion of small biomass samples in a variable-temperature quartz-tube reactor employing a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system. The authors have successfully used this experimental technique to identify alkali species released during the combustion of selected biomass feedstocks used in larger scale combustion facilities. Fuels investigated include lodgepole pine, eucalyptus, poplar, corn stover, switchgrass, wheat straw, rice straw, pistachio shells, almond shells and hulls, wood wastes, waste paper, alfalfa stems, and willow tops.

  19. What factors within the peri-operative environment influence the training of scrub nurses?

    PubMed

    Pupkiewicz, Joanna; Kitson, Alison; Perry, Josephine

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to extrapolate factors within the peri-operative environment which influence the acclimatisation of novice scrub nurses by exploring the lived experience of learning from both a novice and expert perspective. Insights to the cultural perioperative environment which have not previously been explored can be identified. Comparing how novices view their environment with how expert mentors see it is useful in order to plan targeted learning goals. Two groups were considered; one group consisting of 6 novice scrub nurses and the other consisting of 7 senior scrub nurses teaching novices in a large tertiary teaching public hospital in South Australia. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were digitally recorded and field notes were taken. A Heideggerian structural approach with a vanManen immersive aspect was taken for the data collection and Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory of interpretation was utilised for data analysis. Five emergent themes were isolated from the data: Challenges to proficiency, Fear, Expectations, Support and Adaptation. The study revealed that novice scrub learning is externally modulated by their perioperative cultural surroundings and the support of the senior staff. Senior scrub staff investment in educating novices was dictated by their perception of novice attitude. PMID:25934075

  20. Contrasting genetic structures in sister species of North American scrub-jays

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, D. B.; Potts, W. K.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Woolfenden, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    Threatened Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens breed communally, are restricted to xeric sandy scrub habitat, generally disperse fewer than three territory diameters. Closely related Western scrub-jays (A. californica) do not breed communally, have a broader habitat range, disperse greater distances, and are not threatened. We compared the genetic structure of 445 individuals in 11 populations in Florida with 157 individuals in eight populations of Western scrub-jays. At ten microsatellite loci, Florida had 24 out of 47 total alleles, while Western scrub-jays had 44. The Florida populations were more differentiated (GST = 0.048) than were a set of five California populations (GST = 0.015). A randomization extension of a Mantel test showed a stronger correlation between geographic and Cavalli-Sforza genetic distances among Western than Florida populations. Neighbour-joining trees clustered Florida populations from the same sandy ridge systems, suggesting that habitat continuity is more important than geographic proximity in allowing gene flow and preventing differentiation. For Western populations, isolation by distance appears to be the major determinant of genetic structure. Our results suggest that contrasting genetic structures may arise between closely related species, as a result of differences in ecology and social system. Conserving extant genetic variation in Florida jays will require maintaining viable populations in each of the major sandy ridge systems.

  1. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  2. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2007-10-23

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  3. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2006-07-26

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  4. Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz, Greg A.; Stalnaker, Donald M.; Guild, Eric M.; Oliker, Benjamin Q.; Moran, Paul J.; Townsend, Steven W.; Hostutler, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple variants of the Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) have recently been demonstrated at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Highlights of this ongoing research effort include: a) a 571W rubidium (Rb) based Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) with a gain (2α) of 0.48 cm-1, b) a rubidium-cesium (Cs) Multi-Alkali Multi-Line (MAML) laser that simultaneously lases at both 795 nm and 895 nm, and c) a 1.5 kW resonantly pumped potassium (K) DPAL with a slope efficiency of 50%. The common factor among these experiments is the use of a flowing alkali test bed.

  5. Alkali metal for ultraviolet band-pass filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick (Inventor); Fraschetti, George A. (Inventor); Mccann, Timothy A. (Inventor); Mayall, Sherwood D. (Inventor); Dunn, Donald E. (Inventor); Trauger, John T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alkali metal filter having a layer of metallic bismuth deposited onto the alkali metal is provided. The metallic bismuth acts to stabilize the surface of the alkali metal to prevent substantial surface migration from occurring on the alkali metal, which may degrade optical characteristics of the filter. To this end, a layer of metallic bismuth is deposited by vapor deposition over the alkali metal to a depth of approximately 5 to 10 A. A complete alkali metal filter is described along with a method for fabricating the alkali metal filter.

  6. Laboratory investigation of combination of alkali/surfactant/polymer technology for Daqing EOR

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Shutang; Li Huabin; Li Hongfu

    1995-08-01

    Alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) formulas were developed for the Daqing oil field, Peoples Republic of China, with two surfactants from the US (Petrostep B-100 and a blend of TRS-18 and TRS-40) and one Chinese surfactant (PS-D{sub 2}). Each ASP solution gave interfacial tension (IFT) values in the range of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mN/m. Rheologic studies with polyacrylamide polymers indicate that solution viscosity decreases with alkali addition, as does the pseudoplasticity of the solution. Addition of surfactant to the alkali/polymer solution increases the solution viscosity with no slope change in the viscosity-vs.-shear-rate plot. Incremental oil recovery was higher than that with waterflood; 20% original oil in place (OOIP) for 0.2-PV ASP injection and 33% OOIP for 0.3-PV ASP injection in Daqing core. Surfactant and alkali retention were both < 1 mg/g sand. The positive results of this laboratory study provided a fluid formula for a pilot ASP flood in the Daqing oil field.

  7. Abducens nerve palsy in a patient with scrub typhus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, B; Panda, P; Revannasiddaiah, S; Bhardwaj, H

    2013-12-01

    Abducens nerve palsy is a known but rare complication of a few bacterial and viral infections like Mycoplasma pneumonia, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Hanta virus, herpes zoster, and measles. Abducens nerve palsy due to scrub typhus is extremely rare and so far only one case has been reported in the literature. Scrub typhus is a febrile illness caused by rickettsia, Orientia tsutsugamushi, a gram negative intracellular obligate parasite which is endemic in Asia. This disease can present with wide range of clinical manifestations with involvement of any organ system, alone or in combination. Central nervous system involvement is very common and includes meningism, altered sensorium to focal neurological deficits. We present a rare manifestation of Scrub typhus in the form of sixth cranial nerve involvement which responded to the treatment with doxycycline.

  8. Western scrub-jays do not appear to attend to functionality in Aesop's Fable experiments.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corina J; Harvey, Brigit D; Schlinger, Barney A; Rensel, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Western scrub-jays are known for their highly discriminatory and flexible behaviors in a caching (food storing) context. However, it is unknown whether their cognitive abilities are restricted to a caching context. To explore this question, we tested scrub-jays in a non-caching context using the Aesop's Fable paradigm, where a partially filled tube of water contains a floating food reward and objects must be inserted to displace the water and bring the food within reach. We tested four birds, but only two learned to drop stones proficiently. Of these, one bird participated in 4/5 experiments and one in 2/5 experiments. Both birds passed one experiment, but without attending to the functional differences of the objects, and failed the other experiments. Scrub-jays were not motivated to participate in these experiments, suggesting that either this paradigm was ecologically irrelevant or perhaps their flexibility is restricted to a caching context.

  9. No evidence of temporal preferences in caching by Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica)☆

    PubMed Central

    Thom, James M.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans and other animals often favour immediate gratification over long-term gain. Primates, including humans, appear more willing to wait for rewards than other animals, such as rats or pigeons. Another group displaying impressive patience are the corvids, which possess large brains and show sophisticated cognitive abilities. Here, we assess intertemporal choice in one corvid species, the Western scrub-jay (Aphelocoma californica). These birds cache food for future consumption and respond flexibly to future needs. Cache-theft and cache-degradation are time-dependent processes in scrub-jay ecology that might necessitate sensitivity to delays between caching and retrieval. We adopt a caching paradigm with delays of up to 49 h. Across two experiments we find no evidence of a preference for earlier recovery. We highlight the possibility that, although scrub-jays can discriminate between the present and the future, they may not understand how far into the future an event will occur. PMID:24378212

  10. Determination of Alkali Ions in Biological and Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the common methods for the determination of the alkali metals is given. These are drawn from all of the three principle branches of quantitative analysis and consist mainly of optical atomic spectrometric methods, ion-selective electrodes, and the separation methods of ion-chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Their main characteristics and performance parameters are discussed. Important specific applications are also examined, namely clinical analysis, single cell analysis, the analysis of soil samples and hydroponic nutrient solutions, as well as the detection of the radioactive (137)Cs isotope. PMID:26860298

  11. Determination of Alkali Ions in Biological and Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the common methods for the determination of the alkali metals is given. These are drawn from all of the three principle branches of quantitative analysis and consist mainly of optical atomic spectrometric methods, ion-selective electrodes, and the separation methods of ion-chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Their main characteristics and performance parameters are discussed. Important specific applications are also examined, namely clinical analysis, single cell analysis, the analysis of soil samples and hydroponic nutrient solutions, as well as the detection of the radioactive (137)Cs isotope.

  12. Alkali Metal Salts with Designable Aryltrifluoroborate Anions.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kazuki; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Matsumoto, Hajime; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Kuwabata, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    Aryltrifluoroborate ([ArBF3](-)) has a designable basic anion structure. Various [ArBF3](-)-based anions were synthesized to create novel alkali metal salts using a simple and safe process. Nearly 40 novel alkali metal salts were successfully obtained, and their physicochemical characteristics, particularly their thermal properties, were elucidated. These salts have lower melting points than those of simple inorganic alkali halide salts, such as KCl and LiCl, because of the weaker interactions between the alkali metal cations and the [ArBF3](-) anions and the anions' larger entropy. Moreover, interestingly, potassium cations were electrochemically reduced in the potassium (meta-ethoxyphenyl)trifluoroborate (K[m-OEtC6H4BF3]) molten salt at 433 K. These findings contribute substantially to furthering molten salt chemistry, ionic liquid chemistry, and electrochemistry. PMID:27510799

  13. Alkali Metal Handling Practices at NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvail, Patrick G.; Carter, Robert R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is NASA s principle propulsion development center. Research and development is coordinated and carried out on not only the existing transportation systems, but also those that may be flown in the near future. Heat pipe cooled fast fission cores are among several concepts being considered for the Nuclear Systems Initiative. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a capability to handle high-purity alkali metals for use in heat pipes or liquid metal heat transfer loops. This capability is a low budget prototype of an alkali metal handling system that would allow the production of flight qualified heat pipe modules or alkali metal loops. The processing approach used to introduce pure alkali metal into heat pipe modules and other test articles are described in this paper.

  14. Desulfurizing Coal With an Alkali Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental coal-desulfurization process uses alkalies and steam in fluidized-bed reactor. With highly volatile, high-sulfur bituminous coal, process removed 98 percent of pyritic sulfur and 47 percent of organic sulfur. Used in coal liquefaction and in production of clean solid fuels and synthetic liquid fuels. Nitrogen or steam flows through bed of coal in reactor. Alkalies react with sulfur, removing it from coal. Nitrogen flow fluidizes bed while heating or cooling; steam is fluidizing medium during reaction.

  15. Clear-Cut Stand Size and Scrub-Successional Bird Assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz,D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    1999-03-08

    We investigated the effects of clear-cut size on species richness, reproductive effort, and relative abundance of scrub-scrub birds at the Savannah River Site. Stands varied in size from 2 to 57 ha that were 2 to 6 years old. Species richness was not explained by stand size or stand age. In regressing stand size on bird species richness, we found a significant negative relationship for the bird community. Frequency of capture was unrelated to stand size. Clear-cut stand size does not appear to be an important variable in forest management with respect to the bird community.

  16. Evaluation of a waterless, scrubless chlorhexidine gluconate/ethanol surgical scrub for antimicrobial efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mulberrry, G; Snyder, A T; Heilman, J; Pyrek, J; Stahl, J

    2001-12-01

    A new waterless surgical hand preparation containing 1% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and 61% ethyl alcohol was evaluated for antimicrobial efficacy in comparison with a standard 4% CHG surgical scrub and a 61% ethyl alcohol control. Clinical studies were based on the Tentative Final Monograph for Health-Care Antiseptic Drug Products (TFM) (proposed rule) and the Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Surgical Hand Scrub Formulations (ASTM E1115-91). Two randomized, blinded, well-controlled clinical studies involving 137 healthy subjects were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of the CHG/ethanol hand preparation in producing an immediate and persistent reduction in the normal bacterial flora of the hands. The CHG/ethanol hand preparation was applied without scrubbing or the use of water, and a standard 4% CHG reference product was applied with a scrub brush in 2 traditional 3-minute surgical scrubs. In 1 study, a 61% ethanol vehicle control treatment was applied without scrubbing or use of water. During a 5-day period, each study subject performed a series of 11 surgical scrubs with 1 of the test treatments. After the first treatment on days 1, 2, and 5, surgical gloves were worn for 3 or 6 hours. Bacterial samples were taken with the glove-juice technique at 1 minute, 3 hours, and 6 hours after treatment. The immediate bactericidal effect of the CHG/ethanol hand preparation after a single application resulted in a 2.5-log reduction in normal flora. This bactericidal effect persisted throughout the studies and eventually increased to a 3.6-log reduction after the 11th scrub on day 5. The log reductions of the CHG/ethanol hand preparation proved to be significantly better (P <.05) than that of the 4% CHG product at each sampling interval on days 1 and 2 and the sampling at 6 hours on day 5 and significantly better than the 61% ethanol vehicle at all times. The combination of 1% CHG and 61% ethanol had significantly greater microbial reduction than

  17. Replacing personally-identifying information in medical records, the Scrub system.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, L.

    1996-01-01

    We define a new approach to locating and replacing personally-identifying information in medical records that extends beyond straight search-and-replace procedures, and we provide techniques for minimizing risk to patient confidentiality. The straightforward approach of global search and replace properly located no more than 30-60% of all personally-identifying information that appeared explicitly in our sample database. On the other hand, our Scrub system found 99-100% of these references. Scrub uses detection algorithms that employ templates and specialized knowledge of what constitutes a name, address, phone number and so forth. PMID:8947683

  18. A new Antaeotricha species from Florida sandhills and scrub (Lepidoptera, Depressariidae, Stenomatinae)

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, James E.; Dickel, Terhune S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Antaeotricha floridella sp. n. is described and diagnosed from the closely similar Antaeotricha albulella (Walker). The species is distributed in xeric sandhill and scrub habitats in peninsular Florida, USA, and larvae feed on Quercus species. Keys are given for pale-winged Stenomatinae and similar Gelechioidea based on external characters and genitalia. PMID:26668543

  19. Guillan-Barré syndrome following scrub typus: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Katsuya; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Ebihara, Yuka; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Shiomi, Kazutaka; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2016-08-31

    Case 1: A 66-year-old man was admitted because of progressive gait disturbance and dysphagia after developing red rash. He was diagnosed as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and treated by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg). Two weeks later, he could swallow and walk without any abnormalities. Case 2: A 58-year-old woman was admitted because of gait disturbance, bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsies, and respiratory failure one week after developing fever and rash. She was diagnosed as GBS and treated with IVIg. She underwent mechanical ventilation, while she could wean off it one month later and her limb strengths improved. We confirmed both patients had scrub typhus by serological studies. Peripheral neuropathy is one of the complications of scrub typhus. In addition, this disease sometimes leads to severe GBS. GBS should be included in differential diagnosis when peripheral neuropathies develop in the course of treating scrub typhus, and we should keep in mind that scrub typhus is one of the causes of GBS.

  20. Guillan-Barré syndrome following scrub typus: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Katsuya; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Ebihara, Yuka; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Shiomi, Kazutaka; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2016-08-31

    Case 1: A 66-year-old man was admitted because of progressive gait disturbance and dysphagia after developing red rash. He was diagnosed as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and treated by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg). Two weeks later, he could swallow and walk without any abnormalities. Case 2: A 58-year-old woman was admitted because of gait disturbance, bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsies, and respiratory failure one week after developing fever and rash. She was diagnosed as GBS and treated with IVIg. She underwent mechanical ventilation, while she could wean off it one month later and her limb strengths improved. We confirmed both patients had scrub typhus by serological studies. Peripheral neuropathy is one of the complications of scrub typhus. In addition, this disease sometimes leads to severe GBS. GBS should be included in differential diagnosis when peripheral neuropathies develop in the course of treating scrub typhus, and we should keep in mind that scrub typhus is one of the causes of GBS. PMID:27477576

  1. AmeriFlux US-KS2 Kennedy Space Center (scrub oak)

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Bert; Hinkle, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KS2 Kennedy Space Center (scrub oak). Site Description - The Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak site is located within the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on the east coast of central Florida. Situated in a 10 ha scrub oak ecosystem, the surrounding stand was completely burned by a prescribed fire in 1996. The purpose of the burn was to control understory fuel load, which has been a common practice since 1969. Within a few weeks of the 1996 burn, the stand began to naturally regenerate from roots and rhizomes. Most scrub oak stands in the region undergo a 7 to 10 year disturbance cycle, mostly related to fire or hurricane activity. A severe drought gripped most of Florida beginning in 1998 until the later half of 2001 resulting in four years of relatively low amount of annual rainfall. Exceptionally high annual rainfall amount in 2004 was the result of a pair of hurricanes that hit the area in August and September of 2004. Prevaling wind directions for the site are as follows: W to NW in the winter, afternoon E sea breeze in the summer.

  2. Scrub typhus masquerading as HELLP syndrome and puerperal sepsis in an asymptomatic malaria patient.

    PubMed

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations. PMID:27413718

  3. Differences in Attentional Strategies by Novice and Experienced Operating Theatre Scrub Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Ranieri Y. I.; Park, Taezoon; Wickens, Christopher D.; Ong, Lay Teng; Chia, Soon Noi

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nursing experience on attention allocation and task performance during surgery. The prevention of cases of retained foreign bodies after surgery typically depends on scrub nurses, who are responsible for performing multiple tasks that impose heavy demands on the nurses' cognitive resources. However, the…

  4. The Effects of Elevated CO2 on a Subtropical Scrub Oak-Palmetto Plant Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vieglais, David; Hinkle, C. Ross; Drake, Bert

    1995-01-01

    A 2.5 year (1992-1995) pilot study was conducted on the effects of twice ambient CO2 on native scrub oak-palmetto vegetation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The effects suggest that rising atmospheric CO2 will increase terrestrial carbon and alter the distribution of carbon among the different pools of carbon.

  5. Comparison of minocycline and azithromycin for the treatment of mild scrub typhus in northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minxing; Wang, Ting; Yuan, Xiaoyu; Du, Weiming; Lin, Miaoxin; Shen, Yanbo

    2016-09-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has recently emerged in northern China where the disease had not been known to exist. Although doxycycline and azithromycin are the recommended agents for the treatment of scrub typhus, clinical responses depend both on the susceptibilities of various O. tsutsugamushi strains and the severity of the disease. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients diagnosed with mild scrub typhus from August 2013 to January 2016 in the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, northern China. A total of 40 patients who received minocycline treatment and 34 patients who received azithromycin treatment were included in the analysis. All patients except one defervesced within 120 h after initiating antimicrobial therapy. Kaplan-Meier curves in association with log-rank test showed that the median time to defervescence was significantly shorter for the minocycline-treated group than the azithromycin-treated group (P = 0.003). There were no serious adverse events during treatment. No relapse occurred in either group during the 1-month follow-up period. In conclusion, both minocycline and azithromycin are effective and safe for the treatment of mild scrub typhus, but minocycline is more active than azithromycin against O. tsutsugamushi infection acquired in northern China. PMID:27449540

  6. DIET of alkali atoms from mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2003-03-01

    To investigate mechanisms for the origin of alkalis in the atmosphere of the Moon, we are studying the electron- and photon-stimulated desorption (ESD and PSD) of K atoms from model mineral surfaces (SiO 2 films), and ESD and PSD of Na atoms from a lunar basalt sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates the existence of traces of Na in the lunar sample. To obtain an increased signal for detailed measurements of desorption parameters (appearance thresholds, yields), a fractional monolayer of Na is deposited onto the lunar sample surface. An alkali atom detector based on surface ionization and a time-of-flight technique are used for DIET measurements, together with a pulsed electron gun, and a mechanically chopped and filtered mercury arc light source. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by UV photons or by electrons with energies E>4 eV causes desorption of "hot" alkali atoms. The results are consistent with the model based on charge transfer from the substrate to adsorbate which was developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and desorption of K atoms from water ice. The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  7. A hetero-alkali-metal version of the utility amide LDA: lithium-potassium diisopropylamide.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David R; Kennedy, Alan R; Mulvey, Robert E; Robertson, Stuart D

    2013-03-14

    Designed to extend the synthetically important alkali-metal diisopropylamide [N(i)Pr(2); DA] class of compounds, the first example of a hetero-alkali-metallic complex of DA has been prepared as a partial TMEDA solvate. Revealed by an X-ray crystallographic study, its structure exists as a discrete lithium-rich trinuclear Li(2)KN(3) heterocycle, with TMEDA only solvating the largest of the alkali-metals, with the two-coordinate lithium atoms being close to linearity [161.9(2)°]. A variety of NMR spectroscopic studies, including variable temperature and DOSY NMR experiments, suggests that this new form of LDA maintains its integrity in non-polar hydrocarbon solution. This complex thus represents a rare example of a KDA molecule which is soluble in non-polar medium without the need for excessive amounts of solubilizing Lewis donor being added.

  8. Alkali-silica reaction products: Comparison between samples from concrete structures and laboratory test specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Sachlova, Sarka Prikryl, Richard; Pertold, Zdenek

    2010-12-15

    Alkali-silica gels (ASG) were investigated in concrete from bridge structures (constructed from the 1920s to 2000), as well as in experimental specimens; employing optical microscopy, petrographic image analysis, and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The main differences were found in the chemical composition and morphology of the ASGs. ASGs which had formed in older concrete samples (50-80 years old) show a partly crystalline structure and higher Ca{sup 2+} content, indicating their aging and maturation. Younger concrete samples and experimental test specimens exhibit the presence of amorphous ASG. The chemistry of ASG from experimental specimens reflects the chemical composition of accelerating solutions. - Research Highlights: {yields} Quantitative analysis of alkali-silica gels {yields} Comparison of ASR in experimental conditions with ASR in bridge structures {yields} Investigation of factors affecting alkali-silica reaction {yields} Investigation of ASR of different types of aggregates.

  9. Facile Precursor for Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Alkali Treated Maize Starch

    PubMed Central

    El-Rafie, M. H.; Ahmed, Hanan B.; Zahran, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were prepared by using alkali treated maize starch which plays a dual role as reducer for AgNO3 and stabilizer for the produced AgNPs. The redox reaction which takes a place between AgNO3 and alkali treated starch was followed up and controlled in order to obtain spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with mean size 4–6 nm. The redox potentials confirmed the principle role of alkali treatment in increasing the reducibility of starch macromolecules. The measurements of reducing sugars at the end of reaction using dinitrosalicylic acid reagent (DNS) were carried out in order to control the chemical reduction reaction. The UV/Vis spectra show that an absorption peak, occurring due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), exists at 410 nm, which is characteristic to yellow color of silver nanoparticles solution. The samples have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which reveal the nanonature of the particles. PMID:27433508

  10. Sodium-limestone double alkali flue gas desulfurization process with improved limestone utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Biolchini, R.J.; Boward, W.L. Jr.; Wang, K.H.

    1987-08-18

    This patent describes a sodium-limestone double alkali process for the continuous desulfurization of flue gas, having the steps of absorbing sulfur dioxide from an SO/sub 2/-containing gas stream in an absorber with an aqueous solution of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite, diverting at least a portion of the absorber effluent solution for regeneration with limestone, introducing limestone into the diverted absorber effluent solution to convert bisulfite to sulfite, separating by-product solids from the limestone-treated solution, and returning regenerated solution to the absorber, the improvement for increasing the utilization of the limestone used during the regeneration operation.

  11. Visualization of alkali-denatured supercoiled plasmid DNA by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jia; Zhang Zhenfeng; Cao Kou; Huang Xitai

    2008-09-26

    To study the alkali denaturation of supercoiled DNA, plasmid pBR322 was treated with gradient concentrations of NaOH solution. The results of gel electrophoresis showed that the alkali denaturation of the supercoiled DNA occurred in a narrow range of pH value (12.88-12.90). The alkali-denatured supercoiled DNA ran, as a sharp band, faster than the supercoiled DNA. The supercoiled plasmid DNA of pBR322, pACYC184 and pJGX15A were denatured by NaOH, and then visualized by atomic force microscopy. Compared with the supercoiled DNA, the atomic force microscopy images of the alkali-denatured supercoiled DNA showed rough surface with many kinks, bulges on double strands with inhomogeneous diameters. The apparent contour lengths of the denatured DNA were shortened by 16%, 16% and 50% for pBR322, pACYC184 and pJGX15A, respectively. All evidence suggested that the alkali-denatured supercoiled DNA had a stable conformation with unregistered, topologically constrained double strands and intrastrand secondary structure.

  12. Dissolution Process of Palladium in Hydrochloric Acid: A Route via Alkali Metal Palladates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Ryo; Miki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Hisashi; Tai, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    To improve the safety of the Pd recovery processes that use toxic oxidizers, dissolution of Pd in hydrochloric acid with alkali metal palladates was investigated. Alkali metal palladates were prepared by calcining a mixture of Pd black and alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) carbonates in air. Almost the entire amount of Pd was converted into Li2PdO2 after calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Li2CO3. In contrast, PdO was obtained by calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Na and K carbonates. Our results indicated that Li2CO3 is the most active reagent among the examined alkali metal carbonates for the formation of palladates. In addition, dissolution of the resulting Li2PdO2 in HCl solutions was evaluated under various conditions. In particular, Li2PdO2 rapidly dissolved in diluted (0.1 M) HCl at ambient temperature. Solubility of Pd of Li2PdO2 was found to be 99 pct or larger after dissolution treatment at 353 K (80 °C) for 5 minutes; in contrast, PdO hardly dissolved in 0.1 M HCl. The dissolution mechanism of Li2PdO2 in HCl was also elucidated by analysis of crystal structures and particulate properties. Since our process is completely free from toxic oxidizers, the dissolution process via alkali metal palladates is much safer than currently employed methods.

  13. Multistate modeling of habitat dynamics: Factors affecting Florida scrub transition probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Duncan, B.W.; Stolen, Eric D.; Carter, G.M.; Hunt, D.K.; Drese, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Many ecosystems are influenced by disturbances that create specific successional states and habitat structures that species need to persist. Estimating transition probabilities between habitat states and modeling the factors that influence such transitions have many applications for investigating and managing disturbance-prone ecosystems. We identify the correspondence between multistate capture-recapture models and Markov models of habitat dynamics. We exploit this correspondence by fitting and comparing competing models of different ecological covariates affecting habitat transition probabilities in Florida scrub and flatwoods, a habitat important to many unique plants and animals. We subdivided a large scrub and flatwoods ecosystem along central Florida's Atlantic coast into 10-ha grid cells, which approximated average territory size of the threatened Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a management indicator species. We used 1.0-m resolution aerial imagery for 1994, 1999, and 2004 to classify grid cells into four habitat quality states that were directly related to Florida Scrub-Jay source-sink dynamics and management decision making. Results showed that static site features related to fire propagation (vegetation type, edges) and temporally varying disturbances (fires, mechanical cutting) best explained transition probabilities. Results indicated that much of the scrub and flatwoods ecosystem was resistant to moving from a degraded state to a desired state without mechanical cutting, an expensive restoration tool. We used habitat models parameterized with the estimated transition probabilities to investigate the consequences of alternative management scenarios on future habitat dynamics. We recommend this multistate modeling approach as being broadly applicable for studying ecosystem, land cover, or habitat dynamics. The approach provides maximum-likelihood estimates of transition parameters, including precision measures, and can be used to assess

  14. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus. PMID:27478327

  15. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Sungman; Premaratna, Ranjan; Selvaraj, Stephen; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Sora; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Min Soo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Kwon, Soon-Hwan; Seo, Wonjun; Lee, Nam Taek; Kim, Seung-Han; Kang, Heui Keun; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus. PMID:27478327

  16. Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, Susan A.; Provis, John L.; Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel; Gehman, John D.; Brice, David G.; Kilcullen, Adam R.; Duxson, Peter; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van

    2013-11-15

    Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO{sub 2} exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods.

  17. Effect of basic alkali-pickling conditions on the production of lysinoalanine in preserved eggs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2015-09-01

    During the pickling process, strong alkali causes significant lysinoalanine (LAL) formation in preserved eggs, which may reduce the nutritional value of the proteins and result in a potential hazard to human health. In this study, the impacts of the alkali treatment conditions on the production of LAL in preserved eggs were investigated. Preserved eggs were prepared using different times and temperatures, and alkali-pickling solutions with different types and concentrations of alkali and metal salts, and the corresponding LAL contents were measured. The results showed the following: during the pickling period of the preserved egg, the content of LAL in the egg white first rapidly increased and then slowly increased; the content of LAL in the egg yolk continued to increase significantly. During the aging period, the levels of LAL in both egg white and egg yolk slowly increased. The amounts of LAL in the preserved eggs were not significantly different at temperatures between 20 and 25ºC. At higher pickling temperatures, the LAL content in the preserved eggs increased. With the increase of alkali concentration in the alkali-pickling solution, the LAL content in the egg white and egg yolk showed an overall trend of an initial increase followed by a slight decrease. The content of LAL produced in preserved eggs treated with KOH was lower than in those treated with NaOH. NaCl and KCl produced no significant effects on the production of LAL in the preserved eggs. With increasing amounts of heavy metal salts, the LAL content in the preserved eggs first decreased and then increased. The LAL content generated in the CuSO4 group was lower than that in either the ZnSO4 or PbO groups. PMID:26188034

  18. Refractories for high-alkali environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, A.W.; Cloer, F.

    1996-01-01

    There are two reliable and cost-effective tests for evaluating refractory materials. They are used to determine which refractory products allow greater variance in fuel type with respect to alkali environment for coal-fired applications. Preselection of a particular refractory is important because of down-time cost for premature failure. One test is a variation of the standard alkali cup test. The second involves reacting test specimens with the contaminant, followed by physical properties testing to determine degree of degradation and properties affected. The alkali cup test rates products using a relative numerical scale based upon visual appearance. This test indicates the presence and relative degree of chemical attack to the refractory. The physical properties test determines the specific properties affected by the given contaminant.

  19. Alkali metal vapors - Laser spectroscopy and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stwalley, W. C.; Koch, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the rapidly expanding use of lasers for spectroscopic studies of alkali metal vapors. Since the alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium) are theoretically simple ('visible hydrogen'), readily ionized, and strongly interacting with laser light, they represent ideal systems for quantitative understanding of microscopic interconversion mechanisms between photon (e.g., solar or laser), chemical, electrical and thermal energy. The possible implications of such understanding for a wide variety of practical applications (sodium lamps, thermionic converters, magnetohydrodynamic devices, new lasers, 'lithium waterfall' inertial confinement fusion reactors, etc.) are also discussed.

  20. Scrubbing masks magmatic degassing during repose at Cascade-Range and Aleutian-Arc volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, Robert B.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, William C.; Ritchie, B.E.; Counce, Dale; Poreda, R.J.; Iven, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Between 1992 and 1998, we sampled gas discharges from ≤173°C fumaroles and springs at 12 quiescent but potentially restless volcanoes in the Cascade Range and Aleutian Arc (CRAA) including Mount Shasta, Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Augustine Volcano, Mount Griggs, Trident, Mount Mageik, Aniakchak Crater, Akutan, and Makushin. For each site, we collected and analyzed samples to characterize the chemical (H2O, CO2, H2S, N2, CH4, H2, HCl, HF, NH3, Ar, O2, He) and isotopic (δ13C of CO2, 3He/4He, 40Ar/36Ar, δ34S, δ13C of CH4, δ15N, and δD and δ18O of water) compositions of the gas discharges, and to create baseline data for comparison during future unrest. The chemical and isotopic data show that these gases contain a magmatic component that is heavily modified from scrubbing by deep hydrothermal (150° - 350°C) water (primary scrubbing) and shallow meteoric water (secondary scrubbing). The impact of scrubbing is most pronounced in gas discharges from bubbling springs; gases from boiling-point fumaroles and superheated vents show progressively less impact from scrubbing. The most effective strategies for detecting gas precursors to future CRAA eruptions are to measure periodically the emission rates of CO2 and SO2, which have low and high respective solubilities in water, and to monitor continuously CO2 concentrations in soils around volcanic vents. Timely resampling of fumaroles can augment the geochemical surveillance program by watching for chemical changes associated with drying of fumarolic pathways (all CRAA sites), increases in gas geothermometry temperatures (Mount Mageik, Trident, Mount Baker, Mount Shasta), changes in δ13C of CO2 affiliated with magma movement (all CRAA site), and increases in 3He/4He coupled with intrusion of new magma (Mount Rainier, Augustine Volcano, Makushin, Mount Shasta). Repose magmatic degassing may discharge substantial amounts of S and Cl into the edifices of Mount Baker and several other CRAA

  1. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  20. Biological neutralization of chlor-alkali industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-11-01

    The present work reports biological neutralization of chlor-alkali industrial effluent by an alkaliphilic bacterium, isolated from the Gujarat coast, which was identified as Enterococcus faecium strain R-5 on the basis of morphological, biochemical and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolate was capable of bringing down the pH of waste water from 12.0 to 7.0 within 3 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources, with simultaneous reduction in total dissolved solutes (TDS) up to 19-22%. This bacterium produced carboxylic acid, as revealed by FT-IR analysis, which facilitated neutralization of alkaline effluent. The presence of unconventional raw materials viz. Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse as carbon and nitrogen sources could effectively neutralize alkaline effluent and thus making the bioremediation process economically viable. The time required for neutralization varied with size of inoculum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on biological neutralization of a chlor-alkali industrial effluent.

  1. Surface modification by alkali and heat treatments in titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Lee, Baek-Hee; Do Kim, Young; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hwan Lee, Kyu

    2002-09-01

    Pure titanium and titanium alloys are normally used for orthopedic and dental prostheses. Nevertheless, their chemical, biological, and mechanical properties still can be improved by the development of new preparation technologies. This has been the limiting factor for these metals to show low affinity to living bone. The purpose of this study is to improve the bone-bonding ability between titanium alloys and living bone through a chemically activated process and a thermally activated one. Two kinds of titanium alloys, a newly designed Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy and a commercially available Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy, were used in this study. In this study, surface modification of the titanium alloys by alkali and heat treatments (AHT), alkali treated in 5.0M NaOH solution, and heat treated in vacuum furnace at 600 degrees C, is reported. After AHT, the effects of the AHT on the bone integration property were evaluated in vitro. Surface morphologies of AHT were observed by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical compositional surface changes were investigated by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Titanium alloys with surface modification by AHT showed improved bioactive behavior, and the Ti-In-Nb-Ta alloy had better bioactivity than the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy in vitro.

  2. Biological neutralization of chlor-alkali industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana H; Keshri, Jitendra; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-11-01

    The present work reports biological neutralization of chlor-alkali industrial effluent by an alkaliphilic bacterium, isolated from the Gujarat coast, which was identified as Enterococcus faecium strain R-5 on the basis of morphological, biochemical and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolate was capable of bringing down the pH of waste water from 12.0 to 7.0 within 3 h in the presence of carbon and nitrogen sources, with simultaneous reduction in total dissolved solutes (TDS) up to 19-22%. This bacterium produced carboxylic acid, as revealed by FT-IR analysis, which facilitated neutralization of alkaline effluent. The presence of unconventional raw materials viz. Madhuca indica flowers or sugar cane bagasse as carbon and nitrogen sources could effectively neutralize alkaline effluent and thus making the bioremediation process economically viable. The time required for neutralization varied with size of inoculum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on biological neutralization of a chlor-alkali industrial effluent. PMID:21944194

  3. Alkali-Activated Aluminium-Silicate Composites as Insulation Materials for Industrial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembovska, L.; Bajare, D.; Pundiene, I.; Bumanis, G.

    2015-11-01

    The article reports on the study of thermal stability of alkali-activated aluminium- silicate composites (ASC) at temperature 800-1100°C. ASC were prepared by using calcined kaolinite clay, aluminium scrap recycling waste, lead-silicate glass waste and quartz sand. As alkali activator, commercial sodium silicate solution modified with an addition of sodium hydroxide was used. The obtained alkali activation solution had silica modulus Ms=1.67. Components of aluminium scrap recycling waste (aluminium nitride (AlN) and iron sulphite (FeSO3)) react in the alkali media and create gases - ammonia and sulphur dioxide, which provide the porous structure of the material [1]. Changes in the chemical composition of ASC during heating were identified and quantitatively analysed by using DTA/TG, dimension changes during the heating process were determined by using HTOM, pore microstructure was examined by SEM, and mineralogical composition of ASC was determined by XRD. The density of ASC was measured in accordance with EN 1097-7. ASC with density around 560 kg/m3 and heat resistance up to 1100°C with shrinkage less than 5% were obtained. The intended use of this material is the application as an insulation material for industrial purposes at elevated temperatures.

  4. In vitro bioactivity investigation of alkali treated Ti6Al7Nb alloy foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butev, Ezgi; Esen, Ziya; Bor, Sakir

    2015-02-01

    Biocompatible Ti6Al7Nb alloy foams with 70% porosity manufactured by space holder method were activated via alkali treatment using 5 M NaOH solution at 60 °C. The interconnected pore structures enabled formation of homogenous sodium rich coating on the foam surfaces by allowing penetration of alkali solution throughout the pores which had average size of 200 μm. The resulted coating layer having 500 nm thickness exhibited porous network morphology with 100 nm pore size. On the other hand, heat treatment conducted subsequent to alkali treatment at 600 °C in air transformed sodium rich coating into crystalline bioactive sodium titanate phases. Although the coatings obtained by additional heat treatment were mechanically stable and preserved their morphology, oxidation of the samples deteriorated the compressive strength significantly without affecting the elastic modulus. However, heat treated samples revealed better hydroxyapatite formation when soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) compared to alkali treated foams. On the other hand, untreated surfaces containing bioactive TiO2 layer were observed to comprise of Ca and P rich precipitates only rather than hydroxyapatite within 15 days. The apatite formed on the treated porous surfaces was observed to have flower-like structure with Ca/P ratio around 1.5 close to that of natural bone.

  5. Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

    2014-11-18

    In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

  6. Computational studies of solid-state alkali conduction in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhi; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-25

    The facile conduction of alkali ions in a crystal host is of crucial importance in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, the dominant form of energy storage today. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of computational approaches to study solid-state alkali diffusion. We demonstrate how these methods have provided useful insights into the design of materials that form the main components of a rechargeable alkali-ion battery, namely the electrodes, superionic conductor solid electrolytes and interfaces. We will also provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. Here, the scope of this review includes the monovalent lithium- and sodium-ion chemistries that aremore » currently of the most commercial interest.« less

  7. Ingestion of caustic alkali farm products.

    PubMed

    Neidich, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the Poison Prevention Packaging Act took effect, the number of ingestions of caustic alkali from household products has been significantly reduced. Commercial caustic alkalis used on farms, however, were not included in this legislation. Fourteen children over a 5 year period were seen after ingestion of commercial caustic alkalis used on farms. Seven of the children had ingested liquid pipeline cleaners and seven had ingested solid agents used for a variety of reasons. Six of seven children ingesting liquid agents did so from nonoriginal containers into which the caustic had been transferred for convenience. All seven children ingesting solid agents did so from the original container. Eight of the 14 children were found to have second-degree or worse esophageal involvement. Both solid and liquid caustic agents used commercially on farms can cause significant morbidity. Development of a child-resistant container for daily transfer of liquid pipeline agents could be helpful in preventing injuries from liquid pipeline cleaners. Pediatric gastroenterologists as well as primary care physicians in rural areas should be familiar with this type of injury and should take an active role in instructing parents of children living on farms to prevent such injuries. Extension of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act to caustic alkalis used on farms needs to be considered. PMID:8433244

  8. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-05-12

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization.

  9. Ingestion of caustic alkali farm products.

    PubMed

    Neidich, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the Poison Prevention Packaging Act took effect, the number of ingestions of caustic alkali from household products has been significantly reduced. Commercial caustic alkalis used on farms, however, were not included in this legislation. Fourteen children over a 5 year period were seen after ingestion of commercial caustic alkalis used on farms. Seven of the children had ingested liquid pipeline cleaners and seven had ingested solid agents used for a variety of reasons. Six of seven children ingesting liquid agents did so from nonoriginal containers into which the caustic had been transferred for convenience. All seven children ingesting solid agents did so from the original container. Eight of the 14 children were found to have second-degree or worse esophageal involvement. Both solid and liquid caustic agents used commercially on farms can cause significant morbidity. Development of a child-resistant container for daily transfer of liquid pipeline agents could be helpful in preventing injuries from liquid pipeline cleaners. Pediatric gastroenterologists as well as primary care physicians in rural areas should be familiar with this type of injury and should take an active role in instructing parents of children living on farms to prevent such injuries. Extension of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act to caustic alkalis used on farms needs to be considered.

  10. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  11. Cohesive Energy of the Alkali Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a method, considered appropriate for presentation to undergraduate students in materials science and related courses, for the calculation of cohesive energies of the alkali metals. Uses a description based on the free electron model and gives results to within 0.1 eV of the experimental values. (Author/GS)

  12. Effectiveness of Internal vs. External SEU Scrubbing Mitigation Strategies in a Xilinx FPGA: Design, Test, and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; Poivey C.; Petrick, D.; Espinosa, D.; Lesea, Austin; LaBel, K. A.; Friendlich, M; Kim, H; Phan, A.

    2008-01-01

    We compare two scrubbing mitigation schemes for Xilinx FPGA devices. The design of the scrubbers is briefly discussed along with an examination of mitigation limitations. Proton and Heavy Ion data are then presented and analyzed.

  13. Techniques of ground-truth measurements of desert-scrub structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottermann, J.; Deering, D.; Eck, T.; Ringrose, S.

    1987-01-01

    Inversion of remote sensing data taken over a desert scrub surface in Texas with a multidirectionally viewing field radiometer, PARABOLA, yields the value of 0.12 for the protrusion parameter, s, (the projection on a vertical plane of plants per unit area) if isotropy (Lambert law) is assumed for the underlying soil. However, a significantly higher value of s, in the range 0.15 to 0.20, can be inferred if the soil is assumed anisotropic. It is concluded that in remote sensing of sparse vegetation, it is important to know the reflectance characteristics of the underlying soil. Other techniques that can be used to infer desert scrub vegetation structure include various photographic techniques, and measurements of reflected radiance from zenith for a range of solar elevation angles on a clear day.

  14. Mapping Florida Scrub Jay habitat for purposes of land-use management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Provancha, Mark J.; Smith, Rebecca B.

    1991-01-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) applications were used to map areas of primary and secondary Florida Scrub Jay habitat on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using vegetation and soils maps. Data from field studies were used for accuracy assessment and evaluating the importance of mapping classes. Primary habitat accounts for 15 percent of the potential habitat and contained 57 percent of the Florida Scrub Jay population on KSC. Proximity analysis identified potential population centers, which were 44 percent of the potential habitat and contained 86 percent of the population. This study is an example of how remote sensing and GIS applications can provide information for land-use planning, habitat management, and the evaluation of cumulative impacts.

  15. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jian

    2015-06-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster virus and Orientia tsutsugamushi were found in the literature. In the described case, scrub typhus probably induced sufficient stress to reactivate the varicella zoster virus. Early recognition of this problem is imperative for prompt and appropriate management, as misdiagnosis can lead to long-term urinary dysfunction. It is important that a diagnosis of herpes zoster be considered, especially in patients with sudden onset urinary retention.

  16. Ammonia scrubbing at Cominco's sulphur gas handling plants in Trail, B. C

    SciTech Connect

    Brandsenn, W. )

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the ammonia scrubbing process in the sulphur gas handling plant of Cominco's zinc operations at Trail, B.C. This scrubbing process produces ammonium sulfate fertilizer and, if desired, pure liquid sulphur dioxide. Sulphur deficiency in agricultural soil is becoming a growing concern in many parts of the world. The use of modern fertilizers increases crop yields which removes sulphur from the soil faster than it can be replenished from the atmosphere. Deliberate addition of sulphur to fertilizers is therefore required in many countries. The Cominco process combines the removal of low strength SO{sub 2} from a stackgas, and produces an end product that is the basis of ammonium sulphate fertilizer. The process does not produce any waste products which create disposal problems.

  17. A comparison of avian hematozoan epizootiology in two California coastal scrub communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Super, Paul E.; van Riper, Charles, III

    1995-01-01

    Passerine birds within two California (USA) coastal scrub ecosystems, an island and a mainland site, were examined for hematozoa from 1984 to 1990. Island birds had a significantly lower hematozoan prevalence than mainland birds. This prevalence difference can be related to a lack of appropriate hematozoan vectors on the island. Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. were the most commonly encountered hematozoa; four new species of Leucocytozoon spp. and one new Haemoproteus sp. were found in five host families. No transmission of hematozoan parasites was detected at the island site during the study. At the mainland coastal scrub site, Leucocytozoon spp. was transmitted each year while Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. transmission varied between years. There was evidence that some species of birds acquired infections outside of their breeding season. Results of this study lend further support to the prediction of decreased disease on remote island ecosystems.

  18. Scrub typhus vaccine candidate Kp r56 induces humoral and cellular immune responses in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Suchismita; Jiang, Ju; Chan, Teik-Chye; Manetz, T Scott; Chao, Chien-Chung; Ching, Wei-Mei; Richards, Allen L

    2005-08-01

    A truncated recombinant 56-kDa outer membrane protein of the Karp strain of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Kp r56) was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for immunogenicity and safety as a vaccine candidate for the prevention of scrub typhus. This recombinant antigen induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses in two monkeys and was found to be well tolerated. Antigen-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG were produced to almost maximal levels within 1 week of a single immunization. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccinated animals showed an induction of antigen-specific proliferation and gamma interferon production. The Kp r56 was not as efficient as infection with live organisms in preventing reinfection but was able to reduce the inflammation produced at the site of challenge. This report describes the results of the first systematic study of the immunogenicity of a recombinant scrub typhus vaccine candidate in a nonhuman primate model.

  19. On the phylogenetic position of the scrub-birds (Passeriformes: Menurae: Atrichornithidae) of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; ten, Have J.

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships of the scrub-birds Atrichornis were investigated using complete sequences of the recombination-activating gene RAG-1 and the proto-oncogene c-mos for two individuals of the noisy scrub-bird Atrichornis clamosus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Atrichornis was sister to the genus Menura (the lyrebirds) and that these two genera (the Menurae) were sister to the rest of the oscine passerines. A sister relationship between Atrichornis and Menura supports the traditional view, based on morphology and DNA hybridization, that these taxa are closely related. Similarly, a sister relationship with the remaining oscine passerines agrees with the morphological distinctiveness of Atrichornis and Menura, although this result contradicts conclusions based on DNA hybridization studies. Although Atrichornis is very well known morphologically, previous conclusions regarding its relationships were hampered by a lack of comparative knowledge of other passerines, making concurrence of the sequence data of particular significance. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2007.

  20. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Littlejohn, David; Shi, Yao

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH.sub.3. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20.degree. and 90.degree. C. to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution.

  1. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  2. STS-88 crew returns to the O&C Bldg. after the launch scrub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Despite the launch scrub of Space Shuttle Mission STS-88, Commander Robert D. Cabana has a big smile as he returns to the crew quarters in the Operations and Checkout Building. Behind him in the astronaut van is Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow. The Space Shuttle Endeavour is slated to make another liftoff attempt on Friday, Dec. 4, for the first U.S. mission dedicated to the assembly of the International Space Station.

  3. Q Fever, Scrub Typhus, and Rickettsial Diseases in Children, Kenya, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Christina M.; Odhiambo, Antony; Jiang, Ju; Laktabai, Jeremiah; Armstrong, Janice; Holland, Thomas; Richards, Allen L.; O’Meara, Wendy P.

    2016-01-01

    To increase knowledge of undifferentiated fevers in Kenya, we tested paired serum samples from febrile children in western Kenya for antibodies against pathogens increasingly recognized to cause febrile illness in Africa. Of patients assessed, 8.9%, 22.4%, 1.1%, and 3.6% had enhanced seroreactivity to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group rickettsiae, typhus group rickettsiae, and scrub typhus group orientiae, respectively. PMID:27088502

  4. Season-dependent and independent responses of Mediterranean scrub to light conditions.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, María; Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Jáuregui, Juan; Rodríguez, Herminia; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor

    2016-05-01

    Semi-arid plant species cope with excess of solar radiation with morphological and physiological adaptations that assure their survival when other abiotic stressors interact. At the leaf level, sun and shade plants may differ in the set of traits that regulate environmental stressors. Here, we evaluated if leaf-level physiological seasonal response of Mediterranean scrub species (Myrtus communis, Halimium halimifolium, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus salvifolius) depended on light availability conditions. We aimed to determine which of these responses prevailed independently of the marked seasonality of Mediterranean climate, to define a leaf-level strategy in the scrub community. Thirty six leaf response variables - involving gas exchange, water status, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and leaf structure - were seasonally measured in sun exposed and shaded plants under field conditions. Physiological responses showed a common pattern throughout the year, in spite of the marked seasonality of the Mediterranean climate and of species-specific differences in the response to light intensity. Variables related to light use, CO2 assimilation, leaf pigment content, and LMA (leaf mass area) presented differences that were consistent throughout the year, although autumn was the season with greater contrast between sun and shade plants. Our data suggest that in Mediterranean scrub shade plants the lutein pool could have an important role in the photoprotection of the photosynthetic tissues. There was a negative linear correlation between the ratio lutein/total chlorophylls and the majority of leaf level variables. The combined effect of abiotic stress factors (light and drought or light and cold) was variable-specific, in some cases enhancing differences between sun and shade plants, while in others leading to unified strategies in all scrub species.

  5. An Intradermal Inoculation Mouse Model for Immunological Investigations of Acute Scrub Typhus and Persistent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rockx-Brouwer, Dedeke; Xu, Guang; Goez-Rivillas, Yenny; Drom, Claire; Shelite, Thomas R.; Valbuena, Gustavo; Walker, David H.; Bouyer, Donald H.

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative bacterium that is transmitted to mammalian hosts during feeding by Leptotrombidium mites and replicates predominantly within endothelial cells. Most studies of scrub typhus in animal models have utilized either intraperitoneal or intravenous inoculation; however, there is limited information on infection by the natural route in murine model skin or its related early host responses. Here, we developed an intradermal (i.d.) inoculation model of scrub typhus and focused on the kinetics of the host responses in the blood and major infected organs. Following ear inoculation with 6 x 104 O. tsutsugamushi, mice developed fever at 11–12 days post-infection (dpi), followed by marked hypothermia and body weight loss at 14–19 dpi. Bacteria in blood and tissues and histopathological changes were detected around 9 dpi and peaked around 14 dpi. Serum cytokine analyses revealed a mixed Th1/Th2 response, with marked elevations of MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and IL-10 at 9 dpi, followed by increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, G-CSF, RANTES/CCL5, KC/CCL11, IL-1α/β, IL-2, TNF-α, GM-CSF), as well as modulatory cytokines (IL-9, IL-13). Cytokine levels in lungs had similar elevation patterns, except for a marked reduction of IL-9. The Orientia 47-kDa gene and infectious bacteria were detected in several organs for up to 84 dpi, indicating persistent infection. This is the first comprehensive report of acute scrub typhus and persistent infection in i.d.-inoculated C57BL/6 mice. This is a significant improvement over current murine models for Orientia infection and will permit detailed studies of host immune responses and infection control interventions. PMID:27479584

  6. Determination of Cutoff of ELISA and Immunofluorescence Assay for Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Chaudhry, Rama; Thakur, Chandan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015) were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (Fuller Labs, USA) with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA). Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:27621559

  7. Determination of Cutoff of ELISA and Immunofluorescence Assay for Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Chaudhry, Rama; Thakur, Chandan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015) were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (Fuller Labs, USA) with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA). Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  8. Q Fever, Scrub Typhus, and Rickettsial Diseases in Children, Kenya, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Maina, Alice N; Farris, Christina M; Odhiambo, Antony; Jiang, Ju; Laktabai, Jeremiah; Armstrong, Janice; Holland, Thomas; Richards, Allen L; O'Meara, Wendy P

    2016-05-01

    To increase knowledge of undifferentiated fevers in Kenya, we tested paired serum samples from febrile children in western Kenya for antibodies against pathogens increasingly recognized to cause febrile illness in Africa. Of patients assessed, 8.9%, 22.4%, 1.1%, and 3.6% had enhanced seroreactivity to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group rickettsiae, typhus group rickettsiae, and scrub typhus group orientiae, respectively. PMID:27088502

  9. Season-dependent and independent responses of Mediterranean scrub to light conditions.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, María; Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Jáuregui, Juan; Rodríguez, Herminia; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor

    2016-05-01

    Semi-arid plant species cope with excess of solar radiation with morphological and physiological adaptations that assure their survival when other abiotic stressors interact. At the leaf level, sun and shade plants may differ in the set of traits that regulate environmental stressors. Here, we evaluated if leaf-level physiological seasonal response of Mediterranean scrub species (Myrtus communis, Halimium halimifolium, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus salvifolius) depended on light availability conditions. We aimed to determine which of these responses prevailed independently of the marked seasonality of Mediterranean climate, to define a leaf-level strategy in the scrub community. Thirty six leaf response variables - involving gas exchange, water status, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and leaf structure - were seasonally measured in sun exposed and shaded plants under field conditions. Physiological responses showed a common pattern throughout the year, in spite of the marked seasonality of the Mediterranean climate and of species-specific differences in the response to light intensity. Variables related to light use, CO2 assimilation, leaf pigment content, and LMA (leaf mass area) presented differences that were consistent throughout the year, although autumn was the season with greater contrast between sun and shade plants. Our data suggest that in Mediterranean scrub shade plants the lutein pool could have an important role in the photoprotection of the photosynthetic tissues. There was a negative linear correlation between the ratio lutein/total chlorophylls and the majority of leaf level variables. The combined effect of abiotic stress factors (light and drought or light and cold) was variable-specific, in some cases enhancing differences between sun and shade plants, while in others leading to unified strategies in all scrub species. PMID:26913795

  10. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors Associated with Scrub Typhus Infection in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liqin; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Xiuchun; Sun, Yulan; Guan, Zengzhi; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56) were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 3.7 (1.1–11.9), 8.2 (1.4–49.5), and 17.2 (5.1–57.9), respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China. PMID:23691083

  11. Jet Surface Interaction Scrubbing Noise from High Aspect-Ratio Rectangular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bozak, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Concepts envisioned for the future of civil air transport consist of unconventional propulsion systems in the close proximity of the airframe. Distributed propulsion system with exhaust configurations that resemble a high aspect ratio rectangular jet are among geometries of interest. Nearby solid surfaces could provide noise shielding for the purpose of reduced community noise. Interaction of high-speed jet exhaust with structure could also generate new sources of sound as a result of flow scrubbing past the structure, and or scattered noise from sharp edges. The present study provides a theoretical framework to predict the scrubbing noise component from a high aspect ratio rectangular exhaust in proximity of a solid surface. The analysis uses the Greens function (GF) to the variable density Pridmore-Brown equation in a transversely sheared mean flow. Sources of sound are defined as the auto-covariance function of second-rank velocity fluctuations in the jet plume, and are modeled using a RANS-based acoustic analogy approach. Acoustic predictions are presented in an 8:1 aspect ratio rectangular exhaust at three subsonic Mach numbers. The effect of nearby surface on the scrubbing noise component is shown on both reflected and shielded sides of the plate.

  12. Efficacy of a surgical scrub including 2% chlorhexidine acetate for canine superficial pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Nobuo; Nagata, Masahiko; Terada, Yuri; Shibata, Sanae; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2010-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of a surgical scrub containing 2% chlorhexidine acetate (2CA; Nolvasan® Surgical Scrub; Fort Dodge Animal Health, USA) was evaluated for the topical management of canine superficial pyoderma. The first study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. The control was a shampoo containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (4CG; Skin Clinic Shampoo; CHD MEDICS, Goyang, Korea). Ten dogs with symmetrical lesions of canine superficial pyoderma were allocated to receive either 2CA or the control shampoo applied to either side of the body twice weekly for 1 week. Both the owners and the investigators subjectively scored skin lesions including pruritus, erythema, crusted papules and scales on a scale of 0-3. The 2CA and 4CG resulted in almost the same degree of improvement of skin lesions, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. The second study was an open trial of 2CA monotherapy in eight dogs with cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group-associated superficial pyoderma. The 2CA monotherapy was applied every 2 days for 2 weeks. Five dogs improved with 2CA monotherapy, one partially improved and two did not. No adverse reactions were seen in either trial. This suggests that a 2CA surgical scrub could be a useful and safe topical adjunct therapy for dogs with superficial pyoderma involving cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group.

  13. Laboratory Diagnosis and Genotype Identification of Scrub Typhus from Pinggu District, Beijing, 2008 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihong; Dou, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Liqin; Lyu, Yanning; Du, Zhizhong; Tian, Lili; Zhang, Xiuchun; Sun, Yulan; Guan, Zengzhi; Chen, Lijuan; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the diagnosis and genotype of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Pinggu district, Beijing. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to detect O. tsutsugamushi-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing analysis targeting the O. tsutsugamushi-specific groEL gene and 56 kDa protein gene were performed on whole-blood samples from scrub typhus patients. We confirmed that 47 patients were infected with scrub typhus in Pinggu district, Beijing. Representative sequences amplified by primers according to the groEL gene (BJ-PG-2008; GenBank accession No. JQ894502) and the 56 kDa protein gene (PG-56kDa; GenBank accession No. JX843795) both clustered with Kawasaki. PG-56kDa had sequence homology of 100% with TADY12-0308, shandong-XDM2, Neimeng-90, and sdu-1 and sequence homology of 96% with Kawasaki, Taguchi, Oishi, and Kanda. We confirmed the genotype of O. tsutsugamushi in Pinggu district, Beijing, as Kawasaki, and the patient in 2008 confirmed in this study was the first patient with confirmed scrub typhus in Beijing. PMID:23716411

  14. Development of a biphasic electroreactor with a wet scrubbing system for the removal of gaseous benzene.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Muthuraman; Chung, Sang Joon; Moon, Hyun-Ho; Jang, Jae Wook; Moon, Il-Shik

    2013-08-12

    An efficient, continuous flow electroreactor system comprising a scrubbing column (for absorption) and a biphasic electroreactor (for degradation) was developed to treat gas streams containing benzene. Initial benzene absorption studies using a continuous flow bubble column containing absorbents like 40% sulfuric acid, 10% silicone oil (3, 5, 10 cSt), or 100% silicone oil showed that 100% silicone oil is the most suitable. A biphasic batch electroreactor based on 50 mL of silicone oil and 100 mL of activated Co(III) (activated electrochemically) in 40% sulfuric acid demonstrated that indirect oxidation of benzene is possible by Co(III). Combined experiments on the wet scrubbing column and biphasic electroreactor (BP-ER) were performed to determine the feasibility of benzene removal, which is reside in the silicone oil medium. In semidynamic scrubbing with BP-ER experiments using an aqueous electroreactor volume of 2 L, and an inlet gas flow and a gaseous benzene concentration were 10 Lmin(-1) and 100 ppm, respectively, benzene removal efficiency is 75% in sustainable way. The trend of CO2 evolution is well correlated with benzene recovery in the BP-ER. The addition of sodiumdodecyl sulfate (SDS) enhanced the recovery of silicone oil without affecting benzene removal. This process is promising for the treatment of high concentrations of gaseous benzene.

  15. Ion-exchange behavior of alkali metals on treated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Mohiuddin, G.; Hata, W.Y.; Tolan, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The ion-exchange behavior of trace quantities of the alkali-metal ions sodium and cesium, on activated carbon impregnated with zirconium phosphate (referred to here as ZrP), was studied. Impregnated carbon had twice as much ion-exchange activity as unimpregnated, oxidized carbon, and 10 times as much as commercial activated carbons. The distribution coefficient of sodium increased with increasing pH; the distribution coefficient of cesium decreased with increasing pH. Sodium and cesium were separated with an electrolytic solution of 0.1 M HCl. Preliminary studies indicated that 0.2 M potassium and cesium can also be separated. Distribution coefficients of the supported ZrP were determined by the elution technique and agreed within 20% of the values for pure ZrP calculated from the literature.

  16. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on alkali borate glasses: evidence of mixed alkali effect.

    PubMed

    Padmaja, G; Kistaiah, P

    2009-03-19

    A lithium-potassium-borate glass system containing manganese and iron cations has been thoroughly investigated in order to obtain information about the mixed alkali effect and the structural role of both the manganese and iron in such glass hosts. Mixed alkali borate glasses of the (30 - x)Li(2)O - xK(2)O - 10CdO/ZnO - 59B(2)O(3) (x = 0, 10, 15, 20, and 30) doped with 1MnO(2)/1Fe(2)O(3) system were prepared by a melt quench technique. The amorphous phase of the prepared glass samples was confirmed from their X-ray diffraction. The spectroscopic properties of glass samples were studied using infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The density of all the prepared glasses was measured using Archimedes principle. Molar volumes were estimated from the density data. IR spectra of these glasses revealed a dramatic variation of three- and four-coordinated boron structures as a function of mixed alkali concentration. The vibrations due to Li-O, K-O, and MnO(4)/FeO(4) arrangements are consistent in all the compositions and show a nonlinear variation in the intensity with alkali content. Raman spectra of different alkali combinations with CdO and ZnO present drastic changes in the intensity of various Raman bands. The observation of disappearance and reappearance of IR and Raman bands as a function of various alkali concentrations is an important result pertaining to the mixed alkali effect in borate glasses. Acting as complementary spectroscopic techniques, both types of measurements, IR and Raman, revealed that the network structure of the studied glasses is mainly based on BO(3) and BO(4) units placed in different structural groups, the BO(3) units being dominant. The measured IR and Raman spectra of different glasses are used to clarify the optical properties of the present glasses correlating them with their structure and composition. PMID:19235995

  17. Scrub-successional bird community dynamics in young and mature longleaf pine-wiregrass savannahs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Public agencies are required to manage for threatened and endangered species and for biodiversity. However, at times, management for threatened and endangered species precludes consideration of other species. We investigated how managing for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) and biodiversity at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, affected communities of bird species that use early-successional scrub habitat (hereafter, scrub-successional species). Management for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the SRS involved both (1) manipulating mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Andropogon spp.) stands via canopy thinning, removal of midstory trees, and prescribed burning; and (2) even-aged timber harvesting. The former management practice encouraged red-cockaded woodpeckers to establish new colonies in previously unoccupied stands (hereafter, 'recruitment' stands). The latter management practice is used to remove off-site planted pines and replant with preferred longleaf pines. We conducted a constant-effort mist net study in recruitment and regenerating stands (stands clearcut and planted with longleaf pine) during the breeding seasons of 1995-96. We hypothesized that the scrub-successional bird community in recruitment stands would have greater species richness and higher survival and reproductive rates per species than in regenerating stands. However, recruitment stands always had fewer scrub-successional species (1995:36 species; 1996:31 species) than regenerating stands (1995:54 species; 1996:55 species), and all species that occurred in recruitment stands also occurred in regenerating stands. Species which commonly occurred in both recruitment and regenerating stands had similar adult:juvenile ratios (P > 0.15) and relative proportion of adults in breeding condition (P > 0.05). We detected no difference in survival rates of Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis), indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), and of 'combined' scrub

  18. Infrared spectra of FHF - in alkali halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunnilall, C. J.; Sherman, W. F.

    1982-03-01

    The bifluoride ion, FHF -, has been substitutionally isolated within single crystal samples of several different alkali halides. Infrared spectra of these crystals have been studied for sample temperatures down to 8K when half-bandwidths of less than 1 cm -1 have been observed. (Note that at room temperature ν 3 is observed to have a half-bandwidth of about 40 cm -1). The frequency shifts and half-bandwidth changes caused by cooling are considered together with the frequency shifts caused by pressures up to 10 k bar. The low temperature spectra clearly indicate that FHF - is a linear symmetrical ion when substitutionally isolated within alkali halides of either the NaCl or CsCl structure.

  19. Geopolymers and Related Alkali-Activated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provis, John L.; Bernal, Susan A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of new, sustainable, low-CO2 construction materials is essential if the global construction industry is to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities, which is incurred particularly through the production of Portland cement. One type of non-Portland cement that is attracting particular attention is based on alkali-aluminosilicate chemistry, including the class of binders that have become known as geopolymers. These materials offer technical properties comparable to those of Portland cement, but with a much lower CO2 footprint and with the potential for performance advantages over traditional cements in certain niche applications. This review discusses the synthesis of alkali-activated binders from blast furnace slag, calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash, including analysis of the chemical reaction mechanisms and binder phase assemblages that control the early-age and hardened properties of these materials, in particular initial setting and long-term durability. Perspectives for future research developments are also explored.

  20. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  1. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    One approach to space fission power system design is predicated on the use of alkali metal heat pipes, either as radiator elements, thermal management components, or as part of the core primary heat-transfer system. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where more detailed information can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstrational purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Project Prometheus point designs.

  2. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-07-01

    One approach to fission power system design uses alkali metal heat pipes for the core primary heat-transfer system. Heat pipes may also be used as radiator elements or auxiliary thermal control elements. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where information that is more detailed can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstration purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Nasa Project Prometheus point designs. (author)

  3. Evaporation of iodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOEpatents

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-07-14

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  4. Mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated fly ash geopolymers.

    PubMed

    Komljenović, M; Bascarević, Z; Bradić, V

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the properties of geopolymer obtained by alkali-activation of fly ash (FA), i.e. the influence of characteristics of the representative group of FA (class F) from Serbia, as well as that of the nature and concentration of various activators on mechanical and microstructural properties of geopolymers. Aqueous solutions of Ca(OH)(2), NaOH, NaOH+Na(2)CO(3), KOH and sodium silicate (water glass) of various concentrations were used as alkali activators. It was established that the nature and concentration of the activator was the most dominant parameter in the alkali-activation process. In respect of physical characteristics of FA, the key parameter was fineness. The geopolymer based on FA with the highest content of fine particles (<43 microm), showed the highest compressive strength in all cases. Regardless of FA characteristics, nature and concentration of the activator, the alkali-activation products were mainly amorphous. The formation of crystalline phases (zeolites) occurred in some cases, depending on the reaction conditions. The highest compressive strength was obtained using sodium silicate. Together with the increase of sodium silicate SiO(2)/Na(2)O mass ratio, the atomic Si/Al ratio in the reaction products was also increased. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, high strength was directly related to the high Si/Al ratio.

  5. Mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated fly ash geopolymers.

    PubMed

    Komljenović, M; Bascarević, Z; Bradić, V

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the properties of geopolymer obtained by alkali-activation of fly ash (FA), i.e. the influence of characteristics of the representative group of FA (class F) from Serbia, as well as that of the nature and concentration of various activators on mechanical and microstructural properties of geopolymers. Aqueous solutions of Ca(OH)(2), NaOH, NaOH+Na(2)CO(3), KOH and sodium silicate (water glass) of various concentrations were used as alkali activators. It was established that the nature and concentration of the activator was the most dominant parameter in the alkali-activation process. In respect of physical characteristics of FA, the key parameter was fineness. The geopolymer based on FA with the highest content of fine particles (<43 microm), showed the highest compressive strength in all cases. Regardless of FA characteristics, nature and concentration of the activator, the alkali-activation products were mainly amorphous. The formation of crystalline phases (zeolites) occurred in some cases, depending on the reaction conditions. The highest compressive strength was obtained using sodium silicate. Together with the increase of sodium silicate SiO(2)/Na(2)O mass ratio, the atomic Si/Al ratio in the reaction products was also increased. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, high strength was directly related to the high Si/Al ratio. PMID:20554110

  6. Low temperature dry scrubbing reaction kinetics and mechanisms, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Prudich, M.E.; Sampson, K.J.; Reddy, S.N.; Maldei, M.; Ben-Said, L. )

    1992-10-01

    A novel wet/dry desulfurization post-Furnace process (ETS' Limestone Emission control (LEC) process) for SO[sub 2] removal has been described by Prudich et al.(1988). In this process hot flue gases are contacted with a bed of quarry-sized (1/4in. to 1/32in.) wet limestone granules. This thesis represents the development of a second generation model of ETS' LEC process. The first generation model developed by Prudich et al.(1988) the use of a fixed limestone bed. The work done on this has been well documented by Appell (1989) and Visneski (1991) process under consideration for this thesis involves a continuously moving limestone bed. The moving bed simplifies the process flowsheet and facilitates limestone reactivation. The moving-bed LEC process involves the use of a cross-flow pattern with the flue gas flowing horizontally across the limestone bed at speeds of around 1 to 2 feet per second and the limestone moving vertically downward through the LEC reactor at speeds of around 1 to 15 feet per hour. The primary parameters considered in the mathematical modeling of the moving-bed LEC process are inlet sulfur dioxide concentration, inlet gas-phase water concentration, inlet flue gas and limestone temperatures and water spray addition rate over the bed. For solution of the process, mass and energy balance equations derived as a function of the positions of the flue gas limestone are solved using a predictor-corrector method. The Adams-Bashforth (modified Euler's) method is used with a second order corrector.

  7. Transport properties of alkali metal doped fullerides

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Daluram Yadav, Nishchhal

    2015-07-31

    We have studied the intercage interactions between the adjacent C{sub 60} cages and expansion of lattice due to the intercalation of alkali atoms based on the spring model to estimate phonon frequencies from the dynamical matrix for the intermolecular alkali-C{sub 60} phonons. We considered a two-peak model for the phonon density of states to investigate the nature of electron pairing mechanism for superconducting state in fullerides. Coulomb repulsive parameter and the electron phonon coupling strength are obtained within the random phase approximation. Transition temperature, T{sub c}, is obtained in a situation when the free electrons in lowest molecular orbital are coupled with alkali-C{sub 60} phonons as 5 K, which is much lower as compared to reported T{sub c} (20 K). The superconducting pairing is mainly driven by the high frequency intramolecular phonons and their effects enhance it to 22 K. The importance of the present study, the pressure effect and normal state transport properties are calculated within the same model leading superconductivity.

  8. Increased Nucleosomes and Neutrophil Activation Link to Disease Progression in Patients with Scrub Typhus but Not Murine Typhus in Laos.

    PubMed

    Paris, Daniel H; Stephan, Femke; Bulder, Ingrid; Wouters, Diana; van der Poll, Tom; Newton, Paul N; Day, Nicholas P J; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is essential in protection against rickettsial illnesses, but the role of neutrophils in these intracellular vasculotropic infections remains unclear. This study analyzed the plasma levels of nucleosomes, FSAP-activation (nucleosome-releasing factor), and neutrophil activation, as evidenced by neutrophil-elastase (ELA) complexes, in sympatric Lao patients with scrub typhus and murine typhus. In acute scrub typhus elevated nucleosome levels correlated with lower GCS scores, raised respiratory rate, jaundice and impaired liver function, whereas neutrophil activation correlated with fibrinolysis and high IL-8 plasma levels, a recently identified predictor of severe disease and mortality. Nucleosome and ELA complex levels were associated with a 4.8-fold and 4-fold increased risk of developing severe scrub typhus, beyond cut off values of 1,040 U/ml for nucleosomes and 275 U/ml for ELA complexes respectively. In murine typhus, nucleosome levels associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and the duration of illness, while ELA complexes correlated strongly with inflammation markers, jaundice and increased respiratory rates. This study found strong correlations between circulating nucleosomes and neutrophil activation in patients with scrub typhus, but not murine typhus, providing indirect evidence that nucleosomes could originate from neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) degradation. High circulating plasma nucleosomes and ELA complexes represent independent risk factors for developing severe complications in scrub typhus. As nucleosomes and histones exposed on NETs are highly cytotoxic to endothelial cells and are strongly pro-coagulant, neutrophil-derived nucleosomes could contribute to vascular damage, the pro-coagulant state and exacerbation of disease in scrub typhus, thus indicating a detrimental role of neutrophil activation. The data suggest that increased neutrophil activation relates to disease progression and severe complications, and

  9. Increased Nucleosomes and Neutrophil Activation Link to Disease Progression in Patients with Scrub Typhus but Not Murine Typhus in Laos

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Daniel H.; Stephan, Femke; Bulder, Ingrid; Wouters, Diana; van der Poll, Tom; Newton, Paul N.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is essential in protection against rickettsial illnesses, but the role of neutrophils in these intracellular vasculotropic infections remains unclear. This study analyzed the plasma levels of nucleosomes, FSAP-activation (nucleosome-releasing factor), and neutrophil activation, as evidenced by neutrophil-elastase (ELA) complexes, in sympatric Lao patients with scrub typhus and murine typhus. In acute scrub typhus elevated nucleosome levels correlated with lower GCS scores, raised respiratory rate, jaundice and impaired liver function, whereas neutrophil activation correlated with fibrinolysis and high IL-8 plasma levels, a recently identified predictor of severe disease and mortality. Nucleosome and ELA complex levels were associated with a 4.8-fold and 4-fold increased risk of developing severe scrub typhus, beyond cut off values of 1,040 U/ml for nucleosomes and 275 U/ml for ELA complexes respectively. In murine typhus, nucleosome levels associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and the duration of illness, while ELA complexes correlated strongly with inflammation markers, jaundice and increased respiratory rates. This study found strong correlations between circulating nucleosomes and neutrophil activation in patients with scrub typhus, but not murine typhus, providing indirect evidence that nucleosomes could originate from neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) degradation. High circulating plasma nucleosomes and ELA complexes represent independent risk factors for developing severe complications in scrub typhus. As nucleosomes and histones exposed on NETs are highly cytotoxic to endothelial cells and are strongly pro-coagulant, neutrophil-derived nucleosomes could contribute to vascular damage, the pro-coagulant state and exacerbation of disease in scrub typhus, thus indicating a detrimental role of neutrophil activation. The data suggest that increased neutrophil activation relates to disease progression and severe complications, and

  10. Performance of a biogas upgrading process based on alkali absorption with regeneration using air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Baciocchi, Renato; Carnevale, Ennio; Costa, Giulia; Gavasci, Renato; Lombardi, Lidia; Olivieri, Tommaso; Zanchi, Laura; Zingaretti, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    This work analyzes the performance of an innovative biogas upgrading method, Alkali absorption with Regeneration (AwR) that employs industrial residues and allows to permanently store the separated CO2. This process consists in a first stage in which CO2 is removed from the biogas by means of chemical absorption with KOH or NaOH solutions followed by a second stage in which the spent absorption solution is contacted with waste incineration Air Pollution Control (APC) residues. The latter reaction leads to the regeneration of the alkali reagent in the solution and to the precipitation of calcium carbonate and hence allows to reuse the regenerated solution in the absorption process and to permanently store the separated CO2 in solid form. In addition, the final solid product is characterized by an improved environmental behavior compared to the untreated residues. In this paper the results obtained by AwR tests carried out in purposely designed demonstrative units installed in a landfill site are presented and discussed with the aim of verifying the feasibility of this process at pilot-scale and of identifying the conditions that allow to achieve all of the goals targeted by the proposed treatment. Specifically, the CO2 removal efficiency achieved in the absorption stage, the yield of alkali regeneration and CO2 uptake resulting for the regeneration stage, as well as the leaching behavior of the solid product are analyzed as a function of the type and concentration of the alkali reagent employed for the absorption reaction.

  11. Diode-pumped alkali laser-bleached wave dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perram, Glen P.; Miller, Wooddy; Hurd, Ed

    2012-11-01

    A three level analytic model for optically pumped alkali metal vapor lasers is developed by considering the steady state rate equations for the longitudinally averaged number densities of the ground 2S 1/2 and first excited 2P3/2, and 2P1/2 states. The threshold pump intensity includes both the requirements to fully bleach the pump transition and exceed optical losses, typically about 200 Watts/cm2. Slope efficiency depends critically on the fraction of incident photons absorbed. For efficient operation, the collisional relaxation between the two upper levels should be fast to prevent bottle-necking. By assuming a statistical distribution between the upper two levels, the limiting analytic solution for the quasi-two level system is achieved. The highly saturated pump limit of the recently developed three-level model for Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPAL) is also developed. The model is anchored to several recent laser demonstrations. A rubidium laser pumped on the 5 2S1/2 - 5 2P3/2 D2 transition by a pulsed dye laser at pump intensities exceeding 3.5 MW/cm2 (< 1000 times threshold) has been demonstrated. Output energies as high as 12 μJ/pulse are limited by the rate for collision relaxation of the pumped 2P3/2 state to the upper laser 2P1/2 state. More than 250 photons are available for every rubidium atom in the pumped volume during each pulse. For modest alkali atom and ethane spin-orbit relaxer concentrations, the gain medium can only process about 50 photons/atom during the 2 - 8 ns pump pulse. At 110° C and 550 Torr of ethane, the system is bottlenecked. The system efficiency based on absorbed photons approaches 36% even for these extreme pump conditions. Furthermore, at 320°C with 2500 torr of helium, a pulsed potassium laser with 1.15 MW/cm2 peak intensity and 9.3% slope efficiency has been demonstrated.

  12. Method for the safe disposal of alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry R.

    1977-01-01

    Alkali metals such as those employed in liquid metal coolant systems can be safely reacted to form hydroxides by first dissolving the alkali metal in relatively inert metals such as lead or bismuth. The alloy thus formed is contacted with a molten salt including the alkali metal hydroxide and possibly the alkali metal carbonate in the presence of oxygen. This oxidizes the alkali metal to an oxide which is soluble within the molten salt. The salt is separated and contacted with steam or steam-CO.sub.2 mixture to convert the alkali metal oxide to the hydroxide. These reactions can be conducted with minimal hydrogen evolution and with the heat of reaction distributed between the several reaction steps.

  13. Self-assembly of Alkali-uranyl-peroxide Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, May; Rodriquez, Mark A.; Campana, Charles F.

    2010-08-11

    The hexavalent uranium specie, uranyl triperoxide, UO2(O2)34-, has been shown recently to behave like high oxidation-state d0 transition-metals, self-assembling into polyoxometalate-like clusters that contain up to 60 uranyl cations bridged by peroxide ligands. There has been much less focus on synthesis and structural characterization of salts of the monomeric UO2(O2)34- building block of these clusters. However, these could serve as water-soluble uranyl precursors for both clusters and materials, and also be used as simple models to study aqueous behavior by experiment and modeling. The countercation is of utmost importance to the assembly of these clusters, and Li+ has proven useful for the crystallization of many of the known cluster geometries to date. We present in this paper synthesis and structural characterization of two monomeric lithium uranyl-peroxide salts, Li4[UO2(O2)3]·10H2O (1) and [UO2(O2)3]12[(UO2(OH)4)Li16(H2O)28]3·Li6[H2O]26 (2). They were obtained from aqueous-alcohol solutions rather than the analogous aqueous solutions from which lithium uranyl-peroxide clusters are crystallized. Rapid introduction of the alcohol gives the structure of (1) whereas slow diffusion of alcohol results in crystallization of (2). (2) is an unusual structure featuring uranyl-centered alkali clusters that are linked into ring and spherical arrangements via [UO2(O2)3] anions. Furthermore, partial substitution of Rb or Cs into the synthesis results in formation of (2) with substitution of these larger alkalis into the uranyl-centered clusters. We surmise that the slow crystallization allows for direct bonding of alkali metals to the

  14. Effects of fire on composition, biomass, and nutrients in oak scrub vegetation on John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Four stands of oak scrub two, four, eight, and 25 years since fire were sampled with permanent 15 m line transects. Percent cover by species was determined. Plant samples were analyzed for a variety of substances. Transects were resurveyed in 1985 for vegetation parameters. Nutrient pools in biomass were calculated from biomass data and tissue nutrient concentrations. Soil nutrient pools were calculated from nutrient concentrations and bulk density. Species distribution and soil chemical properties were found to be closely related to water table depth. The following fire-related conclusions are reached: (1) major structural changes occur in scrub after fire in that shrub height is reduced and requires four to six years to exceed 1 m; (2) reduction in shrub height affects the suitability of scrub for the Florida scrub jay (3) live biomass increases with time since fire; (4) nutrient concentrations in live biomass do not change with time since fire; (5) species composition and richness are little changed after fire; and (6) imposition of a continued regime of burning on a three-year cycle may have adverse impacts not indicated by the recovery of scrub from a single fire.

  15. The Correlation of Endoscopic Findings and Clinical Features in Korean Patients with Scrub Typhus: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi-induced systemic vasculitis, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract and the endoscopic findings associated with scrub typhus are not well understood. We performed a prospective study and recommend performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for all possible scrub typhus patients, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms, endoscopic findings and clinical severity based on organ involvement and ICU admission were analyzed. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in up to 76.4% of scrub typhus patients. The major endoscopic findings were ulcers (43/127, 33.9%). Interestingly, 7.1% (9/127) of the patients presented with esophageal candidiasis. There was no correlation between the presence or absence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the endoscopic grade (P = 0.995). However, there was a positive correlation between the clinical severity and the endoscopic findings (P = 0.001). Sixty-three percent of the patients presented with erosion or ulcers on prospectively performed endoscopic evaluations, irrespective of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms did not reflect the need for endoscopy. Scrub typhus patients could have significant endoscopic abnormalities even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:27195943

  16. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus among Hospitalized Patients with Acute Undifferentiated Fever in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Sugihiro; Cuong, Ngo Chi; Tra, Doan Thu; Doan, Yen Hai; Shimizu, Kenta; Tuan, Nguyen Quang; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Mai, Le Quynh; Duc-Anh, Dang; Ando, Shuji; Arikawa, Jiro; Parry, Christopher M; Ariyoshi, Koya; Thuy, Pham Thanh

    2015-05-01

    A descriptive study on rickettsiosis was conducted at the largest referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of specific rickettsiosis. Between March 2001 and February 2003, we enrolled 579 patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF), excluding patients with malaria, dengue fever, and typhoid fever, and serologically tested for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi. Of the patients, 237 (40.9%) and 193 (33.3%) had scrub and murine typhus, respectively, and 149 (25.7%) had neither of them (non-scrub and murine typhus [non-ST/MT]). The proportion of murine typhus was highest among patients living in Hanoi whereas that of scrub typhus was highest in national or regional border areas. The presence of an eschar, dyspnea, hypotension, and lymphadenopathy was significantly associated with a diagnosis of scrub typhus (OR = 46.56, 10.90, 9.01, and 7.92, respectively). Patients with murine typhus were less likely to have these findings but more likely to have myalgia, rash, and relative bradycardia (OR = 1.60, 1.56, and 1.45, respectively). Scrub typhus and murine typhus were shown to be common causes of AUF in northern Vietnam although the occurrence of spotted fever group rickettsiae was not determined. Clinical and epidemiological information may help local clinicians make clinical diagnosis of specific rickettsioses in a resource-limited setting.

  17. An outbreak investigation of scrub typhus in Western Province, Solomon Islands, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Joshua, Cynthia; Longbottom, Jenny; Longbottom, Katherine; Sio, Alison; Puiahi, Elliot; Jilini, Greg; Stenos, John; Dalipanda, Tenneth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the etiology and risk factors of undifferentiated fever in a cluster of patients in Western Province, Solomon Islands, May 2014. Methods An outbreak investigation with a case control study was conducted. A case was defined as an inpatient in one hospital in Western Province, Solomon Islands with high fever (> 38.5 °C) and a negative malaria microscopy test admitted between 1 and 31 May 2014. Asymptomatic controls matched with the cases residentially were recruited in a ratio of 1:2. Serum samples from the subjects were tested for rickettsial infections using indirect micro-immunofluorescence assay. Results Nine cases met the outbreak case definition. All cases were male. An eschar was noted in five cases (55%), and one developed pneumonitis. We did not identify any environmental factors associated with illness. Serum samples of all five follow-up cases (100%) had strong-positive IgG responses to scrub typhus. All but one control (10%) had a moderate response against scrub typhus. Four controls had low levels of antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsia, and only one had a low-level response to typhus group rickettsia. Discussion This outbreak represents the first laboratory-confirmed outbreak of scrub typhus in the Western Province of Solomon Islands. The results suggest that rickettsial infections are more common than currently recognized as a cause of an acute febrile illness. A revised clinical case definition for rickettsial infections and treatment guidelines were developed and shared with provincial health staff for better surveillance and response to future outbreaks of a similar kind.

  18. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  19. A new surgical handwashing and hand antisepsis from scrubbing to rubbing.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kiyonori; Ogawa, Rho; Norose, Yoshihiro; Tajiri, Takashi

    2004-06-01

    In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines for surgical handwashing and hand antisepsis on the Internet. According to these guidelines, we revised our surgical handwashing method from scrubbing with brushes to rubbing with antiseptic. The new method consists of scrubbing around the nails with brushes and rubbing the hands and arms with antiseptic from the elbow to the antebrachium. A total of 182 surgeons and operating-room nurses participated in the current study. Bacterial contamination was investigated using the glove-juice method. The new surgical handwashing method is simple, and requires only a short time to perform (2 minutes 50 seconds). The bacterial examination confirmed that rubbing the hands with antiseptic was significantly more effective than scrubbing with brushes. In terms of sterilization or prolonged effects, 4% chlor-hexidine gluconate (CHG) was superior to 7.5% povidone-iodine (PVI) throughout a 3-hour period after hand antisepsis. Although bacterial counts were increased 3 hours after the beginning of surgery, additional hand rubbing with 0.2% chlorhexidine-83% ethanol (Hibisoft(TM)) was effective in suppressing the number of bacteria. Hibisoft(TM) successfully prolonged sterilization for more than 3 hours. For long surgical procedures, CHG should be used as an antiseptic and gloves should be changed every 3 hours, alcohol-based hand rubbing should also be performed 3 hours after the initial handwashing. This new technique will be included in the OSCE curriculum to ensure its standardization. Moreover, in-depth education regarding central operating-room practices is desired.

  20. Nutrient enrichment intensifies hurricane impact in scrub mangrove ecosystems in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Feller, Ilka C; Dangremond, Emily M; Devlin, Donna J; Lovelock, Catherine E; Proffitt, C Edward; Rodriguez, Wilfrid

    2015-11-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate coasts. Despite repeated demonstrations of their ecologic and economic value, multiple stressors including nutrient over-enrichment threaten these and other coastal wetlands globally. These ecosystems will be further stressed if tropical storm intensity and frequency increase in response to global climate changes. These stressors will likely interact, but the outcome of that interaction is uncertain. Here, we examined potential interaction between nutrient over-enrichment and the September 2004 hurricanes. Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne made landfall along Florida's Indian River Lagoon and caused extensive damage to a long-term fertilization experiment in a mangrove forest, which previously revealed that productivity was nitrogen (N) limited across the forest and, in particular, that N enrichment dramatically increased growth rates and aboveground biomass of stunted Avicennia germinans trees in the interior scrub zone. During the hurricanes, these trees experienced significant defoliation with three to four times greater reduction in leaf area index (LAI) than control trees. Over the long-term, the +N scrub trees took four years to recover compared to two years for controls. In the adjacent fringe and transition zones, LAI was reduced by > 70%, but with no differences based on zone or fertilization treatment. Despite continued delayed mortality for at least five years after the storms, LAI in the fringe and transition returned to pre-hurricane conditions in two years. Thus, nutrient over-enrichment of the coastal zone will increase the productivity of scrub mangroves, which dominate much of the mangrove landscape in Florida and the Caribbean; however, that benefit is offset by a decrease in their resistance and resilience to hurricane damage that has the potential to destabilize the system. PMID:27070015

  1. Scrub typhus associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A report of six pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yingkang; Huang, Li; Fan, Huifeng; Lu, Gen; Xu, Yi; Wu, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening immune disorder that may be inherited or secondary to infection, malignancy or rheumatological disease. The aim of the present study was to highlight the clinical features of scrub typhus-associated HLH in children. A retrospective study was performed on 6 pediatric patients with scrub typhus-associated HLH. For each patient, medical records were reviewed and analyzed, and demographic, clinical and laboratory data and outcomes were collected. The duration of fever prior to admission ranged between 4 and 12 days. All patients exhibited persistent or intermittent fever, eschar, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy at the time of diagnosis. Five patients experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) during hospitalization. Thrombocytopenia was detected in all patients with cytopenia involving two or three cell types, simultaneously. Coagulopathy with prolonged prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were noted in all patients. Markedly elevated serum ferritin levels (>1,500 µg/ml) were identified in all patients. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (>1,000 U/l) was detected in 4 (66.7%) patients and elevated alanine aminotransferase was exhibited by 5 (83/3%) patients. Lung infiltrates and consolidation were the most common imaging findings. Only 1 patient succumbed, with DIC and multi-organ failure. Of the survivors, 1 patient was lost to follow-up, and the remaining patients are in remission with excellent general health, to date. In conclusion, HLH should be considered in severe pediatric cases of scrub typhus. Upon the early recognition of this syndrome, prompt and supportive treatment in the pediatric intensive care unit are vital.

  2. Ocular surface discomfort and Demodex: effect of tea tree oil eyelid scrub in Demodex blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Wee, Sung Wook; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between ocular discomfort and ocular Demodex infestation, and therapeutic effects of tea tree oil (TTO) in Demodex blepharitis patients. Three hundred and thirty-five patients with ocular discomfort were evaluated for ocular Demodex infestation and subjective symptoms with ocular surface discomfort index (OSDI) score. Among them, Demodex-infested patients were randomized to receive either eyelid scrubbing with TTO (TTO group,106 patients) or without TTO (Control group, 54 patients) for 1 month. Demodex were found in 84% of patients with ocular discomfort. The number of Demodex was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.04) and OSDI score (P = 0.024). After eyelid scrub treatment, Demodex count was reduced from 4.0 ± 2.5 to 3.2 ± 2.3 in the TTO group (P = 0.004) and from 4.3 ± 2.7 to 4.2 ± 2.5 in the control group (P = 0.27). Also, OSDI score was reduced from 34.5 ± 10.7 to 24.1 ± 11.9 in the TTO group (P = 0.001) and from 35.3 ± 11.6 to 27.5 ± 12.8 in the control group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, Demodex number showed a significant positive correlation with age and subjective ocular discomfort. The tea tree oil eyelid scrub treatment is effective for eliminating ocular Demodex and improving subjective ocular symptoms.

  3. Scrub typhus associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A report of six pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yingkang; Huang, Li; Fan, Huifeng; Lu, Gen; Xu, Yi; Wu, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening immune disorder that may be inherited or secondary to infection, malignancy or rheumatological disease. The aim of the present study was to highlight the clinical features of scrub typhus-associated HLH in children. A retrospective study was performed on 6 pediatric patients with scrub typhus-associated HLH. For each patient, medical records were reviewed and analyzed, and demographic, clinical and laboratory data and outcomes were collected. The duration of fever prior to admission ranged between 4 and 12 days. All patients exhibited persistent or intermittent fever, eschar, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy at the time of diagnosis. Five patients experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) during hospitalization. Thrombocytopenia was detected in all patients with cytopenia involving two or three cell types, simultaneously. Coagulopathy with prolonged prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were noted in all patients. Markedly elevated serum ferritin levels (>1,500 µg/ml) were identified in all patients. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (>1,000 U/l) was detected in 4 (66.7%) patients and elevated alanine aminotransferase was exhibited by 5 (83/3%) patients. Lung infiltrates and consolidation were the most common imaging findings. Only 1 patient succumbed, with DIC and multi-organ failure. Of the survivors, 1 patient was lost to follow-up, and the remaining patients are in remission with excellent general health, to date. In conclusion, HLH should be considered in severe pediatric cases of scrub typhus. Upon the early recognition of this syndrome, prompt and supportive treatment in the pediatric intensive care unit are vital. PMID:27698778

  4. Nutrient enrichment intensifies hurricane impact in scrub mangrove ecosystems in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Feller, Ilka C; Dangremond, Emily M; Devlin, Donna J; Lovelock, Catherine E; Proffitt, C Edward; Rodriguez, Wilfrid

    2015-11-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate coasts. Despite repeated demonstrations of their ecologic and economic value, multiple stressors including nutrient over-enrichment threaten these and other coastal wetlands globally. These ecosystems will be further stressed if tropical storm intensity and frequency increase in response to global climate changes. These stressors will likely interact, but the outcome of that interaction is uncertain. Here, we examined potential interaction between nutrient over-enrichment and the September 2004 hurricanes. Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne made landfall along Florida's Indian River Lagoon and caused extensive damage to a long-term fertilization experiment in a mangrove forest, which previously revealed that productivity was nitrogen (N) limited across the forest and, in particular, that N enrichment dramatically increased growth rates and aboveground biomass of stunted Avicennia germinans trees in the interior scrub zone. During the hurricanes, these trees experienced significant defoliation with three to four times greater reduction in leaf area index (LAI) than control trees. Over the long-term, the +N scrub trees took four years to recover compared to two years for controls. In the adjacent fringe and transition zones, LAI was reduced by > 70%, but with no differences based on zone or fertilization treatment. Despite continued delayed mortality for at least five years after the storms, LAI in the fringe and transition returned to pre-hurricane conditions in two years. Thus, nutrient over-enrichment of the coastal zone will increase the productivity of scrub mangroves, which dominate much of the mangrove landscape in Florida and the Caribbean; however, that benefit is offset by a decrease in their resistance and resilience to hurricane damage that has the potential to destabilize the system.

  5. Determination of the common and rare alkalies in mineral analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.; Stevens, R.E.

    1934-01-01

    Methods are described which afford a determination of each member of the alkali group and are successful in dealing with the quantities of the rare alkalies found in rocks and minerals. The procedures are relatively rapid and based chiefly on the use of chloroplatinic acid, absolute alcohol and ether, and ammonium sulfate. The percentages of all the alkalies found in a number of minerals are given.

  6. Environmental mercury contamination around a chlor-alkali plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lodenius, M.; Tulisalo, E.

    1984-04-01

    The chlor-alkali industry is one of the most important emitters of mercury. This metal is effectively spread from chlor-alkali plants into the atmosphere and it has been reported that only a few percent of the mercury emissions are deposited locally the major part spreading over very large areas. The purpose of this investigation was to study the spreading of mercury up to 100 km from a chlor-alkali plant using three different biological indicators.

  7. Improvement in mechanical properties of jute fibres through mild alkali treatment as demonstrated by utilisation of the Weibull distribution model.

    PubMed

    Roy, Aparna; Chakraborty, Sumit; Kundu, Sarada Prasad; Basak, Ratan Kumar; Majumder, Subhasish Basu; Adhikari, Basudam

    2012-03-01

    Chemically modified jute fibres are potentially useful as natural reinforcement in composite materials. Jute fibres were treated with 0.25%-1.0% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 0.5-48 h. The hydrophilicity, surface morphology, crystallinity index, thermal and mechanical characteristics of untreated and alkali treated fibres were studied.The two-parameter Weibull distribution model was applied to deal with the variation in mechanical properties of the natural fibres. Alkali treatment enhanced the tensile strength and elongation at break by 82% and 45%, respectively but decreased the hydrophilicity by 50.5% and the diameter of the fibres by 37%.

  8. Improvement in mechanical properties of jute fibres through mild alkali treatment as demonstrated by utilisation of the Weibull distribution model.

    PubMed

    Roy, Aparna; Chakraborty, Sumit; Kundu, Sarada Prasad; Basak, Ratan Kumar; Majumder, Subhasish Basu; Adhikari, Basudam

    2012-03-01

    Chemically modified jute fibres are potentially useful as natural reinforcement in composite materials. Jute fibres were treated with 0.25%-1.0% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 0.5-48 h. The hydrophilicity, surface morphology, crystallinity index, thermal and mechanical characteristics of untreated and alkali treated fibres were studied.The two-parameter Weibull distribution model was applied to deal with the variation in mechanical properties of the natural fibres. Alkali treatment enhanced the tensile strength and elongation at break by 82% and 45%, respectively but decreased the hydrophilicity by 50.5% and the diameter of the fibres by 37%. PMID:22209134

  9. Evaluation of the adsorption capacity of alkali-treated waste materials for the adsorption of sulphamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Lisha

    2012-01-01

    The present work is to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of a hazardous antibacterial, sulphamethoxazole, from the wastewater by the Adsorption technique. The Adsorption technique was used to impound the dangerous antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya (DOS), an agricultural waste, and Water Hyacinth (WH), a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10 to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents, i.e. DOS, Alkali-treated DOS, WH and Alkali-treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. DOS showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali-treated Deoiled Soya exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity, which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali-treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 and 12 kJ mol, which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Kinetic study reveals that the reaction follows pseudo-second-order rate equation. Moreover, mass transfer studies performed for the ongoing processes show that the mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali-treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90-98%. About 87-97% of sulphamethoxazole was recovered from column by desorption. PMID:22508113

  10. Synthesis of Scrub-Oak Ecosystem Responses to Elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Hungate, Bruce

    2014-11-07

    This report summarizes a synthesis project of a long-term global change experiment conducted at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, investigating how increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influences the functioning of a fire-dominated scrub-oak ecosystem. The experiment began in 1996 and ended in 2007. Results presented here summarize the effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth, soil processes, carbon and nutrient cycling, and other responses. Products include archived data from the experiment, as well as six publications in the peer-reviewed literature.

  11. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1992-05-27

    High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time.

  12. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1991-11-30

    High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this program is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time.

  13. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1992-08-29

    High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time.

  14. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, D.C.; Mailhe, C.C.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1985-07-10

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  15. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, David C.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  16. Anaylsis of birefringence during wound healing and remodeling following alkali burns in rabbit cornea.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Meek, K M; Ho, M W; Paterson, C A

    2001-10-01

    The use of synthetic inhibitors of metalloproteinases (SIMP) or medroxyprogesterone (MP) can prevent or significantly delay the ulceration of alkali-injured corneas by influencing collagen degradation. We have examined the remodeling of rabbit corneal stroma following alkali injury and have assessed the effect of SIMP and MP treatment. Following a defined alkali injury to the rabbit cornea, animals were divided into three subgroups, one group treated with topical beta-mercaptomethyl tripeptide (SIMP), one treated by subconjunctival injection of MP and one treated with a control solution. The corneal tissue was taken at 3 days, 1, 2, 3, 4, 9 and 26 weeks after alkali injury and prepared for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A quantitative measurement of birefringence, in terms of the optical path difference (OPD), was made using a modified polarized microscopy technique based on the analysis of interference colours. The results showed that SIMP effectively prevented deep corneal ulceration. MP could delay the ulceration and the corneas treated with MP appeared to have better transparency than the other groups. There was a significant difference of the OPD between the anterior (5.8 +/-0.3 nm) and posterior (7.8 +/-0.4 nm) stroma of the normal cornea (P<0.001). The OPD values from the central corneas from alkali-injured eyes were generally lower than normal during the first 4 weeks and then gradually recovered to the normal level or above, except for the posterior stroma of the MP-treated eyes. We found that the OPD changes were very dependent on the presence of corneal lesions. The stroma near corneal ulceration, scar tissue, calcified stroma and the retro-corneal collagen layer showed a significant reduction of birefringence (lower OPD values). These OPD values remained much lower than normal up to the end of the experiment. TEM showed disrupted corneal stroma in all three groups, with thinner scar tissue in the MP group. The fibril

  17. Improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from corn stalk by alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ling-Yan; Ma, Yu-Long; Ma, Xiao-Xia; Lv, Jun-Min

    2016-07-01

    A combinative technology of alkali and N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was used to pretreat corn stalk (CS) for improving the efficiencies of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. The results showed that this strategy could not only remove hemicellulose and lignin but also decrease the crystallinity of cellulose. About 98.0% of enzymatic hydrolysis yield was obtained from the pretreated CS as compared with 46.9% from the untreated sample. The yield for corresponding ethanol yield was 64.6% while untreated CS was only 18.8%. Besides, xylose yield obtained from the untreated CS was only 11.1%, while this value was 93.8% for alkali with NMMO pretreated sample. These results suggest that a combination of alkali with 50% (wt/wt) NMMO solution may be a promising alternative for pretreatment of lignocellulose, which can increase the productions of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation. PMID:27078206

  18. The Construction of Scrub in California and the Mediterranean Borderlands: Climatic and Edaphic Climax Mosaic or Anthropogenic Artifact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigue, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    There is a marked difference in the representation of Mediterranean scrub vegetation (e.g., chaparral, maquis) in North American and European literature in biogeography and ecology. Authors discussing this vegetation in the California context accept that it is a natural response to the Mediterranean climates, with their late summer and fall fires, and steep terrain. Debate here focusses on the extent to which humans have modified or, indeed, can modify "natural" fire regimes. European authors frame this vegetation instead as a secondary successional formation in a landscape that "should" be dominated by oak woodland and forest. The widespread presence of Mediterranean scrub is cast as an artifact of human disturbance over thousands of years, mediated through overgrazing, deforestation, accelerated erosion, and anthropogenic fire. This poster will present a content analysis of the Mediterranean scrub literature, in order to engage both traditions in the construction of a unified framework for these pyrogenic formations.

  19. Western scrub-jays do not appear to attend to functionality in Aesop’s Fable experiments

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Brigit D.; Schlinger, Barney A.; Rensel, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Western scrub-jays are known for their highly discriminatory and flexible behaviors in a caching (food storing) context. However, it is unknown whether their cognitive abilities are restricted to a caching context. To explore this question, we tested scrub-jays in a non-caching context using the Aesop’s Fable paradigm, where a partially filled tube of water contains a floating food reward and objects must be inserted to displace the water and bring the food within reach. We tested four birds, but only two learned to drop stones proficiently. Of these, one bird participated in 4/5 experiments and one in 2/5 experiments. Both birds passed one experiment, but without attending to the functional differences of the objects, and failed the other experiments. Scrub-jays were not motivated to participate in these experiments, suggesting that either this paradigm was ecologically irrelevant or perhaps their flexibility is restricted to a caching context. PMID:26925331

  20. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  1. Electrodes For Alkali-Metal Thermoelectric Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Wheeler, Bob L.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Lamb, James L.; Bankston, C. Perry; Cole, Terry

    1989-01-01

    Combination of thin, porous electrode and overlying collector grid reduces internal resistance of alkali-metal thermoelectric converter cell. Low resistance of new electrode and grid boosts power density nearly to 1 W/cm2 of electrode area at typical operating temperatures of 1,000 to 1,300 K. Conductive grid encircles electrode film on alumina tube. Bus wire runs along tube to collect electrical current from grid. Such converters used to transform solar, nuclear, and waste heat into electric power.

  2. High power diode pumped alkali vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Krupke, B.

    2008-05-01

    Diode pumped alkali lasers have developed rapidly since their first demonstration. These lasers offer a path to convert highly efficient, but relatively low brightness, laser diodes into a single high power, high brightness beam. General Atomics has been engaged in the development of DPALs with scalable architectures. We have examined different species and pump characteristics. We show that high absorption can be achieved even when the pump source bandwidth is several times the absorption bandwidth. In addition, we present experimental results for both potassium and rubidium systems pumped with a 0.2 nm bandwidth alexandrite laser. These data show slope efficiencies of 67% and 72% respectively.

  3. (abstract) Fundamental Mechanisms of Electrode Kinetics and Alkali Metal Atom Transport at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of electrode kinetics and mass transport of alkali metal oxidation and alkali metal cation reduction at the solid electrolyte/porous electrode boundary as well as alkali metal transport through porous metal electrodes has important applications in optimizing device performance in alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) cells which are high temperature, high current density electrochemical cells. Basic studies of these processes also affords the opportunity to investigate a very basic electrochemical reaction over a wide range of conditions; and a variety of mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. The temperature range of these investigations covers 700K to 1240K; the alkali metal vapor pressures range from about 10(sup -2) to 10(sup 2) Pa; and electrodes studied have included Mo, W, Mo/Na(sub 2)MoO(sub 4), W/Na(sub 2)WO(sub 4), WPt(sub x), and WRh(sub x) (1.0 < x < 6.0 ) with Na at Na-beta'-alumina, and Mo with K at K-beta'-alumina. Both liquid metal/solid electrolyte/alkali metal vapor and alkali metal vapor/solid electrolyte/vapor cells have been used to characterize the reaction and transport processes. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes.

  4. Reverse osmosis transport of alkali halides and nickel salts through cellulose triacetate membranes. Performance prediction from NaCl experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nirmal, J.D.; Pandya, V.P.; Desai, N.V.; Rangarajan, R. )

    1992-10-01

    The separation of alkali metal halides, nickel chloride, and nickel sulfate was determined for cellulose triacetate reverse osmosis (CTA RO) membranes. From transport analysis, the relative free energy parameters for transport of these salts through CTA membranes were determined. From these relative free energy parameters of salts, the solute separation by CTA membranes could be predicted from RO experiment with NaCl solution. The transport analysis and an illustration of how the concept is useful are presented in this paper.

  5. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  6. Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant community recovery in California coastal sage scrub lands?

    PubMed

    McCullough, Sarah A; Endress, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California coastal sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant community recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant community recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower (P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed (P < 0.01). We conclude that postfire mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to coastal sage scrub recovery on the study area.

  7. Septisol antiseptic foam: a sensible alternative to the conventional surgical scrub.

    PubMed

    Rubio, P A

    1987-01-01

    Over a recent 8-year period, Septisol Foam (0.23% hexachlorophene in a 46% ethyl alcohol base) alone was used to prepare the hands and forearms of the author's surgical team. In 3480 cases, only 11 postoperative infections were encountered, for an incidence of 0.3%. All 11 infections involved patients who underwent gastrointestinal surgery and/or who had high-risk factors such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, perforated appendix, emergency surgery, age over 65 years, and foreign bodies in the form of hemodialysis access shunts. Septisol Foam is an effective bacteriostatic agent that minimizes the risk of dermatitis and offers sufficient antibacterial protection without supplementary handwashing. When used according to the method described here, the foam eliminates the need for scrub brushes and reduces the total scrub time to approximately 2 minutes in each case. In addition to being safe, effective, and easy to use, this method results in a marked decrease in water consumption and considerable monetary savings.

  8. Hint-seeking behaviour of western scrub-jays in a metacognition task.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive processes during memory retrieval can be tested by examining whether or not animals can assess their knowledge state when they are faced with a memory test. In a typical foraging task, food is hidden in one of the multiple tubes and the subjects are given an opportunity to check the contents of the tubes before choosing the one that they thought contained food. Following the findings from our previous study that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) can make prospective metacognition judgements, this study tested the scrub-jays' concurrent metacognition judgements. In a series of experiments, uncertainty about the food location was induced in three ways: by making the baiting process visibly unavailable, by inserting a delay between the baiting and food retrieval, and by moving the location of the bait. The jays looked into the tubes more often during the conditions that were consistent with high uncertainty. In addition, their looking behaviour was associated not with the sight of food but with information about the location of the food. These findings suggest that the jays can differentiate the states of knowing and not knowing about certain information and take appropriate action to complement their missing knowledge.

  9. Differences in attentional strategies by novice and experienced operating theatre scrub nurses.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ranieri Y I; Park, Taezoon; Wickens, Christopher D; Ong, Lay Teng; Chia, Soon Noi

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of nursing experience on attention allocation and task performance during surgery. The prevention of cases of retained foreign bodies after surgery typically depends on scrub nurses, who are responsible for performing multiple tasks that impose heavy demands on the nurses' cognitive resources. However, the relationship between the level of experiences and attention allocation strategies has not been extensively studied. Eye movement data were collected from 10 novice and 10 experienced scrub nurses in the operating theater for caesarean section surgeries. Visual scanning data, analyzed by dividing the workstation into four main areas and the surgery into four stages, were compared to the optimum expected value estimated by SEEV (Salience, Effort, Expectancy, and Value) model. Both experienced and novice nurses showed significant correlations to the optimal percentage dwell time values, and significant differences were found in attention allocation optimality between experienced and novice nurses, with experienced nurses adhering significantly more to the optimal in the stages of high workload. Experienced nurses spent less time on the final count and encountered fewer interruptions during the count than novices indicating better performance in task management, whereas novice nurses switched attention between areas of interest more than experienced nurses. The results provide empirical evidence of a relationship between the application of optimal visual attention management strategies and performance, opening up possibilities to the development of visual attention and interruption training for better performance. PMID:21942313

  10. Determination of Scrub typhus Suggests a New Epidemic Focus in the Anhui Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Min; Che, Li; Zhang, Jinhai; Hu, Jianli; Srinivas, Swaminath; Xu, Ruiyao; Guo, Henbing; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Changjun; Feng, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, 19 cases of a scrub typhus epidemic occurred within a week at a sports school in Mingguang County, Anhui Province, where no previous incidence of this mite borne disease had been reported. Sero-surveillance in 2009 indicated that 10 of the 100 school students possessed anti-Orientia tsutsugamushi antibodies. From 2009 to 2013, 60 small animals and 2250 mites were collected in the vicinity of the school. 5 of the Apodemus agrarius samples and 1 group of Leptotrombidium linhuaikongense tested positive via PCR for O. tsutsugamushi. Two strains of O. tsutsugamushi were identified by injecting Kun Ming (KM) mice peritoneally with the organs of either Apodemus agrarius or Leptotrombidium linhuaikongense. Apart from sharing 98% homology with the O. tsutsugamushi Yongworl strain, genes encoding the membrane protein from the two O. tsutsugamushi isolates shared >99% sequence homology with each other, reflecting the consistency of the pathogen in both the vector and the host. In addition, we also characterized a chronic scrub typhus infection in a local patient. The membrane protein gene fragment from the patient’s blood shared 99% homology with O. tsutsugamushi Gilliam strain, suggesting that more than one O. tsutsugamushi strain is present at this location. PMID:26860982

  11. Parameterization of albedo, thermal inertia, and surface roughness of desert scrub/sandy soil surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Mccumber, M.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral albedo, A sub n, for the direct solar beam is defined as A sub n (r sub i,s, theta sub 0) = r sub i exp(-s tan theta sub 0)1-I(s) where I(s) is the integral over all reflection angles describing the interception by the absorbing plants of the flux reflected from the soil, r sub i soil reflectance, assumed Lambertian, S the projection on a vertical plane of plants per unit surface area, and theta sub 0 is the solar zenith angle. Hemispheric reflectance for the direct solar beam equals 1-I(s) times the reflectance to the zenith. The values of s of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 respectively quantify sparse, moderately dense, and very dense desert scrub. Thin plants are assumed to be of negligible thermal inertia, and thus directly yield the absorbed insolation to the atmosphere. Surface thermal inertia is therefore effectively reduced. The ratio of surface roughness height to plant height is parameterized for sparse, moderately dense, and very dense desert-scrub as a function of s based on data expressing the dependence of this ratio on plant silhouette.

  12. Optimizing the order of operations for movement scrubbing: Comment on Power et al.

    PubMed

    Carp, Joshua

    2013-08-01

    A recent study by Power and colleagues shows that BOLD artifacts induced by head movement can substantially alter patterns of resting-state functional connectivity and proposes a novel procedure for reducing these artifacts by deleting (or "scrubbing") movement-contaminated volumes. The authors acknowledge that this work is descriptive and not prescriptive, and note that future studies may refine the proposed scrubbing method. Nevertheless, it is worth pointing out that this method can be improved substantially by a single transposition in the order of operations. Temporal filtering is known to introduce ringing artifacts that emanate from sharp transitions in signal intensity. The method proposed in the target article applies temporal filtering before deleting contaminated volumes-in effect, spreading movement-related artifacts backwards and forwards in time, but deleting only the originally contaminated data. Using simulated data, we show that deleting and replacing contaminated volumes before temporal filtering removes a greater proportion of artifactual signal while retaining a greater proportion of the original data.

  13. Vegetation recovery following high-intensity wildfire and silvicultural treatments in sand pine scrub

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, C.H.; Neary, D.G.; Harris, L.D.; Linda, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    The authors hypothesized that clear-cutting mimics natural high-intensity disturbance by wildfire followed by salvage logging in sand pine scrub, and tested whether vegetation adapted to recovery from fire would respond similarly to another type of biomass removal. The authors measured plant community composition and structural characteristics in three replicated disturbance treatments and in mature sand pine forest (MF). Treatments were: (1) high-intensity burn, salvage logged and naturally regenerated (HIBS); (2) clear-cut, roller-chopped, and broadcast-seeded (RC); and (3) clear-cut and bracke-seeded (BK). All treatments were sampled 5-7 yr postdisturbance. Nonwoody plant species richness and diversity were significantly lower in MF than in disturbance treatments. Ruderal species were more abundant in HIBS and RC, but not to the exclusion of the characteristic suite of native scrub species. Shrub richness and diversity did not differ, but some species responded differently among treatments. Differences may be due to season of disturbance or rhizome depth.

  14. California Wildlife Habitat Relationships System: A test in coastal scrub and annual grassland habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, J.A.; Barrett, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    We tested predictions of the California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR) System in coastal scrub and annual grassland. We detected a total of 28 species of terrestrial vertebrates: 18 mammals, 9 reptiles, and 1 amphibian. The CWHR System prediction omitted 4 of these species: 3 domestic mammals and 1 reptile. For the 2 habitats combined, CWHR predicted a total of 38 species: 23 mammals, 13 reptiles, and 2 amphibians. We detected 64% of these predicted grassland species and 71% of predicted coastal scrub species. For the habitats combined, we detected 65% of the species predicted to be present by the CWHR System. We detected 68% of the mammals, 62% of the reptiles, and 50% of the amphibians predicted for these habitats. The CWHR System theoretically predicts absence rather than presence, since it is assumed that all 288 regularly occurring mammals, reptiles, and amphibians occur anywhere unless one can argue that a specific habitat, location, or habitat element is not available. By including predictions of species absence in the assessment of model performance, observed accuracy of the CWHR model predictions increased to 96% for both habitats.

  15. An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xia, Gordon; Kirby, Brent W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2015-11-13

    Aiming to explore low-cost redox flow battery systems, a novel iron-polysulfide (Fe/S) flow battery has been demonstrated in a laboratory cell. This system employs alkali metal ferri/ferrocyanide and alkali metal polysulfides as the redox electrolytes. When proper electrodes, such as pretreated graphite felts, are used, 78% energy efficiency and 99% columbic efficiency are achieved. The remarkable advantages of this system over current state-of-the-art redox flow batteries include: 1) less corrosive and relatively environmentally benign redox solutions used; 2) excellent energy and utilization efficiencies; 3) low cost for redox electrolytes and cell components. These attributes can lead to significantly reduced capital cost and make the Fe/S flow battery system a promising low-cost energy storage technology. The major drawbacks of the present cell design are relatively low power density and possible sulfur species crossover. Further work is underway to address these concerns.

  16. A Case of Scrub Typhus Complicated by Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Successful Management with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Seung Yun; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Im, Jae Hyoung; Durey, Areum; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Young Sam; Kang, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2016-09-01

    A 67-year-old woman was diagnosed as having scrub typhus with pneumonitis. On admission, she was started on a combination therapy with levofloxacin and doxycycline. However, the patient developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on the 2nd day, and as a result, she underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). She was weaned from ECMO on the 10th day, as her respiratory status gradually improved. She was discharged without sequelae on the 23rd day. The outcome suggests that the use of ECMO should be considered for patients with ARDS induced from scrub typhus. PMID:27458040

  17. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides.

    PubMed

    Krzton-Maziopa, A; Svitlyk, V; Pomjakushina, E; Puzniak, R; Conder, K

    2016-07-27

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2-y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations. PMID:27248118

  18. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides.

    PubMed

    Krzton-Maziopa, A; Svitlyk, V; Pomjakushina, E; Puzniak, R; Conder, K

    2016-07-27

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2-y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations.

  19. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Svitlyk, V.; Pomjakushina, E.; Puzniak, R.; Conder, K.

    2016-07-01

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2-y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations.

  20. Packing transition in alkali metallic clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, R.; Sung, Ming Wen; Weare, John H.

    1996-03-01

    Small metallic clusters form a local geometric configuration quite different from the bulk crystals. As the cluster size increases, several transitions in the local coordination take place before the bulk structure appears. These transitions involve change in the nature of chemical bonds. We have systematically investigated the structural transition of various alkali metal clusters including binary compounds using an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. Among them, Li clusters exhibit unusual transition in their packing pattern. Small lithium clusters (N <= 21) form open structures based on a ``solvation shell''.(M. Sung, R. Kawai, and J. Weare, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73) (1994) 3552., which is quite different from other alkali metal clusters. The bonding of these small clusters is partially ionic. Above N=25, a close-packed structure is established. However, the local configuration still differ from that of the bulk crystal. As the size further increases, the ionic nature decreases and the system reaches another close-packed structure based on the Mackay icosahedron, which is similar to the bulk crystal structure.

  1. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Svitlyk, V.; Pomjakushina, E.; Puzniak, R.; Conder, K.

    2016-07-01

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2‑y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations.

  2. Formation of lysinoalanine in egg white under alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the formation mechanism of lysinoalanine (LAL) in eggs during the alkali treatment process, NaOH was used for the direct alkali treatment of egg white, ovalbumin, and amino acids; in addition, the amount of LAL formed during the alkali treatment process was measured. The results showed that the alkali treatment resulted in the formation of LAL in the egg white. The LAL content increased with increasing pH and temperature, with the LAL content first increasing and then leveling off with increasing time. The amount of LAL formed in the ovalbumin under the alkali treatment condition accounted for approximately 50.51% to 58.68% of the amount of LAL formed in the egg white. Thus, the LAL formed in the ovalbumin was the main source for the LAL in the egg white during the alkali treatment process. Under the alkali treatment condition, free L-serine, L-cysteine, and L-cystine reacted with L-lysine to form LAL; therefore, they are the precursor amino acids of LAL formed in eggs during the alkali treatment process. PMID:26772660

  3. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  7. Self-discharge in bimetallic cells containing alkali metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, M. S.; Hesson, J. C.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of thermally regenerative bimetallic cells with alkali metal anodes shows a relation between the current drawn and the rate of discharge under open-circuit conditions. The self-discharge rate of the cell is due to the dissolution and ionization of alkali metal atoms in the fused-salt electrolyte

  8. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  9. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  10. Reactions of HCl and D2O with molten alkali carbonates.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Thomas; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2011-02-01

    The acidic oxide SO₂ and protic acid HCl are among the gases released in the combustion of coal and the incineration of municipal waste. They are typically removed by wet or dry scrubbing involving calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. The molten alkali carbonate eutectic provides a liquid-state alternative that readily absorbs SO₂ and HCl and does not become covered with a passivating layer. Gas-liquid scattering experiments utilizing the eutectic mixture (44 mol % Li₂CO₃, 31 mol % Na₂CO₃, 25 mol % K₂CO₃) reveal that the reaction probability for HCl(g) + CO₃²⁻ → CO₂(g) + OH⁻ + Cl⁻ is 0.31 ± 0.02 at 683 K and rises to 0.39 at 783 K. Gaseous CO₂ is formed within 10⁻⁴ s or less, implying that the reaction takes place in a liquid depth of less than 1000 Å. When the melt is exposed to D₂O, the analogous reaction D₂O(g) + CO₃²⁻ → CO₂(g) + 2OD⁻ occurs too slowly to measure and no water uptake is observed. Together with previous studies of SO₂(g) + CO₃²⁻ → CO₂(g) + SO₃²⁻, these results demonstrate that molten carbonates efficiently remove both gaseous HCl and SO₂ while reacting at most weakly with water vapor. The experiments further highlight the remarkable ability of hot CO₃²⁻ ions to behave as a base in reactions with protic and Lewis acids.

  11. Interaction between fine-scale landforms and vegetation patterns in alkali landscapes - case study based on remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deák, Balázs; Valkó, Orsolya; Tóthmérész, Béla; Alexander, Cici; Mücke, Werner; Kania, Adam; Tamás, János; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Vertical position is an important driver of vegetation zonation at multiple scales, via determining abiotic environmental parameters like climate, soil properties and water balance. Despite small-scale elevation differences are proven to significantly influence soil salt content and water balance; relationships between elevation and vegetation types are rarely studied in inland alkali landscapes. Alkali landscapes of the Pannonian biogeographical region comprise the most connected salt-affected landscape in continental Europe which provides unique opportunities for studying elevation-vegetation relationships. For linking elevation data with vegetation patterns, remote sensing techniques offer a vital solution. Application of airborne laser scanning is a feasible tool for providing an elevation model of extent areas. Our goal was to test the correlation between fine-scale differences in vertical position and vegetation patterns in inland alkali landscapes by using field vegetation data and elevation data generated using airborne laser scanning. We studied whether the vertical position influences vegetation patterns at the level of main vegetation categories or even at the level of associations. Our study sites were situated in a lowland alkali landscape in Hortobágy National Park (East-Hungary). Associations of the study site can be grouped into four main vegetation categories: (i) loess grasslands, (ii) alkali steppes, (iii) open alkali swards and (iv) alkali meadows. Even though we detected a very limited range in the vertical position (121 cm) of the main vegetation categories; they were well separated along their vertical positions. The detected elevation gradient likely corresponds to environmental gradients (soil type, salt accumulation and water balance). At the level of association types, a more detailed elevation-based distinction was also possible in many cases. Based on the digital terrain model, we revealed a fine-scale vertical vegetation gradient. Our

  12. Elastic properties of alkali-feldspars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeselmann, N.; Brown, J.; Angel, R. J.; Ross, N.; Kaminsky, W.

    2013-12-01

    New measurements of single crystal elastic moduli for a suite of the alkali feldspars are reported. In order to interpret Earth's seismic structure, knowledge of the elastic properties of constituent minerals is essential. The elasticity of feldspar minerals, despite being the most abundant phase in Earth's crust (estimated to be more than 60%), were previously poorly characterized. All prior seismic and petrologic studies have utilized 50-year-old results, of questionable quality, based on 1-bar measurements on pseudo-single crystals. Alkali-feldspars present a large experimental challenge associated with their structural complexity. In the K-end member (KAlSi3O8) the symmetry is governed by Al/Si ordering, in the Na-end member (NaAlSi3O8) the symmetry is governed by whether or not there is a displacive collapse of the framework independent of the Al/Si ordering. K-feldspars exhibit monoclinic (C2/m) symmetry (necessitating determination of 13 elastic moduli) if disordered and triclinic (C-1) symmetry (21 elastic moduli) if ordered. Exsolution of Na-rich and K-rich phases is ubiquitous in natural samples, making it difficult to find suitable single phase and untwinned samples for study. The small single domain samples selected for this study were previously characterized by x-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis to ensure adequate sample quality. Surface wave velocities were measured on oriented surfaces of natural and synthetic single crystals using impulsively stimulated light scattering. A surface corrugation with a spacing of about 2 microns was impulsively created by the overlap of 100 ps infrared light pulses. The time evolution of the stimulated standing elastic waves was detected by measuring the intensity of diffraction from the surface corrugation of a variably delayed probe pulse. This method allows accurate (better than 0.2%) determination of velocities on samples smaller than 100 microns. The combination of measured surface wave velocities and

  13. Impact of elevated CO2 on a Florida Scrub-oak Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Bert G

    2013-01-01

    Since May of 1996, we have conducted an experiment in Florida Scrub Oak to determine the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and climate change on carbon, water, and nutrient cycling in this important terrestrial ecosystem. Florida scrub oak is the name for a collective of species occupying much of the Florida peninsula. The dominant tree species are oaks and the dwarf structure of this community makes it an excellent system in which to test hypotheses regarding the potential capacity of woody ecosystems to assimilate and sequester anthropogenic carbon. Scrub oak is fire dependent with a return cycle of 10-15 years, a time which would permit an experiment to follow the entire cycle. Our site is located on Cape Canaveral at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. After burning in 1995, we built 16 open top chambers, half of which have been fumigated with pure CO2 sufficient to raise the concentration around the plants to 350 ppm above ambient. In the intervening 10 years we have non destructively measured biomass of shoots and roots, ecosystem gas exchange using chambers and eddy flux, leaf photosynthesis and respiration, soil respiration, and relevant environmental factors such as soil water availability, temperature, light, etc. The overwhelming result from analysis of our extensive data base is that elevated CO2 has had a profound impact on this ecosystem that, overall, has resulted in increased carbon accumulation in plant shoots, roots and litter. Our measurements of net ecosystem gas exchange also indicate that the ecosystem has accumulated carbon much in excess of the increased biomass or soil carbon suggesting a substantial export of carbon through the porous, sandy soil into the water table several meters below the surface. A major discovery is the powerful interaction between the stimulation of growth, photosynthesis, and respiration by elevated CO2 and other environmental factors particularly precipitation and nitrogen. Our measurements focused attention on

  14. Effects of Anthropogenic Emissions on the Nitrogen Cycle in the Desert Creosote Scrub Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlan, J.; Simunek, J.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfires are an ongoing threat to many ecosystems in Southern California. In some ecosystems, evidence suggests that high anthropogenic nitrogen deposition can increase susceptibility to fire by increasing the fuel loads and altering the plant species composition. Desert creosote scrub ecosystems are dominant throughout many low-elevation areas in the Mohave Desert and are among the ecosystems subjected to added deposition of nitrate and ammonium due to emissions from nearby agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. An understanding of how nitrogen flows through the desert creosote scrub ecosystem and of how the additional deposition affects this cycle is critical to determining how these ecosystems will change over time and assessing how the spread of fires can be mitigated. One high deposition and one low deposition desert creosote scrub site in Joshua Tree National Park have been studied for the past year in order to observe the flow of nitrogen through the soil and assess its connection to shifts in the vegetation. Extractable nitrate, extractable ammonium, and total nitrogen and carbon have been measured throughout 100cm soil profiles at each site in order to determine the fate and transport of the deposited nitrogen. Because the flow of water through the soil following the infrequent precipitation events is essential to the flow of nitrogen, dielectric water potential sensors have been installed throughout the top 70cm of soil in order to obtain hourly measurements of water potential. These measurements have been used in conjunction with weather and deposition data to model the flow of water and nitrogen through the soil using the hydrological model HYDRUS-1D. A geochemical model representing basic nitrogen reactions occurring in the soil has been started using PHREEQC coupled with HYDRUS-1D, but further modeling is necessary in order to accurately represent the complexity of the nitrogen cycle. After completion of an additional year of measurements and

  15. Alkali oxide-tantalum oxide and alkali oxide-niobium oxide ionic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. S.; Parker, H. S.; Brower, W. S.; Minor, D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for new cationic conducting phases in alkali-tantalate and niobate systems. The phase equilibrium diagrams were constructed for the six binary systems Nb2O5-LiNbO3, Nb2O5-NaNbO3, Nb2O5-KNbO3, Ta2O5-NaTaO3, Ta2O5-LiTaO3, and Ta2O5-KTaO3. Various other binary and ternary systems were also examined. Pellets of nineteen phases were evaluated (by the sponsoring agency) by dielectric loss measurements. Attempts were made to grow large crystals of eight different phases. The system Ta2O5-KTaO3 contains at least three phases which showed peaks in dielectric loss vs. temperature. All three contain structures related to the tungsten bronzes with alkali ions in non-stoichiometric crystallographic positions.

  16. Simulation of Electron Cloud Density Distributions in RHIC Dipoles at Injection and Transition and Estimates for Scrubbing Times

    SciTech Connect

    He,P.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.

    2009-01-02

    In this report we summarize electron-cloud simulations for the RHIC dipole regions at injection and transition to estimate if scrubbing over practical time scales at injection would reduce the electron cloud density at transition to significantly lower values. The lower electron cloud density at transition will allow for an increase in the ion intensity.

  17. A comparison of wet and dry scrubbing systems for control of metals and dioxin/furan emissions from incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, P.S.; Huang, H.S.

    1993-07-01

    In Europe and the United States, both wet and dry (including semidry) scrubbing systems are being used for control of emissions from all types of waste incinerators. In terms of the effectiveness of controlling particulates and acid gases, both types of scrubbing systems are capable of meeting US Environmental Protection Agency and European Community limits. Two of the more difficult emissions requirements for an incinerator air-pollution-control system to meet are the metals and the dioxin/furan limits. The dioxin/furan emissions requirement is especially stringent, calling for levels below 1 ng (10{sup {minus}9}) per cubic meter toxic equivalency. The differences between wet and dry scrubbing systems are discussed in this paper, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each in its application to the control of emissions from incinerators. Particular attention will be paid to control of metals and dioxin/furan emissions and to the sampling and analysis techniques used to measure these emissions. Toxic equivalency factors will be explained, and in particular, the international toxic equivalency factor proposed as the US and European standard will be discussed. This paper will also address some of the techniques being employed to minimize the emissions of toxic compounds and discuss the use of combined wet and dry scrubbing systems for increased assurance of compliance.

  18. Adsorption of superplasticizer admixtures on alkali-activated slag pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, M. Houst, Y.F.; Bowen, P.; Puertas, F.

    2009-08-15

    Alkali-activated slag (AAS) binders are obtained by a manufacturing process less energy-intensive than ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and involves lower greenhouse gasses emission. These alkaline cements allow the production of high mechanical strength and durable concretes. In the present work, the adsorption of different superplasticizer admixtures (naphthalene-based, melamine-based and a vinyl copolymer) on the slag particles in AAS pastes using alkaline solutions with different pH values have been studied in detail. The effect of the superplasticizers on the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the AAS and OPC pastes have been also evaluated. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the adsorption of the superplasticizers on AAS pastes is independent of the pH of the alkaline solutions used and lower than on OPC pastes. However, the effect of the admixtures on the rheological parameters depends directly on the type and dosage of the superplasticizer as well as of the binder used and, in the case of the AAS, on the pH of the alkaline activator solution. In 11.7-pH NaOH-AAS pastes the dosages of the superplasticizers required to attain similar reduction in the yield stress are ten-fold lower than for Portland cement. In this case the superplasticizers studied show a fluidizing effect considerably higher in 11.7-pH NaOH-AAS pastes than in OPC pastes. In 13.6-pH NaOH-AAS pastes, the only admixture observed to affect the rheological parameters is the naphthalene-based admixture due to its higher chemical stability in such extremely alkaline media.

  19. Heat pipes containing alkali metal working fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A technique for improving high temperature evaporation-condensation heat-transfer devices which have important and unique advantage in terrestrial and space energy processing is described. The device is in the form of a heat pipe comprising a sealed container or envelope which contains a capillary wick. The temperature of one end of the heat pipe is raised by the input of heat from an external heat source which is extremely hot and corrosive. A working fluid of a corrosive alkali metal, such as lithium, sodium, or potassium transfers this heat to a heat receiver remote from the heat source. The container and wick are fabricated from a superalloy containing a small percentage of a corrosion inhibiting or gettering element. Lanthanum, scandium, yttrium, thorium, and hafnium are utilized as the alloying metal.

  20. Volcanic Origin of Alkali Halides on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The recent observation of NaCl (gas) on Io confirms our earlier prediction that NaCl is produced volcanically. Here we extend our calculations by modeling thermochemical equilibrium of O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, and I as a function of temperature and pressure in a Pele-like volcanic gas with O/S/Na/Cl/K = 1.518/1/0.05/0.04/0.005 and CI chondritic ratios of the other (as yet unobserved) alkalis and halogens. For reference, the nominal temperature and pressure for Pele is 1760 plus or minus 210 K and 0.01 bars based on Galileo data and modeling.

  1. Ionic alkali halide XUV laser feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.T.; Gylys, V.T.; Bower, R.D.; Harris, D.G.; Blauer, J.A.; Turner, C.E.; Hindy, R.N.

    1989-11-10

    The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of a select set of ionic alkali halide XUV laser concepts by obtaining the relevant kinetic and spectroscopic parameters required for a proof-of-principle and conceptual design. The proposed lasers operate in the 80--200 nm spectral region and do not require input from outside radiation sources for their operation. Frequency up-conversion and frequency mixing techniques and therefore not considered in the work to be described. An experimental and theoretical study of a new type of laser operating in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region has been conducted. The lasing species are singly ionized alkali halide molecules such as Rb{sup 2+}F{sub {minus}}, Rb{sup 2+}Br{sup {minus}} and Cs{sup 2+}F{sup {minus}}. These species are similar in electronic structure to the rare gas halide excimers, such as XeF and Krf, except that the ionic molecules emit at wavelengths of 80--200 nm, much shorter than the conventional rare-gas halide excimer laser. The radiative lifetime of these molecules are typically near 1 ns, which is about an order of magnitude shorter than that for rare-gas halide systems. The values of the cross section for stimulated emission are on the order of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}cm{sup 2}. Because of the fundamental similarity to existing UV lasers, these systems show promise as a high power, efficient XUV lasers. 55 refs., 50 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Regenerable device for scrubbing breathable air of CO2 and moisture without special heat exchanger equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tepper, E. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The device concerns the circulation of cabin air through canisters which absorb and adsorb carbon dioxide, together with excess moisture, and return the scrubbed air to the cabin for recirculation. A coating on an inert substrate in granular form absorbs and adsorbs the impurities at standard temperatures and pressures, but desorbs such impurities at low pressures (vacuum) and standard temperatures. This fact is exploited by making the device in a stack of cells consisting of layers or cells which are isolated from one another flow-wise and are connected to separate manifolds and valving systems into two separate subsets. A first subset may be connected for the flow breathable air therethrough until the polyethyleneimine of its cells is saturated with CO2 and H2O. During the same period the second subset of cells is manifolded to a vacuum source.

  3. Modeling dry-scrubbing of gaseous HCl with hydrated lime in cyclones with and without recirculation.

    PubMed

    Chibante, Vania G; Fonseca, Ana M; Salcedo, Romualdo R

    2010-06-15

    A mathematical model describing the dry-scrubbing of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) with solid hydrated lime particles (Ca(OH)(2)) was developed and experimentally verified. The model applies to cyclone systems with and without recirculation, where reaction and particle collection occurs in the same processing unit. The Modified Grain Model was selected to describe the behavior of the reaction process and it was assumed that the gas and the solid particles flow in the reactor with a plug flow. In this work, this behavior is approximated by a cascade of N CSTRs in series. Some of the model parameters were estimated by optimization taking into account the experimental results obtained. A good agreement was observed between the experimental results and those predicted by the model, where the main control resistance is the diffusion of the gaseous reactant in the layer of solid product formed. PMID:20185231

  4. Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training. PMID:24908834

  5. Estimating Occupancy of Gopher Tortoise (Gorpherus polyphemus) Burrows in Coastal Scrub and Slash Pine Flatwoods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1991-01-01

    One hundred twelve plots were established in coastal scrub and slash pine flatwoods habitats on the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to evaluate relationships between the number of burrows and gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) density. All burrows were located within these plots and were classified according to tortoise activity. Depending on season, bucket trapping, a stick method, a gopher tortoise pulling device, and a camera system were used to estimate tortoise occupancy. Correction factors (% of burrows occupied) were calculated by season and habitat type. Our data suggest that less than 20% of the active and inactive burrows combined were occupied during seasons when gopher tortoises were active. Correction factors were higher in poorly-drained areas and lower in well-drained areas during the winter, when gopher tortoise activity was low. Correction factors differed from studies elsewhere, indicating that population estimates require correction factors specific to the site and season to accurately estimate population size.

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese scrub vole (Neodon irene).

    PubMed

    Fan, Longqing; Fan, Zhenxin; Yue, Hao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Liu, Yang; Sun, Zhiyu; Liu, Shaoying; Yue, Bisong

    2011-06-01

    The Chinese scrub vole (Neodon irene) belongs to the subfamily Arvicolinae, which is restricted to mountain areas at high altitudes (2800-4000). In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of N. irene. It was determined to be 16,367 bases. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of N. irene and other 22 rodents were used for phylogenetic analysis. Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) were used. Both the BI and ML trees demonstrated that Microtus rossiaemeridionalis and Microtus kikuchii did not cluster together with each other. On the contrary, M. rossiaemeridionalis showed close relationship with N. irene. In the present study, only one sequence from Neodon and two sequences from Microtus were included in the phylogenetic analysis which should contribute to the unusual relationship. Therefore, in order to better understand the phylogenetic relationship within Rodentia, more rodents' complete mitochondrial genomes are required.

  7. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  8. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Stanley W.

    1995-01-01

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible.

  9. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, S.W.

    1995-04-18

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible. 4 figs.

  10. Energetics of alkali and alkaline earth ion-exchanged zeolite A

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Hui; Wu, Di; Liu, Kefeng; Guo, Xiaofeng; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2016-06-30

    Alkali and alkaline earth ion-exchanged zeolite A samples were synthesized in aqueous exchange media. They were thoroughly studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe (EMPA), thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), and high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The hydration energetics and enthalpies of formation of these zeolite A materials from constituent oxides were determined. Specifically, the hydration level of zeolite A has a linear dependence on the average ionic potential (Z/r) of the cation, from 0.894 (Rb-A) to 1.317 per TO2 (Mg-A). The formation enthalpies from oxides (25 °C) range from –93.71 ± 1.77 (K-A) to –48.02more » ± 1.85 kJ/mol per TO2 (Li-A) for hydrated alkali ion-exchanged zeolite A, and from –47.99 ± 1.20 (Ba-A) to –26.41 ± 1.71 kJ/mol per TO2 (Mg-A) for hydrated alkaline earth ion-exchanged zeolite A. As a result, the formation enthalpy from oxides generally becomes less exothermic as Z/r increases, but a distinct difference in slope is observed between the alkali and the alkaline earth series.« less

  11. Alkali-aggregate reaction under the influence of deicing salts in the Hokuriku district, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Tetsuya . E-mail: katayamat@kge.co.jp; Tagami, Masahiko; Sarai, Yoshinori; Izumi, Satoshi; Hira, Toshikatsu

    2004-11-15

    Concrete cores taken from highway bridges and culverts undergoing alkali-silica reaction (ASR) were investigated petrographically by means of core scanning, point counting, polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), electron-probe microanalysis with energy-dispersive spectrometry, in conjunction with wet chemical analyses and expansion tests. Field damage was roughly proportional to the content of andesite in the gravel aggregates due to the presence of highly reactive cristobalite and tridymite. Electron-probe microanalyzer analysis of unhydrated cement phases in the concrete revealed that the cement used had contained at least 0.5% to 1.0% alkali (Na{sub 2}Oeq) and that both the aggregates and the deicing salts had supplied part of the water-soluble alkali to concrete toward the threshold of producing ASR (Na{sub 2}O{sub eq} 3.0 kg/m{sup 3}). An accelerated concrete core expansion test (1 M NaOH, 80 deg. C) of the damaged structures mostly gave core expansions of >0.10% at 21 days (or >0.05% at 14 days), nearly comparable to those of a slow expansion test with saturated NaCl solution (50 deg. C, 91 days) which produced Cl-containing ASR gel.

  12. Alkali-Ion-Crown Ether in Art and Conservation: The Applied Bioinorganic Chemistry Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hilfrich, Uwe; Taylor, Harold; Weser, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Dried varnish is rich in many ester moieties, which may be broken down into small, soluble compounds by esterase activity or alkaline hydrolysis. Two methods for varnish removal have been developed, including the treatment of either lipase or RbOH / PEG-400 crown ether which allow aged oil varnishes or paint coverings to be removed or thinned. These techniques are designed to proceed in a controlled manner without damaging lower paint or base layers. Unfortunately, lipase did not react with the aged ester groups of dried linseed oil varnish. Surprisingly, the varnish came off in the presence of Tris buffer alone which, in addition, formed reactive metal complexes. A better choice was the use of high Mr alkali ion polyethylene glycol–400 (PEG-400) crown ether type chelates. PEG-400 complexes alkali ions including rubidium and other alkaliions impeding the diffusion of their basic counter ions into lower varnish or paint layers. Possible migration of alkali metal ions into the paint layer during alkaline varnish removal was determined by labelling the cleansing solutions with 86Rb. Fortunately, varnish is degraded on the surface only. Lower paint or varnish layers are not attacked even if chemically similar to the varnish or over painting to be removed as virtually no 86Rb was detected on the paint surface. PMID:18365066

  13. Ultrasonic coal washing to leach alkali elements from coals.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, S; Reddy, V Midhun; Nagarajan, R

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of fly ash particles onto heat-transfer surfaces is often one of the reasons for unscheduled shut-downs of coal-fired boilers. Fouling deposits encountered in convective sections of a boiler are characterized by arrival of ash particles in solidified (solid) state. Fouling is most frequently caused by condensation and chemical reaction of alkali vapors with the deposited ash particles creating a wet surface conducive to collect impacting ash particles. Hence, the amount of alkali elements present in coals, which, in turn, is available in the flue gas as condensable vapors, determines the formation and growth of fouling deposits. In this context, removal of alkali elements becomes vital when inferior coals having high-ash content are utilized for power generation. With the concept of reducing alkali elements present in a coal entering the combustor, whereby the fouling deposits can either be minimized or be weakened due to absence of alkali gluing effect, the ultrasonic leaching of alkali elements from coals is investigated in this study. Ultrasonic water-washing and chemical-washing, in comparison with agitation, are studied in order to estimate the intensification of the alkali removal process by sonication. PMID:26186840

  14. Alkali-activated cementitious materials: Mechanisms, microstructure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weimin

    The goal of this study was to examine the activation reaction, microstructure, properties, identify the mechanisms of activation, and achieve an enhanced understanding of activation processes occurring during the synthesis of alkali activated cementitious materials (AAC). The discussions classify the following categories. (1) alkali activated slag cement; (2) alkali activated portland-slag cement; (3) alkali activated fly ash-slag cement; (4) alkali activated pozzolana-lime cement; (5) alkali activated pozzolana cement. The activators involved are NaOH, KOH; Nasb2SOsb4;\\ Nasb2COsb3;\\ CaSOsb4, and soluble silicate of sodium and potassium. The effect of alkali activation on the microstructure of these materials were analyzed at the micro-nanometer scale by SEM, EDS, ESEM, and TEM. Also sp{29}Si and sp{27}Al MAS-NMR, IR, Raman, TGA, and DTA were performed to characterize the phase in these systems. Slag, fly ash, silica fume, as well as blended cements containing mixtures of these and other components were characterized. A set of ordinary portland cement paste samples served as a control. This study confirmed that AAC materials have great potential because they could generate very early high strength, greater durability and high performance. Among the benefits to be derived from this research is a better understanding of the factors that control concrete properties when using AAC materials, and by controlling the chemistry and processing to produce desired microstructures and properties, as well as their durability.

  15. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

    2012-09-11

    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  16. Alkali elemental and potassium isotopic compositions of Semarkona chondrules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of K isotope ratios in 28 Semarkona chondrules with a wide range of petrologic types and bulk compositions as well as the compositions of CPX-mesostasis pairs in 17 type I Semarkona chondrules, including two chondrules with radial alkali zonation and 19 type II chondrules. Despite the wide range in K/Al ratios, no systematic variations in K isotopic compositions were found. Semarkona chondrules do not record a simple history of Rayleigh-type loss of K. Experimentally determined evaporation rates suggest that considerable alkali evaporation would have occurred during chondrule formation. Nevertheless, based on Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients, the alkali contents of the cores of most chondrules in Semarkona were probably established at the time of final crystallization. However, Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients also show that alkali zonation in type I Semarkona chondrules was produced by entry of alkalis after solidification, probably during parent body alteration. This alkali metasomatism may have gone to completion in some chondrules. Our preferred explanation for the lack of systematic isotopic enrichments, even in alkali depleted type I chondrule cores, is that they exchanged with the ambient gas as they cooled. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2005.

  17. Are surgical scrubbing and pre-operative disinfection of the skin in orthopaedic surgery reliable?

    PubMed

    Salvi, M; Chelo, C; Caputo, F; Conte, M; Fontana, C; Peddis, G; Velluti, C

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to establish the actual effectiveness of pre-surgical disinfection of the patient and surgeon's hands. We evaluated bacterial density and composition on the skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy and the left hand of two surgeons after standard disinfection with povidone-iodine. Three samples were taken after the first 6-min scrub in the first surgical operation from the periungual space of the 1 degrees finger, from the interdigital space between the 2 degrees and 3 degrees fingers and from the transverse palmar crest of the left hand of two surgeons for seven consecutive surgical sessions, for a total of 42 samples, and two samples from the pre-patellar skin and from the popliteal skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, for a total of 30 samples. Pre-surgical handwashing and disinfection procedures were identical in each case. Pre-surgical disinfection of the patient's skin with povidone-iodine was shown to be completely effective, with 100% of samples negative. Samples taken from the interdigital space and the palmar crest (100% of samples negative) demonstrated the efficacy of disinfection of the surgeon's hands with povidone-iodine, while the periungual space was contaminated in 50% of the samples. The bacterial strains isolated belong to the staphylococcus genus in 100% of the cases, with pathogenic strains in 29.6% of the cases. Standard pre-surgical disinfection of skin in areas easily accessible to the disinfectant is sufficient in itself to guarantee thorough sanitization. Standard scrubbing of the surgeon's hands is insufficient in eliminating bacterial contamination, including pathogenic germs, in the periungual space, where it is probably difficult for the disinfectant to come into contact with the skin.

  18. Are surgical scrubbing and pre-operative disinfection of the skin in orthopaedic surgery reliable?

    PubMed

    Salvi, M; Chelo, C; Caputo, F; Conte, M; Fontana, C; Peddis, G; Velluti, C

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to establish the actual effectiveness of pre-surgical disinfection of the patient and surgeon's hands. We evaluated bacterial density and composition on the skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy and the left hand of two surgeons after standard disinfection with povidone-iodine. Three samples were taken after the first 6-min scrub in the first surgical operation from the periungual space of the 1 degrees finger, from the interdigital space between the 2 degrees and 3 degrees fingers and from the transverse palmar crest of the left hand of two surgeons for seven consecutive surgical sessions, for a total of 42 samples, and two samples from the pre-patellar skin and from the popliteal skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, for a total of 30 samples. Pre-surgical handwashing and disinfection procedures were identical in each case. Pre-surgical disinfection of the patient's skin with povidone-iodine was shown to be completely effective, with 100% of samples negative. Samples taken from the interdigital space and the palmar crest (100% of samples negative) demonstrated the efficacy of disinfection of the surgeon's hands with povidone-iodine, while the periungual space was contaminated in 50% of the samples. The bacterial strains isolated belong to the staphylococcus genus in 100% of the cases, with pathogenic strains in 29.6% of the cases. Standard pre-surgical disinfection of skin in areas easily accessible to the disinfectant is sufficient in itself to guarantee thorough sanitization. Standard scrubbing of the surgeon's hands is insufficient in eliminating bacterial contamination, including pathogenic germs, in the periungual space, where it is probably difficult for the disinfectant to come into contact with the skin. PMID:16059708

  19. Limestone scrubbing for 2000 flue gas desulfurization system. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 1, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-16

    As emission limits for sulfur dioxide from utility coal-fired boilers become lower due to increased regulation and environmental concern around the globe, power generating companies require increasingly cost-effective pollution control technology in order to maintain or reduce the cost of electricity to the end user. Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization, or WFGD, is the preferred sulfur dioxide removal technology for utilities in the US and worldwide. This is a result of its extensive reference list, lower risks, and lower evaluated overall costs. For more than two decades ABB has supplied WFGD systems and currently has greater than 29,000 MWe of scrubbing capacity in operation. Given the industry`s ever-present need for lower costs, ABB funds a continuous research and development program focused on technology advancements that will reduce both capital and operating costs for its customers. As a result of this effort the LS-2 Concept WFGD System was developed through revolutionary design changes in every significant subprocess of conventional WFGD technology. To demonstrate the cumulative effects of all the individual advancements of the LS-2 Concept and to prove the process`s viability and cost-efficiency under representative US power plant conditions, the Limestone Scrubbing for 2000 project was initiated. This report is the final submittal to the Ohio Coal Development Office to document the results of this demonstrate project. The four-phase project execution, from the initial design and procurement through erection and extensive testing, proceeded as scheduled and on budget. The project resulted in a successful reference program that illustrates, in detail, the improved efficiencies and costs of the LS-2 advancements.

  20. Ethanol fermentation of cassava starch pretreated with alkali

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Choe, Y.K.; Kim, H.S.; Byun, S.M.

    1986-04-01

    In view of the current industrial process for the conventional ethanol fermentation, in which raw starch materials are heated at 120 degrees C for 2 h, conditions for an alternative process were set: an overall time from saccharification to ethanol fermentation of within 3-4 days, an operation temperature of below 60 degrees C, an ethanol yield of over 93%, and a ratio of raw material to fermentation volume of within 1:4. To meet these conditions, previously a steeping method of starch materials in 0.5N HCl solution at 60 degrees C for 12 h were used, followed by combined actions of ..cap alpha..-amylase and glucoamylase. The ethanol yield from uncooked cassava starch treated under the conditions described was 95% after fermentation for 3 days with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the use of a relatively higher concentration of acid for steeping is still a problem and gelatinization of starch materials is insufficient. This communication, therefore, describes effects of alkali steeping and structural change of starch granules on the ethanol fermentation. 8 references.

  1. Kenaf Bast Fibers—Part I: Hermetical Alkali Digestion

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Jinshu; Shi, Sheldon Q.; Barnes, H. Michael; Horstemeyer, Mark; Wang, Jinwu; Hassan, El-Barbary M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a hermetical alkali digestion process to obtain single cellulosic fibers from kenaf bast. Kenaf bast were hermetically digested into single fiber using a 5% sodium hydroxide solution for one hour at four different temperatures (80 ° C, 110 ° C, 130 ° C, and 160 ° C). The hermetical digestion process used in this study produced fibers with high cellulose content (84.2–92.3%) due to the removal of lignin and hemicelluloses. The surface hardness and elastic modulus of the fibers digested at 130 ° C and 160 ° C were improved significantlymore » compared with those digested at 80 ° C. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of the individual fibers reduced as the digestion temperature increased from 110 ° C to 160 ° C. Micropores were generated in fiber cell wall when the fibers were digested at 130 ° C and 160 ° C. The studies on the composites that were made from polypropylene reinforced with the digested fibers indicated that the compatibility between the digested fibers and polypropylene matrix was poor.« less

  2. Burden of Disease Measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a Disease Forecasting Time Series Model of Scrub Typhus in Laiwu, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liang, Si-Yuan; Wang, Xian-Jun; Li, Xiu-Jun; Wu, Yan-Ling; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Laiwu District is recognized as a hyper-endemic region for scrub typhus in Shandong Province, but the seriousness of this problem has been neglected in public health circles. Methodology/Principal Findings A disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) approach was adopted to measure the burden of scrub typhus in Laiwu, China during the period 2006 to 2012. A multiple seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA) was used to identify the most suitable forecasting model for scrub typhus in Laiwu. Results showed that the disease burden of scrub typhus is increasing yearly in Laiwu, and which is higher in females than males. For both females and males, DALY rates were highest for the 60–69 age group. Of all the SARIMA models tested, the SARIMA(2,1,0)(0,1,0)12 model was the best fit for scrub typhus cases in Laiwu. Human infections occurred mainly in autumn with peaks in October. Conclusions/Significance Females, especially those of 60 to 69 years of age, were at highest risk of developing scrub typhus in Laiwu, China. The SARIMA (2,1,0)(0,1,0)12 model was the best fit forecasting model for scrub typhus in Laiwu, China. These data are useful for developing public health education and intervention programs to reduce disease. PMID:25569248

  3. Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Virkar, Anil V.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1983-11-04

    An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

  4. Bilayer resist system utilizing alkali-developable organosilicon positive photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nate, Kazuo; Mizushima, Akiko; Sugiyama, Hisashi

    1991-06-01

    A bi-layer resist system utilizing an alkali-developable organosilicon positive photoresist (OSPR) has been developed. The composite prepared from an alkali-soluble organosilicon polymer, poly(p- hydroxybenzylsilsesquioxane) and naphthoquinone diazide becomes a alkali-developable positive photoresist which is sensitive to UV (i line - g line) region, and exhibited high oxygen reactive ion etching (O2 RIE) resistance. The sensitivity and the resolution of OSPR are almost the same as those of conventional novolac-based positive photoresists. The bi-layer resist system utilizing OSPR as the top imaging layer gave fine patterns of underlayers with high aspect ratio easily.

  5. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1992-02-24

    The high temperature alkali corrosion kinetics of SiC have been systematically investigated from 950 to 1100[degrees]C at 0.63 vol % alkali vapor concentration. The corrosion rate in the presence of alkaliis approximately 10[sup 4] to 10[sup 5] times faster than the oxidation rate of SiC in air. The activation energy associated with the alkali corrosion is 406 kJ/mol, indicating a highly temperature-dependent reaction rate. The rate-controlling step of the overall reaction is likely to be the dissolution of silica in the sodium silicate liquid, based on the oxygen diffusivity data.

  6. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.K.

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  7. Thermodynamic assessment of hydrothermal alkali feldspar-mica-aluminosilicate equilibria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sverjensky, D.A.; Hemley, J.J.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of minerals retrieved from consideration of solid-solid and dehydration equilibria with calorimetric reference values, and those of aqueous species derived from studies of electrolytes, are not consistent with experimentally measured high-temperature solubilities in the systems K2O- and Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-HCl (e.g., K-fs - Ms - Qtz - K+ - H+). This introduces major inaccuracies into the computation of ionic activity ratios and the acidities of diagenetic, metamorphic, and magmatic hydrothermal fluids buffered by alkali silicate-bearing assemblages. We report a thermodynamic analysis of revised solubility equilibria in these systems that integrates the thermodynamic properties of minerals obtained from phase equilibria studies (Berman, 1988) with the properties of aqueous species calculated from a calibrated equation of state (Shock and Helgeson, 1988). This was achieved in two separate steps. First, new values of the free energies and enthalpies of formation at 25??C and 1 bar for the alkali silicates muscovite and albite were retrieved from the experimental solubility equilibria at 300??C and Psat. Because the latter have stoichiometric reaction coefficients different from those for solid-solid and dehydration equilibria, our procedure preserves exactly the relative thermodynamic properties of the alkali-bearing silicates (Berman, 1988). Only simple arithmetic adjustments of -1,600 and -1,626 (??500) cal/mol to all the K- and Na-bearing silicates, respectively, in Berman (1988) are required. In all cases, the revised values are within ??0.2% of calorimetric values. Similar adjustments were derived for the properties of minerals from Helgeson et al. (1978). Second, new values of the dissociation constant of HCl were retrieved from the solubility equilibria at temperatures and pressures from 300-600??C and 0.5-2.0 kbars using a simple model for aqueous speciation. The results agree well with the conductance-derived dissociation

  8. Diffusion with chemical reaction: An attempt to explain number density anomalies in experiments involving alkali vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    The mutual diffusion of two reacting gases is examined which takes place in a bath of inert gas atoms. Solutions are obtained between concentric spheres, each sphere acting as a source for one of the reactants. The calculational model is used to illustrate severe number density gradients observed in absorption experiments with alkali vapor. Severe gradients result when sq root k/D R is approximately 5 where k, D, and R are respectively the second order rate constant, the multicomponent diffusion constant, and the geometrical dimension of the experiment.

  9. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H.; Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R.

    2015-11-02

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  10. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

    1995-08-22

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  11. Alkali activation of halloysite for adsorption and release of ofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2013-12-01

    Halloysite nanotubes are promising vehicles for the controlled release of drug molecules. Here, we systematically investigated the effects of alkali activation on the physicochemical properties, structure and morphology of halloysite nanotubes by XRD, FTIR, SEM and TEM, etc. Afterwards, the adsorption and in vitro release properties of halloysite for cationic ofloxacin (OFL) were evaluated. The results indicate that alkali activation dissolves amorphous aluminosilicate, free silica and alumina, which results in the increase in pore volume and pore size. OFL is adsorbed onto halloysite via electrostatic interaction and complexation. Alkali activation could increase the adsorption capacity of halloysite for OFL and prolong release of the adsorbed OFL compared with the natural halloysite. Thus, alkali activation of halloysite is an effective protocol to improve the adsorption and prolong release for cationic drug molecules.

  12. Hall Determination of Atomic Radii of Alkali Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    I will propose here an alternative method for determining atomic radii of alkali metals based on the Hall measurements of their free electron densities and the knowledge of their crystal structure. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. The 4843 Alkali Metal Storage Facility Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The 4843 AMSF has been used primarily to provide a centralized building to receive and store dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste, including sodium and lithium, which has been generated at the Fast Flux Test Facility and at various other Hanford Site operations that used alkali metals. Most of the dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste received consists of retired equipment from liquid sodium processes. The unit continues to store material. In general, only solid alkali metal waste that is water reactive is stored at the 4843 AMSF. The 4843 AMSF will be closed in a manner consistent with Ecology guidelines and regulations (WAC 173-303-610). The general closure procedure is detailed as follows.

  14. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1995-01-01

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  15. Mercuric iodate precipitation from radioiodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOEpatents

    Partridge, Jerry A.; Bosuego, Gail P.

    1982-01-01

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  16. A Case History in Selective Elimination as a Solution to the Information Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, William; Evers, Benjamin; Chance, Paul N.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the authors' research behind the Historic Cancellation of Fact method, a solution to the information explosion crisis. Each existing paper is evaluated in the light of new papers published the day before, and any "old" paper which has suffered obsolescence is immediately pulled and republished in its entirety in SCRUB (Science Culling…

  17. Serological Evidence of Scrub Typhus among Cases of PUO in the Kashmir Valley- A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Nargis; Kanth, Farhath; Farooq, Rumana; Haq, Inam Ul; Shah, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rickettsial infections are being increasingly recognized as a cause of acute febrile illnesses and should be considered a distinct possibility in patients presenting with suggestive clinical features. Their diagnosis remains a challenge in a country like ours where tests like immunofluorescence assay cannot be routinely done. Results of serological tests, when correlated with patients clinical profile can aid in the timely diagnosis of scrub typhus. Aim To find out the extent to which scrub typhus contributes to Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO) in patients admitted to or attending the OPD of our hospital using simple tests like Weil-Felix Agglutination Test (WFT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Srinagar, over a period of eight months (1st March to 31st October 2015). Serum samples from patients suffering from Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO) were processed for the detection of Scrub typhus. A total of 162 samples were included in the study. These were subjected to WFT using OX-K strain. The serum samples were diluted 1/20 to 1/640 and a titre of ≥ 1:160 was considered as positive. The samples were also tested for IgM and IgG antibodies for scrub typhus by ELISA and tube agglutination test was done to detect typhoid fever and brucellosis. Results Of the 162 serum samples tested 22.8% tested positive scrub typhus by WFT. IgM ELISA and IgG was positive in 8 (4.9%) and 15 (9.3%) samples respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of WFT; taking IgM ELISA as a reference standard were 75%, 79.9%, 16.2% and 98.4% respectively. Conclusion Scrub typhus is prevalent in our state and the results of WFT supplemented by those of ELISA can aid in its diagnosis. However the results of these tests should always be regarded in light of the clinical condition of the patient. PMID

  18. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  19. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOEpatents

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  20. Alkali activation of recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from fluidised-bed combustion: Stabilisation/solidification of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Yliniemi, Juho; Pesonen, Janne; Tiainen, Minna; Illikainen, Mirja

    2015-09-01

    Recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from a fluidized bed boiler was alkali-activated and granulated with a sodium-silicate solution in order to immobilise the heavy metals it contains. The effect of blast-furnace slag and metakaolin as co-binders were studied. Leaching standard EN 12457-3 was applied to evaluate the immobilisation potential. The results showed that Ba, Pb and Zn were effectively immobilised. However, there was increased leaching after alkali activation for As, Cu, Mo, Sb and V. The co-binders had minimal or even negative effect on the immobilisation. One exception was found for Cr, in which the slag decreased leaching, and one was found for Cu, in which the slag increased leaching. A sequential leaching procedure was utilized to gain a deeper understanding of the immobilisation mechanism. By using a sequential leaching procedure it is possible fractionate elements into watersoluble, acid-soluble, easily-reduced and oxidisable fractions, yielding a total 'bioavailable' amount that is potentially hazardous for the environment. It was found that the total bioavailable amount was lower following alkali activation for all heavy metals, although the water-soluble fraction was higher for some metals. Evidence from leaching tests suggests the immobilisation mechanism was chemical retention, or trapping inside the alkali activation reaction products, rather than physical retention, adsorption or precipitation as hydroxides. PMID:26054963

  1. Immobilisation of nuclear waste materials containing different alkali elements into single-phase NZP-based ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pet'kov, V. I.; Orlova, A. I.; Trubach, I. G.; Asabina, Y. A.; Demarin, V. T.; Kurazhkovskaya, V. S.

    2003-01-01

    A single-phase host matrix based upon the sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) structure and designed to immobilise commercial nuclear waste was investigated. In comparison with other waste forms the important advantage of the NZP ceramics is its ability to incorporate, at crystallographic levels, alkali elements without significant deterioration of the physical and chemical matrix stability. Studies on the incorporation of different alkali elements into the NZP host structure were performed. Single-phase phosphates corresponding to crystalline solutions (continuous and limited) with a structure similar to NZP were found in the series of compounds with the general formula A1-x+4yA'xE2-y(PO4)3 (y=0, 0.5 and 1, and 0≤x≤1+4y), where A-A' are different alkali elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) and E are Ti or Zr. Leaching studies with alkali containing samples revealed reasonable resistance towards the release of the constituents.

  2. Alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide double alkoxide precursors to alkali metal yttrium oxide nanomaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Neville, Michael L.; Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Cramer, Roger

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a series of alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide ([AY(ONep)4]) compounds were developed as precursors to alkali yttrium oxide (AYO2) nanomaterials. The reaction of yttrium amide ([Y(NR2)3] where R=Si(CH3)3) with four equivalents of H-ONep followed by addition of [A(NR2)] (A=Li, Na, K) or Ao (Ao=Rb, Cs) led to the formation of a complex series of AnY(ONep)3+n species, crystallographically identified as [Y2Li3(μ3-ONep)(μ3-HONep)(μ-ONep)5(ONep)3(HONep)2] (1), [YNa2(μ3-ONep)4(ONep)]2 (2), {[Y2K3(μ3-ONep)3(μ-ONep)4(ONep)2(ηξ-tol)2][Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4]•ηx-tol]} (3), [Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4] (3a), [Y2Rb3(μ4-ONep)3(μ-ONep)6] (4), and [Y2Cs4(μ6-O)(μ3-ONep)6(μ3-HONep)2(ONep)2(ηx-tol)4]•tol (5). Compounds 1–5 were investigated as single source precursors to AYOx nanomaterials following solvothermal routes (pyridine, 185 °C for 24h). The final products after thermal processing weremore » found by powder X-ray diffraction experiments to be Y2O3 with variable sized particles based on transmission electron diffraction. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies indicated that the heavier alkali metal species were present in the isolated nanomaterials.« less

  3. Reduction of phosphorus and alkali levels in coking coals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoare, I.C.; Waugh, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    A number of coals, though exhibiting desirable coking properties, can have undesirable levels of alkalis and phosphorus. All the phosphorus in the coal will report to the coke, eventually to the iron and thence to the steel, with adverse effects on its metallurgical properties. Alkalis have damaging effects on the blast furnace operation and can be responsible for loss of heat, loss of production, efficiency loss and reduced furnace life. Buyers of coking coal commonly specify such parameters as phosphorus in coal and alkalis in ash, with penalties and rejection over certain limits. With the introduction of new direct reduction technologies such as COREX and HISMELT, and others such as PCI, it is anticipated that coal producers will have even tighter phosphorus and alkali specifications imposed on their products. Phosphorus is predominantly inorganic in origin occurring in a wide variety of minerals in coal, but its main source is apatite. It can be found mainly in the lower density fractions of the coal and intimately bound, so that conventional physical beneficiation techniques are relatively ineffective. CSIRO has developed a cost effective, selective chemical demineralization treatment, which can be applied to the problem of high alkali, high phosphorus coals. This particular technique makes use of unrefined organic acid, which also has the advantage of being low in cost and environmentally benign. In this paper, the effectiveness of acid demineralization of a number of coals is discussed, within the context of their phosphorus and alkali distributions throughout various size/density fractions.

  4. Two-phase alkali-metal experiments in reduced gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1986-06-01

    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. A literature search of relevant experiments in reduced gravity is reported on here, and reveals a paucity of data for such correlations. The few ongoing experiments in reduced gravity are noted. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. A similar situation exists regarding two-phase alkali-metal flow and heat transfer, even in normal gravity. Existing data are conflicting and indequate for the task of modeling a space reactor using a two-phase alkali-metal coolant. The major features of past experiments are described here. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from the two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Analyses undertaken here give every expectation that the correlations developed from this data base will provide a valid representation of alkali-metal heat transfer and pressure drop in reduced gravity.

  5. Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Alkali Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsam; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G

    2016-01-01

    The common Group 1 alkali metals are indeed ubiquitous on earth, in the oceans and in biological systems. In this introductory chapter, concepts involving aqueous chemistry and aspects of general coordination chemistry and oxygen atom donor chemistry are introduced. Also, there are nuclear isotopes of importance. A general discussion of Group 1 begins from the prevalence of the ions, and from a comparison of their ionic radii and ionization energies. While oxygen and water molecule binding have the most relevance to biology and in forming a detailed understanding between the elements, there is a wide range of basic chemistry that is potentially important, especially with respect to biological chelation and synthetic multi-dentate ligand design. The elements are widely distributed in life forms, in the terrestrial environment and in the oceans. The details about the workings in animal, as well as plant life are presented in this volume. Important biometallic aspects of human health and medicine are introduced as well. Seeing as the elements are widely present in biology, various particular endogenous molecules and enzymatic systems can be studied. Sodium and potassium are by far the most important and central elements for consideration. Aspects of lithium, rubidium, cesium and francium chemistry are also included; they help in making important comparisons related to the coordination chemistry of Na(+) and K(+). Physical methods are also introduced. PMID:26860297

  6. Superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene nanowhiskers.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Toshio; Hirata, Chika; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Superconductivity in alkali metal-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs) was observed in K3.3C60NWs, Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs with transition temperatures at 17, 25 and 26 K, respectively. Almost full shielding volume fraction (~80%) was observed in K3.3C60NWs when subjected to thermal treatment at 200 °C for a duration of 24 h. In contrast, the shielding fraction of Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs were calculated to be 8% and 6%, respectively. Here we report on an extensive investigation of the superconducting properties of these AC60NWs (A  =  K3.3, Rb3.0 and Cs2.0Rb1.0). These properties are compared to the ones reported on the corresponding conventional (single-crystal or powder) K-doped fullerene. We also evaluated the critical current densities of these C60NWs using the Bean model under an applied magnetic field up to 50 kOe. PMID:27385220

  7. Superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene nanowhiskers.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Toshio; Hirata, Chika; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Superconductivity in alkali metal-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs) was observed in K3.3C60NWs, Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs with transition temperatures at 17, 25 and 26 K, respectively. Almost full shielding volume fraction (~80%) was observed in K3.3C60NWs when subjected to thermal treatment at 200 °C for a duration of 24 h. In contrast, the shielding fraction of Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs were calculated to be 8% and 6%, respectively. Here we report on an extensive investigation of the superconducting properties of these AC60NWs (A  =  K3.3, Rb3.0 and Cs2.0Rb1.0). These properties are compared to the ones reported on the corresponding conventional (single-crystal or powder) K-doped fullerene. We also evaluated the critical current densities of these C60NWs using the Bean model under an applied magnetic field up to 50 kOe.

  8. Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Alkali Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsam; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G

    2016-01-01

    The common Group 1 alkali metals are indeed ubiquitous on earth, in the oceans and in biological systems. In this introductory chapter, concepts involving aqueous chemistry and aspects of general coordination chemistry and oxygen atom donor chemistry are introduced. Also, there are nuclear isotopes of importance. A general discussion of Group 1 begins from the prevalence of the ions, and from a comparison of their ionic radii and ionization energies. While oxygen and water molecule binding have the most relevance to biology and in forming a detailed understanding between the elements, there is a wide range of basic chemistry that is potentially important, especially with respect to biological chelation and synthetic multi-dentate ligand design. The elements are widely distributed in life forms, in the terrestrial environment and in the oceans. The details about the workings in animal, as well as plant life are presented in this volume. Important biometallic aspects of human health and medicine are introduced as well. Seeing as the elements are widely present in biology, various particular endogenous molecules and enzymatic systems can be studied. Sodium and potassium are by far the most important and central elements for consideration. Aspects of lithium, rubidium, cesium and francium chemistry are also included; they help in making important comparisons related to the coordination chemistry of Na(+) and K(+). Physical methods are also introduced.

  9. Superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene nanowhiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Toshio; Hirata, Chika; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Superconductivity in alkali metal-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs) was observed in K3.3C60NWs, Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs with transition temperatures at 17, 25 and 26 K, respectively. Almost full shielding volume fraction (~80%) was observed in K3.3C60NWs when subjected to thermal treatment at 200 °C for a duration of 24 h. In contrast, the shielding fraction of Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs were calculated to be 8% and 6%, respectively. Here we report on an extensive investigation of the superconducting properties of these AC60NWs (A  =  K3.3, Rb3.0 and Cs2.0Rb1.0). These properties are compared to the ones reported on the corresponding conventional (single-crystal or powder) K-doped fullerene. We also evaluated the critical current densities of these C60NWs using the Bean model under an applied magnetic field up to 50 kOe.

  10. Relation between the electroforming voltage in alkali halide-polymer diodes and the bandgap of the alkali halide

    SciTech Connect

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jingxin; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Gomes, Henrique L.; De Leeuw, Dago M.

    2014-12-08

    Electroforming of indium-tin-oxide/alkali halide/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes has been investigated by bias dependent reflectivity measurements. The threshold voltages for electrocoloration and electroforming are independent of layer thickness and correlate with the bandgap of the alkali halide. We argue that the origin is voltage induced defect formation. Frenkel defect pairs are formed by electron–hole recombination in the alkali halide. This self-accelerating process mitigates injection barriers. The dynamic junction formation is compared to that of a light emitting electrochemical cell. A critical defect density for electroforming is 10{sup 25}/m{sup 3}. The electroformed alkali halide layer can be considered as a highly doped semiconductor with metallic transport characteristics.

  11. METHOD FOR DECONTAMINATION OF REACTOR SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Maraman, W.J.; Baxman, H.R.; Baker, R.D.

    1959-05-01

    A process for U recovery from phosphate fuel solutions is described. To fuel solution drawn from the reactor is added Fe(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ which destroys the U complex and forms ferric phosphate complex. The UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ formed is extracted into TBP-kerosene in a countercurrent column. The TBP contalning UO/sub 2/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ is further purified by an aqueous Al(NO/ sub 3/)/sub 3/ scrub solution. The pregnant solution then goes to an H/sub 3/PO/ sub 4/ stripping and kerosene washing column. The H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/--uranyl phosphate solution is separated at the bottom and boiled to remove HNO/sub 3/ then diluted to fuel solution make-up strength. (T.R.H.)

  12. Freeze-thawing behaviour of highly concentrated aqueous alkali chloride-glucose systems.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, K; Motegi, A; Murase, N

    2001-01-01

    The freeze-thawing behaviour of highly concentrated aqueous alkali chloride-glucose systems was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the aqueous NaCl-glucose solution system, single or double glass transitions followed by the corresponding devitrification exotherms were observed during rewarming. In the aqueous KCl-glucose solution system, on the other hand, a single glass transition followed by an exotherm was observed during rewarming. The presence of double glass transitions observed for a certain composition of the aqueous NaCl-glucose solution was taken as an evidence for the liquid-liquid immiscibility at low temperatures. Two kinds of crystallisation accompanied by exotherms during rewarming were identified by X-ray diffraction as ice and ice/NaCl x 2H(2)O, or ice/KCl eutectic component. PMID:11788873

  13. Efficient destruction of CF4 through in situ generation of alkali metals from heated alkali halide reducing mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Churl; Choi, Wonyong

    2002-03-15

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are the most potent green house gases that are very recalcitrant at destruction. An effective way of converting PFCs using hot solid reagents into safe products has been recently introduced. By investigating the thermal reductive destruction of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) we provided new insight and more physicochemical consideration on this novel process. The complete destruction of CF4was successfully achieved by flowing the gas through a heated reagent bed (400-950 degrees C) that contained powder mixtures of alkali halides, CaO, and Si. The silicon acted as a reducing agent of alkali halides for the in-situ production of alkali metals, and the calcium oxide played the role of a halide ion acceptor. The absence of any single component in this ternary mixture drastically reduced the destruction efficiency of CF4. The CF4 destruction efficiencies with the solid reagent containing the alkali halide, MX, increased in the order of Li approximately Na < K < Cs for alkali cations and I < Br < Cl < F for halide anions. This trend agreed with the endothermicity of the alkali metal generation reaction: the higher the endothermicity, the lower the destruction efficiency. Alkali metal generation was indirectly detected by monitoring H2 production from its reaction with water. The production of alkali metals increased with NaF, KF, and CsF in this order. The CsF/CaO/Si system exhibited the complete destruction of CF4 at as low as 600 degrees C. The solid product analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of CaF2 and the depletion of Si with black carbon particles formed in the solid reagent residue. No CO/CO2 and toxic HF and SiF4 formation were detected in the exhaust gas.

  14. Responses of desert, semi-arid grassland and scrub-oak ecosystems to elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, Kristina; Walker, Anthony; de Kauwe, Martin; Hungate, Bruce; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Lu, Meng; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Nowak, Robert; Morgan, Jack; Medlyn, Belinda; Norby, Richard; Zaehle, Sönke

    2014-05-01

    We compared observations from free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments at dry (desert, semi-arid grassland and scrub-oak) sites, to predictions from a suite of ecosystem models with differing complexity, ranging from a parsimonious forest growth model (GDAY) to a comprehensive land surface model (OCN). Dry ecosystems have often been predicted to increase in net primary productivity (NPP) and net C uptake over time in response to elevated CO2 (eCO2) because of increased N fixation, and alleviation of drought-stress due to reduced stomatal conductance. However, experiments at the Nevada Desert FACE (NDFF), the semi-arid prairie grassland FACE (PHACE), and the scrub-oak Kennedy Space Center open-top chamber experiment (KSCO), have revealed that dry ecosystems display a more complex biogeochemical response to eCO2. Insights into the processes determining the responses of dry ecosystems to eCO2 were gained by evaluating model estimates against site data, and by dissecting model responses to eCO2. Site level findings at PHACE indicated that eCO2 enabled more rapid C turnover, resulting in a net ecosystem C loss. Conversely, at PHACE, models such as OCN simulated a decrease in N leaching and an increase in NPP because of eCO2, leading to increased C storage. Leaf cover and NPP at KSCO initially increased with eCO2 before declining due to reduced N fixation and increased N leaching. At NDFF, eCO2 only increased plant growth during one abnormally wet year; in subsequent years, soil crust cyanobacteria decreased in abundance, and gains in biomass were not sustained. In OCN simulations at NDFF, eCO2 increased water-use efficiency and NPP in years with average to above-average precipitation. Through examination of the reasons for discrepancies between observed and modeled ecosystem responses to eCO2, processes determining the biogeochemical responses of dry ecosystems to eCO2 were elucidated.

  15. Triple trouble--macrophage activation syndrome in a case of severe leptospirosis and scrub typhus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Diwan, A G; Shewale, Rahul; Iyer, Shivakumar; Nisal, Amit; Agrawa, Prakhar

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome is a potentially life threatening phenomenon characterised by aggressive proliferation of macrophages and T lymphocytes leading to haemophagocytosis of other blood cells and multi organ failure. Here we present a very unusual combination of leptospirosis and scrub typhus infection leading to macrophage activation syndrome. Scrub typhus associated with macrophage activation syndrome has rarely been reported in India. A 40 year old female presented with high grade fever, seizures, bodyache, arthralgia and severe breathlessness. Investigations revealed persistent thrombocytopenia, impaired liver function tests, renal dysfunction, leptospiral IgM ELISA positive and a positive Weil Felix test. There was evidence of haemophagocytosis in bone marrow. Macrophage activation syndrome if left untreated has been associated with rapidly fatal outcome and early treatment can help us save that one precious thing..called life..! PMID:25327097

  16. Effect of silicate modulus and metakaolin incorporation on the carbonation of alkali silicate-activated slags

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, Susan A.; Mejia de Gutierrez, Ruby; Provis, John L.; Rose, Volker

    2010-06-15

    Accelerated carbonation is induced in pastes and mortars produced from alkali silicate-activated granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS)-metakaolin (MK) blends, by exposure to CO{sub 2}-rich gas atmospheres. Uncarbonated specimens show compressive strengths of up to 63 MPa after 28 days of curing when GBFS is used as the sole binder, and this decreases by 40-50% upon complete carbonation. The final strength of carbonated samples is largely independent of the extent of metakaolin incorporation up to 20%. Increasing the metakaolin content of the binder leads to a reduction in mechanical strength, more rapid carbonation, and an increase in capillary sorptivity. A higher susceptibility to carbonation is identified when activation is carried out with a lower solution modulus (SiO{sub 2}/Na{sub 2}O ratio) in metakaolin-free samples, but this trend is reversed when metakaolin is added due to the formation of secondary aluminosilicate phases. High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffractometry of uncarbonated paste samples shows that the main reaction products in alkali-activated GBFS/MK blends are C-S-H gels, and aluminosilicates with a zeolitic (gismondine) structure. The main crystalline carbonation products are calcite in all samples and trona only in samples containing no metakaolin, with carbonation taking place in the C-S-H gels of all samples, and involving the free Na{sup +} present in the pore solution of the metakaolin-free samples. Samples containing metakaolin do not appear to have the same availability of Na{sup +} for carbonation, indicating that this is more effectively bound in the presence of a secondary aluminosilicate gel phase. It is clear that claims of exceptional carbonation resistance in alkali-activated binders are not universally true, but by developing a fuller mechanistic understanding of this process, it will certainly be possible to improve performance in this area.

  17. Mixed alkali effect on the spectroscopic properties of alkali-alkaline earth oxide borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, G.; Ramesh, B.; Shareefuddin, Md.; Chary, M. N.; Sayanna, R.

    2016-05-01

    The mixed alkali and alkaline earth oxide borate glass with the composition xK2O - (25-x) Li2O-12.5BaO-12.5MgO-50B2O3 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25mol %) and doped with 1mol% CuO were prepared by the melt quenching technique. From the optical absorption spectra the optical band gap, electronic polarizability(α02-), interaction parameter (A), theoretical and experimental optical basicity (Λ) values were evaluated. From the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectral data the number of spins (N) and susceptibility (χ) were evaluated. The values of (α02-), and (Λ) increases with increasing of K2O content and electronic polarizability and interaction parameter show opposite behaviuor which may be due to the creation of non-bridging oxygens and expansion of borate network. The reciprocal of susceptibility (1/χ) and spin concentration (N) as a function of K2O content, varied nonlinearly which may be due to creation of non-bridging oxygens in the present glass system. This may be attributed to mixed alkali effect (MAE).

  18. A Nonhuman Primate Scrub Typhus Model: Protective Immune Responses Induced by pKarp47 DNA Vaccination in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Suchismita; Jiang, Ju; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Lee, John S.; Tan, Esterlina; Dela Cruz, Eduardo; Burgos, Jasmin; Abalos, Rodolfo; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Lombardini, Eric; Turner, Gareth D.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Richards, Allen L.

    2015-01-01

    We developed an intradermal (ID) challenge cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of scrub typhus, the leading cause of treatable undifferentiated febrile illness in tropical Asia, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Orientia tsutsugamushi. A well-characterized animal model is required for the development of clinically relevant diagnostic assays and evaluation of therapeutic agents and candidate vaccines. We investigated scrub typhus disease pathophysiology and evaluated two O. tsutsugamushi 47-kDa, Ag-based candidate vaccines, a DNA plasmid vaccine (pKarp47), and a virus-vectored vaccine (Kp47/47-Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle) for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy against homologous ID challenge with O. tsutsugamushi Karp. Control cynomolgus macaques developed fever, classic eschars, lymphadenopathy, bacteremia, altered liver function, increased WBC counts, pathogen-specific Ab (IgM and IgG), and cell-mediated immune responses. Vaccinated macaques receiving the DNA plasmid pKarp47 vaccine had significantly increased O. tsutsugamushi–specific, IFN-γ–producing PBMCs (p = 0.04), reduced eschar frequency and bacteremia duration (p ≤ 0.01), delayed bacteremia onset (p < 0.05), reduced circulating bacterial biomass (p = 0.01), and greater reduction of liver transaminase levels (p < 0.03) than controls. This study demonstrates a vaccine-induced immune response capable of conferring sterile immunity against high-dose homologous ID challenge of O. tsutsugamushi in a nonhuman primate model, and it provides insight into cell-mediated immune control of O. tsutsugamushi and dissemination dynamics, highlights the importance of bacteremia indices for evaluation of both natural and vaccine-induced immune responses, and importantly, to our knowledge, has determined the first phenotypic correlates of immune protection in scrub typhus. We conclude that this model is suitable for detailed investigations into vaccine

  19. A nonhuman primate scrub typhus model: protective immune responses induced by pKarp47 DNA vaccination in cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Paris, Daniel H; Chattopadhyay, Suchismita; Jiang, Ju; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Lee, John S; Tan, Esterlina; Dela Cruz, Eduardo; Burgos, Jasmin; Abalos, Rodolfo; Blacksell, Stuart D; Lombardini, Eric; Turner, Gareth D; Day, Nicholas P J; Richards, Allen L

    2015-02-15

    We developed an intradermal (ID) challenge cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of scrub typhus, the leading cause of treatable undifferentiated febrile illness in tropical Asia, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Orientia tsutsugamushi. A well-characterized animal model is required for the development of clinically relevant diagnostic assays and evaluation of therapeutic agents and candidate vaccines. We investigated scrub typhus disease pathophysiology and evaluated two O. tsutsugamushi 47-kDa, Ag-based candidate vaccines, a DNA plasmid vaccine (pKarp47), and a virus-vectored vaccine (Kp47/47-Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle) for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy against homologous ID challenge with O. tsutsugamushi Karp. Control cynomolgus macaques developed fever, classic eschars, lymphadenopathy, bacteremia, altered liver function, increased WBC counts, pathogen-specific Ab (IgM and IgG), and cell-mediated immune responses. Vaccinated macaques receiving the DNA plasmid pKarp47 vaccine had significantly increased O. tsutsugamushi-specific, IFN-γ-producing PBMCs (p = 0.04), reduced eschar frequency and bacteremia duration (p ≤ 0.01), delayed bacteremia onset (p < 0.05), reduced circulating bacterial biomass (p = 0.01), and greater reduction of liver transaminase levels (p < 0.03) than controls. This study demonstrates a vaccine-induced immune response capable of conferring sterile immunity against high-dose homologous ID challenge of O. tsutsugamushi in a nonhuman primate model, and it provides insight into cell-mediated immune control of O. tsutsugamushi and dissemination dynamics, highlights the importance of bacteremia indices for evaluation of both natural and vaccine-induced immune responses, and importantly, to our knowledge, has determined the first phenotypic correlates of immune protection in scrub typhus. We conclude that this model is suitable for detailed investigations into vaccine-induced immune

  20. Activation, Impaired Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production, and Deficiency of Circulating Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Patients with Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eun Jeong; Cho, Young-Nan; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Kee, Hae Jin; Ju, Jae Kyun; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kim, Uh Jin; Jang, Hee-Chang; Jung, Sook-In; Kee, Seung-Jung; Park, Yong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells contribute to protection against certain microorganism infections. However, little is known about the role of MAIT cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Hence, the aims of this study were to examine the level and function of MAIT cells in patients with scrub typhus and to evaluate the clinical relevance of MAIT cell levels. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-eight patients with scrub typhus and 53 health control subjects were enrolled in the study. The patients were further divided into subgroups according to disease severity. MAIT cell level and function in the peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. Circulating MAIT cell levels were found to be significantly reduced in scrub typhus patients. MAIT cell deficiency reflects a variety of clinical conditions. In particular, MAT cell levels reflect disease severity. MAIT cells in scrub typhus patients displayed impaired tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production, which was restored during the remission phase. In addition, the impaired production of TNF-α by MAIT cells was associated with elevated CD69 expression. Conclusions This study shows that circulating MAIT cells are activated, numerically deficient, and functionally impaired in TNF-α production in patients with scrub typhus. These abnormalities possibly contribute to immune system dysregulation in scrub typhus infection. PMID:27463223

  1. A Conservation Strategy for the Florida Scrub-Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: An Initial Scientific Basis for Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, D. R.; Larson, V. L.; Schaub, R.; Duncan, B. W.; Schmalzer, P. A.; Oddy, D. M.; Smith, R. B.; Adrian, F.; Hill, H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) is an indicator of ecosystem integrity of Florida scrub, an endangered ecosystem that requires frequent fire. One of the largest populations of this federally threatened species occurs on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Population trends were predicted using population modeling and field data on reproduction and survival of Florida Scrub-Jays collected from 1988 - 1995. Analyses of historical photography indicated that habitat suitability has been declining for 30 years. Field data and computer simulations suggested that the population declined by at least 40% and will decline by another 40% in 1 0 years, if habitat management is not greatly intensified. Data and computer simulations suggest that habitat suitability cannot deviate greatly from optimal for the jay population to persist. Landscape trajectories of vegetation structure, responsible for declining habitat suitability, are associated with the disruption of natural fire regimes. Prescribed fire alone can not reverse the trajectories. A recovery strategy was developed, based on studies of Florida Scrub-Jays and scrub vegetation. A reserve design was formulated based on conservation science principles for scrub ecosystems. The strategy emphasizes frequent fire to restore habitat, but includes mechanical tree cutting for severely degraded areas. Pine thinning across large areas can produce rapid increases in habitat quality. Site-specific strategies will need to be developed, monitored, and modified to achieve conditions suitable for population persistence.

  2. Matorral and reclamation. The contribution of scrubs and dwarf shrubs to soil and water conservation in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; González Hidalgo, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    The Mediterranean Matorral (scrubs and dwarf shrubs) was seen by John Thornes as a protective vegetative cover of semiarid lands. His studies on matorral triggered the research, vocations and scientific work of researchers and contributed with a relevant knowledge to the environmental studies in Spain. This research reviews the changes in land use and the use of matorral in Spain. A review of the research done on the effect of matorral on soil and water losses is presented. Books, scientific papers, book chapters and research reports are being reviewed to report how matorral control the soil and water losses under different climatic conditions in Spain. The main conclusion is that scrubs and dwarf shrubs are very efficient in controlling the soil and water losses under semiarid climatic conditions were trees are rare. Nevertheless, scrub has been neglected by the Spanish forestry policy-makers and sometimes the shrubs cover is removed to develop afforestations, mainly with Aleppo pine. Palabras clave: Matorral, Soil, Water, Losses, Spain, Land use, Land management.

  3. Physical removal and transfer of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus from contaminated produce by scrubbing and peeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Erickson, Marilyn C; Ortega, Ynes; Cannon, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Human noroviruses and hepatitis A virus are responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with handling fresh produce. In this study, physical removal of hepatitis A virus and murine norovirus, a human norovirus surrogate, from contaminated produce items (honeydew melons, cantaloupes, carrots, and celery) by scrubbing under running water with a nylon brush or scouring pad and by peeling (carrots and celery) with a peeler was investigated. The degree and extent of utensil contamination with viruses during these operations in the presence and absence of food residue also was investigated. Scrubbing or peeling produce initially inoculated with ∼5.5 log PFU of each virus resulted in significant levels of virus removal, ranging from 0.93 to 2.85 log PFU. However, utensil cross-contamination occurred, with >2 log PFU of virus transferred from a single produce item. After preparation of a contaminated produce item, utensil cross-contamination resulted in virus detection on seven successively prepared produce items. Produce residue accumulation on utensils variably impacted virus transfer to utensil surfaces. Results indicate that scrubbing and peeling produce can reduce levels of viruses on contaminated produce, but the importance of utensil sanitation to prevent cross-contamination is highlighted. Findings also provide important information for modeling virus cross-contamination during food preparation. PMID:23317861

  4. Artificial nest predation in hedgerows and scrub forest in a human-dominated landscape of central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuria, Iriana; Gates, J. Edward; Castellanos, Ignacio

    2007-03-01

    Hedgerows as well as other narrow corridors could be valuable habitats for birds in regions of intensive agriculture, however, it is still not clear how successful breeding birds are in different types of hedgerows as compared to birds nesting in their natural habitats. We used artificial nests to examine whether hedgerows were sinks (ecological traps) for birds by comparing rates of predation in two types of hedgerows with different vegetation structure (simple and complex), and in a tract of scrub forest in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico. We determined also the types of predators responsible for egg predation. Ground and elevated nests were baited with one Japanese quail Coturnix japonica egg and one plasticine egg and placed alternately along transects. Significantly, greater predation rates were found in scrub forest and complex hedgerows than in simple hedgerows. Higher predation rates in complex habitats seemed to reflect the higher number of predator types found there. The most important predator types were carnivores followed by rodents, birds, and humans. Carnivores and rodents mainly predated ground nests, whereas birds and humans predated elevated nests. Simple hedgerows in this landscape appeared to offer relatively safe nest sites in terms of predation pressure when compared to more complex habitats (complex hedgerows and scrub forest).

  5. Physical removal and transfer of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus from contaminated produce by scrubbing and peeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Erickson, Marilyn C; Ortega, Ynes; Cannon, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Human noroviruses and hepatitis A virus are responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with handling fresh produce. In this study, physical removal of hepatitis A virus and murine norovirus, a human norovirus surrogate, from contaminated produce items (honeydew melons, cantaloupes, carrots, and celery) by scrubbing under running water with a nylon brush or scouring pad and by peeling (carrots and celery) with a peeler was investigated. The degree and extent of utensil contamination with viruses during these operations in the presence and absence of food residue also was investigated. Scrubbing or peeling produce initially inoculated with ∼5.5 log PFU of each virus resulted in significant levels of virus removal, ranging from 0.93 to 2.85 log PFU. However, utensil cross-contamination occurred, with >2 log PFU of virus transferred from a single produce item. After preparation of a contaminated produce item, utensil cross-contamination resulted in virus detection on seven successively prepared produce items. Produce residue accumulation on utensils variably impacted virus transfer to utensil surfaces. Results indicate that scrubbing and peeling produce can reduce levels of viruses on contaminated produce, but the importance of utensil sanitation to prevent cross-contamination is highlighted. Findings also provide important information for modeling virus cross-contamination during food preparation.

  6. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was

  7. Alkali content of alpine ultramafic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, W.; Mountjoy, W.

    1965-01-01

    The lower limit of abundance of sodium and potassium in ultramafic rocks is less than the threshold amount detectable by conventional analytical methods. By a dilutionaddition modification of the flame-spectrophotometric method, sodium and potassium have been determined in 40 specimens of alpine ultramafic rocks. Samples represent six regions in the United States and one in Australia, and include dunite, peridotite, pyroxenite, and their variably serpentinized and metamorphosed derivatives. The median value found for Na2O is 0.004 per cent, and the range of Na2O is 0.001-0.19. The median value for K2O is 0.0034 per cent and the range is 0.001-0.031 per cent. Alkali concentrations are below 0.01 per cent Na2O in 28 samples and below 0.01 per cent K2O in 35. Derivation of basalt magma from upper-mantle material similar to such ultramafic rocks, as has been postulated, is precluded by the relative amounts of sodium and potassium, which are from 200 to 600 times more abundant in basalt than in the ultramafic rocks. Similar factors apply to a number of other elements. No reasonable process could produce such concentrations in, for example, tens of thousands of cubic miles of uniform tholeiitic basalt. The ultramafic rocks might have originated either as magmatic crystal precipitates or as mantle residues left after fusion and removal of basaltic magma. Injection of ultramafic rocks to exposed positions is tectonic rather than magmatic. ?? 1965.

  8. Triuret as a Potential Hypokalemic Agent: Structure Characterization of Triuret and Triuret-Alkali Metal Adducts by Mass Spectrometric Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Palii, Sergiu P.; Contreras, Cesar S.; Steill, Jeffrey D.; Palii, Stela S.; Oomens, Jos; Eyler, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Triuret (also known as carbonyldiurea, dicarbamylurea, or 2,4-diimidotricarbonic diamide) is a byproduct of purine degradation in living organisms. An abundant triuret precursor is uric acid, whose level is altered in multiple metabolic pathologies. Triuret can be generated via urate oxidation by peroxynitrite, the latter being produced by the reaction of nitric oxide radical with superoxide radical anion. From this standpoint, an excess production of superoxide radical anions could indirectly favor triuret formation; however very little is known about the potential in vivo roles of this metabolite. Triuret’s structure is suggestive of its ability to adopt various conformations and act as a flexible ligand for metal ions. In the current study, HPLC-MS/MS, energy-resolved mass spectrometry, selected ion monitoring, collision-induced dissociation, IRMPD spectroscopy, Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and computational methods were employed to characterize the structure of triuret and its metal complexes, to determine the triuret-alkali metal binding motif, and to evaluate triuret affinity toward alkali metal ions, as well as its affinity for Na+ and K+ relative to other organic ligands. The most favored binding motif was determined to be a bidentate chelation of triuret with the alkali metal cation involving two carbonyl oxygens. Using the complexation selectivity method, it was observed that in solution triuret has an increased affinity for potassium ions, compared to sodium and other alkali metal ions. We propose that triuret may act as a potential hypokalemic agent under pathophysiological conditions conducive to its excessive formation and thus contribute to electrolyte disorders. The collision- or photo-induced fragmentation channels of deprotonated and protonated triuret, as well as its alkali metal adducts, are likely to mimic the triuret degradation pathways in vivo. PMID:20371222

  9. Scrubbing of contaminants from contaminated air streams with aerogel materials with optional photocatalytic destruction

    DOEpatents

    Attia, Yosry A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for separating a vaporous or gaseous contaminant from an air stream contaminated therewith. This method includes the steps of: (a) passing said contaminated air into a contact zone in which is disposed an aerogel material capable of selecting adsorbing said contaminant from air and therein contacting said contaminated air with an aerogel material; and (b) withdrawing from said zone, air depleted of said contaminant. For present purposes, "contaminant" means a material not naturally occurring in ambient air and/or a material naturally occurring in air but present at a concentration above that found in ambient air. Thus, the present invention scrubs (or treats) air for the purpose of returning it to its ambient composition. Also disclosed herein is a process for the photocatalytic destruction of contaminants from an air stream wherein the contaminated air stream is passed into a control cell or contact zone in which is disposed a photocatalytic aerogel and exposing said aerogel to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for photocatalytically destroying the adsorbed contaminant, and withdrawing from said cell an exhaust air stream depleted in said contaminant.

  10. The Diversity and Geographical Structure of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains from Scrub Typhus Patients in Laos

    PubMed Central

    Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Sonthayanon, Piengchan; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Paris, Daniel H.; Newton, Paul N.; Feil, Edward J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a disease transmitted by Leptotrombidium mites which is responsible for a severe and under-reported public health burden throughout Southeast Asia. Here we use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to characterize 74 clinical isolates from three geographic locations in the Lao PDR (Laos), and compare them with isolates described from Udon Thani, northeast Thailand. The data confirm high levels of diversity and recombination within the natural O. tsutsugamushi population, and a rate of mixed infection of ~8%. We compared the relationships and geographical structuring of the strains and populations using allele based approaches (eBURST), phylogenetic approaches, and by calculating F-statistics (FST). These analyses all point towards low levels of population differentiation between isolates from Vientiane and Udon Thani, cities which straddle the Mekong River which defines the Lao/Thai border, but with a very distinct population in Salavan, southern Laos. These data highlight how land use, as well as the movement of hosts and vectors, may impact on the epidemiology of zoonotic infections. PMID:26317624

  11. Local climatic conditions constrain soil yeast diversity patterns in Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome.

    PubMed

    Yurkov, Andrey M; Röhl, Oliver; Pontes, Ana; Carvalho, Cláudia; Maldonado, Cristina; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Soil yeasts represent a poorly known fraction of the soil microbiome due to limited ecological surveys. Here, we provide the first comprehensive inventory of cultivable soil yeasts in a Mediterranean ecosystem, which is the leading biodiversity hotspot for vascular plants and vertebrates in Europe. We isolated and identified soil yeasts from forested sites of Serra da Arrábida Natural Park (Portugal), representing the Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome. Both cultivation experiments and the subsequent species richness estimations suggest the highest species richness values reported to date, resulting in a total of 57 and 80 yeast taxa, respectively. These values far exceed those reported for other forest soils in Europe. Furthermore, we assessed the response of yeast diversity to microclimatic environmental factors in biotopes composed of the same plant species but showing a gradual change from humid broadleaf forests to dry maquis. We observed that forest properties constrained by precipitation level had strong impact on yeast diversity and on community structure and lower precipitation resulted in an increased number of rare species and decreased evenness values. In conclusion, the structure of soil yeast communities mirrors the environmental factors that affect aboveground phytocenoses, aboveground biomass and plant projective cover.

  12. Post-Fire Recovery in Coastal Sage Scrub: Seed Rain and Community Trajectory.

    PubMed

    Conlisk, Erin; Swab, Rebecca; Martínez-Berdeja, Alejandra; Daugherty, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance is a primary mechanism structuring ecological communities. However, human activity has the potential to alter the frequency and intensity of natural disturbance regimes, with subsequent effects on ecosystem processes. In Southern California, human development has led to increased fire frequency close to urban areas that can form a positive feedback with invasive plant spread. Understanding how abiotic and biotic factors structure post-fire plant communities is a critical component of post-fire management and restoration. In this study we considered a variety of mechanisms affecting post-fire vegetation recovery in Riversidean sage scrub. Comparing recently burned plots to unburned plots, we found that burning significantly reduced species richness and percent cover of exotic vegetation the first two years following a 100-hectare wildfire. Seed rain was higher in burned plots, with more native forb seeds, while unburned plots had more exotic grass seeds. Moreover, there were significant correlations between seed rain composition and plant cover composition the year prior and the year after. Collectively, this case study suggests that fire can alter community composition, but there was not compelling evidence of a vegetation-type conversion. Instead, the changes in the community composition were temporary and convergence in community composition was apparent within two years post-fire.

  13. Corticosterone administration does not affect timing of breeding in Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    PubMed

    Schoech, Stephan J; Bowman, Reed; Bridge, Eli S; Morgan, Gina M; Rensel, Michelle A; Wilcoxen, Travis E; Boughton, Raoul K

    2007-08-01

    Providing supplemental food to Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) causes a reliable advance in clutch initiation of 1 to 2 weeks. In some years, supplemental food appeared to not only advance laying date but also decrease baseline concentrations of corticosterone (CORT) relative to controls. The coincidence of low CORT levels and early breeding led us to hypothesize that CORT serves to communicate information about environmental conditions to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which ultimately influences the timing of breeding. To test this hypothesis, we administered small oral doses of CORT three times each day to female breeders that were provisioned with supplemental food. We compared clutch initiation dates of the CORT-dosed females to females with supplementation but no exogenous CORT and to females with neither CORT nor supplemental food. CORT administration had a strong temporary effect on circulating CORT concentrations but clutch initiation did not differ between the two groups of supplemented birds, both of which laid eggs approximately 10 days earlier than nonsupplemented birds. Furthermore, during the year of our study we found no reduction in baseline CORT concentrations in our undosed supplemental groups, as had been observed in past studies.

  14. Ductwork and chimney modifications for utilization of improved FGD scrubbing capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, S.J.; Chhabra, S.J.; Gullaksen, D.J.; Cassidy, S.

    1996-10-01

    Tampa Electric Company`s (TECO) Big Bend Station located southwest of Tampa, Florida, consists of four coal-fired units totaling 1,822 MW. The 475-MW Unit 4, which began operation in 1985, operates with a balanced draft system and is equipped with a wet limestone forced-oxidation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Units 1 through 3, which operate with forced draft systems, are not equipped with FGD systems and, consequently, are subject to the Phase 1 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. TECO initiated studies to determine the most effective program for achieving environmental compliance for Units 1 through 3 and, based on these studies, developed an innovative idea for using the improved FGD scrubbing capacity of Unit 4 to treat the flue gas from Unit 3. On June 20, 1995, TECO successfully implemented this idea when it diverted Unit 3 flue gas to the Unit 4 scrubber. The project required modifications to the Unit 4 scrubber, as well as modifications to the draft system controls, ductwork, continuous emissions monitoring systems, and chimneys of both Units 3 and 4. The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique aspects of the ductwork and chimney modifications that were implemented on the project.

  15. Effect of sublethal gamma radiation on host defenses in experimental scrub typhus

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.J.; Rees, J.C.

    1986-06-01

    The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which were inoculated with the Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least 1 year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks postinoculation with normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than was seen in the unirradiated, similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for 5 weeks after irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation-induced recrudescence. Unirradiated, infected mice showed consistent titers of about 320 throughout the 5-week observation period, and the titer was not affected by exposure of up to 500 rads of gamma radiation. Drug dose-dependent radioprotection and modification of recrudescence was noted in infected, irradiated mice treated with the antiradiation compound S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid. The results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host after immunological impairment due to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia.

  16. Host defenses in experimental scrub typhus: effect of sublethal gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which have been inoculated with Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least one year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks post inoculation at normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than in the unirradiated similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks also induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for five weeks following irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation induced recrudescence. Modification of recrudescence was investigated using radioprotective drugs. The expected results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host following immunological impairment due to battlefield or clinical exposure to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia.

  17. Developing terrestrial, multi-taxon indices of biological integrity: An example from coastal sage scrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffendorfer, J.E.; Fleming, G.M.; Duggan, J.M.; Chapman, R.E.; Rahn, M.E.; Mitrovich, M.J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    We screened 351 species or genera for their response to disturbance in coastal sage scrub (CSS) to develop a 15-metric, 5-taxon Index of Biological Integrity (IBI). We collected data on ants, birds, herpetofauna, small mammals, and plants for two years on 46 sites established across a gradient of disturbance in three reserves. The gradient spanned relatively intact CSS with thick stands of shrubs, to former CSS stands type-converted to exotic grasses. ANOVAs and clustering analyses indicated the IBI could distinguish four levels of disturbance in CSS. General measures of community structure, such as richness, did not show changes across the gradient for most taxa, and responses of taxa across the gradient were varied and rarely correlated. However, turnover in species or genera across the gradient was common across all taxa as shrub-obligate life forms were replaced by those favoring grassy or disturbed habitats. Our data indicate index-based approaches based on data collected across disturbance gradients may outperform more traditional community level metrics when responses to anthropogenic influences are complex and vary across species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) Densities in Coastal Scrub and Slash Pine Flatwoods in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1994-01-01

    Densities of gopher tortoises were compared with habitat characteristics in scrub and in flatwood habitats on the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Tortoises were distributed widely among habitat types and did not have higher densities in well-drained (oak-palmetto) than in poorly-drained (saw palmetto) habitats. Fall densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.7 individuals/ha in disturbed habitat to 0.0 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat. Spring densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.5 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat to 0.7 individuals/ha in oak-palmetto habitat. Densities of tortoises were correlated positively with the percent herbaceous cover, an indicator of food resources. Plots were divided into three burn classes; these were areas burned within three years, burned four to seven years, and unburned for more than seven years prior to the study. Relationships between densities of tortoises and time-since-fire classes were inconsistent.

  19. The Diversity and Geographical Structure of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains from Scrub Typhus Patients in Laos.

    PubMed

    Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Sonthayanon, Piengchan; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N; Feil, Edward J; Day, Nicholas P J

    2015-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a disease transmitted by Leptotrombidium mites which is responsible for a severe and under-reported public health burden throughout Southeast Asia. Here we use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to characterize 74 clinical isolates from three geographic locations in the Lao PDR (Laos), and compare them with isolates described from Udon Thani, northeast Thailand. The data confirm high levels of diversity and recombination within the natural O. tsutsugamushi population, and a rate of mixed infection of ~8%. We compared the relationships and geographical structuring of the strains and populations using allele based approaches (eBURST), phylogenetic approaches, and by calculating F-statistics (FST). These analyses all point towards low levels of population differentiation between isolates from Vientiane and Udon Thani, cities which straddle the Mekong River which defines the Lao/Thai border, but with a very distinct population in Salavan, southern Laos. These data highlight how land use, as well as the movement of hosts and vectors, may impact on the epidemiology of zoonotic infections. PMID:26317624

  20. Evolutionary and demographic history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Ortego, Joaquín; Noguerales, Víctor; Gugger, Paul F; Sork, Victoria L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors promoting species formation is a major task in evolutionary research. Here, we employ an integrative approach to study the evolutionary history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex (genus Quercus). To infer the relative importance of geographical isolation and ecological divergence in driving the speciation process, we (i) analysed inter- and intraspecific patterns of genetic differentiation and employed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework to evaluate different plausible scenarios of species divergence. In a second step, we (ii) linked the inferred divergence pathways with current and past species distribution models (SDMs) and (iii) tested for niche differentiation and phylogenetic niche conservatism across taxa. ABC analyses showed that the most plausible scenario is the one considering the divergence of two main lineages followed by a more recent pulse of speciation. Genotypic data in conjunction with SDMs and niche differentiation analyses support that different factors (geography vs. environment) and modes of speciation (parapatry, allopatry and maybe sympatry) have played a role in the divergence process within this complex. We found no significant relationship between genetic differentiation and niche overlap, which probably reflects niche lability and/or that multiple factors, have contributed to speciation. Our study shows that different mechanisms can drive divergence even among closely related taxa representing early stages of species formation and exemplifies the importance of adopting integrative approaches to get a better understanding of the speciation process. PMID:26547661

  1. Post-Fire Recovery in Coastal Sage Scrub: Seed Rain and Community Trajectory.

    PubMed

    Conlisk, Erin; Swab, Rebecca; Martínez-Berdeja, Alejandra; Daugherty, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance is a primary mechanism structuring ecological communities. However, human activity has the potential to alter the frequency and intensity of natural disturbance regimes, with subsequent effects on ecosystem processes. In Southern California, human development has led to increased fire frequency close to urban areas that can form a positive feedback with invasive plant spread. Understanding how abiotic and biotic factors structure post-fire plant communities is a critical component of post-fire management and restoration. In this study we considered a variety of mechanisms affecting post-fire vegetation recovery in Riversidean sage scrub. Comparing recently burned plots to unburned plots, we found that burning significantly reduced species richness and percent cover of exotic vegetation the first two years following a 100-hectare wildfire. Seed rain was higher in burned plots, with more native forb seeds, while unburned plots had more exotic grass seeds. Moreover, there were significant correlations between seed rain composition and plant cover composition the year prior and the year after. Collectively, this case study suggests that fire can alter community composition, but there was not compelling evidence of a vegetation-type conversion. Instead, the changes in the community composition were temporary and convergence in community composition was apparent within two years post-fire. PMID:27649564

  2. Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

  3. Severity Predictors in Eschar-Positive Scrub Typhus and Role of Serum Osteopontin

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Won; Lee, Chang-Seop; Lee, Chi Kug; Kwak, Yee Gyung; Moon, Chisook; Kim, Baek-Nam; Kim, Eu Suk; Kang, Jae Myung; Oh, Myoung-don

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated severity predictors in terms of host, microorganism, and treatment factors in 153 eschar-positive scrub typhus patients. Severity was assessed with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (< 10 versus ≥ 10) and predefined criteria of severe complications. Genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi were determined. Independent risk factors for severity (APACHE II score ≥ 10) were old age, diabetes mellitus, serum osteopontin > 100 ng/mL, and a group of underlying diseases (congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, chronic liver disease, bronchial asthma, and chronic obstructive lung diseases). Anemia (≤ 10 g/dL) and C-reactive protein > 10 mg/dL were indicators of current severity. Neither the delay in antibiotics administration nor strain types (Boryong, Taguchi, or Kanda/Kawasaki) contributed to the severity. The risk factors for severe complications were similar. Serum osteopontin > 100 ng/mL had a negative predictive value of 96% for severe complications. This marker can be used to rule out severe disease status. PMID:22049051

  4. Investigation of an outbreak of scrub typhus in the himalayan region of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anuradha; Mahajan, Sanjay; Gupta, M L; Kanga, Anil; Sharma, Vijay

    2005-08-01

    In Indira Gandhi Medical College, Himachal Pradesh, India, during autumn of 2003 (September-November), more than 100 cases of fever of unknown origin (FUO) were reported with 15 ensuing deaths. In addition to all routine investigations and cultures, the Weil-Felix test was incorporated for the investigation of these cases. Antigen was procured from the Central Research Institute, Kasauli. Forty-six percent (45/96) of the cases demonstrated a > or =1:80 titer of agglutinins against OXK antigen. A team from the National Institute of Communicable Diseases, New Delhi, confirmed the antibodies for scrub typhus in some of the serum samples tested for leptospirosis, dengue fever, and rickettsial infections. Twelve blood samples positive for OXK antigen were sent to the Defense Research Development Establishment, Gwalior, for polymerase chain reaction studies, but none of the samples were positive, as all of the patients were already on broad-spectrum antibiotics and had reported to our hospital after 7-10 days of fever. At our institute, the Weil-Felix test has now been rountinely introduced for the investigation of cases of FUO, and the results until April 2004 (150 cases) revealed the presence of other rickettsial infections prevalent in the region. To evaluate the epidemiology and magnitude of the problem, further prospective studies are required.

  5. Post-Fire Recovery in Coastal Sage Scrub: Seed Rain and Community Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Conlisk, Erin; Swab, Rebecca; Martínez-Berdeja, Alejandra; Daugherty, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance is a primary mechanism structuring ecological communities. However, human activity has the potential to alter the frequency and intensity of natural disturbance regimes, with subsequent effects on ecosystem processes. In Southern California, human development has led to increased fire frequency close to urban areas that can form a positive feedback with invasive plant spread. Understanding how abiotic and biotic factors structure post-fire plant communities is a critical component of post-fire management and restoration. In this study we considered a variety of mechanisms affecting post-fire vegetation recovery in Riversidean sage scrub. Comparing recently burned plots to unburned plots, we found that burning significantly reduced species richness and percent cover of exotic vegetation the first two years following a 100-hectare wildfire. Seed rain was higher in burned plots, with more native forb seeds, while unburned plots had more exotic grass seeds. Moreover, there were significant correlations between seed rain composition and plant cover composition the year prior and the year after. Collectively, this case study suggests that fire can alter community composition, but there was not compelling evidence of a vegetation-type conversion. Instead, the changes in the community composition were temporary and convergence in community composition was apparent within two years post-fire. PMID:27649564

  6. Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction by a sulfate reducing bacterium in NO and SO₂ scrubbing liquor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingxiang; Zhou, Jiti; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Shi, Zhuang; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-03-01

    A viable process concept, based on NO and SO2 absorption into an alkaline Fe(II)EDTA (EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) solution in a scrubber combined with biological reduction of the absorbed SO2 utilizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and regeneration of the scrubbing liquor in a single bioreactor, was developed. The SRB, Desulfovibrio sp. CMX, was used and its sulfate reduction performances in FeEDTA solutions and Fe(II)EDTA-NO had been investigated. In this study, the detailed regeneration process of Fe(II)EDTA solution, which contained Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction processes in presence of D. sp. CMX and sulfate, was evaluated. Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction processes were primarily biological, even if Fe(III)EDTA and Fe(II)EDTA-NO could also be chemically convert to Fe(II)EDTA by biogenic sulfide. Regardless presence or absence of sulfate, more than 87 % Fe(III)EDTA and 98 % Fe(II)EDTA-NO were reduced in 46 h, respectively. Sulfate and Fe(III)EDTA had no affection on Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction. Sulfate enhanced final Fe(III)EDTA reduction. Effect of Fe(III)EDTA on Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction rate was more obvious than effect of sulfate on Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction rate before 8 h. To overcome toxicity of Fe(II)EDTA-NO on SRB, Fe(II)EDTA-NO was reduced first and the reduction of Fe(III)EDTA and sulfate occurred after 2 h. First-order Fe(II)EDTA-NO reduction rate and zero-order Fe(III)EDTA reduction rate were detected respectively before 8 h.

  7. Characterization of water and alkali extractable arabinoxylan from wheat and rye under standardized conditions.

    PubMed

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Praznik, Werner; Loeppert, Renate; Nowotna, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Arabinoxylans (AXs) are an important component of wheat and rye dough. They bind water, contribute to the formation of viscous dough and improve the quality of bread. For the application of AX fractions in bread making process, it is useful to record a quality profile of wheat fractions compared to the quality profile of rye fractions under standardized conditions. In this work water and alkali extractable AX containing fractions, from wheat- and rye wholemeal, were extracted under standardized conditions and characterized. For analysis of composition, structural features, and molecular dimension a combination of chemical, physicochemical, enzymatic and chromatographic techniques was applied. The molar mass distributions obtained by means of an innovative colorimetric pentose detection in the eluted SEC fractions were comparable for all under standardized conditions extracted AXs. The determined molar masses of AXs extracted both from wheat- and from rye grain were close to 2.0 × 10(5) g/mol for water extractable AXs and 3.0 × 10(5) g/mol for alkali extractable AXs. Different susceptibility to endoxylanase treatment, having been observed as differences in the SEC profiles, may be evidence of structural differences between AXs depending on their origin. The viscosities of AX solutions were strongly influenced by their molar mass and structure; samples being less susceptible to endoxylanase provided solutions of higher viscosity. PMID:27570263

  8. Characterization of water and alkali extractable arabinoxylan from wheat and rye under standardized conditions.

    PubMed

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Praznik, Werner; Loeppert, Renate; Nowotna, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Arabinoxylans (AXs) are an important component of wheat and rye dough. They bind water, contribute to the formation of viscous dough and improve the quality of bread. For the application of AX fractions in bread making process, it is useful to record a quality profile of wheat fractions compared to the quality profile of rye fractions under standardized conditions. In this work water and alkali extractable AX containing fractions, from wheat- and rye wholemeal, were extracted under standardized conditions and characterized. For analysis of composition, structural features, and molecular dimension a combination of chemical, physicochemical, enzymatic and chromatographic techniques was applied. The molar mass distributions obtained by means of an innovative colorimetric pentose detection in the eluted SEC fractions were comparable for all under standardized conditions extracted AXs. The determined molar masses of AXs extracted both from wheat- and from rye grain were close to 2.0 × 10(5) g/mol for water extractable AXs and 3.0 × 10(5) g/mol for alkali extractable AXs. Different susceptibility to endoxylanase treatment, having been observed as differences in the SEC profiles, may be evidence of structural differences between AXs depending on their origin. The viscosities of AX solutions were strongly influenced by their molar mass and structure; samples being less susceptible to endoxylanase provided solutions of higher viscosity.

  9. Dual alkali approaches for the capture and separation of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.P.; Shi, Y.; Li, W.; Chang, S.G.

    2000-04-04

    The Solvay process utilizes two alkalis in sequential order to convert CO{sub 2} to sodium carbonate for commercial use. The ability to transform CO{sub 2} into sodium carbonate cost-effectively would be a breakthrough in CO{sub 2} sequestration by providing benign long-term storage of CO{sub 2}. However, the Solvay process was not designed for CO{sub 2} sequestration and is not practical for use in the sequestration of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power plants. This paper investigates methods to modify the process in order to make it effective for the control of power plant CO{sub 2} emissions. The new modified process, called the Dual Alkali Approach, attempts to replace either or both bases, ammonia and lime, in the Solvay process with other compounds to make CO{sub 2} capture and separation efficient. Ammonia was replaced with different amines in aqueous solutions of salts and it was found that bicarbonate precipitation did occur. A method to regenerate the amine in the second step has not been implemented. However, the second step in Solvay Process has been implemented without using lime, namely, ammonia has been regenerated from an ammonium chloride solution using activated carbon. The HCl adsorbed in the activated carbon was removed by water to regenerate the activated carbon.

  10. Infrared Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal Halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ei; Hommerich, Uwe; Yang, Clayton; Trivedi, Sudhir; Samuels, Alan; Snyder, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a powerful diagnostic tool for detection of trace elements by monitoring the atomic and ionic emission from laser-induced plasmas. LIBS is a relatively simple technique and has been successfully employed in applications such as environmental monitoring, materials analysis, medical diagnostics, industrial process control, and homeland security. Most LIBS applications are limited to emission features in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) region arising from atoms and simple molecular fragments. In the present work, we report on the observation of mid- infrared emission lines from alkali metal halides due to laser-induced breakdown processes. The studied alkali metal halides included LiCl, NaCl, NaBr, KCl, KBr, KF, RbCl, and RbBr. The laser-induced plasma was produced by focusing a 16 mJ pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) on the target. The LIBS infrared emission from alkali halides showed intense and narrow bands located in the region from 2-8 μm. The observed emission features were assigned to atomic transitions between higher-lying Rydberg states of neutral alkali atoms. More detailed results of the performed IR LIBS studies on alkali metal halides will be discussed at the conference.

  11. Multi-photon processes in alkali metal vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Baodong; Hu, Shu; Li, Hui; Shi, Zhe; Cai, Xianglong; Guo, Jingwei; Tan, Yannan; Liu, Wanfa; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting

    2015-02-01

    Achieving population inversion through multi-photon cascade pumping is almost always difficult, and most laser medium work under 1-photon excitation mechanism. But for alkali atoms such as cesium, relatively large absorption cross sections of several low, cascading energy levels enable them properties such as up conversion. Here we carried out research on two-photon excitation alkali fluorescence. Two photons of near infrared region are used to excite alkali atoms to n 2 D5/2, n 2 D3/2 or higher energy levels, then the blue fluorescence of (n+1) 2 P3/2,(n+1) 2 P1/2-->n 2 S1/2 are observed. Different pumping paths are tried and by the recorded spectra, transition routes of cesium are deducted and concluded. Finally the possibility of two-photon style DPALs (diode pumped alkali laser) are discussed, such alkali lasers can give output wavelengths in the shorter end of visual spectroscopy (400-460 nm) and are expected to get application in underwater communication and material laser processing.

  12. Study of complexation between two 1,3-alternate calix[4]crown derivatives and alkali metal ions by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Allahyari, Leila; Fasihi, Javad; Taherpour, Avat (Arman); Asfari, Zuhair; Valinejad, Azizollah

    2016-03-01

    Complexation of two 1,3-alternate calix[4]crown ligands with alkali metals (K+, Rb+ and Cs+) has been investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and density functional theory calculations. The binding selectivities of the ligands and the binding constants of their complexes in solution have been determined using the obtained mass spectra. Also the percentage of each formed complex species in the mixture of each ligand and alkali metal has been experimentally evaluated. For both calix[4]crown-5 and calix[4]crown-6 ligands the experimental and theoretical selectivity of their alkali metal complexes found to follow the trend K+ > Rb+ > Cs+. The structures of ligands were optimized by DFT-B3LYP/6-31G method and the structures of complexes were obtained by QM-SCF-MO/PM6 method and discussed in the text.

  13. Maternal exposure to alkali, alkali earth, transition and other metals: Concentrations and predictors of exposure.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, A L; Stasinska, A; Callan, A C; Heyworth, J; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø

    2015-09-01

    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children. PMID:25984984

  14. Maternal exposure to alkali, alkali earth, transition and other metals: Concentrations and predictors of exposure.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, A L; Stasinska, A; Callan, A C; Heyworth, J; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø

    2015-09-01

    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children.

  15. Silicate species of water glass and insights for alkali-activated green cement

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Helén; Bernin, Diana; Ramser, Kerstin

    2015-06-15

    Despite that sodium silicate solutions of high pH are commonly used in industrial applications, most investigations are focused on low to medium values of pH. Therefore we have investigated such solutions in a broad modulus range and up to high pH values (∼14) by use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and silicon nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 29}Si-NMR). The results show that the modulus dependent pH value leads to more or less charged species, which affects the configurations of the silicate units. This in turn, influences the alkali-activation process of low CO{sub 2} footprint cements, i.e. materials based on industrial waste or by-products.

  16. Superhydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) film fabricated by alkali treatment enhancing chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhenrong; Gu, Zhenya; Huo, Ruiting; Luo, Zhishan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the lotus effect principle, the superhydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film was successfully prepared by the method of alkali treatment enhancing chemical bath deposition. The surface of PVDF film prepared in this work was constructed by many smooth and regular microreliefs. Oxygen-containing functional groups were introduced in PVDF film by treatment with aqueous NaOH solution. The nano-scale peaks on the top of the microreliefs were implemented by the reaction between dimethyldichlorosilane/methyltrichlorosilane solution and the oxygen-containing functional groups of PVDF film. The micro- and nano-scale structures, similar to the lotus leaf, was clearly observed on PVDF film surface by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The water contact angle and sliding angle on the fabricated lotus-leaf-like PVDF film surface were 157° and 1°, respectively, exhibiting superhydrophobic property and self-cleaning property.

  17. Silicate species of water glass and insights for alkali-activated green cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Helén; Bernin, Diana; Ramser, Kerstin

    2015-06-01

    Despite that sodium silicate solutions of high pH are commonly used in industrial applications, most investigations are focused on low to medium values of pH. Therefore we have investigated such solutions in a broad modulus range and up to high pH values (˜14) by use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and silicon nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si-NMR). The results show that the modulus dependent pH value leads to more or less charged species, which affects the configurations of the silicate units. This in turn, influences the alkali-activation process of low CO2 footprint cements, i.e. materials based on industrial waste or by-products.

  18. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess.

    PubMed

    Yung, C Y

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study. PMID:6395136

  19. C-CAMP, A closed cycle alkali metal power system

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A concept is presented for a Closed-Cycle Alkali Metal (C-CAMP) power systems which utilizes the heat of reaction of an alkali metal and halogen compound to vaporize an alkali metal turbine fluid for a Rankine cycle. Unique features of the concept are (1) direct contact (heat exchange) between the reaction products and turbine fluid, and (2) a flow-through chemical reactor/boiler. The principal feasibility issues of the concept relate to the degree of cross-mixing of product and turbine fluid streams within the reactor-boiler. If proven feasible, the concept may be adapted to a range of fuel and turbine fluids and ultimately lead to thermal efficiencies in excess of 35%.

  20. Alkali-induced enhancement of surface electronic polarizibility.

    PubMed

    Stolbov, Sergey; Rahman, Talat S

    2006-05-12

    From results of ab initio electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory for a set of prototype systems, we find alkali adsorbates to cause a dramatic enhancement of the electronic polarizability of the metal surface extending it several angstroms into the vacuum. This phenomenon is traceable to an unusual feature induced in the surface potential on alkali adsorption. The effect appears to be general, as we find it to be present on metals as varied as Pd and Cu, and helps explain the observed substantial decrease in the vibrational frequency of molecules when coadsorbed with alkalis on metal surfaces. Specifically, for two dissimilar molecules CO and O(2), we trace the softening of the frequencies of their stretching mode when coadsorbed with K on Pd(111) to the enhanced electronic polarizability.