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Sample records for alkali scrubbing test

  1. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  2. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT PROGRAM REAL WASTE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  3. Sample Results From The Next Generation Solvent Program Real Waste Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  4. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus. PMID:27478327

  5. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Sungman; Premaratna, Ranjan; Selvaraj, Stephen; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Sora; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Min Soo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Kwon, Soon-Hwan; Seo, Wonjun; Lee, Nam Taek; Kim, Seung-Han; Kang, Heui Keun; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus. PMID:27478327

  6. Testing to reduce salt loading via wet scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, H.; Burns, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Previous offgas testing indicated that excessive salt emissions generated by neutralization of acids minimize filter life of downstream control equipment, specifically, high efficient particulate air (HEPA) filters. Recent tests were conducted to characterize salt generation in wet offgas systems and to evaluate upstream offgas control equipment performance in removing the salt. The predominant conclusion was that stack salt particulate emissions responsible for rapid loading of the offgas filters resulted from carry-over of particulates formed in the scrubber, and not carry-over from those formed in the quench. HEPA filter loading tests showed no significant filter pluggage at low salt concentrations in the scrubber liquid in spite of high salt concentrations in the quench liquid. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  8. California Wildlife Habitat Relationships System: A test in coastal scrub and annual grassland habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, J.A.; Barrett, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    We tested predictions of the California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR) System in coastal scrub and annual grassland. We detected a total of 28 species of terrestrial vertebrates: 18 mammals, 9 reptiles, and 1 amphibian. The CWHR System prediction omitted 4 of these species: 3 domestic mammals and 1 reptile. For the 2 habitats combined, CWHR predicted a total of 38 species: 23 mammals, 13 reptiles, and 2 amphibians. We detected 64% of these predicted grassland species and 71% of predicted coastal scrub species. For the habitats combined, we detected 65% of the species predicted to be present by the CWHR System. We detected 68% of the mammals, 62% of the reptiles, and 50% of the amphibians predicted for these habitats. The CWHR System theoretically predicts absence rather than presence, since it is assumed that all 288 regularly occurring mammals, reptiles, and amphibians occur anywhere unless one can argue that a specific habitat, location, or habitat element is not available. By including predictions of species absence in the assessment of model performance, observed accuracy of the CWHR model predictions increased to 96% for both habitats.

  9. Feed Preparation for Source of Alkali Melt Rate Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M. E.; Lambert, D. P.

    2005-02-26

    The purpose of the Source of Alkali testing was to prepare feed for melt rate testing in order to determine the maximum melt-rate for a series of batches where the alkali was increased from 0% Na{sub 2}O in the frit (low washed sludge) to 16% Na{sub 2}O in the frit (highly washed sludge). This document summarizes the feed preparation for the Source of Alkali melt rate testing. The Source of Alkali melt rate results will be issued in a separate report. Five batches of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product and four batches of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product were produced to support Source of Alkali (SOA) melt rate testing. Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) simulant and frit 418 were used as targets for the 8% Na{sub 2}O baseline run. For the other four cases (0% Na{sub 2}O, 4% Na{sub 2}O, 12% Na{sub 2}O, and 16% Na{sub 2}O in frit), special sludge and frit preparations were necessary. The sludge preparations mimicked washing of the SB3 baseline composition, while frit adjustments consisted of increasing or decreasing Na and then re-normalizing the remaining frit components. For all batches, the target glass compositions were identical. The five SRAT products were prepared for testing in the dry fed melt-rate furnace and the four SME products were prepared for the Slurry-fed Melt-Rate Furnace (SMRF). At the same time, the impacts of washing on a baseline composition from a Chemical Process Cell (CPC) perspective could also be investigated. Five process simulations (0% Na{sub 2}O in frit, 4% Na{sub 2}O in frit, 8% Na{sub 2}O in frit or baseline, 12% Na{sub 2}O in frit, and 16% Na{sub 2}O in frit) were completed in three identical 4-L apparatus to produce the five SRAT products. The SRAT products were later dried and combined with the complementary frits to produce identical glass compositions. All five batches were produced with identical processing steps, including off-gas measurement using online gas chromatographs. Two slurry-fed melter feed batches, a 4% Na

  10. Dot-ELISA Rapid Test Using Recombinant 56-kDa Protein Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Rodkvamtook, Wuttikon; Zhang, Zhiwen; Chao, Chien-Chung; Huber, Erin; Bodhidatta, Dharadhida; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Grieco, John; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Kityapan, Manerat; Lewis, Michael; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2015-05-01

    We developed a rapid dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) using the combination of recombinant 56-kDa protein antigens that exhibited broad reactivity with serum antibodies against the four most prevalent strains (Karp, Kato, Gilliam, and TA763) of Orientia tsutsugamushi. The assay is rapid (30 minutes), and can be done at room temperature, and results can be read by the naked eye. Only a simple shaker is required to wash the membrane. Sera from 338 patients suspected of being ill with scrub typhus from rural hospitals around Thailand were tested using this dot-ELISA. Seventy-five (22.2%) patients were found to be positive. The sensitivity and specificity of dot-ELISA were determined using the indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) test as the gold standard, with the cutoff titer of immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate M (IgM)/G (IgG) greater than 1:400/1:400. The dot-ELISA had a sensitivity of 98.5%, a specificity of 96.3%, a positive predictive value of 86.7%, and a negative predictive value of 99.6% for the acute-phase specimens. The results indicate that dot-ELISA rapid test using recombinant 56-kDa protein antigen was comparable with the IFA test and may be very useful for the diagnosis of scrub typhus in rural hospitals, where IFA is not available.

  11. Dot-ELISA Rapid Test Using Recombinant 56-kDa Protein Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Rodkvamtook, Wuttikon; Zhang, Zhiwen; Chao, Chien-Chung; Huber, Erin; Bodhidatta, Dharadhida; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Grieco, John; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Kityapan, Manerat; Lewis, Michael; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2015-01-01

    We developed a rapid dot–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) using the combination of recombinant 56-kDa protein antigens that exhibited broad reactivity with serum antibodies against the four most prevalent strains (Karp, Kato, Gilliam, and TA763) of Orientia tsutsugamushi. The assay is rapid (30 minutes), and can be done at room temperature, and results can be read by the naked eye. Only a simple shaker is required to wash the membrane. Sera from 338 patients suspected of being ill with scrub typhus from rural hospitals around Thailand were tested using this dot-ELISA. Seventy-five (22.2%) patients were found to be positive. The sensitivity and specificity of dot-ELISA were determined using the indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) test as the gold standard, with the cutoff titer of immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate M (IgM)/G (IgG) greater than 1:400/1:400. The dot-ELISA had a sensitivity of 98.5%, a specificity of 96.3%, a positive predictive value of 86.7%, and a negative predictive value of 99.6% for the acute-phase specimens. The results indicate that dot-ELISA rapid test using recombinant 56-kDa protein antigen was comparable with the IFA test and may be very useful for the diagnosis of scrub typhus in rural hospitals, where IFA is not available. PMID:25802430

  12. Spacecraft surgical scrub system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbate, M.

    1980-01-01

    Ease of handling and control in zero gravity and minimizing the quantity of water required were prime considerations. The program tasks include the selection of biocidal agent from among the variety used for surgical scrub, formulation of a dispensing system, test, and delivery of flight dispensers. The choice of an iodophore was based on effectiveness on single applications, general familiarity among surgeons, and previous qualification for space use. The delivery system was a choice between the squeeze foamer system and impregnated polyurethane foam pads. The impregnated foam pad was recommended because it is a simpler system since the squeeze foamer requires some applicator to effectively clean the skin surfaces, whereas the form pad is the applicator and agent combined. Testing demonstrated that both systems are effective for use as surgical scrubs.

  13. Effectiveness of Internal vs. External SEU Scrubbing Mitigation Strategies in a Xilinx FPGA: Design, Test, and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; Poivey C.; Petrick, D.; Espinosa, D.; Lesea, Austin; LaBel, K. A.; Friendlich, M; Kim, H; Phan, A.

    2008-01-01

    We compare two scrubbing mitigation schemes for Xilinx FPGA devices. The design of the scrubbers is briefly discussed along with an examination of mitigation limitations. Proton and Heavy Ion data are then presented and analyzed.

  14. Alkali-silica reaction products: Comparison between samples from concrete structures and laboratory test specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Sachlova, Sarka Prikryl, Richard; Pertold, Zdenek

    2010-12-15

    Alkali-silica gels (ASG) were investigated in concrete from bridge structures (constructed from the 1920s to 2000), as well as in experimental specimens; employing optical microscopy, petrographic image analysis, and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The main differences were found in the chemical composition and morphology of the ASGs. ASGs which had formed in older concrete samples (50-80 years old) show a partly crystalline structure and higher Ca{sup 2+} content, indicating their aging and maturation. Younger concrete samples and experimental test specimens exhibit the presence of amorphous ASG. The chemistry of ASG from experimental specimens reflects the chemical composition of accelerating solutions. - Research Highlights: {yields} Quantitative analysis of alkali-silica gels {yields} Comparison of ASR in experimental conditions with ASR in bridge structures {yields} Investigation of factors affecting alkali-silica reaction {yields} Investigation of ASR of different types of aggregates.

  15. Studies of the surgical scrub.

    PubMed

    Tucci, V J; Stone, A M; Thompson, C; Isenberg, H D; Wise, L

    1977-09-01

    A study comparing the relative efficacy of a five versus a ten minute surgical scrub was carried out using random sampling of personnel scrubbing for routine scheduled hospital surgical procedures. Scrubbing for five minutes was found to be equally as effective as scrubbing for ten minutes. Betadine was compared to pHisoHex as a scrubbing agent and found to be statistically more effective in degerming the skin following a five minute scrub. As a result of this study, a routine preoperative surgical scrub of five minutes' duration, using Betadine as the scrubbing agent, is recommended.

  16. RESULTS OF THE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING USING AN IMPROVED SOLVENT FORMULATION AND SALT WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY SIMULATED WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-09

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D{sub Cs} in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is {approx}15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  17. Comparative Accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect IgM Rapid Test for the Detection of IgM Antibodies by Using Conventional Serology.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Hugh W F; Blacksell, Stuart D; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Basnyat, Buddha; Day, Nicholas P J; Paris, Daniel H

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the comparative accuracy of a recombinant 56-kDa type-specific antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for scrub typhus for the detection of IgM antibodies by using conventional serology in well-characterized serum samples from undifferentiated febrile illness patients. The RDT showed high specificity and promising comparative accuracy, with 82% sensitivity and 98% specificity for samples defined positive at an IgM indirect immunofluorescence assay positivity cutoff titer of ≥1:1,600 versus 92% and 95% at ≥1:6,400, respectively.

  18. Scrubbing liquors for nitrogen tetroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Once it was determined that the wet scrubbing concept was the most practical solution to the N2O4 emission problem, it became important to optimize the composition of the scrubbing liquor. Several reagents were cited in the literature as being advantageous in scrubbing NO2. Experiments were conducted on a model wet scrubber in order to verify and rank the performances of these scrubbing liquors. The most efficient scrubbing liquor found experimentally was a 10% sodium sulfite solution.

  19. Mineralogy, geochemistry and expansion testing of an alkali-reactive basalt from western Anatolia, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Copuroglu, Oguzhan; Andic-Cakir, Ozge; Broekmans, Maarten A.T.M.; Kuehnel, Radko

    2009-07-15

    In this paper, the alkali-silica reaction performance of a basalt rock from western Anatolia, Turkey is reported. It is observed that the rock causes severe gel formation in the concrete microbar test. It appears that the main source of expansion is the reactive glassy phase of the basalt matrix having approximately 70% of SiO{sub 2}. The study presents the microstructural characteristics of unreacted and reacted basalt aggregate by optical and electron microscopy and discusses the possible reaction mechanism. Microstructural analysis revealed that the dissolution of silica is overwhelming in the matrix of the basalt and it eventually generates four consequences: (1) Formation of alkali-silica reaction gel at the aggregate perimeter, (2) increased porosity and permeability of the basalt matrix, (3) reduction of mechanical properties of the aggregate and (4) additional gel formation within the aggregate. It is concluded that the basalt rock is highly prone to alkali-silica reaction. As an aggregate, this rock is not suitable for concrete production.

  20. DuraLith Alkali-Aluminosilicate Geopolymer Waste Form Testing for Hanford Secondary Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, W. L.; Lutz, Werner; Pegg, Ian L.

    2011-07-21

    The primary objective of the work reported here was to develop additional information regarding the DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer as a waste form for liquid secondary waste to support selection of a final waste form for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant secondary liquid wastes to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility on the Hanford Site. Testing focused on optimizing waste loading, improving waste form performance, and evaluating the robustness of the waste form with respect to waste variability.

  1. Alkali metal compatibility testing of candidate heater head materials for a Stirling engine heat transport system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Jack E.; Hickman, Gary L.; Grobstein, Toni

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe work performed as part of the 25-kWe advanced Stirling conversion system project. Liquid alkali metal compatibility is being assessed in an ongoing test program to evaluate candidate heater head materials and fabrication processes at the temperatures and operating conditions required for Stirling engines. Specific materials under evaluation are alloy 713LC, alloy 713LC coated with nickel aluminide, and Udimet 720, each in combination with Waspaloy. The tests were run at a constant 700 C. A eutectic alloy of sodium and potassium (NaK) was the working fluid. Titanium sheet in the system was shown to be an effective oxygen getter. Metallographic and microchemical examination of material surfaces, joints, and their interfaces revealed little or no corrosion after 1000 h. Tests are in progress, with up to 10,000 h exposure.

  2. Microstructural Changes Due to Alkali-Silica Reaction during Standard Mortar Test

    DOE PAGES

    Shin, Jun-Ho; Struble, Leslie; Kirkpatrick, R.

    2015-12-01

    The microstructural development of mortar bars with silica glass aggregate undergoing alkali-silica reaction (ASR) under the conditions of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test C1260 was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and qualitative X-ray microanalysis. Cracking in the aggregate, the hydrated paste, and the paste-aggregate interface was important in the development of the microstructure. Cracks were characterized according to their location, their relationship to other cracks, and whether they are filled with ASR gel. Expansion of the bars was approximately 1% at 12 days and 2% at 53 days. They fell apart by 63 days. The barsmore » contained two zones, an inner region that was undergoing ASR and an outer and much more highly damaged zone that extended further inward over time. Evidence of ASR was present even during the period when specimens were immersed in water, prior to immersion in NaOH solution.« less

  3. Microstructural Changes Due to Alkali-Silica Reaction during Standard Mortar Test

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jun-Ho; Struble, Leslie; Kirkpatrick, R.

    2015-12-01

    The microstructural development of mortar bars with silica glass aggregate undergoing alkali-silica reaction (ASR) under the conditions of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test C1260 was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and qualitative X-ray microanalysis. Cracking in the aggregate, the hydrated paste, and the paste-aggregate interface was important in the development of the microstructure. Cracks were characterized according to their location, their relationship to other cracks, and whether they are filled with ASR gel. Expansion of the bars was approximately 1% at 12 days and 2% at 53 days. They fell apart by 63 days. The bars contained two zones, an inner region that was undergoing ASR and an outer and much more highly damaged zone that extended further inward over time. Evidence of ASR was present even during the period when specimens were immersed in water, prior to immersion in NaOH solution.

  4. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jaewon; Kim, Soojun; Kim, Gilho; Singh, Vijay P.; Hong, Seungjin; Kim, Hung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered. PMID:26132479

  5. Alkali metal pool boiler life tests for a 25 kWe advanced Stirling conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. G.; Rosenfeld, J. H.; Noble, J.

    1991-01-01

    The overall operating temperature and efficiency of solar-powered Stirling engines can be improved by adding an alkali metal pool boiler heat transport system to supply heat more uniformly to the heater head tubes. One issue with liquid metal pool boilers is unstable boiling. Stable boiling is obtained with an enhanced boiling surface containing nucleation sites that promote continuous boiling. Over longer time periods, it is possible that the boiling behavior of the system will change. An 800-h life test was conducted to verify that pool boiling with the chosen fluid/surface combination remains stable as the system ages. The apparatus uses NaK boiling on a - 100 + 140 stainless steel sintered porous layer, with the addition of a small amount of xenon. Pool boiling remained stable to the end of life test. The pool boiler life test included a total of 82 cold starts, to simulate startup each morning, and 60 warm restarts, to simulate cloud cover transients. The behavior of the cold and warm starts showed no significant changes during the life test. In the experiments, the fluid/surface combination provided stable, high-performance boiling at the operating temperature of 700 C. Based on these experiments, a pool boiler was designed for a full-scale 25-kWe Stirling system.

  6. Design and Test of Advanced Thermal Simulators for an Alkali Metal-Cooled Reactor Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Anne E.; Dickens, Ricky E.

    2011-01-01

    The Early Flight Fission Test Facility (EFF-TF) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has as one of its primary missions the development and testing of fission reactor simulators for space applications. A key component in these simulated reactors is the thermal simulator, designed to closely mimic the form and function of a nuclear fuel pin using electric heating. Continuing effort has been made to design simple, robust, inexpensive thermal simulators that closely match the steady-state and transient performance of a nuclear fuel pin. A series of these simulators have been designed, developed, fabricated and tested individually and in a number of simulated reactor systems at the EFF-TF. The purpose of the thermal simulators developed under the Fission Surface Power (FSP) task is to ensure that non-nuclear testing can be performed at sufficiently high fidelity to allow a cost-effective qualification and acceptance strategy to be used. Prototype thermal simulator design is founded on the baseline Fission Surface Power reactor design. Recent efforts have been focused on the design, fabrication and test of a prototype thermal simulator appropriate for use in the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). While designing the thermal simulators described in this paper, effort were made to improve the axial power profile matching of the thermal simulators. Simultaneously, a search was conducted for graphite materials with higher resistivities than had been employed in the past. The combination of these two efforts resulted in the creation of thermal simulators with power capacities of 2300-3300 W per unit. Six of these elements were installed in a simulated core and tested in the alkali metal-cooled Fission Surface Power Primary Test Circuit (FSP-PTC) at a variety of liquid metal flow rates and temperatures. This paper documents the design of the thermal simulators, test program, and test results.

  7. [Surveillance of scrub typhus in Taiwan].

    PubMed

    Chen, H L; Chen, H Y; Horng, C B

    1993-11-01

    Although scrub typhus, a rickettsial exanthematous febrile disease, has designated as a reportable communicable disease in Taiwan since 1955, only Pescadores island, Hualien and Taitung counties had more reported and confirmed cases. Suspected dengue fever and scrub typhus serum specimens sent from the Bureau of Health and health stations to this institute from January 1991 to December 1992 were tested for antibody to scrub typhus by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFA). The results showed that: 1) there were serologically positive cases in many counties except Hsinchu and Iilan, 2) the disease occurred mostly from July to October, 3) more males than females were infected and their age ranged from 21 to 60 years old with a peak of the twenties and 4) higher incidence rate in children under five years old was observed in Pescadores and Orchid islands. The above data call the attention of people and physicians to be aware of the fact that there were probable scrub typhus cases in every county in Taiwan.

  8. Method and composition for testing for the presence of an alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Guon, Jerold

    1981-01-01

    A method and composition for detecting the presence of an alkali metal on the surface of a body such as a metal plate, tank, pipe or the like is provided. The method comprises contacting the surface with a thin film of a liquid composition comprising a light-colored pigment, an acid-base indicator, and a nonionic wetting agent dispersed in a liquid carrier comprising a minor amount of water and a major amount of an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of the lower aliphatic alcohols, ketones and ethers. Any alkali metal present on the surface in elemental form or as an alkali metal hydroxide or alkali metal carbonate will react with the acid-base indicator to produce a contrasting color change in the thin film, which is readily discernible by visual observation or automatic techniques.

  9. Scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Chung, Jong-Hoon; Yun, Na-Ra; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jun-Young; Han, Mi Ah; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2013-12-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi induces vasculitis leading to symptoms of systemic organ invasion including meningitis and meningoencephalitis. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of scrub typhus patients to investigate the clinical and laboratory features of patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and the therapeutic outcomes, and to determine the predictor factors. Cases were 22 patients with scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis, and controls were 303 patients without meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of pneumonitis was associated with the occurrence of scrub typhus meningitis and meningoencephalitis (odds ratio [OR] 8.9; P < 0.001; confidence interval [CI] 2.9-27.2). Although appropriate antimicrobials such as doxycycline agents were administered at an early stage, meningitis or meningoencephalitis still occurred in some cases. Physicians should be aware that meningitis or meningoencephalitis may develop during appropriate drug therapy such as doxycycline. Close observation and great care are essential for patients with risk factors, particularly pneumonitis.

  10. Simultaneous stack gas scrubbing wastewater purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Variations of a process for removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and using it to treat municipal waste water are described. The once-through system lowers the pH of the scrubbing water from minor depressions to a pH of about 2.5 under certain conditions. A recycle system uses iron for catalytic oxidation of sulfurous acid to sulfuric acid allowing very large amounts of sulfur dioxide to be absorbed in a small portion of water. The partial recycle system uses municipal wastewater and iron as a scrubbing medium, followed by neutralization of the wastewater with lime to produce an iron hydroxide precipitation which, when removed, produces tertiary quality treated wastewater. The SO2 scrubber is described, test results are analyzed, and a preliminary capital cost estimate for the three processes is included.

  11. Should surgeons scrub with chlorhexidine or iodine prior to surgery?

    PubMed

    Jarral, Omar A; McCormack, David J; Ibrahim, Sammra; Shipolini, Alex R

    2011-06-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether chlorhexidine gluconate is equivalent or superior to the use of povidone-iodine during surgical hand scrub. A total of 593 papers were found using the reported searches of which eight represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results are tabulated. We conclude that whilst both chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine reduce bacterial count after scrubbing, the effect of chlorhexidine is both more profound and longer lasting. The studies found analysed the difference in reduction in colony forming units or bacterial count following surgical scrub in order to conclude that chlorhexidine was superior. Four studies went further to analyse cumulative and residual activity by testing for bacterial reduction after using a scrub solution for a number of days, an area in which chlorhexidine showed consistent advantages over povidone-iodine. These findings are given more credibility by the clinical finding of a recent meta-analysis of over 5000 patients in which chlorhexidine as an antiseptic skin preparation was associated with significantly reduced surgical site infection (SSI) in clean-contaminated surgery. Despite this, there is no evidence suggesting the use of chlorhexidine during hand scrub reduces SSI, which perhaps explains why guidelines from the World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association for Perioperative Practice do not recommend one specific antimicrobial over another for hand scrub.

  12. Habitat model for the Florida Scrub Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The Florida Scrub Jay is endemic to Florida. The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provides habitat for one of the three largest populations of the Florida Scrub Jay. This threatened bird occupies scrub, slash pine flatwoods, disturbed scrub, and coastal strand on KSC. Densities of Florida Scrub Jays were shown to vary with habitat characteristics but not necessarily with vegetation type. Relationships between Florida Scrub Jay densities and habitat characteristics were used to develop a habitat model to provide a tool to compare alternative sites for new facilities and to quantify environmental impacts. This model is being tested using long term demographic studies of colorbanded Florida Scrub Jays. Optimal habitat predicted by the model has greater than or equal to 50 percent of the shrub canopy comprised of scrub oaks, 20-50 percent open space or scrub oak vegetation within 100 m of a ruderal edge, less than or equal to 15 percent pine canopy cover, a shrub height of 120-170 cm, and is greater than or equal to 100 m from a forest. This document reviews life history, social behavior, food, foraging habitat, cover requirements, characteristics of habitat on KSC, and habitat preferences of the Florida Scrub Jay. Construction of the model and its limitations are discussed.

  13. Scrub Typhus Seroprevalence in Healthy Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Mallika; Anandan, Shalini; Daniel, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an important cause of acute febrile illness in India. This preliminary study determines the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in healthy Indian adults by measuring IgM and IgG antibodies to scrub typhus by ELISA in 100 healthy blood donors. Our study demonstrates a 15% seroprevalence of scrub typhus in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings especially in children. PMID:26557523

  14. Tellurite glass as a waste form for mixed alkali-chloride waste streams: Candidate materials selection and initial testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

    2012-05-01

    Tellurite glasses have historically been shown to host large concentrations of halides. They are here considered for the first time as a waste form for immobilizing chloride wastes, such as may be generated in the proposed molten alkali salt electrochemical separations step in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Key properties of several tellurite glasses are determined to assess acceptability as a chloride waste form. TeO2 glasses with other oxides (PbO, Al2O3 + B2O3, WO3, P2O5, or ZnO) were fabricated with and without 10 mass% of a simulated (non-radioactive) mixed alkali, alkaline-earth, and rare earth chloride waste. Measured chemical durability is compared for the glasses, as determined by the product consistency test (PCT), a common standardized chemical durability test often used to validate borosilicate glass waste forms. The glass with the most promise as a waste form is the TeO2-PbO system, as it offers good halide retention, a low sodium release (by PCT) comparable with high-level waste silicate glass waste forms, and a high storage density.

  15. CO2 study shows effects on scrub oak environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    CO2 study site manager and plant physiologist Graham Hymus (left) examines scrub oak foliage while project engineer David Johnson (right) looks on. The life sciences study is showing that rising levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, caused by the burning of fossil fuels, could spur plant growth globally. The site of KSC's study is a natural scrub oak area near the Vehicle Assembly Building. Twelve-foot areas of scrub oak have been enclosed in 16 open-top test chambers into which CO2 has been blown. Five scientists from NASA and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Md., work at the site to monitor experiments and keep the site running. Scientists hope to continue the study another five to 10 years. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 57- 00.

  16. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  17. Testing of candidate materials for their resistance to alkali-vapor adsorption in PFBC and gasification environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

    1995-08-01

    Laboratory-scale studies were performed to identify metallic material(s) having no, or limited, affinity for alkali vapors in an environment of either the off-gas from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) or the fuel gas from coal gasification. Such materials would be potential candidates for use as components in advanced coal-utilization systems. The following materials were tested for adsorption of NaCl vapor at 870--875 C and atmospheric pressure in a simulated PFBC off-gas (oxidizing) doped with 80 ppmW NaCl vapor: iron-based Type 304 stainless steel (304 SS), nickel-based Hastelloy C-276 and Hastelloy X alloys, cobalt-based Haynes No. 188 alloy, noble-metal-coated 304 SS, aluminized 304 SS, and ZrO{sub 2}-coated 304 SS. The Haynes No. 188 alloy and the aluminized 304 SS were also tested for their NaCl-vapor adsorption in a simulated gasification fuel gas (reducing) under the same test conditions as in the PFBC off-gas test. After 100 h of testing, the specimens were analyzed with a SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer, and by an AES. The aluminized 304 SS had the least tendency to adsorb NaCl vapor, as well as an excellent resistance to corrosion as a result of the formation of a protective layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on its surface. In the reducing environment, however, the aluminized 304 SS was badly corroded by H{sub 2}S attack. The Haynes No. 188 showed virtually no NaCl-vapor adsorption and only limited H{sub 2}S attack. The authors recommend further long-term parametric studies to quantitate alkali-vapor adsorption as a function of operating variables for (1) the aluminized 304 SS in the PFBC off-gas environment and (2) the Haynes No. 188 in the gasification fuel gas environment.

  18. Effect of chlorhexidine scrub on postoperative bacterial counts.

    PubMed

    Dahl, J; Wheeler, B; Mukherjee, D

    1990-05-01

    Chlorhexidine surgical scrub was left on the surgeon's hands in 50 orthopedic and vascular surgical procedures to determine whether the number of bacteria on the hands could be decreased postoperatively. After a standard 5-minute scrub, one hand was randomly rinsed prior to gloving; the other was lightly patted with a sterile towel, leaving some foam on the hand. The surgeon then gloved and performed the procedure in the usual manner. After the operation, both hands were immersed in a tryptic soy broth for 30 seconds. The broth was then cultured for bacterial species and number. Cases in which glove puncture occurred were not cultured. The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. There were fewer bacterial colonies isolated from the hand coated with chlorhexidine scrub versus the other; this difference was statistically significant (p less than 0.005). There also seemed to be a trend towards higher bacterial counts after longer operations; however, the difference was not significant. Neither surgeon noted any evidence of dermatitis during the study. These results suggest that leaving chlorhexidine scrub on the hands during surgery can lead to lower bacterial counts on the surgeon's hands and less chance of wound contamination should glove puncture occur.

  19. Comparative evaluation of surgical scrub preparations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A F; Rosenberg, A; Alatary, S D

    1978-01-01

    The efficacy of 0.75 per cent available povidone-iodine scrub solution, 4 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate detergent solution and 3 per cent hexachlorophene emulsion against resident and transient flora of the hand has been compared using two currently accepted study designs. Chlorhexidine gluconate produced the greatest initial reductions against resident flora, followed by povidone-iodine and hexachlorophene, respectively. In subsequent washings, all three treatments further reduced the flora, chlorhexidine giving the greatest reduction on any test day. On gloved hands, there was significant regrowth following the use of povidone-iodine; there was no such significant regrowth on gloved hands which had been washed with chlorhexidine gluconate or hexachlorophene. Against transient flora, chlorhexidine gluconate gave the lowest over-all counts, followed by povidone-iodine and hexachlorophene, respectively. The reductions in bacteria counts increased following the repetitive use of chlorhexidine; no such trend was noted with either povidone-iodine or hexachlorophene.

  20. Scrubbing noise of externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the aeroacoustic mechanism that produces externally blown flap (EBF) scrubbing noise, i.e. a surface-radiated noise which is generally strongest normal to UTW deflected flaps. Scrubbing noise was not radiated from portions of the surface adjacent to strong, locally coherent turbulent eddies. Instead, scrubbing noise seemed to come from weak loading fluctuations that were coherent along the scrubbed span. These loading fluctuations probably were induced by the convected large-scale vortex structure of the attached exhaust jet. Deflecting a UTW flap would reduce the distance between the vortex trajectory and the flap surface, increasing the resulting dipole noise and rotating its directivity. In contrast, deflecting a USB flap would increase this distance, so that observable scrubbing noise would be radiated only from the undeflected forward portion of the wing.

  1. Evaluation of laboratory test method for determining the potential alkali contribution from aggregate and the ASR safety of the Three-Gorges dam concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Duyou . E-mail: duyoulu@njut.edu.cn; Zhou, Xiaoling; Xu Zhongzi; Lan Xianghui; Tang Mingshu; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-06-15

    The releasable alkali from granite, which was used in the Three-Gorges concrete dam project in China, and from gneiss and feldspar was estimated by extraction in distilled water and super-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution. Results show that: i) the finer the particles and the higher the temperature, the greater and faster the release of alkali; ii) compared with extraction by distilled water, super-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution had a stronger activation on feldspar than on granite and gneiss; iii) for the three rocks tested, thermal activation had the largest effect on gneiss and a lower and similar effect on granite and feldspar. For very fine particles, temperature had a similar effect on the release of alkali by all three rocks. Because the aggregate used in the Three-Gorges dam concrete is non-reactive and a low calcium fly ash was used in the concrete, ASR would not be an issue for the dam, despite the release of alkali from the aggregate into the concrete.

  2. Scrub Typhus Presenting with Bilateral Lateral Rectus Palsy in A Female

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jaya; Barman, Bhupen; Mondal, Sumantro; Sivam, Rondeep Kumar Nath

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease is endemic in several parts of India usually presenting with acute symptoms. Fever, maculopapular rash, eschar, history of tick exposure and supportive diagnostic tests usually leads to diagnosis. Scrub typhus should be included in the differential diagnosis in occasions when a patient presents with fever with or without eschar and isolated cranial nerve palsy. Here we are reporting a case of Scrub typhus who presented with fever and altered sensorium of short duration, eschar formation and bilateral lateral rectus palsy. Patient was treated with doxycycline with complete reversal of neurodeficit. PMID:27190871

  3. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—Cast Stone and Alkali Alumino-Silicate Geopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Parker, Kent E.; Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2010-06-28

    PNNL is conducting screening tests on the candidate waste forms to provide a basis for comparison and to resolve the formulation and data needs identified in the literature review. This report documents the screening test results on the Cast Stone cementitious waste form and the Geopolymer waste form. Test results suggest that both the Cast Stone and Geopolymer appear to be viable waste forms for the solidification of the secondary liquid wastes to be treated in the ETF. The diffusivity for technetium from the Cast Stone monoliths was in the range of 1.2 × 10-11 to 2.3 × 10-13 cm2/s during the 63 days of testing. The diffusivity for technetium from the Geopolymer was in the range of 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s through the 63 days of the test. These values compare with a target of 1 × 10-9 cm2/s or less. The Geopolymer continues to show some fabrication issues with the diffusivities ranging from 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s for the better-performing batch to from 1.2 × 10-9 to 1.8 × 10-11 cm2/s for the poorer-performing batch. In the future more comprehensive and longer term performance testing will be conducted, to further evaluate whether or not these waste forms will meet the regulation and performance criteria needed to cost-effectively dispose of secondary wastes.

  4. Severe scrub typhus infection: Clinical features, diagnostic challenges and management

    PubMed Central

    Peter, John Victor; Sudarsan, Thomas I; Prakash, John Anthony J; Varghese, George M

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus infection is an important cause of acute undifferentiated fever in South East Asia. The clinical picture is characterized by sudden onset fever with chills and non-specific symptoms that include headache, myalgia, sweating and vomiting. The presence of an eschar, in about half the patients with proven scrub typhus infection and usually seen in the axilla, groin or inguinal region, is characteristic of scrub typhus. Common laboratory findings are elevated liver transaminases, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis. About a third of patients admitted to hospital with scrub typhus infection have evidence of organ dysfunction that may include respiratory failure, circulatory shock, mild renal or hepatic dysfunction, central nervous system involvement or hematological abnormalities. Since the symptoms and signs are non-specific and resemble other tropical infections like malaria, enteric fever, dengue or leptospirosis, appropriate laboratory tests are necessary to confirm diagnosis. Serological assays are the mainstay of diagnosis as they are easy to perform; the reference test is the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of IgM antibodies. However in clinical practice, the enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay is done due to the ease of performing this test and a good sensitivity and sensitivity when compared with the IFA. Paired samples, obtained at least two weeks apart, demonstrating a ≥ 4 fold rise in titre, is necessary for confirmation of serologic diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is the tetracycline group of antibiotics or chloramphenicol although macrolides are used alternatively. In mild cases, recovery is complete. In severe cases with multi-organ failure, mortality may be as high as 24%. PMID:26261776

  5. Severe scrub typhus infection: Clinical features, diagnostic challenges and management.

    PubMed

    Peter, John Victor; Sudarsan, Thomas I; Prakash, John Anthony J; Varghese, George M

    2015-08-01

    Scrub typhus infection is an important cause of acute undifferentiated fever in South East Asia. The clinical picture is characterized by sudden onset fever with chills and non-specific symptoms that include headache, myalgia, sweating and vomiting. The presence of an eschar, in about half the patients with proven scrub typhus infection and usually seen in the axilla, groin or inguinal region, is characteristic of scrub typhus. Common laboratory findings are elevated liver transaminases, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis. About a third of patients admitted to hospital with scrub typhus infection have evidence of organ dysfunction that may include respiratory failure, circulatory shock, mild renal or hepatic dysfunction, central nervous system involvement or hematological abnormalities. Since the symptoms and signs are non-specific and resemble other tropical infections like malaria, enteric fever, dengue or leptospirosis, appropriate laboratory tests are necessary to confirm diagnosis. Serological assays are the mainstay of diagnosis as they are easy to perform; the reference test is the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of IgM antibodies. However in clinical practice, the enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay is done due to the ease of performing this test and a good sensitivity and sensitivity when compared with the IFA. Paired samples, obtained at least two weeks apart, demonstrating a ≥ 4 fold rise in titre, is necessary for confirmation of serologic diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is the tetracycline group of antibiotics or chloramphenicol although macrolides are used alternatively. In mild cases, recovery is complete. In severe cases with multi-organ failure, mortality may be as high as 24%.

  6. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Richard Schlager

    2004-10-25

    With the nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous systems of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of projected DOE/EPA early cost estimates. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that was tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology injects a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. PG&E National Energy Group provided two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company provided a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company hosted a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped

  7. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Richard Schlager

    2005-01-03

    With the nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous systems of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of projected DOE/EPA early cost estimates. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that was tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology injects a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. PG&E National Energy Group provided two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company provided a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company hosted a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped

  8. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schlager

    2002-08-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal

  9. Effect of surgical scrub on microbial population under the fingernails.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Cutright, D E; D'Alessandro, S M

    1979-09-01

    The effectiveness of two methods of presurgical hand preparation, the 10 minute routine scrub and the 90 second Hydroscrub, in reducing microbial numbers under the fingernails was determined. Bacteriologic cultures of 162 subungual areas of nine subjects revealed prescrub microbial counts of up to 1.9 X 10(5) colony-forming units per area. After the surgical scrub, bacterial concentrations were reduced to a different degree among the persons tested. The mean values of 3.0 X 10(3) to 7.8 X 10(3) colony-forming units immediately after scrub indicated that neither of the two methods tested reduced the microbial population under the fingernails of most persons to acceptable levels. The finding of high postscrub microbial counts under the fingernails is of particular interest and significance in view of the relatively low counts on the fingertips. On the basis of the results of this study, we conclude that degerming of the areas under the fingernails by present methods is not satisfactory. The implication of these findings is discussed.

  10. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2003-07-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic

  11. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2003-03-02

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic

  12. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2003-04-28

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic

  13. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2003-11-04

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic

  14. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard; Richard Schlager

    2004-08-03

    With the nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous systems of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of projected DOE/EPA early cost estimates. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that was tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology injects a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. PG&E National Energy Group provided two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company provided a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company hosted a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped

  15. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2002-10-18

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic

  16. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schlager

    2002-04-19

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal

  17. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-10-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal

  18. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard

    2002-01-07

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal

  19. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-07-06

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin coal

  20. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Bustard

    2004-04-27

    With the nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous systems of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of projected DOE/EPA early cost estimates. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal

  1. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-07-31

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000 to 2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  2. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2003-01-27

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic

  3. Ecological considerations in scrub typhus*

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Robert; Wisseman, Charles L.

    1968-01-01

    Certain features, characteristic of outbreaks of scrub typhus, can be explained by the behaviour of the chigger vectors which are remarkably hardy and can survive weeks of freezing or immersion in water. The established vectors are all species of the genus Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium), i.e., L. (L.) akamushi (Brumpt, 1910), L. (L.) deliense (Walch, 1922), L. (L.) pallidum (Nagayo et al., 1919), and L. (L.) scutellare (Nagayo et al., 1921). These chiggers (i.e. larval mites) infest a broad variety of birds and mammals, and tend to be found in clusters on certain specific sites on the host. However, the precise site for any species of mite varies with the host, and it is believed that the grooming habits of the infested animal account for this “site preference”. The degree of infestation cannot validly be ascribed to the size of the host. L. (L.) pavlovskyi (Schluger, 1948), L. (L.) orientale (Schluger, 1948), L. (L.) arenicola Traub, 1960, and L. (L.) tosa (Sasa & Kowashima, 1951) are regarded as probable vectors. Other species, some belonging to other genera, are under suspicion in this regard. L. (L.) subintermedium (Jameson & Toshioka, 1954) and certain other chiggers were found in “ecological islands” in all montane habitats studied in West Pakistan, despite the intervening high mountains, broad rivers and belts of semi-desert. The infection-rate of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in vector species in nature is believed to be low, and chiggers may be serving as reservoirs of infection and not just as vectors. PMID:5303405

  4. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  5. Endemic Scrub Typhus in South America.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Dittrich, Sabine; López, Javier; Phuklia, Weerawat; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Velásquez, Katia; Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Abarca, Katia

    2016-09-01

    Scrub typhus is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms that are transmitted by the larvae of trombiculid mites. Endemic scrub typhus was originally thought to be confined to the so called "tsutsugamushi triangle" within the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, however, two individual cases were detected in the Middle East and South America, which suggested that the pathogen was present farther afield. Here, we report three autochthonous cases of scrub typhus caused by O. tsutsugamushi acquired on Chiloé Island in southern Chile, which suggests the existence of an endemic focus in South America. (Funded by the Chilean Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica and the Wellcome Trust.).

  6. Endemic Scrub Typhus in South America.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Dittrich, Sabine; López, Javier; Phuklia, Weerawat; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Velásquez, Katia; Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Abarca, Katia

    2016-09-01

    Scrub typhus is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms that are transmitted by the larvae of trombiculid mites. Endemic scrub typhus was originally thought to be confined to the so called "tsutsugamushi triangle" within the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, however, two individual cases were detected in the Middle East and South America, which suggested that the pathogen was present farther afield. Here, we report three autochthonous cases of scrub typhus caused by O. tsutsugamushi acquired on Chiloé Island in southern Chile, which suggests the existence of an endemic focus in South America. (Funded by the Chilean Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica and the Wellcome Trust.). PMID:27602667

  7. Scrub typhus infection presenting as acute heart failure: A case report and systematic review of literature of cardiopulmonary involvement in scrub typhus infection.

    PubMed

    Ray, Animesh; Nangia, Vivek; Chatterji, R S; Dalal, Navin

    2016-01-01

    We describe a middle aged previoulsy healthy female patient who presented with clinical features suggestive of acute heart failure. Investigations revealed very high NT pro-BNP, right heart enlargement, bilateral pulmonary alveolar edema and bilateral pleural effusion. In view of falling platelet counts and exudative pleural effusion inflammatory/infective causes were considered. Her Weil Felix test was strongly positive and IgM for scrub typhus also returned positive. She was started on doxycycline to which there was dramatic improvement. Thus in this case scrub typhus infection presented as acute right heart failure and the cause seemed elusive at the outset. We also systematically reviewed the existing literature on cardio-pulmonary manifestations of scrub typhus infection. PMID:27578941

  8. Process for defoaming acid gas scrubbing solutions and defoaming solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, E.R.; Robbins, M.L.

    1980-06-17

    The foam in acid gas scrubbing solutions created during an acid gas scrubbing process is reduced or eliminated by the addition of certain polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene block copolymers as defoaming agents. The defoaming agents are particularly effective when the acid gas scrubbing solution contains an amine having a large hydrophobic moiety.

  9. A Systematic Review of Mortality from Untreated Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew J.; Paris, Daniel H.; Newton, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus, a bacterial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is increasingly recognized as an important cause of fever in Asia, with an estimated one million infections occurring each year. Limited access to health care and the disease’s non-specific symptoms mean that many patients are undiagnosed and untreated, but the mortality from untreated scrub typhus is unknown. This review systematically summarizes the literature on the untreated mortality from scrub typhus and disease outcomes. Methodology/Principal Findings A literature search was performed to identify patient series containing untreated patients. Patients were included if they were symptomatic and had a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of scrub typhus and excluded if they were treated with antibiotics. The primary outcome was mortality from untreated scrub typhus and secondary outcomes were total days of fever, clinical symptoms, and laboratory results. A total of 76 studies containing 89 patient series and 19,644 patients were included in the final analysis. The median mortality of all patient series was 6.0% with a wide range (min-max) of 0–70%. Many studies used clinical diagnosis alone and had incomplete data on secondary outcomes. Mortality varied by location and increased with age and in patients with myocarditis, delirium, pneumonitis, or signs of hemorrhage, but not according to sex or the presence of an eschar or meningitis. Duration of fever was shown to be long (median 14.4 days Range (9–19)). Conclusions Results show that the untreated mortality from scrub typhus appears lower than previously reported estimates. More data are required to clarify mortality according to location and host factors, clinical syndromes including myocarditis and central nervous system disease, and in vulnerable mother-child populations. Increased surveillance and improved access to diagnostic tests are required to accurately estimate the untreated mortality of scrub typhus. This

  10. BEAM SCRUBBING FOR RHIC POLARIZED PROTON RUN.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,S.Y.FISCHER,W.HUANG,H.ROSER,T.

    2004-07-05

    One of the intensity limiting factor of RHIC polarized proton beam is the electron cloud induced pressure rise. A beam scrubbing study shows that with a reasonable period of time of running high intensity 112-bunch proton beam, the pressure rise can be reduced, allowing higher beam intensity.

  11. Acute Pancreatitis Due to Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Atif Shaikh Iqbal; Kundavaram, Abhilash Paul Prabhakar; Sathyendra, Sowmya; Abraham, Ooriapadickal C

    2014-01-01

    Scrub typhus is endemic in large parts of India and can cause multi-organ failure and death. Acute pancreatitis as a complication is very rare and is potentially fatal. This case series describes seven adult patients who presented with an acute febrile illness and were diagnosed to have scrub typhus with acute pancreatitis. The mean age of the seven patients with acute pancreatitis was 49.4 years, and mean duration of fever prior to presentation was 7.7 days. All seven patients had abdominal pain, and three had a pathognomonic eschar. The mean serum lipase level was 1,509 U/L (normal value: <190 U/L) and the mean serum amylase level was 434 U/L (normal value: <200 U/L). Six patients had evidence of multi-organ dysfunction. Hematological and respiratory system dysfunction was seen in five patients, hepatic and renal dysfunction in four, and central nervous system dysfunction in three patients. Three patients who had ≥4 organs involved, died (mortality rate: 42.8%). Our case series shows that pancreatitis in scrub typhus is an extremely rare complication and when present, is associated with increased mortality (42.8%). Physicians may be familiar with the various complications of scrub typhus but less so with acute pancreatitis and hence may be underdiagnosed. PMID:24741229

  12. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  13. The Surgical Scrub. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on the surgical scrub is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These…

  14. STATUS OF SO2 SCRUBBING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the extent of current sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubber applications on electricity generating units in the U.S. and abroad. The technical performance of recent SO2 scrubber installations is discussed. Recently reported technical innovations to SO2 scrubbing tech...

  15. Comparison of the germicidal activity of prepodyne and betadine surgical scrub solutions.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, L; Knight, R A

    1975-05-01

    Two iodophoric surgical scrubs soaps, Prepodyne and Betadine, were evaluated for bacteriocidal activity in a modified phenol coefficient test. A standard inoculum of each of 18 species of microorganisms was mixed with a 1:8 dilution of each iodophor and subcultured after one, three, and five minutes of exposure. Complete cidal activty was exhibited by both Prepodyne and Betadine. Twenty-five subjects were tested in hand washing experiments using Betadine and Prepodyne surgical scrub solutions. Quantitative fingerprint cultures were obtained before and after hand washing. Betadine resulted in an 85.2 per cent plus or minus 24 per cent decrease; Prepodyne, and 83.6 per cent plus or minus 21 per cent decrease. It can'be concluded from this data that there is no difference in bacteriocidal effectiveness between the two scrub soaps.

  16. Western scrub-jays do not appear to attend to functionality in Aesop's Fable experiments.

    PubMed

    Logan, Corina J; Harvey, Brigit D; Schlinger, Barney A; Rensel, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Western scrub-jays are known for their highly discriminatory and flexible behaviors in a caching (food storing) context. However, it is unknown whether their cognitive abilities are restricted to a caching context. To explore this question, we tested scrub-jays in a non-caching context using the Aesop's Fable paradigm, where a partially filled tube of water contains a floating food reward and objects must be inserted to displace the water and bring the food within reach. We tested four birds, but only two learned to drop stones proficiently. Of these, one bird participated in 4/5 experiments and one in 2/5 experiments. Both birds passed one experiment, but without attending to the functional differences of the objects, and failed the other experiments. Scrub-jays were not motivated to participate in these experiments, suggesting that either this paradigm was ecologically irrelevant or perhaps their flexibility is restricted to a caching context.

  17. Contrasting genetic structures in sister species of North American scrub-jays

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, D. B.; Potts, W. K.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Woolfenden, G. E.

    1999-01-01

    Threatened Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens breed communally, are restricted to xeric sandy scrub habitat, generally disperse fewer than three territory diameters. Closely related Western scrub-jays (A. californica) do not breed communally, have a broader habitat range, disperse greater distances, and are not threatened. We compared the genetic structure of 445 individuals in 11 populations in Florida with 157 individuals in eight populations of Western scrub-jays. At ten microsatellite loci, Florida had 24 out of 47 total alleles, while Western scrub-jays had 44. The Florida populations were more differentiated (GST = 0.048) than were a set of five California populations (GST = 0.015). A randomization extension of a Mantel test showed a stronger correlation between geographic and Cavalli-Sforza genetic distances among Western than Florida populations. Neighbour-joining trees clustered Florida populations from the same sandy ridge systems, suggesting that habitat continuity is more important than geographic proximity in allowing gene flow and preventing differentiation. For Western populations, isolation by distance appears to be the major determinant of genetic structure. Our results suggest that contrasting genetic structures may arise between closely related species, as a result of differences in ecology and social system. Conserving extant genetic variation in Florida jays will require maintaining viable populations in each of the major sandy ridge systems.

  18. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, K.E.

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  19. The e-SCRUB Machine: an 800-kV, 500-kW average power pulsed electron beam generator for flue-gas scrubbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, James R.; Briggs, Ray; Crewson, Walter F.; Johnson, R. D.; Ratafia-Brown, J. A.; Richardson, W. K.; Rienstra, W. W.; Ballard, Perry G.; Cukr, Jeffrey; Cassel, R. L.; Schlitt, Leland; Genuario, R. D.; Morgan, R. D.; Tripoli, G. A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper gives an overview of electron beam dry scrubbing (EBDS) to remove SOx and NOx from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. It also describes the e-SCRUB program, a program currently underway to commercialize this process with an integrated pulsed electron beam. The electron beam, together with injected water and ammonia, causes chemical reactions which convert the SOx and NOx into commercial grade agricultural fertilizer, a usable byproduct. The e-SCRUB facility is a test bed to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of a repetitive, reliable pulsed electron beam generator operating at average power levels of up to 1 MW. This facility contains the electron beam generator and all the auxiliary and support systems required by the machine, including a computer driven central experiment control system, a 100,000 SCFM flowing dry nitrogen load which simulates the characteristics of a power plant flue, and a 2 MVA dedicated electrical service to power the machine. The e-SCRUB electron beam machine is designed to produce an 800 kV pulsed electron beam with a repetition rate of 667 pps. The energy per pulse deposited into the flue gas is approximately 750 J. The pulsed power system converts the utility power input to a 667 pps, 800 kV pulse train which powers the electron gun. The functional units of the pulsed power system will be discussed in the paper, along with some preliminary experimental results.

  20. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan; Harde, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49%) had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score). At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group.

  1. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan; Harde, Yogesh

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49%) had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score). At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group. PMID:27630462

  2. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan; Harde, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49%) had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score). At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group. PMID:27630462

  3. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards.

  4. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Jyoti Narayan; Gurjar, Mohan; Harde, Yogesh

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49%) had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score). At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group.

  5. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  6. Magmatic gas scrubbing: Implications for volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, R.B.; Gerlach, T.M.; Reed, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the abundance of SO2(g) in magmatic gases, precursory increases in magmatic SO2(g) are not always observed prior to volcanic eruption, probably because many terrestrial volcanoes contain abundant groundwater or surface water that scrubs magmatic gases until a dry pathway to the atmosphere is established. To better understand scrubbing and its implications for volcano monitoring, we model thermochemically the reaction of magmatic gases with water. First, we inject a 915??C magmatic gas from Merapi volcano into 25??C air-saturated water (ASW) over a wide range of gas/water mass ratios from 0.0002 to 100 and at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Then we model closed-system cooling of the magmatic gas, magmatic gas-ASW mixing at 5.0 MPa, runs with varied temperature and composition of the ASW, a case with a wide range of magmatic-gas compositions, and a reaction of a magmatic gas-ASW mixture with rock. The modeling predicts gas and water compositions, and, in one case, alteration assemblages for a wide range of scrubbing conditions; these results can be compared directly with samples from degassing volcanoes. The modeling suggests that CO2(g) is the main species to monitor when scrubbing exists; another candidate is H2S(g), but it can be affected by reactions with aqueous ferrous iron. In contrast, scrubbing by water will prevent significant SO2(g) and most HCl(g) emissions until dry pathways are established, except for moderate HCl(g) degassing from pH 100 t/d (tons per day) of SO2(g) in addition to CO2(g) and H2S(g) should be taken as a criterion of magma intrusion. Finally, the modeling suggests that the interpretation of gas-ratio data requires a case-by-case evaluation since ratio changes can often be produced by several mechanisms; nevertheless, several gas ratios may provide useful indices for monitoring the drying out of gas pathways. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Evaluation of a waterless, scrubless chlorhexidine gluconate/ethanol surgical scrub for antimicrobial efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mulberrry, G; Snyder, A T; Heilman, J; Pyrek, J; Stahl, J

    2001-12-01

    A new waterless surgical hand preparation containing 1% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and 61% ethyl alcohol was evaluated for antimicrobial efficacy in comparison with a standard 4% CHG surgical scrub and a 61% ethyl alcohol control. Clinical studies were based on the Tentative Final Monograph for Health-Care Antiseptic Drug Products (TFM) (proposed rule) and the Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Surgical Hand Scrub Formulations (ASTM E1115-91). Two randomized, blinded, well-controlled clinical studies involving 137 healthy subjects were conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of the CHG/ethanol hand preparation in producing an immediate and persistent reduction in the normal bacterial flora of the hands. The CHG/ethanol hand preparation was applied without scrubbing or the use of water, and a standard 4% CHG reference product was applied with a scrub brush in 2 traditional 3-minute surgical scrubs. In 1 study, a 61% ethanol vehicle control treatment was applied without scrubbing or use of water. During a 5-day period, each study subject performed a series of 11 surgical scrubs with 1 of the test treatments. After the first treatment on days 1, 2, and 5, surgical gloves were worn for 3 or 6 hours. Bacterial samples were taken with the glove-juice technique at 1 minute, 3 hours, and 6 hours after treatment. The immediate bactericidal effect of the CHG/ethanol hand preparation after a single application resulted in a 2.5-log reduction in normal flora. This bactericidal effect persisted throughout the studies and eventually increased to a 3.6-log reduction after the 11th scrub on day 5. The log reductions of the CHG/ethanol hand preparation proved to be significantly better (P <.05) than that of the 4% CHG product at each sampling interval on days 1 and 2 and the sampling at 6 hours on day 5 and significantly better than the 61% ethanol vehicle at all times. The combination of 1% CHG and 61% ethanol had significantly greater microbial reduction than

  8. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-11-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of PFBC technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an altemative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. As shown in Fig. 1, the RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no HTHP sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-leaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6M-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite [8]. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  9. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of PFBC technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an altemative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. As shown in Fig. 1, the RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no HTHP sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-leaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6M-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite [8]. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  10. Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz, Greg A.; Stalnaker, Donald M.; Guild, Eric M.; Oliker, Benjamin Q.; Moran, Paul J.; Townsend, Steven W.; Hostutler, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple variants of the Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) have recently been demonstrated at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Highlights of this ongoing research effort include: a) a 571W rubidium (Rb) based Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) with a gain (2α) of 0.48 cm-1, b) a rubidium-cesium (Cs) Multi-Alkali Multi-Line (MAML) laser that simultaneously lases at both 795 nm and 895 nm, and c) a 1.5 kW resonantly pumped potassium (K) DPAL with a slope efficiency of 50%. The common factor among these experiments is the use of a flowing alkali test bed.

  11. Refractories for high-alkali environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, A.W.; Cloer, F.

    1996-01-01

    There are two reliable and cost-effective tests for evaluating refractory materials. They are used to determine which refractory products allow greater variance in fuel type with respect to alkali environment for coal-fired applications. Preselection of a particular refractory is important because of down-time cost for premature failure. One test is a variation of the standard alkali cup test. The second involves reacting test specimens with the contaminant, followed by physical properties testing to determine degree of degradation and properties affected. The alkali cup test rates products using a relative numerical scale based upon visual appearance. This test indicates the presence and relative degree of chemical attack to the refractory. The physical properties test determines the specific properties affected by the given contaminant.

  12. SO2 REMOVAL WITH COAL SCRUBBING

    SciTech Connect

    Eung Ha Cho; Hari Prashanth Sundaram; Aubrey L. Miller

    2001-07-01

    This project is based on an effective removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas with coal as the scrubbing medium instead of lime, which is used in the conventional FGD processes. A laboratory study proves that coal scrubbing is an innovative technology that can be implemented into a commercial process in place of the conventional lime scrubbing flue gas desulfurization process. SO{sub 2} was removed from a gas stream using an apparatus, which consisted of a 1-liter stirred reactor immersed in a thermostated oil bath. The reactor contained 60 g of 35-65 mesh coal in 600 ml of water. The apparatus also had 2 bubblers connected to the outlet of the reactor, each containing 1500 ml of 1 molar NaOH solution. The flow rate of the gas was 30 ml/sec, temperature was varied from 21 C to 73 C. Oxygen concentration ranged from 3 to 20% while SO{sub 2} concentration, from 500 to 2000 ppm. SO{sub 2} recovery was determined by analyzing SO{sub 2} concentration in the liquid samples taken from the bubblers. The samples taken from the reactor were analyzed for iron concentrations, which were then used to calculate fractions of coal pyrite leached. It was found that SO{sub 2} removal was highly temperature sensitive, giving 13.1% recovery at 21 C and 99.2% recovery at 73 C after 4 hours. The removal of SO{sub 2} was accomplished by the catalysis of iron that was produced by leaching of coal pyrite with combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. This leaching reaction was found to be controlled by chemical reaction with apparent activation energy of 11.6 kcal/mole. SO{sub 2} removal increased with increasing O{sub 2} concentration up to 10% and leveled off upon further increase. The effect of SO{sub 2} concentration on its removal was minimal.

  13. Incinerator system arrangement with dual scrubbing chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Domnitch, I.

    1987-01-13

    An incinerator arrangement is described comprising: an incinerator housing located near the lowest point in a building, the housing containing incinerator elements therein; a chute-flue having a first end in communication with the incinerator housing, a second end at the top of the building for evacuation of combustion gases to the atmosphere therethrough, and at least one intermediately located waste disposal opening through which waste is dropped into the incinerator housing; the incinerator elements including: a main combustion chamber, an opening between the main combustion chamber and the first end of the chute-flue and a flue-damper covering the opening. The flue-damper is biased in a closed position and being operable by the weight of waste to admit the waste into the combustion chamber; a scrubbing chamber located exteriorly along the top of the combustion chamber and having a first opening into the combustion chamber and a second opening into the chute-flue; and water spraying means in the scrubbing chamber for directing a water spray at the combustion gases to wash particulate matter from the gases before the gases enter the chute-flue whereby the water spraying means which are located adjacent the combustion chamber are protected against freezing and the elements.

  14. Scrub typhus masquerading as HELLP syndrome and puerperal sepsis in an asymptomatic malaria patient.

    PubMed

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Kakati, Sonai Datta; Borah, Tridip Jyoti; Yunus, Md

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus and malaria can involve multiple organ systems and are notoriously known for varied presentations. However, clinical malaria or scrub typhus is unusual without fever. On the other hand, altered sensorium with or without fever, dehydration, hemorrhage and hemolysis may lead to low blood pressure. Presence of toxic granules and elevated band forms in such patients can even mimic sepsis. When such a patient is in the peripartum period, it creates a strong clinical dilemma for the physician especially in unbooked obstetric cases. We present such a case where a 26-year-old unbooked female presented on second postpartum day with severe anemia, altered sensorium, difficulty in breathing along with jaundice and gum bleeding without history of fever. Rapid diagnostic test for malaria was negative and no eschar was seen. These parameters suggested a diagnosis of HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet) syndrome with or without puerperal sepsis. Subsequently she was diagnosed as having asymptomatic malaria and scrub typhus and responded to the treatment of it. The biochemical changes suggestive of HELLP syndrome also subsided. We present this case to emphasize the fact that mere absence of fever and eschar does not rule out scrub typhus. It should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with symptoms and signs suggesting HELLP syndrome. Asymptomatic malaria can complicate case scenario towards puerperal sepsis by giving false toxic granules and band form in such situations. PMID:27413718

  15. Comparison of minocycline and azithromycin for the treatment of mild scrub typhus in northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Minxing; Wang, Ting; Yuan, Xiaoyu; Du, Weiming; Lin, Miaoxin; Shen, Yanbo

    2016-09-01

    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, has recently emerged in northern China where the disease had not been known to exist. Although doxycycline and azithromycin are the recommended agents for the treatment of scrub typhus, clinical responses depend both on the susceptibilities of various O. tsutsugamushi strains and the severity of the disease. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients diagnosed with mild scrub typhus from August 2013 to January 2016 in the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, northern China. A total of 40 patients who received minocycline treatment and 34 patients who received azithromycin treatment were included in the analysis. All patients except one defervesced within 120 h after initiating antimicrobial therapy. Kaplan-Meier curves in association with log-rank test showed that the median time to defervescence was significantly shorter for the minocycline-treated group than the azithromycin-treated group (P = 0.003). There were no serious adverse events during treatment. No relapse occurred in either group during the 1-month follow-up period. In conclusion, both minocycline and azithromycin are effective and safe for the treatment of mild scrub typhus, but minocycline is more active than azithromycin against O. tsutsugamushi infection acquired in northern China. PMID:27449540

  16. Alkali Metal Handling Practices at NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvail, Patrick G.; Carter, Robert R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is NASA s principle propulsion development center. Research and development is coordinated and carried out on not only the existing transportation systems, but also those that may be flown in the near future. Heat pipe cooled fast fission cores are among several concepts being considered for the Nuclear Systems Initiative. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a capability to handle high-purity alkali metals for use in heat pipes or liquid metal heat transfer loops. This capability is a low budget prototype of an alkali metal handling system that would allow the production of flight qualified heat pipe modules or alkali metal loops. The processing approach used to introduce pure alkali metal into heat pipe modules and other test articles are described in this paper.

  17. A comparison of 5-minute povidone-iodine scrub and 1-minute povidone-iodine scrub followed by alcohol foam.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, N; Kramer, J W; Kjellberg, S I

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a 1-minute scrub with povidone-iodine followed by alcohol foam is as effective as a 5-minute scrub with povidone-iodine in reducing skin bacterial counts. A 1-minute scrub with povidone-iodine followed by alcohol foam and a 5-minute scrub with povidone-iodine was done. In the first study, cultures were obtained after 1 hour, and in the second study, cultures were obtained after 2 hours. Cultures were obtained by imprinting the first, second, and third fingers on nutrient agar plates. Bacterial counts were then obtained at 24 and 48 hours. The study involved two groups of 12 participants and a total of 37 patients over a period of 5 months. The results show that there was no significant difference between the number of colonies cultured for the 1-minute scrub compared with the 5-minute scrub for either the 1-hour or the 2-hour study. In fact, the total number of bacterial colonies was less after the 1-minute scrub with alcohol foam than after the standard 5-minute scrub in both the 1-hour group (10 vs. 18) and the 2-hour group (18 vs. 44).

  18. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  19. Modelling magmatic gas scrubbing in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Rossella; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Valenza, Mariano; Bergsson, Baldur; Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Pfeffer, Melissa Anne; Rakel Guðjónsdóttir, Sylvía

    2015-04-01

    In volcano-hosted hydrothermal systems, the chemistry of deeply rising magmatic gases is extensively modified by gas-water-rock interactions taking place within the hydrothermal reservoir, and/or at shallow groundwaters conditions. These reactions can scrub reactive, water-soluble species (S, halogens) from the magmatic gas phase, so that their quantitative assessment is central to understanding the chemistry of surface gas manifestations, and brings profound implications to the interpretation of volcanic-hydrothermal unrests. Here, we present the results of numerical simulations of magmatic gas scrubbing, in which the reaction path modelling approach (Helgeson, 1968) is used to reproduce hydrothermal gas-water-rock interactions at both shallow (temperature up to 109°C; low-T model runs) and deep reservoir (temperature range: 150-250 °C; high-T model runs) conditions. The model was built based upon the EQ3/6 software package (Wolery and Daveler, 1992), and consisted into a step by step addition of a high-temperature magmatic gas to an initial meteoric water, in the presence of a dissolving aquifer rock. The model outputted, at each step of gas addition, the chemical composition of a new aqueous solution formed after gas-water-rock interactions; which, upon reaching gas over-pressuring (PgasTOT > Psat(H2O) at run T), is degassed (by single-step degassing) to separate a scrubbed gas phase. As an application of the model results, the model compositions of the separated gases are finally compared with compositions of natural gas emissions from Hekla volcano (T< 100°C) and from Krisuvik geothermal system (T> 100°C), resulting into an excellent agreement. The compositions of the model solutions are also in fair agreement with compositions of natural thermal water samples. We conclude that our EQ3/6-based reaction path simulations offer a realistic representation of gas-water-rock interaction processes occurring underneath active magmatic-hydrothermal systems

  20. Burden of Disease Measured by Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a Disease Forecasting Time Series Model of Scrub Typhus in Laiwu, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liang, Si-Yuan; Wang, Xian-Jun; Li, Xiu-Jun; Wu, Yan-Ling; Ma, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Laiwu District is recognized as a hyper-endemic region for scrub typhus in Shandong Province, but the seriousness of this problem has been neglected in public health circles. Methodology/Principal Findings A disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) approach was adopted to measure the burden of scrub typhus in Laiwu, China during the period 2006 to 2012. A multiple seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA) was used to identify the most suitable forecasting model for scrub typhus in Laiwu. Results showed that the disease burden of scrub typhus is increasing yearly in Laiwu, and which is higher in females than males. For both females and males, DALY rates were highest for the 60–69 age group. Of all the SARIMA models tested, the SARIMA(2,1,0)(0,1,0)12 model was the best fit for scrub typhus cases in Laiwu. Human infections occurred mainly in autumn with peaks in October. Conclusions/Significance Females, especially those of 60 to 69 years of age, were at highest risk of developing scrub typhus in Laiwu, China. The SARIMA (2,1,0)(0,1,0)12 model was the best fit forecasting model for scrub typhus in Laiwu, China. These data are useful for developing public health education and intervention programs to reduce disease. PMID:25569248

  1. Western scrub-jays do not appear to attend to functionality in Aesop’s Fable experiments

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Brigit D.; Schlinger, Barney A.; Rensel, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Western scrub-jays are known for their highly discriminatory and flexible behaviors in a caching (food storing) context. However, it is unknown whether their cognitive abilities are restricted to a caching context. To explore this question, we tested scrub-jays in a non-caching context using the Aesop’s Fable paradigm, where a partially filled tube of water contains a floating food reward and objects must be inserted to displace the water and bring the food within reach. We tested four birds, but only two learned to drop stones proficiently. Of these, one bird participated in 4/5 experiments and one in 2/5 experiments. Both birds passed one experiment, but without attending to the functional differences of the objects, and failed the other experiments. Scrub-jays were not motivated to participate in these experiments, suggesting that either this paradigm was ecologically irrelevant or perhaps their flexibility is restricted to a caching context. PMID:26925331

  2. Masticophis flagellum selects florida scrub habitat at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of space by individual animals strongly influences the spatial extent, abundance, and growth rates of their populations. We analyzed the spatial ecology and habitat selection of Masticophis flagellum (the coachwhip) at three different scales to determine which habitats are most important to this species. Home ranges and mean daily displacements of M. flagellum in Florida were large compared to individuals in other populations of this species. Home ranges contained a greater proportion of Florida scrub habitat than did the study site as a whole, and individuals selected Florida scrub habitat within their home ranges. For both selection of the home range within the study site and selection of habitats within the home range, mesic cutthroat and hydric swamp habitats were avoided. Standardized selection ratios of Florida scrub patches were positively correlated with lizard abundance. Several non-mutually exclusive mechanisms, including foraging success (prey abundance, prey vulnerability, and foraging efficiency), abundance of refugia, and thermoregulatory opportunity may underlie the selection of Florida scrub by M. flagellum. Historic rarity and anthropogenic loss and fragmentation of Florida scrub habitat, coupled with the long-distance movements, large home ranges, and selection of Florida scrub by M. flagellum, indicate that large contiguous tracts of land containing Florida scrub will be essential for the persistence of M. flagellum in central Florida. ?? 2009 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  3. Spatial Distribution Analysis of Scrub Typhus in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hong Sung; Chu, Chaeshin; Han, Dong Yeob

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzes the spatial distribution of scrub typhus in Korea. Methods: A spatial distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi occurrence using a geographic information system (GIS) is presented, and analyzed by means of spatial clustering and correlations. Results: The provinces of Gangwon-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do show a low incidence throughout the year. Some districts have almost identical environmental conditions of scrub typhus incidence. The land use change of districts does not directly affect the incidence rate. Conclusion: GIS analysis shows the spatial characteristics of scrub typhus. This research can be used to construct a spatial-temporal model to understand the epidemic tsutsugamushi. PMID:24159523

  4. Assessing scrub practitioner non-technical skills: a literature review.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Guy

    2015-01-01

    A review by Catchpole et al (2009) into the causes and types of harm experienced by the surgical patient emphasised the high risk nature of the perioperative period. Investigations into recent failures at NHS organisations have emphasised the relevance of non-technical skills education in improving clinical performance and patient outcomes. However, scrub practitioner non-technical skills are often developed on a tacit basis, making assessment of performance difficult. This literature review identifies strategies that facilitate assessment of non-technical skills during surgery. Recommendations are made that will assist scrub practitioners in using a validated scrub practitioner non-technical skills assessment framework reliably. PMID:26016259

  5. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Scrub Typhus and Murine Typhus among Hospitalized Patients with Acute Undifferentiated Fever in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Sugihiro; Cuong, Ngo Chi; Tra, Doan Thu; Doan, Yen Hai; Shimizu, Kenta; Tuan, Nguyen Quang; Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Mai, Le Quynh; Duc-Anh, Dang; Ando, Shuji; Arikawa, Jiro; Parry, Christopher M; Ariyoshi, Koya; Thuy, Pham Thanh

    2015-05-01

    A descriptive study on rickettsiosis was conducted at the largest referral hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, to identify epidemiological and clinical characteristics of specific rickettsiosis. Between March 2001 and February 2003, we enrolled 579 patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF), excluding patients with malaria, dengue fever, and typhoid fever, and serologically tested for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi. Of the patients, 237 (40.9%) and 193 (33.3%) had scrub and murine typhus, respectively, and 149 (25.7%) had neither of them (non-scrub and murine typhus [non-ST/MT]). The proportion of murine typhus was highest among patients living in Hanoi whereas that of scrub typhus was highest in national or regional border areas. The presence of an eschar, dyspnea, hypotension, and lymphadenopathy was significantly associated with a diagnosis of scrub typhus (OR = 46.56, 10.90, 9.01, and 7.92, respectively). Patients with murine typhus were less likely to have these findings but more likely to have myalgia, rash, and relative bradycardia (OR = 1.60, 1.56, and 1.45, respectively). Scrub typhus and murine typhus were shown to be common causes of AUF in northern Vietnam although the occurrence of spotted fever group rickettsiae was not determined. Clinical and epidemiological information may help local clinicians make clinical diagnosis of specific rickettsioses in a resource-limited setting.

  6. Apparatus enables accurate determination of alkali oxides in alkali metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.; Gahn, R. F.; Graab, J. W.; Maple, W. E.; Rosenblum, L.

    1966-01-01

    Evacuated apparatus determines the alkali oxide content of an alkali metal by separating the metal from the oxide by amalgamation with mercury. The apparatus prevents oxygen and moisture from inadvertently entering the system during the sampling and analytical procedure.

  7. Q Fever, Scrub Typhus, and Rickettsial Diseases in Children, Kenya, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Christina M.; Odhiambo, Antony; Jiang, Ju; Laktabai, Jeremiah; Armstrong, Janice; Holland, Thomas; Richards, Allen L.; O’Meara, Wendy P.

    2016-01-01

    To increase knowledge of undifferentiated fevers in Kenya, we tested paired serum samples from febrile children in western Kenya for antibodies against pathogens increasingly recognized to cause febrile illness in Africa. Of patients assessed, 8.9%, 22.4%, 1.1%, and 3.6% had enhanced seroreactivity to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group rickettsiae, typhus group rickettsiae, and scrub typhus group orientiae, respectively. PMID:27088502

  8. Q Fever, Scrub Typhus, and Rickettsial Diseases in Children, Kenya, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Maina, Alice N; Farris, Christina M; Odhiambo, Antony; Jiang, Ju; Laktabai, Jeremiah; Armstrong, Janice; Holland, Thomas; Richards, Allen L; O'Meara, Wendy P

    2016-05-01

    To increase knowledge of undifferentiated fevers in Kenya, we tested paired serum samples from febrile children in western Kenya for antibodies against pathogens increasingly recognized to cause febrile illness in Africa. Of patients assessed, 8.9%, 22.4%, 1.1%, and 3.6% had enhanced seroreactivity to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group rickettsiae, typhus group rickettsiae, and scrub typhus group orientiae, respectively. PMID:27088502

  9. Separation of iodine from mercury containing scrubbing solutions

    DOEpatents

    Burger, Leland L.; Scheele, Randall D.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive iodines can be recovered from a nitric acid scrub solution containing mercuric nitrate by passing a current through the scrub solution to react the iodine with the mercuric nitrate to form mercuric iodate which precipitates out. The mercuric iodate can then be reacted to recover the radioiodine for further processing into a form suitable for long-term storage and to recover the mercury for recycling.

  10. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  11. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  12. Effectiveness of Septisol Antiseptic Foam as a Surgical Scrub Agent

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Norman E.; Gravens, Daniel L.

    1973-01-01

    Septisol antiseptic foam (0.23% hexachlorophene in a 46% ethyl alcohol base) is a new surgical scrub agent for both primary and re-entry use that is designed to minimize the harsh effects to the skin of the conventional scrub while retaining effective antibacterial properties. A preliminary surgical scrub study of 1-week duration yielded an immediate reduction in resident flora of 92% from an average single scrub coupled with a residual bacteriostatic effect from repeated use that gave a plateau at 57% of the pretest resident population level. A separate study demonstrated complete elimination of both gram-positive and gram-negative transients from the skin with a single application of the product. In an 8-week surgical scrub study, equal effectiveness was shown between Septisol antiseptic foam and a standard 3% hexachlorophene detergent. However, Septisol antiseptic foam offers considerable advantage in minimizing the harsh effects to the skin of the conventional surgical scrub and results in a substantially lower hemic level of hexachlorophene in the user than that obtained with 3% hexachlorophene detergent. Sampling was conducted by the fingerprint impression plate technique of Gale. PMID:4584593

  13. Jet Surface Interaction-Scrubbing Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Generation of sound due to scrubbing of a jet flow past a nearby solid surface is investigated within the framework of the generalized acoustic analogy theory. The analysis applies to the boundary layer noise generated at and near a wall, and excludes the scattered noise component that is produced at the leading or the trailing edge. While compressibility effects are relatively unimportant at very low Mach numbers, frictional heat generation and thermal gradient normal to the surface could play important roles in generation and propagation of sound in high speed jets of practical interest. A general expression is given for the spectral density of the far-field sound as governed by the variable density Pridmore- Brown equation. The propagation Green's function should be solved numerically starting with the boundary conditions on the surface and subject to specified mean velocity and temperature profiles between the surface and the observer. The equivalent sources of aerodynamic sound are associated with non-linear momentum flux and enthalpy flux terms that appear in the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. These multi-pole sources should be modeled and evaluated with input from a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver with an appropriate turbulence model.

  14. Chlor-Alkali Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesh, S.; Tilak, B. V.

    1983-01-01

    Chlor-alkali technology is one of the largest electrochemical industries in the world, the main products being chlorine and caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) generated simultaneously by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. This technology is reviewed in terms of electrochemical principles and manufacturing processes involved. (Author/JN)

  15. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  16. Determination of Cutoff of ELISA and Immunofluorescence Assay for Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Chaudhry, Rama; Thakur, Chandan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015) were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (Fuller Labs, USA) with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA). Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:27621559

  17. Determination of Cutoff of ELISA and Immunofluorescence Assay for Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nitin; Chaudhry, Rama; Thakur, Chandan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015) were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (Fuller Labs, USA) with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA). Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  18. Alkali-vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Komashko, A.; Krupke, W. F.

    2010-02-01

    We report on the results from several of our alkali laser systems. We show highly efficient performance from an alexandrite-pumped rubidium laser. Using a laser diode stack as a pump source, we demonstrate up to 145 W of average power from a CW system. We present a design for a transversely pumped demonstration system that will show all of the required laser physics for a high power system.

  19. Role of mag-enhanced lime scrubbing in the FGD industry

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Smith, K.; Stowe, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    The mag-enhanced lime scrubbing process has been in commercial use in the US since the early 1970`s. At present over 14,000 MW of coal-fired utility plants in the US burning high sulfur coal (2.5--4.0% S) utilize this process with an excellent emission compliance and cost performance record to date. Dravo Lime Company (DLC) being the largest supplier of lime to this industry continues to conduct extensive R and D in this area and provides technical support service to these users. The success of the mag-enhanced lime process is largely attributed to the dual alkali effect of the Mg-Ca ions with a very distinct role for the highly soluble Mg ion in the scrubber liquor. It is well known that the high solubility of the magnesium ions provides alkalinities in the scrubbing liquor far in excess of the limestone systems. As a result of this high alkalinity liquor the mag-lime scrubbers need a much lower liquid to gas ratio, have lower scrubber pressure drop, consume lower parasitic load, are able to handle very high inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations, show little scaling tendency, etc. The scrubbers, recirculation pumps, piping, etc., are much smaller and the systems have lower capital and operating costs over comparable limestone systems. This system typically has a high availability and the process is less severe mechanically on the scrubber, pumps, nozzles, piping than comparable limestone processes. DLC`s patented ThioClear{reg_sign} process is an improvement over the conventional Thiosorbic process in use today. The ThioClear process while providing all of the advantages of the Thiosorbic process uses a nearly clear liquor to scrub and can use an innovative Horizontal Scrubber at gas velocities of up to 7.62--9.14 m/s (25--30 FPS). This process produces an excellent quality gypsum for wall board, cement or other applications and can also produce valuable Mg(OH){sub 2} as by-product. This paper discusses the merits of Thiosorbic/ThioClear processes, innovations with

  20. Urbanization of Scrub Typhus Disease in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Won; Ha, Na-Young; Ryu, Boyeong; Bang, Ji Hwan; Song, Hoyeon; Kim, Yuri; Kim, Gwanghun; Oh, Myoung-don; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Lee, Jong-koo

    2015-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is an endemic disease in Asia. It has been a rural disease, but indigenous urban cases have been observed in Seoul, South Korea. Urban scrub typhus may have a significant impact because of the large population. Methods Indigenous urban scrub typhus was epidemiologically identified in Seoul, the largest metropolitan city in South Korea, using national notifiable disease data from 2010 to 2013. For detailed analysis of clinical features, patients from one hospital that reported the majority of cases were selected and compared to a historic control group. Chigger mites were prospectively collected in the city using a direct chigger mite-collecting trap, and identified using both phenotypic and 18S rDNA sequencing analyses. Their infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi was confirmed by sequencing the 56-kDa antigen gene. Results Eighty-eight cases of urban scrub typhus were determined in Seoul. The possible sites of infection were mountainous areas (56.8%), city parks (20.5%), the vicinity of one’s own residence (17.0%), and riversides (5.7%). Eighty-seven chigger mites were collected in Gwanak mountain, one of the suspected infection sites in southern Seoul, and seventy-six (87.4%) of them were identified as Helenicula miyagawai and eight (9.2%) as Leptotrombidium scutellare. Pooled DNA extracted from H. miyagawai mites yielded O. tsutsugamushi Boryong strain. Twenty-six patients from one hospital showed low APACHE II score (3.4 ± 2.7), low complication rate (3.8%), and no hypokalemia. Conclusions We identified the presence of indigenous urban scrub typhus in Seoul, and a subgroup of them had mild clinical features. The chigger mite H. miyagawai infected with O. tsutsugamushi within the city was found. In endemic area, urban scrub typhus needs to be considered as one of the differential febrile diseases and a target for prevention. PMID:26000454

  1. Serological Evidence of Scrub Typhus among Cases of PUO in the Kashmir Valley- A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Nargis; Kanth, Farhath; Farooq, Rumana; Haq, Inam Ul; Shah, Parvaiz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rickettsial infections are being increasingly recognized as a cause of acute febrile illnesses and should be considered a distinct possibility in patients presenting with suggestive clinical features. Their diagnosis remains a challenge in a country like ours where tests like immunofluorescence assay cannot be routinely done. Results of serological tests, when correlated with patients clinical profile can aid in the timely diagnosis of scrub typhus. Aim To find out the extent to which scrub typhus contributes to Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO) in patients admitted to or attending the OPD of our hospital using simple tests like Weil-Felix Agglutination Test (WFT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College and Hospital, Srinagar, over a period of eight months (1st March to 31st October 2015). Serum samples from patients suffering from Pyrexia of Unknown Origin (PUO) were processed for the detection of Scrub typhus. A total of 162 samples were included in the study. These were subjected to WFT using OX-K strain. The serum samples were diluted 1/20 to 1/640 and a titre of ≥ 1:160 was considered as positive. The samples were also tested for IgM and IgG antibodies for scrub typhus by ELISA and tube agglutination test was done to detect typhoid fever and brucellosis. Results Of the 162 serum samples tested 22.8% tested positive scrub typhus by WFT. IgM ELISA and IgG was positive in 8 (4.9%) and 15 (9.3%) samples respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of WFT; taking IgM ELISA as a reference standard were 75%, 79.9%, 16.2% and 98.4% respectively. Conclusion Scrub typhus is prevalent in our state and the results of WFT supplemented by those of ELISA can aid in its diagnosis. However the results of these tests should always be regarded in light of the clinical condition of the patient. PMID

  2. Is it time for brushless scrubbing with an alcohol-based agent?

    PubMed

    Gruendemann, B J; Bjerke, N B

    2001-12-01

    The practice of surgical scrubbing in perioperative settings is changing rapidly. This article presents information about eliminating the traditional scrub brush technique and using an alcohol formulation for surgical hand scrubs. Also covered are antimicrobial agents, relevant US Food and Drug Administration classifications, skin and fingernail care, and implementation of changes. The article challenges surgical team members to evaluate a new and different approach to surgical hand scrubbing.

  3. Scrub Typhus in the Republic of Palau, Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Kuartei, Stevenson; Togamae, Ishmael; Sengebau, Maireng; Demma, Linda; Nicholson, William; O'Leary, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In October 2001, an outbreak of febrile illness began in the southwest islands group of the Republic of Palau. Through October 2003, a total of 15 southwest islanders experienced fever >39.5°C and abdominal distress, both lasting >7days. Orientia tsutsugamushi, the agent of scrub typhus, was subsequently identified as the cause. PMID:15504273

  4. Retrospective Cognition by Food-Caching Western Scrub-Jays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kort, S.R.; Dickinson, A.; Clayton, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Episodic-like memory, the retrospective component of cognitive time travel in animals, needs to fulfil three criteria to meet the behavioral properties of episodic memory as defined for humans. Here, we review results obtained with the cache-recovery paradigm with western scrub-jays and conclude that they fulfil these three criteria. The jays…

  5. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  6. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  7. An outbreak investigation of scrub typhus in Western Province, Solomon Islands, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Joshua, Cynthia; Longbottom, Jenny; Longbottom, Katherine; Sio, Alison; Puiahi, Elliot; Jilini, Greg; Stenos, John; Dalipanda, Tenneth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the etiology and risk factors of undifferentiated fever in a cluster of patients in Western Province, Solomon Islands, May 2014. Methods An outbreak investigation with a case control study was conducted. A case was defined as an inpatient in one hospital in Western Province, Solomon Islands with high fever (> 38.5 °C) and a negative malaria microscopy test admitted between 1 and 31 May 2014. Asymptomatic controls matched with the cases residentially were recruited in a ratio of 1:2. Serum samples from the subjects were tested for rickettsial infections using indirect micro-immunofluorescence assay. Results Nine cases met the outbreak case definition. All cases were male. An eschar was noted in five cases (55%), and one developed pneumonitis. We did not identify any environmental factors associated with illness. Serum samples of all five follow-up cases (100%) had strong-positive IgG responses to scrub typhus. All but one control (10%) had a moderate response against scrub typhus. Four controls had low levels of antibodies against spotted fever group rickettsia, and only one had a low-level response to typhus group rickettsia. Discussion This outbreak represents the first laboratory-confirmed outbreak of scrub typhus in the Western Province of Solomon Islands. The results suggest that rickettsial infections are more common than currently recognized as a cause of an acute febrile illness. A revised clinical case definition for rickettsial infections and treatment guidelines were developed and shared with provincial health staff for better surveillance and response to future outbreaks of a similar kind.

  8. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  9. Serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at firing points 10 and 60, Gyeonggi province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Lee, John S; Richards, Allen L; Kim, Heung-Chul; Ha, Si Jung; Shim, So Hee; Baek, Luck Ju; Song, Ki-Joon; Chong, Sung-Tae; Turell, Michael J; Burkett, Douglas A; Schuster, Anthony; Lee, In-Yong; Yi, Suk-Hee; Sames, William J; Song, Jin-Won

    2010-03-01

    Soldiers from the Republic of Korea and the United States conducting peacetime military operations at various training sites and multiple range complexes located near the demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea are exposed to rodents and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites. These diseases include scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis. Many of the training sites are rural or semi-rural, surrounded or co-located with various forms of agriculture, and are infested with rodents and insectivores (as well as their ectoparasites), which are commonly found in association with unmanaged tall grasses, scrub, and crawling vegetation habitats. For 5 years, rodents and insectivores were collected seasonally (spring, summer, fall, and winter) at firing points 10 and 60 near the demilitarized zone and serologically tested for the presence of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis antibodies. Of the nine species of small mammals collected, Apodemus agrarius, the common striped field mouse and known reservoir of scrub typhus, was the most frequently collected (90.6%). Only four of the nine species captured, A. agrarius (60.9%), Micromys minutus (100%), Mus musculus (55.6%), and Rattus norvegicus (46.7%), were positive for scrub typhus. Of all the small mammals captured, only A. agrarius was positive for murine typhus (0.3%) and leptospirosis (1.3%). Seasonal and annual prevalence rates based on weight and sex are presented.

  10. Alkali hydrolysis of trinitrotoluene.

    PubMed

    Karasch, Christian; Popovic, Milan; Qasim, Mohamed; Bajpai, Rakesh K

    2002-01-01

    Data for alkali hydrolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in aqueous solution at pH 12.0 under static (pH-controlled) as well as dynamic (pH-uncontrolled) conditions are reported. The experiments were conducted at two different molar ratios of TNT to hydroxyl ions at room temperature. The TNT disappeared rapidly from the solution as a first-order reaction. The complete disappearance of aromatic structure from the aqueous solution within 24 h was confirmed by the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectra of the samples. Cuvet experiments in a UV-VIS spectrophotometer demonstrated the formation of Meisenheimer complex, which slowly disappeared via formation of aromatic compounds with fewer nitro groups. The known metabolites of TNT were found to accumulate only in very small quantities in the liquid phase.

  11. Triple trouble--macrophage activation syndrome in a case of severe leptospirosis and scrub typhus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Diwan, A G; Shewale, Rahul; Iyer, Shivakumar; Nisal, Amit; Agrawa, Prakhar

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome is a potentially life threatening phenomenon characterised by aggressive proliferation of macrophages and T lymphocytes leading to haemophagocytosis of other blood cells and multi organ failure. Here we present a very unusual combination of leptospirosis and scrub typhus infection leading to macrophage activation syndrome. Scrub typhus associated with macrophage activation syndrome has rarely been reported in India. A 40 year old female presented with high grade fever, seizures, bodyache, arthralgia and severe breathlessness. Investigations revealed persistent thrombocytopenia, impaired liver function tests, renal dysfunction, leptospiral IgM ELISA positive and a positive Weil Felix test. There was evidence of haemophagocytosis in bone marrow. Macrophage activation syndrome if left untreated has been associated with rapidly fatal outcome and early treatment can help us save that one precious thing..called life..! PMID:25327097

  12. Hint-seeking behaviour of western scrub-jays in a metacognition task.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arii; Clayton, Nicola S

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive processes during memory retrieval can be tested by examining whether or not animals can assess their knowledge state when they are faced with a memory test. In a typical foraging task, food is hidden in one of the multiple tubes and the subjects are given an opportunity to check the contents of the tubes before choosing the one that they thought contained food. Following the findings from our previous study that western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) can make prospective metacognition judgements, this study tested the scrub-jays' concurrent metacognition judgements. In a series of experiments, uncertainty about the food location was induced in three ways: by making the baiting process visibly unavailable, by inserting a delay between the baiting and food retrieval, and by moving the location of the bait. The jays looked into the tubes more often during the conditions that were consistent with high uncertainty. In addition, their looking behaviour was associated not with the sight of food but with information about the location of the food. These findings suggest that the jays can differentiate the states of knowing and not knowing about certain information and take appropriate action to complement their missing knowledge.

  13. A Markov decision process for managing habitat for Florida scrub-jays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; Williams, B. Ken

    2011-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays Aphelocoma coerulescens are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act due to loss and degradation of scrub habitat. This study concerned the development of an optimal strategy for the restoration and management of scrub habitat at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which contains one of the few remaining large populations of scrub-jays in Florida. There are documented differences in the reproductive and survival rates of scrubjays among discrete classes of scrub height (<120 cm or "short"; 120-170 cm or "optimal"; .170 cm or "tall"; and a combination of tall and optimal or "mixed"), and our objective was to calculate a state-dependent management strategy that would maximize the long-term growth rate of the resident scrub-jay population. We used aerial imagery with multistate Markov models to estimate annual transition probabilities among the four scrub-height classes under three possible management actions: scrub restoration (mechanical cutting followed by burning), a prescribed burn, or no intervention. A strategy prescribing the optimal management action for management units exhibiting different proportions of scrub-height classes was derived using dynamic programming. Scrub restoration was the optimal management action only in units dominated by mixed and tall scrub, and burning tended to be the optimal action for intermediate levels of short scrub. The optimal action was to do nothing when the amount of short scrub was greater than 30%, because short scrub mostly transitions to optimal height scrub (i.e., that state with the highest demographic success of scrub-jays) in the absence of intervention. Monte Carlo simulation of the optimal policy suggested that some form of management would be required every year. We note, however, that estimates of scrub-height transition probabilities were subject to several sources of uncertainty, and so we explored the management implications of alternative sets of transition probabilities

  14. Support for Systematic Code Reviews with the SCRUB Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzmann, Gerald J.

    2010-01-01

    SCRUB is a code review tool that supports both large, team-based software development efforts (e.g., for mission software) as well as individual tasks. The tool was developed at JPL to support a new, streamlined code review process that combines human-generated review reports with program-generated review reports from a customizable range of state-of-the-art source code analyzers. The leading commercial tools include Codesonar, Coverity, and Klocwork, each of which can achieve a reasonably low rate of false-positives in the warnings that they generate. The time required to analyze code with these tools can vary greatly. In each case, however, the tools produce results that would be difficult to realize with human code inspections alone. There is little overlap in the results produced by the different analyzers, and each analyzer used generally increases the effectiveness of the overall effort. The SCRUB tool allows all reports to be accessed through a single, uniform interface (see figure) that facilitates brows ing code and reports. Improvements over existing software include significant simplification, and leveraging of a range of commercial, static source code analyzers in a single, uniform framework. The tool runs as a small stand-alone application, avoiding the security problems related to tools based on Web browsers. A developer or reviewer, for instance, must have already obtained access rights to a code base before that code can be browsed and reviewed with the SCRUB tool. The tool cannot open any files or folders to which the user does not already have access. This means that the tool does not need to enforce or administer any additional security policies. The analysis results presented through the SCRUB tool s user interface are always computed off-line, given that, especially for larger projects, this computation can take longer than appropriate for interactive tool use. The recommended code review process that is supported by the SCRUB tool consists of

  15. Mixed alkali effect in nonconventional alkali gallotitanate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaji, Fumiaki; Hasegawa, Shinya; Yoko, Toshinobu; Sakka, Sumio . Inst. for Chemical Research)

    1993-02-01

    The mixed alkali effect on electrical conductivity, that is, the reduction of conductivity due to alkali mixing, was observed in Na[sub 2]O-K[sub 2]O-Ga[sub 2]O[sub 3]-TiO[sub 2] glasses, which are nonconventional in the sense that glass-forming oxides defined by Zachariasen are not involved. The magnitude of the reduction in conductivity of the present glasses due to alkali mixing was similar to that of corresponding mixed alkali silicate and phosphate glasses. The activation energy for electrical conduction showed a maximum around the composition Na/(Na + K) = 0.5, where the conductivity was at a minimum.

  16. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H.; Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R.

    2015-11-02

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  17. Effect of cavitation on removal of alkali elements from coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivalli, H.; Nirmal, L.; Nagarajan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The main impurities in coal are sulphur, ash and alkali. On combustion, the volatile forms of these impurities are either condensed on the boilers, or emitted in the form of potentially hazardous gases. The alkali elements present in coal help the fly ash particles adhere to boiler surfaces by providing a wet surface on which collection of these particles can take place. Use of ultrasonic techniques in cleaning of coal has stirred interest among researchers in recent times. Extraction of alkali elements by cavitation effect using low-frequency ultrasound, in the presence of reagents (HNO3 and H2O2) is reported in this paper. Powdered coal was dissolved with the reagent and exposed to ultrasonic fields of various frequencies at different time intervals. The treated solution is filtered and tested for alkali levels.

  18. The 4843 Alkali Metal Storage Facility Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The 4843 AMSF has been used primarily to provide a centralized building to receive and store dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste, including sodium and lithium, which has been generated at the Fast Flux Test Facility and at various other Hanford Site operations that used alkali metals. Most of the dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste received consists of retired equipment from liquid sodium processes. The unit continues to store material. In general, only solid alkali metal waste that is water reactive is stored at the 4843 AMSF. The 4843 AMSF will be closed in a manner consistent with Ecology guidelines and regulations (WAC 173-303-610). The general closure procedure is detailed as follows.

  19. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  20. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOEpatents

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  1. Clearcut stand size and scrub-successional bird assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of clearcut stand size on species richness, reproductive effort, and relative abundance of scrub-successional birds and the entire bird assemblage at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. We used standardized mist-net grids to mark and recapture birds in clearcuts replanted with longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in stands of 2 to 57 ha that were two to six years old. Species richness for the entire bird assemblage was not explained by stand size (P = 0.67), stand age (P = 0.95), or the interaction of these two variables (P = 0.90). Similarly, species richness of scrub-successional birds was not explained by stand size (P = 0.63), stand age (P = 0.55), or the interaction of stand size and stand age (P = 0.35). Regressing species richness on clearcut stand size, we found a significant negative relationship between these variables for the entire bird assemblage (P = 0.01) and for scrub-successional birds (P = 0.02). The ratio of juveniles to adults in mist-net samples varied by year (P = 0.04), but neither clearcut size (P = 0.23) nor the interaction of clearcut size and year (P = 0.25) was related to the ratio of juveniles to adults in the sample. We found no relationship between the frequency of capture of any category of birds and stand size (scrub-successional, P = 0.52; woodland, P = 0.77; combined sample, P = 0.55). Neither bird-species richness, reproductive effort, nor relative abundance differed across clearcut stand sizes. Clearcut stand size does not appear to be an important management variable if variation in species richness, reproductive effort, or relative abundance are objectives. We suggest that even-aged forestry is a useful tool for managing birds in the southeastern United States.

  2. Removal of ethylene and bioaerosol by chlorine dioxide using a chemical scrubbing system in a fruit and vegetable storage facility.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsu-Hua; Wu, Li-Chun; You, Ya-Ting; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2009-02-15

    Ethylene (C2H4) and bioaerosol are commonly present in the inside atmosphere of postharvest fruit and vegetable storage facilities, which may affect the aging of postharvest fruit and human health. We have assessed the feasibility of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as the scrubbing solution in a chemical scrubbing tower for simultaneously removing C2H4 and bioaerosol emissions from a gas stream. Parameters such as the ClO2concentration, contact time, and liquid-to-gas (L/G) ratio were examined with the aim of determining the optimal operating conditions. Using the system reported here, the optimal C2H4 removal efficiency was 99.5% when 500 ppm ClO2 was used at a reaction time of 30-60 s under a continuous non-recycle ClO2 flow mode. In terms of C2H4 removal, a greater L/G resulted in a higher C2H4 removal efficiency up to the optimal ratio of 12.5. In terms of the simultaneous removal of C2H4 and bioaerosol, the removal efficiency of C2H4 was 99.2% and those for the bioaersols of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were 99.92 and 99.10%, respectively, under a continuous non-recycle flow mode. Our results also indicate that oxidation reduction potential (ORP) can be a valuable indicator for the timing of the replacement of the scrubbing solution in the system under a continuous recycle flow mode. Additional confirmation of the feasibility of the ORP as an indicator of C2H4 and bioaerosol removal in situ was obtained in a 3-month test of our system in continuous recycle flow mode with the periodical replacement of scrubbing solution, ClO2. The removal efficiencies for C2H4, bacterial and fungus aerosol, and total hydrocarbon compounds (THC) were 83.4, 96.8, 96.1, and 76.5%, respectively. Our results prove that ClO2 is an excellent scrubbing solution in the chemical scrubbing tower for the removal of C2H4 emissions and bioaerosol. We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of this system in a fruit and vegetable storage facility. PMID:19132588

  3. Scrub Typhus antibody in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Heisey, G B; Gan, E; Shirai, A; Groves, M G

    1981-06-01

    Using an indirect immunofluorescence technique, sera from 113 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), trapped in Peninsular Malaysia, were screened for the presence of antibody to six prototype strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi combined into three polyvalent groupings: I--Karp, TA716, and TA763; II--Gilliam; and III--TA678 and TH1817. Fifteen percent (17/113) of the monkeys had antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:50 to one or more of the antigenic groups. Although a titer greater than or equal to 1:150 is generally considered indicative or prior Rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection, we selected a less than 1:25 titer as a conservative standard to insure non-infected animals. Using this criterion, 62 (55%) of the 113 monkeys were accepted for use in scrub typhus studies. The high prevalence of antibody to scrub typhus in the semi-arboreal cynomolgus monkey is in marked contrast to the low prevalence reported in the strictly arboreal silvered leaf monkeys (Presbytis cristatus). The results of this study indicate that cynomolgus monkeys should be rigorously screened for evidence of prior infection before they are included in experimental scrub typhus studies.

  4. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  5. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  6. Determination of Scrub typhus Suggests a New Epidemic Focus in the Anhui Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Min; Che, Li; Zhang, Jinhai; Hu, Jianli; Srinivas, Swaminath; Xu, Ruiyao; Guo, Henbing; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Changjun; Feng, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, 19 cases of a scrub typhus epidemic occurred within a week at a sports school in Mingguang County, Anhui Province, where no previous incidence of this mite borne disease had been reported. Sero-surveillance in 2009 indicated that 10 of the 100 school students possessed anti-Orientia tsutsugamushi antibodies. From 2009 to 2013, 60 small animals and 2250 mites were collected in the vicinity of the school. 5 of the Apodemus agrarius samples and 1 group of Leptotrombidium linhuaikongense tested positive via PCR for O. tsutsugamushi. Two strains of O. tsutsugamushi were identified by injecting Kun Ming (KM) mice peritoneally with the organs of either Apodemus agrarius or Leptotrombidium linhuaikongense. Apart from sharing 98% homology with the O. tsutsugamushi Yongworl strain, genes encoding the membrane protein from the two O. tsutsugamushi isolates shared >99% sequence homology with each other, reflecting the consistency of the pathogen in both the vector and the host. In addition, we also characterized a chronic scrub typhus infection in a local patient. The membrane protein gene fragment from the patient’s blood shared 99% homology with O. tsutsugamushi Gilliam strain, suggesting that more than one O. tsutsugamushi strain is present at this location. PMID:26860982

  7. Vegetation recovery following high-intensity wildfire and silvicultural treatments in sand pine scrub

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, C.H.; Neary, D.G.; Harris, L.D.; Linda, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    The authors hypothesized that clear-cutting mimics natural high-intensity disturbance by wildfire followed by salvage logging in sand pine scrub, and tested whether vegetation adapted to recovery from fire would respond similarly to another type of biomass removal. The authors measured plant community composition and structural characteristics in three replicated disturbance treatments and in mature sand pine forest (MF). Treatments were: (1) high-intensity burn, salvage logged and naturally regenerated (HIBS); (2) clear-cut, roller-chopped, and broadcast-seeded (RC); and (3) clear-cut and bracke-seeded (BK). All treatments were sampled 5-7 yr postdisturbance. Nonwoody plant species richness and diversity were significantly lower in MF than in disturbance treatments. Ruderal species were more abundant in HIBS and RC, but not to the exclusion of the characteristic suite of native scrub species. Shrub richness and diversity did not differ, but some species responded differently among treatments. Differences may be due to season of disturbance or rhizome depth.

  8. Alkali-aggregate reactivity of typical siliceious glass and carbonate rocks in alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Duyou; Liu, Yongdao; Zheng, Yanzeng; Xu, Zhongzi; Shen, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    For exploring the behaviour of alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) in alkali-activated geopolymeric materials and assessing the procedures for testing AAR in geopolymers, the expansion behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer mortars with pure silica glass and typical carbonate rocks were studied respectively by curing at various conditions, i.e. 23°C and 38°C with relative humidity over 95%, immersed in 1M NaOH solution at 80°C. Results show that, at various curing conditions, neither harmful ASR nor harmful ACR was observed in geopolymers with the criteria specified for OPC system. However, with the change of curing conditions, the geopolymer binder and reactive aggregates may experience different reaction processes leading to quite different dimensional changes, especially with additional alkalis and elevated temperatures. It suggests that high temperature with additional alkali for accelerating AAR in traditional OPC system may not appropriate for assessing the alkali-aggregate reactivity behaviour in geopolymers designed for normal conditions. On the other hand, it is hopeful to control the dimensional change of geopolymer mortar or concrete by selecting the type of aggregates and the appropriate curing conditions, thus changing the harmful AAR in OPC into beneficial AAR in geopolymers and other alkali-activated cementitious systems.

  9. Scrub typhus as a possible aetiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome: two cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-S; Lee, J-H; Lee, H-S; Chang, H; Kim, Y-S; Cho, K-H; Ahn, S-H; Song, J-H; Yoo, M; Han, J-K; Park, H-Y

    2009-09-01

    Neurological complications of scrub typhus are reported to be rare. Peripheral nervous system involvement has been reported in only one case. We present two cases of Guillan-Barré syndrome (GBS) associated with scrub typhus. In both cases, the findings of an elevated indirect immunofluorescent antibody titer for Orientia tsutsugamushi and nerve conduction study showing sensory-motor polyneuropathy, have led us to believe that scrub typhus could be one of the antecedent illnesses associated with GBS.

  10. Development and implementation of a scrub habitat compensation plan for Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Breininger, David R.; Adrian, Frederic W.; Schaub, Ron; Duncan, Brean W.

    1994-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC), located on Merritt Island on the east coast of central Florida, is one of three remaining major populations of the Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens), listed as threatened by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) since 1987. Construction of new facilities by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on KSC over the next five years has the potential to impact up to 193 ac (78.1 ha) of Scrub Jay habitat. Under an early consultation process with the Endangered Species Office of the USFWS, NASA agreed to a compensation plan for loss of Scrub Jay habitat. The compensation plan required NASA to restore or create scrub on KSC at a 2:1 ratio for that lost. The compensation plan emphasized restoration of scrub habitat that is of marginal or declining suitability to Scrub Jays because it has remained unburned. Although prescribed burning has been conducted by the USFWS Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) for more than ten years, significant areas of scrub remain unburned because they have been excluded from fire management units or because landscape fragmentation and a period of fire suppression allowed scrub to reach heights and diameters that are fire resistant. For such areas, mechanical cutting followed by prescribed burning was recommended for restoration. A second part of the restoration plan is an experimental study of scrub reestablishment (i.e., creation) on abandoned, well drained agricultural sites by planting scrub oaks and other scrub plants. The compensation plan identified 260 ac (105 ha) of scrub restoration in four areas and a 40 ac (16 ha) scrub creation site. Monitoring of restoration sites required under the plan included: establishing permanent vegetation sample transects before treatment and resampling annually for ten years after treatment, and color banding Scrub Jays to determine territories prior to treatment followed by monitoring reproductive success and survival for

  11. Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Eakman, James M.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.

    1979-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

  12. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Scrub Typhus Transmission in Mainland China, 2006-2014

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen-Biao; Haque, Ubydul; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yun-Xi; Li, Xin-Lou; Sun, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan-Song; Clements, Archie C. A.; Li, Shen-Long; Zhang, Wen-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is endemic in the Asia-Pacific region including China, and the number of reported cases has increased dramatically in the past decade. However, the spatial-temporal dynamics and the potential risk factors in transmission of scrub typhus in mainland China have yet to be characterized. Objective This study aims to explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of reported scrub typhus cases in mainland China between January 2006 and December 2014, to detect the location of high risk spatiotemporal clusters of scrub typhus cases, and identify the potential risk factors affecting the re-emergence of the disease. Method Monthly cases of scrub typhus reported at the county level between 2006 and 2014 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. Time-series analyses, spatiotemporal cluster analyses, and spatial scan statistics were used to explore the characteristics of the scrub typhus incidence. To explore the association between scrub typhus incidence and environmental variables panel Poisson regression analysis was conducted. Results During the time period between 2006 and 2014 a total of 54,558 scrub typhus cases were reported in mainland China, which grew exponentially. The majority of cases were reported each year between July and November, with peak incidence during October every year. The spatiotemporal dynamics of scrub typhus varied over the study period with high-risk clusters identified in southwest, southern, and middle-eastern part of China. Scrub typhus incidence was positively correlated with the percentage of shrub and meteorological variables including temperature and precipitation. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate areas in China that could be targeted with public health interventions to mitigate the growing threat of scrub typhus in the country. PMID:27479297

  13. Treatment of odorous sulphur compounds by chemical scrubbing with hydrogen peroxide--stabilisation of the scrubbing solution.

    PubMed

    Charron, Isabelle; Couvert, Annabelle; Laplanche, Alain; Renner, Christophe; Patria, Lucie; Requieme, Benoît

    2006-12-15

    To slow down the hydrogen peroxide decomposition in basic aqueous conditions, the addition of stabilizers and co-stabilizers in the scrubbing solution was investigated. Results found with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) were quite promising but several problems still remained. Based on these observations, this study focused on the research of a better stabilizer. Several ways were investigated: the use of silicate solutions employed in pulp industries, the addition of co-stabilizers to sodium silicate, or the use of an another stabilizer (the poly-alpha-hydroxyacrylic acid). Experiments revealed that the poly-alpha-hydroxyacrylic acid is the best stabilizing compound.

  14. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.

    2015-11-01

    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  15. Epidemiology of scrub typhus in eastern Taiwan, 2000-2004.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong-Sheng; Wang, Pei-Hua; Tseng, Shu-Jen; Ko, Ching-Fen; Teng, Hwa-Jen

    2006-08-01

    The epidemiology of scrub typhus in eastern Taiwan was studied by analyzing the data from the CDC Web reporting system. A total of 1,396 cases with 403 confirmed cases were reported in the period of 2000 to 2004. The cases were commonly found in all counties with the highest number in Yuli Township, Hualien County (53 cases) and Taitung City, Taitung County (40 cases). Monthly changes in the number of cases showed epidemic periods in the spring with a peak in May, and again in the fall, with an October-November peak. The occurrence of disease varied with age, gender, and occupation. Our results showed that the infection rates in the elderly (50-69 years old), males (62.8%), and farmers (25.6%) were higher than those in other age groups, females, and other occupations. Five major clinical symptoms, fever, headache, eschar, rash, and lymphadenopathy, were observed in 90.1, 61.9, 23.1, 21.6, and 10.7% of the cases, respectively. Almost 90% (89.3%) of the cases showed 1-3 clinical symptoms and some showed 4-5 symptoms (10%). Only one patient with no symptoms (0.8%) was found. This paper reports the status of scrub typhus in eastern Taiwan, and suggests that a health education program could train individuals to self-recognize the disease symptoms. PMID:16936341

  16. Low temperature dry scrubbing reaction kinetics and mechanisms, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Prudich, M.E.; Sampson, K.J.; Reddy, S.N.; Maldei, M.; Ben-Said, L. )

    1992-10-01

    Dry scrubbing that takes place after the air preheater (<350[degree]F) is the mode of operation that is of primary interest to this research project. At the relatively low temperatures that occur in this region of operation the rate of the gas-solid reaction that drives SO[sub 2] capture in the convective (800 to 1200[degree]F) and the combustion (1600 to 2400[degree]F) zones is too slow to be significant. The presence of significant amounts of either liquid-phase or vapor-phase water is required in order to mediate SO[sub 2] capture and to produce reasonable capture rates. A mathematical process model describing the cross-flow, moving-bed Limestone Emission Control (LEC) process has been formulated. This process model incorporates the resistance-in-series SO[sub 2] capture kinetic model described in the Project Year [number sign]1 final report. The kinetic model formulated during Project Year [number sign]1 pointed to limestone solubility and rate of solubilization as being key factors in determining the rate of SO[sub 2] capture in wetted limestone (LEC) scrubbing systems. In Project Year [number sign]2, limestone solubilities and rates of solubilization are being determined for a suite of Ohio limestones.

  17. Serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae-Ji; Shim, So-Hee; Ha, Si-Jung; Chong, Sung-Tae; Lee, In-Yong; Richards, Allen L; Yi, Suk-Hee; Song, Jin-Won

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers from the Republic of Korea and the United States conduct armistice military operations at Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) located near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and are exposed to zoonotic disease pathogens that small mammals and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites transmit. TBTA is a 36 km2 rural training site with small villages and various forms of agriculture along its boundary. At TBTA, rodents, insectivores, and their ectoparasites are commonly found in association with unmanaged habitats of various densities of tall grasses, herbaceous plants, shrubs, briars, and crawling vegetation. Rodents and insectivores were collected during the winter (November-December 2005 and December 2006) and early spring (March 2007), and serologically tested for the presence of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis antibodies. Of the six species of small mammals collected, Apodemus agrarius, the common striped field mouse and known reservoir of scrub typhus, was the most frequently collected (96.1%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (2.5%), Micromys minutus (0.5%), Myodes regulus (0.5%), Mus musculus (0.3%), and Rattus rattus (0.1%). A. agrarius (56.1%), M. musculus (66.7%), M. minutus (25%), and R. rattus (100%) were positive for scrub typhus antibodies. Only A. agrarius (14.7%) and C. lasiura (4.5%) were positive for murine typhus antibodies, whereas only A. agrarius (1.5%) was seropositive for leptospirosis. Seroprevalence rates of scrub typhus and murine typhus based on weight and sex of A. agrarius are presented. PMID:20108842

  18. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Ashok V.; Balagopal, Shekar; Pendelton, Justin

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  19. Process for recovering alkali metals and sulfur from alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2016-10-25

    Alkali metals and sulfur may be recovered from alkali monosulfide and polysulfides in an electrolytic process that utilizes an electrolytic cell having an alkali ion conductive membrane. An anolyte solution includes an alkali monosulfide, an alkali polysulfide, or a mixture thereof and a solvent that dissolves elemental sulfur. A catholyte includes molten alkali metal. Applying an electric current oxidizes sulfide and polysulfide in the anolyte compartment, causes alkali metal ions to pass through the alkali ion conductive membrane to the catholyte compartment, and reduces the alkali metal ions in the catholyte compartment. Liquid sulfur separates from the anolyte solution and may be recovered. The electrolytic cell is operated at a temperature where the formed alkali metal and sulfur are molten.

  20. A randomized crossover trial to decrease bacterial contamination on hospital scrubs.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Mallory A; Thom, Kerri A; Zhan, Min; Johnson, J Kristie

    2014-11-01

    Healthcare worker attire may become contaminated with pathogenic organisms during a normal shift. We performed a randomized crossover study to assess whether treatment with an antimicrobial coating would decrease bacterial contamination on scrubs. Thirty percent of all scrubs were contaminated; there was no difference in the rate of contamination between the intervention and control groups.

  1. A Spatiotemporal Database to Track Human Scrub Typhus Using the VectorMap Application

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Daryl J.; Foley, Desmond H.; Richards, Allen L.

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a potentially fatal mite-borne febrile illness, primarily of the Asia-Pacific Rim. With an endemic area greater than 13 million km2 and millions of people at risk, scrub typhus remains an underreported, often misdiagnosed febrile illness. A comprehensive, updatable map of the true distribution of cases has been lacking, and therefore the true risk of disease within the very large endemic area remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a database and map to track human scrub typhus. An online search using PubMed and the United States Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System was performed to identify articles describing human scrub typhus cases both within and outside the traditionally accepted endemic regions. Using World Health Organization guidelines, stringent criteria were used to establish diagnoses for inclusion in the database. The preliminary screening of 181 scrub typhus publications yielded 145 publications that met the case criterion, 267 case records, and 13 serosurvey records that could be georeferenced, describing 13,739 probable or confirmed human cases in 28 countries. A map service has been established within VectorMap (www.vectormap.org) to explore the role that relative location of vectors, hosts, and the pathogen play in the transmission of mite-borne scrub typhus. The online display of scrub typhus cases in VectorMap illustrates their presence and provides an up-to-date geographic distribution of proven scrub typhus cases. PMID:26678263

  2. Alkali and transition metal phospholides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezkishko, I. A.; Zagidullin, A. A.; Milyukov, V. A.; Sinyashin, O. G.

    2014-06-01

    Major tendencies in modern chemistry of alkali and transition metal phospholides (phosphacyclopentadienides) are systematized, analyzed and generalized. Basic methods of synthesis of these compounds are presented. Their chemical properties are considered with a special focus on their complexing ability. Potential applications of phospholides and their derivatives are discussed. The bibliography includes 184 references.

  3. Impact of elevated CO2 on a Florida Scrub-oak Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Bert G

    2013-01-01

    Since May of 1996, we have conducted an experiment in Florida Scrub Oak to determine the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 and climate change on carbon, water, and nutrient cycling in this important terrestrial ecosystem. Florida scrub oak is the name for a collective of species occupying much of the Florida peninsula. The dominant tree species are oaks and the dwarf structure of this community makes it an excellent system in which to test hypotheses regarding the potential capacity of woody ecosystems to assimilate and sequester anthropogenic carbon. Scrub oak is fire dependent with a return cycle of 10-15 years, a time which would permit an experiment to follow the entire cycle. Our site is located on Cape Canaveral at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. After burning in 1995, we built 16 open top chambers, half of which have been fumigated with pure CO2 sufficient to raise the concentration around the plants to 350 ppm above ambient. In the intervening 10 years we have non destructively measured biomass of shoots and roots, ecosystem gas exchange using chambers and eddy flux, leaf photosynthesis and respiration, soil respiration, and relevant environmental factors such as soil water availability, temperature, light, etc. The overwhelming result from analysis of our extensive data base is that elevated CO2 has had a profound impact on this ecosystem that, overall, has resulted in increased carbon accumulation in plant shoots, roots and litter. Our measurements of net ecosystem gas exchange also indicate that the ecosystem has accumulated carbon much in excess of the increased biomass or soil carbon suggesting a substantial export of carbon through the porous, sandy soil into the water table several meters below the surface. A major discovery is the powerful interaction between the stimulation of growth, photosynthesis, and respiration by elevated CO2 and other environmental factors particularly precipitation and nitrogen. Our measurements focused attention on

  4. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary.

  5. Assesment of Alkali Resistance of Basalt Used as Concrete Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    al-Swaidani, Aref M.; Baddoura, Mohammad K.; Aliyan, Samira D.; Choeb, Walid

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to report a part of an ongoing research on the influence of using crushed basalt as aggregates on one of durability-related properties of concrete (i.e. alkali-silica reaction which is the most common form of Alkali-Aggregate Reaction). Alkali resistance has been assessed through several methods specified in the American Standards. Results of petrographic examination, chemical test (ASTM C289) and accelerated mortar bar test (ASTM C1260) have particularly been reported. In addition, the weight change and compressive strength of 28 days cured concrete containing basaltic aggregates were also reported after 90 days of exposure to 10% NaOH solution. Dolomite aggregate were used in the latter test for comparison. The experimental results revealed that basaltic rocks quarried from As-Swaida'a region were suitable for production of aggregates for concrete. According to the test results, the studied basalt aggregates can be classified as innocuous with regard to alkali-silica reaction. Further, the 10% sodium hydroxide attack did not affect the compressive strength of concrete.

  6. Limestone scrubbing for 2000 flue gas desulfurization system. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 1, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-16

    As emission limits for sulfur dioxide from utility coal-fired boilers become lower due to increased regulation and environmental concern around the globe, power generating companies require increasingly cost-effective pollution control technology in order to maintain or reduce the cost of electricity to the end user. Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization, or WFGD, is the preferred sulfur dioxide removal technology for utilities in the US and worldwide. This is a result of its extensive reference list, lower risks, and lower evaluated overall costs. For more than two decades ABB has supplied WFGD systems and currently has greater than 29,000 MWe of scrubbing capacity in operation. Given the industry`s ever-present need for lower costs, ABB funds a continuous research and development program focused on technology advancements that will reduce both capital and operating costs for its customers. As a result of this effort the LS-2 Concept WFGD System was developed through revolutionary design changes in every significant subprocess of conventional WFGD technology. To demonstrate the cumulative effects of all the individual advancements of the LS-2 Concept and to prove the process`s viability and cost-efficiency under representative US power plant conditions, the Limestone Scrubbing for 2000 project was initiated. This report is the final submittal to the Ohio Coal Development Office to document the results of this demonstrate project. The four-phase project execution, from the initial design and procurement through erection and extensive testing, proceeded as scheduled and on budget. The project resulted in a successful reference program that illustrates, in detail, the improved efficiencies and costs of the LS-2 advancements.

  7. Effects of DDT on bird population of scrub forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Stewart, R.E.

    1949-01-01

    An oil spray of DDT was applied at the rate of five pounds per acre to a 90-acre tract of 5-year-old scrub and sapling growth at Beltsville, Maryland. Bird population studies were carried on in a 30-acre plot at the center of the sprayed area, and in a 30-acre check area of the same habitat one-half mile away. Of the five commonest species in the sprayed area, the Maryland yellowthroat, prairie warbler, and house wren were reduced 80 per cent, and the red-eyed towhee was apparently reduced 35 per cent; while no appreciable change in the numbers of yellow-breasted chats was noted. The total decrease for the five commonest species, which represented 77 per cent of the original population, was 65 per cent.

  8. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  9. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. Methods We applied Pearson’s product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. Results In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively

  10. A New Population Estimate for the Florida Scrub Jay on Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The variable circular plot method was used to sample avifauna within different vegetation types determined from aerial imagery. The Florida Scrub Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens) population was estimated to range between 1,415 and 3,603 birds. Approximately half of the scrub and slash pine habitat appeared to be unused by Florida Scrub Jay, probably because the slash pine cover was too dense or the oak cover was too sparse. Results from the study suggest that the entire state population may be much lower than believed because the size of two of the three largest populations may have been overestimated.

  11. Studies of Alkali Sorption Kinetics for Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion by High Pressure Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.J.; Willenborg, W.; Fricke, C.; Prikhodovsky, A.; Hilpert, K.; Singheiser, L.

    2002-09-20

    This work describes the first approach to use High Pressure Mass Spectrometry (HPMS) for the quantification and analysis of alkali species in a gas stream downstream a sorbent bed of different tested alumosilicates.

  12. Comparison of post-fire seedling establishment between scrub communities in mediterranean and non-mediterranean climate ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrington, M.E.; Keeley, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    I Both fire regimes and the conditions under which fires occur vary widely. Abiotic conditions (such as climate) in combination with fire season, frequency and intensity could influence vegetation responses to fire. A variety of adaptations facilitate post-fire recruitment in mediterranean climate ecosystems, but responses of other communities are less well known. We evaluated the importance of climate by comparing sites with mediterranean and subtropical climates. 2 We used paired burned and mature sites in chamise chaparral, mixed chaparral and coastal sage scrub (California), and rosemary scrub, sand pine scrub and sand-hill (Florida), to test whether (i) patterns of pre-fire and post-fire seedling recruitment are more similar between communities within a region than between regions, and (ii) post-fire stimulation of seedling establishment is greater in regions with marked fire-induced contrasts in abiotic site characteristics. 3 Post-fire seedling densities were more similar among sites within climatic regions than between regions. Both seedling densities and proportions of species represented by seedlings after fires were generally higher in California. 4 The only site characteristic showing a pre-fire-post-fire contrast was percentage open canopy, and the effect was greater in California than in Florida. Soil properties were unaffected by fire. 5 Mediterranean climate ecosystems in other regions have nutrient-poor soils similar to our subtropical Florida sites, but show post-fire seedling recruitment patterns more similar to the nutrient-rich sites in California. Climate therefore appears to play a more major role than soil characteristics.

  13. Chemiluminescence from excited c 2- -alkali cation complexes formed in alkali atom-halocarbon flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, K. K.; Balling, L. C.; Wright, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Vapor phase reactions between alkali atoms and several halocarbon molecules containing C-C bonds have been observed to produce chemiluminescence which appears to originate from C 2-- (alkali) + complexes.

  14. Study of an ammonia-based wet scrubbing process in a continuous flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    A continuous gas and liquid flow, regenerative scrubbing process for CO{sub 2} capture was demonstrated at the bench-scale level. An aqueous ammonia-based solution captures CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas in an absorber and releases a nearly pure stream of CO{sub 2} in the regenerator. After the regeneration, the solution of ammonium compounds is recycled to the absorber. The design of a continuous flow unit was based on earlier exploratory results from a semi-batch reactor, where a CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} simulated flue gas mixture flowed through a well-mixed batch of ammonia-based solution. During the semi-batch tests, the solution was cycled between absorption and regeneration steps to measure the carrying capacity of the solution at various initial ammonia concentrations and temperatures. Consequentially, a series of tests were conducted on the continuous unit to observe the effect of various parameters on CO{sub 2} removal efficiency and regenerator effectiveness within the flow system. The parameters that were studied included absorber temperature, regenerator temperature, initial NH{sub 3} concentration, simulated flue gas flow rate, liquid solvent inventory in the flow system, and height of the packed-bed absorber. From this testing and subsequent testing, ammonia losses from both the absorption and regeneration steps were quantified, and attempts were made to maintain steady state during operations. Implications of experimental results with respect to process design are discussed.

  15. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    1992-01-01

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases.

  16. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  17. View of STS-1 Launch Day MCC activities ending in a scrub on the mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    View of STS-1 Launch Day Mission Control Center (MCC) activities ending in a scrub on the mission. Photo is of controllers standing in the back of Mission Control with visitor seating in the background.

  18. Carbon Capture by a Continuous, Regenerative Ammonia-Based Scrubbing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Resnik, K.P.; Yeh, J.T.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-10-01

    Overview: To develop a knowledge/data base to determine whether an ammonia-based scrubbing process is a viable regenerable-capture technique that can simultaneously remove carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxides, and trace pollutants from flue gas.

  19. Effect of Latitude and Seasonal Variation on Scrub Typhus, South Korea, 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Jeung, Ye Sul; Kim, Choon-Mee; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Seok-Won; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Dong-Min

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea, scrub typhus is one of the most common rickettsial diseases. The number of scrub typhus patients has increased in South Korea, a total of 69,210 cases were reported from 2001 to 2013. The seasonality and relation of scrub typhus cases to latitude were analyzed in this article using data obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System website of the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The incidence of scrub typhus tended to increase in the later months of the year, especially in October-December. In general, lower latitudes were associated with a later peak incidence. Our results suggest for the first time that the monthly observed incidence tended to increase in the later months of the year as the latitude decreased, and on a yearly basis in Korea.

  20. Does a robotic scrub nurse improve economy of movements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachs, Juan P.; Jacob, Mithun; Li, Yu-Ting; Akingba, George

    2012-02-01

    Objective: Robotic assistance during surgery has been shown to be a useful resource to both augment the surgical skills of the surgeon through tele-operation, and to assist the surgeon handling the surgical instruments to the surgeon, similar to a surgical tech. We evaluated the performance and effect of a gesture driven surgical robotic nurse in the context of economy of movements, during an abdominal incision and closure exercise with a simulator. Methods: A longitudinal midline incision (100 mm) was performed on the simulated abdominal wall to enter the peritoneal cavity without damaging the internal organs. The wound was then closed using a blunt needle ensuring that no tissue is caught up by the suture material. All the instruments required to complete this task were delivered by a robotic surgical manipulator directly to the surgeon. The instruments were requested through voice and gesture recognition. The robotic system used a low end range sensor camera to extract the hand poses and for recognizing the gestures. The instruments were delivered to the vicinity of the patient, at chest height and at a reachable distance to the surgeon. Task performance measures for each of three abdominal incision and closure exercises were measured and compared to a human scrub nurse instrument delivery action. Picking instrument position variance, completion time and trajectory of the hand were recorded for further analysis. Results: The variance of the position of the robotic tip when delivering the surgical instrument is compared to the same position when a human delivers the instrument. The variance was found to be 88.86% smaller compared to the human delivery group. The mean task completion time to complete the surgical exercise was 162.7+/- 10.1 secs for the human assistant and 191.6+/- 3.3 secs (P<.01) when using the robotic standard display group. Conclusion: Multimodal robotic scrub nurse assistant improves the surgical procedure by reducing the number of movements

  1. Meteorological factors and risk of scrub typhus in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is becoming the most common vector born disease in Guangzhou, southern China. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of Scrub typhus in the subtropical city of Guangzhou for the period 2006–2012, and assist public health prevention and control measures. Methods Scrub typhus reported cases during the period of 2006–2012 in Guangzhou were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). Simultaneous meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, sunshine, and rainfall were obtained from the documentation of the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and scrub typhus. Results Annual incidence rates of scrub typhus from 2006 to 2012 were 3.25, 2.67, 3.81, 4.22, 4.41, 5.12, and 9.75 (per 100 000) respectively. Each 1°C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 14.98% (95% CI 13.65% to 16.33%) in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, while a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 8.03% (95% CI −8.75% to −7.31%). Similarly, a 1 hour rise in sunshine corresponded to an increase of 0.17% or 0.54%, and a 1 millimeter rise in rainfall corresponded to an increase of 0.05% or 0.10%, in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. Conclusion Our study provided evidence that climatic factors were associated with occurrence of scrub typhus in Guangzhou city, China. Temperature, duration of sunshine, and rainfall were positively associated with scrub typhus incidence, while atmospheric pressure was inversely associated with scrub typhus incidence. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of scrub typhus transmission. PMID:24620733

  2. A clinical evaluation of chlorhexidine gluconate spray as compared with iodophor scrub for preoperative skin preparation.

    PubMed

    Brown, T R; Ehrlich, C E; Stehman, F B; Golichowski, A M; Madura, J A; Eitzen, H E

    1984-04-01

    In a prospective, randomized study, 737 patients who were evaluated had the operative site prepared preoperatively by either a 0.5 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate spray or povidone-iodine scrub. The wound infection rate in these two comparable groups was not statistically different, although slightly favoring the spray technique (6.0 versus 8.1 per cent). The spray technique challenges the conventional preoperative scrub and offers further advantages of increased effectiveness while also offering savings of time and expense.

  3. Scrub-shrub bird habitat associations at multiple spatial scales in beaver meadows in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chandler, R.B.; King, D.I.; DeStefano, S.

    2009-01-01

    Most scrub-shrub bird species are declining in the northeastern United States, and these declines are largely attributed to regional declines in habitat availability. American Beaver (Castor canadensis; hereafter "beaver") populations have been increasing in the Northeast in recent decades, and beavers create scrub-shrub habitat through their dam-building and foraging activities. Few systematic studies have been conducted on the value of beaver-modified habitats for scrub-shrub birds, and these data are important for understanding habitat selection of scrub-shrub birds as well as for assessing regional habitat availability for these species. We conducted surveys in 37 beaver meadows in a 2,800-km2 study area in western Massachusetts during 2005 and 2006 to determine the extent to which these beaver-modified habitats are used by scrub-shrub birds, as well as the characteristics of beaver meadows most closely related to bird use. We modeled bird abundance in relation to microhabitat-, patch-, and landscape-context variables while adjusting for survey-specific covariates affecting detectability using N-mixture models. We found that scrub-shrub birds of regional conservation concern occupied these sites and that birds responded differently to microhabitat, patch, and landscape characteristics of beaver meadows. Generally, scrub-shrub birds increased in abundance along a gradient of increasing vegetation complexity, and three species were positively related to patch size. We conclude that these habitats can potentially play an important role in regional conservation of scrub-shrub birds and recommend that conservation priority be given to larger beaver meadows with diverse vegetation structure and composition. ?? 2009 by The American Ornithologists' Union. All rights reserved.

  4. Alkali-Metal Spin Maser.

    PubMed

    Chalupczak, W; Josephs-Franks, P

    2015-07-17

    Quantum measurement is a combination of a read-out and a perturbation of the quantum system. We explore the nonlinear spin dynamics generated by a linearly polarized probe beam in a continuous measurement of the collective spin state in a thermal alkali-metal atomic sample. We demonstrate that the probe-beam-driven perturbation leads, in the presence of indirect pumping, to complete polarization of the sample and macroscopic coherent spin oscillations. As a consequence of the former we report observation of spectral profiles free from collisional broadening. Nonlinear dynamics is studied through exploring its effect on radio frequency as well as spin noise spectra. PMID:26230788

  5. Alkali-Metal Spin Maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalupczak, W.; Josephs-Franks, P.

    2015-07-01

    Quantum measurement is a combination of a read-out and a perturbation of the quantum system. We explore the nonlinear spin dynamics generated by a linearly polarized probe beam in a continuous measurement of the collective spin state in a thermal alkali-metal atomic sample. We demonstrate that the probe-beam-driven perturbation leads, in the presence of indirect pumping, to complete polarization of the sample and macroscopic coherent spin oscillations. As a consequence of the former we report observation of spectral profiles free from collisional broadening. Nonlinear dynamics is studied through exploring its effect on radio frequency as well as spin noise spectra.

  6. Investigation of an outbreak of scrub typhus in the himalayan region of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anuradha; Mahajan, Sanjay; Gupta, M L; Kanga, Anil; Sharma, Vijay

    2005-08-01

    In Indira Gandhi Medical College, Himachal Pradesh, India, during autumn of 2003 (September-November), more than 100 cases of fever of unknown origin (FUO) were reported with 15 ensuing deaths. In addition to all routine investigations and cultures, the Weil-Felix test was incorporated for the investigation of these cases. Antigen was procured from the Central Research Institute, Kasauli. Forty-six percent (45/96) of the cases demonstrated a > or =1:80 titer of agglutinins against OXK antigen. A team from the National Institute of Communicable Diseases, New Delhi, confirmed the antibodies for scrub typhus in some of the serum samples tested for leptospirosis, dengue fever, and rickettsial infections. Twelve blood samples positive for OXK antigen were sent to the Defense Research Development Establishment, Gwalior, for polymerase chain reaction studies, but none of the samples were positive, as all of the patients were already on broad-spectrum antibiotics and had reported to our hospital after 7-10 days of fever. At our institute, the Weil-Felix test has now been rountinely introduced for the investigation of cases of FUO, and the results until April 2004 (150 cases) revealed the presence of other rickettsial infections prevalent in the region. To evaluate the epidemiology and magnitude of the problem, further prospective studies are required.

  7. A Hematogenously Disseminated Orientia tsutsugamsushi-Infected Murine Model of Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Shelite, Thomas R.; Saito, Tais B.; Mendell, Nicole L.; Gong, Bin; Xu, Guang; Soong, Lynn; Valbuena, Gustavo; Bouyer, Donald H.; Walker, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, is a mite-borne rickettsia transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites. Approximately one-third of the world's population is at risk of infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi, emphasizing its importance in global health. In order to study scrub typhus, Orientia tsutsugamushi Karp strain has been used extensively in mouse studies with various inoculation strategies and little success in inducing disease progression similar to that of human scrub typhus. The objective of this project was to develop a disease model with pathology and target cells similar to those of severe human scrub typhus. This study reports an intravenous infection model of scrub typhus in C57BL/6 mice. This mouse strain was susceptible to intravenous challenge, and lethal infection occurred after intravenous inoculation of 1.25×106 focus (FFU) forming units. Signs of illness in lethally infected mice appeared on day 6 with death occurring ∼6 days later. Immunohistochemical staining for Orientia antigens demonstrated extensive endothelial infection, most notably in the lungs and brain. Histopathological analysis revealed cerebral perivascular, lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, focal hemorrhages, meningoencephalitis, and interstitial pneumonia. Disseminated infection of endothelial cells with Orientia in C57BL/6 mice resulted in pathology resembling that of human scrub typhus. The use of this model will allow detailed characterization of the mechanisms of immunity to and pathogenesis of O. tsutsugamushi infection. PMID:25010338

  8. Prevention of intraoperative wound contamination with chlorhexidine shower and scrub.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, R A

    1988-04-01

    In a prospective, controlled, clinical trial, we found that preoperative showering and scrubbing with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate was more effective than povidone-iodine or triclocarban medicated soap in reducing skin colonization at the site of surgical incision. Mean log colony counts of the incision site were one half to one log lower for patients who showered with chlorhexidine compared to those who showered with the other regimens. No growth was observed on 43% of the post shower skin cultures from patients in the chlorhexidine group compared with 16% of the cultures from patients who had povidone-iodine showers and 5% of those from patients who used medicated soap and water. The frequency of positive intraoperative wound cultures was 4% with chlorhexidine, 9% with povidone-iodine and 14% with medicated soap and water. This study demonstrates that chlorhexidine gluconate is a more effective skin disinfectant than either povidone-iodine or triclocarban soap and water and that its use is associated with lower rates of intraoperative wound contamination.

  9. Direct molecular hydrogen sulphide scrubbing with hollowfibre membranes.

    PubMed

    Boucif, N; Jefferson, B; Parsons-, S A; Judd, S J; Stuetz, R M

    2001-01-01

    The emission of hydrogen sulphide is a major problem associated with anaerobic treatment of sulphate and sulphite containing wastewaters. Conventional absorbing processes, such as packed towers, spray towers or bubble columns, are all constrained by factors such as flooding and foaming. Membrane systems, on the other hand, enable independent control of the liquid and gas flow rate and a step change order of magnitude increase in the specific surface area of the contact process. The membrane acts as a gas absorber with a design similar to a shell and tube heat exchanger. On the other hand, they are limited by facets of the membrane such as its resistance to mass transfer and permselectivity, as well as its cost. The work presented in this paper refers to an absorption process based on a non-wetted hollow fibre membrane for the scrubbing of hydrogen sulphide from air, with water as the contact solvent. Results presented describe the performance of the unit in terms of overall transfer and outlet liquid concentration as a function of circulation regime, gas flow rate, liquid flow rate and specific surface area. In particular, results are presented using traditional plots of Sherwood number (Sh) against Graetz (Gr) number for the liquid flowing in the lumens, such that experimental and available empirical descriptions of the process performance are directly compared. Results suggest that, as expected, very efficient mass transfer is obtained. However, the mass transfer was found to reach a maximum value against Gr, contrary to available empirical models.

  10. The alkali metals: 200 years of surprises.

    PubMed

    Dye, James L

    2015-03-13

    Alkali metal compounds have been known since antiquity. In 1807, Sir Humphry Davy surprised everyone by electrolytically preparing (and naming) potassium and sodium metals. In 1808, he noted their interaction with ammonia, which, 100 years later, was attributed to solvated electrons. After 1960, pulse radiolysis of nearly any solvent produced solvated electrons, which became one of the most studied species in chemistry. In 1968, alkali metal solutions in amines and ethers were shown to contain alkali metal anions in addition to solvated electrons. The advent of crown ethers and cryptands as complexants for alkali cations greatly enhanced alkali metal solubilities. This permitted us to prepare a crystalline salt of Na(-) in 1974, followed by 30 other alkalides with Na(-), K(-), Rb(-) and Cs(-) anions. This firmly established the -1 oxidation state of alkali metals. The synthesis of alkalides led to the crystallization of electrides, with trapped electrons as the anions. Electrides have a variety of electronic and magnetic properties, depending on the geometries and connectivities of the trapping sites. In 2009, the final surprise was the experimental demonstration that alkali metals under high pressure lose their metallic character as the electrons are localized in voids between the alkali cations to become high-pressure electrides!

  11. The alkali metals: 200 years of surprises.

    PubMed

    Dye, James L

    2015-03-13

    Alkali metal compounds have been known since antiquity. In 1807, Sir Humphry Davy surprised everyone by electrolytically preparing (and naming) potassium and sodium metals. In 1808, he noted their interaction with ammonia, which, 100 years later, was attributed to solvated electrons. After 1960, pulse radiolysis of nearly any solvent produced solvated electrons, which became one of the most studied species in chemistry. In 1968, alkali metal solutions in amines and ethers were shown to contain alkali metal anions in addition to solvated electrons. The advent of crown ethers and cryptands as complexants for alkali cations greatly enhanced alkali metal solubilities. This permitted us to prepare a crystalline salt of Na(-) in 1974, followed by 30 other alkalides with Na(-), K(-), Rb(-) and Cs(-) anions. This firmly established the -1 oxidation state of alkali metals. The synthesis of alkalides led to the crystallization of electrides, with trapped electrons as the anions. Electrides have a variety of electronic and magnetic properties, depending on the geometries and connectivities of the trapping sites. In 2009, the final surprise was the experimental demonstration that alkali metals under high pressure lose their metallic character as the electrons are localized in voids between the alkali cations to become high-pressure electrides! PMID:25666067

  12. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.

    1977-01-01

    Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level.

  13. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  14. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, Raymond D.; McPheeters, Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  15. In vivo evaluation of plasma-sprayed titanium coating after alkali modification.

    PubMed

    Xue, Weichang; Liu, Xuanyong; Zheng, XueBin; Ding, Chuanxian

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, plasma-sprayed titanium coatings were modified by alkali treatment. The changes in chemical composition and structure of coatings were examined by SEM and AES. The results obtained indicated that a net-like microscopic texture feature, which was full of the interconnected fine porosity, appeared on the surface of alkali-modified titanium coatings. The surface chemical composition was also altered by alkali modification. A sodium titanate compound was formed on the surface of the titanium coating and replaced the native passivating oxide layer. Its thickness was measured as about 150 nm which was about 10 times of that of the as-sprayed coating. The bone bonding ability of titanium coatings were investigated using a canine model. The histological examination and SEM observation demonstrated that more new bone was formed on the surface of alkali-modified implants and grew more rapidly into the porosity. The alkali-modified implants were found to appose directly to the surrounding bone. In contrast, a gap was observed at the interface between the as-sprayed implants and bone. The push-out test showed that alkali-modified implants had a higher shear strength than as-sprayed implants after 1 month of implantation. An interfacial layer, containing Ti, Ca and P, was found to form at the interface between bone and the alkali-modified implant by EDS analysis.

  16. Plasma assisted spectroscopic monitoring of alkali metals in pressurised combustion and gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Haeyrinen, V.T.; Hernberg, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    The paper describes an instrument for on-line concentration measurement of vaporised alkali compounds in pressurised industrial combustion and gasification processes. The measurement is based on Plasma Excited Alkali Resonance Line Spectroscopy (PEARLS) at the elevated pressure (1-3 MPa) of the process. Results are presented from laboratory calibration measurements and test measurements of sodium and potassium vapours resulting from the combustion of coal powder in a pressurised entrained flow reactor.

  17. Na+ and Rb+ tracer diffusion in alkali halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniere, F.; Sen, S. K.

    1991-11-01

    We have undertaken a fundamental study of heterodiffusion of foreign ions in pure single crystals. The present work describes the measurements of the diffusion coefficient of monovalent cations in some alkali halides, namely Na+ and Rb+ into KCl, KBr, NaI and KI. The priority is given to the super-accuracy of the experimental data. The target is to test the validity of the existing theories for calculating the enthalpy and entropy of migration.

  18. Consistency of the key genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi in scrub typhus patients, rodents, and chiggers from a new endemic focus of northern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-Xi; Jia, Na; Xing, Yu-Bin; Suo, Ji-Jiang; Du, Ming-Mei; Jia, Ning; Gao, Yan; Xie, Li-Jun; Liu, Bo-Wei; Ren, Shi-Wang

    2013-01-01

    Scrub typhus is one of the most common infectious diseases of rural south and southeastern Asia and the western Pacific. It emerged in Shandong Province in northern China from autumn to winter of 1986. Since then, the "autumn-winter type scrub typhus" has been found in many areas of northern China. However, the principle genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi still remain unknown. This study was undertaken to identify the genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi obtained from scrub typhus patients, chigger mites and rodents from the focal point of the problem in Shandong Province. Forty-four isolates from patients, rodents, and chiggers, 47 blood clots from patients during the acute phase, 10 eschars from patients during the convalescence phase and 16 pools of larval chiggers were tested for the scrub typhus antigen 56-kD protein (Sta56) gene by nested PCR methodology and additional sequence analysis including DNA sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Based on nested PCR, ninety-five initial PCR-positive samples produced amplicons using Kawasaki strain-specific primers, while the other two (the FXS4 and LHGM2 strains) produced amplicons using Karp strain-specific primers. The partial Sta56 gene sequence analysis indicated that the sequence homologies of 3 selected isolates (the B16, FXS2, and XDM2 strains) and 7 eschars out of the 95 samples, which were nested PCR-positive using Kawasaki strain-specific primers, were 94-98% to that of Kawasaki strain. The sequence homology of the FXS4 and LHGM2 strains to that of the Karp strain was respectively 83 and 96%. These findings implied that the key genotypes of O. tsutsugamushi in patients, rodents, and chiggers in Shandong Province were identical and similar to Kawasaki strains.

  19. Sex differences in the long-term repeatability of the acute stress response in long-lived, free-living Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    PubMed

    Small, Thomas W; Schoech, Stephan J

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that individual differences in the physiological stress response are persistent traits in many animals. To test the hypothesis that the stress-induced CORT (SI-CORT) response is repeatable over the adult life span of Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens), we sampled 32 male and 25 female free-living scrub-jays (aged 2-13 years) during a 9-year period (2004-2012). Each individual was sampled two to five times and samples were collected one or more years apart during the pre-breeding season (Jan-March). In addition, individuals sampled over the greatest time period (6-8 years) were analyzed separately to more closely assess long-term repeatability. SI-CORT was repeatable in females, but not males, when values were not corrected for confounding variables (agreement repeatability). However, when the year and time of day of sample collection were controlled (adjusted repeatability), SI-CORT was repeatable in both sexes. SI-CORT was also repeatable in the males and females sampled 6-8 years apart. Finally, baseline CORT levels of males, but not females, exhibited low but significant repeatability when adjusted for year. The results of this study demonstrate that differences in SI-CORT levels were repeatable within adult scrub-jays sampled up to 8 years apart. Further, the female SI-CORT response was more consistent between pre-breeding seasons than males, which may have resulted from males having higher SI-CORT plasticity in response to environmental conditions. These data support the hypothesis that the SI-CORT response of Florida scrub-jays develops before adulthood and persists throughout much, if not all, of their natural adult life span.

  20. Assessing the effectiveness of scrub management at the landscape scale using rapid field assessment and remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Redhead, John; Cuevas-Gonzales, Maria; Smith, Geoffrey; Gerard, France; Pywell, Richard

    2012-04-30

    Controlling scrub encroachment is a major challenge for conservation management on chalk grasslands. However, direct comparisons of scrub removal methods have seldom been investigated, particularly at the landscape scale. Effective monitoring of grassland scrub is problematic as it requires simultaneous information on large scale patterns in scrub cover and fine-scale changes in the grassland community. This study addressed this by combining analysis of aerial imagery with rapid field surveys in order to compare the effectiveness of four scrub management strategies on Defence Training Estate Salisbury Plain, UK. Study plots were sited within areas undergoing management and in unmanaged controls. Controls showed dramatic increases in scrub cover, with encroachment of a mean 1096 m(2) per hectare over ten years. Whilst all management strategies were effective in reducing scrub encroachment, they differed in their ability to influence regeneration of scrub and grassland quality. There was a general trend, evident in both the floral community and scrub levels, of increased effectiveness with increasing management intensity. The dual methodology proved highly effective, allowing rapid collection of data over a range of variables and spatial scales unavailable to each method individually. The methodology thus demonstrates potential for a useful monitoring tool.

  1. Corticosterone administration does not affect timing of breeding in Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens).

    PubMed

    Schoech, Stephan J; Bowman, Reed; Bridge, Eli S; Morgan, Gina M; Rensel, Michelle A; Wilcoxen, Travis E; Boughton, Raoul K

    2007-08-01

    Providing supplemental food to Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) causes a reliable advance in clutch initiation of 1 to 2 weeks. In some years, supplemental food appeared to not only advance laying date but also decrease baseline concentrations of corticosterone (CORT) relative to controls. The coincidence of low CORT levels and early breeding led us to hypothesize that CORT serves to communicate information about environmental conditions to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which ultimately influences the timing of breeding. To test this hypothesis, we administered small oral doses of CORT three times each day to female breeders that were provisioned with supplemental food. We compared clutch initiation dates of the CORT-dosed females to females with supplementation but no exogenous CORT and to females with neither CORT nor supplemental food. CORT administration had a strong temporary effect on circulating CORT concentrations but clutch initiation did not differ between the two groups of supplemented birds, both of which laid eggs approximately 10 days earlier than nonsupplemented birds. Furthermore, during the year of our study we found no reduction in baseline CORT concentrations in our undosed supplemental groups, as had been observed in past studies.

  2. Evolutionary and demographic history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Ortego, Joaquín; Noguerales, Víctor; Gugger, Paul F; Sork, Victoria L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors promoting species formation is a major task in evolutionary research. Here, we employ an integrative approach to study the evolutionary history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex (genus Quercus). To infer the relative importance of geographical isolation and ecological divergence in driving the speciation process, we (i) analysed inter- and intraspecific patterns of genetic differentiation and employed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework to evaluate different plausible scenarios of species divergence. In a second step, we (ii) linked the inferred divergence pathways with current and past species distribution models (SDMs) and (iii) tested for niche differentiation and phylogenetic niche conservatism across taxa. ABC analyses showed that the most plausible scenario is the one considering the divergence of two main lineages followed by a more recent pulse of speciation. Genotypic data in conjunction with SDMs and niche differentiation analyses support that different factors (geography vs. environment) and modes of speciation (parapatry, allopatry and maybe sympatry) have played a role in the divergence process within this complex. We found no significant relationship between genetic differentiation and niche overlap, which probably reflects niche lability and/or that multiple factors, have contributed to speciation. Our study shows that different mechanisms can drive divergence even among closely related taxa representing early stages of species formation and exemplifies the importance of adopting integrative approaches to get a better understanding of the speciation process. PMID:26547661

  3. Surgical hand antisepsis in veterinary practice: evaluation of soap scrubs and alcohol based rub techniques.

    PubMed

    Verwilghen, Denis R; Mainil, Jacques; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Hamaide, Annick; Detilleux, Johann; van Galen, Gaby; Serteyn, Didier; Grulke, Sigrid

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that hydro-alcoholic solutions are more efficient than traditional medicated soaps in the pre-surgical hand antisepsis of human surgeons but there is little veterinary literature on the subject. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of medicated soaps and a hydro-alcoholic solution prior to surgery using an in-use testing method in a veterinary setting. A preliminary trial was performed that compared the mean log(10) number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and the reduction factors (RF) between two 5-min hand-scrubbing sessions using different soaps, namely, povidone iodine (PVP) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), and the 1.5-min application of a hydro-alcoholic rub. A clinical in-use trial was then used to compare the hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX in a surgical setting. Sampling was performed using finger printing on agar plates. The hydro-alcoholic rub and CHX had a similar immediate effect, although the sustained effect was significantly better for the hydro-alcoholic rub, while PVP had a significantly lower immediate and sustained effect. The hydro-alcoholic rub showed good efficiency in the clinical trial and could be considered as a useful alternative method for veterinary surgical hand antisepsis.

  4. The Impact of the Source of Alkali on Sludge Batch 3 Melt Rate (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M

    2005-04-01

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) melt rate tests in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) have indicated that improvements in melt rate can be achieved through an increase in the total alkali of the melter feed. Higher alkali can be attained by the use of an ''underwashed'' sludge, a high alkali frit, or a combination of the two. Although the general trend between melt rate and total alkali (in particular Na{sub 2}O content) has been demonstrated, the question of ''does the source of alkali (SOA) matter?'' still exists. Therefore the purpose of this set of tests was to determine if the source of alkali (frit versus sludge) can impact melt rate. The general test concept was to transition from a Na{sub 2}O-rich frit to a Na{sub 2}O-deficient frit while compensating the Na{sub 2}O content in the sludge to maintain the same overall Na{sub 2}O content in the melter feed. Specifically, the strategy was to vary the amount of alkali in frits and in the sludge batch 3 (SB3) sludge simulant (midpoint or baseline feed was SB3/Frit 418 at 35% waste loading) so that the resultant feeds had the same final glass composition when vitrified. A set of SOA feeds using frits ranging from 0 to 16 weight % Na{sub 2}O (in 4% increments) was first tested in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) to determine if indeed there was an impact. The dry-fed MRF tests indicated that if the alkali is too depleted from either the sludge (16% Na{sub 2}O feed) or the frit (the 0% Na{sub 2}O feed), then melt rate was negatively impacted when compared to the baseline SB3/Frit 418 feed currently being processed at DWPF. The MRF melt rates for the 4 and 12% SOA feeds were similar to the baseline SB3/Frit 418 (8% SOA) feed. Due to this finding, a smaller subset of SOA feeds that could be processed in the DWPF (4 and 12% SOA feeds) was then tested in the Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF). The results from a previous SMRF test with SB3/Frit 418 (Smith et al. 2004) were used as the

  5. What factors within the peri-operative environment influence the training of scrub nurses?

    PubMed

    Pupkiewicz, Joanna; Kitson, Alison; Perry, Josephine

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to extrapolate factors within the peri-operative environment which influence the acclimatisation of novice scrub nurses by exploring the lived experience of learning from both a novice and expert perspective. Insights to the cultural perioperative environment which have not previously been explored can be identified. Comparing how novices view their environment with how expert mentors see it is useful in order to plan targeted learning goals. Two groups were considered; one group consisting of 6 novice scrub nurses and the other consisting of 7 senior scrub nurses teaching novices in a large tertiary teaching public hospital in South Australia. Individual interviews and a focus group interview were digitally recorded and field notes were taken. A Heideggerian structural approach with a vanManen immersive aspect was taken for the data collection and Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory of interpretation was utilised for data analysis. Five emergent themes were isolated from the data: Challenges to proficiency, Fear, Expectations, Support and Adaptation. The study revealed that novice scrub learning is externally modulated by their perioperative cultural surroundings and the support of the senior staff. Senior scrub staff investment in educating novices was dictated by their perception of novice attitude. PMID:25934075

  6. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2007-10-23

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  7. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2006-07-26

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  8. Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin

    1964-01-01

    The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

  9. Antimicrobial potency of alkali ion substituted calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Gbureck, Uwe; Knappe, Oliver; Grover, Liam M; Barralet, Jake E

    2005-12-01

    Potassium and sodium containing nanoapatite cements were produced by the reaction of mechanically activated CaNaPO(4) (CSP), CaKPO(4) (CPP) and Ca(2)KNa(PO(4))(2) (CPCP) with a 2.5% Na(2)HPO(4) solution. The cements exhibited clinically acceptable setting times of approximately 5 min and compressive strengths of 5-10 MPa. The antimicrobial properties of the cements were tested with the agar diffusion test using Streptococcus salvarius, Staphylococcus epidermis and Candida albicans. All types of alkali ion containing cements showed a significantly higher antimicrobial potency with inhibition zones of approx. 4-11 mm than a commercial calcium hydroxide cement which resulted in small inhibition zones around the cement samples of a maximum of 1.5 mm. The antimicrobial properties of all the cements were not found to diminish even after longer incubation times. This behaviour was attributed to the formation of soluble alkaline metal phosphates during setting which increased the pH value in the agar gel around the alkali containing calcium phosphate cement to 8.5-10.7 compared to 6.5-8.0 for the Ca(OH)(2) product. The high antimicrobial potency of alkali-calcium phosphate cements may find an application in dentistry as pulp capping agents, root fillers or cavity liners. PMID:16005511

  10. Alkali metal for ultraviolet band-pass filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick (Inventor); Fraschetti, George A. (Inventor); Mccann, Timothy A. (Inventor); Mayall, Sherwood D. (Inventor); Dunn, Donald E. (Inventor); Trauger, John T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alkali metal filter having a layer of metallic bismuth deposited onto the alkali metal is provided. The metallic bismuth acts to stabilize the surface of the alkali metal to prevent substantial surface migration from occurring on the alkali metal, which may degrade optical characteristics of the filter. To this end, a layer of metallic bismuth is deposited by vapor deposition over the alkali metal to a depth of approximately 5 to 10 A. A complete alkali metal filter is described along with a method for fabricating the alkali metal filter.

  11. Lithological influence of aggregate in the alkali-carbonate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. . E-mail: angel.lopez@aidico.es; Climent, V. . E-mail: vcliment@grupogla.com; Verdu, P.

    2006-08-15

    The reactivity of carbonate rock with the alkali content of cement, commonly called alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR), has been investigated. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) can also contribute in the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in carbonate rock, mainly due to micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz or clay content in carbonate aggregate. Both ACR and ASR can occur in the same system, as has been also evidenced on this paper. Carbonate aggregate samples were selected using lithological reactivity criteria, taking into account the presence of dedolomitization, partial dolomitization, micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz. Selected rocks include calcitic dolostone with chert (CDX), calcitic dolostone with dedolomitization (CDD), limestone with chert (LX), marly calcitic dolostone with partial dolomitization (CD), high-porosity ferric dolostone with clays (FD). To evaluate the reactivity, aggregates were studied using expansion tests following RILEM AAR-2, AAR-5, a modification using LiOH AAR-5Li was also tested. A complementary study was done using petrographic monitoring with polarised light microscopy on aggregates immersed in NaOH and LiOH solutions after different ages. SEM-EDAX has been used to identify the presence of brucite as a product of dedolomitization. An ACR reaction showed shrinkage of the mortar bars in alkaline solutions explained by induced dedolomitization, while an ASR process typically displayed expansion. Neither shrinkage nor expansion was observed when mortar bars were immersed in solutions of lithium hydroxide. Carbonate aggregate classification with AAR pathology risk has been elaborated based on mechanical behaviours by expansion and shrinkage. It is proposed to be used as a petrographic method for AAR diagnosis to complement the RILEM AAR1 specifically for carbonate aggregate. Aggregate materials can be classified as I (non-reactive), II (potentially reactive), and III (probably reactive), considering induced dedolomitization ACR

  12. Abducens nerve palsy in a patient with scrub typhus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, B; Panda, P; Revannasiddaiah, S; Bhardwaj, H

    2013-12-01

    Abducens nerve palsy is a known but rare complication of a few bacterial and viral infections like Mycoplasma pneumonia, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Hanta virus, herpes zoster, and measles. Abducens nerve palsy due to scrub typhus is extremely rare and so far only one case has been reported in the literature. Scrub typhus is a febrile illness caused by rickettsia, Orientia tsutsugamushi, a gram negative intracellular obligate parasite which is endemic in Asia. This disease can present with wide range of clinical manifestations with involvement of any organ system, alone or in combination. Central nervous system involvement is very common and includes meningism, altered sensorium to focal neurological deficits. We present a rare manifestation of Scrub typhus in the form of sixth cranial nerve involvement which responded to the treatment with doxycycline.

  13. No evidence of temporal preferences in caching by Western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica)☆

    PubMed Central

    Thom, James M.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans and other animals often favour immediate gratification over long-term gain. Primates, including humans, appear more willing to wait for rewards than other animals, such as rats or pigeons. Another group displaying impressive patience are the corvids, which possess large brains and show sophisticated cognitive abilities. Here, we assess intertemporal choice in one corvid species, the Western scrub-jay (Aphelocoma californica). These birds cache food for future consumption and respond flexibly to future needs. Cache-theft and cache-degradation are time-dependent processes in scrub-jay ecology that might necessitate sensitivity to delays between caching and retrieval. We adopt a caching paradigm with delays of up to 49 h. Across two experiments we find no evidence of a preference for earlier recovery. We highlight the possibility that, although scrub-jays can discriminate between the present and the future, they may not understand how far into the future an event will occur. PMID:24378212

  14. Alkali Metal Salts with Designable Aryltrifluoroborate Anions.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kazuki; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Matsumoto, Hajime; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Kuwabata, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    Aryltrifluoroborate ([ArBF3](-)) has a designable basic anion structure. Various [ArBF3](-)-based anions were synthesized to create novel alkali metal salts using a simple and safe process. Nearly 40 novel alkali metal salts were successfully obtained, and their physicochemical characteristics, particularly their thermal properties, were elucidated. These salts have lower melting points than those of simple inorganic alkali halide salts, such as KCl and LiCl, because of the weaker interactions between the alkali metal cations and the [ArBF3](-) anions and the anions' larger entropy. Moreover, interestingly, potassium cations were electrochemically reduced in the potassium (meta-ethoxyphenyl)trifluoroborate (K[m-OEtC6H4BF3]) molten salt at 433 K. These findings contribute substantially to furthering molten salt chemistry, ionic liquid chemistry, and electrochemistry. PMID:27510799

  15. Desulfurizing Coal With an Alkali Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental coal-desulfurization process uses alkalies and steam in fluidized-bed reactor. With highly volatile, high-sulfur bituminous coal, process removed 98 percent of pyritic sulfur and 47 percent of organic sulfur. Used in coal liquefaction and in production of clean solid fuels and synthetic liquid fuels. Nitrogen or steam flows through bed of coal in reactor. Alkalies react with sulfur, removing it from coal. Nitrogen flow fluidizes bed while heating or cooling; steam is fluidizing medium during reaction.

  16. Clear-Cut Stand Size and Scrub-Successional Bird Assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Krementz,D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    1999-03-08

    We investigated the effects of clear-cut size on species richness, reproductive effort, and relative abundance of scrub-scrub birds at the Savannah River Site. Stands varied in size from 2 to 57 ha that were 2 to 6 years old. Species richness was not explained by stand size or stand age. In regressing stand size on bird species richness, we found a significant negative relationship for the bird community. Frequency of capture was unrelated to stand size. Clear-cut stand size does not appear to be an important variable in forest management with respect to the bird community.

  17. Replacing personally-identifying information in medical records, the Scrub system.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, L.

    1996-01-01

    We define a new approach to locating and replacing personally-identifying information in medical records that extends beyond straight search-and-replace procedures, and we provide techniques for minimizing risk to patient confidentiality. The straightforward approach of global search and replace properly located no more than 30-60% of all personally-identifying information that appeared explicitly in our sample database. On the other hand, our Scrub system found 99-100% of these references. Scrub uses detection algorithms that employ templates and specialized knowledge of what constitutes a name, address, phone number and so forth. PMID:8947683

  18. 40 CFR 60.344 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Plants § 60.344 Test methods and procedures. (a) In conducting the performance tests required in... the average pressure loss of the gas stream through the scrubber and the average scrubbing...

  19. A new Antaeotricha species from Florida sandhills and scrub (Lepidoptera, Depressariidae, Stenomatinae)

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, James E.; Dickel, Terhune S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Antaeotricha floridella sp. n. is described and diagnosed from the closely similar Antaeotricha albulella (Walker). The species is distributed in xeric sandhill and scrub habitats in peninsular Florida, USA, and larvae feed on Quercus species. Keys are given for pale-winged Stenomatinae and similar Gelechioidea based on external characters and genitalia. PMID:26668543

  20. Guillan-Barré syndrome following scrub typus: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Katsuya; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Ebihara, Yuka; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Shiomi, Kazutaka; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2016-08-31

    Case 1: A 66-year-old man was admitted because of progressive gait disturbance and dysphagia after developing red rash. He was diagnosed as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and treated by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg). Two weeks later, he could swallow and walk without any abnormalities. Case 2: A 58-year-old woman was admitted because of gait disturbance, bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsies, and respiratory failure one week after developing fever and rash. She was diagnosed as GBS and treated with IVIg. She underwent mechanical ventilation, while she could wean off it one month later and her limb strengths improved. We confirmed both patients had scrub typhus by serological studies. Peripheral neuropathy is one of the complications of scrub typhus. In addition, this disease sometimes leads to severe GBS. GBS should be included in differential diagnosis when peripheral neuropathies develop in the course of treating scrub typhus, and we should keep in mind that scrub typhus is one of the causes of GBS.

  1. Guillan-Barré syndrome following scrub typus: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Katsuya; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Ebihara, Yuka; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Shiomi, Kazutaka; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2016-08-31

    Case 1: A 66-year-old man was admitted because of progressive gait disturbance and dysphagia after developing red rash. He was diagnosed as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and treated by intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg). Two weeks later, he could swallow and walk without any abnormalities. Case 2: A 58-year-old woman was admitted because of gait disturbance, bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsies, and respiratory failure one week after developing fever and rash. She was diagnosed as GBS and treated with IVIg. She underwent mechanical ventilation, while she could wean off it one month later and her limb strengths improved. We confirmed both patients had scrub typhus by serological studies. Peripheral neuropathy is one of the complications of scrub typhus. In addition, this disease sometimes leads to severe GBS. GBS should be included in differential diagnosis when peripheral neuropathies develop in the course of treating scrub typhus, and we should keep in mind that scrub typhus is one of the causes of GBS. PMID:27477576

  2. Comparison of surgical hand scrub and alcohol surgical hand rub on reducing hand microbial burden.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Azam; Shahrokhi, Akram; Soltani, Zahra; Molapour, Azam; Shafikhani, Mahin

    2012-02-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of two hand decontamination methods on the microbial burden of operating room staff hands. The surgical hand washing methods compared were a traditional surgical hand scrub using a povidone iodine solution, and a social wash using a liquid non-antibacterial soap followed by the application of an alcoholic hand rub. PMID:22724306

  3. AmeriFlux US-KS2 Kennedy Space Center (scrub oak)

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Bert; Hinkle, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-KS2 Kennedy Space Center (scrub oak). Site Description - The Kennedy Space Center Scrub Oak site is located within the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on the east coast of central Florida. Situated in a 10 ha scrub oak ecosystem, the surrounding stand was completely burned by a prescribed fire in 1996. The purpose of the burn was to control understory fuel load, which has been a common practice since 1969. Within a few weeks of the 1996 burn, the stand began to naturally regenerate from roots and rhizomes. Most scrub oak stands in the region undergo a 7 to 10 year disturbance cycle, mostly related to fire or hurricane activity. A severe drought gripped most of Florida beginning in 1998 until the later half of 2001 resulting in four years of relatively low amount of annual rainfall. Exceptionally high annual rainfall amount in 2004 was the result of a pair of hurricanes that hit the area in August and September of 2004. Prevaling wind directions for the site are as follows: W to NW in the winter, afternoon E sea breeze in the summer.

  4. An investigation on NO removal by wet scrubbing using NaClO2 seawater solution.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhitao; Yang, Shaolong; Zheng, Dekang; Pan, Xinxiang; Yan, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to investigate the NO removal by wet scrubbing using NaClO2 seawater solution in a cyclic scrubbing mode. Results show that, when the concentration of NaClO2 in scrubbing solution is higher than 10 mM, a complete removal of NO can be achieved during the cyclic scrubbing process. The breakthrough time for seawater with 15 mM NaClO2 is enhanced by 34.3 % compared with that for NaClO2 freshwater. The extension of the breakthrough time for NaClO2 seawater is mainly ascribed to the improved utilization of NaClO2 in the solution. The good buffering ability of seawater could suppress the acidic decomposition of NaClO2 into ClO2 effectively. The analysis of reaction products indicates that the main anions in the spent liquor are chloride ions and nitrate ions. The calculation of NaClO2 utilization according to the ion chromatography also agrees well with the experimental results of breakthrough times. PMID:27386234

  5. Differences in Attentional Strategies by Novice and Experienced Operating Theatre Scrub Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Ranieri Y. I.; Park, Taezoon; Wickens, Christopher D.; Ong, Lay Teng; Chia, Soon Noi

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nursing experience on attention allocation and task performance during surgery. The prevention of cases of retained foreign bodies after surgery typically depends on scrub nurses, who are responsible for performing multiple tasks that impose heavy demands on the nurses' cognitive resources. However, the…

  6. The Effects of Elevated CO2 on a Subtropical Scrub Oak-Palmetto Plant Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vieglais, David; Hinkle, C. Ross; Drake, Bert

    1995-01-01

    A 2.5 year (1992-1995) pilot study was conducted on the effects of twice ambient CO2 on native scrub oak-palmetto vegetation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The effects suggest that rising atmospheric CO2 will increase terrestrial carbon and alter the distribution of carbon among the different pools of carbon.

  7. DIET of alkali atoms from mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2003-03-01

    To investigate mechanisms for the origin of alkalis in the atmosphere of the Moon, we are studying the electron- and photon-stimulated desorption (ESD and PSD) of K atoms from model mineral surfaces (SiO 2 films), and ESD and PSD of Na atoms from a lunar basalt sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates the existence of traces of Na in the lunar sample. To obtain an increased signal for detailed measurements of desorption parameters (appearance thresholds, yields), a fractional monolayer of Na is deposited onto the lunar sample surface. An alkali atom detector based on surface ionization and a time-of-flight technique are used for DIET measurements, together with a pulsed electron gun, and a mechanically chopped and filtered mercury arc light source. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by UV photons or by electrons with energies E>4 eV causes desorption of "hot" alkali atoms. The results are consistent with the model based on charge transfer from the substrate to adsorbate which was developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and desorption of K atoms from water ice. The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  8. Multistate modeling of habitat dynamics: Factors affecting Florida scrub transition probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Duncan, B.W.; Stolen, Eric D.; Carter, G.M.; Hunt, D.K.; Drese, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Many ecosystems are influenced by disturbances that create specific successional states and habitat structures that species need to persist. Estimating transition probabilities between habitat states and modeling the factors that influence such transitions have many applications for investigating and managing disturbance-prone ecosystems. We identify the correspondence between multistate capture-recapture models and Markov models of habitat dynamics. We exploit this correspondence by fitting and comparing competing models of different ecological covariates affecting habitat transition probabilities in Florida scrub and flatwoods, a habitat important to many unique plants and animals. We subdivided a large scrub and flatwoods ecosystem along central Florida's Atlantic coast into 10-ha grid cells, which approximated average territory size of the threatened Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a management indicator species. We used 1.0-m resolution aerial imagery for 1994, 1999, and 2004 to classify grid cells into four habitat quality states that were directly related to Florida Scrub-Jay source-sink dynamics and management decision making. Results showed that static site features related to fire propagation (vegetation type, edges) and temporally varying disturbances (fires, mechanical cutting) best explained transition probabilities. Results indicated that much of the scrub and flatwoods ecosystem was resistant to moving from a degraded state to a desired state without mechanical cutting, an expensive restoration tool. We used habitat models parameterized with the estimated transition probabilities to investigate the consequences of alternative management scenarios on future habitat dynamics. We recommend this multistate modeling approach as being broadly applicable for studying ecosystem, land cover, or habitat dynamics. The approach provides maximum-likelihood estimates of transition parameters, including precision measures, and can be used to assess

  9. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste.

    PubMed

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-16

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite.

  10. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite.

  11. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste.

    PubMed

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite. PMID:25592665

  12. A mild alkali treated jute fibre controlling the hydration behaviour of greener cement paste

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Byung-Wan; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the antagonistic effect of jute fibre on the setting and hydration of jute reinforced cement, modified jute fibre reinforcement would be a unique approach. The present investigation deals with the effectiveness of mild alkali treated (0.5%) jute fibre on the setting and hydration behaviour of cement. Setting time measurement, hydration test and analytical characterizations of the hardened samples (viz., FTIR, XRD, DSC, TGA, and free lime estimation) were used to evaluate the effect of alkali treated jute fibre. From the hydration test, the time (t) required to reach maximum temperature for the hydration of control cement sample is estimated to be 860 min, whilst the time (t) is measured to be 1040 min for the hydration of a raw jute reinforced cement sample. However, the time (t) is estimated to be 1020 min for the hydration of an alkali treated jute reinforced cement sample. Additionally, from the analytical characterizations, it is determined that fibre-cement compatibility is increased and hydration delaying effect is minimized by using alkali treated jute fibre as fibre reinforcement. Based on the analyses, a model has been proposed to explain the setting and hydration behaviour of alkali treated jute fibre reinforced cement composite. PMID:25592665

  13. Crystal growth of sulfide materials from alkali polysulfide liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The fluids experiment system was designed for low temperature solution growth, nominally aqueous solution growth. The alkali polysulfides, compositions in the systems Na2S-S and K2S-S form liquids in the temperature range of 190 C to 400 C. These can be used as solvents for other important classes of materials such as transition metal and other sulfides which are not soluble in aqueous media. Among these materials are luminescent and electroluminescent crystals whose physical properties are sensitive functions of crystal perfection and which could, therefore, serve as test materials for perfection improvement under microgravity conditions.

  14. Alkali metal vapors - Laser spectroscopy and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stwalley, W. C.; Koch, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the rapidly expanding use of lasers for spectroscopic studies of alkali metal vapors. Since the alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium) are theoretically simple ('visible hydrogen'), readily ionized, and strongly interacting with laser light, they represent ideal systems for quantitative understanding of microscopic interconversion mechanisms between photon (e.g., solar or laser), chemical, electrical and thermal energy. The possible implications of such understanding for a wide variety of practical applications (sodium lamps, thermionic converters, magnetohydrodynamic devices, new lasers, 'lithium waterfall' inertial confinement fusion reactors, etc.) are also discussed.

  15. Alkali and Acid Solubilization Effects on Rheological Properties of Horse Mackerel Muscle Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo-Deaño, L.; Tovar, C. A.

    2008-07-01

    Influence of the acid (Type A) and alkali (Type B) solubilization of muscle proteins in the viscoelastic properties of surimi and surimi gels made from horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) muscle were evaluated. Stress and frequency sweep tests showed that surimi from method B presents higher viscoelastic moduli, lowest values of phase angle and minimum viscoelastic moduli dependence with frequency than surimi A. These results show a high inicial protein aggregation in surimi B, that could explain the greater firmness and hardness of this sample, showing a more compact network structure. From static and dynamic tests, gel developed from alkali solubilization resulted in higher gel strength and more rigid network than that from acidic pH, despite the incial protein aggregation of surimi B its protein keeps better gelation capacity. The less structural quality of GA gel is likely due to the more lipid content on the surimi as compared to alkali treatment.

  16. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOEpatents

    Soung, W.Y.

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased, preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  17. Laboratory evaluation of aromatic essential oils from thirteen plant species as candidate repellents against Leptotrombidium chiggers (Acari: Trombiculidae), the vector of scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen

    2009-03-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects. PMID:19009361

  18. State of the art of diagnosis of rickettsial diseases: the use of blood specimens for diagnosis of scrub typhus, spotted fever group rickettsiosis, and murine typhus

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Daniel H.; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review With improved malaria control, acute undifferentiated febrile illness studies in tropical regions reveal a startling proportion of rickettsial illnesses, especially scrub typhus, murine typhus, and spotted fever group rickettsioses. Laboratory diagnosis of these infections evolved little over the past 40 years, but combinations of technologies like PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification, with refined rapid diagnostic tests and/or ELISA, are promising for guidance for early antirickettsial treatment. Recent findings The long-term reliance on serological tests – useful only late in rickettsial infections – has led to underdiagnosis, inappropriate therapies, and undocumented morbidity and mortality. Recent approaches integrate nucleic acid amplification and recombinant protein-based serological tests for diagnosing scrub typhus. Optimized using Bayesian latent class analyses, this strategy increases diagnostic confidence and enables early accurate diagnosis and treatment – a model to follow for lagging progress in murine typhus and spotted fever. Summary A laboratory diagnostic paradigm shift in rickettsial infections is evolving, with replacement of indirect immunofluorescence assay by the more objective ELISA coupled with nucleic acid amplification assays to expand the diagnostic window toward early infection intervals. This approach supports targeted antirickettsial therapy, reduces morbidity and mortality, and provides a robust evidence base for further development of diagnostics and vaccines. PMID:27429138

  19. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  20. Scrubbing masks magmatic degassing during repose at Cascade-Range and Aleutian-Arc volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, Robert B.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, William C.; Ritchie, B.E.; Counce, Dale; Poreda, R.J.; Iven, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Between 1992 and 1998, we sampled gas discharges from ≤173°C fumaroles and springs at 12 quiescent but potentially restless volcanoes in the Cascade Range and Aleutian Arc (CRAA) including Mount Shasta, Mount Hood, Mount St. Helens, Mount Rainier, Mount Baker, Augustine Volcano, Mount Griggs, Trident, Mount Mageik, Aniakchak Crater, Akutan, and Makushin. For each site, we collected and analyzed samples to characterize the chemical (H2O, CO2, H2S, N2, CH4, H2, HCl, HF, NH3, Ar, O2, He) and isotopic (δ13C of CO2, 3He/4He, 40Ar/36Ar, δ34S, δ13C of CH4, δ15N, and δD and δ18O of water) compositions of the gas discharges, and to create baseline data for comparison during future unrest. The chemical and isotopic data show that these gases contain a magmatic component that is heavily modified from scrubbing by deep hydrothermal (150° - 350°C) water (primary scrubbing) and shallow meteoric water (secondary scrubbing). The impact of scrubbing is most pronounced in gas discharges from bubbling springs; gases from boiling-point fumaroles and superheated vents show progressively less impact from scrubbing. The most effective strategies for detecting gas precursors to future CRAA eruptions are to measure periodically the emission rates of CO2 and SO2, which have low and high respective solubilities in water, and to monitor continuously CO2 concentrations in soils around volcanic vents. Timely resampling of fumaroles can augment the geochemical surveillance program by watching for chemical changes associated with drying of fumarolic pathways (all CRAA sites), increases in gas geothermometry temperatures (Mount Mageik, Trident, Mount Baker, Mount Shasta), changes in δ13C of CO2 affiliated with magma movement (all CRAA site), and increases in 3He/4He coupled with intrusion of new magma (Mount Rainier, Augustine Volcano, Makushin, Mount Shasta). Repose magmatic degassing may discharge substantial amounts of S and Cl into the edifices of Mount Baker and several other CRAA

  1. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  20. Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

    2014-11-18

    In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

  1. Computational studies of solid-state alkali conduction in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhi; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-25

    The facile conduction of alkali ions in a crystal host is of crucial importance in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, the dominant form of energy storage today. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of computational approaches to study solid-state alkali diffusion. We demonstrate how these methods have provided useful insights into the design of materials that form the main components of a rechargeable alkali-ion battery, namely the electrodes, superionic conductor solid electrolytes and interfaces. We will also provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. Here, the scope of this review includes the monovalent lithium- and sodium-ion chemistries that aremore » currently of the most commercial interest.« less

  2. Ingestion of caustic alkali farm products.

    PubMed

    Neidich, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the Poison Prevention Packaging Act took effect, the number of ingestions of caustic alkali from household products has been significantly reduced. Commercial caustic alkalis used on farms, however, were not included in this legislation. Fourteen children over a 5 year period were seen after ingestion of commercial caustic alkalis used on farms. Seven of the children had ingested liquid pipeline cleaners and seven had ingested solid agents used for a variety of reasons. Six of seven children ingesting liquid agents did so from nonoriginal containers into which the caustic had been transferred for convenience. All seven children ingesting solid agents did so from the original container. Eight of the 14 children were found to have second-degree or worse esophageal involvement. Both solid and liquid caustic agents used commercially on farms can cause significant morbidity. Development of a child-resistant container for daily transfer of liquid pipeline agents could be helpful in preventing injuries from liquid pipeline cleaners. Pediatric gastroenterologists as well as primary care physicians in rural areas should be familiar with this type of injury and should take an active role in instructing parents of children living on farms to prevent such injuries. Extension of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act to caustic alkalis used on farms needs to be considered. PMID:8433244

  3. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-05-12

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization.

  4. Ingestion of caustic alkali farm products.

    PubMed

    Neidich, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the Poison Prevention Packaging Act took effect, the number of ingestions of caustic alkali from household products has been significantly reduced. Commercial caustic alkalis used on farms, however, were not included in this legislation. Fourteen children over a 5 year period were seen after ingestion of commercial caustic alkalis used on farms. Seven of the children had ingested liquid pipeline cleaners and seven had ingested solid agents used for a variety of reasons. Six of seven children ingesting liquid agents did so from nonoriginal containers into which the caustic had been transferred for convenience. All seven children ingesting solid agents did so from the original container. Eight of the 14 children were found to have second-degree or worse esophageal involvement. Both solid and liquid caustic agents used commercially on farms can cause significant morbidity. Development of a child-resistant container for daily transfer of liquid pipeline agents could be helpful in preventing injuries from liquid pipeline cleaners. Pediatric gastroenterologists as well as primary care physicians in rural areas should be familiar with this type of injury and should take an active role in instructing parents of children living on farms to prevent such injuries. Extension of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act to caustic alkalis used on farms needs to be considered.

  5. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  6. Cohesive Energy of the Alkali Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a method, considered appropriate for presentation to undergraduate students in materials science and related courses, for the calculation of cohesive energies of the alkali metals. Uses a description based on the free electron model and gives results to within 0.1 eV of the experimental values. (Author/GS)

  7. Communication: angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2013-12-14

    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He)200, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe200 studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

  8. Communication: Angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J. Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2013-12-14

    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He){sub 200}, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe{sub 200} studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

  9. Characterizing conditions of California sage scrub communities in Mediterranean-type ecosystems using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuki

    Biodiversity loss is an urgent global issue. For California's Mediterranean-type ecosystems, protecting biologically diverse vegetation communities such as the California sage scrub (CSS) community type is vital to conserving rare, threatened, or endangered species, as well as overall species richness of the southern and Baja California region. While existing monitoring methods such as field surveys and vegetation type mapping provide ecologically valuable information, they do not provide information about internal conditions of CSS communities. Fractional cover of plant life forms is frequently utilized to examine conditions of (semi-)arid vegetation communities. For the CSS community type, however, the utility of life-form fractional cover has not received adequate attention as an effective monitoring variable indicating ecological integrity; thus, no reliable, cost-effective methods have been developed. This dissertation investigates the effectiveness of fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herb, and bare ground for quantifying CSS community conditions, tests remote sensing approaches to obtain spatially comprehensive life-form cover fractions, and explores the utility of life-form fractional cover maps for sustainable, effective long-term monitoring of CSS communities of southern California. Past studies indicate that fractional cover of plant life forms is an effective measure for quantifying CSS community integrity, and remote sensing is the only means to estimate spatially exhaustive cover fractions cost-effectively over large extent. Among the remote sensing approaches tested, object-based image analysis using pansharpened QuickBird imagery shows the most promise for estimating life-form fractional cover within CSS communities because of its high accuracy (e.g., RMSE as low as 6.4%) and robustness in estimating cover fractions and ability of providing life-form-level landscape metrics. Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis using SPOT imagery is

  10. Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Bernal, Susan A.; Provis, John L.; Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel; Gehman, John D.; Brice, David G.; Kilcullen, Adam R.; Duxson, Peter; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van

    2013-11-15

    Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO{sub 2} exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods.

  11. Techniques of ground-truth measurements of desert-scrub structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottermann, J.; Deering, D.; Eck, T.; Ringrose, S.

    1987-01-01

    Inversion of remote sensing data taken over a desert scrub surface in Texas with a multidirectionally viewing field radiometer, PARABOLA, yields the value of 0.12 for the protrusion parameter, s, (the projection on a vertical plane of plants per unit area) if isotropy (Lambert law) is assumed for the underlying soil. However, a significantly higher value of s, in the range 0.15 to 0.20, can be inferred if the soil is assumed anisotropic. It is concluded that in remote sensing of sparse vegetation, it is important to know the reflectance characteristics of the underlying soil. Other techniques that can be used to infer desert scrub vegetation structure include various photographic techniques, and measurements of reflected radiance from zenith for a range of solar elevation angles on a clear day.

  12. Mapping Florida Scrub Jay habitat for purposes of land-use management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Provancha, Mark J.; Smith, Rebecca B.

    1991-01-01

    Geographical information system (GIS) applications were used to map areas of primary and secondary Florida Scrub Jay habitat on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using vegetation and soils maps. Data from field studies were used for accuracy assessment and evaluating the importance of mapping classes. Primary habitat accounts for 15 percent of the potential habitat and contained 57 percent of the Florida Scrub Jay population on KSC. Proximity analysis identified potential population centers, which were 44 percent of the potential habitat and contained 86 percent of the population. This study is an example of how remote sensing and GIS applications can provide information for land-use planning, habitat management, and the evaluation of cumulative impacts.

  13. Sacral Herpes Zoster Associated with Voiding Dysfunction in a Young Patient with Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jian

    2015-06-01

    When a patient presents with acute voiding dysfunction without a typical skin rash, it may be difficult to make a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Here, we present a case of scrub typhus in a 25-year-old man with the complication of urinary dysfunction. The patient complained of loss of urinary voiding sensation and constipation. After eight days, he had typical herpes zoster eruptions on the sacral dermatomes and hypalgesia of the S1-S5 dermatomes. No cases of dual infection with varicella zoster virus and Orientia tsutsugamushi were found in the literature. In the described case, scrub typhus probably induced sufficient stress to reactivate the varicella zoster virus. Early recognition of this problem is imperative for prompt and appropriate management, as misdiagnosis can lead to long-term urinary dysfunction. It is important that a diagnosis of herpes zoster be considered, especially in patients with sudden onset urinary retention.

  14. Ammonia scrubbing at Cominco's sulphur gas handling plants in Trail, B. C

    SciTech Connect

    Brandsenn, W. )

    1988-01-01

    This report describes the ammonia scrubbing process in the sulphur gas handling plant of Cominco's zinc operations at Trail, B.C. This scrubbing process produces ammonium sulfate fertilizer and, if desired, pure liquid sulphur dioxide. Sulphur deficiency in agricultural soil is becoming a growing concern in many parts of the world. The use of modern fertilizers increases crop yields which removes sulphur from the soil faster than it can be replenished from the atmosphere. Deliberate addition of sulphur to fertilizers is therefore required in many countries. The Cominco process combines the removal of low strength SO{sub 2} from a stackgas, and produces an end product that is the basis of ammonium sulphate fertilizer. The process does not produce any waste products which create disposal problems.

  15. A comparison of avian hematozoan epizootiology in two California coastal scrub communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Super, Paul E.; van Riper, Charles, III

    1995-01-01

    Passerine birds within two California (USA) coastal scrub ecosystems, an island and a mainland site, were examined for hematozoa from 1984 to 1990. Island birds had a significantly lower hematozoan prevalence than mainland birds. This prevalence difference can be related to a lack of appropriate hematozoan vectors on the island. Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. were the most commonly encountered hematozoa; four new species of Leucocytozoon spp. and one new Haemoproteus sp. were found in five host families. No transmission of hematozoan parasites was detected at the island site during the study. At the mainland coastal scrub site, Leucocytozoon spp. was transmitted each year while Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. transmission varied between years. There was evidence that some species of birds acquired infections outside of their breeding season. Results of this study lend further support to the prediction of decreased disease on remote island ecosystems.

  16. Scrub typhus vaccine candidate Kp r56 induces humoral and cellular immune responses in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Suchismita; Jiang, Ju; Chan, Teik-Chye; Manetz, T Scott; Chao, Chien-Chung; Ching, Wei-Mei; Richards, Allen L

    2005-08-01

    A truncated recombinant 56-kDa outer membrane protein of the Karp strain of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Kp r56) was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) for immunogenicity and safety as a vaccine candidate for the prevention of scrub typhus. This recombinant antigen induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses in two monkeys and was found to be well tolerated. Antigen-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG were produced to almost maximal levels within 1 week of a single immunization. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from vaccinated animals showed an induction of antigen-specific proliferation and gamma interferon production. The Kp r56 was not as efficient as infection with live organisms in preventing reinfection but was able to reduce the inflammation produced at the site of challenge. This report describes the results of the first systematic study of the immunogenicity of a recombinant scrub typhus vaccine candidate in a nonhuman primate model.

  17. On the phylogenetic position of the scrub-birds (Passeriformes: Menurae: Atrichornithidae) of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesser, R.T.; ten, Have J.

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships of the scrub-birds Atrichornis were investigated using complete sequences of the recombination-activating gene RAG-1 and the proto-oncogene c-mos for two individuals of the noisy scrub-bird Atrichornis clamosus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Atrichornis was sister to the genus Menura (the lyrebirds) and that these two genera (the Menurae) were sister to the rest of the oscine passerines. A sister relationship between Atrichornis and Menura supports the traditional view, based on morphology and DNA hybridization, that these taxa are closely related. Similarly, a sister relationship with the remaining oscine passerines agrees with the morphological distinctiveness of Atrichornis and Menura, although this result contradicts conclusions based on DNA hybridization studies. Although Atrichornis is very well known morphologically, previous conclusions regarding its relationships were hampered by a lack of comparative knowledge of other passerines, making concurrence of the sequence data of particular significance. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2007.

  18. Use of ground clay brick as a pozzolanic material to reduce the alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Turanli, L.; Bektas, F.; Monteiro, P.J.M

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this experimental study was to use ground clay brick (GCB) as a pozzolanic material to minimize the alkali-silica reaction expansion. Two different types of clay bricks were finely ground and their activity indices were determined. ASTM accelerated mortar bar tests were performed to investigate the effect of GCB when used to replace cement mass. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the GCBs meet the strength activity requirements of ASTM. In addition, the GCBs were found to be effective in suppressing the alkali-silica reaction expansion. The expansion decreased as the amount of GCBs in the mortar increased.

  19. STS-88 crew returns to the O&C Bldg. after the launch scrub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Despite the launch scrub of Space Shuttle Mission STS-88, Commander Robert D. Cabana has a big smile as he returns to the crew quarters in the Operations and Checkout Building. Behind him in the astronaut van is Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow. The Space Shuttle Endeavour is slated to make another liftoff attempt on Friday, Dec. 4, for the first U.S. mission dedicated to the assembly of the International Space Station.

  20. Season-dependent and independent responses of Mediterranean scrub to light conditions.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, María; Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Jáuregui, Juan; Rodríguez, Herminia; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor

    2016-05-01

    Semi-arid plant species cope with excess of solar radiation with morphological and physiological adaptations that assure their survival when other abiotic stressors interact. At the leaf level, sun and shade plants may differ in the set of traits that regulate environmental stressors. Here, we evaluated if leaf-level physiological seasonal response of Mediterranean scrub species (Myrtus communis, Halimium halimifolium, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus salvifolius) depended on light availability conditions. We aimed to determine which of these responses prevailed independently of the marked seasonality of Mediterranean climate, to define a leaf-level strategy in the scrub community. Thirty six leaf response variables - involving gas exchange, water status, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and leaf structure - were seasonally measured in sun exposed and shaded plants under field conditions. Physiological responses showed a common pattern throughout the year, in spite of the marked seasonality of the Mediterranean climate and of species-specific differences in the response to light intensity. Variables related to light use, CO2 assimilation, leaf pigment content, and LMA (leaf mass area) presented differences that were consistent throughout the year, although autumn was the season with greater contrast between sun and shade plants. Our data suggest that in Mediterranean scrub shade plants the lutein pool could have an important role in the photoprotection of the photosynthetic tissues. There was a negative linear correlation between the ratio lutein/total chlorophylls and the majority of leaf level variables. The combined effect of abiotic stress factors (light and drought or light and cold) was variable-specific, in some cases enhancing differences between sun and shade plants, while in others leading to unified strategies in all scrub species.

  1. An Intradermal Inoculation Mouse Model for Immunological Investigations of Acute Scrub Typhus and Persistent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rockx-Brouwer, Dedeke; Xu, Guang; Goez-Rivillas, Yenny; Drom, Claire; Shelite, Thomas R.; Valbuena, Gustavo; Walker, David H.; Bouyer, Donald H.

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, a Gram-negative bacterium that is transmitted to mammalian hosts during feeding by Leptotrombidium mites and replicates predominantly within endothelial cells. Most studies of scrub typhus in animal models have utilized either intraperitoneal or intravenous inoculation; however, there is limited information on infection by the natural route in murine model skin or its related early host responses. Here, we developed an intradermal (i.d.) inoculation model of scrub typhus and focused on the kinetics of the host responses in the blood and major infected organs. Following ear inoculation with 6 x 104 O. tsutsugamushi, mice developed fever at 11–12 days post-infection (dpi), followed by marked hypothermia and body weight loss at 14–19 dpi. Bacteria in blood and tissues and histopathological changes were detected around 9 dpi and peaked around 14 dpi. Serum cytokine analyses revealed a mixed Th1/Th2 response, with marked elevations of MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and IL-10 at 9 dpi, followed by increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, G-CSF, RANTES/CCL5, KC/CCL11, IL-1α/β, IL-2, TNF-α, GM-CSF), as well as modulatory cytokines (IL-9, IL-13). Cytokine levels in lungs had similar elevation patterns, except for a marked reduction of IL-9. The Orientia 47-kDa gene and infectious bacteria were detected in several organs for up to 84 dpi, indicating persistent infection. This is the first comprehensive report of acute scrub typhus and persistent infection in i.d.-inoculated C57BL/6 mice. This is a significant improvement over current murine models for Orientia infection and will permit detailed studies of host immune responses and infection control interventions. PMID:27479584

  2. Season-dependent and independent responses of Mediterranean scrub to light conditions.

    PubMed

    Zunzunegui, María; Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Jáuregui, Juan; Rodríguez, Herminia; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor

    2016-05-01

    Semi-arid plant species cope with excess of solar radiation with morphological and physiological adaptations that assure their survival when other abiotic stressors interact. At the leaf level, sun and shade plants may differ in the set of traits that regulate environmental stressors. Here, we evaluated if leaf-level physiological seasonal response of Mediterranean scrub species (Myrtus communis, Halimium halimifolium, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Cistus salvifolius) depended on light availability conditions. We aimed to determine which of these responses prevailed independently of the marked seasonality of Mediterranean climate, to define a leaf-level strategy in the scrub community. Thirty six leaf response variables - involving gas exchange, water status, photosystem II photochemical efficiency, photosynthetic pigments and leaf structure - were seasonally measured in sun exposed and shaded plants under field conditions. Physiological responses showed a common pattern throughout the year, in spite of the marked seasonality of the Mediterranean climate and of species-specific differences in the response to light intensity. Variables related to light use, CO2 assimilation, leaf pigment content, and LMA (leaf mass area) presented differences that were consistent throughout the year, although autumn was the season with greater contrast between sun and shade plants. Our data suggest that in Mediterranean scrub shade plants the lutein pool could have an important role in the photoprotection of the photosynthetic tissues. There was a negative linear correlation between the ratio lutein/total chlorophylls and the majority of leaf level variables. The combined effect of abiotic stress factors (light and drought or light and cold) was variable-specific, in some cases enhancing differences between sun and shade plants, while in others leading to unified strategies in all scrub species. PMID:26913795

  3. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors Associated with Scrub Typhus Infection in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liqin; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Xiuchun; Sun, Yulan; Guan, Zengzhi; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the risk factors of scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China, a case-control study was carried out. Cases (n = 56) were defined as persons who were diagnosed by PCR and serological method within three years. Three neighborhood control subjects were selected by matching for age and occupation. Living at the edge of the village, living in the houses near grassland, vegetable field or ditch, house yard without cement floor, piling weeds in the house or yard, all of these were risk factors for scrub typhus infection. Working in vegetable fields and hilly areas, and harvesting in autumn posed the highest risks, with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of 3.7 (1.1–11.9), 8.2 (1.4–49.5), and 17.2 (5.1–57.9), respectively. These results would be useful for the establishment of a detail control strategy for scrub typhus infection in Beijing, China. PMID:23691083

  4. Jet Surface Interaction Scrubbing Noise from High Aspect-Ratio Rectangular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas; Bozak, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Concepts envisioned for the future of civil air transport consist of unconventional propulsion systems in the close proximity of the airframe. Distributed propulsion system with exhaust configurations that resemble a high aspect ratio rectangular jet are among geometries of interest. Nearby solid surfaces could provide noise shielding for the purpose of reduced community noise. Interaction of high-speed jet exhaust with structure could also generate new sources of sound as a result of flow scrubbing past the structure, and or scattered noise from sharp edges. The present study provides a theoretical framework to predict the scrubbing noise component from a high aspect ratio rectangular exhaust in proximity of a solid surface. The analysis uses the Greens function (GF) to the variable density Pridmore-Brown equation in a transversely sheared mean flow. Sources of sound are defined as the auto-covariance function of second-rank velocity fluctuations in the jet plume, and are modeled using a RANS-based acoustic analogy approach. Acoustic predictions are presented in an 8:1 aspect ratio rectangular exhaust at three subsonic Mach numbers. The effect of nearby surface on the scrubbing noise component is shown on both reflected and shielded sides of the plate.

  5. Use of hydrogen peroxide in scrubbing towers for odor removal in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Charron, I; Féliers, C; Couvert, A; Laplanche, A; Patria, L; Requieme, B

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to replace sodium hypochlorite (NaCIO) with hydrogen peroxide (H202) in chemical scrubbing towers, in order to avoid the formation of chlorinated species, harmful for human health. Some previous studies have already shown the ability of H2O2 to treat the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) pollution. However, an important decomposition of the oxidant was observed in the scrubbing solution (carbonates, transition metal and high pH are responsible for this decomposition) leading to high reactant consumption. Consequently, this study first focused on research into a compound able to reduce the hydrogen peroxide degradation. Experiments were conducted on a pilot unit (3,000 m3 h(-1)) in a wastewater treatment plant. The sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) proved to be a good scrubbing solution stabilizer. A very good removal of hydrogen sulfide (up to 98%) was also obtained. Finally, the study resulted in the determination of the best operating conditions to achieve both an efficient and economical process.

  6. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil.

  7. Efficacy of a surgical scrub including 2% chlorhexidine acetate for canine superficial pyoderma.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Nobuo; Nagata, Masahiko; Terada, Yuri; Shibata, Sanae; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2010-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of a surgical scrub containing 2% chlorhexidine acetate (2CA; Nolvasan® Surgical Scrub; Fort Dodge Animal Health, USA) was evaluated for the topical management of canine superficial pyoderma. The first study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. The control was a shampoo containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (4CG; Skin Clinic Shampoo; CHD MEDICS, Goyang, Korea). Ten dogs with symmetrical lesions of canine superficial pyoderma were allocated to receive either 2CA or the control shampoo applied to either side of the body twice weekly for 1 week. Both the owners and the investigators subjectively scored skin lesions including pruritus, erythema, crusted papules and scales on a scale of 0-3. The 2CA and 4CG resulted in almost the same degree of improvement of skin lesions, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. The second study was an open trial of 2CA monotherapy in eight dogs with cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group-associated superficial pyoderma. The 2CA monotherapy was applied every 2 days for 2 weeks. Five dogs improved with 2CA monotherapy, one partially improved and two did not. No adverse reactions were seen in either trial. This suggests that a 2CA surgical scrub could be a useful and safe topical adjunct therapy for dogs with superficial pyoderma involving cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group.

  8. Laboratory Diagnosis and Genotype Identification of Scrub Typhus from Pinggu District, Beijing, 2008 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihong; Dou, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Liqin; Lyu, Yanning; Du, Zhizhong; Tian, Lili; Zhang, Xiuchun; Sun, Yulan; Guan, Zengzhi; Chen, Lijuan; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the diagnosis and genotype of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Pinggu district, Beijing. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to detect O. tsutsugamushi-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing analysis targeting the O. tsutsugamushi-specific groEL gene and 56 kDa protein gene were performed on whole-blood samples from scrub typhus patients. We confirmed that 47 patients were infected with scrub typhus in Pinggu district, Beijing. Representative sequences amplified by primers according to the groEL gene (BJ-PG-2008; GenBank accession No. JQ894502) and the 56 kDa protein gene (PG-56kDa; GenBank accession No. JX843795) both clustered with Kawasaki. PG-56kDa had sequence homology of 100% with TADY12-0308, shandong-XDM2, Neimeng-90, and sdu-1 and sequence homology of 96% with Kawasaki, Taguchi, Oishi, and Kanda. We confirmed the genotype of O. tsutsugamushi in Pinggu district, Beijing, as Kawasaki, and the patient in 2008 confirmed in this study was the first patient with confirmed scrub typhus in Beijing. PMID:23716411

  9. Development of a biphasic electroreactor with a wet scrubbing system for the removal of gaseous benzene.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Muthuraman; Chung, Sang Joon; Moon, Hyun-Ho; Jang, Jae Wook; Moon, Il-Shik

    2013-08-12

    An efficient, continuous flow electroreactor system comprising a scrubbing column (for absorption) and a biphasic electroreactor (for degradation) was developed to treat gas streams containing benzene. Initial benzene absorption studies using a continuous flow bubble column containing absorbents like 40% sulfuric acid, 10% silicone oil (3, 5, 10 cSt), or 100% silicone oil showed that 100% silicone oil is the most suitable. A biphasic batch electroreactor based on 50 mL of silicone oil and 100 mL of activated Co(III) (activated electrochemically) in 40% sulfuric acid demonstrated that indirect oxidation of benzene is possible by Co(III). Combined experiments on the wet scrubbing column and biphasic electroreactor (BP-ER) were performed to determine the feasibility of benzene removal, which is reside in the silicone oil medium. In semidynamic scrubbing with BP-ER experiments using an aqueous electroreactor volume of 2 L, and an inlet gas flow and a gaseous benzene concentration were 10 Lmin(-1) and 100 ppm, respectively, benzene removal efficiency is 75% in sustainable way. The trend of CO2 evolution is well correlated with benzene recovery in the BP-ER. The addition of sodiumdodecyl sulfate (SDS) enhanced the recovery of silicone oil without affecting benzene removal. This process is promising for the treatment of high concentrations of gaseous benzene.

  10. Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.; Gorbaty, Martin L.; Tsou, Joe M.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

  11. Speciation in Western Scrub-Jays, Haldane’s rule, and genetic clines in secondary contact

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haldane’s Rule, the tendency for the heterogametic sex to show reduced fertility in hybrid crosses, can obscure the signal of gene flow in mtDNA between species where females are heterogametic. Therefore, it is important when studying speciation and species limits in female-heterogametic species like birds to assess the signature of gene flow in the nuclear genome as well. We studied introgression of microsatellites and mtDNA across a secondary contact zone between coastal and interior lineages of Western Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma californica) to test for a signature of Haldane’s Rule: a narrower cline of introgression in mtDNA compared to nuclear markers. Results Our initial phylogeographic analysis revealed that there is only one major area of contact between coastal and interior lineages and identified five genetic clusters with strong spatial structuring: Pacific Slope, Interior US, Edwards Plateau (Texas), Northern Mexico, and Southern Mexico. Consistent with predictions from Haldane’s Rule, mtDNA showed a narrower cline than nuclear markers across a transect through the hybrid zone. This result is not being driven by female-biased dispersal because neutral diffusion analysis, which included estimates of sex-specific dispersal rates, also showed less diffusion of mtDNA. Lineage-specific plumage traits were associated with nuclear genetic profiles for individuals in the hybrid zone, indicating that these differences are under genetic control. Conclusions This study adds to a growing list of studies that support predictions of Haldane’s Rule using cline analysis of multiple loci of differing inheritance modes, although alternate hypotheses like selection on different mtDNA types cannot be ruled out. That Haldane’s Rule appears to be operating in this system suggests a measure of reproductive isolation between the Pacific Slope and interior lineages. Based on a variety of evidence from the phenotype, ecology, and genetics, we recommend elevating

  12. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies on alkali borate glasses: evidence of mixed alkali effect.

    PubMed

    Padmaja, G; Kistaiah, P

    2009-03-19

    A lithium-potassium-borate glass system containing manganese and iron cations has been thoroughly investigated in order to obtain information about the mixed alkali effect and the structural role of both the manganese and iron in such glass hosts. Mixed alkali borate glasses of the (30 - x)Li(2)O - xK(2)O - 10CdO/ZnO - 59B(2)O(3) (x = 0, 10, 15, 20, and 30) doped with 1MnO(2)/1Fe(2)O(3) system were prepared by a melt quench technique. The amorphous phase of the prepared glass samples was confirmed from their X-ray diffraction. The spectroscopic properties of glass samples were studied using infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques. The density of all the prepared glasses was measured using Archimedes principle. Molar volumes were estimated from the density data. IR spectra of these glasses revealed a dramatic variation of three- and four-coordinated boron structures as a function of mixed alkali concentration. The vibrations due to Li-O, K-O, and MnO(4)/FeO(4) arrangements are consistent in all the compositions and show a nonlinear variation in the intensity with alkali content. Raman spectra of different alkali combinations with CdO and ZnO present drastic changes in the intensity of various Raman bands. The observation of disappearance and reappearance of IR and Raman bands as a function of various alkali concentrations is an important result pertaining to the mixed alkali effect in borate glasses. Acting as complementary spectroscopic techniques, both types of measurements, IR and Raman, revealed that the network structure of the studied glasses is mainly based on BO(3) and BO(4) units placed in different structural groups, the BO(3) units being dominant. The measured IR and Raman spectra of different glasses are used to clarify the optical properties of the present glasses correlating them with their structure and composition. PMID:19235995

  13. Scrub-successional bird community dynamics in young and mature longleaf pine-wiregrass savannahs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Christie, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    Public agencies are required to manage for threatened and endangered species and for biodiversity. However, at times, management for threatened and endangered species precludes consideration of other species. We investigated how managing for red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) and biodiversity at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, affected communities of bird species that use early-successional scrub habitat (hereafter, scrub-successional species). Management for red-cockaded woodpeckers at the SRS involved both (1) manipulating mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Andropogon spp.) stands via canopy thinning, removal of midstory trees, and prescribed burning; and (2) even-aged timber harvesting. The former management practice encouraged red-cockaded woodpeckers to establish new colonies in previously unoccupied stands (hereafter, 'recruitment' stands). The latter management practice is used to remove off-site planted pines and replant with preferred longleaf pines. We conducted a constant-effort mist net study in recruitment and regenerating stands (stands clearcut and planted with longleaf pine) during the breeding seasons of 1995-96. We hypothesized that the scrub-successional bird community in recruitment stands would have greater species richness and higher survival and reproductive rates per species than in regenerating stands. However, recruitment stands always had fewer scrub-successional species (1995:36 species; 1996:31 species) than regenerating stands (1995:54 species; 1996:55 species), and all species that occurred in recruitment stands also occurred in regenerating stands. Species which commonly occurred in both recruitment and regenerating stands had similar adult:juvenile ratios (P > 0.15) and relative proportion of adults in breeding condition (P > 0.05). We detected no difference in survival rates of Bachman's sparrows (Aimophila aestivalis), indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea), and of 'combined' scrub

  14. Extraction of DBP and MBP from actinides: application to the recovery of actinides from TBP-sodium carbonate scrub solutions. [Aralex process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Mason, G.W.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Leonard, R.A.; Bernstein, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory scale counter-current extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, utilizes 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP) from acidified Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H/sub 2/MBP to complex actinides and thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process is relatively simple and involves inexpensive and readily available chamicals. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. One such application is the removal of detergents from laundry or clean-up solutions contaminated with actinides.

  15. Infrared spectra of FHF - in alkali halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunnilall, C. J.; Sherman, W. F.

    1982-03-01

    The bifluoride ion, FHF -, has been substitutionally isolated within single crystal samples of several different alkali halides. Infrared spectra of these crystals have been studied for sample temperatures down to 8K when half-bandwidths of less than 1 cm -1 have been observed. (Note that at room temperature ν 3 is observed to have a half-bandwidth of about 40 cm -1). The frequency shifts and half-bandwidth changes caused by cooling are considered together with the frequency shifts caused by pressures up to 10 k bar. The low temperature spectra clearly indicate that FHF - is a linear symmetrical ion when substitutionally isolated within alkali halides of either the NaCl or CsCl structure.

  16. Geopolymers and Related Alkali-Activated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provis, John L.; Bernal, Susan A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of new, sustainable, low-CO2 construction materials is essential if the global construction industry is to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities, which is incurred particularly through the production of Portland cement. One type of non-Portland cement that is attracting particular attention is based on alkali-aluminosilicate chemistry, including the class of binders that have become known as geopolymers. These materials offer technical properties comparable to those of Portland cement, but with a much lower CO2 footprint and with the potential for performance advantages over traditional cements in certain niche applications. This review discusses the synthesis of alkali-activated binders from blast furnace slag, calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash, including analysis of the chemical reaction mechanisms and binder phase assemblages that control the early-age and hardened properties of these materials, in particular initial setting and long-term durability. Perspectives for future research developments are also explored.

  17. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    One approach to space fission power system design is predicated on the use of alkali metal heat pipes, either as radiator elements, thermal management components, or as part of the core primary heat-transfer system. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where more detailed information can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstrational purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Project Prometheus point designs.

  18. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-07-01

    One approach to fission power system design uses alkali metal heat pipes for the core primary heat-transfer system. Heat pipes may also be used as radiator elements or auxiliary thermal control elements. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where information that is more detailed can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstration purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Nasa Project Prometheus point designs. (author)

  19. Ion Pairing in Alkali Nitrate Electrolyte Solutions.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Yi Qin

    2016-03-10

    In this study, we investigate the thermodynamics of alkali nitrate salt solutions, especially the formation of contact ion pairs between alkali cation and nitrate anion. The ion-pairing propensity shows an order of LiNO3 < NaNO3 < KNO3. Such results explain the salt activity coefficients and suggest that the empirical "law of matching water affinity" is followed by these alkali nitrate salt solutions. The spatial patterns of contact ion pairs are different in the three salt solutions studied here: Li(+) forms the contact ion pair with only one oxygen of the nitrate while Na(+) and K(+) can also be shared by two oxygens of the nitrate. In reproducing the salt activity coefficient using Kirkwood-Buff theory, we find that it is essential to include electronic polarization for Li(+) which has a high charge density. The electronic continuum correction for nonpolarizable force field significantly improves the agreement between the calculated activity coefficients and their experimental values. This approach also improves the performance of the force field on salt solubility. From these two aspects, this study suggests that electronic continuum correction can be a promising approach to force-field development for ions with high charge densities. PMID:26901167

  20. Ion Pairing in Alkali Nitrate Electrolyte Solutions.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Yi Qin

    2016-03-10

    In this study, we investigate the thermodynamics of alkali nitrate salt solutions, especially the formation of contact ion pairs between alkali cation and nitrate anion. The ion-pairing propensity shows an order of LiNO3 < NaNO3 < KNO3. Such results explain the salt activity coefficients and suggest that the empirical "law of matching water affinity" is followed by these alkali nitrate salt solutions. The spatial patterns of contact ion pairs are different in the three salt solutions studied here: Li(+) forms the contact ion pair with only one oxygen of the nitrate while Na(+) and K(+) can also be shared by two oxygens of the nitrate. In reproducing the salt activity coefficient using Kirkwood-Buff theory, we find that it is essential to include electronic polarization for Li(+) which has a high charge density. The electronic continuum correction for nonpolarizable force field significantly improves the agreement between the calculated activity coefficients and their experimental values. This approach also improves the performance of the force field on salt solubility. From these two aspects, this study suggests that electronic continuum correction can be a promising approach to force-field development for ions with high charge densities.

  1. Transport properties of alkali metal doped fullerides

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Daluram Yadav, Nishchhal

    2015-07-31

    We have studied the intercage interactions between the adjacent C{sub 60} cages and expansion of lattice due to the intercalation of alkali atoms based on the spring model to estimate phonon frequencies from the dynamical matrix for the intermolecular alkali-C{sub 60} phonons. We considered a two-peak model for the phonon density of states to investigate the nature of electron pairing mechanism for superconducting state in fullerides. Coulomb repulsive parameter and the electron phonon coupling strength are obtained within the random phase approximation. Transition temperature, T{sub c}, is obtained in a situation when the free electrons in lowest molecular orbital are coupled with alkali-C{sub 60} phonons as 5 K, which is much lower as compared to reported T{sub c} (20 K). The superconducting pairing is mainly driven by the high frequency intramolecular phonons and their effects enhance it to 22 K. The importance of the present study, the pressure effect and normal state transport properties are calculated within the same model leading superconductivity.

  2. Increased Nucleosomes and Neutrophil Activation Link to Disease Progression in Patients with Scrub Typhus but Not Murine Typhus in Laos.

    PubMed

    Paris, Daniel H; Stephan, Femke; Bulder, Ingrid; Wouters, Diana; van der Poll, Tom; Newton, Paul N; Day, Nicholas P J; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is essential in protection against rickettsial illnesses, but the role of neutrophils in these intracellular vasculotropic infections remains unclear. This study analyzed the plasma levels of nucleosomes, FSAP-activation (nucleosome-releasing factor), and neutrophil activation, as evidenced by neutrophil-elastase (ELA) complexes, in sympatric Lao patients with scrub typhus and murine typhus. In acute scrub typhus elevated nucleosome levels correlated with lower GCS scores, raised respiratory rate, jaundice and impaired liver function, whereas neutrophil activation correlated with fibrinolysis and high IL-8 plasma levels, a recently identified predictor of severe disease and mortality. Nucleosome and ELA complex levels were associated with a 4.8-fold and 4-fold increased risk of developing severe scrub typhus, beyond cut off values of 1,040 U/ml for nucleosomes and 275 U/ml for ELA complexes respectively. In murine typhus, nucleosome levels associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and the duration of illness, while ELA complexes correlated strongly with inflammation markers, jaundice and increased respiratory rates. This study found strong correlations between circulating nucleosomes and neutrophil activation in patients with scrub typhus, but not murine typhus, providing indirect evidence that nucleosomes could originate from neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) degradation. High circulating plasma nucleosomes and ELA complexes represent independent risk factors for developing severe complications in scrub typhus. As nucleosomes and histones exposed on NETs are highly cytotoxic to endothelial cells and are strongly pro-coagulant, neutrophil-derived nucleosomes could contribute to vascular damage, the pro-coagulant state and exacerbation of disease in scrub typhus, thus indicating a detrimental role of neutrophil activation. The data suggest that increased neutrophil activation relates to disease progression and severe complications, and

  3. Increased Nucleosomes and Neutrophil Activation Link to Disease Progression in Patients with Scrub Typhus but Not Murine Typhus in Laos

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Daniel H.; Stephan, Femke; Bulder, Ingrid; Wouters, Diana; van der Poll, Tom; Newton, Paul N.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2015-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is essential in protection against rickettsial illnesses, but the role of neutrophils in these intracellular vasculotropic infections remains unclear. This study analyzed the plasma levels of nucleosomes, FSAP-activation (nucleosome-releasing factor), and neutrophil activation, as evidenced by neutrophil-elastase (ELA) complexes, in sympatric Lao patients with scrub typhus and murine typhus. In acute scrub typhus elevated nucleosome levels correlated with lower GCS scores, raised respiratory rate, jaundice and impaired liver function, whereas neutrophil activation correlated with fibrinolysis and high IL-8 plasma levels, a recently identified predictor of severe disease and mortality. Nucleosome and ELA complex levels were associated with a 4.8-fold and 4-fold increased risk of developing severe scrub typhus, beyond cut off values of 1,040 U/ml for nucleosomes and 275 U/ml for ELA complexes respectively. In murine typhus, nucleosome levels associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and the duration of illness, while ELA complexes correlated strongly with inflammation markers, jaundice and increased respiratory rates. This study found strong correlations between circulating nucleosomes and neutrophil activation in patients with scrub typhus, but not murine typhus, providing indirect evidence that nucleosomes could originate from neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) degradation. High circulating plasma nucleosomes and ELA complexes represent independent risk factors for developing severe complications in scrub typhus. As nucleosomes and histones exposed on NETs are highly cytotoxic to endothelial cells and are strongly pro-coagulant, neutrophil-derived nucleosomes could contribute to vascular damage, the pro-coagulant state and exacerbation of disease in scrub typhus, thus indicating a detrimental role of neutrophil activation. The data suggest that increased neutrophil activation relates to disease progression and severe complications, and

  4. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete (II) expansion and microstructure of concrete microbar

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Duyou . E-mail: duyoulu@njut.edu.cn; Mei Laibao; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Mo Xiangyin; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-06-15

    The effect of the type of alkalis on the expansion behavior of concrete microbars containing typical aggregate with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity was studied. The results verified that: (1) at the same molar concentration, sodium has the strongest contribution to expansion due to both ASR and ACR, followed by potassium and lithium; (2) sufficient LiOH can completely suppress expansion due to ASR whereas it can induce expansion due to ACR. It is possible to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to clarify the ACR contribution when ASR and ACR may coexist. It has been shown that a small amount of dolomite in the fine-grained siliceous Spratt limestone, which has always been used as a reference aggregate for high alkali-silica reactivity, might dedolomitize in alkaline environment and contribute to the expansion. That is to say, Spratt limestone may exhibit both alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactivity, although alkali-silica reactivity is predominant. Microstructural study suggested that the mechanism in which lithium controls ASR expansion is mainly due to the favorable formation of lithium-containing less-expansive product around aggregate particles and the protection of the reactive aggregate from further attack by alkalis by the lithium-containing product layer.

  5. [Surface characteristics of alkali modified activated carbon and the adsorption capacity of methane].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng-Zhu; Li, Lin; Liu, Jun-Xin; Sun, Yong-Jun; Li, Guo-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Coconut shell based activated carbon was modified by alkali with different concentrations. The surface structures of tested carbons were observed and analyzed by SEM and BET methods. Boehm's titration and SEM/EDS methods were applied to assay the functional groups and elements on the carbon surface. The adsorption of methane on tested carbons was investigated and adsorption behavior was described by the adsorption isotherms. Results showed that surface area and pore volume of modified carbon increased and surface oxygen groups decreased as the concentration of the alkali used increased, with no obvious change in pore size. When concentration of alkali was higher than 3.3 mol x L(-1), the specific surface area and pore volume of modified carbon was larger than that of original carbon. Methane adsorption capacity of alkali modified carbon increased 24%. Enlargement of surface area and pore volume, reduction of surface oxygen groups will benefit to enhance the methane adsorption ability on activated carbon. Adsorption behavior of methane followed the Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption coefficient was 163.7 m3 x mg(-1).

  6. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  7. Seed Selection by the Harvester Ant Pogonomyrmex rugosus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Coastal Sage Scrub: Interactions With Invasive Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C M; Redak, R A

    2016-08-01

    Harvester ants can be the dominant seed predators on plants by collecting and eating seeds and are known to influence plant communities. Harvester ants are abundant in coastal sage scrub (CSS), and CSS is frequently invaded by several exotic plant species. This study used observations of foraging and cafeteria-style experiments to test for seed species selection by the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex rugosus Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in CSS. Analysis of foraging behavior showed that P. rugosus carried seeds of exotic Erodium cicutarium (L.) and exotic Brassica tournefortii (Gouan) on 85 and 15% of return trips to the nest (respectively), and only a very few ants carried the native seeds found within the study areas. When compared with the availability of seeds in the field, P. rugosus selected exotic E. cicutarium and avoided both native Encelia farinosa (Torrey & A. Gray) and exotic B. tournefortii. Foraging by P. rugosus had no major effect on the seed bank in the field. Cafeteria-style experiments confirmed that P. rugosus selected E. cicutarium over other available seeds. Native Eriogonum fasciculatum (Bentham) seeds were even less selected than E. farinosa and B. tournefortii.

  8. Seed Selection by the Harvester Ant Pogonomyrmex rugosus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Coastal Sage Scrub: Interactions With Invasive Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Briggs, C M; Redak, R A

    2016-08-01

    Harvester ants can be the dominant seed predators on plants by collecting and eating seeds and are known to influence plant communities. Harvester ants are abundant in coastal sage scrub (CSS), and CSS is frequently invaded by several exotic plant species. This study used observations of foraging and cafeteria-style experiments to test for seed species selection by the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex rugosus Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in CSS. Analysis of foraging behavior showed that P. rugosus carried seeds of exotic Erodium cicutarium (L.) and exotic Brassica tournefortii (Gouan) on 85 and 15% of return trips to the nest (respectively), and only a very few ants carried the native seeds found within the study areas. When compared with the availability of seeds in the field, P. rugosus selected exotic E. cicutarium and avoided both native Encelia farinosa (Torrey & A. Gray) and exotic B. tournefortii. Foraging by P. rugosus had no major effect on the seed bank in the field. Cafeteria-style experiments confirmed that P. rugosus selected E. cicutarium over other available seeds. Native Eriogonum fasciculatum (Bentham) seeds were even less selected than E. farinosa and B. tournefortii. PMID:27257121

  9. Method for the safe disposal of alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry R.

    1977-01-01

    Alkali metals such as those employed in liquid metal coolant systems can be safely reacted to form hydroxides by first dissolving the alkali metal in relatively inert metals such as lead or bismuth. The alloy thus formed is contacted with a molten salt including the alkali metal hydroxide and possibly the alkali metal carbonate in the presence of oxygen. This oxidizes the alkali metal to an oxide which is soluble within the molten salt. The salt is separated and contacted with steam or steam-CO.sub.2 mixture to convert the alkali metal oxide to the hydroxide. These reactions can be conducted with minimal hydrogen evolution and with the heat of reaction distributed between the several reaction steps.

  10. Effects of fire on composition, biomass, and nutrients in oak scrub vegetation on John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Four stands of oak scrub two, four, eight, and 25 years since fire were sampled with permanent 15 m line transects. Percent cover by species was determined. Plant samples were analyzed for a variety of substances. Transects were resurveyed in 1985 for vegetation parameters. Nutrient pools in biomass were calculated from biomass data and tissue nutrient concentrations. Soil nutrient pools were calculated from nutrient concentrations and bulk density. Species distribution and soil chemical properties were found to be closely related to water table depth. The following fire-related conclusions are reached: (1) major structural changes occur in scrub after fire in that shrub height is reduced and requires four to six years to exceed 1 m; (2) reduction in shrub height affects the suitability of scrub for the Florida scrub jay (3) live biomass increases with time since fire; (4) nutrient concentrations in live biomass do not change with time since fire; (5) species composition and richness are little changed after fire; and (6) imposition of a continued regime of burning on a three-year cycle may have adverse impacts not indicated by the recovery of scrub from a single fire.

  11. The Correlation of Endoscopic Findings and Clinical Features in Korean Patients with Scrub Typhus: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Dong-Min; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Woo

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi-induced systemic vasculitis, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract and the endoscopic findings associated with scrub typhus are not well understood. We performed a prospective study and recommend performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for all possible scrub typhus patients, regardless of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms, endoscopic findings and clinical severity based on organ involvement and ICU admission were analyzed. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in up to 76.4% of scrub typhus patients. The major endoscopic findings were ulcers (43/127, 33.9%). Interestingly, 7.1% (9/127) of the patients presented with esophageal candidiasis. There was no correlation between the presence or absence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the endoscopic grade (P = 0.995). However, there was a positive correlation between the clinical severity and the endoscopic findings (P = 0.001). Sixty-three percent of the patients presented with erosion or ulcers on prospectively performed endoscopic evaluations, irrespective of gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms did not reflect the need for endoscopy. Scrub typhus patients could have significant endoscopic abnormalities even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:27195943

  12. A new surgical handwashing and hand antisepsis from scrubbing to rubbing.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kiyonori; Ogawa, Rho; Norose, Yoshihiro; Tajiri, Takashi

    2004-06-01

    In 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines for surgical handwashing and hand antisepsis on the Internet. According to these guidelines, we revised our surgical handwashing method from scrubbing with brushes to rubbing with antiseptic. The new method consists of scrubbing around the nails with brushes and rubbing the hands and arms with antiseptic from the elbow to the antebrachium. A total of 182 surgeons and operating-room nurses participated in the current study. Bacterial contamination was investigated using the glove-juice method. The new surgical handwashing method is simple, and requires only a short time to perform (2 minutes 50 seconds). The bacterial examination confirmed that rubbing the hands with antiseptic was significantly more effective than scrubbing with brushes. In terms of sterilization or prolonged effects, 4% chlor-hexidine gluconate (CHG) was superior to 7.5% povidone-iodine (PVI) throughout a 3-hour period after hand antisepsis. Although bacterial counts were increased 3 hours after the beginning of surgery, additional hand rubbing with 0.2% chlorhexidine-83% ethanol (Hibisoft(TM)) was effective in suppressing the number of bacteria. Hibisoft(TM) successfully prolonged sterilization for more than 3 hours. For long surgical procedures, CHG should be used as an antiseptic and gloves should be changed every 3 hours, alcohol-based hand rubbing should also be performed 3 hours after the initial handwashing. This new technique will be included in the OSCE curriculum to ensure its standardization. Moreover, in-depth education regarding central operating-room practices is desired.

  13. Nutrient enrichment intensifies hurricane impact in scrub mangrove ecosystems in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Feller, Ilka C; Dangremond, Emily M; Devlin, Donna J; Lovelock, Catherine E; Proffitt, C Edward; Rodriguez, Wilfrid

    2015-11-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate coasts. Despite repeated demonstrations of their ecologic and economic value, multiple stressors including nutrient over-enrichment threaten these and other coastal wetlands globally. These ecosystems will be further stressed if tropical storm intensity and frequency increase in response to global climate changes. These stressors will likely interact, but the outcome of that interaction is uncertain. Here, we examined potential interaction between nutrient over-enrichment and the September 2004 hurricanes. Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne made landfall along Florida's Indian River Lagoon and caused extensive damage to a long-term fertilization experiment in a mangrove forest, which previously revealed that productivity was nitrogen (N) limited across the forest and, in particular, that N enrichment dramatically increased growth rates and aboveground biomass of stunted Avicennia germinans trees in the interior scrub zone. During the hurricanes, these trees experienced significant defoliation with three to four times greater reduction in leaf area index (LAI) than control trees. Over the long-term, the +N scrub trees took four years to recover compared to two years for controls. In the adjacent fringe and transition zones, LAI was reduced by > 70%, but with no differences based on zone or fertilization treatment. Despite continued delayed mortality for at least five years after the storms, LAI in the fringe and transition returned to pre-hurricane conditions in two years. Thus, nutrient over-enrichment of the coastal zone will increase the productivity of scrub mangroves, which dominate much of the mangrove landscape in Florida and the Caribbean; however, that benefit is offset by a decrease in their resistance and resilience to hurricane damage that has the potential to destabilize the system. PMID:27070015

  14. Scrub typhus associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A report of six pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yingkang; Huang, Li; Fan, Huifeng; Lu, Gen; Xu, Yi; Wu, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening immune disorder that may be inherited or secondary to infection, malignancy or rheumatological disease. The aim of the present study was to highlight the clinical features of scrub typhus-associated HLH in children. A retrospective study was performed on 6 pediatric patients with scrub typhus-associated HLH. For each patient, medical records were reviewed and analyzed, and demographic, clinical and laboratory data and outcomes were collected. The duration of fever prior to admission ranged between 4 and 12 days. All patients exhibited persistent or intermittent fever, eschar, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy at the time of diagnosis. Five patients experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) during hospitalization. Thrombocytopenia was detected in all patients with cytopenia involving two or three cell types, simultaneously. Coagulopathy with prolonged prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were noted in all patients. Markedly elevated serum ferritin levels (>1,500 µg/ml) were identified in all patients. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (>1,000 U/l) was detected in 4 (66.7%) patients and elevated alanine aminotransferase was exhibited by 5 (83/3%) patients. Lung infiltrates and consolidation were the most common imaging findings. Only 1 patient succumbed, with DIC and multi-organ failure. Of the survivors, 1 patient was lost to follow-up, and the remaining patients are in remission with excellent general health, to date. In conclusion, HLH should be considered in severe pediatric cases of scrub typhus. Upon the early recognition of this syndrome, prompt and supportive treatment in the pediatric intensive care unit are vital.

  15. Ocular surface discomfort and Demodex: effect of tea tree oil eyelid scrub in Demodex blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Wee, Sung Wook; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between ocular discomfort and ocular Demodex infestation, and therapeutic effects of tea tree oil (TTO) in Demodex blepharitis patients. Three hundred and thirty-five patients with ocular discomfort were evaluated for ocular Demodex infestation and subjective symptoms with ocular surface discomfort index (OSDI) score. Among them, Demodex-infested patients were randomized to receive either eyelid scrubbing with TTO (TTO group,106 patients) or without TTO (Control group, 54 patients) for 1 month. Demodex were found in 84% of patients with ocular discomfort. The number of Demodex was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.04) and OSDI score (P = 0.024). After eyelid scrub treatment, Demodex count was reduced from 4.0 ± 2.5 to 3.2 ± 2.3 in the TTO group (P = 0.004) and from 4.3 ± 2.7 to 4.2 ± 2.5 in the control group (P = 0.27). Also, OSDI score was reduced from 34.5 ± 10.7 to 24.1 ± 11.9 in the TTO group (P = 0.001) and from 35.3 ± 11.6 to 27.5 ± 12.8 in the control group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, Demodex number showed a significant positive correlation with age and subjective ocular discomfort. The tea tree oil eyelid scrub treatment is effective for eliminating ocular Demodex and improving subjective ocular symptoms.

  16. Scrub typhus associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A report of six pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yingkang; Huang, Li; Fan, Huifeng; Lu, Gen; Xu, Yi; Wu, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening immune disorder that may be inherited or secondary to infection, malignancy or rheumatological disease. The aim of the present study was to highlight the clinical features of scrub typhus-associated HLH in children. A retrospective study was performed on 6 pediatric patients with scrub typhus-associated HLH. For each patient, medical records were reviewed and analyzed, and demographic, clinical and laboratory data and outcomes were collected. The duration of fever prior to admission ranged between 4 and 12 days. All patients exhibited persistent or intermittent fever, eschar, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy at the time of diagnosis. Five patients experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) during hospitalization. Thrombocytopenia was detected in all patients with cytopenia involving two or three cell types, simultaneously. Coagulopathy with prolonged prothrombin time and/or activated partial thromboplastin time were noted in all patients. Markedly elevated serum ferritin levels (>1,500 µg/ml) were identified in all patients. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (>1,000 U/l) was detected in 4 (66.7%) patients and elevated alanine aminotransferase was exhibited by 5 (83/3%) patients. Lung infiltrates and consolidation were the most common imaging findings. Only 1 patient succumbed, with DIC and multi-organ failure. Of the survivors, 1 patient was lost to follow-up, and the remaining patients are in remission with excellent general health, to date. In conclusion, HLH should be considered in severe pediatric cases of scrub typhus. Upon the early recognition of this syndrome, prompt and supportive treatment in the pediatric intensive care unit are vital. PMID:27698778

  17. Nutrient enrichment intensifies hurricane impact in scrub mangrove ecosystems in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Feller, Ilka C; Dangremond, Emily M; Devlin, Donna J; Lovelock, Catherine E; Proffitt, C Edward; Rodriguez, Wilfrid

    2015-11-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate coasts. Despite repeated demonstrations of their ecologic and economic value, multiple stressors including nutrient over-enrichment threaten these and other coastal wetlands globally. These ecosystems will be further stressed if tropical storm intensity and frequency increase in response to global climate changes. These stressors will likely interact, but the outcome of that interaction is uncertain. Here, we examined potential interaction between nutrient over-enrichment and the September 2004 hurricanes. Hurricanes Frances and Jeanne made landfall along Florida's Indian River Lagoon and caused extensive damage to a long-term fertilization experiment in a mangrove forest, which previously revealed that productivity was nitrogen (N) limited across the forest and, in particular, that N enrichment dramatically increased growth rates and aboveground biomass of stunted Avicennia germinans trees in the interior scrub zone. During the hurricanes, these trees experienced significant defoliation with three to four times greater reduction in leaf area index (LAI) than control trees. Over the long-term, the +N scrub trees took four years to recover compared to two years for controls. In the adjacent fringe and transition zones, LAI was reduced by > 70%, but with no differences based on zone or fertilization treatment. Despite continued delayed mortality for at least five years after the storms, LAI in the fringe and transition returned to pre-hurricane conditions in two years. Thus, nutrient over-enrichment of the coastal zone will increase the productivity of scrub mangroves, which dominate much of the mangrove landscape in Florida and the Caribbean; however, that benefit is offset by a decrease in their resistance and resilience to hurricane damage that has the potential to destabilize the system.

  18. Determination of the common and rare alkalies in mineral analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.; Stevens, R.E.

    1934-01-01

    Methods are described which afford a determination of each member of the alkali group and are successful in dealing with the quantities of the rare alkalies found in rocks and minerals. The procedures are relatively rapid and based chiefly on the use of chloroplatinic acid, absolute alcohol and ether, and ammonium sulfate. The percentages of all the alkalies found in a number of minerals are given.

  19. Environmental mercury contamination around a chlor-alkali plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lodenius, M.; Tulisalo, E.

    1984-04-01

    The chlor-alkali industry is one of the most important emitters of mercury. This metal is effectively spread from chlor-alkali plants into the atmosphere and it has been reported that only a few percent of the mercury emissions are deposited locally the major part spreading over very large areas. The purpose of this investigation was to study the spreading of mercury up to 100 km from a chlor-alkali plant using three different biological indicators.

  20. Solvation at nanoscale: Alkali-halides in water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Partanen, Leena; Mikkelae, Mikko-Heikki; Huttula, Marko; Tchaplyguine, Maxim; Zhang Chaofan; Andersson, Tomas; Bjoerneholm, Olle

    2013-01-28

    The solvation of alkali-halides in water clusters at nanoscale is studied by photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The Na 2p, K 3p, Cl 2p, Br 3d, and I 4d core level binding energies have been measured for salt-containing water clusters. The results have been compared to those of alkali halide clusters and the dilute aqueous salt solutions. It is found that the alkali halides dissolve in small water clusters as ions.

  1. Synthesis of Scrub-Oak Ecosystem Responses to Elevated CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Hungate, Bruce

    2014-11-07

    This report summarizes a synthesis project of a long-term global change experiment conducted at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, investigating how increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influences the functioning of a fire-dominated scrub-oak ecosystem. The experiment began in 1996 and ended in 2007. Results presented here summarize the effects of elevated CO2 on plant growth, soil processes, carbon and nutrient cycling, and other responses. Products include archived data from the experiment, as well as six publications in the peer-reviewed literature.

  2. Alkali cation specific adsorption onto fcc(111) transition metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mills, J N; McCrum, I T; Janik, M J

    2014-07-21

    The presence of alkali cations in electrolyte solutions is known to impact the rate of electrocatalytic reactions, though the mechanism of such impact is not conclusively determined. We use density functional theory (DFT) to examine the specific adsorption of alkali cations to fcc(111) electrode surfaces, as specific adsorption may block catalyst sites or otherwise impact surface catalytic chemistry. Solvation of the cation-metal surface structure was investigated using explicit water models. Computed equilibrium potentials for alkali cation adsorption suggest that alkali and alkaline earth cations will specifically adsorb onto Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces in the potential range of hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution catalysis in alkaline solutions.

  3. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1992-05-27

    High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time.

  4. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1991-11-30

    High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this program is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time.

  5. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1992-08-29

    High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, zirconia, and fireclay glass. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products (phase equilibria) and the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time.

  6. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, D.C.; Mailhe, C.C.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1985-07-10

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  7. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, David C.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  8. Cellulose aerogels from aqueous alkali hydroxide-urea solution.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Kimura, Satoshi; Wada, Masahisa; Kuga, Shigenori; Zhang, Lina

    2008-01-01

    Highly porous and strong cellulose aerogels were prepared by gelation of cellulose from aqueous alkali hydroxide/urea solution, followed by drying with supercritical CO2. Their morphology, pore structure, and physical properties were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption measurements, UV/Vis spectrometry, and tensile tests. The cellulose hydrogel was composed of interconnected about 20 nm wide. By using supercritical CO2 drying, the network structure in the hydrogel was well preserved in the aerogel. The results are preliminary but demonstrate the ability of this method to give cellulose aerogels of large surface areas (400-500 m2 g(-1)) which may be useful as adsorbents, heat/sound insulators, filters, catalyst supports, or carbon aerogel precursors. PMID:18605678

  9. Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Conversion (AMTEC) for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Cole, T.; Khanna, S. K.; Thakoor, A. P.

    Performance parameters of the Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC) for a 100 kW electric power system have been calculated at four technological levels assuming a heat pipe-cooled nuclear reactor heat source. The most advanced level considered would operate between 1180 K converter temperature and 711 K radiator temperature at 16 percent efficiency, and would weigh 1850 kg with a radiator area of 43 sq m. In addition, electrode research studies for the AMTEC systems have been conducted utilizing an experimental test cell of Bankston et al. (1983) and Mo and several Mo-Ti electrodes. It was found that the Mo-Ti electrodes offered no improvement in lifetime characteristics over the pure Mo electrodes, however, oxygen treatment of a degraded Mo electrode restored its specific power output to 90 percent of its original specific power and maintained this level for 60 hr, thus offering a potential for lifetime stability.

  10. The Construction of Scrub in California and the Mediterranean Borderlands: Climatic and Edaphic Climax Mosaic or Anthropogenic Artifact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigue, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    There is a marked difference in the representation of Mediterranean scrub vegetation (e.g., chaparral, maquis) in North American and European literature in biogeography and ecology. Authors discussing this vegetation in the California context accept that it is a natural response to the Mediterranean climates, with their late summer and fall fires, and steep terrain. Debate here focusses on the extent to which humans have modified or, indeed, can modify "natural" fire regimes. European authors frame this vegetation instead as a secondary successional formation in a landscape that "should" be dominated by oak woodland and forest. The widespread presence of Mediterranean scrub is cast as an artifact of human disturbance over thousands of years, mediated through overgrazing, deforestation, accelerated erosion, and anthropogenic fire. This poster will present a content analysis of the Mediterranean scrub literature, in order to engage both traditions in the construction of a unified framework for these pyrogenic formations.

  11. System for removing solids from a used lime or limestone slurry scrubbing liquor in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.D.

    1981-10-13

    The flue gas desulfurization process using a lime or limestone slurry scrubbing solution produces used liquor containing calcium sulfite or sulfate (Typically gypsum). Precipitated particles are removed by feeding the used scrubbing liquor to an agitated crystallization zone to grow crystals and directing part of the used scrubbing liquor from that zone to a quiescent crystallization zone, in which particles are settled back into the agitated zone. An underflow stream from the agitated zone containing large crystals is combined with an overflow stream from the quiescent zone, which combined stream is clarified with the fines being returned to the scrubber and the large crystals being removed as a waste product. Apparatus for performing the above process in which the agitated and quiescent crystallization zones form part of a single crystallization vessel, and the two zones are separated by a baffle.

  12. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  13. Electrodes For Alkali-Metal Thermoelectric Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Wheeler, Bob L.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Lamb, James L.; Bankston, C. Perry; Cole, Terry

    1989-01-01

    Combination of thin, porous electrode and overlying collector grid reduces internal resistance of alkali-metal thermoelectric converter cell. Low resistance of new electrode and grid boosts power density nearly to 1 W/cm2 of electrode area at typical operating temperatures of 1,000 to 1,300 K. Conductive grid encircles electrode film on alumina tube. Bus wire runs along tube to collect electrical current from grid. Such converters used to transform solar, nuclear, and waste heat into electric power.

  14. High power diode pumped alkali vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Krupke, B.

    2008-05-01

    Diode pumped alkali lasers have developed rapidly since their first demonstration. These lasers offer a path to convert highly efficient, but relatively low brightness, laser diodes into a single high power, high brightness beam. General Atomics has been engaged in the development of DPALs with scalable architectures. We have examined different species and pump characteristics. We show that high absorption can be achieved even when the pump source bandwidth is several times the absorption bandwidth. In addition, we present experimental results for both potassium and rubidium systems pumped with a 0.2 nm bandwidth alexandrite laser. These data show slope efficiencies of 67% and 72% respectively.

  15. (abstract) Fundamental Mechanisms of Electrode Kinetics and Alkali Metal Atom Transport at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of electrode kinetics and mass transport of alkali metal oxidation and alkali metal cation reduction at the solid electrolyte/porous electrode boundary as well as alkali metal transport through porous metal electrodes has important applications in optimizing device performance in alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) cells which are high temperature, high current density electrochemical cells. Basic studies of these processes also affords the opportunity to investigate a very basic electrochemical reaction over a wide range of conditions; and a variety of mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. The temperature range of these investigations covers 700K to 1240K; the alkali metal vapor pressures range from about 10(sup -2) to 10(sup 2) Pa; and electrodes studied have included Mo, W, Mo/Na(sub 2)MoO(sub 4), W/Na(sub 2)WO(sub 4), WPt(sub x), and WRh(sub x) (1.0 < x < 6.0 ) with Na at Na-beta'-alumina, and Mo with K at K-beta'-alumina. Both liquid metal/solid electrolyte/alkali metal vapor and alkali metal vapor/solid electrolyte/vapor cells have been used to characterize the reaction and transport processes. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes.

  16. Elucidation of transport mechanism and enhanced alkali ion transference numbers in mixed alkali metal-organic ionic molten salts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fangfang; Forsyth, Maria

    2016-07-28

    Mixed salts of Ionic Liquids (ILs) and alkali metal salts, developed as electrolytes for lithium and sodium batteries, have shown a remarkable ability to facilitate high rate capability for lithium and sodium electrochemical cycling. It has been suggested that this may be due to a high alkali metal ion transference number at concentrations approaching 50 mol% Li(+) or Na(+), relative to lower concentrations. Computational investigations for two IL systems illustrate the formation of extended alkali-anion aggregates as the alkali metal ion concentration increases. This tends to favor the diffusion of alkali metal ions compared with other ionic species in electrolyte solutions; behavior that has recently been reported for Li(+) in a phosphonium ionic liquid, thus an increasing alkali transference number. The mechanism of alkali metal ion diffusion via this extended coordination environment present at high concentrations is explained and compared to the dynamics at lower concentrations. Heterogeneous alkali metal ion dynamics are also evident and, somewhat counter-intuitively, it appears that the faster ions are those that are generally found clustered with the anions. Furthermore these fast alkali metal ions appear to correlate with fastest ionic liquid solvent ions. PMID:27375042

  17. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  18. Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant community recovery in California coastal sage scrub lands?

    PubMed

    McCullough, Sarah A; Endress, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California coastal sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant community recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant community recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower (P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed (P < 0.01). We conclude that postfire mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to coastal sage scrub recovery on the study area.

  19. Septisol antiseptic foam: a sensible alternative to the conventional surgical scrub.

    PubMed

    Rubio, P A

    1987-01-01

    Over a recent 8-year period, Septisol Foam (0.23% hexachlorophene in a 46% ethyl alcohol base) alone was used to prepare the hands and forearms of the author's surgical team. In 3480 cases, only 11 postoperative infections were encountered, for an incidence of 0.3%. All 11 infections involved patients who underwent gastrointestinal surgery and/or who had high-risk factors such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, perforated appendix, emergency surgery, age over 65 years, and foreign bodies in the form of hemodialysis access shunts. Septisol Foam is an effective bacteriostatic agent that minimizes the risk of dermatitis and offers sufficient antibacterial protection without supplementary handwashing. When used according to the method described here, the foam eliminates the need for scrub brushes and reduces the total scrub time to approximately 2 minutes in each case. In addition to being safe, effective, and easy to use, this method results in a marked decrease in water consumption and considerable monetary savings.

  20. Differences in attentional strategies by novice and experienced operating theatre scrub nurses.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ranieri Y I; Park, Taezoon; Wickens, Christopher D; Ong, Lay Teng; Chia, Soon Noi

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of nursing experience on attention allocation and task performance during surgery. The prevention of cases of retained foreign bodies after surgery typically depends on scrub nurses, who are responsible for performing multiple tasks that impose heavy demands on the nurses' cognitive resources. However, the relationship between the level of experiences and attention allocation strategies has not been extensively studied. Eye movement data were collected from 10 novice and 10 experienced scrub nurses in the operating theater for caesarean section surgeries. Visual scanning data, analyzed by dividing the workstation into four main areas and the surgery into four stages, were compared to the optimum expected value estimated by SEEV (Salience, Effort, Expectancy, and Value) model. Both experienced and novice nurses showed significant correlations to the optimal percentage dwell time values, and significant differences were found in attention allocation optimality between experienced and novice nurses, with experienced nurses adhering significantly more to the optimal in the stages of high workload. Experienced nurses spent less time on the final count and encountered fewer interruptions during the count than novices indicating better performance in task management, whereas novice nurses switched attention between areas of interest more than experienced nurses. The results provide empirical evidence of a relationship between the application of optimal visual attention management strategies and performance, opening up possibilities to the development of visual attention and interruption training for better performance. PMID:21942313

  1. Parameterization of albedo, thermal inertia, and surface roughness of desert scrub/sandy soil surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Mccumber, M.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral albedo, A sub n, for the direct solar beam is defined as A sub n (r sub i,s, theta sub 0) = r sub i exp(-s tan theta sub 0)1-I(s) where I(s) is the integral over all reflection angles describing the interception by the absorbing plants of the flux reflected from the soil, r sub i soil reflectance, assumed Lambertian, S the projection on a vertical plane of plants per unit surface area, and theta sub 0 is the solar zenith angle. Hemispheric reflectance for the direct solar beam equals 1-I(s) times the reflectance to the zenith. The values of s of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 respectively quantify sparse, moderately dense, and very dense desert scrub. Thin plants are assumed to be of negligible thermal inertia, and thus directly yield the absorbed insolation to the atmosphere. Surface thermal inertia is therefore effectively reduced. The ratio of surface roughness height to plant height is parameterized for sparse, moderately dense, and very dense desert-scrub as a function of s based on data expressing the dependence of this ratio on plant silhouette.

  2. Optimizing the order of operations for movement scrubbing: Comment on Power et al.

    PubMed

    Carp, Joshua

    2013-08-01

    A recent study by Power and colleagues shows that BOLD artifacts induced by head movement can substantially alter patterns of resting-state functional connectivity and proposes a novel procedure for reducing these artifacts by deleting (or "scrubbing") movement-contaminated volumes. The authors acknowledge that this work is descriptive and not prescriptive, and note that future studies may refine the proposed scrubbing method. Nevertheless, it is worth pointing out that this method can be improved substantially by a single transposition in the order of operations. Temporal filtering is known to introduce ringing artifacts that emanate from sharp transitions in signal intensity. The method proposed in the target article applies temporal filtering before deleting contaminated volumes-in effect, spreading movement-related artifacts backwards and forwards in time, but deleting only the originally contaminated data. Using simulated data, we show that deleting and replacing contaminated volumes before temporal filtering removes a greater proportion of artifactual signal while retaining a greater proportion of the original data.

  3. Chemical-oxidative scrubbing for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from raw biogas: potentials and economics.

    PubMed

    Miltner, M; Makaruk, A; Krischan, J; Harasek, M

    2012-01-01

    In the present work chemical-oxidative scrubbing as a novel method for the desulphurisation of raw biogas is presented with a special focus on the process potentials and economics. The selective absorption of hydrogen sulphide from gas streams containing high amounts of carbon dioxide using caustic solutions is not trivial but has been treated in literature. However, the application of this method to biogas desulphurisation has not been established so far. Based on rigorous experimental work, an industrial-scale pilot plant has been designed, erected and commissioned at a biogas plant with biogas upgrading and gas grid injection in Austria. Data collected from the 12-month monitored operation has been used to elaborate performance as well as economic parameters for the novel desulphurisation method. The proposed technology offers significant operational advantages regarding the degree of automation and the flexibility towards fluctuations in process boundary conditions. Furthermore, the economic assessment revealed the high competitiveness of the chemical-oxidative scrubbing process compared with other desulphurisation technologies with the named advantageous operational behaviour.

  4. A Case of Scrub Typhus Complicated by Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Successful Management with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Seung Yun; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Im, Jae Hyoung; Durey, Areum; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Young Sam; Kang, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2016-09-01

    A 67-year-old woman was diagnosed as having scrub typhus with pneumonitis. On admission, she was started on a combination therapy with levofloxacin and doxycycline. However, the patient developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on the 2nd day, and as a result, she underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). She was weaned from ECMO on the 10th day, as her respiratory status gradually improved. She was discharged without sequelae on the 23rd day. The outcome suggests that the use of ECMO should be considered for patients with ARDS induced from scrub typhus. PMID:27458040

  5. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides.

    PubMed

    Krzton-Maziopa, A; Svitlyk, V; Pomjakushina, E; Puzniak, R; Conder, K

    2016-07-27

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2-y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations. PMID:27248118

  6. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides.

    PubMed

    Krzton-Maziopa, A; Svitlyk, V; Pomjakushina, E; Puzniak, R; Conder, K

    2016-07-27

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2-y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations.

  7. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Svitlyk, V.; Pomjakushina, E.; Puzniak, R.; Conder, K.

    2016-07-01

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2-y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations.

  8. Packing transition in alkali metallic clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, R.; Sung, Ming Wen; Weare, John H.

    1996-03-01

    Small metallic clusters form a local geometric configuration quite different from the bulk crystals. As the cluster size increases, several transitions in the local coordination take place before the bulk structure appears. These transitions involve change in the nature of chemical bonds. We have systematically investigated the structural transition of various alkali metal clusters including binary compounds using an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. Among them, Li clusters exhibit unusual transition in their packing pattern. Small lithium clusters (N <= 21) form open structures based on a ``solvation shell''.(M. Sung, R. Kawai, and J. Weare, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73) (1994) 3552., which is quite different from other alkali metal clusters. The bonding of these small clusters is partially ionic. Above N=25, a close-packed structure is established. However, the local configuration still differ from that of the bulk crystal. As the size further increases, the ionic nature decreases and the system reaches another close-packed structure based on the Mackay icosahedron, which is similar to the bulk crystal structure.

  9. Decalcification resistance of alkali-activated slag.

    PubMed

    Komljenović, Miroslav M; Baščarević, Zvezdana; Marjanović, Nataša; Nikolić, Violeta

    2012-09-30

    This paper analyses the effects of decalcification in concentrated 6M NH(4)NO(3) solution on mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated slag (AAS). Portland-slag cement (CEM II/A-S 42.5 N) was used as a benchmark material. Decalcification process led to a decrease in strength, both in AAS and in CEM II, and this effect was more pronounced in CEM II. The decrease in strength was explicitly related to the decrease in Ca/Si atomic ratio of C-S-H gel. A very low ratio of Ca/Si ~0.3 in AAS was the consequence of coexistence of C-S-H(I) gel and silica gel. During decalcification of AAS almost complete leaching of sodium and tetrahedral aluminum from C-S-H(I) gel also took place. AAS showed significantly higher resistance to decalcification in relation to the benchmark CEM II due to the absence of portlandite, high level of polymerization of silicate chains, low level of aluminum for silicon substitution in the structure of C-S-H(I), and the formation of protective layer of polymerized silica gel during decalcification process. In stabilization/solidification processes alkali-activated slag represents a more promising solution than Portland-slag cement due to significantly higher resistance to decalcification. PMID:22818592

  10. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Svitlyk, V.; Pomjakushina, E.; Puzniak, R.; Conder, K.

    2016-07-01

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2‑y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations.

  11. Formation of lysinoalanine in egg white under alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the formation mechanism of lysinoalanine (LAL) in eggs during the alkali treatment process, NaOH was used for the direct alkali treatment of egg white, ovalbumin, and amino acids; in addition, the amount of LAL formed during the alkali treatment process was measured. The results showed that the alkali treatment resulted in the formation of LAL in the egg white. The LAL content increased with increasing pH and temperature, with the LAL content first increasing and then leveling off with increasing time. The amount of LAL formed in the ovalbumin under the alkali treatment condition accounted for approximately 50.51% to 58.68% of the amount of LAL formed in the egg white. Thus, the LAL formed in the ovalbumin was the main source for the LAL in the egg white during the alkali treatment process. Under the alkali treatment condition, free L-serine, L-cysteine, and L-cystine reacted with L-lysine to form LAL; therefore, they are the precursor amino acids of LAL formed in eggs during the alkali treatment process. PMID:26772660

  12. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 721.3) containing amines. (b) ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject...

  16. Self-discharge in bimetallic cells containing alkali metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, M. S.; Hesson, J. C.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of thermally regenerative bimetallic cells with alkali metal anodes shows a relation between the current drawn and the rate of discharge under open-circuit conditions. The self-discharge rate of the cell is due to the dissolution and ionization of alkali metal atoms in the fused-salt electrolyte

  17. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  18. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOEpatents

    Soung, Wen Y.

    1984-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them (46, 53, 61, 69) with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide (63) to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased (81), preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated (84) to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process (86, 18, 17) where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  19. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A.; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  20. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  1. A 12-MW-scale pilot study of in-duct scrubbing (IDS) using a rotary atomizer

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, E.A.; Murphy, K.R.; Demian, A.

    1989-11-01

    A low-cost, moderate-removal efficiency, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology was selected by the US Department of Energy for pilot demonstration in its Acid Rain Precursor Control Technology Initiative. The process, identified as In-Duct Scrubbing (IDS), applies rotary atomizer techniques developed for lime-based spray dryer FGD while utilizing existing flue gas ductwork and particulate collectors. IDS technology is anticipated to result in a dry desulfurization process with a moderate removal efficiency (50% or greater) for high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. The critical elements for successful application are: (1) adequate mixing of sorbent droplets with flue gas for efficient reaction contact, (2) sufficient residence time to produce a non-wetting product, and (3) appropriate ductwork cross-sectional area to prevent deposition of wet reaction products before particle drying is comple. The ductwork in many older plants, previously modified to meet 1970 Clean Air Act requirements for particulate control, usually meet these criteria. A 12 MW-scale IDS pilot plant was constructed at the Muskingum River Plant of the American Electric Power System. The pilot plant, which operates from a slipstrem attached to the air-preheater outlet duct from the Unit 5 boiler at the Muskingum River Plant (which burns about 4% sulfur coal), is equipped with three atomizer stations to test the IDS concept in vertical and horizontal configurations. In addition, the pilot plant is equipped to test the effect of injecting IDS off- product upstream of the atomizer, on SO{sub 2}and NO{sub x} removals.

  2. Alkali element depletion by core formation and vaporization on the early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The depletion of Na, K, Rb, and Cs in the Earth's upper mantle and crust relative to their abundances in chondrites is a long standing problem in geochemistry. Here we consider two commonly invoked mechanisms, namely core formation, and vaporization, for producing the observed depletions. Our models predict that a significant percentage of the Earth's bulk alkali element inventory is in the core (30 percent for Na, 52 percent for K, 74 percent for Rb, and 92 percent for Cs). These predictions agree with independent estimates from nebular volatility trends and (for K) from terrestrial heat flow data. Our models also predict that vaporization and thermal escape during planetary accretion are unlikely to produce the observed alkali element depletion pattern. However, loss during the putative giant impact which formed the Moon cannot be ruled out. Experimental, observational, and theoretical tests of our predictions are also described. Alkali element partitioning into the Earth's core was modeled by assuming that alkali element partitioning during core formation on the aubrite parent body (APB) is analogous to that on the early Earth. The analogy is reasonable for three reasons. First, the enstatite meteorites are the only known meteorites with the same oxygen isotope systematics as the Earth-Moon system. Second, the large core size of the Earth and the V depletion in the mantle requires accretion from planetesimals as reduced as the enstatite chondrites. Third, experimental studies of K partitioning between silicate and metal plus sulfide show that more K goes into the metal plus sulfide at higher pressures than at one atmosphere pressure. Thus partitioning in the relatively low pressure natural laboratory of the APB is a good guide to alkali elemental partitioning during the growth of the Earth.

  3. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  4. Effects of alkali treatments on Ag nanowire transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Kang, Jun-gu; Eom, Tae-yil; Moon, Bongjin; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we employ various alkali materials (alkali metals with different base strengths, and ammonia gas and solution) to improve the conductivity of silver nanowire (Ag NW)-networked films. The alkali treatment appears to remove the surface oxide and improve the conductivity. When applied with TiO2 nanoparticles, the treatment appears more effective as the alkalis gather around wire junctions and help them weld to each other via heat emitted from the reduction reaction. The ammonia solution treatment is found to be quick and aggressive, damaging the wires severely in the case of excessive treatment. On the other hand, the ammonia gas treatment seems much less aggressive and does not damage the wires even after a long exposure. The results of this study highlight the effectiveness of the alkali treatment in improving of the conductivity of Ag NW-networked transparent conductive films.

  5. Reactions of HCl and D2O with molten alkali carbonates.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Thomas; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2011-02-01

    The acidic oxide SO₂ and protic acid HCl are among the gases released in the combustion of coal and the incineration of municipal waste. They are typically removed by wet or dry scrubbing involving calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. The molten alkali carbonate eutectic provides a liquid-state alternative that readily absorbs SO₂ and HCl and does not become covered with a passivating layer. Gas-liquid scattering experiments utilizing the eutectic mixture (44 mol % Li₂CO₃, 31 mol % Na₂CO₃, 25 mol % K₂CO₃) reveal that the reaction probability for HCl(g) + CO₃²⁻ → CO₂(g) + OH⁻ + Cl⁻ is 0.31 ± 0.02 at 683 K and rises to 0.39 at 783 K. Gaseous CO₂ is formed within 10⁻⁴ s or less, implying that the reaction takes place in a liquid depth of less than 1000 Å. When the melt is exposed to D₂O, the analogous reaction D₂O(g) + CO₃²⁻ → CO₂(g) + 2OD⁻ occurs too slowly to measure and no water uptake is observed. Together with previous studies of SO₂(g) + CO₃²⁻ → CO₂(g) + SO₃²⁻, these results demonstrate that molten carbonates efficiently remove both gaseous HCl and SO₂ while reacting at most weakly with water vapor. The experiments further highlight the remarkable ability of hot CO₃²⁻ ions to behave as a base in reactions with protic and Lewis acids.

  6. Detection, monitoring and modelling of alkali-aggregate reaction in Kouga Dam (South Africa)

    SciTech Connect

    Elges, H.; Lecocq, P.; Oosthuizen, C.; Geertsema, A.

    1995-12-31

    Kouga Dam (formerly Paul Sauer Dam) is a double curvature arch dam completed in 1969. The aggregates and the cement used for the construction have subsequently been proven to be alkali reactive. The results of the monitoring programme and the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) tests as well as the methodology developed to standardise the logging of cores for these investigations are presented. A brief description of the Finite Element Model used to approximate the AAR process in order to determine positions for in-situ stress measurements is also given. The aim with these tests is to refine the model for prediction of the long-term behaviour of the dam and to make an assessment of the possibility of raising the dam.

  7. Elastic properties of alkali-feldspars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeselmann, N.; Brown, J.; Angel, R. J.; Ross, N.; Kaminsky, W.

    2013-12-01

    New measurements of single crystal elastic moduli for a suite of the alkali feldspars are reported. In order to interpret Earth's seismic structure, knowledge of the elastic properties of constituent minerals is essential. The elasticity of feldspar minerals, despite being the most abundant phase in Earth's crust (estimated to be more than 60%), were previously poorly characterized. All prior seismic and petrologic studies have utilized 50-year-old results, of questionable quality, based on 1-bar measurements on pseudo-single crystals. Alkali-feldspars present a large experimental challenge associated with their structural complexity. In the K-end member (KAlSi3O8) the symmetry is governed by Al/Si ordering, in the Na-end member (NaAlSi3O8) the symmetry is governed by whether or not there is a displacive collapse of the framework independent of the Al/Si ordering. K-feldspars exhibit monoclinic (C2/m) symmetry (necessitating determination of 13 elastic moduli) if disordered and triclinic (C-1) symmetry (21 elastic moduli) if ordered. Exsolution of Na-rich and K-rich phases is ubiquitous in natural samples, making it difficult to find suitable single phase and untwinned samples for study. The small single domain samples selected for this study were previously characterized by x-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis to ensure adequate sample quality. Surface wave velocities were measured on oriented surfaces of natural and synthetic single crystals using impulsively stimulated light scattering. A surface corrugation with a spacing of about 2 microns was impulsively created by the overlap of 100 ps infrared light pulses. The time evolution of the stimulated standing elastic waves was detected by measuring the intensity of diffraction from the surface corrugation of a variably delayed probe pulse. This method allows accurate (better than 0.2%) determination of velocities on samples smaller than 100 microns. The combination of measured surface wave velocities and

  8. Effects of Anthropogenic Emissions on the Nitrogen Cycle in the Desert Creosote Scrub Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlan, J.; Simunek, J.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfires are an ongoing threat to many ecosystems in Southern California. In some ecosystems, evidence suggests that high anthropogenic nitrogen deposition can increase susceptibility to fire by increasing the fuel loads and altering the plant species composition. Desert creosote scrub ecosystems are dominant throughout many low-elevation areas in the Mohave Desert and are among the ecosystems subjected to added deposition of nitrate and ammonium due to emissions from nearby agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. An understanding of how nitrogen flows through the desert creosote scrub ecosystem and of how the additional deposition affects this cycle is critical to determining how these ecosystems will change over time and assessing how the spread of fires can be mitigated. One high deposition and one low deposition desert creosote scrub site in Joshua Tree National Park have been studied for the past year in order to observe the flow of nitrogen through the soil and assess its connection to shifts in the vegetation. Extractable nitrate, extractable ammonium, and total nitrogen and carbon have been measured throughout 100cm soil profiles at each site in order to determine the fate and transport of the deposited nitrogen. Because the flow of water through the soil following the infrequent precipitation events is essential to the flow of nitrogen, dielectric water potential sensors have been installed throughout the top 70cm of soil in order to obtain hourly measurements of water potential. These measurements have been used in conjunction with weather and deposition data to model the flow of water and nitrogen through the soil using the hydrological model HYDRUS-1D. A geochemical model representing basic nitrogen reactions occurring in the soil has been started using PHREEQC coupled with HYDRUS-1D, but further modeling is necessary in order to accurately represent the complexity of the nitrogen cycle. After completion of an additional year of measurements and

  9. Optimal Cutoff and Accuracy of an IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus in Northern Thailand: an Alternative Reference Method to the IgM Immunofluorescence Assay.

    PubMed

    Blacksell, Stuart D; Lim, Cherry; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jintaworn, Suthatip; Kantipong, Pacharee; Richards, Allen L; Paris, Daniel H; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas P J

    2016-06-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been proposed as an alternative serologic diagnostic test to the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for scrub typhus. Here, we systematically determine the optimal sample dilution and cutoff optical density (OD) and estimate the accuracy of IgM ELISA using Bayesian latent class models (LCMs). Data from 135 patients with undifferentiated fever were reevaluated using Bayesian LCMs. Every patient was evaluated for the presence of an eschar and tested with a blood culture for Orientia tsutsugamushi, three different PCR assays, and an IgM IFA. The IgM ELISA was performed for every sample at sample dilutions from 1:100 to 1:102,400 using crude whole-cell antigens of the Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains of O. tsutsugamushi developed by the Naval Medical Research Center. We used Bayesian LCMs to generate unbiased receiver operating characteristic curves and found that the sample dilution of 1:400 was optimal for the IgM ELISA. With the optimal cutoff OD of 1.474 at a sample dilution of 1:400, the IgM ELISA had a sensitivity of 85.7% (95% credible interval [CrI], 77.4% to 86.7%) and a specificity of 98.1% (95% CrI, 97.2% to 100%) using paired samples. For the ELISA, the OD could be determined objectively and quickly, in contrast to the reading of IFA slides, which was both subjective and labor-intensive. The IgM ELISA for scrub typhus has high diagnostic accuracy and is less subjective than the IgM IFA. We suggest that the IgM ELISA may be used as an alternative reference test to the IgM IFA for the serological diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  10. Optimal Cutoff and Accuracy of an IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Acute Scrub Typhus in Northern Thailand: an Alternative Reference Method to the IgM Immunofluorescence Assay

    PubMed Central

    Blacksell, Stuart D.; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Jintaworn, Suthatip; Kantipong, Pacharee; Richards, Allen L.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been proposed as an alternative serologic diagnostic test to the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for scrub typhus. Here, we systematically determine the optimal sample dilution and cutoff optical density (OD) and estimate the accuracy of IgM ELISA using Bayesian latent class models (LCMs). Data from 135 patients with undifferentiated fever were reevaluated using Bayesian LCMs. Every patient was evaluated for the presence of an eschar and tested with a blood culture for Orientia tsutsugamushi, three different PCR assays, and an IgM IFA. The IgM ELISA was performed for every sample at sample dilutions from 1:100 to 1:102,400 using crude whole-cell antigens of the Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains of O. tsutsugamushi developed by the Naval Medical Research Center. We used Bayesian LCMs to generate unbiased receiver operating characteristic curves and found that the sample dilution of 1:400 was optimal for the IgM ELISA. With the optimal cutoff OD of 1.474 at a sample dilution of 1:400, the IgM ELISA had a sensitivity of 85.7% (95% credible interval [CrI], 77.4% to 86.7%) and a specificity of 98.1% (95% CrI, 97.2% to 100%) using paired samples. For the ELISA, the OD could be determined objectively and quickly, in contrast to the reading of IFA slides, which was both subjective and labor-intensive. The IgM ELISA for scrub typhus has high diagnostic accuracy and is less subjective than the IgM IFA. We suggest that the IgM ELISA may be used as an alternative reference test to the IgM IFA for the serological diagnosis of scrub typhus. PMID:27008880

  11. Alkali oxide-tantalum oxide and alkali oxide-niobium oxide ionic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. S.; Parker, H. S.; Brower, W. S.; Minor, D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for new cationic conducting phases in alkali-tantalate and niobate systems. The phase equilibrium diagrams were constructed for the six binary systems Nb2O5-LiNbO3, Nb2O5-NaNbO3, Nb2O5-KNbO3, Ta2O5-NaTaO3, Ta2O5-LiTaO3, and Ta2O5-KTaO3. Various other binary and ternary systems were also examined. Pellets of nineteen phases were evaluated (by the sponsoring agency) by dielectric loss measurements. Attempts were made to grow large crystals of eight different phases. The system Ta2O5-KTaO3 contains at least three phases which showed peaks in dielectric loss vs. temperature. All three contain structures related to the tungsten bronzes with alkali ions in non-stoichiometric crystallographic positions.

  12. Simulation of Electron Cloud Density Distributions in RHIC Dipoles at Injection and Transition and Estimates for Scrubbing Times

    SciTech Connect

    He,P.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.

    2009-01-02

    In this report we summarize electron-cloud simulations for the RHIC dipole regions at injection and transition to estimate if scrubbing over practical time scales at injection would reduce the electron cloud density at transition to significantly lower values. The lower electron cloud density at transition will allow for an increase in the ion intensity.

  13. A comparison of wet and dry scrubbing systems for control of metals and dioxin/furan emissions from incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, P.S.; Huang, H.S.

    1993-07-01

    In Europe and the United States, both wet and dry (including semidry) scrubbing systems are being used for control of emissions from all types of waste incinerators. In terms of the effectiveness of controlling particulates and acid gases, both types of scrubbing systems are capable of meeting US Environmental Protection Agency and European Community limits. Two of the more difficult emissions requirements for an incinerator air-pollution-control system to meet are the metals and the dioxin/furan limits. The dioxin/furan emissions requirement is especially stringent, calling for levels below 1 ng (10{sup {minus}9}) per cubic meter toxic equivalency. The differences between wet and dry scrubbing systems are discussed in this paper, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each in its application to the control of emissions from incinerators. Particular attention will be paid to control of metals and dioxin/furan emissions and to the sampling and analysis techniques used to measure these emissions. Toxic equivalency factors will be explained, and in particular, the international toxic equivalency factor proposed as the US and European standard will be discussed. This paper will also address some of the techniques being employed to minimize the emissions of toxic compounds and discuss the use of combined wet and dry scrubbing systems for increased assurance of compliance.

  14. Heat pipes containing alkali metal working fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A technique for improving high temperature evaporation-condensation heat-transfer devices which have important and unique advantage in terrestrial and space energy processing is described. The device is in the form of a heat pipe comprising a sealed container or envelope which contains a capillary wick. The temperature of one end of the heat pipe is raised by the input of heat from an external heat source which is extremely hot and corrosive. A working fluid of a corrosive alkali metal, such as lithium, sodium, or potassium transfers this heat to a heat receiver remote from the heat source. The container and wick are fabricated from a superalloy containing a small percentage of a corrosion inhibiting or gettering element. Lanthanum, scandium, yttrium, thorium, and hafnium are utilized as the alloying metal.

  15. Volcanic Origin of Alkali Halides on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The recent observation of NaCl (gas) on Io confirms our earlier prediction that NaCl is produced volcanically. Here we extend our calculations by modeling thermochemical equilibrium of O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, and I as a function of temperature and pressure in a Pele-like volcanic gas with O/S/Na/Cl/K = 1.518/1/0.05/0.04/0.005 and CI chondritic ratios of the other (as yet unobserved) alkalis and halogens. For reference, the nominal temperature and pressure for Pele is 1760 plus or minus 210 K and 0.01 bars based on Galileo data and modeling.

  16. Alkali-aggregate reaction under the influence of deicing salts in the Hokuriku district, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Tetsuya . E-mail: katayamat@kge.co.jp; Tagami, Masahiko; Sarai, Yoshinori; Izumi, Satoshi; Hira, Toshikatsu

    2004-11-15

    Concrete cores taken from highway bridges and culverts undergoing alkali-silica reaction (ASR) were investigated petrographically by means of core scanning, point counting, polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), electron-probe microanalysis with energy-dispersive spectrometry, in conjunction with wet chemical analyses and expansion tests. Field damage was roughly proportional to the content of andesite in the gravel aggregates due to the presence of highly reactive cristobalite and tridymite. Electron-probe microanalyzer analysis of unhydrated cement phases in the concrete revealed that the cement used had contained at least 0.5% to 1.0% alkali (Na{sub 2}Oeq) and that both the aggregates and the deicing salts had supplied part of the water-soluble alkali to concrete toward the threshold of producing ASR (Na{sub 2}O{sub eq} 3.0 kg/m{sup 3}). An accelerated concrete core expansion test (1 M NaOH, 80 deg. C) of the damaged structures mostly gave core expansions of >0.10% at 21 days (or >0.05% at 14 days), nearly comparable to those of a slow expansion test with saturated NaCl solution (50 deg. C, 91 days) which produced Cl-containing ASR gel.

  17. High temperature corrosion behavior of commercial high temperature alloys under deposits of alkali salts

    SciTech Connect

    Kloewer, J.

    1995-12-31

    Corrosive deposits containing high amounts of alkali sulphates, chlorides and/or carbonates are encountered by heat exchanger tubes in a variety of industrial processes. Due to their low melting point the alkali salts can cause basic or acidic dissolution of the subjacent material, which results in rapid wastage of the tube. In order to select appropriate materials for application in heat recovery systems eight commercial high temperature materials (alloy 800H, Alloy 31, Alloy AC66, alloy 45-TM, Alloy 625, Alloy 59 and Alloy C-4) were investigated in sulphate, sulphate/chloride and sulphate/chloride/carbonate salt mixtures. The temperature range was between 550 and 750 C. In agreement with field tests the corrosion attack was high for most of the alloys tested with the corrosion rate depending sensitively on salt composition, test temperature and alloy composition. High molybdenum contents were found to be detrimental. Chromium did not effect the corrosion behavior significantly, whereas silicon had a beneficial effect on the corrosion resistance in molten alkali salts.

  18. Ionic alkali halide XUV laser feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.T.; Gylys, V.T.; Bower, R.D.; Harris, D.G.; Blauer, J.A.; Turner, C.E.; Hindy, R.N.

    1989-11-10

    The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of a select set of ionic alkali halide XUV laser concepts by obtaining the relevant kinetic and spectroscopic parameters required for a proof-of-principle and conceptual design. The proposed lasers operate in the 80--200 nm spectral region and do not require input from outside radiation sources for their operation. Frequency up-conversion and frequency mixing techniques and therefore not considered in the work to be described. An experimental and theoretical study of a new type of laser operating in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region has been conducted. The lasing species are singly ionized alkali halide molecules such as Rb{sup 2+}F{sub {minus}}, Rb{sup 2+}Br{sup {minus}} and Cs{sup 2+}F{sup {minus}}. These species are similar in electronic structure to the rare gas halide excimers, such as XeF and Krf, except that the ionic molecules emit at wavelengths of 80--200 nm, much shorter than the conventional rare-gas halide excimer laser. The radiative lifetime of these molecules are typically near 1 ns, which is about an order of magnitude shorter than that for rare-gas halide systems. The values of the cross section for stimulated emission are on the order of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}cm{sup 2}. Because of the fundamental similarity to existing UV lasers, these systems show promise as a high power, efficient XUV lasers. 55 refs., 50 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Regenerable device for scrubbing breathable air of CO2 and moisture without special heat exchanger equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tepper, E. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The device concerns the circulation of cabin air through canisters which absorb and adsorb carbon dioxide, together with excess moisture, and return the scrubbed air to the cabin for recirculation. A coating on an inert substrate in granular form absorbs and adsorbs the impurities at standard temperatures and pressures, but desorbs such impurities at low pressures (vacuum) and standard temperatures. This fact is exploited by making the device in a stack of cells consisting of layers or cells which are isolated from one another flow-wise and are connected to separate manifolds and valving systems into two separate subsets. A first subset may be connected for the flow breathable air therethrough until the polyethyleneimine of its cells is saturated with CO2 and H2O. During the same period the second subset of cells is manifolded to a vacuum source.

  20. Modeling dry-scrubbing of gaseous HCl with hydrated lime in cyclones with and without recirculation.

    PubMed

    Chibante, Vania G; Fonseca, Ana M; Salcedo, Romualdo R

    2010-06-15

    A mathematical model describing the dry-scrubbing of gaseous hydrogen chloride (HCl) with solid hydrated lime particles (Ca(OH)(2)) was developed and experimentally verified. The model applies to cyclone systems with and without recirculation, where reaction and particle collection occurs in the same processing unit. The Modified Grain Model was selected to describe the behavior of the reaction process and it was assumed that the gas and the solid particles flow in the reactor with a plug flow. In this work, this behavior is approximated by a cascade of N CSTRs in series. Some of the model parameters were estimated by optimization taking into account the experimental results obtained. A good agreement was observed between the experimental results and those predicted by the model, where the main control resistance is the diffusion of the gaseous reactant in the layer of solid product formed. PMID:20185231

  1. Surgical swab counting: a qualitative analysis from the perspective of the scrub nurse.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, D; Sacks, M; Blackman, W; Benn, J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of the sociotechnical processes underlying retained surgical swabs, and to explore the fundamental reasons why the swab count procedure and related protocols fail in practice. Data was collected through a set of 27 semistructured qualitative interviews with scrub nurses from a large, multi-site teaching hospital. Interview transcripts were analysed using established constant comparative methods, moving between inductive and deductive reasoning. Key findings were associated with interprofessional perspectives, team processes and climate and responsibility for the swab count. The analysis of risk factors revealed that perceived social and interprofessional issues played a significant role in the reliability of measures to prevent retained swabs. This work highlights the human, psychological and organisational factors that impact upon the reliability of the process and gives rise to recommendations to address contextual factors and improve perioperative practice and training. PMID:24908834

  2. Estimating Occupancy of Gopher Tortoise (Gorpherus polyphemus) Burrows in Coastal Scrub and Slash Pine Flatwoods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1991-01-01

    One hundred twelve plots were established in coastal scrub and slash pine flatwoods habitats on the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to evaluate relationships between the number of burrows and gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) density. All burrows were located within these plots and were classified according to tortoise activity. Depending on season, bucket trapping, a stick method, a gopher tortoise pulling device, and a camera system were used to estimate tortoise occupancy. Correction factors (% of burrows occupied) were calculated by season and habitat type. Our data suggest that less than 20% of the active and inactive burrows combined were occupied during seasons when gopher tortoises were active. Correction factors were higher in poorly-drained areas and lower in well-drained areas during the winter, when gopher tortoise activity was low. Correction factors differed from studies elsewhere, indicating that population estimates require correction factors specific to the site and season to accurately estimate population size.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese scrub vole (Neodon irene).

    PubMed

    Fan, Longqing; Fan, Zhenxin; Yue, Hao; Zhang, Xiuyue; Liu, Yang; Sun, Zhiyu; Liu, Shaoying; Yue, Bisong

    2011-06-01

    The Chinese scrub vole (Neodon irene) belongs to the subfamily Arvicolinae, which is restricted to mountain areas at high altitudes (2800-4000). In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of N. irene. It was determined to be 16,367 bases. The nucleotide sequence data of 12 heavy-strand protein-coding genes of N. irene and other 22 rodents were used for phylogenetic analysis. Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) were used. Both the BI and ML trees demonstrated that Microtus rossiaemeridionalis and Microtus kikuchii did not cluster together with each other. On the contrary, M. rossiaemeridionalis showed close relationship with N. irene. In the present study, only one sequence from Neodon and two sequences from Microtus were included in the phylogenetic analysis which should contribute to the unusual relationship. Therefore, in order to better understand the phylogenetic relationship within Rodentia, more rodents' complete mitochondrial genomes are required.

  4. After 24-hour scrub, another tower rollback for the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As tower rollback begins, the Boeing Delta II rocket carrying the Stardust spacecraft waits on Launch Pad 17-A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, for the second launch attempt at 4:04 p.m. EST. The original launch was scrubbed on Feb. 6 for 24 hours. Stardust is destined for a close encounter with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Using a silicon-based substance called aerogel, Stardust will capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet. The spacecraft also will bring back samples of interstellar dust. These materials consist of ancient pre-solar interstellar grains and other remnants left over from the formation of the solar system. Scientists expect their analysis to provide important insights into the evolution of the sun and planets and possibly into the origin of life itself. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as Stardust swings by Earth in January 2006.

  5. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Stanley W.

    1995-01-01

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible.

  6. Image intensifier gain uniformity improvements in sealed tubes by selective scrubbing

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, S.W.

    1995-04-18

    The gain uniformity of sealed microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPIs) is improved by selectively scrubbing the high gain sections with a controlled bright light source. Using the premise that ions returning to the cathode from the microchannel plate (MCP) damage the cathode and reduce its sensitivity, a HeNe laser beam light source is raster scanned across the cathode of a microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPI) tube. Cathode current is monitored and when it exceeds a preset threshold, the sweep rate is decreased 1000 times, giving 1000 times the exposure to cathode areas with sensitivity greater than the threshold. The threshold is set at the cathode current corresponding to the lowest sensitivity in the active cathode area so that sensitivity of the entire cathode is reduced to this level. This process reduces tube gain by between 10% and 30% in the high gain areas while gain reduction in low gain areas is negligible. 4 figs.

  7. Ultrasonic coal washing to leach alkali elements from coals.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, S; Reddy, V Midhun; Nagarajan, R

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of fly ash particles onto heat-transfer surfaces is often one of the reasons for unscheduled shut-downs of coal-fired boilers. Fouling deposits encountered in convective sections of a boiler are characterized by arrival of ash particles in solidified (solid) state. Fouling is most frequently caused by condensation and chemical reaction of alkali vapors with the deposited ash particles creating a wet surface conducive to collect impacting ash particles. Hence, the amount of alkali elements present in coals, which, in turn, is available in the flue gas as condensable vapors, determines the formation and growth of fouling deposits. In this context, removal of alkali elements becomes vital when inferior coals having high-ash content are utilized for power generation. With the concept of reducing alkali elements present in a coal entering the combustor, whereby the fouling deposits can either be minimized or be weakened due to absence of alkali gluing effect, the ultrasonic leaching of alkali elements from coals is investigated in this study. Ultrasonic water-washing and chemical-washing, in comparison with agitation, are studied in order to estimate the intensification of the alkali removal process by sonication. PMID:26186840

  8. Alkali-activated cementitious materials: Mechanisms, microstructure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weimin

    The goal of this study was to examine the activation reaction, microstructure, properties, identify the mechanisms of activation, and achieve an enhanced understanding of activation processes occurring during the synthesis of alkali activated cementitious materials (AAC). The discussions classify the following categories. (1) alkali activated slag cement; (2) alkali activated portland-slag cement; (3) alkali activated fly ash-slag cement; (4) alkali activated pozzolana-lime cement; (5) alkali activated pozzolana cement. The activators involved are NaOH, KOH; Nasb2SOsb4;\\ Nasb2COsb3;\\ CaSOsb4, and soluble silicate of sodium and potassium. The effect of alkali activation on the microstructure of these materials were analyzed at the micro-nanometer scale by SEM, EDS, ESEM, and TEM. Also sp{29}Si and sp{27}Al MAS-NMR, IR, Raman, TGA, and DTA were performed to characterize the phase in these systems. Slag, fly ash, silica fume, as well as blended cements containing mixtures of these and other components were characterized. A set of ordinary portland cement paste samples served as a control. This study confirmed that AAC materials have great potential because they could generate very early high strength, greater durability and high performance. Among the benefits to be derived from this research is a better understanding of the factors that control concrete properties when using AAC materials, and by controlling the chemistry and processing to produce desired microstructures and properties, as well as their durability.

  9. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

    2012-09-11

    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  10. Alkali elemental and potassium isotopic compositions of Semarkona chondrules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of K isotope ratios in 28 Semarkona chondrules with a wide range of petrologic types and bulk compositions as well as the compositions of CPX-mesostasis pairs in 17 type I Semarkona chondrules, including two chondrules with radial alkali zonation and 19 type II chondrules. Despite the wide range in K/Al ratios, no systematic variations in K isotopic compositions were found. Semarkona chondrules do not record a simple history of Rayleigh-type loss of K. Experimentally determined evaporation rates suggest that considerable alkali evaporation would have occurred during chondrule formation. Nevertheless, based on Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients, the alkali contents of the cores of most chondrules in Semarkona were probably established at the time of final crystallization. However, Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients also show that alkali zonation in type I Semarkona chondrules was produced by entry of alkalis after solidification, probably during parent body alteration. This alkali metasomatism may have gone to completion in some chondrules. Our preferred explanation for the lack of systematic isotopic enrichments, even in alkali depleted type I chondrule cores, is that they exchanged with the ambient gas as they cooled. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2005.

  11. Are surgical scrubbing and pre-operative disinfection of the skin in orthopaedic surgery reliable?

    PubMed

    Salvi, M; Chelo, C; Caputo, F; Conte, M; Fontana, C; Peddis, G; Velluti, C

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to establish the actual effectiveness of pre-surgical disinfection of the patient and surgeon's hands. We evaluated bacterial density and composition on the skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy and the left hand of two surgeons after standard disinfection with povidone-iodine. Three samples were taken after the first 6-min scrub in the first surgical operation from the periungual space of the 1 degrees finger, from the interdigital space between the 2 degrees and 3 degrees fingers and from the transverse palmar crest of the left hand of two surgeons for seven consecutive surgical sessions, for a total of 42 samples, and two samples from the pre-patellar skin and from the popliteal skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, for a total of 30 samples. Pre-surgical handwashing and disinfection procedures were identical in each case. Pre-surgical disinfection of the patient's skin with povidone-iodine was shown to be completely effective, with 100% of samples negative. Samples taken from the interdigital space and the palmar crest (100% of samples negative) demonstrated the efficacy of disinfection of the surgeon's hands with povidone-iodine, while the periungual space was contaminated in 50% of the samples. The bacterial strains isolated belong to the staphylococcus genus in 100% of the cases, with pathogenic strains in 29.6% of the cases. Standard pre-surgical disinfection of skin in areas easily accessible to the disinfectant is sufficient in itself to guarantee thorough sanitization. Standard scrubbing of the surgeon's hands is insufficient in eliminating bacterial contamination, including pathogenic germs, in the periungual space, where it is probably difficult for the disinfectant to come into contact with the skin.

  12. Are surgical scrubbing and pre-operative disinfection of the skin in orthopaedic surgery reliable?

    PubMed

    Salvi, M; Chelo, C; Caputo, F; Conte, M; Fontana, C; Peddis, G; Velluti, C

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to establish the actual effectiveness of pre-surgical disinfection of the patient and surgeon's hands. We evaluated bacterial density and composition on the skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy and the left hand of two surgeons after standard disinfection with povidone-iodine. Three samples were taken after the first 6-min scrub in the first surgical operation from the periungual space of the 1 degrees finger, from the interdigital space between the 2 degrees and 3 degrees fingers and from the transverse palmar crest of the left hand of two surgeons for seven consecutive surgical sessions, for a total of 42 samples, and two samples from the pre-patellar skin and from the popliteal skin of 15 patients undergoing knee arthroscopy, for a total of 30 samples. Pre-surgical handwashing and disinfection procedures were identical in each case. Pre-surgical disinfection of the patient's skin with povidone-iodine was shown to be completely effective, with 100% of samples negative. Samples taken from the interdigital space and the palmar crest (100% of samples negative) demonstrated the efficacy of disinfection of the surgeon's hands with povidone-iodine, while the periungual space was contaminated in 50% of the samples. The bacterial strains isolated belong to the staphylococcus genus in 100% of the cases, with pathogenic strains in 29.6% of the cases. Standard pre-surgical disinfection of skin in areas easily accessible to the disinfectant is sufficient in itself to guarantee thorough sanitization. Standard scrubbing of the surgeon's hands is insufficient in eliminating bacterial contamination, including pathogenic germs, in the periungual space, where it is probably difficult for the disinfectant to come into contact with the skin. PMID:16059708

  13. Impact of Alkali Source on Vitrification of SRS High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    LAMBERT, D. P.; MILLER, D. H.; PEELER, D. K.; SMITH, M. E.; STONE, M. E.

    2005-09-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Savannah River Site is currently immobilizing high level nuclear waste sludge by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The processing strategy involves blending a large batch of sludge into a feed tank, washing the sludge to reduce the amount of soluble species, then processing the large ''sludge batch'' through the DWPF. Each sludge batch is tested by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using simulants and tests with samples of the radioactive waste to ''qualify'' the batch prior to processing in the DWPF. The DWPF pretreats the sludge by first acidifying the sludge with nitric and formic acid. The ratio of nitric to formic acid is adjusted as required to target a final glass composition that is slightly reducing (the target is for {approx}20% of the iron to have a valence of two in the glass). The formic acid reduces the mercury in the feed to elemental mercury which is steam stripped from the feed. After a concentration step, the glass former (glass frit) is added as a 50 wt% slurry and the batch is concentrated to approximately 50 wt% solids. The feed slurry is then fed to a joule heated melter maintained at 1150 C. The glass must meet both processing (e.g., viscosity and liquidus temperature) and product performance (e.g., durability) constraints The alkali content of the final waste glass is a critical parameter that affects key glass properties (such as durability) as well as the processing characteristics of the waste sludge during the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Increasing the alkali content of the glass has been shown to improve the production rate of the DWPF, but the total alkali in the final glass is limited by constraints on glass durability and viscosity. Two sources of alkali contribute to the final alkali content of the glass: sodium salts in the waste supernate and sodium and lithium oxides in the glass frit added during pretreatment processes. Sodium salts in the waste supernate

  14. Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Virkar, Anil V.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1983-11-04

    An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

  15. Bilayer resist system utilizing alkali-developable organosilicon positive photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nate, Kazuo; Mizushima, Akiko; Sugiyama, Hisashi

    1991-06-01

    A bi-layer resist system utilizing an alkali-developable organosilicon positive photoresist (OSPR) has been developed. The composite prepared from an alkali-soluble organosilicon polymer, poly(p- hydroxybenzylsilsesquioxane) and naphthoquinone diazide becomes a alkali-developable positive photoresist which is sensitive to UV (i line - g line) region, and exhibited high oxygen reactive ion etching (O2 RIE) resistance. The sensitivity and the resolution of OSPR are almost the same as those of conventional novolac-based positive photoresists. The bi-layer resist system utilizing OSPR as the top imaging layer gave fine patterns of underlayers with high aspect ratio easily.

  16. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J.

    1992-02-24

    The high temperature alkali corrosion kinetics of SiC have been systematically investigated from 950 to 1100[degrees]C at 0.63 vol % alkali vapor concentration. The corrosion rate in the presence of alkaliis approximately 10[sup 4] to 10[sup 5] times faster than the oxidation rate of SiC in air. The activation energy associated with the alkali corrosion is 406 kJ/mol, indicating a highly temperature-dependent reaction rate. The rate-controlling step of the overall reaction is likely to be the dissolution of silica in the sodium silicate liquid, based on the oxygen diffusivity data.

  17. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.K.

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  18. An optically trapped mixture of alkali-metal and metastable helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Adonis; Mishra, Hari Prasad; Vassen, Wim; Knoop, Steven

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold collisions between alkali-metal and metastable triplet helium (He*) atoms provide the opportunity to study Feshbach resonances in the presence of a strong loss channel, namely Penning ionization, which strongly depends on the internal spin-states of the atoms. Recently we have realized the first optically trapped alkali-metal-metastable helium mixture. To prepare the ultracold 87 Rb+4 He* mixture in a single beam optical dipole trap (ODT), we apply evaporative cooling in a strong quadrupole magnetic trap (QMT) for both species and subsequent transfer to the ODT via a hybrid trap. We will present lifetime measurements of different spin-state mixtures, testing the application of the universal loss model to this interesting multichannel collision system.

  19. Effects of alkali treatment on the mechanical and thermal properties of Sansevieria trifasciata fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardiyati, Steven, Rizkiansyah, Raden Reza; Senoaji, A.; Suratman, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Sansevieria trifasciata fibers were treated by NaOH with concentration 1%,3%, and 5wt% at 100°C for 2 hours. Chesson-Datta methods was used to determine the lignocellulose content of raw sansevieria fibers and to investigate effect of alkali treatment on lignin content of the fiber. Mechanical properties and thermal properties of treated and untreated fibers were measured by means of tensile testing machine and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The cellulose and lignin contents of raw sansevieria fiber obtained from Chesson-Datta method were 56% and 6% respectively. Mechanical testing of fibers showed the increase of tensile strength from 647 MPa for raw fibers to 902 MPa for 5wt% NaOH treated fibers. TGA result showed the alkali treatment increase the thermal resistance of fibers from 288°C for raw fibers to 307°C for 5% NaOH treated fiber. It was found that alkali treatment affect the mechanical properties and thermal properties of sansevieria fibers.

  20. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

    1995-08-22

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  1. Alkali activation of halloysite for adsorption and release of ofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2013-12-01

    Halloysite nanotubes are promising vehicles for the controlled release of drug molecules. Here, we systematically investigated the effects of alkali activation on the physicochemical properties, structure and morphology of halloysite nanotubes by XRD, FTIR, SEM and TEM, etc. Afterwards, the adsorption and in vitro release properties of halloysite for cationic ofloxacin (OFL) were evaluated. The results indicate that alkali activation dissolves amorphous aluminosilicate, free silica and alumina, which results in the increase in pore volume and pore size. OFL is adsorbed onto halloysite via electrostatic interaction and complexation. Alkali activation could increase the adsorption capacity of halloysite for OFL and prolong release of the adsorbed OFL compared with the natural halloysite. Thus, alkali activation of halloysite is an effective protocol to improve the adsorption and prolong release for cationic drug molecules.

  2. Hall Determination of Atomic Radii of Alkali Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    I will propose here an alternative method for determining atomic radii of alkali metals based on the Hall measurements of their free electron densities and the knowledge of their crystal structure. (Contains 2 figures.)

  3. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1995-01-01

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  4. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  5. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOEpatents

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  6. Alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide double alkoxide precursors to alkali metal yttrium oxide nanomaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Neville, Michael L.; Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Cramer, Roger

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a series of alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide ([AY(ONep)4]) compounds were developed as precursors to alkali yttrium oxide (AYO2) nanomaterials. The reaction of yttrium amide ([Y(NR2)3] where R=Si(CH3)3) with four equivalents of H-ONep followed by addition of [A(NR2)] (A=Li, Na, K) or Ao (Ao=Rb, Cs) led to the formation of a complex series of AnY(ONep)3+n species, crystallographically identified as [Y2Li3(μ3-ONep)(μ3-HONep)(μ-ONep)5(ONep)3(HONep)2] (1), [YNa2(μ3-ONep)4(ONep)]2 (2), {[Y2K3(μ3-ONep)3(μ-ONep)4(ONep)2(ηξ-tol)2][Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4]•ηx-tol]} (3), [Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4] (3a), [Y2Rb3(μ4-ONep)3(μ-ONep)6] (4), and [Y2Cs4(μ6-O)(μ3-ONep)6(μ3-HONep)2(ONep)2(ηx-tol)4]•tol (5). Compounds 1–5 were investigated as single source precursors to AYOx nanomaterials following solvothermal routes (pyridine, 185 °C for 24h). The final products after thermal processing weremore » found by powder X-ray diffraction experiments to be Y2O3 with variable sized particles based on transmission electron diffraction. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies indicated that the heavier alkali metal species were present in the isolated nanomaterials.« less

  7. Reduction of phosphorus and alkali levels in coking coals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoare, I.C.; Waugh, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    A number of coals, though exhibiting desirable coking properties, can have undesirable levels of alkalis and phosphorus. All the phosphorus in the coal will report to the coke, eventually to the iron and thence to the steel, with adverse effects on its metallurgical properties. Alkalis have damaging effects on the blast furnace operation and can be responsible for loss of heat, loss of production, efficiency loss and reduced furnace life. Buyers of coking coal commonly specify such parameters as phosphorus in coal and alkalis in ash, with penalties and rejection over certain limits. With the introduction of new direct reduction technologies such as COREX and HISMELT, and others such as PCI, it is anticipated that coal producers will have even tighter phosphorus and alkali specifications imposed on their products. Phosphorus is predominantly inorganic in origin occurring in a wide variety of minerals in coal, but its main source is apatite. It can be found mainly in the lower density fractions of the coal and intimately bound, so that conventional physical beneficiation techniques are relatively ineffective. CSIRO has developed a cost effective, selective chemical demineralization treatment, which can be applied to the problem of high alkali, high phosphorus coals. This particular technique makes use of unrefined organic acid, which also has the advantage of being low in cost and environmentally benign. In this paper, the effectiveness of acid demineralization of a number of coals is discussed, within the context of their phosphorus and alkali distributions throughout various size/density fractions.

  8. Two-phase alkali-metal experiments in reduced gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniak, Z.I.

    1986-06-01

    Future space missions envision the use of large nuclear reactors utilizing either a single or a two-phase alkali-metal working fluid. The design and analysis of such reactors require state-of-the-art computer codes that can properly treat alkali-metal flow and heat transfer in a reduced-gravity environment. A literature search of relevant experiments in reduced gravity is reported on here, and reveals a paucity of data for such correlations. The few ongoing experiments in reduced gravity are noted. General plans are put forth for the reduced-gravity experiments which will have to be performed, at NASA facilities, with benign fluids. A similar situation exists regarding two-phase alkali-metal flow and heat transfer, even in normal gravity. Existing data are conflicting and indequate for the task of modeling a space reactor using a two-phase alkali-metal coolant. The major features of past experiments are described here. Data from the reduced-gravity experiments with innocuous fluids are to be combined with normal gravity data from the two-phase alkali-metal experiments. Analyses undertaken here give every expectation that the correlations developed from this data base will provide a valid representation of alkali-metal heat transfer and pressure drop in reduced gravity.

  9. Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Alkali Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsam; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G

    2016-01-01

    The common Group 1 alkali metals are indeed ubiquitous on earth, in the oceans and in biological systems. In this introductory chapter, concepts involving aqueous chemistry and aspects of general coordination chemistry and oxygen atom donor chemistry are introduced. Also, there are nuclear isotopes of importance. A general discussion of Group 1 begins from the prevalence of the ions, and from a comparison of their ionic radii and ionization energies. While oxygen and water molecule binding have the most relevance to biology and in forming a detailed understanding between the elements, there is a wide range of basic chemistry that is potentially important, especially with respect to biological chelation and synthetic multi-dentate ligand design. The elements are widely distributed in life forms, in the terrestrial environment and in the oceans. The details about the workings in animal, as well as plant life are presented in this volume. Important biometallic aspects of human health and medicine are introduced as well. Seeing as the elements are widely present in biology, various particular endogenous molecules and enzymatic systems can be studied. Sodium and potassium are by far the most important and central elements for consideration. Aspects of lithium, rubidium, cesium and francium chemistry are also included; they help in making important comparisons related to the coordination chemistry of Na(+) and K(+). Physical methods are also introduced. PMID:26860297

  10. Superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene nanowhiskers.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Toshio; Hirata, Chika; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Superconductivity in alkali metal-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs) was observed in K3.3C60NWs, Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs with transition temperatures at 17, 25 and 26 K, respectively. Almost full shielding volume fraction (~80%) was observed in K3.3C60NWs when subjected to thermal treatment at 200 °C for a duration of 24 h. In contrast, the shielding fraction of Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs were calculated to be 8% and 6%, respectively. Here we report on an extensive investigation of the superconducting properties of these AC60NWs (A  =  K3.3, Rb3.0 and Cs2.0Rb1.0). These properties are compared to the ones reported on the corresponding conventional (single-crystal or powder) K-doped fullerene. We also evaluated the critical current densities of these C60NWs using the Bean model under an applied magnetic field up to 50 kOe. PMID:27385220

  11. Superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene nanowhiskers.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Toshio; Hirata, Chika; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Superconductivity in alkali metal-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs) was observed in K3.3C60NWs, Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs with transition temperatures at 17, 25 and 26 K, respectively. Almost full shielding volume fraction (~80%) was observed in K3.3C60NWs when subjected to thermal treatment at 200 °C for a duration of 24 h. In contrast, the shielding fraction of Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs were calculated to be 8% and 6%, respectively. Here we report on an extensive investigation of the superconducting properties of these AC60NWs (A  =  K3.3, Rb3.0 and Cs2.0Rb1.0). These properties are compared to the ones reported on the corresponding conventional (single-crystal or powder) K-doped fullerene. We also evaluated the critical current densities of these C60NWs using the Bean model under an applied magnetic field up to 50 kOe.

  12. Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Alkali Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsam; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G

    2016-01-01

    The common Group 1 alkali metals are indeed ubiquitous on earth, in the oceans and in biological systems. In this introductory chapter, concepts involving aqueous chemistry and aspects of general coordination chemistry and oxygen atom donor chemistry are introduced. Also, there are nuclear isotopes of importance. A general discussion of Group 1 begins from the prevalence of the ions, and from a comparison of their ionic radii and ionization energies. While oxygen and water molecule binding have the most relevance to biology and in forming a detailed understanding between the elements, there is a wide range of basic chemistry that is potentially important, especially with respect to biological chelation and synthetic multi-dentate ligand design. The elements are widely distributed in life forms, in the terrestrial environment and in the oceans. The details about the workings in animal, as well as plant life are presented in this volume. Important biometallic aspects of human health and medicine are introduced as well. Seeing as the elements are widely present in biology, various particular endogenous molecules and enzymatic systems can be studied. Sodium and potassium are by far the most important and central elements for consideration. Aspects of lithium, rubidium, cesium and francium chemistry are also included; they help in making important comparisons related to the coordination chemistry of Na(+) and K(+). Physical methods are also introduced.

  13. Superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene nanowhiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Toshio; Hirata, Chika; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Superconductivity in alkali metal-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs) was observed in K3.3C60NWs, Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs with transition temperatures at 17, 25 and 26 K, respectively. Almost full shielding volume fraction (~80%) was observed in K3.3C60NWs when subjected to thermal treatment at 200 °C for a duration of 24 h. In contrast, the shielding fraction of Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs were calculated to be 8% and 6%, respectively. Here we report on an extensive investigation of the superconducting properties of these AC60NWs (A  =  K3.3, Rb3.0 and Cs2.0Rb1.0). These properties are compared to the ones reported on the corresponding conventional (single-crystal or powder) K-doped fullerene. We also evaluated the critical current densities of these C60NWs using the Bean model under an applied magnetic field up to 50 kOe.

  14. Relation between the electroforming voltage in alkali halide-polymer diodes and the bandgap of the alkali halide

    SciTech Connect

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jingxin; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Gomes, Henrique L.; De Leeuw, Dago M.

    2014-12-08

    Electroforming of indium-tin-oxide/alkali halide/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes has been investigated by bias dependent reflectivity measurements. The threshold voltages for electrocoloration and electroforming are independent of layer thickness and correlate with the bandgap of the alkali halide. We argue that the origin is voltage induced defect formation. Frenkel defect pairs are formed by electron–hole recombination in the alkali halide. This self-accelerating process mitigates injection barriers. The dynamic junction formation is compared to that of a light emitting electrochemical cell. A critical defect density for electroforming is 10{sup 25}/m{sup 3}. The electroformed alkali halide layer can be considered as a highly doped semiconductor with metallic transport characteristics.

  15. Efficient destruction of CF4 through in situ generation of alkali metals from heated alkali halide reducing mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Churl; Choi, Wonyong

    2002-03-15

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are the most potent green house gases that are very recalcitrant at destruction. An effective way of converting PFCs using hot solid reagents into safe products has been recently introduced. By investigating the thermal reductive destruction of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) we provided new insight and more physicochemical consideration on this novel process. The complete destruction of CF4was successfully achieved by flowing the gas through a heated reagent bed (400-950 degrees C) that contained powder mixtures of alkali halides, CaO, and Si. The silicon acted as a reducing agent of alkali halides for the in-situ production of alkali metals, and the calcium oxide played the role of a halide ion acceptor. The absence of any single component in this ternary mixture drastically reduced the destruction efficiency of CF4. The CF4 destruction efficiencies with the solid reagent containing the alkali halide, MX, increased in the order of Li approximately Na < K < Cs for alkali cations and I < Br < Cl < F for halide anions. This trend agreed with the endothermicity of the alkali metal generation reaction: the higher the endothermicity, the lower the destruction efficiency. Alkali metal generation was indirectly detected by monitoring H2 production from its reaction with water. The production of alkali metals increased with NaF, KF, and CsF in this order. The CsF/CaO/Si system exhibited the complete destruction of CF4 at as low as 600 degrees C. The solid product analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of CaF2 and the depletion of Si with black carbon particles formed in the solid reagent residue. No CO/CO2 and toxic HF and SiF4 formation were detected in the exhaust gas.

  16. Responses of desert, semi-arid grassland and scrub-oak ecosystems to elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, Kristina; Walker, Anthony; de Kauwe, Martin; Hungate, Bruce; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Lu, Meng; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Nowak, Robert; Morgan, Jack; Medlyn, Belinda; Norby, Richard; Zaehle, Sönke

    2014-05-01

    We compared observations from free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments at dry (desert, semi-arid grassland and scrub-oak) sites, to predictions from a suite of ecosystem models with differing complexity, ranging from a parsimonious forest growth model (GDAY) to a comprehensive land surface model (OCN). Dry ecosystems have often been predicted to increase in net primary productivity (NPP) and net C uptake over time in response to elevated CO2 (eCO2) because of increased N fixation, and alleviation of drought-stress due to reduced stomatal conductance. However, experiments at the Nevada Desert FACE (NDFF), the semi-arid prairie grassland FACE (PHACE), and the scrub-oak Kennedy Space Center open-top chamber experiment (KSCO), have revealed that dry ecosystems display a more complex biogeochemical response to eCO2. Insights into the processes determining the responses of dry ecosystems to eCO2 were gained by evaluating model estimates against site data, and by dissecting model responses to eCO2. Site level findings at PHACE indicated that eCO2 enabled more rapid C turnover, resulting in a net ecosystem C loss. Conversely, at PHACE, models such as OCN simulated a decrease in N leaching and an increase in NPP because of eCO2, leading to increased C storage. Leaf cover and NPP at KSCO initially increased with eCO2 before declining due to reduced N fixation and increased N leaching. At NDFF, eCO2 only increased plant growth during one abnormally wet year; in subsequent years, soil crust cyanobacteria decreased in abundance, and gains in biomass were not sustained. In OCN simulations at NDFF, eCO2 increased water-use efficiency and NPP in years with average to above-average precipitation. Through examination of the reasons for discrepancies between observed and modeled ecosystem responses to eCO2, processes determining the biogeochemical responses of dry ecosystems to eCO2 were elucidated.

  17. Determination of Atmospheric Hydroxyl Radical by Liquid Phase Scrubbing and High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaohui

    A new in situ method for determining atmospheric hydroxyl radical (OH) was developed. This method is based on liquid phase scrubbing technique and high performance liquid chromatography (LPS-HPLC). The sampling system employs glass bubblers to trap atmospheric OH into a buffered solution containing the chemical probe, salicylic acid (o-hydroxybenzoic acid, OHBA). The reaction of OHBA with OH produces a stable fluorescent product, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA), which is determined by reverse phase HPLC and fluorescence detection. The atmospheric OH concentration ( (OH)) is inferred from the resulting 2,5-DHBA amount in the aqueous scrubbing solution, fraction of 2,5-DHBA in the products, air sampling flow rate, sampling time, local pressure and temperature, etc. HPLC separation efficiency and fluorescence detection sensitivity for 2,5-DHBA have been studied. The results indicate that: the reagent blank can be controlled by suitable recrystallization; pH affects both separation and detection processes; the fluorometer should be adjusted to reach its highest signal-to-noise ratio by light source selection, flow cell size selection, wavelength selection, etc. Preliminary column switch experiments reveal the possibility to automate the whole sampling and detection system to enhance the temporal resolution. During an intercomparison of tropospheric OH measurement techniques at the Caribou site, CO (relatively unpolluted air) in Fall 1993, overlapping data were obtained with long path absorption and ion-assisted coupled with MS methods. LPS -HPLC day-time (OH) s, which range from {< }10^6 to 6times10 ^6 radicals/cm^3, agree well with those derived from the other two methods, especially the latter. LPS-HPLC (OH) depends linearly on the combined effects of solar flux, ozone and water vapor, however, it has a nonlinear dependence on NO _{x} and hydrocarbons. These results are consistent with that predicted from photochemical models. Experimental results and model

  18. The structure of alkali silicate gel by total scattering methods

    SciTech Connect

    Benmore, C.J.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2010-06-15

    The structure of the alkali silicate gel (ASR) collected from the galleries of Furnas Dam in Brazil was determined by a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy X-ray diffraction data. Since this method is relatively new to concrete structure analysis a detailed introduction on the PDF method is given for glassy SiO{sub 2}. The bulk amorphous structure of the dam material is confirmed as no Bragg peaks are observed in the scattered intensity. The real space results show that the local structure of the amorphous material is similar to kanemite (KHSi{sub 2}O{sub 5}:3H{sub 2}O) however the long range layer structure of the crystal is broken up in the amorphous state, so that ordering only persists of the length scale of a few polyhedra. The silicate layer structure is a much more disordered than predicted by molecular dynamics models. The X-ray results are consistent with the molecular dynamics model of Kirkpatrick et al. (2005) [1] which predicts that most of the water resides in pores within the amorphous network rather than in layers. The total scattering data provide a rigorous basis against which other models may also be tested.

  19. The structure of alkali silicate gel by total scattering methods.

    SciTech Connect

    Benmore, C. J.; Monteiro, P. J. M.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of California at Berkeley

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the alkali silicate gel (ASR) collected from the galleries of Furnas Dam in Brazil was determined by a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy X-ray diffraction data. Since this method is relatively new to concrete structure analysis a detailed introduction on the PDF method is given for glassy SiO{sub 2}. The bulk amorphous structure of the dam material is confirmed as no Bragg peaks are observed in the scattered intensity. The real space results show that the local structure of the amorphous material is similar to kanemite (KHSi{sub 2}O{sub 5}:3H{sub 2}O) however the long range layer structure of the crystal is broken up in the amorphous state, so that ordering only persists of the length scale of a few polyhedra. The silicate layer structure is a much more disordered than predicted by molecular dynamics models. The X-ray results are consistent with the molecular dynamics model of Kirkpatrick et al. (2005) [1] which predicts that most of the water resides in pores within the amorphous network rather than in layers. The total scattering data provide a rigorous basis against which other models may also be tested.

  20. Strong Turbulence in Alkali Halide Negative Ion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Daniel

    1999-11-01

    Negative ion plasmas (NIPs) are charge-neutral plasmas in which the negative charge is dominated by negative ions rather than electrons. They are found in laser discharges, combustion products, semiconductor manufacturing processes, stellar atmospheres, pulsar magnetospheres, and the Earth's ionosphere, both naturally and man-made. They often display signatures of strong turbulence^1. Development of a novel, compact, unmagnetized alkali halide (MX) NIP source will be discussed, it incorporating a ohmically-heated incandescent (2500K) tantulum solenoid (3cm dia, 15 cm long) with heat shields. The solenoid ionizes the MX vapor and confines contaminant electrons, allowing a very dry (electron-free) source. Plasma densities of 10^10 cm-3 and positive to negative ion mass ratios of 1 <= fracm_+m- <= 20 are achievable. The source will allow tests of strong turbulence theory^2. 1 Sheehan, D.P., et al., Phys. Fluids B5, 1593 (1993). 2 Tsytovich, V. and Wharton, C.W., Comm. Plasma Phys. Cont. Fusion 4, 91 (1978).

  1. Interaction between fine-scale landforms and vegetation patterns in alkali landscapes - case study based on remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deák, Balázs; Valkó, Orsolya; Tóthmérész, Béla; Alexander, Cici; Mücke, Werner; Kania, Adam; Tamás, János; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    Vertical position is an important driver of vegetation zonation at multiple scales, via determining abiotic environmental parameters like climate, soil properties and water balance. Despite small-scale elevation differences are proven to significantly influence soil salt content and water balance; relationships between elevation and vegetation types are rarely studied in inland alkali landscapes. Alkali landscapes of the Pannonian biogeographical region comprise the most connected salt-affected landscape in continental Europe which provides unique opportunities for studying elevation-vegetation relationships. For linking elevation data with vegetation patterns, remote sensing techniques offer a vital solution. Application of airborne laser scanning is a feasible tool for providing an elevation model of extent areas. Our goal was to test the correlation between fine-scale differences in vertical position and vegetation patterns in inland alkali landscapes by using field vegetation data and elevation data generated using airborne laser scanning. We studied whether the vertical position influences vegetation patterns at the level of main vegetation categories or even at the level of associations. Our study sites were situated in a lowland alkali landscape in Hortobágy National Park (East-Hungary). Associations of the study site can be grouped into four main vegetation categories: (i) loess grasslands, (ii) alkali steppes, (iii) open alkali swards and (iv) alkali meadows. Even though we detected a very limited range in the vertical position (121 cm) of the main vegetation categories; they were well separated along their vertical positions. The detected elevation gradient likely corresponds to environmental gradients (soil type, salt accumulation and water balance). At the level of association types, a more detailed elevation-based distinction was also possible in many cases. Based on the digital terrain model, we revealed a fine-scale vertical vegetation gradient. Our

  2. Mixed alkali effect on the spectroscopic properties of alkali-alkaline earth oxide borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, G.; Ramesh, B.; Shareefuddin, Md.; Chary, M. N.; Sayanna, R.

    2016-05-01

    The mixed alkali and alkaline earth oxide borate glass with the composition xK2O - (25-x) Li2O-12.5BaO-12.5MgO-50B2O3 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25mol %) and doped with 1mol% CuO were prepared by the melt quenching technique. From the optical absorption spectra the optical band gap, electronic polarizability(α02-), interaction parameter (A), theoretical and experimental optical basicity (Λ) values were evaluated. From the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectral data the number of spins (N) and susceptibility (χ) were evaluated. The values of (α02-), and (Λ) increases with increasing of K2O content and electronic polarizability and interaction parameter show opposite behaviuor which may be due to the creation of non-bridging oxygens and expansion of borate network. The reciprocal of susceptibility (1/χ) and spin concentration (N) as a function of K2O content, varied nonlinearly which may be due to creation of non-bridging oxygens in the present glass system. This may be attributed to mixed alkali effect (MAE).

  3. A Nonhuman Primate Scrub Typhus Model: Protective Immune Responses Induced by pKarp47 DNA Vaccination in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Suchismita; Jiang, Ju; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Lee, John S.; Tan, Esterlina; Dela Cruz, Eduardo; Burgos, Jasmin; Abalos, Rodolfo; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Lombardini, Eric; Turner, Gareth D.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Richards, Allen L.

    2015-01-01

    We developed an intradermal (ID) challenge cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of scrub typhus, the leading cause of treatable undifferentiated febrile illness in tropical Asia, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Orientia tsutsugamushi. A well-characterized animal model is required for the development of clinically relevant diagnostic assays and evaluation of therapeutic agents and candidate vaccines. We investigated scrub typhus disease pathophysiology and evaluated two O. tsutsugamushi 47-kDa, Ag-based candidate vaccines, a DNA plasmid vaccine (pKarp47), and a virus-vectored vaccine (Kp47/47-Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle) for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy against homologous ID challenge with O. tsutsugamushi Karp. Control cynomolgus macaques developed fever, classic eschars, lymphadenopathy, bacteremia, altered liver function, increased WBC counts, pathogen-specific Ab (IgM and IgG), and cell-mediated immune responses. Vaccinated macaques receiving the DNA plasmid pKarp47 vaccine had significantly increased O. tsutsugamushi–specific, IFN-γ–producing PBMCs (p = 0.04), reduced eschar frequency and bacteremia duration (p ≤ 0.01), delayed bacteremia onset (p < 0.05), reduced circulating bacterial biomass (p = 0.01), and greater reduction of liver transaminase levels (p < 0.03) than controls. This study demonstrates a vaccine-induced immune response capable of conferring sterile immunity against high-dose homologous ID challenge of O. tsutsugamushi in a nonhuman primate model, and it provides insight into cell-mediated immune control of O. tsutsugamushi and dissemination dynamics, highlights the importance of bacteremia indices for evaluation of both natural and vaccine-induced immune responses, and importantly, to our knowledge, has determined the first phenotypic correlates of immune protection in scrub typhus. We conclude that this model is suitable for detailed investigations into vaccine

  4. An in-use microbiological comparison of two surgical hand disinfection techniques in cardiothoracic surgery: hand rubbing versus hand scrubbing.

    PubMed

    Carro, C; Camilleri, L; Traore, O; Badrikian, L; Legault, B; Azarnoush, K; Dualé, C; De Riberolles, C

    2007-09-01

    Surgical site infection after heart surgery increases morbidity and mortality. The method of presurgical hand disinfection could influence the infection risk. From February to April 2003, we compared the microbiological efficacy of hand-rubbing (R) and hand-scrubbing (S) procedures. The surgical team alternately used hand-scrubbing or hand-rubbing techniques every two weeks. Fingertip impressions were taken before and immediately after hand disinfection, every 2h and at the end of the operation. Acceptability of hand rubbing was assessed by a questionnaire. Mean durations of surgical procedures were 259+/-68 and 244+/-69min for groups S and R respectively (P=0.43). Bacterial counts immediately after hand disinfection were comparable with the two techniques, but significantly lower in group R at the end of surgery. No differences were observed between the percentages of negative samples taken after 2h, 4h and at the end of surgery between the two groups. Bacterial skin flora reduction immediately after hand disinfection, after 2h and 4h of operating time and at the end of surgery was better in group R, but the difference was not statistically significant. Before surgery, the hand-rubbing method with alcohol solution preceded by hand washing with mild neutral soap is as effective as hand scrubbing to reduce bacterial counts on hands. It decreased the bacterial counts both immediately after hand disinfection and at the end of long cardiothoracic surgical procedures. The acceptability of hand rubbing was excellent and it can be considered to be a valid alternative to the conventional hand-scrubbing protocol.

  5. A nonhuman primate scrub typhus model: protective immune responses induced by pKarp47 DNA vaccination in cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Paris, Daniel H; Chattopadhyay, Suchismita; Jiang, Ju; Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Lee, John S; Tan, Esterlina; Dela Cruz, Eduardo; Burgos, Jasmin; Abalos, Rodolfo; Blacksell, Stuart D; Lombardini, Eric; Turner, Gareth D; Day, Nicholas P J; Richards, Allen L

    2015-02-15

    We developed an intradermal (ID) challenge cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of scrub typhus, the leading cause of treatable undifferentiated febrile illness in tropical Asia, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Orientia tsutsugamushi. A well-characterized animal model is required for the development of clinically relevant diagnostic assays and evaluation of therapeutic agents and candidate vaccines. We investigated scrub typhus disease pathophysiology and evaluated two O. tsutsugamushi 47-kDa, Ag-based candidate vaccines, a DNA plasmid vaccine (pKarp47), and a virus-vectored vaccine (Kp47/47-Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle) for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy against homologous ID challenge with O. tsutsugamushi Karp. Control cynomolgus macaques developed fever, classic eschars, lymphadenopathy, bacteremia, altered liver function, increased WBC counts, pathogen-specific Ab (IgM and IgG), and cell-mediated immune responses. Vaccinated macaques receiving the DNA plasmid pKarp47 vaccine had significantly increased O. tsutsugamushi-specific, IFN-γ-producing PBMCs (p = 0.04), reduced eschar frequency and bacteremia duration (p ≤ 0.01), delayed bacteremia onset (p < 0.05), reduced circulating bacterial biomass (p = 0.01), and greater reduction of liver transaminase levels (p < 0.03) than controls. This study demonstrates a vaccine-induced immune response capable of conferring sterile immunity against high-dose homologous ID challenge of O. tsutsugamushi in a nonhuman primate model, and it provides insight into cell-mediated immune control of O. tsutsugamushi and dissemination dynamics, highlights the importance of bacteremia indices for evaluation of both natural and vaccine-induced immune responses, and importantly, to our knowledge, has determined the first phenotypic correlates of immune protection in scrub typhus. We conclude that this model is suitable for detailed investigations into vaccine-induced immune

  6. Activation, Impaired Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production, and Deficiency of Circulating Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Patients with Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Won, Eun Jeong; Cho, Young-Nan; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Kee, Hae Jin; Ju, Jae Kyun; Kim, Jung-Chul; Kim, Uh Jin; Jang, Hee-Chang; Jung, Sook-In; Kee, Seung-Jung; Park, Yong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells contribute to protection against certain microorganism infections. However, little is known about the role of MAIT cells in Orientia tsutsugamushi infection. Hence, the aims of this study were to examine the level and function of MAIT cells in patients with scrub typhus and to evaluate the clinical relevance of MAIT cell levels. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-eight patients with scrub typhus and 53 health control subjects were enrolled in the study. The patients were further divided into subgroups according to disease severity. MAIT cell level and function in the peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. Circulating MAIT cell levels were found to be significantly reduced in scrub typhus patients. MAIT cell deficiency reflects a variety of clinical conditions. In particular, MAT cell levels reflect disease severity. MAIT cells in scrub typhus patients displayed impaired tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production, which was restored during the remission phase. In addition, the impaired production of TNF-α by MAIT cells was associated with elevated CD69 expression. Conclusions This study shows that circulating MAIT cells are activated, numerically deficient, and functionally impaired in TNF-α production in patients with scrub typhus. These abnormalities possibly contribute to immune system dysregulation in scrub typhus infection. PMID:27463223

  7. A Conservation Strategy for the Florida Scrub-Jay on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: An Initial Scientific Basis for Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, D. R.; Larson, V. L.; Schaub, R.; Duncan, B. W.; Schmalzer, P. A.; Oddy, D. M.; Smith, R. B.; Adrian, F.; Hill, H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) is an indicator of ecosystem integrity of Florida scrub, an endangered ecosystem that requires frequent fire. One of the largest populations of this federally threatened species occurs on John F. Kennedy Space Center/Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Population trends were predicted using population modeling and field data on reproduction and survival of Florida Scrub-Jays collected from 1988 - 1995. Analyses of historical photography indicated that habitat suitability has been declining for 30 years. Field data and computer simulations suggested that the population declined by at least 40% and will decline by another 40% in 1 0 years, if habitat management is not greatly intensified. Data and computer simulations suggest that habitat suitability cannot deviate greatly from optimal for the jay population to persist. Landscape trajectories of vegetation structure, responsible for declining habitat suitability, are associated with the disruption of natural fire regimes. Prescribed fire alone can not reverse the trajectories. A recovery strategy was developed, based on studies of Florida Scrub-Jays and scrub vegetation. A reserve design was formulated based on conservation science principles for scrub ecosystems. The strategy emphasizes frequent fire to restore habitat, but includes mechanical tree cutting for severely degraded areas. Pine thinning across large areas can produce rapid increases in habitat quality. Site-specific strategies will need to be developed, monitored, and modified to achieve conditions suitable for population persistence.

  8. Effect of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate predisinfection skin scrub prior to hepatectomy: a double-blinded, randomized control study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Shui; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Yao-Li

    2014-01-01

    This trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) with normal saline (NS) as a predisinfection skin-scrub solution prior to standard presurgical skin preparation. Data was collected at a single transplantation center where patients electing resection of hepatic tumors were recruited between October 2011 and September 2012. In total, 100 patients were consecutively enrolled for random assignment to either 4% CHG or NS as a predisinfection skin-scrub solution prior to surgery. Our aim was to assess the comparative antiseptic efficacy of CHG in this setting, focusing on cutaneous microbial colonization (at baseline, preoperatively, and postoperatively) and postsurgical site infections as primary outcome measures. Positivity rates of baseline, preoperative, and postoperative cultures were similar for both groups, showing significant declines (relative to baseline) after skin preparation and no significant postsurgical rebound. Rates of surgical site infection were also similar in both groups (CHG, 6.0%; NS, 4.1%; P = 1.0). For patients with hepatic tumors undergoing hepatectomy, the effect of 4% CHG as a predisinfection scrub solution was similar to that of NS in terms of skin decontamination and surgical site infections.

  9. Effect of 4% Chlorhexidine Gluconate Predisinfection Skin Scrub Prior to Hepatectomy: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ching-Shui; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Yao-Li

    2014-01-01

    This trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) with normal saline (NS) as a predisinfection skin-scrub solution prior to standard presurgical skin preparation. Data was collected at a single transplantation center where patients electing resection of hepatic tumors were recruited between October 2011 and September 2012. In total, 100 patients were consecutively enrolled for random assignment to either 4% CHG or NS as a predisinfection skin-scrub solution prior to surgery. Our aim was to assess the comparative antiseptic efficacy of CHG in this setting, focusing on cutaneous microbial colonization (at baseline, preoperatively, and postoperatively) and postsurgical site infections as primary outcome measures. Positivity rates of baseline, preoperative, and postoperative cultures were similar for both groups, showing significant declines (relative to baseline) after skin preparation and no significant postsurgical rebound. Rates of surgical site infection were also similar in both groups (CHG, 6.0%; NS, 4.1%; P = 1.0). For patients with hepatic tumors undergoing hepatectomy, the effect of 4% CHG as a predisinfection scrub solution was similar to that of NS in terms of skin decontamination and surgical site infections. PMID:25437588

  10. Matorral and reclamation. The contribution of scrubs and dwarf shrubs to soil and water conservation in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; González Hidalgo, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    The Mediterranean Matorral (scrubs and dwarf shrubs) was seen by John Thornes as a protective vegetative cover of semiarid lands. His studies on matorral triggered the research, vocations and scientific work of researchers and contributed with a relevant knowledge to the environmental studies in Spain. This research reviews the changes in land use and the use of matorral in Spain. A review of the research done on the effect of matorral on soil and water losses is presented. Books, scientific papers, book chapters and research reports are being reviewed to report how matorral control the soil and water losses under different climatic conditions in Spain. The main conclusion is that scrubs and dwarf shrubs are very efficient in controlling the soil and water losses under semiarid climatic conditions were trees are rare. Nevertheless, scrub has been neglected by the Spanish forestry policy-makers and sometimes the shrubs cover is removed to develop afforestations, mainly with Aleppo pine. Palabras clave: Matorral, Soil, Water, Losses, Spain, Land use, Land management.

  11. Physical removal and transfer of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus from contaminated produce by scrubbing and peeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Erickson, Marilyn C; Ortega, Ynes; Cannon, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Human noroviruses and hepatitis A virus are responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with handling fresh produce. In this study, physical removal of hepatitis A virus and murine norovirus, a human norovirus surrogate, from contaminated produce items (honeydew melons, cantaloupes, carrots, and celery) by scrubbing under running water with a nylon brush or scouring pad and by peeling (carrots and celery) with a peeler was investigated. The degree and extent of utensil contamination with viruses during these operations in the presence and absence of food residue also was investigated. Scrubbing or peeling produce initially inoculated with ∼5.5 log PFU of each virus resulted in significant levels of virus removal, ranging from 0.93 to 2.85 log PFU. However, utensil cross-contamination occurred, with >2 log PFU of virus transferred from a single produce item. After preparation of a contaminated produce item, utensil cross-contamination resulted in virus detection on seven successively prepared produce items. Produce residue accumulation on utensils variably impacted virus transfer to utensil surfaces. Results indicate that scrubbing and peeling produce can reduce levels of viruses on contaminated produce, but the importance of utensil sanitation to prevent cross-contamination is highlighted. Findings also provide important information for modeling virus cross-contamination during food preparation. PMID:23317861

  12. Artificial nest predation in hedgerows and scrub forest in a human-dominated landscape of central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuria, Iriana; Gates, J. Edward; Castellanos, Ignacio

    2007-03-01

    Hedgerows as well as other narrow corridors could be valuable habitats for birds in regions of intensive agriculture, however, it is still not clear how successful breeding birds are in different types of hedgerows as compared to birds nesting in their natural habitats. We used artificial nests to examine whether hedgerows were sinks (ecological traps) for birds by comparing rates of predation in two types of hedgerows with different vegetation structure (simple and complex), and in a tract of scrub forest in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico. We determined also the types of predators responsible for egg predation. Ground and elevated nests were baited with one Japanese quail Coturnix japonica egg and one plasticine egg and placed alternately along transects. Significantly, greater predation rates were found in scrub forest and complex hedgerows than in simple hedgerows. Higher predation rates in complex habitats seemed to reflect the higher number of predator types found there. The most important predator types were carnivores followed by rodents, birds, and humans. Carnivores and rodents mainly predated ground nests, whereas birds and humans predated elevated nests. Simple hedgerows in this landscape appeared to offer relatively safe nest sites in terms of predation pressure when compared to more complex habitats (complex hedgerows and scrub forest).

  13. Physical removal and transfer of murine norovirus and hepatitis A virus from contaminated produce by scrubbing and peeling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Erickson, Marilyn C; Ortega, Ynes; Cannon, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Human noroviruses and hepatitis A virus are responsible for numerous outbreaks associated with handling fresh produce. In this study, physical removal of hepatitis A virus and murine norovirus, a human norovirus surrogate, from contaminated produce items (honeydew melons, cantaloupes, carrots, and celery) by scrubbing under running water with a nylon brush or scouring pad and by peeling (carrots and celery) with a peeler was investigated. The degree and extent of utensil contamination with viruses during these operations in the presence and absence of food residue also was investigated. Scrubbing or peeling produce initially inoculated with ∼5.5 log PFU of each virus resulted in significant levels of virus removal, ranging from 0.93 to 2.85 log PFU. However, utensil cross-contamination occurred, with >2 log PFU of virus transferred from a single produce item. After preparation of a contaminated produce item, utensil cross-contamination resulted in virus detection on seven successively prepared produce items. Produce residue accumulation on utensils variably impacted virus transfer to utensil surfaces. Results indicate that scrubbing and peeling produce can reduce levels of viruses on contaminated produce, but the importance of utensil sanitation to prevent cross-contamination is highlighted. Findings also provide important information for modeling virus cross-contamination during food preparation.

  14. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was

  15. Alkali content of alpine ultramafic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, W.; Mountjoy, W.

    1965-01-01

    The lower limit of abundance of sodium and potassium in ultramafic rocks is less than the threshold amount detectable by conventional analytical methods. By a dilutionaddition modification of the flame-spectrophotometric method, sodium and potassium have been determined in 40 specimens of alpine ultramafic rocks. Samples represent six regions in the United States and one in Australia, and include dunite, peridotite, pyroxenite, and their variably serpentinized and metamorphosed derivatives. The median value found for Na2O is 0.004 per cent, and the range of Na2O is 0.001-0.19. The median value for K2O is 0.0034 per cent and the range is 0.001-0.031 per cent. Alkali concentrations are below 0.01 per cent Na2O in 28 samples and below 0.01 per cent K2O in 35. Derivation of basalt magma from upper-mantle material similar to such ultramafic rocks, as has been postulated, is precluded by the relative amounts of sodium and potassium, which are from 200 to 600 times more abundant in basalt than in the ultramafic rocks. Similar factors apply to a number of other elements. No reasonable process could produce such concentrations in, for example, tens of thousands of cubic miles of uniform tholeiitic basalt. The ultramafic rocks might have originated either as magmatic crystal precipitates or as mantle residues left after fusion and removal of basaltic magma. Injection of ultramafic rocks to exposed positions is tectonic rather than magmatic. ?? 1965.

  16. Scrubbing of contaminants from contaminated air streams with aerogel materials with optional photocatalytic destruction

    DOEpatents

    Attia, Yosry A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for separating a vaporous or gaseous contaminant from an air stream contaminated therewith. This method includes the steps of: (a) passing said contaminated air into a contact zone in which is disposed an aerogel material capable of selecting adsorbing said contaminant from air and therein contacting said contaminated air with an aerogel material; and (b) withdrawing from said zone, air depleted of said contaminant. For present purposes, "contaminant" means a material not naturally occurring in ambient air and/or a material naturally occurring in air but present at a concentration above that found in ambient air. Thus, the present invention scrubs (or treats) air for the purpose of returning it to its ambient composition. Also disclosed herein is a process for the photocatalytic destruction of contaminants from an air stream wherein the contaminated air stream is passed into a control cell or contact zone in which is disposed a photocatalytic aerogel and exposing said aerogel to ultraviolet (UV) radiation for photocatalytically destroying the adsorbed contaminant, and withdrawing from said cell an exhaust air stream depleted in said contaminant.

  17. The Diversity and Geographical Structure of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains from Scrub Typhus Patients in Laos

    PubMed Central

    Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Sonthayanon, Piengchan; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Paris, Daniel H.; Newton, Paul N.; Feil, Edward J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a disease transmitted by Leptotrombidium mites which is responsible for a severe and under-reported public health burden throughout Southeast Asia. Here we use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to characterize 74 clinical isolates from three geographic locations in the Lao PDR (Laos), and compare them with isolates described from Udon Thani, northeast Thailand. The data confirm high levels of diversity and recombination within the natural O. tsutsugamushi population, and a rate of mixed infection of ~8%. We compared the relationships and geographical structuring of the strains and populations using allele based approaches (eBURST), phylogenetic approaches, and by calculating F-statistics (FST). These analyses all point towards low levels of population differentiation between isolates from Vientiane and Udon Thani, cities which straddle the Mekong River which defines the Lao/Thai border, but with a very distinct population in Salavan, southern Laos. These data highlight how land use, as well as the movement of hosts and vectors, may impact on the epidemiology of zoonotic infections. PMID:26317624

  18. Local climatic conditions constrain soil yeast diversity patterns in Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome.

    PubMed

    Yurkov, Andrey M; Röhl, Oliver; Pontes, Ana; Carvalho, Cláudia; Maldonado, Cristina; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Soil yeasts represent a poorly known fraction of the soil microbiome due to limited ecological surveys. Here, we provide the first comprehensive inventory of cultivable soil yeasts in a Mediterranean ecosystem, which is the leading biodiversity hotspot for vascular plants and vertebrates in Europe. We isolated and identified soil yeasts from forested sites of Serra da Arrábida Natural Park (Portugal), representing the Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome. Both cultivation experiments and the subsequent species richness estimations suggest the highest species richness values reported to date, resulting in a total of 57 and 80 yeast taxa, respectively. These values far exceed those reported for other forest soils in Europe. Furthermore, we assessed the response of yeast diversity to microclimatic environmental factors in biotopes composed of the same plant species but showing a gradual change from humid broadleaf forests to dry maquis. We observed that forest properties constrained by precipitation level had strong impact on yeast diversity and on community structure and lower precipitation resulted in an increased number of rare species and decreased evenness values. In conclusion, the structure of soil yeast communities mirrors the environmental factors that affect aboveground phytocenoses, aboveground biomass and plant projective cover.

  19. An investigation of some sterically hindered amines as potential carbon dioxide scrubbing compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of the carbon dioxide cycling process and to reduce amine emissions, a series of nonvolatile amino acid salts with sterically hindered amine groups were investigated to determine their potential as direct replacements for monoethanolamine (MEA) in submarine-based CO{sub 2} scrubbers. Absorption from atmospheres containing various levels of CO{sub 2} was measured to assess the total capacities and absorption rates of amine solutions. The regeneration rates and extent of CO{sub 2} desorption were established by heating these solutions. {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy was used to establish reaction products and solution compositions after both absorption and desorption. Methyl groups substituted adjacent to the amine were found to increase solution absorption capacities but with an overall reduction in absorption rate. Poor absorption rates at low CO{sub 2} levels and precipitation problems would prevent the {alpha}-dimethylamines examined from being used in existing submarine scrubbers. These amines, however, show potential as replacements in industrial CO{sub 2} scrubbing processes.

  20. Post-Fire Recovery in Coastal Sage Scrub: Seed Rain and Community Trajectory.

    PubMed

    Conlisk, Erin; Swab, Rebecca; Martínez-Berdeja, Alejandra; Daugherty, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance is a primary mechanism structuring ecological communities. However, human activity has the potential to alter the frequency and intensity of natural disturbance regimes, with subsequent effects on ecosystem processes. In Southern California, human development has led to increased fire frequency close to urban areas that can form a positive feedback with invasive plant spread. Understanding how abiotic and biotic factors structure post-fire plant communities is a critical component of post-fire management and restoration. In this study we considered a variety of mechanisms affecting post-fire vegetation recovery in Riversidean sage scrub. Comparing recently burned plots to unburned plots, we found that burning significantly reduced species richness and percent cover of exotic vegetation the first two years following a 100-hectare wildfire. Seed rain was higher in burned plots, with more native forb seeds, while unburned plots had more exotic grass seeds. Moreover, there were significant correlations between seed rain composition and plant cover composition the year prior and the year after. Collectively, this case study suggests that fire can alter community composition, but there was not compelling evidence of a vegetation-type conversion. Instead, the changes in the community composition were temporary and convergence in community composition was apparent within two years post-fire.

  1. Ductwork and chimney modifications for utilization of improved FGD scrubbing capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, S.J.; Chhabra, S.J.; Gullaksen, D.J.; Cassidy, S.

    1996-10-01

    Tampa Electric Company`s (TECO) Big Bend Station located southwest of Tampa, Florida, consists of four coal-fired units totaling 1,822 MW. The 475-MW Unit 4, which began operation in 1985, operates with a balanced draft system and is equipped with a wet limestone forced-oxidation flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Units 1 through 3, which operate with forced draft systems, are not equipped with FGD systems and, consequently, are subject to the Phase 1 Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. TECO initiated studies to determine the most effective program for achieving environmental compliance for Units 1 through 3 and, based on these studies, developed an innovative idea for using the improved FGD scrubbing capacity of Unit 4 to treat the flue gas from Unit 3. On June 20, 1995, TECO successfully implemented this idea when it diverted Unit 3 flue gas to the Unit 4 scrubber. The project required modifications to the Unit 4 scrubber, as well as modifications to the draft system controls, ductwork, continuous emissions monitoring systems, and chimneys of both Units 3 and 4. The purpose of this paper is to describe the unique aspects of the ductwork and chimney modifications that were implemented on the project.

  2. Effect of sublethal gamma radiation on host defenses in experimental scrub typhus

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.J.; Rees, J.C.

    1986-06-01

    The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which were inoculated with the Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least 1 year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks postinoculation with normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than was seen in the unirradiated, similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for 5 weeks after irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation-induced recrudescence. Unirradiated, infected mice showed consistent titers of about 320 throughout the 5-week observation period, and the titer was not affected by exposure of up to 500 rads of gamma radiation. Drug dose-dependent radioprotection and modification of recrudescence was noted in infected, irradiated mice treated with the antiradiation compound S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethyl phosphorothioic acid. The results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host after immunological impairment due to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia.

  3. Host defenses in experimental scrub typhus: effect of sublethal gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of sublethal gamma radiation on inbred mice chronically infected with scrub typhus rickettsiae was examined. Inbred mice which have been inoculated with Gilliam or Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi by the subcutaneous route harbored the infection for at least one year. Irradiation of these animals at 12 or 52 weeks post inoculation at normally sublethal levels induced a significantly higher percentage of rickettsemic mice (recrudescence) than in the unirradiated similarly infected control animals. In addition, sublethal irradiation at 12 weeks also induced a quantitative increase in total rickettsiae. Homologous antibody titers to the rickettsiae were examined for five weeks following irradiation to determine the role of the humoral response in radiation induced recrudescence. Modification of recrudescence was investigated using radioprotective drugs. The expected results of this investigation supported the conclusion that the recrudescence of a chronic rickettsial infection in the appropriate host following immunological impairment due to battlefield or clinical exposure to gamma radiation can result in an acute, possibly lethal rickettsemia.

  4. Developing terrestrial, multi-taxon indices of biological integrity: An example from coastal sage scrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diffendorfer, J.E.; Fleming, G.M.; Duggan, J.M.; Chapman, R.E.; Rahn, M.E.; Mitrovich, M.J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    We screened 351 species or genera for their response to disturbance in coastal sage scrub (CSS) to develop a 15-metric, 5-taxon Index of Biological Integrity (IBI). We collected data on ants, birds, herpetofauna, small mammals, and plants for two years on 46 sites established across a gradient of disturbance in three reserves. The gradient spanned relatively intact CSS with thick stands of shrubs, to former CSS stands type-converted to exotic grasses. ANOVAs and clustering analyses indicated the IBI could distinguish four levels of disturbance in CSS. General measures of community structure, such as richness, did not show changes across the gradient for most taxa, and responses of taxa across the gradient were varied and rarely correlated. However, turnover in species or genera across the gradient was common across all taxa as shrub-obligate life forms were replaced by those favoring grassy or disturbed habitats. Our data indicate index-based approaches based on data collected across disturbance gradients may outperform more traditional community level metrics when responses to anthropogenic influences are complex and vary across species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) Densities in Coastal Scrub and Slash Pine Flatwoods in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1994-01-01

    Densities of gopher tortoises were compared with habitat characteristics in scrub and in flatwood habitats on the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Tortoises were distributed widely among habitat types and did not have higher densities in well-drained (oak-palmetto) than in poorly-drained (saw palmetto) habitats. Fall densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.7 individuals/ha in disturbed habitat to 0.0 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat. Spring densities of tortoises ranged from a mean of 2.5 individuals/ha in saw palmetto habitat to 0.7 individuals/ha in oak-palmetto habitat. Densities of tortoises were correlated positively with the percent herbaceous cover, an indicator of food resources. Plots were divided into three burn classes; these were areas burned within three years, burned four to seven years, and unburned for more than seven years prior to the study. Relationships between densities of tortoises and time-since-fire classes were inconsistent.

  6. The Diversity and Geographical Structure of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains from Scrub Typhus Patients in Laos.

    PubMed

    Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Sonthayanon, Piengchan; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Paris, Daniel H; Newton, Paul N; Feil, Edward J; Day, Nicholas P J

    2015-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a disease transmitted by Leptotrombidium mites which is responsible for a severe and under-reported public health burden throughout Southeast Asia. Here we use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to characterize 74 clinical isolates from three geographic locations in the Lao PDR (Laos), and compare them with isolates described from Udon Thani, northeast Thailand. The data confirm high levels of diversity and recombination within the natural O. tsutsugamushi population, and a rate of mixed infection of ~8%. We compared the relationships and geographical structuring of the strains and populations using allele based approaches (eBURST), phylogenetic approaches, and by calculating F-statistics (FST). These analyses all point towards low levels of population differentiation between isolates from Vientiane and Udon Thani, cities which straddle the Mekong River which defines the Lao/Thai border, but with a very distinct population in Salavan, southern Laos. These data highlight how land use, as well as the movement of hosts and vectors, may impact on the epidemiology of zoonotic infections. PMID:26317624

  7. Post-Fire Recovery in Coastal Sage Scrub: Seed Rain and Community Trajectory.

    PubMed

    Conlisk, Erin; Swab, Rebecca; Martínez-Berdeja, Alejandra; Daugherty, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance is a primary mechanism structuring ecological communities. However, human activity has the potential to alter the frequency and intensity of natural disturbance regimes, with subsequent effects on ecosystem processes. In Southern California, human development has led to increased fire frequency close to urban areas that can form a positive feedback with invasive plant spread. Understanding how abiotic and biotic factors structure post-fire plant communities is a critical component of post-fire management and restoration. In this study we considered a variety of mechanisms affecting post-fire vegetation recovery in Riversidean sage scrub. Comparing recently burned plots to unburned plots, we found that burning significantly reduced species richness and percent cover of exotic vegetation the first two years following a 100-hectare wildfire. Seed rain was higher in burned plots, with more native forb seeds, while unburned plots had more exotic grass seeds. Moreover, there were significant correlations between seed rain composition and plant cover composition the year prior and the year after. Collectively, this case study suggests that fire can alter community composition, but there was not compelling evidence of a vegetation-type conversion. Instead, the changes in the community composition were temporary and convergence in community composition was apparent within two years post-fire. PMID:27649564

  8. Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

  9. Severity Predictors in Eschar-Positive Scrub Typhus and Role of Serum Osteopontin

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Won; Lee, Chang-Seop; Lee, Chi Kug; Kwak, Yee Gyung; Moon, Chisook; Kim, Baek-Nam; Kim, Eu Suk; Kang, Jae Myung; Oh, Myoung-don

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated severity predictors in terms of host, microorganism, and treatment factors in 153 eschar-positive scrub typhus patients. Severity was assessed with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (< 10 versus ≥ 10) and predefined criteria of severe complications. Genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi were determined. Independent risk factors for severity (APACHE II score ≥ 10) were old age, diabetes mellitus, serum osteopontin > 100 ng/mL, and a group of underlying diseases (congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, chronic liver disease, bronchial asthma, and chronic obstructive lung diseases). Anemia (≤ 10 g/dL) and C-reactive protein > 10 mg/dL were indicators of current severity. Neither the delay in antibiotics administration nor strain types (Boryong, Taguchi, or Kanda/Kawasaki) contributed to the severity. The risk factors for severe complications were similar. Serum osteopontin > 100 ng/mL had a negative predictive value of 96% for severe complications. This marker can be used to rule out severe disease status. PMID:22049051

  10. Post-Fire Recovery in Coastal Sage Scrub: Seed Rain and Community Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Conlisk, Erin; Swab, Rebecca; Martínez-Berdeja, Alejandra; Daugherty, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance is a primary mechanism structuring ecological communities. However, human activity has the potential to alter the frequency and intensity of natural disturbance regimes, with subsequent effects on ecosystem processes. In Southern California, human development has led to increased fire frequency close to urban areas that can form a positive feedback with invasive plant spread. Understanding how abiotic and biotic factors structure post-fire plant communities is a critical component of post-fire management and restoration. In this study we considered a variety of mechanisms affecting post-fire vegetation recovery in Riversidean sage scrub. Comparing recently burned plots to unburned plots, we found that burning significantly reduced species richness and percent cover of exotic vegetation the first two years following a 100-hectare wildfire. Seed rain was higher in burned plots, with more native forb seeds, while unburned plots had more exotic grass seeds. Moreover, there were significant correlations between seed rain composition and plant cover composition the year prior and the year after. Collectively, this case study suggests that fire can alter community composition, but there was not compelling evidence of a vegetation-type conversion. Instead, the changes in the community composition were temporary and convergence in community composition was apparent within two years post-fire. PMID:27649564

  11. Scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi), spotted fever (Rickettsia australis) and dengue fever as possible causes of mysterious deaths in the Strickland Gorge area of Southern Highlands and West Sepik Provinces of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Spicer, P E; Taufa, T; Benjamin, A L

    2007-01-01

    A medical investigation was carried out in April 2001 into an outbreak of a mysterious haemorrhagic disease and deaths in the remote picturesque Strickland River area of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The area is in part of the Southern Highlands and West Sepik Provinces and situated downstream from the Porgera Joint Venture gold mine. 9 villages were visited and 140 persons, consisting of immediate blood relatives of the deceased (cases) and others in the village picked at random (controls), were physically examined. Specimens of blood, urine and faeces were collected from each person for laboratory tests in PNG and Australia. Positive sera for dengue (15%) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) (6%) were identified. Surprisingly, a number of the sera were positive for scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi) (28%) and spotted fever (Rickettsia australis) (11%). The last reported cases of scrub typhus in PNG were during World War Two among the allied troops. This is the first time spotted fever (R. australis) has been reported in PNG. These conditions may have been the cause of the deaths described by the villagers. However, there were significantly more dengue-positive results among relatives of the deceased than non-relatives though no such difference was found with rickettsial infections: haemorrhagic dengue fever is thus the most likely cause of this recurring outbreak. Mining did not appear to be a direct causal factor for the deaths in the area.

  12. Infrared Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal Halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ei; Hommerich, Uwe; Yang, Clayton; Trivedi, Sudhir; Samuels, Alan; Snyder, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a powerful diagnostic tool for detection of trace elements by monitoring the atomic and ionic emission from laser-induced plasmas. LIBS is a relatively simple technique and has been successfully employed in applications such as environmental monitoring, materials analysis, medical diagnostics, industrial process control, and homeland security. Most LIBS applications are limited to emission features in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) region arising from atoms and simple molecular fragments. In the present work, we report on the observation of mid- infrared emission lines from alkali metal halides due to laser-induced breakdown processes. The studied alkali metal halides included LiCl, NaCl, NaBr, KCl, KBr, KF, RbCl, and RbBr. The laser-induced plasma was produced by focusing a 16 mJ pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) on the target. The LIBS infrared emission from alkali halides showed intense and narrow bands located in the region from 2-8 μm. The observed emission features were assigned to atomic transitions between higher-lying Rydberg states of neutral alkali atoms. More detailed results of the performed IR LIBS studies on alkali metal halides will be discussed at the conference.

  13. Multi-photon processes in alkali metal vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Baodong; Hu, Shu; Li, Hui; Shi, Zhe; Cai, Xianglong; Guo, Jingwei; Tan, Yannan; Liu, Wanfa; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting

    2015-02-01

    Achieving population inversion through multi-photon cascade pumping is almost always difficult, and most laser medium work under 1-photon excitation mechanism. But for alkali atoms such as cesium, relatively large absorption cross sections of several low, cascading energy levels enable them properties such as up conversion. Here we carried out research on two-photon excitation alkali fluorescence. Two photons of near infrared region are used to excite alkali atoms to n 2 D5/2, n 2 D3/2 or higher energy levels, then the blue fluorescence of (n+1) 2 P3/2,(n+1) 2 P1/2-->n 2 S1/2 are observed. Different pumping paths are tried and by the recorded spectra, transition routes of cesium are deducted and concluded. Finally the possibility of two-photon style DPALs (diode pumped alkali laser) are discussed, such alkali lasers can give output wavelengths in the shorter end of visual spectroscopy (400-460 nm) and are expected to get application in underwater communication and material laser processing.

  14. Alkali activation of recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from fluidised-bed combustion: Stabilisation/solidification of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Yliniemi, Juho; Pesonen, Janne; Tiainen, Minna; Illikainen, Mirja

    2015-09-01

    Recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from a fluidized bed boiler was alkali-activated and granulated with a sodium-silicate solution in order to immobilise the heavy metals it contains. The effect of blast-furnace slag and metakaolin as co-binders were studied. Leaching standard EN 12457-3 was applied to evaluate the immobilisation potential. The results showed that Ba, Pb and Zn were effectively immobilised. However, there was increased leaching after alkali activation for As, Cu, Mo, Sb and V. The co-binders had minimal or even negative effect on the immobilisation. One exception was found for Cr, in which the slag decreased leaching, and one was found for Cu, in which the slag increased leaching. A sequential leaching procedure was utilized to gain a deeper understanding of the immobilisation mechanism. By using a sequential leaching procedure it is possible fractionate elements into watersoluble, acid-soluble, easily-reduced and oxidisable fractions, yielding a total 'bioavailable' amount that is potentially hazardous for the environment. It was found that the total bioavailable amount was lower following alkali activation for all heavy metals, although the water-soluble fraction was higher for some metals. Evidence from leaching tests suggests the immobilisation mechanism was chemical retention, or trapping inside the alkali activation reaction products, rather than physical retention, adsorption or precipitation as hydroxides. PMID:26054963

  15. Performance of a biogas upgrading process based on alkali absorption with regeneration using air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Baciocchi, Renato; Carnevale, Ennio; Costa, Giulia; Gavasci, Renato; Lombardi, Lidia; Olivieri, Tommaso; Zanchi, Laura; Zingaretti, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    This work analyzes the performance of an innovative biogas upgrading method, Alkali absorption with Regeneration (AwR) that employs industrial residues and allows to permanently store the separated CO2. This process consists in a first stage in which CO2 is removed from the biogas by means of chemical absorption with KOH or NaOH solutions followed by a second stage in which the spent absorption solution is contacted with waste incineration Air Pollution Control (APC) residues. The latter reaction leads to the regeneration of the alkali reagent in the solution and to the precipitation of calcium carbonate and hence allows to reuse the regenerated solution in the absorption process and to permanently store the separated CO2 in solid form. In addition, the final solid product is characterized by an improved environmental behavior compared to the untreated residues. In this paper the results obtained by AwR tests carried out in purposely designed demonstrative units installed in a landfill site are presented and discussed with the aim of verifying the feasibility of this process at pilot-scale and of identifying the conditions that allow to achieve all of the goals targeted by the proposed treatment. Specifically, the CO2 removal efficiency achieved in the absorption stage, the yield of alkali regeneration and CO2 uptake resulting for the regeneration stage, as well as the leaching behavior of the solid product are analyzed as a function of the type and concentration of the alkali reagent employed for the absorption reaction.

  16. Maternal exposure to alkali, alkali earth, transition and other metals: Concentrations and predictors of exposure.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, A L; Stasinska, A; Callan, A C; Heyworth, J; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø

    2015-09-01

    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children. PMID:25984984

  17. Maternal exposure to alkali, alkali earth, transition and other metals: Concentrations and predictors of exposure.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, A L; Stasinska, A; Callan, A C; Heyworth, J; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø

    2015-09-01

    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children.

  18. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess.

    PubMed

    Yung, C Y

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study. PMID:6395136

  19. C-CAMP, A closed cycle alkali metal power system

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A concept is presented for a Closed-Cycle Alkali Metal (C-CAMP) power systems which utilizes the heat of reaction of an alkali metal and halogen compound to vaporize an alkali metal turbine fluid for a Rankine cycle. Unique features of the concept are (1) direct contact (heat exchange) between the reaction products and turbine fluid, and (2) a flow-through chemical reactor/boiler. The principal feasibility issues of the concept relate to the degree of cross-mixing of product and turbine fluid streams within the reactor-boiler. If proven feasible, the concept may be adapted to a range of fuel and turbine fluids and ultimately lead to thermal efficiencies in excess of 35%.

  20. Alkali-induced enhancement of surface electronic polarizibility.

    PubMed

    Stolbov, Sergey; Rahman, Talat S

    2006-05-12

    From results of ab initio electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory for a set of prototype systems, we find alkali adsorbates to cause a dramatic enhancement of the electronic polarizability of the metal surface extending it several angstroms into the vacuum. This phenomenon is traceable to an unusual feature induced in the surface potential on alkali adsorption. The effect appears to be general, as we find it to be present on metals as varied as Pd and Cu, and helps explain the observed substantial decrease in the vibrational frequency of molecules when coadsorbed with alkalis on metal surfaces. Specifically, for two dissimilar molecules CO and O(2), we trace the softening of the frequencies of their stretching mode when coadsorbed with K on Pd(111) to the enhanced electronic polarizability.

  1. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study.

  2. Theoretical study of the alkali and alkaline-earth monosulfides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Ab initio calculations have been used to obtain accurate spectroscopic constants for the X2Pi and A2Sigma(+) states of the alkali sulfides and the X1Sigma(+), a3Pi, and A1Pi states of the alkaline-earth sulfides. In contrast to the alkali oxides, the alkali sulfides are found to have X2Pi ground states, due to the larger electrostatic interaction. Dissociation energies of 3.27 eV for BeS, 2.32 eV for MgS, 3.29 eV for CaS, and 3.41 eV for SrS have been obtained for the X1Sigma(+) states of the alkaline-earth sulfides, in good agreement with experimental results. Core correlation is shown to increase the Te values for the a3Pi and A1Pi states of MgS, CaS, and SrS.

  3. Hydrothermal chemistry, structures, and luminescence studies of alkali hafnium fluorides.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Christopher C; McMillen, Colin D; Chen, Hongyu; Anker, Jeffery N; Kolis, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the hydrothermal chemistry of alkali hafnium fluorides, including the synthesis and structural characterization of five new alkali hafnium fluorides. Two ternary alkali hafnium fluorides are described: Li(2)HfF(6) in space group P31m with a = 4.9748(7) Å and c = 4.6449(9) Å and Na(5)Hf(2)F(13) in space group C2/m with a = 11.627(2) Å, b = 5.5159(11) Å, and c = 8.4317(17) Å. Three new alkali hafnium oxyfluorides are also described: two fluoroelpasolites, K(3)HfOF(5) and (NH(4))(3)HfOF(5), in space group Fm3m with a = 8.9766(10) and 9.4144(11) Å, respectively, and K(2)Hf(3)OF(12) in space group R3m with a = 7.6486(11) Å and c = 28.802(6) Å. Infrared (IR) spectra were obtained for the title solids to confirm the structure solutions. Comparison of these materials was made based on their structures and synthesis conditions. The formation of these species in hydrothermal fluids appears to be dependent upon both the concentration of the alkali fluoride mineralizer solution and the reaction temperature. Both X-ray and visible fluorescence studies were conducted on compounds synthesized in this study and showed that fluorescence was affected by a variety of factors, such as alkali metal size, the presence/absence of oxygen in the compound, and the coordination environment of Hf(4+).

  4. Spill-Resistant Alkali-Metal-Vapor Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, William

    2005-01-01

    A spill-resistant vessel has been developed for dispensing an alkali-metal vapor. Vapors of alkali metals (most commonly, cesium or rubidium, both of which melt at temperatures slightly above room temperature) are needed for atomic frequency standards, experiments in spectroscopy, and experiments in laser cooling. Although the present spill-resistant alkali-metal dispenser was originally intended for use in the low-gravity environment of outer space, it can also be used in normal Earth gravitation: indeed, its utility as a vapor source was confirmed by use of cesium in a ground apparatus. The vessel is made of copper. It consists of an assembly of cylinders and flanges, shown in the figure. The uppermost cylinder is a fill tube. Initially, the vessel is evacuated, the alkali metal charge is distilled into the bottom of the vessel, and then the fill tube is pinched closed to form a vacuum seal. The innermost cylinder serves as the outlet for the vapor, yet prevents spilling by protruding above the surface of the alkali metal, no matter which way or how far the vessel is tilted. In the event (unlikely in normal Earth gravitation) that any drops of molten alkali metal have been shaken loose by vibration and are floating freely, a mesh cap on top of the inner cylinder prevents the drops from drifting out with the vapor. Liquid containment of the equivalent of 1.2 grams of cesium was confirmed for all orientations with rubbing alcohol in one of the prototypes later used with cesium.

  5. Practical experience in a surgical unit when changing from scrub to rub.

    PubMed

    Asensio, A; de Gregorio, L

    2013-02-01

    Concurring with the move to a new facility at the end of 2008, alcohol-based hand rub (AHR) dispensers were allocated in all anterooms of operating theatres in a tertiary care hospital in Madrid, Spain. Routine educational sessions on surgical hand disinfection (SHD) were performed by infection control personnel, emphasizing the preferred method of AHR. Our aim was to evaluate the knowledge about SHD, as well as the performance of SHD and perceptions concerning the use of AHR or antiseptic soap hand scrub (ASHS) by surgeons and operating room nurses (ORNs). An anonymous survey on SHD was circulated to the surgeons, resident surgeons and nurses who perform SHD in our hospital. In all, 70 surveys were completed, corresponding to 27 ORNs (38.6%), 20 resident surgeons (29%), and 23 staff surgeons (33%), 41 (59%) of them being females. Forty percent of them perform mostly disinfectant soap hand scrub (DSHS) and 19% mostly hand rubs; 41% perform both methods. AHR rub is believed to be more efficacious than DSHS in reducing hand contamination (mean 6.5 vs 5.6; P > 0.001). Almost half of the personnel (49%) perform AHR >50% of the time (AHR users). AHR use is associated with ORNs (odds ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-9.3; P = 0.018) but not with resident surgeons (odds ratio: 4.1; 95% CI 1.3-13.2; P = 0.017). When comparing both methods of SHD, personnel favour AHR for its colour (P > 0.01) and speed of drying (P > 0.01). Compared with surgeons, ORNs scored DSHS as more skin-irritating (4.1 vs 5.2; P = 0.013), more associated with skin dryness (3.2 vs 4.7; P > 0.001), and inferior overall score (4.7 vs 5.6; P > 0.005). Most of the personnel agree that AHR (85%) improves compliance with SHD. Nevertheless ASHS is the method preferred for surgeons (63%) whereas AHR is the method preferred by nurses (70%; P< 0.001). According to auto-evaluation of hand skin after use, AHR has better outcomes in terms of lack of dryness (5.3 vs 4.6; P > 0.05). In addition, nurses

  6. Measurement method for the nuclear anapole moment of laser-trapped alkali-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Sprouse, G. D.; Orozco, L. A.; DeMille, D. P.

    2007-03-15

    Weak interactions within a nucleus generate a nuclear spin dependent, parity-violating electromagnetic moment, the anapole moment. We analyze a method to measure the nuclear anapole moment through the electric dipole transition it induces between hyperfine states of the ground level. The method requires tight confinement of the atoms to position them at the antinode of a standing wave Fabry-Perot cavity driving the anapole-induced microwave E1 transition. We explore the necessary limits in the number of atoms, excitation fields, trap type, interrogation method, and systematic tests necessary for such measurements in francium, the heaviest alkali.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic properties of alkali metals doped tin dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhebal, Hadj; Chaib, Messaoud; Léonard, Angélique; Lambert, Stéphanie D.; Crine, Michel

    2011-10-01

    In order to improve the photocatalytic properties of tin dioxide, crystallized powders of SnO 2 photocatalysts doped by alkali metals (Li, Na and K) were synthesized by sol-gel process. The physical properties of these materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Scanning electron microscopy and Ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The photocatalytic tests under UV radiation conducted on four aromatic compounds (phenol, paranitrophenol, pentachlorophenol and benzoic acid) showed that tin dioxide modified by sodium possesses good photocatalytic activity; The Li-doped SnO 2 is moderately active, while modification by potassium does not improve this activity.

  8. Complex responses to invasive grass litter by ground arthropods in a Mediterranean scrub ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Wolkovich, Elizabeth Mary; Bolger, Douglas T; Holway, David A

    2009-10-01

    Plant invasions have tremendous potential to alter food webs by changing basal resources. Recent studies document how plant invasions may contribute to increased arthropod abundances in detritus-based food webs. An obvious mechanism for this phenomenon-a bottom-up effect resulting from elevated levels of detritus from the invasive plant litter-has not been explicitly studied. We examined the effects of an annual grass invasion on ground arthropod assemblages in the coastal sage scrub (CSS) of southern California. Bottom-up food web theory predicts that the addition of detritus would increase generalist-feeding arthropods at all trophic levels; accordingly, we expected increases in fungi, Collembola, and common predators such as mites and spiders. For the common ant taxa, habitat alteration may also be important for predicting responses. Thus we expected that Forelius mccooki and Pheidole vistana, the most common ant species, would decline because of changes in soil temperature (F. mccooki) and habitat structure (P. vistana) associated with litter. We studied trends observationally and conducted a 3-year experiment in which we manipulated litter quantity. In contrast to other published studies, most detritus-based arthropod taxa declined in areas of high grass invasion, and, within trophic levels, responses often varied idiosyncratically. For the two most common taxa, a native ant (F. mccooki), and predatory mites in the Anystidae, we experimentally linked declines in abundance to increased levels of invasive grass litter. Such declines, especially those exhibited by the most common ant taxa, could have cascading effects on the CSS ecosystem, where ants are numerically dominant and thus may have broad influences on food web and ecosystem properties. Our results highlight that accurately predicting arthropod responses to invasive plant litter requires careful consideration of the structural and food resources provided by detritus to each particular food web.

  9. Emission control system for nitrogen oxides using enhanced oxidation, scrubbing, and biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Cabezas, J.

    2009-05-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) constitutes about 90% of the nitrogen oxide (NOx) species in the flue gases emitted from combustion processes, but NO is difficult to remove in existing scrubbers due to its low solubility. NO may be oxidized with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) into soluble species that can be partially removed in wet scrubbers simultaneously with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and biofilters located downstream of the scrubber can increase the removal efficiency. This article presents the results of a bench-scale evaluation of such an integrated system combining enhanced oxidation, scrubbing, and biofiltration. Main components of the bench-scale system consisted of a quartz tube in a furnace to simulate the NO oxidation stage and two vertical packed bed cylinders constituting the scrubber and the biofilter. Inlet synthetic gas had a concentration of 50 mu L/L of NO. Overall removal efficiency by the integrated system was in the range of 53% to 93% with an average of 79%, absorption accounted for 43% and biofiltration for 36% of the total removal. Key parameters in the operation of the system are the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}:NO mole ratio, the reaction temperature, the liquid to gas flow ratio, and the biofilter residence time. Experimental results suggest a path for optimization of the technology focusing simultaneously in minimizing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} use in the enhanced oxidation stage, reducing water consumption in the scrubber stage and balancing the residence times in the three stages of the integrated system.

  10. Quantifying biological integrity of California sage scrub communities using plant life-form cover.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Y.; Stow, D. A.; Franklin, J.

    2010-01-01

    The California sage scrub (CSS) community type in California's Mediterranean-type ecosystems supports a large number of rare, threatened, and endangered species, and is critically degraded and endangered. Monitoring ecological variables that provide information about community integrity is vital to conserving these biologically diverse communities. Fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground should fill information gaps between generalized vegetation type maps and detailed field-based plot measurements of species composition and provide an effective means for quantifying CSS community integrity. Remote sensing is the only tool available for estimating spatially comprehensive fractional cover over large extent, and fractional cover of plant life-form types is one of the measures of vegetation state that is most amenable to remote sensing. The use of remote sensing does not eliminate the need for either field surveying or vegetation type mapping; rather it will likely require a combination of approaches to reliably estimate life-form cover and to provide comprehensive information for communities. According to our review and synthesis, life-form fractional cover has strong potential for providing ecologically meaningful intermediate-scale information, which is unattainable from vegetation type maps and species-level field measurements. Thus, we strongly recommend incorporating fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herb, and bare ground in CSS community monitoring methods. Estimating life-form cover at a 25 m x 25 m spatial scale using remote sensing would be an appropriate approach for initial implementation. Investigation of remote sensing techniques and an appropriate spatial scale; collaboration of resource managers, biologists, and remote sensing specialists, and refinement of protocols are essential for integrating life-form fractional cover mapping into strategies for sustainable long-term CSS community management.

  11. The relative importance of disturbance and exotic-plant abundance in California coastal sage scrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, G.M.; Diffendorfer, J.E.; Zedler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Many ecosystems of conservation concern require some level of disturbance to sustain their species composition and ecological function. However, inappropriate disturbance regimes could favor invasion or expansion of exotic species. In southern California coastal sage scrub (CSS) fire is a natural disturbance, but because of human influence, frequencies may now be unnaturally high. Other anthropogenic disturbances such as grazing also occur in reserve areas. Managers charged with imposing or tolerating fire or other disturbance within their reserves are concerned that habitat quality may be degraded by an increasing abundance of exotic plants. We used vegetation monitoring data from Camp Pendleton, California, USA, to assess the correlation between past disturbances (frequent fire, agriculture, or grazing and mechanical disturbances) and current exotic species abundance in CSS. We found that disturbance history was only modestly related to exotic abundance overall, but fire frequency showed the strongest association. We also examined whether cover and richness of various native plant life forms (woody species, perennial herbs, and annual herbs) were more strongly influenced by disturbance history or by exotic-plant abundance. Native plant responses varied among life forms, but woody species and annual herbs were generally more strongly and negatively associated with exotic abundance than with disturbance. Effective CSS conservation will require developing means to curb the negative impacts of exotic plants, which may abound with or without severe or recent disturbance. Additionally, more focus should be given to understory herbs showing sensitivity to invasion. Though understudied, native herbs comprise the greatest portion of plant diversity in CSS and are critical to preservation of the community as a whole. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  13. Alkali Metal/Salt Thermal-Energy-Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Wayne W.; Stearns, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed thermal-energy-storage system based on mixture of alkali metal and one of its halide salts; metal and salt form slurry of two immiscible melts. Use of slurry expected to prevent incrustations of solidified salts on heat-transfer surfaces that occur where salts alone used. Since incrustations impede heat transfer, system performance improved. In system, charging heat-exchanger surface immersed in lower liquid, rich in halide-salt, phase-charge material. Discharging heat exchanger surface immersed in upper liquid, rich in alkali metal.

  14. Metal induced gap states at alkali halide/metal interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, Manabu; Yoshikawa, Genki; Ikeda, Susumu; Saiki, Koichiro

    2004-10-01

    The electronic state of a KCl/Cu(0 0 1) interface was investigated using the Cl K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). A pre-peak observed on the bulk edge onset of thin KCl films has a similar feature to the peak at a LiCl/Cu(0 0 1) interface, which originates from the metal induced gap state (MIGS). The present result indicates that the MIGS is formed universally at alkali halide/metal interfaces. The decay length of MIGS to an insulator differs from each other, mainly due to the difference in the band gap energy of alkali halide.

  15. Feasibility of supersonic diode pumped alkali lasers: Model calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2013-04-08

    The feasibility of supersonic operation of diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) is studied for Cs and K atoms applying model calculations, based on a semi-analytical model previously used for studying static and subsonic flow DPALs. The operation of supersonic lasers is compared with that measured and modeled in subsonic lasers. The maximum power of supersonic Cs and K lasers is found to be higher than that of subsonic lasers with the same resonator and alkali density at the laser inlet by 25% and 70%, respectively. These results indicate that for scaling-up the power of DPALs, supersonic expansion should be considered.

  16. Interfacial tension in immiscible mixtures of alkali halides.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Vera; Rukavishnikova, Irina V; Stepanov, Victor P; Tkachev, Nikolai K

    2010-02-01

    The interfacial tension of the liquid-phase interface in seven immiscible reciprocal ternary mixtures of lithium fluoride with the following alkali halides: CsCl, KBr, RbBr, CsBr, KI, RbI, and CsI was measured using the cylinder weighing method over a wide temperature range. It was shown that for all mixtures the interfacial tension gradually decreases with growing temperature. The interfacial tension of the reciprocal ternary mixtures at a given temperature increases both with the alkali cation radius (K(+) < Rb(+) < Cs(+)) and with the radius of the halogen anion (Cl(-) < Br(-) < I(-)). PMID:20094678

  17. Ternary alkali-metal and transition metal or metalloid acetylides as alkali-metal intercalation electrodes for batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, Karoly; Srajer, George; Harkay, Katherine C; Terdik, Joseph Z

    2015-02-10

    Novel intercalation electrode materials including ternary acetylides of chemical formula: A.sub.nMC.sub.2 where A is alkali or alkaline-earth element; M is transition metal or metalloid element; C.sub.2 is reference to the acetylide ion; n is an integer that is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 when A is alkali element and 0, 1, or 2 when A is alkaline-earth element. The alkali elements are Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs) and Francium (Fr). The alkaline-earth elements are Berilium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra). M is a transition metal that is any element in groups 3 through 12 inclusive on the Periodic Table of Elements (elements 21 (Sc) to element 30 (Zn)). In another exemplary embodiment, M is a metalloid element.

  18. Surveillance for West Nile Virus and Vaccination of Free-Ranging Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis) on Santa Cruz Island, California

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Caldwell, Luke; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Cummings, Robert; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) on mainland California poses an ongoing threat to the island scrub-jay (ISSJ, Aphelocoma insularis), a species that occurs only on Santa Cruz Island, California, and whose total population numbers <5000. Our report describes the surveillance and management efforts conducted since 2006 that are designed to understand and mitigate for the consequences of WNV introduction into the ISSJ population. We suspect that WNV would most likely be introduced to the island via the movement of infected birds from the mainland. However, antibody testing of >750 migrating and resident birds on the island from 2006 to 2009 indicated that WNV had not become established by the end of 2009. Several species of competent mosquito vectors were collected at very low abundance on the island, including the important mainland vectors Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. However, the island was generally cooler than areas of mainland California that experienced intense WNV transmission, and these lower temperatures may have reduced the likelihood of WNV becoming established because they do not support efficient virus replication in mosquitoes. A vaccination program was initiated in 2008 to create a rescue population of ISSJ that would be more likely to survive a catastrophic outbreak. To further that goal, we recommend managers vaccinate >100 ISSJ each year as part of ongoing research and monitoring efforts. PMID:21438695

  19. Alkali-silica reactivity of expanded glass granules in structure of lightweight concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Locs, J.; Korjakins, A.

    2013-12-01

    Main component in the lightweight concrete, which provides its properties, is aggregate. A lot of investigations on alkali silica reaction (ASR) between cement and lightweight aggregates have been done with their results published in the academic literature. Whereas expanded glass granules, which is relatively new product in the market of building materials, has not been a frequent research object. Therefore lightweight granules made from waste glass and eight types of cement with different chemical and mineralogical composition were examined in this research. Expanded glass granules used in this research is commercially available material produced by Penostek. Lightweight concrete mixtures were prepared by using commercial chemical additives to improve workability of concrete. The aim of the study is to identify effect of cement composition to the ASR reaction which occurs between expanded glass granules and binder. Expanded glass granules mechanical and physical properties were determined. In addition, properties of fresh and hardened concrete were determined. The ASR test was processed according to RILEM AAR-2 testing recommendation. Tests with scanning electron microscope and microstructural investigations were performed for expanded glass granules and hardened concrete specimens before and after exposing them in alkali solution.

  20. Planning and Implementation of an Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) Field Project

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.

    1999-03-05

    The Warden ASP project has progressed from the initial planning stage to construction of an injection plant. An ASP chemical system was designed based on laboratory evaluations that included interfacial tension, mobility requirements, rock-alkali interaction, fluid capabilities, and core tests. Field cores were obtained from the Permian No. 5 and No. 6 sands on the Warden lease in Sho-Vel-Tum oil field. A separate tank battery for the pilot pattern area was installed, and a field tracer test is currently being evaluated. Tracer test results to date indicate that there is no major fracturing in the No. 5 sand. There is indication, however, of some channeling through high permeability sand. The field injection plant was designed, and construction is in progress. Several variations of injection plant design have been evaluated. Some plant design details, such as alkali storage, were found to be dependent on the availability of use equipment and project budget. The surfactant storage facility design was shown to be dependent on surfactant rheology.

  1. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  11. Dynamics of vegetation and soils of oak/saw palmetto scrub after fire: Observations from permanent transects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, G. Ross

    1991-01-01

    Ten permanent 15 m transects previously established in two oak/saw palmetto scrub stands burned in December 1986, while two transects remained unburned. Vegetation in the greater than 0.5 m and the less than 0.5 m layers on these transects was sampled at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months postburn and determined structural features of the vegetation (height, percent bare ground, total cover). The vegetation data were analyzed from each sampling by height layer using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Vegetation data for the greater than 0.5 m layer for the entire time sequence were combined and analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis ordination. Soils were sampled at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postburn and analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na), NO3-N, NH4-N, Al, available metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn), and PO4-P. Shrub species recovered at different rates postfire with saw palmetto reestablishing cover greater than 0.5 m within one year, but the scrub oaks had not returned to preburn cover greater than 0.5 m in 3 years after the fire. These differences in growth rates resulted in dominance shifts after the fire with saw palmetto increasing relative to the scrub oaks. Overall changes in species richness were minor, although changes occurred in species richness by height layers due to different growth rates. Soils of well drained and poorly drained sites differed markedly. Soil responses to the fire appeared minor. Soil pH increased at 6 and 12 months postfire; calcium increased at 6 months postburn. Nitrate-nitrogen increased at 12 months postburn. Low values of conductivity, PO4-P, Mg, K, Na, and Fe at 12 months postburn may be related to heavy rainfall the preceding month. Seasonal variability in some soil parameters appeared to occur.

  12. Chlor-Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Sanchez, C. M.; Exposito, E.; Frias-Ferrer, A.; Gonzalez-Garaia, J.; Monthiel, V.; Aldaz, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for students in the last year of degree program in chemical engineering, chemistry, or industrial chemistry is presented. It models the chlor-alkali process, one of the most important industrial applications of electrochemical technology and the second largest industrial consumer of electricity after aluminium industry.

  13. Influence of temperature on alkali stress adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes cells may induce alkali stress adaptation when exposed to sublethal concentrations of alkaline cleaners and sanitizers that may be frequently used in the food processing environment. In the present study, the effect of temperature on the induction and the stability of such alk...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified...

  15. Stabilized Alkali-Metal Ultraviolet-Band-Pass Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick; Fraschetti, George A.; Mccann, Timothy; Mayall, Sherwood D.; Dunn, Donald E.; Trauger, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Layers of bismuth 5 to 10 angstrom thick incorporated into alkali-metal ultraviolet-band-pass optical filters by use of advanced fabrication techniques. In new filters layer of bismuth helps to reduce surface migration of sodium. Sodium layer made more stable and decreased tendency to form pinholes by migration.

  16. Factors associated with alkali production from arginine in dental biofilms.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Exterkate, R A M; ten Cate, J M

    2012-12-01

    Alkali production by oral bacteria in the oral cavity has been linked to protection against dental caries. The current study assessed various parameters associated with ammonium produced during arginine catabolism in dental biofilms. Polymicrobial biofilms were formed with saliva as the inoculum. The NH(3) level and the pH of the spent medium were used to monitor and quantitate the bacterial reactions. The presence of sucrose, a low buffer capacity, and a low pH (≤ pH 4.5) were found to hamper alkali production from arginine. The rate of alkali production exhibited an optimum around pH 5.5. Biofilms were found to produce NH(3) also from polypeptides and proteins in the medium. The biofilm age affected these processes. The experimental model proved valuable for the assessment of the collective bacterial reactions determining the overall pH outcome. This experimental approach could bridge the gap in our knowledge between pH-rise phenomena and caries susceptibility from clinical observations and studies performed on alkali-producing bacteria in well- controlled, though simplified, in vitro models. Analysis of our data supports the hypothesis that the initiation and progression of dental caries may be influenced by the relative rates of acid and base formation, which critically depend on the aforementioned parameters. PMID:23010718

  17. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  18. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-05-18

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  19. Method of assembling and sealing an alkali metal battery

    DOEpatents

    Elkins, Perry E.; Bell, Jerry E.; Harlow, Richard A.; Chase, Gordon G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of initially assembling and then subsequently hermetically sealing a container portion of an alkali metal battery to a ceramic portion of such a battery is disclosed. Sealing surfaces are formed respectively on a container portion and a ceramic portion of an alkali metal battery. These sealing surfaces are brought into juxtaposition and a material is interposed therebetween. This interposed material is one which will diffuse into sealing relationship with both the container portion and the ceramic portion of the alkali metal battery at operational temperatures of such a battery. A pressure is applied between these sealing surfaces to cause the interposed material to be brought into intimate physical contact with such juxtaposed surfaces. A temporary sealing material which will provide a seal against a flow of alkali metal battery reactants therethrough at room temperatures and is applied over the juxtaposed sealing surfaces and material interposed therebetween. The entire assembly is heated to an operational temperature so that the interposed material diffuses into the container portion and the ceramic portion to form a hermetic seal therebetween. The pressure applied to the juxtaposed sealing surfaces is maintained in order to ensure the continuation of the hermetic seal.

  20. Method of assembling and sealing an alkali metal battery

    DOEpatents

    Elkins, P.E.; Bell, J.E.; Harlow, R.A.; Chase, G.G.

    1983-03-01

    A method of initially assembling and then subsequently hermetically sealing a container portion of an alkali metal battery to a ceramic portion of such a battery is disclosed. Sealing surfaces are formed respectively on a container portion and a ceramic portion of an alkali metal battery. These sealing surfaces are brought into juxtaposition and a material is interposed there between. This interposed material is one which will diffuse into sealing relationship with both the container portion and the ceramic portion of the alkali metal battery at operational temperatures of such a battery. A pressure is applied between these sealing surfaces to cause the interposed material to be brought into intimate physical contact with such juxtaposed surfaces. A temporary sealing material which will provide a seal against a flow of alkali metal battery reactants there through at room temperatures and is applied over the juxtaposed sealing surfaces and material interposed there between. The entire assembly is heated to an operational temperature so that the interposed material diffuses into the container portion and the ceramic portion to form a hermetic seal there between. The pressure applied to the juxtaposed sealing surfaces is maintained in order to ensure the continuation of the hermetic seal. 4 figs.