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Sample records for alkali soluble fraction

  1. The carbon dioxide solubility in alkali basalts: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, Priscille; Scaillet, Bruno; Pichavant, Michel; Beny, Jean-Michel

    2011-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine CO2 solubilities in alkali basalts from Vesuvius, Etna and Stromboli volcanoes. The basaltic melts were equilibrated with nearly pure CO2 at 1,200°C under oxidizing conditions and at pressures ranging from 269 to 2,060 bars. CO2 solubility was determined by FTIR measurements. The results show that alkalis have a strong effect on the CO2 solubility and confirm and refine the relationship between the compositional parameter Π devised by Dixon (Am Mineral 82:368-378, 1997) and the CO2 solubility. A general thermodynamic model for CO2 solubility in basaltic melts is defined for pressures up to 2 kbars. Based on the assumption that O2- and CO{3/2-} mix ideally, we have: begin{gathered} K(P,T) = {{X_{{{{CO}}3^{2 - } }}m (P,T)}/{X_{{{{O}^{2 - } }}m × f_{{{{CO}}2 }} (P,T)}}} \\ K(P,T) = {{X_{{{{CO}}3^{2 - } }}m (P,T)} {/ {{{X_{{{{CO}}3^{2 - } }}m (P,T)} {( {X_{{{{O}}^{2 - } }}m × f_{{{{CO}}2 }} (P,T)} ).}}} . kern-νlldelimiterspace} {( {X_{{{{O}}^{2 - } }}m × f_{{{{CO}}2 }} (P,T)} ).}} \\ Then, from the thermodynamic model, we obtain ln K 0 = 0.893 Π - 15.247. The new CO2 solubility model yields saturation pressures lower by as much as 50% relative to some existing models when applied to volatile-rich alkali basalts.

  2. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 79. Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Pseudohalides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hála, Jiri

    2004-03-01

    This volume presents solubility data of azides, cyanides, cyanates, and thiocyanates of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and ammonium. Covered are binary and ternary systems in all solvents. No solubility data have been found for some of the compounds of alkali metals, alkaline metals, and ammonium. These include beryllium and magnesium azides, lithium, rubidium cesium, ammonium, and alkaline earth cyanates and cyanides, and beryllium thiocyanate. Likewise, no solubility data seem to exist for selenocyanates of the mentioned metals and ammonium. The literature has been covered up to the middle of 2001, and there was a great effort to have the literature survey as complete as possible. The few documents which remained unavailable to the editor, and could not be included in the volume, are listed in the Appendix. For some compounds it was not possible to show the Chemical Abstracts registry numbers since these have not been assigned. For this reason, the registry number index is incomplete.

  3. Fractionation of alkali-solubilized hemicelluloses from delignified Populus gansuensis: structure and properties.

    PubMed

    Peng, Feng; Ren, Jun-Li; Xu, Feng; Bian, Jing; Peng, Pai; Sun, Run-Cang

    2010-05-12

    The dewaxed cell walls of Populus gansuensis were delignified with NaClO(2) and then sequentially extracted with 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 M KOH under a solid to liquid ratio of 1: 25 (g mL(-1)) at 25 degrees C for 10 h. The successive treatments together resulted in the dissolution of 83.7% of original hemicelluloses. The solubilized hemicellulosic fractions were further fractionated into six hemicellulosic subfractions by an iodine-complex precipitation technique. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined by HPAEC, GPC, FT-IR, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Neutral sugar composition and molecular weight analysis showed that, for each extract, the hemicellulosic subfractions that precipitated with aqueous potassium iodide-iodine had lower overall uronic acid/xylose (Uro/Xyl) ratios and higher molecular weights (M(w)) than those remaining in the solution. FT-IR, (1)H, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy analysis indicated that the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses of Populus gansuensis had a structure composed of the (1 --> 4)-linked beta-D-xylopyranosyl backbone with 4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronic acid attached to O-2 of the xylose residues.

  4. The combination of atomic force microscopy and sugar analysis to evaluate alkali-soluble Canna edulis Ker pectin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Cui, Junhui; Xiao, Lin; Wang, Zhengwu

    2014-08-01

    Alkali-soluble pectin, which has been extracted from Canna edulis Ker, was characterized by single sugar determination and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicated that the amounts of four predominant sugars including arabinose (Ara), glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal) and galacturonic acid (GalA) significantly decreased during the process of mild acid hydrolysis. The decreasing rates of these four sugars followed a sequential order of Ara>Gal>Glc>GalA. The homogalacturonan (HG) chain present in pectin, and the quantity of branched material is greater than the sample containing the main neutral sugars. The results indicated that the neutral sugar and HG side chains are attached to pectin as part of the rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) complex. Moreover, hydrolysis leads to the reduction of mean lengths of backbone and branch, as well as the number/weight-average molecular weight. Meanwhile, the amount of short chain fractions increased during hydrolysis. Furthermore, the decrease of the polymerization degree of alkali-soluble C. edulis pectin as a function of the hydrolysis time could be described by a first-order exponential decay function.

  5. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The

  6. Isotopic fractionation of alkali earth metals during carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yotsuya, T.; Ohno, T.; Muramatsu, Y.; Shimoda, G.; Goto, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The alkaline earth metals such as magnesium, calcium and strontium play an important role in a variety of geochemical and biological processes. The element ratios (Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in marine carbonates have been used as proxies for reconstruction of the past environment. Recently several studies suggested that the study for the isotopic fractionation of the alkaline earth metals in marine carbonates has a potentially significant influence in geochemical research fields (e.g. Eisenhauer et al., 2009). The aim of this study is to explore the influence of carbonate polymorphs (Calcite and Aragonite) and environmental factors (e.g., temperature, precipitation rate) on the level of isotopic fractionation of the alkaline earth metals. We also examined possible correlations between the level of isotopic fractionation of Ca and that of other alkaline earth metals during carbonate precipitation. In order to determine the isotope fractionation factor of Mg, Ca and Sr during carbonate precipitation, calcite and aragonite were synthesized from calcium bicarbonate solution in which the amount of magnesium was controlled based on Kitano method. Calcium carbonates were also prepared from the mixture of calcium chlorite and sodium hydrogen carbonate solutions. The isotope fractionation factors were measured by MC-ICPMS. Results suggested that the level of isotopic fractionation of Mg during carbonate precipitation was correlated with that of Sr and that the change of the carbonate crystal structure could make differences of isotopic fractionations of Mg and Ca, however no difference was found in the case of Sr. In this presentation, the possible mechanism will be discussed.

  7. Micropore surface area of alkali-soluble plant macromolecules (humic acids) drives their decomposition rates in soil.

    PubMed

    Papa, Gabriella; Spagnol, Manuela; Tambone, Fulvia; Pilu, Roberto; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that micropore surface area (MSA) of alkali-soluble bio-macromolecules of aerial plant residues of maize constitutes an important factor that explains their humification in soil, that is, preservation against biological degradation. On the other hand, root plant residue contributes to the soil humus balance, as well. Following the experimental design used in a previous paper published in this journal, this study shows that the biochemical recalcitrance of the alkali-soluble acid-insoluble fraction of the root plant material, contributed to the root maize humification of both Wild-type maize plants and its corresponding mutant brown midrib (bm3), this latter characterized by reduced lignin content. Humic acids (HAs) existed in root (root-HAs) were less degraded in soil than corresponding HAs existed in shoot (shoot-HAs): shoot-HAs bm3 (48%)>shoot-HAs Wild-type (37%)>root-HAs Wild-type (33%)>root-HAs bm3 (22%) (degradability shown in parenthesis). These differences were related to the MSA of HAs, that is, root-HAs having a higher MSA than shoot-HAs: shoot-HAs bm3 (41.43+/-1.2m(2)g(-1))

  8. Physicochemical and structural characterization of alkali soluble lignins from oil palm trunk and empty fruit-bunch fibers.

    PubMed

    Sun, R; Fang, J M; Tomkinson, J; Bolton, J

    1999-07-01

    Six alkali soluble lignin fractions were extracted from the cell wall materials of oil palm trunk and empty fruit-bunch (EFB) fibers with 5% NaOH, 10% NaOH, and 24% KOH/2% H(3)BO(3). All of the lignin fractions contained rather low amounts of associated neutral sugars (0.8-1.2%) and uronic acids (1.1-2.0%). The lignin fractions isolated with 5% NaOH from the lignified palm trunk and EFB fibers gave a relatively higher degree of polymerization as shown by weight-average molecular weights ranging between 2620 and 2840, whereas the lignin fractions isolated with 10% NaOH and 24% KOH/2% H(3)BO(3) from the partially delignified palm trunk and EFB fibers showed a relatively lower degree of polymerization, as shown by weight-average molecular weights ranging between 1750 and 1980. The results obtained by alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation showed that all of the lignin preparations contained a high proportion of noncondensed syringyl units with small amounts of noncondensed guaiacyl and fewer p-hydroxyphenyl units. The lignin fraction extracted with 5% NaOH from the lignified EFB fiber was mainly composed of beta-O-4 ether-linked units. Small amounts of 5-5', beta-5, and beta-beta' carbon-carbon linkages were also found to be present between the lignin structural units. Further studies showed that uronic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and ferulic acids in the cell walls of palm fibers were esterified to lignin.

  9. On determining the fractional solubility of aerosol iron in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Islas, A. M.; Mehalek, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a major source of iron to the surface ocean. The fraction of aerosol iron that partitions into the dissolved phase after deposition is considered available to biota, and as such it is an important parameter for the marine biogeochemical cycle of iron and the global carbon cycle. Yet, the fractional solubility of aerosol iron remains poorly constrained (<0.1% to 90%), and the relative importance of the different factors controlling the extent of dissolution has not been determined. Here we present results from onboard dissolution experiments conducted during the US GEOTRACES North Atlantic section cruises. Our results suggest that time-dependent dissolution processes are important, and that aerosol provenance rather than the leaching protocol employed is a key parameter in determining the fractional solubility of aerosol iron. The physicochemical speciation of aerosol iron after dissolution will also be discussed.

  10. The effect of alkalis and polymerization on the solubility of H2O and CO2 in alkali-rich silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetere, Francesco; Holtz, Francois; Behrens, Harald; Botcharnikov, Roman E.; Fanara, Sara

    2014-05-01

    The effect of alkalis on the solubility of H2O and CO2 in alkali-rich silicate melts was investigated at 500 MPa and 1,250 °C in the systems with H2O/(H2O + CO2) ratio varying from 0 to 1. Using a synthetic analog of phonotephritic magma from Alban Hills (AH1) as a base composition, the Na/(Na + K) ratio was varied from 0.28 (AH1) to 0.60 (AH2) and 0.85 (AH3) at roughly constant total alkali content. The obtained results were compared with the data for shoshonitic and latitic melts having similar total alkali content but different structural characteristics, e.g., NBO/ T parameter (the ratio of non-bridging oxygens over tetrahedrally coordinated cations), as those of the AH compositions. Little variation was observed in H2O solubility (melt equilibrated with pure H2O fluid) for the whole compositional range in this study with values ranging between 9.7 and 10.2 wt. As previously shown, the maximum CO2 content in melts equilibrated with CO2-rich fluids increases strongly with the NBO/T from 0.29 wt % for latite (NBO/ T = 0.17) to 0.45 wt % for shoshonite (NBO/ T = 0.38) to 0.90 wt % for AH2 (NBO/ T = 0.55). The highest CO2 contents determined for AH3 and AH1 are 1.18 ± 0.05 wt % and 0.86 ± 0.12 wt %, respectively, indicating that Na is promoting carbonate incorporation stronger than potassium. At near constant NBO/ T, CO2 solubility increases from 0.86 ± 0.12 wt % in AH1 [Na/(Na + K)] = 0.28, to 1.18 ± 0.05 wt % in AH3 [Na/(Na + K)] = 0.85, suggesting that Na favors CO2 solubility on an equimolar basis. An empirical equation is proposed to predict the maximum CO2 solubility at 500 MPa and 1,100-1,300 °C in various silicate melts as a function of the NBO/ T, (Na + K)/∑cations and Na/(Na + K) parameters: This model is valid for melt compositions with NBO/ T between 0.0 and 0.6, (Na + K)/∑cation between 0.08 and 0.36 and Na/(Na + K) ratio from 0.25 to 0.95 at oxygen fugacities around the quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer and above.

  11. Extreme early solar system chemical fractionation recorded by alkali-rich clasts contained in ordinary chondrite breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Misawa, Keiji; Okano, Osamu; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.; Simon, Justin I.; Tappa, Michael J.; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2017-01-01

    New K-Ca and Rb-Sr isotopic analyses have been performed on alkali-rich igneous rock fragments in the Yamato (Y)-74442 and Bhola LL-chondritic breccias to better understand the extent and timing of alkali enrichments in the early solar system. The Y-74442 fragments yield a K-Ca age of 4.41 ± 0.28 Ga for λ(40K) = 0.5543 Ga-1 with an initial 40Ca/44Ca ratio of 47.1618 ± 0.0032. Studying the same fragments with the Rb-Sr isotope system yields an age of 4.420 ± 0.031 Ga for λ(87Rb) = 0.01402 Ga-1 with an initial ratio of 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7203 ± 0.0044. An igneous rock fragment contained in Bhola shows a similar alkali fractionation pattern to those of Y-74442 fragments but does not plot on the K-Ca or Rb-Sr isochron of the Y-74442 fragments. Calcium isotopic compositions of whole-rock samples of angrite and chondrites are primordial, indistinguishable from mantle-derived terrestrial rocks, and here considered to represent the initial composition of bulk silicate Earth. The initial ε40Ca value determined for the source of the alkali clasts in Y-74442 that is ∼0.5 ε-units higher than the solar system value implies an early alkali enrichment. Multi-isotopic studies on these alkali-rich fragments reveal that the source material of Y-74442 fragments had elemental ratios of K/Ca = 0.43 ± 0.18, Rb/Sr = 3.45 ± 0.66 and K/Rb ∼ 170, that may have formed from mixtures of an alkali-rich component (possibly an alkali-enriched gaseous reservoir produced by fractionation of early nebular condensates) and chondritic components that were flash-heated during an impact event on the LL-chondrite parent body ∼4.42 Ga ago. Further enrichments of potassium and rubidium relative to calcium and strontium as well as a mutual alkali-fractionation (K/Rb ∼ 50 and heavier alkali-enrichment) would have likely occurred during subsequent cooling and differentiation of this melt. Alkali fragments in Bhola might have undergone similar solid-vapor fractionation processes to those of Y

  12. Fractionating soluble microbial products in the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Zeng, Raymond J; Fang, Fang; Xie, Wen-Ming; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2010-04-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMP) are the pool of organic compounds originating from microbial growth and decay, and are usually the major component of the soluble organic matters in effluents from biological treatment processes. In this work, SMP in activated sludge were characterized, fractionized, and quantified using integrated chemical analysis and mathematical approach. The utilization-associated products (UAP) in SMP, produced in the substrate-utilization process, were found to be carbonaceous compounds with a molecular weight (MW) lower than 290 kDa which were quantified separately from biomass-associated products (BAP). The BAP were mainly cellular macromolecules with an MW in a range of 290-5000 kDa, and for the first time were further classified into the growth-associated BAP (GBAP) with an MW of 1000 kDa, which were produced in the microbial growth phase, and the endogeny-associated BAP (EBAP) with an MW of 4500 kDa, which were generated in the endogenous phase. Experimental and modeling results reveal that the UAP could be utilized by the activated sludge and that the BAP would accumulate in the system. The GBAP and EBAP had different formation rates from the hydrolysis of extracellular polymeric substances and distinct biodegradation kinetics. This study provides better understanding of SMP formation mechanisms and becomes useful for subsequent effluent treatment.

  13. Nanometer-scale structure of alkali-soluble bio-macromolecules of maize plant residues explains their recalcitrance in soil.

    PubMed

    Adani, Fabrizio; Salati, Silvia; Spagnol, Manuela; Tambone, Fulvia; Genevini, Pierluigi; Pilu, Roberto; Nierop, Klaas G J

    2009-07-01

    The quantity and quality of plant litter in the soil play an important role in the soil organic matter balance. Besides other pedo-climatic aspects, the content of recalcitrant molecules of plant residues and their chemical composition play a major role in the preservation of plant residues. In this study, we report that intrinsically resistant alkali-soluble bio-macromolecules extracted from maize plant (plant-humic acid) (plant-HA) contribute directly to the soil organic matter (OM) by its addition and conservation in the soil. Furthermore, we also observed that a high syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio in the lignin residues comprising the plant tissue, which modifies the microscopic structure of the alkali-soluble plant biopolymers, enhances their recalcitrance because of lower accessibility of molecules to degrading enzymes. These results are in agreement with a recent study, which showed that the humic substance of soil consists of a mixture of identifiable biopolymers obtained directly from plant tissues that are added annually by maize plant residues.

  14. Which Starch Fraction is Water-Soluble, Amylose or Amylopectin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mark M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A survey of 22 popular organic chemistry textbooks showed that only four correctly stated that of the two components of starch, amylopectin is the water-soluble, and amylose is the water-insoluble. (MLH)

  15. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 89. Alkali Metal Nitrates. Part 2. Sodium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eysseltová, Jitka; Zbranek, Vladimír; Skripkin, Mikhail Yurievich; Sawada, Kiyoshi; Tepavitcharova, Stefka

    2017-03-01

    The solubility data at 1 bar or saturation pressure for sodium nitrate are reviewed. Where appropriate, binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems are critically evaluated. The solubility results were obtained in water or aqueous solutions. All data were critically examined for their reliability. The best values were selected on the basis of critical evaluations and presented in tabular form. Fitting equations and plots are also provided. The quantities, units, and symbols used are in accord with IUPAC recommendations. The original data have been reported and, if necessary, transferred into the units and symbols recommended by IUPAC. The literature on solubility data was researched through 2014.

  16. Structural Redesigning Arabidopsis Lignins into Alkali-Soluble Lignins through the Expression of p-Coumaroyl-CoA:Monolignol Transferase PMT.

    PubMed

    Sibout, Richard; Le Bris, Philippe; Legée, Frédéric; Cézard, Laurent; Renault, Hugues; Lapierre, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Grass lignins can contain up to 10% to 15% by weight of p-coumaric esters. This acylation is performed on monolignols under the catalysis of p-coumaroyl-coenzyme A monolignol transferase (PMT). To study the impact of p-coumaroylation on lignification, we first introduced the Brachypodium distachyon Bradi2g36910 (BdPMT1) gene into Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) under the control of the constitutive maize (Zea mays) ubiquitin promoter. The resulting p-coumaroylation was far lower than that of lignins from mature grass stems and had no impact on stem lignin content. By contrast, introducing either the BdPMT1 or the Bradi1g36980 (BdPMT2) gene into Arabidopsis under the control of the Arabidopsis cinnamate-4-hydroxylase promoter boosted the p-coumaroylation of mature stems up to the grass lignin level (8% to 9% by weight), without any impact on plant development. The analysis of purified lignin fractions and the identification of diagnostic products confirmed that p-coumaric acid was associated with lignins. BdPMT1-driven p-coumaroylation was also obtained in the fah1 (deficient for ferulate 5-hydroxylase) and ccr1g (deficient for cinnamoyl-coenzyme A reductase) lines, albeit to a lower extent. Lignins from BdPMT1-expressing ccr1g lines were also found to be feruloylated. In Arabidopsis mature stems, substantial p-coumaroylation of lignins was achieved at the expense of lignin content and induced lignin structural alterations, with an unexpected increase of lignin units with free phenolic groups. This higher frequency of free phenolic groups in Arabidopsis lignins doubled their solubility in alkali at room temperature. These findings suggest that the formation of alkali-leachable lignin domains rich in free phenolic groups is favored when p-coumaroylated monolignols participate in lignification in a grass in a similar manner.

  17. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  18. Solubility of alkali metal halides in the ionic liquid [C4C1im][OTf].

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, O; Bordes, E; Schmauck, J; Hunt, P A; Hallett, J P; Welton, T

    2016-06-28

    The solubilities of the metal halides LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KF, KCl, KBr, KI, RbCl, CsCl, CsI, were measured at temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 378.15 K in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([C4C1im][OTf]). Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) salts with anions matching the ionic liquid have also been investigated to determine how well these cations dissolve in [C4C1im][OTf]. This study compares the influence of metal cation and halide anion on the solubility of salts within this ionic liquid. The highest solubility found was for iodide salts, and the lowest solubility for the three fluoride salts. There is no outstanding difference in the solubility of salts with matching anions in comparison to halide salts. The experimental data were correlated employing several phase equilibria models, including ideal mixtures, van't Hoff, the λh (Buchowski) equation, the modified Apelblat equation, and the non-random two-liquid model (NRTL). It was found that the van't Hoff model gave the best correlation results. On the basis of the experimental data the thermodynamic dissolution parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) were determined for the studied systems together with computed gas phase metathesis parameters. Dissolution depends on the energy difference between enthalpies of fusion and dissolution of the solute salt. This demonstrates that overcoming the lattice energy of the solid matrix is the key to the solubility of inorganic salts in ionic liquids.

  19. Identification and characterisation of water and alkali soluble oligosaccharides from hazelnut skin (Corylus avellana L.).

    PubMed

    Montella, Rosa; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Locatelli, Monica; Bordiga, Matteo; Meyrand, Mickael; Barile, Daniela; Arlorio, Marco

    2013-10-15

    Hazelnut skins are a good example of agricultural by-product with the potential to become a valuable source of functional ingredients. In this work, the fibre from hazelnut skins was extracted by using water and alkali solution and characterised by a suite of analytical tools (MALDI-FTICR, nano LC-Chip-Q-ToF and gas chromatography). Over thirty complex free oligosaccharides, composed mainly of galacturonic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine, were characterised for the first time in the present study. Their concentration ranged between 16 and 34mg per g of extract. The oligosaccharides isolated from this agricultural by-product are mainly hexose oligosaccharides (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides,) and xyloglucans. The identified composition could justify the bioactive activity of the extracts, namely prebiotic activity, previously demonstrated.

  20. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. 'Zhongwan no. 6') were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (10(4) RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0-2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity.

  1. Alkali-Soluble Pectin Is the Primary Target of Aluminum Immobilization in Root Border Cells of Pea (Pisum sativum)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Qu, Mei; Fang, Jing; Shen, Ren Fang; Feng, Ying Ming; Liu, Jia You; Bian, Jian Feng; Wu, Li Shu; He, Yong Ming; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. ‘Zhongwan no. 6’) were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (104 RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0–2.5 mm), indicating a shielding role of RBCs for the root apex under Al toxicity. Cell wall analysis showed that Al accumulated predominantly in alkali-soluble pectin (pectin 2) of RBCs. This could be attributed to a significant increase of uronic acids under Al toxicity, higher capacity of Al adsorption in pectin 2 [5.3-fold higher than that of chelate-soluble pectin (pectin 1)], and lower ratio of Al desorption from pectin 2 (8.5%) compared with pectin 1 (68.5%). These results indicate that pectin 2 is the primary target of Al immobilization in RBCs of pea, which impairs Al access to the intracellular space of RBCs and mobility to root apices, and therefore protects root apices and RBCs from Al toxicity. PMID:27679639

  2. Comparing the sugar profiles and primary structures of alkali-extracted water-soluble polysaccharides in cell wall between the yeast and mycelial phases from Tremella fuciformis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanyu; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Juan; Zheng, Liesheng; Chen, Liguo; Ma, Aimin

    2016-05-01

    To gain insights into dimorphism, cell wall polysaccharides from Tremella fuciformis strains were obtained from alkali-extracted water-soluble fractions PTF-M38 (from the mycelial form), PTF-Y3 and PTF-Y8 (from the yeast form) of T. fuciformis strains were used to gain some insights into dimorphism study. Their chemical properties and structural features were investigated using gel permeation chromatography, gas chromatography, UV and IR spectrophotometry and Congo red binding reactions. The results indicated that the backbones of PTF-M38, PTF-Y3 and PTF-Y8 were configured with α-linkages with average molecular weights of 1.24, 1.08, and 1.19 kDa, respectively. PTF-M38 was mainly composed of xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose in a ratio of 1:1.47:0.48:0.34, while PTF-Y3 and PTF-Y8 were mainly composed of xylose, mannose and glucose in a ratio of 1:1.65:4.06 and 1:1.21:0.44, respectively. The sugar profiles of PTF-M38, PTF-Y3 and PTF-Y8 were also established for further comparison. These profiles showed that all three polysaccharides contained the same sugars but in different ratios, and the carbon sources (xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose) affected the sugar ratios within the polysaccharides.

  3. Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

  4. Solubility of soy lipophilic proteins: comparison with other soy protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Sirison, Jiraporn; Matsumiya, Kentaro; Samoto, Masahiko; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Kouno, Mitsutaka; Matsumura, Yasuki

    2017-04-01

    Solubility of soy lipophilic proteins (LP) was studied as compared with that of other soy protein fractions. LP, β-conglycinin, glycinin, and soy protein isolate (N-SPI) were prepared under the condition to avoid heat denaturation. Solubility of LP was lower than that of other soy protein fractions under all the tested conditions varying in pH values and ionic strength. The solubility of LP was increased constantly by elevating temperature until 90 °C, whereas that of β-conglycinin and glycinin dropped at high temperature. Temperature-dependent change in solubility of N-SPI might reflect the balance among that of glycinin, β-conglycinin and LP. Based on the results of SDS-PAGE, determination of phospholipid content and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, we discussed the solubilization behavior of LP relating to its origin and composition.

  5. On the fractional solubility of copper in marine aerosols: Toxicity of aeolian copper revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholkovitz, Edward R.; Sedwick, Peter N.; Church, Thomas M.

    2010-10-01

    Paytan et al. (2009) argue that the atmospheric deposition of aerosols lead to copper concentrations that are potentially toxic to marine phytoplankton in a large area of tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. A key assumption in their model is that all marine aerosols (mineral dust and anthropogenic particles) have a high (40%) fractional solubility of copper. Our data show that the fractional solubility of copper for Saharan dust over the Sargasso Sea and Bermuda is significantly lower (1-7%). In contrast, anthropogenic aerosols with non-Saharan sources have significantly higher values (10-100%). Hence, the potential Cu toxicity in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic should be re-estimated, given the low fractional solubility of Cu in the Saharan dust that dominates aerosol deposition to this region.

  6. Influence of measurement uncertainties on fractional solubility of iron in mineral aerosols over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Johnson, Matthew S.; Hurley, David; Dawson, Kyle

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of mineral dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in mineral dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust in the global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of mineral dust aerosol Fe associated with the flow-through leaching protocol to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. According to the protocol, aerosol Fe is defined as soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to analysis. To estimate the uncertainty in soluble Fe results introduced by the flow-through leaching protocol, we prescribe an average 50% (range of 30-70%) fractional solubility to sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles that may inadvertently pass the filter and end up in the acidified (at pH ∼ 1.7) leachate for a couple of month period. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using a complex mineral aerosol Fe dissolution equations, or prescribed to be 1% and 4% often used by global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle models to reproduce the broad characteristics of the presently observed ocean dissolved iron distribution. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (∼40%) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total mineral dust mass. This study suggests that different methods used in soluble Fe measurements and inconsistences in the operational definition of

  7. Solubility and diffusivity study for light gases in heavy oil and its fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathi, Rajkumar

    Solvent-based recovery (VAPEX) is one of the most promising alternatives to thermal techniques to enhance heavy oil/bitumen recovery. Knowledge of the phase behavior and diffusion coefficients of gases in heavy oil is very important when designing recovery operations and facilities. In this work, a gravimetric microbalance was used to measure the solubility of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane and butane in a Lloydminster heavy oil and its fractions. Measurements were carried out on carbon dioxide and ethane at (290, 298 and 313) K over a pressure range from (200 to 2000) kPa. Similar measurements were performed on propane and butane below their vapor pressures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to correlate the experimental results. The Solubility Parameter Theory was used to predict the solubility of CO2 and propane in heavy oil/bitumen over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The associated Henry's Law constants for carbon dioxide, ethane and propane in heavy oil, its saturate fractions and aromatic fractions, were also determined from the absorption data. The gases had higher solubilities and the strongest interactions at lower temperatures in the heavy oil and its fractions. The diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide, ethane and propane in heavy oil, its saturate and aromatic fractions were calculated using a simple diffusion model. The diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane and butane in heavy oil were calculated at different pressures. Estimated values were in agreement with published results and were found satisfactory.

  8. Speciation and water soluble fraction of iron in aerosols from various sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Kurisu, M.; Uematsu, M.

    2015-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient and has been identified as a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the ocean. In the North Pacific, three sources of iron (Fe) transported via. atmosphere can be suggested: (i) mineral dust from East Asia, (ii) anthropogenic Fe, and (iii) aerosols from volcanic origin. Considering these different sources, Fe can be found and transported in a variety of chemical forms, both water-soluble and -insoluble. It is generally believed that only the soluble fraction of Fe can be considered as bioavailable for phytoplankton. To assess the biogeochemical impact of the atmospheric input, attempt was made to determine Fe species by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and its water solubility, in particular to compare the three sources. Iron species, chemical composition, and soluble Fe concentration in aerosol collected at Tsukuba (Japan) through a year were investigated to compare the contributions of mineral dust and anthropogenic components. It was found that the concentration of soluble Fe in aerosol is correlated with those of sulfate and oxalate which originate from anthropogenic sources, suggesting that soluble Fe is mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. XAS analysis showed that main Fe species in aerosols in Tsukuba were illite, ferrihydrite, hornblende, and Fe(III) sulfate. Moreover, soluble Fe fraction is closely correlated with that of Fe(III) sulfate. In spite of supply of high concentrations of Fe in mineral dust from East Asia, it was found that anthropogenic fraction is important due to its high water solubility by the presence of Fe(III) sulfate. Marine aerosol samples originated from volcanic ash were collected in the western North Pacific during KH-08-2 cruise (August, 2008). XAS analysis suggested that Fe species of volcanic ashes changed during the long-range transport, while dissolution experiment showed that Fe solubility of the marine aerosol is larger than

  9. Isolation of ascorbate free radical reductase from rabbit lens soluble fraction.

    PubMed

    Bando, Masayasu; Inoue, Takashi; Oka, Mikako; Nakamura, Kayako; Kawai, Kenji; Obazawa, Hajime; Kobayashi, Shizuko; Takehana, Makoto

    2004-12-01

    Ascorbate free radical (AFR) reductase with diaphorase activity was isolated from the rabbit lens soluble fraction to characterise some molecular properties of the enzyme. The isolation was accomplished using gel filtration (Sephadex G-75 superfine or Sephacryl S-200 HR), affinity chromatography (Affi-Gel Blue), native isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A major soluble AFR reductase was found at an isoelectric point of 8.4 and a molecular weight of 31 kDa, and a few minor enzymes were also detected in the range of pI 7.0-8.6. An unknown N-terminal partial amino acid sequence was determined in one peptide fragment prepared from the major enzyme fraction. From the sequence analysis, it is discussed that the lens soluble AFR reductase may differ from NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase reported to be involved in the membrane-bound AFR reductase activity of mitochondria, microsomes and plasma membrane.

  10. Fractional solubility of aerosol iron: Synthesis of a global-scale data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholkovitz, Edward R.; Sedwick, Peter N.; Church, Thomas M.; Baker, Alexander R.; Powell, Claire F.

    2012-07-01

    Aerosol deposition provides a major input of the essential micronutrient iron to the open ocean. A critical parameter with respect to biological availability is the proportion of aerosol iron that enters the oceanic dissolved iron pool - the so-called fractional solubility of aerosol iron (%FeS). Here we present a global-scale compilation of total aerosol iron loading (FeT) and estimated %FeS values for ∼1100 samples collected over the open ocean, the coastal ocean, and some continental sites, including a new data set from the Atlantic Ocean. Despite the wide variety of methods that have been used to define 'soluble' aerosol iron, our global-scale compilation reveals a remarkably consistent trend in the fractional solubility of aerosol iron as a function of total aerosol iron loading, with the great bulk of the data defining an hyperbolic trend. The hyperbolic trends that we observe for both global- and regional-scale data are adequately described by a simple two-component mixing model, whereby the fractional solubility of iron in the bulk aerosol reflects the conservative mixing of 'lithogenic' mineral dust (high FeT and low %FeS) and non-lithogenic 'combustion' aerosols (low FeT and high %FeS). An increasing body of empirical and model-based evidence points to anthropogenic fuel combustion as the major source of these non-lithogenic 'combustion' aerosols, implying that human emissions are a major determinant of the fractional solubility of iron in marine aerosols. The robust global-scale relationship between %FeS and FeT provides a simple heuristic method for estimating aerosol iron solubility at the regional to global scale.

  11. Methane production from the soluble fraction of distillers' dried grains with solubles in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, D P; Hirl, P J; Belia, E

    2008-06-01

    Methane production from the soluble fraction of distillers' dried grains with solubles, a co-product of ethanol production, was studied in 2-L anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) under 10 different operating conditions. Methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were quantified for a wide range of operating parameters. Chemical oxygen demand removals of 64 to 95% were achieved at organic loading rates ranging from 1.5 to 22.2 g COD/L x d, solids retention times from 8 to 40 days, and food-to-microorganism ratios ranging from 0.4 to 1.9 g COD/g volatile suspended solids (VSS) x d. Biogas methane content varied from 61 to 74%, with 0.29 L CH4 produced/g COD removed. Roughly 56% of the influent COD and 84% of the COD removed in the ASBRs was converted to methane. Microbial yield (Y) and decay (b) constants were determined to be Y = 0.126 g VSS/g COD removed and b = 0.032 day(-1), respectively. Methane produced from co-products can reduce the costs and fossil-fuel consumption of ethanol manufacture.

  12. Dry fractionation creates fractions of wheat distillers dried grains and solubles with highly digestible nutrient content for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Nutrient digestibility in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is limited by constraints such as particle size and fiber. Wheat DDGS contains more fiber than corn DDGS that may reduce its nutritional value in swine feeds. Dry fractionation may create DDGS fractions with low and high fiber content; therefore, wheat DDGS was processed sequentially using a vibratory sifter and gravity table. Sufficient material was obtained from 3 wheat DDGS fractions that differed in particle size from fine to coarse (Fraction A [FA], Fraction C [FC], and Fraction D [FD]). Five cornstarch-based diets were mixed that contained either 40% wheat DDGS, 30% FA, 30% FC plus 10% soybean meal (SBM), 30% FD plus 15% SBM, or 35% SBM. A sixth, N-free diet served to subtract basal endogenous AA losses and as control for energy digestibility calculations. Six ileal-cannulated barrows (29 kg BW) were fed 6 diets at 2.8 times maintenance for DE in six 9-d periods as a 6 × 6 Latin square. Feces and ileal digesta were collected sequentially for 2 d each. Wheat DDGS FA, FC, and FD were 258, 530, and 723 μm in mean particle size and contained 44.8, 39.3, and 33.8% CP and 29.1, 35.1, and 37.5% in NDF, respectively. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS, was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than wheat DDGS, and did not differ between FC, FD, and wheat DDGS. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) did not differ between SBM and wheat DDGS (P > 0.05) for most AA. The SID of Arg, Lys, Trp, and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than wheat DDGS but was similar for FA, FC, and wheat DDGS and was greater (P < 0.05) for FD than SBM. The DE and NE value was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM, FA, and FC than wheat DDGS and did not differ between FD and wheat DDGS. The SID content of indispensable AA and available Lys was greater (P < 0.05) for SBM than wheat DDGS. The SID content of Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, and Val was greater (P < 0.05) for FA than

  13. Zinc solubility and fractionation in cultivated calcareous soils irrigated with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nazif, W; Marzouk, E R; Perveen, S; Crout, N M J; Young, S D

    2015-06-15

    The solubility, lability and fractionation of zinc in a range of calcareous soils from Peshawar, Pakistan were studied (18 topsoils and 18 subsoils). The lability (E-value) of Zn was assessed as the fraction isotopically exchangeable with (70)Zn(2+); comparative extractions included 0.005 M DTPA, 0.43 M HNO3 and a Tessier-style sequential extraction procedure (SEP). Because of the extremely low concentration of labile Zn the E-value was determined in soils suspended in 0.0001 M Na2-EDTA which provided reliable analytical conditions in which approximately 20% of the labile Zn was dissolved. On average, only 2.4% of soil Zn was isotopically exchangeable. This corresponded closely to Zn solubilised by extraction with 0.005 DTPA and by the carbonate extraction step (F1+F2) of the Tessier-style SEP. Crucially, although the majority of the soil CaCO3 was dissolved in F2 of the SEP, the DTPA dissolved only a very small proportion of the soil CaCO3. This suggests a superficial carbonate-bound form of labile Zn, accessible to extraction with DTPA and to isotopic exchange. Zinc solubility from soil suspended in 0.01 M Ca(NO3)2 (PCO2 controlled at 0.03) was measured over three days. Following solution speciation using WHAM(VII) two simple solubility models were parameterised: a pH dependent 'adsorption' model based on the labile (isotopically exchangeable) Zn distribution coefficient (Kd) and an apparent solubility product (Ks) for ZnCO3. The distribution coefficient showed no pH-dependence and the solubility model provided the best fit to the free ion activity (Zn(2+)) data, although the apparent value of log10 Ks (5.1) was 2.8 log units lower than that of the mineral smithsonite (ZnCO3).

  14. Characterization and functional properties of sub-fractions of soluble soybean polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Matsumoto, Shinya; Nakamura, Akihiro; Maeda, Hirokazu; Matsumura, Yasuki

    2009-12-01

    Soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) was fractionated into two sub-fractions, a high-molecular-weight fraction (HMF) and a low-molecular-weight fraction (LMF) by the ethanol-extraction method. Characterization of the sub-fractions, that is, analysis of chemical composition, gel filtration, and SDS-PAGE, revealed that the main component of HMF was a large polysaccharide molecule with covalently-attached peptides, possibly corresponding to the intact SSPS molecule. LMF consisted of free peptides and saccharides of small size, which might have occurred as by-products during the production process of SSPS. HMF exhibited high ability to emulsify oil droplets and stabilize alpha-casein dispersions in an acidic pH region, but this ability of LMF was inferior to HMF. On the other hand, LMF had higher activity to prevent the oxidation of emulsified lipids than HMF. These results suggest that HMF and LMF had different characteristics and functional properties, and that the combination of the two sub-fractions generates the multi-functions of commercial SSPS.

  15. Molecular Size and Weight of Asphaltene and Asphaltene Solubility Fractions from Coals, Crude Oils and Bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Badre,S.; Goncalves, C.; Norinaga, K.; Gustavson, G.; Mullins, O.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular weight of asphaltenes has been a controversy for several decades. In recent years, several techniques have converged on the size of the fused ring system; indicating that chromophores in virgin crude oil asphaltenes typically have 4-10 fused rings. Consequently, the molecular weight debate is equivalent to determining whether asphaltenes are monomeric (one fused-ring system per molecule) or whether they are polymeric. Time-resolved fluorescence depolarization (FD) is employed here to interrogate the absolute size of asphaltene molecules and to determine the relation of the size of the fused ring system to that of the corresponding molecule. Coal, petroleum and bitumen asphaltenes are compared. Molecular size of coal asphaltenes obtained here by FD-determined rotational diffusion match closely with Taylor-dispersion-derived translational diffusion measurements with UV absorption. Coal asphaltenes are smaller than petroleum asphaltenes. N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) soluble and insoluble fractions are examined. NMP soluble and insoluble fractions of asphaltenes are monomeric. It is suggested that the 'giant' asphaltene molecules reported from SEC studies using NMP as the eluting solvent may actually be the expected flocs of asphaltene which are not soluble in NMP. Data is presented that intramolecular electronic relaxation in asphaltenes does not perturb FD results.

  16. Characteristics of the behavior of the water-soluble fraction of oil in model experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailova, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with the characteristics of the behavior of petroleum products in water, when conducting toxicological investigations, the highly sensitive radiotracer technique is used which permits judging the concentration of hydrocarbons based on radioactivity (RA) in a small volume of water. A method of labeling water-soluble components of oil with radioactive iodine-131 is discussed. The authors extracted the water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSFO) with chloroform and labeled it with radioactive iodine-131, obtaining (/sup 131/I)WSFO, which was then introduced into a vessel with water and into the bottom sediments for conducting model experiments. The RA was determined sixfold. The dynamics of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water-WSFO system are discussed, as well as in the water-sediment-WSFO system and in the water-sediment-animals-WSFO system.

  17. Embryotoxicity and biotransformation responses in zebrafish exposed to water-soluble fraction of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Pauka, Luciana M; Maceno, Marcell; Rossi, Stefani C; Silva de Assis, Helena C

    2011-04-01

    The toxic effects of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil (API27, Petrobras Campos Basin, Brazil) were evaluated during the early life stages of zebrafish, as well as its biotransformation in juvenile fish. Embryonic development was studied during 96 h. Reduced heartbeat rate, weak pigmentation, tail defects, and embryo mortality were observed for all of the tested concentrations of the WSF. Activities of the biotransformation enzymes were induced at the highest concentrations, showing that these enzymes played a role in its elimination. As shown in this study the crude oil WSF altered the normal embryonic development of fish.

  18. The protein fraction from wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS): extraction and valorization

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Torres, M.F.; Ward, J.M.; Lye, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there is worldwide interest in developing a sustainable economy where biobased chemicals are the lead actors. Various potential feedstocks are available including glycerol, rapeseed meal and municipal solid waste (MSW). For biorefinery applications the byproduct streams from distilleries and bioethanol plants, such as wheat-based dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS), are particularly attractive, as they do not compete for land use. Wheat DDGS is rich in polymeric sugars, proteins and oils, making it ideal as a current animal feed, but also a future substrate for the synthesis of fine and commodity chemicals. This review focuses on the extraction and valorization of the protein fraction of wheat DDGS as this has received comparatively little attention to date. Since wheat DDGS production is expected to increase greatly in the near future, as a consequence of expansion of the bioethanol industry in the UK, strategies to valorize the component fractions of DDGS are urgently needed. PMID:25644639

  19. Toxicity of creosote water-soluble fractions generated from contaminated sediments to the bay mysid.

    PubMed

    Padma, T V; Hale, R C; Roberts, M H; Lipcius, R N

    1999-02-01

    Creosote, a globally used wood preservative, is a complex mixture consisting primarily of aromatic organic compounds (ACs). Creosote-derived ACs can persist for decades in aquatic sediments. Natural and anthropogenic activities may result in dissolution and resuspension of sediment-associated ACs. These processes were mimicked by generating a water-soluble fraction (WSF) from creosote-contaminated sediment (ERS) collected from a polluted site. The epibenthic mysid Mysidopsis bahia was exposed to five sublethal concentrations of WSF for 7 days. The WSF significantly decreased dry weight gain and proportion of gravid females (EC50=15 microgram/liter total identified ACs). Chemical analysis indicated that high-molecular-weight ACs (more than three aromatic rings) dominated the ERS, but were undetected in the WSF. Low-molecular-weight ACs (fewer than three aromatic rings) dominated the WSF. Compositional differences can thus result from fractionation processes and affect environmental fate and toxicity of the mixture.

  20. Proteomic analysis of the soluble fraction from human corneal fibroblasts with reference to ocular transparency.

    PubMed

    Karring, Henrik; Thøgersen, Ida B; Klintworth, Gordon K; Enghild, Jan J; Møller-Pedersen, Torben

    2004-07-01

    The transparent corneal stroma contains a population of corneal fibroblasts termed keratocytes, which are interspersed between the collagen lamellae. Under normal conditions, the keratocytes are quiescent and transparent. However, after corneal injury the keratocytes become activated and transform into backscattering wound-healing fibroblasts resulting in corneal opacification. At present, the most popular hypothesis suggests that particular abundant water-soluble proteins called enzyme-crystallins are involved in maintaining corneal cellular transparency. Specifically, corneal haze development is thought to be related to low levels of cytoplasmic enzyme-crystallins in reflective corneal fibroblasts. To further investigate this hypothesis, we have used a proteomic approach to identify the most abundant water-soluble proteins in serum-cultured human corneal fibroblasts that represent an in vitro model of the reflective wound-healing keratocyte phenotype. Densitometry of one-dimensional gels revealed that no single protein isoform exceeded 5% of the total water-soluble protein fraction, which is the qualifying property of a corneal enzyme-crystallin according to the current definition. This result indicates that wound-healing corneal fibroblasts do not contain enzyme-crystallins. A total of 254 protein identifications from two-dimensional gels were performed representing 118 distinct proteins. Proteins protecting against oxidative stress and protein misfolding were prominent, suggesting that these processes may participate in the generation of cytoplasmic light-scattering from corneal fibroblasts.

  1. Ascorbate free radical reductases and diaphorases in soluble fractions of the human lens.

    PubMed

    Bando, M; Obazawa, H

    1995-12-01

    Major and minor ascorbate free radical (AFR) reductases, with diaphorase activity, and three other diaphorases were separated from the human lens soluble fraction by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. They were characterized for adsorptivity to ion-exchange and 5'AMP-Sepharose 4B affinity columns, kinetic properties, and substrate specificity. The latter diaphorases were closely correlated with NADH-cytochrome beta 5 reductase. The major and minor AFR reductases were regarded as a major diaphorase group different from two ubiquitous diaphorases, i.e., NADH-cytochrome beta 5 reductase and DT-diaphorase. A major AFR reductase was partially purified approximately 50 fold over the lens soluble fraction by ion-exchange, affinity, and gel filtration (Sephacryl S-200 HR) column chromatography. From the partially purified enzyme, 2 bands, one sharp and one diffuse, were obtained by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two proteins, of 20 and 24 kDa, were identified in the active enzyme bands by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This suggests that the 20 and/or 24 kDa proteins may be components of the major AFR reductase.

  2. Lightsticks content toxicity: effects of the water soluble fraction on the oyster embryonic development.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Menezes Filho, Adalberto; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Pereira, Pedro Afonso P

    2015-11-01

    Lightsticks are artifacts used as attractors in a type of commercial fishery, known as surface longline gear. Despite the excessive use, the contamination risks of these devices have not yet been properly investigated. This research aimed to fill up this gap by determining the chemical composition and the toxicity of lightsticks recently activated, compared to those one year after activation and to the ones collected on the beaches. The analyzes were carried out by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, the variations in composition and the toxicity of their sea Water Soluble Fractions (WSF) were evaluated based on the WSF-effects of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development. The GC-MS analysis made possible the identification of nineteen substances in the water soluble fraction of the lightsticks, such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The value of the WSF-effective concentration (EC50) was in an average of 0.35%. After one year of the lightsticks activation, the toxicity was even higher (0.65%). Furthermore, other substances, also present in the lightsticks-WSF caused persistent toxicity even more dangerous to the environment than DBP and DMP. This essay discusses their toxicity effects and possible environment damages.

  3. Chemical composition of water-soluble fraction in soils on glaciolacustrine deposits of the Russian Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, E. G.; Oleinikova, G. A.; Matinyan, N. N.; Bakhmatova, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of some chemical elements was studied in soils and their liquid phase. Two reference soil profiles on glaciolacustrine clays (soddy-eluvial-metamorphic soil) and sands (soddy podzol) were investigated on the Russian Plain. A colloidal fraction (particles <1 μm) was isolated with deionized hot water from a soil sample of 30 g at the soil: water ratio of 1: 10. The suspension was mixed for 6 h, settled for 24 h, and filtrated using a membrane filter (<1 μm). The soil sample and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) were analyzed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The chemical characteristics of the extracted liquid phase of the soil reflect its water-soluble component properties. The comparison of the data obtained with the results of the analysis for the whole soil allows assessment of a share of easily mobile and difficultly mobile forms of chemical compounds. This is the necessary basis for the development of a model describing the transport of metals in soil.

  4. Sunlight creates oxygenated species in water-soluble fractions of Deepwater Horizon oil.

    PubMed

    Ray, Phoebe Z; Chen, Huan; Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Tarr, Matthew A

    2014-09-15

    In order to assess the impact of sunlight on oil fate, Macondo well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) rig was mixed with pure water and irradiated with simulated sunlight. After irradiation, the water-soluble organics (WSO) from the dark and irradiated samples were extracted and characterized by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Liquid-liquid extraction yielded two fractions from dark and irradiated water/oil mixtures: acidic WSOs (negative-ion electrospray (ESI)), and base/neutral WSOs (positive-ion ESI) coupled to FT-ICR MS to catalog molecular-level transformations that occur to Macondo-derived WSOs after solar irradiation. Such direct measure of oil phototransformation has not been previously reported. The most abundant heteroatom class detected in the irradiated WSO acid fractions correspond to molecules that contain five oxygens (O5), while the most abundant acids in the dark samples contain two oxygen atoms per molecule (O2). Higher-order oxygen classes (O5-O9) were abundant in the irradiated samples, but <1.5% relative abundance in the dark sample. The increased abundance of higher-order oxygen classes in the irradiated samples relative to the dark samples indicates that photooxidized components of the Macondo crude oil become water-soluble after irradiation. The base/neutral fraction showed decreased abundance of pyridinic nitrogen (N1) concurrent with an increased abundance of N1Ox classes after irradiation. The predominance of higher-order oxygen classes indicates that multiple photochemical pathways exist that result in oxidation of petroleum compounds.

  5. Characteristics of size-fractionated atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals in two typical episodes in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qingqing; Ma, Yongliang; Tan, Jihua; Zheng, Naijia; Duan, Jingchun; Sun, Yele; He, Kebin; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2015-10-01

    The abundance and behaviour of metals and water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba and Pb) in size-fractionated aerosols were investigated during two typical episodes in Beijing. Water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NH4+ , F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3-) were also measured. Atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were both found at high levels; for PM2.5, average As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb concentrations were 14.8, 203.3, 2.5, 18.5, 42.6 and 135.3 ng/m3, respectively, and their water-soluble components were 11.1, 1.7, 2.4, 14.5, 19.8 and 97.8 ng/m3, respectively. Daily concentrations of atmospheric metals and water-soluble metals were generally in accordance with particle mass. The highest concentrations of metals and water-soluble metals were generally located in coarse mode and droplet mode, respectively. The lowest mass of metals and water-soluble metals was mostly in Aitken mode. The water solubility of all metals was low in Aitken and coarse modes, indicating that freshly emitted metals have low solubility. Metal water solubility generally increased with the decrease in particle size in the range of 0.26-10 μm. The water solubility of metals for PM10 was: 50% ≤ Cd, As, Sb, Pb; 26% < V, Mn, Cu, Zn and Sr ≤ 50%; others ≤20%. Most metals, water-soluble metals and their water solubility increased when polluted air mass came from the near west, near north-west, south-west and south-east of the mainland, and decreased when clean air mass came from the far north-west and far due south. The influence of dust-storms and clean days on water-soluble metals and size distribution was significant; however, the influence of rainfall was negligible. Aerosols with high concentrations of SO42- , K+ and NH4+ might indicate increased potential for human health effects because of their high correlation with water-soluble metals. Industrial emissions contribute substantially to water-soluble metal pollution as water-soluble metals

  6. Alkali-granitoids as fragments within the ordinary chondrite Adzhi-Bogdo: Evidence for highly fractionated, alkali-granitic liquids on asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischoff, A.

    1993-01-01

    Adzhi-Bogdo is an ordinary chondrite regolith breccia (LL3-6) that fell October 30, 1949 in Gobi Altay, Mongolia. The rock consists of submm- to cm-sized fragments embedded in a fine-grained elastic matrix. The breccia contains various types of clasts, some of which must be of foreign heritage. Based on chemical compositions of olivine some components have to be classified as L-type. Components of the breccia include chondrules, impact melts (some are K-rich, similar to those found in other LL-chondrites, highly recrystalized rock fragments ('granulites'), pyroxene-rich fragments with achondritic textures, and alkali-granitoidal fragments that mainly consist of K-feldspar and quartz or tridymite. Probably, this is the first report on granitoids from asteroids. It can be ruled out that these fragments represent huge rock assemblages of the parent body like granites do on Earth. Therefore, to avoid misunderstandings, these rocks will be designated as granitoids. In one thin section four granitoids were observed. The main phases within these clasts are K-feldspar and SiO2-phases. Minor phases include albite, Cl-apatite, whitlockite, ilmenite, zircon, Ca-poor pyroxene, and an unidentified Na,Ti-bearing silicate. Based on chemical composition and on optical properties quartz appears to be the SiO2-phase in two fragments, whereas tridymite seems to occur in the other two. The calculated formula of the unknown Na,Ti-rich silicate is very close to (Na,Ca)2.7(Fe,Mg)6(Ti)1.3(Si)7(O)24. Quartz and K-feldspar can reach sizes of up to 700 microns. Thus, the fragments can be described as coarse-grained (by chondritic standards). This is especially the case considering that quartz and K-feldspar are very rare minerals in ordinary chondrites. Representative analyses of minerals from some granitoidal clasts are given. Based on the mineral compositions and the modal abundances the bulk compositions were calculated. Besides these granitoidal rocks, pyroxene-rich fragments occur that

  7. Soluble Dietary Fiber Fractions in Wheat Bran and Their Interactions with Wheat Gluten Have Impacts on Dough Properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Liu, Rui; Wu, Tao; Wang, Man; Zhang, Min

    2016-11-23

    Six soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions were prepared via stepwise ethanol precipitation from natural and fermented wheat bran. The chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, and glycosidic linkage and substitution pattern of each SDF fraction were elucidated by sugar analysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, molecular determination, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The impacts of SDF fractions on the rheological properties and morphologies of doughs were investigated by farinography, rheometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to clarify the relationship between the microstructural features of SDF fractions and the macroscopic properties of SDF-containing doughs. The interactions between SDF fractions and wheat glutens in doughs were further studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The experimental results indicated that the SDF fraction with an intermediate molecular weight but a higher substitution degree and a larger disubstitution ratio was most compatible with the dough network and beneficial to dough quality.

  8. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  9. Fractionation of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) through a narrowing of particle size distribution followed by aspiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may have more value and utility if they can be separated into high protein and high fiber fractions. A variety of such separation processes have been proposed; two of the most promising processes involve 3 screening and 3 air classification unit operatio...

  10. Characterization of autotrophic and heterotrophic soluble microbial product (SMP) fractions from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wen-Ming; Ni, Bing-Jie; Seviour, Thomas; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-12-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMP) generated by microbial populations can adversely affect the efficiency of biological wastewater treatment systems and secondary effluent quality. In this work, both experimental and modeling approaches were used to investigate the formation of SMP by both heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria. Strategies to control and reduce SMP in activated sludge systems were thus evaluated. SMP produced by heterotrophs were found to account for more than 92% of total SMP. The SMP produced by autotrophs contributed to less than 8% of the total SMP, with 5% attributable to the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and 3% to the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). When external organic substrate was present, the utilization-associated products (UAP) were the main component of SMP. When external organic substrate was completely consumed, biomass-associated products (BAP) from the hydrolysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) dominated the SMP. The model developed in this study described the fractions and dynamics of UAP and BAP produced by heterotrophs, AOB and NOB. Solids retention time of the reactor had a significant effect on SMP production, while the effect of the hydraulic retention time was only minor. Decreasing the solids retention time from 15 to 0.5 d reduced SMP production in the reactor by 62%.

  11. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions derived from whole creosote and creosote-contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Padma, T.V.; Hale, R.C.; Roberts, M.H. Jr.

    1998-08-01

    Creosote, a complex mixture of aromatic compounds (ACs), contaminates numerous sites in the USA and elsewhere. In addition to pollution of the water column directly after a creosote spill, contaminated sediments can continue to act as source of pollution for many years, because natural and anthropogenic perturbations may redissolve or resuspend sediment-associated contaminants. A 48-h static renewal assay compared survival of the bay mysid, Mysidopsis bahia, exposed to water-soluble fractions (WSFs) generated from two different sources: whole creosote and creosote-contaminated sediment. Sediment was obtained from a Super Fund site located on the Southern Branch of the Elizabeth River in Virginia, USA. Whole creosote, contaminated sediment, and WSFs derived from these source materials were characterized. Median lethal concentrations of WSFs generated from whole creosote and sediment (expressed as total identified ACs) were 180 {micro}g/L and 700 {micro}g/L, respectively. The creosote-derived WSF consisted of more than 70% low molecular weight nitrogen heterocyclics. These heterocyclics were below detectable limits in the sediment-generated WSF, suggesting that losses of these compounds had occurred via weathering. Nitrogen heterocyclics likely contributed to the acute toxicity of the whole creosote WSF.

  12. Organic compounds in hot-water-soluble fractions from water repellent soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassova, Irena; Doerr, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency (WR) is a soil property providing hydrophobic protection and preventing rapid microbial decomposition of organic matter entering the soil with litter or plant residues. Global warming can cause changes in WR, thus influencing water storage and plant productivity. Here we assess two different approaches for analysis of organic compounds composition in hot water extracts from accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of water repellent soils. Extracts were lyophilized, fractionated on SiO2 (sand) and SPE cartridge, and measured by GC/MS. Dominant compounds were aromatic acids, short chain dicarboxylic acids (C4-C9), sugars, short chain fatty acids (C8-C18), and esters of stearic and palmitic acids. Polar compounds (mainly sugars) were adsorbed on applying SPE clean-up procedure, while esters were highly abundant. In addition to the removal of polar compounds, hydrophobic esters and hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes < C20) were extracted through desorption of complex colloids stabilized as micelles in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water repellency was completely eliminated by hot water under high pressure. The molecular composition of HWSC can play a critical role in stabilization and destabilization of soil organic matter (SOM), particle wettability and C dynamics in soils. Key words: soil water repellency, hot water soluble carbon (HWSC), GC/MS, hydrophobic compounds

  13. The effects of water-soluble fractions of oil on reproduction in the female Atlantic croaker

    SciTech Connect

    Budiantara, L.; Thomas, P.

    1994-12-31

    Female Atlantic croaker were exposed to 2.5% and 5% water-soluble fractions (WSFs) of diesel fuel during gonadal recrudescence. Dosing with freshly prepared WSFs was repeated every two days. Exposure was terminated after 5 or 1 0 weeks when control fish were either at early or late gonadal recrudescence. Chronic oil exposure did not affect the condition factor; however, reproductive function was clearly impaired. Puberty was delayed or prevented with oil exposure. ovarian growth as indicated by gonadosomatic index was also decreased. Incubation of endocrine tissue in vitro revealed decreases in the secretion of gonadotropin and ovarian steroids, which were associated with decreases in plasma steroid and vitellogenin levels. In addition, there was a decrease in the ability of the fully grown oocytes from exposed fish to undergo final oocyte maturation (FOM). Exposure to a WSF with low concentration of aromatics impaired reproduction to a lesser degree. These results demonstrate that oil exposure causes impairment of reproduction in croaker at various stages of the reproductive life history cycle which is at least partially mediated by effects on the endocrine system.

  14. Water-soluble polysaccharide isolated with alkali from the stem of Physalis alkekengi L.: structural characterization and immunologic enhancement in DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingjing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Huimin; Wang, Guiyun

    2015-05-05

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (WSPA) was isolated with alkali and purified from the mature stem of Physalis alkekengi L. WSPA (Mw=31kDa) was an acid heteropolysaccharide, which consisted of Rha, Ara, Xyl, Gal, Glc and GalA in ratio of 1.0:2.5:0.8:2.7:4.4:1.4. The results from structural analysis indicated backbone and branches of WSPA were composed of (1→3)-linked Glc, (1→3)-linked Gal, (1→2)-linked Xyl, (1→2)-linked Ara, and (1→2)-linked Rha residues. However, GalA was distributed only in the backbone of WSPA. All branches of WSPA were at O-2 of (1→6)-linked Gal and terminated with Glc. More importantly, it was found that WSPA significantly enhanced specific antibody IgG response with higher titers of IgG1 as well as IgG2b (p<0.05) in mice immunized with DNA vaccine. Therefore, WSPA can be considered as a potential adjuvant candidate in DNA vaccine.

  15. Evaluation of soluble fraction and enzymatic residual fraction of dilute dry acid, ethylenediamine, and steam explosion pretreated corn stover on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Liu, Li; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-06-01

    This study is aimed to examine the inhibition of soluble fraction (SF) and enzymatic residual fraction (ERF) in dry dilute acid (DDA), ethylenediamine (EDA) and steam explosion (SE) pretreated corn stover (CS) on the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. SF of DDA, EDA and SE pretreated CS has high xylose, soluble lignin and xylo-oligomer content, respectively. SF of EDA pretreated CS leads to the highest inhibition, followed by SE and DDA pretreated CS. Inhibition of ERF of DDA and SE pretreated CS is higher than that of EDA pretreated CS. The inhibition degree (A0/A) of SF is 1.76 and 1.21 times to that of ERF for EDA and SE pretreated CS, respectively. The inhibition degree of ERF is 1.05 times to that of SF in DDA pretreated CS. The quantitative analysis shows that SF of EDA pretreated CS, SF and ERF of SE pretreated CS cause significant inhibition during enzymatic hydrolysis.

  16. Preparation of alkali metal dispersions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Landel, R. F. (Inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A method is described for producing alkali metal dispersions of high purity. The dispersions are prepared by varying the equilibrium solubility of the alkali metal in a suitable organic solvent in the presence of aromatic hydrocarbons. The equilibrium variation is produced by temperature change. The size of the particles is controlled by controlling the rate of temperature change.

  17. Biochemical responses in freshwater fish after exposure to water-soluble fraction of gasoline.

    PubMed

    Bettim, Franciele Lima; Galvan, Gabrieli Limberger; Cestari, Marta Margarete; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; de Assis, Helena Cristina Silva

    2016-02-01

    The water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG) is a complex mixture of mono-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of WSFG diluted 1.5% on freshwater fish. Astyanax altiparanae were exposed to the WSFG for 96 h, under a semi-static system, with renewal of 25% of the gasoline test solution every 24 h. In addition, a decay of the contamination (DC) was carried out. During DC, the fish was exposed to the WSFG for 8 d, followed by another 7 d with renewal of 25% of volume aquaria with clean water every 24 h. For depuration, fish were transferred to aquaria with clean water, and in addition, 25% of the water was replaced every 24 h. The liver and kidney biotransformation, antioxidant defenses and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were evaluated. In the liver, the WSFG 1.5% caused reduction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) after 96 h and DC. In the kidney, only in depuration an increased GST activity was observed, and after DC a higher LPO levels. An increase of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity occurred at 96 h in both tissues; however, in the liver was also observed during the depuration. In WSFG 96 h, the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the kidney increased. As biomarkers of neurotoxicity, the brain and muscle acetylcholinesterase activities were measured, but the WSFG 1.5% did not change them. Therefore, this study brought forth more data about WSFG effects on freshwater fish after lower concentrations exposure and a DC, simulating an environmental contamination.

  18. Effects of chemical composition on the environments of D+ and H+ in alkali silicate glasses: with implications for D/H fractionation in magmatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Losq, C.; Cody, G. D.; Mysen, B. O.

    2014-12-01

    The δD is an important probe for studying the cycle of water within the Earth and between planetary bodies. D/H fractionation between silicate melts, minerals, aqueous fluids and gases governed the δD-evolution of the various geochemical reservoirs. It is usually assumed that D+ and H+ have the same chemical properties and structural environments in silicate melts and aqueous fluids, so that the only mass-dependent fractionation takes place with values approaching 1 at magmatic temperatures. However, recent in situ studies reveal important D/H fractionation between silicate melts and aqueous fluids even at high temperature. H and D MAS NMR data from sodium silicate glasses also shown that D+ and H+ occupy different structural positions in the structure of silicate glasses. This suggests that mass-dependent fractionation is not the only factor governing D/H fractionation in magmatic systems. To assess how the chemical composition and the structure of alkali silicate glasses affect the environments of H+ and D+, the H and D MAS NMR spectra of M2Si4O9 glasses (M = Li, Na or K) with different concentrations of pure H2O or D2O (from 3.3 up to 17.6 mol%) were recorded. Other spectra were acquired from M2Si4O9 glasses with 17.6 mol%(1H,1D)2O. Signals at ~1, ~3.5, ~5, ~12 and ~16 ppm in 1H MAS NMR spectra are assigned to H+ in H2O molecules and Si-OH groups in the glasses. These five signals indicates protons distribution between at least five environments with O…O distances ranging from ~305 to ~240 pm. The ionic radius of alkali affects the distribution of H+ between those environments. D MAS NMR spectra reveal that by exchanging H+ with D+, the intensity of the 16 ppm NMR line increases, whereas the intensity of the 5 ppm line decreases. Consequently, D+ seems to be more concentrated than H+ in environments with small O...O distances. In other words, the structural environments of H+ and D+ in the silicate glasses, and hence in melts at their glass transition

  19. A new approach for the fractionation of water-soluble organic carbon in atmospheric aerosols and cloud drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andracchio, Antonella; Cavicchi, Catia; Tonelli, Domenica; Zappoli, Sergio

    A novel approach is described for the fractionation of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in atmospheric aerosols and cloud drops. The method is based on the preliminary adsorption of the sample, acidified at pH 2, on a polymeric styrene-divinylbenzene resin (XAD-2) and subsequent elution with a series of solvents, which leads to the fractionation of the sample into three classes of compounds. The method was set up using synthetic mixtures of organic compounds and then applied to selected samples of atmospheric aerosols and cloud drops. All samples and collected fractions were analysed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This method proved particularly useful both in providing information on the organic content of the samples and for the characterisation of the macromolecular compounds (MMCs) in the samples. Synthetic samples were prepared using humic, fulvic and tannic acid to simulate naturally occurring MMCs. In the first fraction, eluted with HCl, only the most soluble organic compounds (oxalic acid, formic acid and acetic acid) were collected. In the second fraction, eluted with methanol, the major part of the organic material was collected together with the more hydrophilic constituents of the humic substances. In the third fraction, it was possible to separately recover the more hydrophobic component of the humic substances. A large number of atmospheric samples (fog, aerosol, cloud) were then analysed using SEC. Most of these samples evidenced a noteworthy chromatogram at 254 nm. Moreover, the chromatographic area evidenced a clear linear correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC) values. The fractionation method on XAD-2 was finally applied to selected atmospheric samples, yielding three classes of organic compounds. In each sample, a non-negligible amount of compounds with dimensional and chemical properties similar to humic substances were collected in the third fraction. The carbon content in this latter fraction was estimated both by TOC

  20. Microbial respiration activities correlated to sequentially separated, particulate and water-soluble organic matter fractions from arable and forest topsoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, M.; Wirth, S.; Ellerbrock, R.; Sommer, M.

    2009-12-01

    Michael Kaiser1, Stephan Wirth2, Ruth H. Ellerbrock3, Michael Sommer3,4 1University of California Merced, Natural Science, 4225 N. Hospital Rd., Atwater, CA 95301 2,3 Leibniz-Center for Agricultural Research (ZALF) e. V. 2 Institute of Landscape Matter Dynamics 3 Institute of Soil Landscape Research Eberswalder Str. 84, D-15374 Muencheberg, Germany 4University of Potsdam, Institute of Geoecology, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany Microbial respiration activities correlated to sequentially separated, particulate and water-soluble organic matter fractions from arable and forest topsoils Microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) accounts for roughly half of CO2 evolution from vegetated soil surfaces and plays a crucial role in the ability of soil to mitigate the greenhouse effect. The separation and identification of labile (i.e., easily decomposable) organic matter (OM) fractions from bulk SOM is of particular importance for a mechanistic understanding of microbial decomposition processes and for predicting the response of SOM to changes in land use, management, and climate. This work aimed to reveal differences in the relevance of particulate as well as water-soluble organic matter (OM) fractions from topsoils to the easily biodegradable soil organic matter (SOM). We selected eight paired sites with quite different soil types (Udorthent, Paleudalf, Glossudalf, Aquept, Hapludalf, Aquert, Udert, Haplorthod) and soil properties (e.g., clay content: 28 to 564 g kg-1). For each of these sites, we took samples from adjacent arable and forest topsoils. Physically uncomplexed, macro-, and micro-aggregate-occluded organic particle, as well as water-soluble OM fractions were sequentially separated by a combination of electrostatic attraction, ultrasonic treatment, density separation, sieving, and water extraction. The easily biodegradable SOM of the topsoil samples was determined by measuring microbial respiration during a short-term incubation

  1. Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Eakman, James M.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.

    1979-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

  2. Molecular weight distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids in ileal digesta of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, E; Andersson, R; Lindberg, J E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dietary fiber source on molecular weight (MW) distribution of soluble fiber fractions and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in ileal digesta of 7 post valve T-cecum (PVTC) cannulated growing pigs was studied. Pigs were fed semisynthetic diets with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp (SBP) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) forage (CFO) as fiber sources of which the soluble nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) fraction originated mainly from pectin. Three MW intervals were selected-large MW (MWL): 10,000,000 to 1,000,000 g/mol, medium MW (MWM): 1,000,000 to 200,000 g/mol, and small MW (MWS): 200,000 to 10,000 g/mol-and the relative distribution (% of total) of molecules in each interval was calculated. The MWM fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet SBP and the MWS fraction was higher (P < 0.05) in ileal digesta of pigs fed diet CFO. The mole/100 mole of propionic acid (HPr) was higher (P < 0.010) in pigs fed diet SBP whereas pigs fed diet CFO had higher (P < 0.010) mole/100 mole of acetic acid (HAc). The proportion of the MWL and MWM fractions in ileal digesta were negatively correlated to HAc (r = -0.52, P = 0.05, and r = -0.62, P = 0.02, respectively). The proportion of MWM in ileal digesta was positively correlated to HPr (r = 0.83; P = 0.001) whereas MWS and HPr were negatively correlated (r = -0.76; P = 0.002). In conclusion, the bacterial degradation of the soluble NSP fraction is selective and MW distribution may explain differences in SCFA production.

  3. Solubility, inhibition of crystallization and microscopic analysis of calcium oxalate crystals in the presence of fractions from Humulus lupulus L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frąckowiak, Anna; Koźlecki, Tomasz; Skibiński, PrzemysŁaw; GaweŁ, WiesŁaw; Zaczyńska, Ewa; Czarny, Anna; Piekarska, Katarzyna; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-11-01

    Procedures for obtaining noncytotoxic and nonmutagenic extracts from Humulus lupulus L. of high potency for inhibition and dissolving of model (calcium oxalate crystals) and real kidney stones, obtained from patients after surgery, are presented. Multistep extraction procedures were performed in order to obtain the preparations with the highest calcium complexing properties. The composition of obtained active fractions was analyzed by GC/MS and NMR methods. The influence of preparations on inhibition of formation and dissolution of model and real kidney stones were evaluated based on conductrometric titration, flame photometry and microscopic analysis. The "fraction soluble in methanol" obtained from water-alkaline extracts contains sugar alcohols and organic acids, and is effective in dissolving the kidney stones. The "fraction insoluble in methanol" contains only sugar derivatives and it changes the morphology of the crystals, making them "jelly-like". Both fractions are potentially effective in kidney stone therapy.

  4. Immiscible separation of metalliferous Fe/ Ti-oxide melts from fractionating alkali basalt: P-T-fO2 conditions and two-liquid elemental partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurai, Vratislav; Simon, Klaus; Wiechert, Uwe; Hoefs, Jochen; Konečný, Patrik; Huraiová, Monika; Pironon, Jacques; Lipka, Jozef

    Globules of iron-dominated (59-69 wt% FeOtot) and titanium-dominated (43.5 wt% TiO2) oxide melts have been detected in igneous xenoliths from Pliocene-to-Pleistocene alkali basalts of the Western Carpathians. Fluid inclusion and mineral composition data indicate immiscible separation of the high-iron-oxide melt (HIM) at magmatic temperatures. The HIM separation occurred during clinopyroxene (augite) accumulation in an alkali trachybasalt and continued during crystallization of amphibole (kaersutite) and K-feldspar (anorthoclase), the latter coexisting with trachyte and alkalic rhyolite residual melts. Some HIM was also expelled from sub-alkalic rhyolite (70-77% SiO2), coexisting with An27-45 plagioclase and quartz in granitic (tonalite-trondhjemite) xenoliths. Oxygen fugacities during HIM separation range from -1.4to +0.6log units around the QFM buffer. A close genetic relationship between HIM-hosted xenoliths and mantle-derived basaltic magma is documented by mineral 18O values ranging from 4.9 to 5.9‰ V-SMOW. δD values of gabbroic kaersutite between -61 and -86‰ V-SMOW are in agreement with a presumed primary magmatic water source. Most trace elements, except Li, Rb and Cs, have preferentially partitioned into the HIM. The HIM/Si-melt partition coefficients for transition elements (Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni) and base metals (Zn, Cu, Mo) are between 2-160, resulting in extreme enrichment in the HIM. La and Ce also concentrate in the silicic melt, whereas Tb-Tm in the HIM. Hence, the immiscible separation causes REE fractionation and produces residual silicic melt enriched in LREE and depleted in HREE. The weak fractionation among Tb-Tm and Yb, Lu can be attributed to recurrent extraction of the HIM from the magmatic system, while flat HREE chondrite-normalized patterns are interpreted to indicate no or little loss of the HIM.

  5. Sources of polycyclic hydrocarbons and pesticides in soluble fraction of deposition samples in Kocaeli, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Binici, Burcu; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil; Bilsel, Mine; Durmaz-Hilmioğlu, Nilüfer

    2014-02-01

    A wet-dry deposition sampler was located at The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey-National Metrology Institute (TUBITAK-UME) station, and a bulk deposition sampler was placed at the Kadıllı village to determine the atmospheric deposition flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides (organochlorine and organophosphorus) in soluble fraction of samples in Kocaeli, Turkey. The 28 samples for each wet, dry, and total deposition were collected weekly from March 2006 to March 2007. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze the samples which were prepared by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) method. The sum of volume weighted mean of deposition fluxes was obtained as 7.43 μg m(-2) day(-1) for wet deposition, 0.28 μg m(-2) day(-1) for dry deposition and 0.54 μg m(-2) day(-1) for bulk deposition samples for PAHs and 9.88 μg m(-2) day(-1) for wet deposition, 4.49 μg m(-2) day(-1) for dry deposition, and 3.29 μg m(-2) day(-1) for bulk deposition samples for pesticides. While benzo(a)anthracene had the highest fluxes among PAH compounds for all types of depositions, guthion and phosphamidon had the highest deposition flux compared with the other pesticides. Benzo(ghi)perylene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, and acenaphthene were not detected in any of the samples. Beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, and endrin aldehyde were the only compounds among 18 organochlorine pesticides to be detected in all deposition samples. The main sources of pesticides were the high number of greenhouses around the sampling stations. However, all of the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all deposition samples. The pollution sources were identified as coal and natural gas combustion, petrogenic sources, and traffic for TUBITAK-UME station whereas coal and natural gas combustion and traffic were the main sources for Kadıllı station by considering the results of factor analysis, ratios, and wind

  6. Early Solar System Alkali Fractionation Events Recorded by K-Ca Isotopes in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatsunori, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simon, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2015-01-01

    Radiogenic ingrowth of Ca-40 due to decay of K-40 occurred early in the solar system history causing the Ca-40 abundance to vary within different early-former reservoirs. Marshall and DePaolo ] demonstrated that the K-40/Ca-40 decay system could be a useful radiogenic tracer for studies of terrestrial rocks. Shih et al. [3,4] determined 40K/40Ca ages of lunar granitic rock fragments and discussed the chemical characteristics of their source materials. Recently, Yokoyama et al. [5] showed the application of the K-40/Ca-40 chronometer for high K/Ca materials in ordinary chondrites (OCs). High-precision calcium isotopic data are needed to constrain mixing processes among early solar system materials and the time of planetesimal formation. To better constrain the solar system calcium isotopic compositions among astromaterials, we have determined the calcium isotopic compositions of OCs and an angrite. We further estimated a source K/Ca ratio for alkali-rich fragments in a chondritic breccia using the estimated solar system initial Ca-40/Ca-44.

  7. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    DOEpatents

    Joshi, Ashok V [Salt Lake City, UT; Balagopal, Shekar [Sandy, UT; Pendelton, Justin [Salt Lake City, UT

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  8. Elemental analysis of soluble and insoluble fractions of river-waters by particle-induced X-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, H.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Takahashi, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Orihara, H.; Izumi, Y.

    1999-06-10

    A procedure has been developed and tested for PIXE analysis of soluble and insoluble constituents in river-water samples. Three kinds of targets were prepared and analyzed with a PIXE system of 3-MeV proton beam. Insoluble components were filtered on a Nuclepore filter of 0.4-{mu}m pores. For soluble fractions, a target of major components was made from a 0.15-ml filtrate evaporated on a user-made polycarbonate film and trace amounts of heavy metals were preconcentrated in a PIXE-target by means of a combination of dibenzyldithiocarbamate-chelation with subsequent condensation into dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol gels. The widespread concentrations (several tenths of ppb to a few tens of ppm) of {approx}24 elements from Na to Pb were determined simultaneously in a precision sufficient to reveal the elemental distribution between the soluble and insoluble fractions of river waters. Hence, the methodology can be applied to monitor a pollution problem of rivers.

  9. Effects of the water-soluble fractions of No. 2 fuel oil on the cytokinesis of the quahog clam

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, C.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of petroleum and petroleum products on the embryonic and larval stages of marine zooplankton have been studied extensively over the past decade. Research has concluded that these stages are among the most sensitive to petroleum pollution in the marine environment. However, one of the areas of toxicological study which has received little attention has been that of the distortions of cellular components within the developing stages of the marine zooplankton in response to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. The purpose of this report is to examine the cytokinetic effects of exposure of the water-soluble fractions of No. 2 fuel oil on the embryonic development of the quahog clam Mercenaria mercenaria.

  10. Fractionation, characterization and C-, N-disinfection byproduct formation of soluble microbial products in MBR processes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defang; Meng, Yingjie; Xia, Chufan; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Soluble microbial products are heterogeneous organic materials generated during microbial growth and decay, which are the major soluble organic matters in MBR effluents and are the primary precursors forming disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, biomass associated products (BAP) and utilization associated products (UAP) were separately produced to investigate their physical chemical characteristics and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation during chlorination in the presence of ammonia. BAP had higher formation reactivity of halogenated carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs including trihalomethanes, haloketones, haloacetonitriles and trichloronitromethane due to their higher percentage of large molecular weight (MW) materials and humic substances compared with UAP. However, the nonhalogenated species N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) yield of UAP was twice higher than that of BAP because UAP contained more nitrogenous organic matters with MW<500Da including aromatic polypeptide/amino acid-like materials and secondary amines, which have been proved to have high NDMA formation potential.

  11. Effect of NaCl on catalysis of lipid oxidation by the soluble fraction of fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Osinchak, J E; Hultin, H O; Zajicek, O T; Kelleher, S D; Huang, C H

    1992-01-01

    Sodium chloride stimulated catalysis of oxidation of phosphatidylcholine liposomes by the soluble fraction of mackerel muscle. Chloride was determined to be the active component of the salt in this system. Sulfate also stimulated lipid oxidation. No difference was observed with either anion among sodium, potassium, or lithium cations. Redox iron was involved in the chloride stimulation of lipid oxidation by the press juice. Part of the chloride stimulation of the press juice was mediated through the high molecular weight (greater than 5 kdalton) fraction. Chloride improved the pro-oxidative effect of ascorbate on rat liver ferritin in vitro. It did not appear that production of chlorine radical by peroxidase was involved in the stimulatory effect of chloride.

  12. Characteristics and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose-rich fractions from steam exploded and sequentially alkali delignified bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    PubMed

    Sun, Shao-Ni; Cao, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Xue-Ming; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang; Jones, Gwynn Lloyd

    2014-07-01

    In this study, cellulose-rich fractions from bamboo were prepared with steam explosion pretreatment (SEP) followed by a successive alkaline delignification to improve the enzymatic digestibility for an efficient bioethanol production. The cellulose-rich fractions obtained were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, CP/MAS (13)C NMR, SEM, and BET surface area. It was found that the SEP alone significantly removed partial hemicelluloses, while the synergistic treatment by SEP and alkaline delignification removed most hemicelluloses and lignin. Results from enzymatic hydrolysis showed that SEP alone improved the enzymatic hydrolysis rate by 7.9-33.1%, while the synergistic treatment by SEP and alkaline delignification enhanced the rate by 45.7-63.9%. The synergistic treatment by SEP at 2.0 MPa for 5 min with water impregnation followed by a successive alkaline delignification with 0.5% NaOH and 70% ethanol containing 1.5% NaOH resulted in a maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 70.6%.

  13. [Extraction and characterization of soluble protein fractions from Phaseolus lunatus L seeds].

    PubMed

    Gallegos Tintoré, Santiago; Pacheco Aguirre, Jessé; Betancur Ancona, David; Chel Guerrero, Luis

    2004-03-01

    Legume proteins as a potential source of valuable nutrients, are the object of several studies in order to obtain the best use. A basic knowledge becomes more important for those proteins from species not wholly utilized, before using them as food ingredients. The objective of this work was to determine several structural and nutritional characteristics of the protein fractions from Phaseolus lunatus, separated in different solvents. The relative amount of extraction for the albumins (ALB), globulins (GLB), prolamines (PRL), and glutelins (GLT) was 62.3, 34.8, 1.4 and 1.5%, respectively. The SDS-PAGE electrophoretic profile of both ALB and GLB, showed seven common bands in intervals from 10 to 95 kDa, and 14 to 99 kDa, respectively; the amino acids profile showed that PRL was the rich fraction in sulfurated amino acids (11.5 g/100 g protein); the content of lysine in the fraction of ALB was smaller than expected but the requirement of the FAO in the fractions of GLB and GLT was covered. In general, the fraction of GLB had the best balance of amino acids and digestibility (80%); however, it had a relationship of calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) of 0.11, smaller than the ratio in ALB (0.97). The calorimetric analysis showed denatured temperatures around 90 degrees C for the ALB, GLB, and GLU fractions. The PRL fraction probably did not present a thermal transition because the proteins were denaturalized by the extraction conditions.

  14. A study of low level selenium determination by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry in water soluble protein and peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Stibilj, V; Mazej, D; Falnoga, I

    2003-12-01

    Development of a method for very low level selenium determination in water soluble protein and peptide fractions, obtained after various separation procedures, is presented. A hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) detection system was optimised and the influence of Cu(II), Sb(V), As(III) and HNO3 interferences in the measurement of Se by HG-AFS was investigated. A destruction procedure using HNO3 and H2O2 was also optimised and the average recovery of the digestion of a solution of selenomethioneine was 92 +/- 4% (n=14). Combination of this digestion with the detection system gave reliable results. Accuracy was tested by comparison with two independent methods. A very low detection limit (DL) of 0.2 ng/g of measuring solution was achieved. The whole procedure from weighing to measuring was performed in the same Teflon tube. The addition of HNO3 to the fractions before long term storage at -20 degrees C was necessary to prevent adsorption on the test tubes. Selenium was measured in water soluble protein and peptide fractions obtained after extraction, and Sephadex G-75 chromatography performed on liver samples from: i) hens exposed to As2O3, ii) hens fed with a high fat feed and iii) the certified reference material dogfish liver (CRM DOLT-2). Because of the very low DL we were able to observe the Se distribution in chromatographic fractions of samples of organisms which were not exposed to excess amounts of Se. The presence of selenium associated with metallothioneins was observed.

  15. Optimization of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR methods for structural characterization of acetone and pyridine soluble/insoluble fractions of a coal tar pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Trevor J. Morgan; Anthe George; David B. Davis; Alan A. Herod; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2008-05-15

    {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C high-resolution liquid-state NMR methods were used for the quantitative characterization of different molecular weight fractions of a coal tar pitch (CTP). Three fractions were studied: pitch acetone solubles (PAS), pitch pyridine soluble-acetone insolubles (PPS), and pitch pyridine insolubles (PPI). Standard liquid-state NMR methods were modified and calibrated for use with undeuterated quinoline or undeuterated 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) as the solvent. This made it possible to calculate the average structural parameters for the higher molecular weight (MW) fractions of the coal tar pitch. Quantitative comparisons of structural differences between the solubility-separated fractions of the pitch are reported. The aromaticity and the average number of aromatic rings per polynuclear aromatic structure were both found to decrease with increasing solubility. Similarly, pericondensed and all other quaternary carbon species were found to decrease with increasing solubility. This suggests that 'continental' type structures become more dominant as the solvent solubility of these coal derived fractions diminishes. The estimated average number of aromatic rings ranged from 1 to 2 rings in the PAS fraction, 4 to 21 rings in the PPS fraction, and 11 to 210 rings in the PPI fraction. These ring-numbers were directly related to the number average molecular mass (M{sub n}) assigned to the particular fraction in the average structural parameter (ASP) calculations. The lower-limit of the M{sub n} values was derived from the ASP calculations as 200, 450, and 6200 u for the PAS, PPS, and PPI fractions, respectively. 66 refs., 7 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Cataract-specific posttranslational modifications and changes in the composition of urea-soluble protein fraction from the rat lens

    PubMed Central

    Yanshole, Lyudmila V.; Cherepanov, Ivan V.; Snytnikova, Olga A.; Yanshole, Vadim V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine age-related changes in the composition of the urea-soluble (US) protein fraction from lenses of senescence-accelerated OXYS (cataract model) and Wistar (control) rats and to establish posttranslational modifications (PTMs) occurring under enhanced oxidative stress in OXYS lenses. Methods The identity and the relative abundance of crystallins in the US fractions were determined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MS). The identities and the positions of PTMs were established using MS/MS measurements. Results Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis maps of US protein fractions were obtained for lenses of 3-, 12-, and 62-week-old Wistar and OXYS rats, and the relative abundance of different isoforms of α-, β-, and γ-crystallins was determined. β-Crystallins were the major contributor of the US fraction in 3-week-old lenses (above 50%), γ-crystallins in 12-week-old lenses (50–60%), and in 62-week-old lenses, the contributions from all three crystallin families leveled out. The major interstrain difference was the elevated level of α-crystallins in the US fraction from 12-week-old OXYS lenses. Spots with increased relative abundance in OXYS maps were attributed to the cataract-specific spots of interest. The crystallins from these spots were subjected to MS/MS analysis, and the positions of acetylation, oxidation, deamidation, and phosphorylation were established. Conclusions The increased relative abundance of α-crystallins in the US fraction from 12-week-old OXYS lenses points to the fast insolubilization of α-crystallins under oxidative stress. Most of the PTMs attributed to the cataract-specific modifications also correspond to α-crystallins. These PTMs include oxidation of methionine residues, deamidation of asparagine and glutamine residues, and phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues. PMID:24227915

  17. Interaction of the water soluble fraction of MSW-composts with Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, Paola; Demurtas, Daniela; Silvetti, Margherita; Deiana, Salvatore; Garau, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    In this study we report on the interactions between the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of two municipal solid waste composts (C1- and C2-WSF) with Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions at pH 4.5. The Me(II) addition to the compost-WSFs led to the formation of soluble Me(II)-organic complexes (as highlighted by FT-IR spectroscopy), and to a decrease of the trace metals' solubility, which was greater for Pb(II) than Cu(II). This was due to the formation of insoluble Me(II) complexes involving the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and the inorganic anions within both WSFs [1.10 and 0.62 mmol L(-1) and 2.06 and 0.42 mmol L(-1) of Pb(II) and Cu(II) precipitated from C1- and C2-WSF respectively, when 6.4 mmol L(-1) Me(II) was added]. A loss of WSOC from both WSFs, i.e. ∼13% and <5%, was detected in the systems containing 6.4 mmol L(-1) Pb(II) and Cu(II) respectively. A significant contribution in the formation of Pb(II) precipitates was also due to phosphate, chloride and sulphate anions, since their concentrations in the WSF decreased of 80, 25 and 90%, respectively, after the addition of 6.4 mmol L(-1) Pb(II). A decrease of phosphate anions in both WSFs (∼30%) was found in the systems containing Cu(II).

  18. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and its temperature-resolved carbon fractions in atmospheric aerosols in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Ci, Zhijia

    2016-11-01

    Investigation of temperature-resolved carbon fractions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) can improve our understanding of the chemical properties, formation processes and sources of WSOC in aerosols. We developed a method that can examine different temperature-resolved carbon fractions of WSOC and used this method to characterize aerosol samples (n = 102) collected from an urban site in Beijing in 2010-2011. The aerosol composition data including inorganic ions, elements and temperature-resolved carbon fractions of WSOC were used as input of positive matrix factorization (PMF) model to investigate the sources of WSOC. The results showed that the mean concentrations of WSOC were 10.2 μg m- 3 with increased values in winter and decreased values in summer, while WSOC/OC ratios (mean: 51.7%) were higher in spring and summer than in fall and winter. The sampling artifacts of WSOC (18.2%) were higher than those of OC (13.4%). Though WSOC was significantly influenced by biomass burning in spring and winter, the strong correlations between WSOC and other secondary components suggested that WSOC was secondary in nature. Results of temperature-resolved carbon fractions of OC and WSOC showed that WSOC/OC ratios for different carbon fractions had the highest value of 0.92 and lowest value of 0.30. PMF analysis identified four factors, three of which were associated with three organic polar compounds groups (low, medium, and high molecular weight compounds) based on their thermal evolution features, and one of which was attributed to inorganic secondary formation processes. Annually, the contributions of four factors were 20.5%, 46.2%, 12.4% and 20.9%, respectively.

  19. Effect of a compost and its water-soluble fractions on key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in maize seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Silvia; Muscolo, Adele; Pizzeghello, Diego; Spaccini, Riccado; Piccolo, Alessandro; Nardi, Serenella

    2009-12-09

    The growing concern on long-term productivity of agroecosystems has emphasized the need to develop management strategies to maintain and protect soil resources, particularly soil organic matter (SOM). Among these, the composting process allows both recycling of the increasing amount of organic waste materials and restoration of the content of organic matter in soil. A sequential chemical fractionation into structurally unbound (SU), weakly bound (WB) and strongly bound (SB) compounds was applied to a bulk compost, and its soluble fractions were extracted in water, either after oxidation of compost suspension with an oxygen flux (TEA), or without oxidation but separated into hydrophilic (HiDOM) and hydrophobic (HoDOM) components. The ratio of hydrophilic over hydrophobic compounds decreased in the order HiDOM > TEA > compost > HoDOM, while TEA and compost showed the largest content of SU and WB components, respectively. Such chemically characterized bulk compost and fractions were tested on maize seedlings grown in sand and in hydroponic conditions, and the effects on plant growth and nitrogen metabolism were measured. The structurally complex bulk compost and the hydrophobic HoDOM fraction negatively affected plant growth, whereas the hydrophilic and less-structured fractions (HiDOM and TEA) showed large positive effects on both growth and enzymatic activities of plants. These results suggest that composted organic matter can become useful to stimulate plant growth if the content of potentially bioavailable hydrophilic and poorly structured components is large. These components may be progressively separated from the compost matrix and contribute to the dynamics of natural organic matter in soil.

  20. A fine fraction of soil used as an aerosol analogue during the DUNE experiment: sequential solubility in water, decreasing pH step-by-step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghnatios, C.; Losno, R.; Dulac, F.

    2014-09-01

    A soil sample collected in a desert aerosol source area near Douz (southern Tunisia) was dry-sieved at 20 μm in order to extract the fraction similar to a wind-generated aerosol, and was used to seed mesocosms during the DUNE experiment (a DUst experiment in a low Nutrient, low chlorophyll Ecosystem). In this work, said "aerosol-like" fine dust was sequentially leached by short contacts with water at initial pHs, decreasing from seven to one, representing various wet environmental conditions. For each step, the solubility of a given element is calculated as the amount of its dissolved fraction, relative to its total amount. The evolution of this fractional solubility from the highest to lowest pHs provides information on the chemical strength needed to solubilise a given element and its lability. The behaviour of the elemental solubility was sorted into two groups: (1) Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, and P, with a solubility between 23% and 70%, and a maximum sequential solubility at pH 3; (2) Al and Fe, with a solubility of less than 2% and the highest release at pH 1. Similar solubility patterns in group 1 for Ca, P, and Mn suggest a possible association of the elements in the same minerals, most probably carbonates.

  1. Haematococcus pluvialis soluble proteins: Extraction, characterization, concentration/fractionation and emulsifying properties.

    PubMed

    Ba, Fatou; Ursu, Alina Violeta; Laroche, Céline; Djelveh, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    A water-soluble matrix was extracted from green vegetative Haematococcus pluvialis through high-pressure cell disruption either at native pH (5.7) or with pH shifting to neutral (7). The resulting supernatant is mainly composed of carbohydrates and proteins, with the highest yield of proteins obtained at neutral pH (73±2% of total biomass proteins). The key emulsification properties of the proteins isolated in neutral supernatant (emulsification capacity (EC): 534±41mLoilg(-1) protein, emulsification stability (ES): 94±3% and emulsification activity index (EAI): 80±1m(2)g(-1)) were comparable to the native supernatant values (EC: 589±21mLoilg(-1) protein, ES: 84±3% and EAI: 75±1m(2)g(-1)). Confronted to sodium caseinate (EC: 664±30mLoilg(-1) protein, ES: 63±4%, and EAI: 56±4m(2)g(-1)) these results highlighted the strong potential of proteins isolated from H. pluvialis as emulsifier agent. Moreover, experiments have shown that the stability of emulsions obtained from supernatants is due to the proteins rather than the carbohydrates.

  2. Effect of Biodiesel Blending on the Speciation of Soluble Organic Fraction from a Light Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelec, Andrea; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Daw, C Stuart; Foster, Prof. Dave; Rutland, Prof. Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel was volumetrically blended with 2007 certification ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and run in a 1.7L direct-injection common rail diesel engine at one speed-load point (1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP). Engine fueling rate and injection timing were adjusted to maintain a constant load, while particulate samples were collected in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and with a dilution tunnel sampling train. The samples collected at these two locations were found to contain different levels of soluble organic fraction (SOF) and the different hydrocarbon species in the SOF. This observation indicates that traditional SOF measurements, in light of the specific sampling procedure used, may not be appropriate to DPF applications.

  3. Effects of soluble and insoluble fractions from bilberries, black currants, and raspberries on short-chain fatty acid formation, anthocyanin excretion, and cholesterol in rats.

    PubMed

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Nilsson, Ulf; Blanco, Narda; Sterner, Olov; Nyman, Margareta

    2014-05-14

    Dietary fiber and flavonoids, important components in berries, are suggested to improve metabolic health. This study investigates whether soluble and insoluble fractions isolated from bilberry, black currant, and raspberry affect the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), uptake and excretion of flavonoids, and levels of cholesterol differently. Cecal SCFA pools were higher in rats fed the soluble than the insoluble fractions (525 vs 166 μmol, P < 0.001), whereas higher concentrations of butyric acid were found in the distal colon and serum of rats fed the insoluble fractions (5 vs 3 μmol/g and 58 vs 29 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.001). The soluble bilberry fraction gave lower amounts of liver cholesterol (56 mg) than the other berry fractions (87 ± 5 mg), formed the highest amount of SCFAs (746 vs 266 ± 21 μmol), and contributed the highest intake of anthocyanins. Cyanidin-3-glucoside monoglucuronide was detected in the urine of all groups, whereas anthocyanins were found only in groups fed soluble black currant and raspberry.

  4. Methanolic soluble fractions of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) extract inhibit neuraminidase activity in Newcastle disease virus (LaSota).

    PubMed

    Shamaki, Bala U; Sandabe, Umar K; Ogbe, Adamu O; Abdulrahman, Fanna I; El-Yuguda, Abdul-Dahiru

    2014-01-01

    The antineuraminidase activity of different organic soluble fractions of Ganoderma lucidum extract was investigated using inhibition of hemagglutination and elution of chicken erythrocytes by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Fractions of methanol, ethylacetate, and normal butanol (n-butanol) of the G. lucidum were tested against neuraminidase producing NDV as antigen. Different dilutions of the organic soluble fractions inhibited elution of 1% red blood cells by neuraminidase of NDV While the methanolic and n-butanol extracts inhibited neuraminidase activity even at a dilution of 1:16 and that of ethylacetate fraction inhibited even at 1:32 respectively. This finding indicates that G. lucidum has some antineuraminidase activity against NDV and may be exploited in the management of NDV infection.

  5. Separation and purification of soluble polymers and cell wall fractions from wheat, rye and hull less barley endosperm flours for structure-nutrition studies.

    PubMed

    Comino, Penny; Shelat, Kinnari; Collins, Helen; Lahnstein, Jelle; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-12-11

    The nutritional values associated with the cell walls of cereal endosperm flours are due to a combination of solubilized arabinoxylan and (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan as well as residual nonsolubilized cell wall material. In order to investigate structure-nutrition relationships, an appropriate method for the complete functional and structural characterization of cell wall polysaccharides in various cereal endosperm flours is described. This involves the separation of soluble polymers and the residual cell wall fraction without using organic solvents, and the fractionation of soluble polymers into arabinoxylan- and (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan-rich fractions for subsequent analysis. This methodology is applied to endosperm flours from wheat, hull-less barley and rye, and could be extended to include studies on the effects of food processing with respect to yield and characteristics of the three fractions in order to better understand the structural basis for nutritional functionality.

  6. Solubility controlled noble gas fractionation during magmatic degassing: Implications for noble gas compositions of primary melts of OIB and MORB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Junji; Burnard, Pete G.

    2005-02-01

    Noble gas abundances in basaltic glasses from ocean islands (OIBs) are generally lower than those of mid-oceanic ridge basalts (MORBs), contrary to most geodynamic models which usually require that the source of OIBs is less degassed (resulting in higher primordial noble gas abundances) and more trace element enriched (resulting in higher radiogenic noble gas abundances) than the MORB source. Therefore, noble gas abundances in OIBs are often thought to have been reduced by extensive gas loss from the magma before eruption. The extent of magmatic degassing can be tested as it will cause characteristic changes in the composition of the volatiles; notably the 4He/ 40Ar* ratio (where 40Ar* is 40Ar corrected for atmospheric contamination) will increase in residual volatiles due to the higher solubility of He relative to Ar. The degree of He-Ar fractionation for a given fraction of gas loss depends on the ratio of the solubilities, S He/S Ar, which is sensitive to (among other things) the CO 2 and H 2O content of the basalt at the time of degassing. From a global database of OIB and MORB glasses, we show that 4He/ 40Ar* ratios of MORB glasses are broadly consistent with degassing of a magma with an initial 40Ar of ≈1.5 × 10 -5 ccSTP/g, i.e., similar to that of the "popping rock." However, OIB glasses generally have lower 40Ar* concentration for a given 4He/ 40Ar*. While this would appear to require lower 40Ar* abundances in the undegassed OIB magmas, the higher volatile contents of OIBs will reduce S He/S Ar (relative to MORBs) during degassing. By modeling S He/S Ar in OIBs, it is possible to show that extensive degassing of OIBs can occur without dramatically increasing the 4He/ 40Ar* ratio. We show that undegassed 40Ar concentrations of OIB magmas were probably similar to those of MORBs.

  7. A~fine fraction of soil used as an aerosol analogue during the DUNE experiment: sequential solubility in water with step-by-step decreasing pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghnatios, C.; Losno, R.; Dulac, F.

    2014-02-01

    A soil sample collected in a desert aerosol source area near Douz (South Tunisia) was sieved at 20 μm in order to extract the fraction similar to an aerosol generated by wind and used to seed mesocosms during the DUNE experiment. In the present work, this "aerosol-like" fine dust was sequentially leached by short contacts with water at pHs decreasing from 7 to 1. These pHs are representative of various environmental wet conditions, the lowest of which could be reached during cloud conditions. The evolution of the solubility from the highest to the lowest pHs provides information on the necessary strength for the solubilisation of a given element and its lability. The behaviour of the elemental fractional solubility is sorted into two groups: (i) Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, P constitute group 1, with a solubility between 23% and 70% and with a maximum solubility at pH 3; (ii) whereas in group 2 (Al, Fe), the solubility is less than 2% with the highest release at pH 1. Similar solubility patterns in group 1 for Ca, P and Mn suggest a~possible association of the elements in the same minerals, most probably carbonates, which gives phosphorus an unexpected high lability.

  8. Effects of the water soluble fraction of gasoline on ZFL cell line: Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lachner, Debora; Oliveira, Luciana F; Martinez, Claudia B R

    2015-12-25

    This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different dilutions of gasoline water-soluble fraction (GSF) on Danio rerio hepatocyte cell line (ZFL). Two tests were used to assess cell viability, MTT reduction assay (MTT) and the Trypan blue (TB) exclusion test. Oxidative stress was evaluated through the quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the assessment of the total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and the comet assay was employed to assess DNA damage. ZFL cells were exposed to 5, 10, 25 and 50% GSF or only to saline for 1, 3 and 6h. The GSF exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, and longer exposure times resulted in lower cell viability as indicated by both MTT and TB assays. The establishment of oxidative stress in cells exposed to GSF was not observed at any exposure period and the lower ROS levels could be related to the increased antioxidant capacity after 6-hour exposure. DNA damage was significantly increased after exposure to GSF at the three experimental times. Taking together these results show that GSF has a genotoxic potential at the lower concentrations and becomes cytotoxic at higher concentrations and that ZFL can be considered a good biological model for in vitro toxicological studies.

  9. Genetic and Hematologic Endpoints in Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae) After Exposure and Recovery to Water-Soluble Fraction of Gasoline (WSFG).

    PubMed

    Galvan, Gabrieli L; Lirola, Juliana R; Felisbino, Karoline; Vicari, Taynah; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Cestari, Marta M

    2016-07-01

    The sublethal effects of water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG, 1.5 % v/v) were evaluated in the freshwater fish, Astynax altiparanae, after acute exposure (96 h) under a semi-static system. In addition, the recovery process was assessed in the fish following contaminant depuration. Recovery treatments were carried out with gradual depuration (GD), consisting of 7 days in the WSFG, followed by 8 days in clean water; and treatments with total depuration in clean water for 15 (DEP 15) and 30 days (DEP 30). The effects were evaluated through the piscine micronucleus test and by differential counting of organic defense cells. Acute exposure increased the frequency of neutrophils. In the GD treatment, the thrombocyte count and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) increased. In the DEP 15 treatment, there was a reduction of ENA; and following 30 days of depuration (i.e., DEP 30), the number of lymphocytes increased and the thrombocyte count remained high. These results indicate a long-term response to a condition of stress from WSFG.

  10. Exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil or to naphthalenes alters breathing rates in Gulf killifish, Fundulus grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.C.; Fingerman, M.

    1984-03-01

    Alteration in breathing rate has been used to monitor the effects of pollutants on fishes. Particularly pertinent to the study described herein are the observations that the water soluble fractions (WSF) from Cook Inlet crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil and No. 2 fuel oil increased the breathing rate of pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, fry. However, possible underlying neurological mechanisms for this response have not been identified. Pollutant-induced changes in a fish's breathing rate may indicate neurochemical imbalances in the brain. Exposure of the longnose killifish, Fundulus similis, to the WSF of petroleum resulted in accumulation of naphthalenes from this WSF in high levels in the brain. Various organic compounds have been found to ultimately produce reductions in the whole brain concentration of dopamine in fishes. In view of these effects of various pollutants on breathing rate and the brain dopamine level in fishes, experiments were performed to determine the effects of (a) the WSF of South Louisiana crude oil, (b) two of its most toxic components (naphthalene and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene) and (c) the dopamine precursor, L-DOPA, on the breathing rate of Fundulus grandis. These experiments would not only reveal whether the WSF and naphthalenes affect the breathing rate but also whether it might be affected by the dopamine concentration in the fish.

  11. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Flohr, Letícia; de Castilhos Júnior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method. PMID:22619632

  12. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d.

  13. The Prestige oil spill: a laboratory study about the toxicity of the water-soluble fraction of the fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Navas, José M; Babín, Mar; Casado, Susana; Fernández, Carlos; Tarazona, José V

    2006-07-01

    The Prestige oil spill caused severe effects on the coastal fauna and flora due to direct contact of organisms with the fuel oil. However, the water soluble fraction (WSF) of the fuel oil can also provoke deleterious effects in the long term and even in regions not directly affected by the spill. Our objective was to determine the toxicity of the WSF using a battery of laboratory toxicity tests. To obtain a WSF in the laboratory, a sample of the spilled fuel was mixed with adequate medium, sonicated, agitated and filtered. No cytotoxic effects were detected in RTG-2 cells exposed to the WSF. In an algae growth inhibition test (OECD test guideline 201) the WSF did not affect the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Furthermore, acute and reproductive toxicity tests (OECD test guideline 202) carried out using Daphnia magna did not indicate any deleterious effect of the WSF. In a bioassay designed in our laboratory, D. magna were fed with algae previously exposed to the fuel, but no toxic effects were detected. However, the WSF was able to induce a dose-dependent increase of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in RTG-2 cells, indicating the presence of chemicals that could cause sub-lethal effects to organisms. After chemical analyses it was established that the final total quantity of polyaromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in medium was approximately 70 ng/ml. These low concentrations explain the observed lack of toxicity.

  14. Antioxidant effects of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cake made with silky fowl egg: comparison with White Leghorn egg.

    PubMed

    Toyosaki, T; Koketsu, M

    2007-08-01

    1. The antioxidant effects of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cakes made with silky fowl eggs and White Leghorn eggs were studied. The mechanism of the antioxidant effect was also investigated. 2. The antioxidant effect on the oxidation of linoleic acid increased in the water-soluble fraction of cake made with silky eggs. In contrast, Leghorn eggs significantly decreased the rate of antioxidant activity. The browning index of the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cake made with silky fowl eggs changed from 0.052 to 1.240 after 20 min at 180 degrees C, while that made with Leghorn eggs changed from 0.037 to 0.710. 3. There are correlations between the rate of browning index and antioxidant activity. Superoxide anion (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in water-soluble fractions of baked sponge cakes made with silky fowl eggs and hen's eggs were formed during light exposure for 20 min at 10,000 lux, and their formation could be significantly inhibited by the addition of tryptophan or mannitol, scavengers of hydroxyl radicals (*OH). These results were strong evidence of direct participation of *OH, formed by the Haber-Weiss reaction, in the water-soluble fraction of baked sponge cakes. The rate of decrease in active oxygen by scavengers decreased in Leghorn eggs more efficiently than in silky eggs. 4. The present experiments suggested that the use of silky fowl eggs could improve the quality and oxidative stability of baked cakes.

  15. Large-scale isolation, fractionation, and purification of soluble starch-synthesizing enzymes: starch synthase and branching enzyme from potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Mukerjea, Rupendra; Falconer, Daniel J; Yoon, Seung-Heon; Robyt, John F

    2010-07-19

    Soluble starch-synthesizing enzymes, starch synthase (SSS) and starch-branching enzyme (SBE), were isolated, fractionated, and purified from white potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) on a large scale. Five steps were used: potato tuber extract from 2 kg of peeled potatoes, two acetone precipitations, and two fractionations on a large ultrafiltration polysulfone hollow fiber 100 kDa cartridge. Three kinds of fractions were obtained: (1) mixtures of SSS and SBE; (2) SSS, free of SBE; and (3) SBE, free of SSS. Contaminating enzymes (amylase, phosphorylase, and disproportionating enzyme) and carbohydrates were absent from the 2nd acetone precipitate and from the column fractions, as judged by the Molisch test and starch triiodide test. Activity yields of 122% (300,000-400,000 units) of SSS fractions and 187% (40,000-50,000 units) of SBE fractions were routinely obtained from the cartridge. Addition of 0.04% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol 50K and 1 mM dithiothreitol to the glycine buffer (pH 8.4) gave long-term stability and higher yields of SSS and SBE, due to activation of inactive enzymes. Several SSS and SBE fractions from the two fractionations had very high specific activities, indicating high degrees of purification. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of selected SSS and SBE fractions gave two to five SSS and/or SBE activity bands, corresponding to the one to five protein bands present in the 2nd acetone precipitate.

  16. Genotoxicity and histological alterations in grey mullet Mugil liza exposed to petroleum water-soluble fraction (PWSF).

    PubMed

    Moreira, Cauê Bonucci; Rodrigues, Ricardo Vieira; Romano, Luis Alberto; Gusmão, Emeline Pereira; Seyffert, Bianca Hartwig; Sampaio, Luís André; Miranda-Filho, Kleber Campos

    2014-04-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are considered one of the main organic chemicals found in water bodies. In the present study, the median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated for mullet Mugil liza after acute exposure to petroleum water-soluble fraction (PWSF). Furthermore, histopathological studies and micronuclei frequency were also performed in order to observe deleterious effects of medium-term exposition to PWSF. Mullets (25 ± 2.3 g) were exposed to chronic concentrations (1.7, 3.5 and 7 % of PWSF), plus the control group, for 14 and 7 days of clearance time. Throughout the experimental period (1, 4, 14 and 21 days), blood samples were collected for analysis of micronucleus (MN) and liver and gills for histopathological study. For these procedures, seven fish were sampled per concentration tested. The LC50-96 h was estimated at 37.5 % of the PWSF. The time required for MN induction was 96 h of exposure. The time of clearance was sufficient to achieve a MN frequency similar to that of the control group. Histopathological studies showed severe changes in the gill and liver tissues. The most relevant histopathology in the gills was telangiectasia. Hepatic histopathology such as cholestasis, dilated sinusoids and inflammatory infiltrates were commonly described. The MN test and histological study effectively detected damages caused by medium-term exposition to the PWSF, and despite the toxicity, a few days without exposure can minimize PWSF genotoxicity in juveniles of M. liza.

  17. Insoluble fraction of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein possessing cholesterol-binding properties that reduce micelle cholesterol solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2007-07-25

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) protein (BWP) exhibits hypocholesterolemic activity in several animal models by increasing fecal excretion of neutral and acidic sterols. In the current study, the ability of BWP to disrupt micelle cholesterol solubility by sequestration of cholesterol was investigated. When BWP (0.2%) was incubated with cholesterol and micelle lipid components prior to micelle formation, cholesterol solubility was reduced 40%. In contrast, cholesterol solubility was not decreased when BWP (0.2%) was incubated after micelle formation and incorporation of soluble cholesterol. Buckwheat flour, from which BWP was derived, had no significant effect on cholesterol solubility. Cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells from micelles made in the presence of BWP (0.2%) was reduced by 47, 36, 35, and 33% when compared with buckwheat flour, bovine serum albumin, casein, and gelatin, respectively. Reduction in cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells was dose-dependent, with maximum reductions at 0.1-0.4% BWP. In cholesterol-binding experiments, 83% of the cholesterol was associated with an insoluble BWP fraction, indicating strong cholesterol-binding capacity that disrupts solubility and uptake by Caco-2 cells.

  18. Atmospheric deposition of beryllium in Central Europe: comparison of soluble and insoluble fractions in rime and snow across a pollution gradient.

    PubMed

    Bohdalkova, Leona; Novak, Martin; Voldrichova, Petra; Prechova, Eva; Veselovsky, Frantisek; Erbanova, Lucie; Krachler, Michael; Komarek, Arnost; Mikova, Jitka

    2012-11-15

    Little is known about atmospheric input of beryllium (Be) into ecosystems, despite its highly toxic behavior. For three consecutive winters (2009-2011), we measured Be concentrations in horizontal deposition (rime) and vertical deposition (snow) at 10 remote mountain-top locations in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Beryllium was determined both in filtered waters, and in HF digests of insoluble particles. Across the sites, soluble Be concentrations in rime were 7 times higher, compared to snow (6.1 vs. 0.9ng·L(-1)). Rime scavenged the pollution-rich lower segments of clouds. The lowest Be concentrations were detected in the soluble fraction of snow. Across the sites, 34% of total Be deposition occurred in the form of soluble (bioavailable) Be, the rest were insoluble particles. Beryllium fluxes decreased in the order: vertical dry deposition insoluble>vertical dry deposition soluble>horizontal deposition soluble>vertical wet deposition insoluble>vertical wet deposition soluble>horizontal deposition insoluble. The average contributions of these Be forms to total deposition were 56, 21, 8, 7, 5 and 3%, respectively. Sites in the northeast were more Be-polluted than the rest of the country with sources of pollution in industrial Silesia.

  19. Change of the chemical composition and biodegradability of the Van Soest soluble fraction during composting: a study using a novel extraction method.

    PubMed

    Peltre, C; Dignac, M F; Derenne, S; Houot, S

    2010-12-01

    Van Soest fractionation is widely employed to characterize exogenous organic matter. The soluble fraction of Van Soest fractionation (SOL, extracted using hot water and then neutral detergent) often increases in line with compost maturity, although it is generally considered as labile. We have developed an alternative extraction method that comprises four successive steps (extraction using hot water, sodium tetraborate, dichloromethane/methanol and chelating resin) in order to clarify the chemical nature of the SOL fraction and explain its biodegradability. This method was tested on municipal solid waste compost sampled during the thermophilic phase (MSWi) and after 8 months of composting (MSWm). Both methods extracted similar proportions of organic matter. The composition of the residues was similar in MSWm although differences were noted for the extraction of polysaccharides and lipids in the case of MSWi. The hot water extractable fraction decreased during composting. Its high biodegradability in MSWi was linked to the high polysaccharide content revealed by pyrolysis-GC/MS and FTIR spectroscopy. The increase in the sodium tetraborate extractable fraction mainly explained the increase in the SOL fraction during composting. This was made up of N-containing compounds, polysaccharides and lipids in the immature compost, and a majority of N-containing compounds in the mature compost. During composting, the stabilization of organic matter in the SOL fraction extractable by sodium tetraborate and EDTA might principally involve N-containing structures through the formation of complexes of organic matter with metal ions, especially Ca(2+), which may be broken down during extraction of the Van Soest soluble fraction. These mechanisms still need to be investigated.

  20. Alkali activation of recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from fluidised-bed combustion: Stabilisation/solidification of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Yliniemi, Juho; Pesonen, Janne; Tiainen, Minna; Illikainen, Mirja

    2015-09-01

    Recovered fuel-biofuel fly ash from a fluidized bed boiler was alkali-activated and granulated with a sodium-silicate solution in order to immobilise the heavy metals it contains. The effect of blast-furnace slag and metakaolin as co-binders were studied. Leaching standard EN 12457-3 was applied to evaluate the immobilisation potential. The results showed that Ba, Pb and Zn were effectively immobilised. However, there was increased leaching after alkali activation for As, Cu, Mo, Sb and V. The co-binders had minimal or even negative effect on the immobilisation. One exception was found for Cr, in which the slag decreased leaching, and one was found for Cu, in which the slag increased leaching. A sequential leaching procedure was utilized to gain a deeper understanding of the immobilisation mechanism. By using a sequential leaching procedure it is possible fractionate elements into watersoluble, acid-soluble, easily-reduced and oxidisable fractions, yielding a total 'bioavailable' amount that is potentially hazardous for the environment. It was found that the total bioavailable amount was lower following alkali activation for all heavy metals, although the water-soluble fraction was higher for some metals. Evidence from leaching tests suggests the immobilisation mechanism was chemical retention, or trapping inside the alkali activation reaction products, rather than physical retention, adsorption or precipitation as hydroxides.

  1. Proteomic analysis of the soluble and the lysosomal+mitochondrial fractions from rat pancreas: Implications for cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Violeta; Sánchez-Bernal, Carmen; Sarmiento, Nancy; Viana, Raúl A; Ferreira, Laura; Pérez, Nieves; Calvo, José J; Sánchez-Yagüe, Jesús

    2012-09-01

    Alterations in protein expression within the initiation phase of acute pancreatitis (AP) might play an important role in the development of this disease, lysosomes being involved in its pathophysiology. The use of pancreatic subcellular fractions in proteomic analysis, simplifies protein maps and helps in the identification of new protein changes and biomarkers characterizing tissue damage. The present study aims to determine the differentially expressed acidic proteins in the pancreatic soluble and lysosomal+mitochondrial (L+M) fractions from rats during the early phase of the experimental model of cerulein (Cer)-induced AP. Subcellular pancreatic extracts from diseased and control rats were analyzed by 2-DE (3-5.6 pH range) and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Comparative analysis afforded the conclusive identification of 13 (soluble fraction) and 7 (L+M fraction) proteins or protein fragments occuring in different amounts between diseased and control pancreas, some of them being newly described in AP. In the soluble fraction, we detected changes related to inflammation and apoptosis (α1-inhibitor-3, α-1 antitrypsin, α-1 macroglobulin, haptoglobin, STRAP), oxidative stress and stress response (peroxiredoxin-2, thioredoxin-like 1, GRP94/TRA1, heat shock cognate 71kDa protein), digestive proteases (elastase 3B), serine protease inhibition (serpins B6 and A3L) and translation processes (EF 1-δ). In the L+M fraction, we detected changes mainly related to energy generation or cellular metabolism (ATP synthase β subunit, chymotrypsinogen B, triacylglycerol lipase), cell redox homeostasis (iodothyronine 5´monodeiodinase) and digestive proteases (carboxypeptidase B1). The data should provide valuable information for unraveling the early pathophysiologic mechanisms of Cer-induced AP.

  2. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0–21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ± 0.8 g were assigned to one of five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 20% regular wheat DDGS. The experimental diets contained 5, 10, 15 or 20% fractionated wheat DDGS added at the expense of regular wheat DDGS. Results The ATTD of dry matter and gross energy were linearly increased (P < 0.01) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Nitrogen retention was unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS (P > 0.05). Weight gain increased linearly (P = 0.05) as the level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet increased. Feed intake, feed conversion and mortality were unaffected by level of fractionated wheat DDGS in the diet (P > 0.05). Conclusions Post-production fractionation of wheat DDGS improves their nutritional value by lowering their fiber content and increasing their content of crude protein and energy. These changes in chemical composition supported increased weight gain of broilers fed wheat DDGS. PMID:23607764

  3. Preparative separation of polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Xuan, Hongzhuan; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin; Cui, Jichun

    2016-02-15

    In this study, a preparative separation method was developed for isolation of eleven polyphenols from water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis using macroporous absorptive resin (MAR) coupled with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC). Water-soluble fraction of Chinese propolis was first "prefractioned" using MAR, which yielded four subfractions. The four subfractions were then isolated by PHPLC with an isocratic elution of methanol-water. Finally, eleven polyphenols were purified from Chinese propolis including caffeic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, pinobanksin, caffeic acid benzyl ester, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, apigenin, pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin. The purities of the compounds were determined by HPLC and the chemical structures were confirmed by UV and NMR analysis. The method developed was simple, effective, rapid, scalable and economical, and it was a promising basis for large-scale preparation of multiple components from natural products.

  4. Ferric reductase activity of low molecular weight human milk fraction is associated with enhanced iron solubility and uptake in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Pullakhandam, Raghu; Nair, Madhavan Krishnapillai; Kasula, Sunanda; Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Thippande, Tippeswamy Gowda

    2008-09-19

    It is known that the fractional absorption of extrinsic iron from human milk is higher in infants and adults. A low molecular weight milk fraction has been proposed to increase the bioavailability of iron from human milk. Nevertheless, the mechanisms remained elusive. Here in we demonstrate ferric reductase activity (Km7.73x10(-6)M) in low molecular weight human milk fraction (10kF, filtrate derived from ultra filtration of milk whey through 10kDa cutoff membrane), which increased ferric iron solubility and iron uptake in Caco-2 cells. The 10kF fraction was as effective as ascorbic acid (1:20 iron to ascorbic acid) in increasing the ferric iron solubility and uptake in Caco-2 cells. Further, gel filtration chromatography on peptide column led to co-elution of ferric reductase and iron solubilization activities at an apparent molecular mass of <1500Da. Interestingly, only these fractions containing ferric reductase activity also stimulated the uptake of iron in Caco-2 cells. Thus, it is concluded that human milk possesses ferric reductase activity and is associated with ferric iron solubilization and enhanced absorption.

  5. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOEpatents

    Soung, W.Y.

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased, preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  6. Mineral oil soluble borate compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Dulat, J.

    1981-09-15

    Alkali metal borates are reacted with fatty acids or oils in the presence of a low hlb value surfactant to give a stable mineral oil-soluble product. Mineral oil containing the borate can be used as a cutting fluid.

  7. Effects of motor patterns on water-soluble and membrane proteins and cholinesterase activity in subcellular fractions of rat brain tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pevzner, L. Z.; Venkov, L.; Cheresharov, L.

    1980-01-01

    Albino rats were kept for a year under conditions of daily motor load or constant hypokinesia. An increase in motor activity results in a rise in the acetylcholinesterase activity determined in the synaptosomal and purified mitochondrial fractions while hypokinesia induces a pronounced decrease in this enzyme activity. The butyrylcholinesterase activity somewhat decreases in the synaptosomal fraction after hypokinesia but does not change under the motor load pattern. Motor load causes an increase in the amount of synaptosomal water-soluble proteins possessing an intermediate electrophoretic mobility and seem to correspond to the brain-specific protein 14-3-2. In the synaptosomal fraction the amount of membrane proteins with a low electrophoretic mobility and with the cholinesterase activity rises. Hypokinesia, on the contrary, decreases the amount of these membrane proteins.

  8. Differentiation of roasted and soluble coffees through physical fractionation of selected essential and nonessential metals in their brews and exploratory data analysis.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Stelmach, Ewelina; Welna, Maja

    2016-11-01

    An analytical scheme for physical fractionation of Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sr and Zn in ground roasted and soluble coffees brews was proposed. It was based on ultrafiltration through five ultrafiltration membranes having molecular weight cut-offs of 5, 10, 30, 50 and 100kDa. The highest ">100kDa" and the lowest "<5kDa" molecular weight fractions were established to differentiate the studied coffees brews the most. Al, Cu, Fe and Ni were mostly associated with the ">100kDa" fraction, while Co, K, Mg and Na - with the "<5kDa" fraction. For Ba, Ca, Mn, Sr and Zn, ">100kDa" and "<5kDa" fractions contributions were equally accounted. The physical fractionation pattern of selected metals was convenient for discovering important features of brews of both coffee types and differences between them by principal component analysis and then classifying them by linear discriminant analysis.

  9. Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process

    DOEpatents

    Sharp, David W.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.; Gorbaty, Martin L.; Tsou, Joe M.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

  10. Fractionation of rapeseed straw by hydrothermal/dilute acid pretreatment combined with alkali post-treatment for improving its enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Yang; Zhao, Bao-Cheng; Li, Ming-Fei; Liu, Qiu-Yun; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of combined treatments on fermentable sugar production from rapeseed straw. An optimum condition was found to be the combination of hydrothermal pretreatment at 180°C for 45min and post-treatment by 2% NaOH at 100°C for 2h, which was based on the quantity of monosaccharides released during enzymatic hydrolysis. As compared with the raw material without treatment, the combination of hydrothermal pretreatment and alkali post-treatment resulted in a significant increase of the saccharification rate by 5.9times. This process potentially turned rapeseed straw into value added products in accordance with the biorefinery concept.

  11. Alkali metal and rare earth element evolution of rock-forming minerals from the Gatumba area pegmatites (Rwanda): Quantitative assessment of crystal-melt fractionation in the regional zonation of pegmatite groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulsbosch, Niels; Hertogen, Jan; Dewaele, Stijn; André, Luc; Muchez, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    This study presents a general model for the evaluation of Rayleigh fractional crystallisation as the principal differentiation mechanism in the formation of regionally zoned common and rare-element pegmatites. The magmatic evolution of these systems from a granitic source is reconstructed by means of alkali element and rare earth element (REE) analyses of rock-forming minerals (feldspars, micas and tourmaline), which represent a whole sequence of regional pegmatite zonation. The Gatumba pegmatite field (Rwanda, Central Africa) is chosen as case study area because of its well-developed regional zonation sequence. The pegmatites are spatially and temporally related to peraluminous G4-granites (986 ± 10 Ma). The regional zonation is developed around a G4-granite and the proximal pegmatites grade outwardly into biotite, two-mica and muscovite pegmatites. Rare-element (Nb-Ta-Sn) pegmatites occur most distal from the granite.

  12. Determination of subcellular concentrations of soluble carbohydrates in rose petals during opening by nonaqueous fractionation method combined with infiltration-centrifugation method.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kunio; Norikoshi, Ryo; Suzuki, Katsumi; Imanishi, Hideo; Ichimura, Kazuo

    2009-11-01

    Petal growth associated with flower opening depends on cell expansion. To understand the role of soluble carbohydrates in petal cell expansion during flower opening, changes in soluble carbohydrate concentrations in vacuole, cytoplasm and apoplast of petal cells during flower opening in rose (Rosa hybrida L.) were investigated. We determined the subcellular distribution of soluble carbohydrates by combining nonaqueous fractionation method and infiltration-centrifugation method. During petal growth, fructose and glucose rapidly accumulated in the vacuole, reaching a maximum when petals almost reflected. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the volume of vacuole and air space drastically increased with petal growth. Carbohydrate concentration was calculated for each compartment of the petal cells and in petals that almost reflected, glucose and fructose concentrations increased to higher than 100 mM in the vacuole. Osmotic pressure increased in apoplast and symplast during flower opening, and this increase was mainly attributed to increases in fructose and glucose concentrations. No large difference in osmotic pressure due to soluble carbohydrates was observed between the apoplast and symplast before flower opening, but total osmotic pressure was much higher in the symplast than in the apoplast, a difference that was partially attributed to inorganic ions. An increase in osmotic pressure due to the continued accumulation of glucose and fructose in the symplast may facilitate water influx into cells, contributing to cell expansion associated with flower opening under conditions where osmotic pressure is higher in the symplast than in the apoplast.

  13. Ocean acidification stimulates alkali signal pathway: A bicarbonate sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase from oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates physiological changes induced by CO2 exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiudan; Wang, Mengqiang; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Hao; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2016-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) has been demonstrated to have severe effects on marine organisms, especially marine calcifiers. However, the impacts of OA on the physiology of marine calcifiers and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is an acid-base sensor in response to [HCO3(-)] and an intracellular source of cyclic AMP (cAMP). In the present study, an ortholog of sAC was identified from pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (designated as CgsAC) and the catalytic region of CgsAC was cloned and expressed. Similar to the native CgsAC from gill tissues, the recombinant CgsAC protein (rCgsAC) exhibited [HCO3(-)] mediated cAMP-forming activity, which could be inhibited by a small molecule KH7. After 16days of CO2 exposure (pH=7.50), the mRNA transcripts of CgsAC increased in muscle, mantle, hepatopancreas, gill, male gonad and haemocytes, and two truncated CgsAC forms of 45kD and 20kD were produced. Cytosolic CgsAC could be translocated from the cytoplasm and nuclei to the membrane in response to CO2 exposure. Besides, CO2 exposure could increase the production of cAMP and intracellular pH of haemocytes, which was regulated by CgsAC (p<0.05), suggesting the existence of a [HCO3(-)]/CgsAC/cAMP signal pathway in oyster. The elevated CO2 could induce an increase of ROS level (p<0.05) and a decrease of phagocytic rate of haemocytes (p<0.05), which could be inhibited by KH7. The results collectively suggest that CgsAC is an important acid-base sensor in oyster and the [HCO3(-)]/CgsAC/cAMP signal pathway might be responsible for intracellular alkalization effects on oxidative phosphorylation and innate immunity under CO2 exposure. The changes of intracellular pH, ROS, and phagocytosis mediated by CgsAC might help us to further understand the effects of ocean acidification on marine calcifiers.

  14. Fractionation of bamboo hemicelluloses by graded saturated ammonium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying; Zhang, Bing; Qi, Xian-Ming; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-09-20

    The hemicelluloses were isolated with 10% KOH at 25°C from dewaxed and delignified bamboo powder. The alkali-soluble hemicelluloses from Sinocalamus affinis were fractionated by ammonium sulphate precipitation method. The bamboo alkali-soluble hemicelluloses yielded seven hemicellulosic fractions obtained at 0, 5, 15, 25, 40, 55, and 70% saturation with ammonium sulphate. It was found that the more branched hemicelluloses were precipitated at higher ammonium sulphate concentrations (55 and 70%), the more linear hemicelluloses were precipitated at lower ammonium sulphate concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25, and 40%). The molecular weights of hemicellulosic fractions become lower from 35,270 (H0) to 18,680 (H70)gmol(-1) with the increasing concentrations of saturated ammonium sulphate from 0 to 70%. Based on the FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and 2D HSQC NMR studies, the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were 4-O-methyl-glucuronoarabinoxylans composed of the (1→4)-linked β-d-xylopyranosyl backbone with branches at O-3 of α-L-arabinofuranosyl or at O-2 of 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronic acid.

  15. An organelle-free assay for pea chloroplast Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane bound fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Mg-chelatase, which catalyzes the insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin, lies at the branchpoint of heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis in chloroplasts. Since magnesium chelation is the first step unique to chlorophyll synthesis, one would expect this step to be highly regulated. However, to date little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase due mostly to an inability to assay it's activity outside of the intact plastid. Here the authors report the first truly in vitro i.e. organelle-free, assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts which is 3 to 4 fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts, survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated, by centrifugation, into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity and both were inactivated by boiling; indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane bound protein(s). The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol Mg-Deuteroporphyrin/h/mg protein and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity. The soluble component could be fractionated with ammonium sulfate. The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. Crude separation of chloroplast membranes into thylakoids and envelopes, suggested that the membrane-bound component of Mg-chelatase is probably located in the envelope.

  16. On-line filtration system for determining total chromium and chromium in the soluble fraction of industrial effluents by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López-García, I; Merino Meroño, B; Campillo, N; Hernández-Córdoba, M

    2002-05-01

    Two manifolds were assessed for the purpose of determining both the total chromium content and that present as a soluble form in industrial effluents by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-FAAS). To determine the chromium content in the soluble fraction the samples were used without additional treatment, a 0.45 microm filter being included in the FI system. To determine the total chromium content, the samples were acidified with nitric acid 20% (v/v) and heated for 30 s in a microwave oven (temperatures of about 70 degrees C were reached). The problem posed by the very different concentration range in which total and soluble chromium are present was overcome by using programmed flow rate methodology and by only partially emptying the sample loop. A personal computer controlled both the rotation speed of a peristaltic pump and the volume of sample injected into the system, thus obtaining the dispersion degree required. Using the manifold proposed, the chromium content in the soluble fraction can be determined in the 0.5-20 microg mL(-1) range using a 10 microg mL(-1) single standard for calibration. To determine the total chromium content, a calibration line in the 20-200 microg mL(-1) range was obtained using a single 50 microg mL(-1) chromium standard solution. The reliability of the semi-automatic devices was verified by comparing the results obtained with those found by treating the samples and using both FAAS in a conventional way and a spectrophotometric method using diphenylcarbazide at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA test). The proposed procedures showed a RSD lower than +/-3%.

  17. Fractionation of an ECM hydrogel into structural and soluble components reveals distinctive roles in regulating macrophage behavior.

    PubMed

    Slivka, P F; Dearth, C L; Keane, T J; Meng, F W; Medberry, C J; Riggio, R T; Reing, J E; Badylak, S F

    2014-08-26

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived from mammalian tissues has been utilized to repair damaged or missing tissue and improve healing outcomes. More recently, processing of ECM into hydrogels has expanded the use of these materials to include platforms for 3-dimensional cell culture as well as injectable therapeutics that can be delivered by minimally invasive techniques and fill irregularly shaped cavities. At the cellular level, ECM hydrogels initiate a multifaceted host response that includes recruitment of endogenous stem/progenitor cells, regional angiogenesis, and modulation of the innate immune response. Unfortunately, little is known about the components of the hydrogel that drive these responses. We hypothesized that different components of ECM hydrogels could play distinctive roles in stem cell and macrophage behavior. Utilizing a well-characterized ECM hydrogel derived from urinary bladder matrix (UBM), we separated the soluble and structural components of UBM hydrogel and characterized their biological activity. Perivascular stem cells migrated toward and reduced their proliferation in response to both structural and soluble components of UBM hydrogel. Both components also altered macrophage behavior but with different fingerprints. Soluble components increased phagocytosis with an IL-1RA(high), TNFα(low), IL-1β(low), uPA(low) secretion profile. Structural components decreased phagocytosis with a PGE2(high), PGF2α(high), TNFα(low), IL-1β(low), uPA(low), MMP2(low), MMP9(low), secretion profile. The biologic activity of the soluble components was mediated by Notch and PI3K/Akt signaling, while the biologic activity of the structural components was mediated by integrins and MEK/ERK signaling. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that soluble and structural components of ECM hydrogels contribute to the host response but through different mechanisms.

  18. Controls on Calcite Solubility in Metamorphic and Magmatic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. E.; Eguchi, J.; Galvez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Calcite is an important hydrothermal alteration product in a wide range of environments. The role of calcite in hydrothermal alteration depends on its solubility in geologic fluids, especially H2O. At ambient T and P, calcite solubility is low and it exhibits well-known declining, or "reverse", solubility with rising T. However, experimental and theoretical studies show that increasing P yields higher solubility and restricts the region of reverse solubility behavior to higher temperature. At 0.2 GPa the reverse solubility region lies at T>600°C; at 0.5 GPa, >800°C. Thus, whereas calcite possesses relatively low solubility in pure H2O in shallow hydrothermal systems (typically <10 ppm C), it is substantially more soluble at conditions of middle and lower crustal metamorphism and magmatism, reaching concentrations ≥1000 ppm. At the higher P of subduction zones, aragonite solubility in H2O is even greater. Thus, neglecting other solubility controls, calcite precipitation is favored as crustal fluids cool and/or decompress. However, the solubility of calcite in H2O also depends strongly on other solutes, pH, and fO2. Sources of alkalinity decrease calcite solubility. In contrast, sources of acidity such as CO2 and Cl increase solubility. Crustal fluids can be enriched in alkali halides such as NaCl. Calcite solubility increases with increasing salt content at a given P and T. From approximately seawater salinity to salt saturation, the fluid behaves as a dilute molten salt and calcite solubility increases as the square of the salt mole fraction regardless of the alkali (Li, Na, K, Cs) or halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) considered. Similar behavior is seen in mixed salt solutions. At lower salinities, solubility behavior is as expected in dilute electrolyte solutions. The transition from dilute electrolyte to molten salt is fundamental to the properties of crustal fluids. Reduction of carbonate species or CO2 in the fluid to CH4, which is common during serpentinization of

  19. Upgrading of residues of bracts, stems and hearts of Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus to functional fractions enriched in soluble fiber.

    PubMed

    Fissore, Eliana N; Santo Domingo, Cinthia; Pujol, Carlos A; Damonte, Elsa B; Rojas, Ana M; Gerschenson, Lía N

    2014-03-01

    Since only the central portion of the immature flowers of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is consumed (<20%) it is interesting to upgrade its residues to render value added products. In this research, bracts (B), hearts (H) or stems (S) were used to isolate fractions enriched in soluble fiber. Extraction was performed in citrate buffer with or without hemicellulase. Additionally, the effect of preheating (70 °C - 5 min) prior to extraction was also tested. Polysaccharides were precipitated with ethanol and the fractions obtained were freeze-dried. The presence of the enzyme increased fiber yields and preheating produced an additional increment, especially from stems (≈21%). Isolated fibers were constituted by 70-84% of carbohydrates and 2-25% of proteins, and contained phenolics (2.1-8.2 g/100 g). Carbohydrates included uronic acids (12-25%) and neutral sugars (NS, 4-55%) of pectins, and inulin (13-55%). The lowest protein and NS contents and the highest inulin content were obtained with the enzyme and preheating. The behavior of fractions isolated with higher yields was characterized, observing a pseudoplastic behavior in water and gelation with Ca(2+). They also showed antioxidant activity and an inhibitory effect against herpes simplex virus type 1 without cytotoxicity. The isolated fractions retaining bioactive compounds can be useful as functional food ingredients.

  20. QrtzGeotherm: A revised algorithm for quartz solubility geothermometry to estimate geothermal reservoir temperature and vapor fraction with multivariate analytical uncertainty propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Mahendra P.

    2012-11-01

    The quartz solubility geothermometry to calculate geothermal reservoir temperature and vapor fraction with multivariate analytical uncertainty propagation is programmed as two classes, SiO2TD and QrtzGeotherm in Visual Basic in Visual Studio 2010 (VB.NET). The class, SiO2TD calculates the total discharge concentration, SiO2TD and its uncertainty, SiO2TDErr from the analytical concentration of silica, SiO2msd and uncertainty, SiO2msdErr of separated water, sampled after N-separations of vapor and liquid. The class, QrtzGeotherm uses the following properties as input parameters: (i) HRes-reservoir enthalpy (kJ/kg), (ii) HResErr-uncertainty in the reservoir enthalpy (kJ/kg), (iii) SiO2TD-total discharge silica concentration (ppm), (iv) SiO2TDErr-uncertainty in the total discharge silica concentration (ppm) (v) GeoEq-number of quartz solubility regression equation, (vi) TempGuess-a guess value of the reservoir temperature (°C). The properties corresponding to the output parameters are (i) TempRes-reservoir temperature (K), (ii) TempResErr-uncertainty in the reservoir temperature (K), (iii) VaporRes-reservoir vapor fraction and (iv) VaporResErr-uncertainty in the reservoir vapor fraction. Similarly, it has a method, SiO2Eqn(EqNo, Temp) to provide the silica solubility as function of temperature corresponding to the regression equation. Four quartz solubility equations along the liquid-vapor saturation curve: (i) a quadratic equation of 1/T and pressure, (ii) a linear equation relating log SiO2to the inverse of absolute temperature (T), (iii) a polynomial of T including logarithmic terms and (iv) temperature as a polynomial of SiO2including logarithmic terms are programmed. A demonstration program, QGeotherm is written VB.NET. Similarly, the applicability of classes SiO2TD and QrtzGeotherm in MS-Excel is illustrated considering Los Azufres geothermal field as an example.

  1. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  2. Advantages of ion-based mole fractions for describing phase equilibria in ionic liquids: application to gas solubility.

    PubMed

    Longinotti, María Paula; Alvarez, Jorge L; Japas, M Laura

    2009-03-19

    Despite the obvious ionic character of ionic liquids (ILs), previous studies of phase equilibria in these media were formulated implicitly assuming a "molecular" behavior of the ionic solvent. In this work, a more appropriate thermodynamic treatment is applied to describe the solubility of gases in ILs. According to our results, if the concentration is expressed on an ionic basis, solutions of simple gases in ILs display rather small deviations from ideal behavior in wide composition ranges, whereas deviations are larger when the solvent is considered as an anion-cation pair. The present thermodynamic formulation also accounts for the observed solid-liquid phase equilibria of molecular and IL binary mixtures.

  3. High-molecular weight Aβ oligomers and protofibrils are the predominant Aβ species in the native soluble protein fraction of the AD brain.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Ajeet Rijal; Lungrin, Irina; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Fändrich, Marcus; Thal, Dietmar Rudolf

    2012-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the aggregation and deposition of amyloid β protein (Aβ) in the brain. Soluble Aβ oligomers are thought to be toxic. To investigate the predominant species of Aβ protein that may play a role in AD pathogenesis, we performed biochemical analysis of AD and control brains. Sucrose buffer-soluble brain lysates were characterized in native form using blue native (BN)-PAGE and also in denatured form using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot analysis. BN-PAGE analysis revealed a high-molecular weight smear (>1000 kD) of Aβ(42) -positive material in the AD brain, whereas low-molecular weight and monomeric Aβ species were not detected. SDS-PAGE analysis, on the other hand, allowed the detection of prominent Aβ monomer and dimer bands in AD cases but not in controls. Immunoelectron microscopy of immunoprecipitated oligomers and protofibrils/fibrils showed spherical and protofibrillar Aβ-positive material, thereby confirming the presence of high-molecular weight Aβ (hiMWAβ) aggregates in the AD brain. In vitro analysis of synthetic Aβ(40) - and Aβ(42) preparations revealed Aβ fibrils, protofibrils, and hiMWAβ oligomers that were detectable at the electron microscopic level and after BN-PAGE. Further, BN-PAGE analysis exhibited a monomer band and less prominent low-molecular weight Aβ (loMWAβ) oligomers. In contrast, SDS-PAGE showed large amounts of loMWAβ but no hiMWAβ(40) and strikingly reduced levels of hiMWAβ(42) . These results indicate that hiMWAβ aggregates, particularly Aβ(42) species, are most prevalent in the soluble fraction of the AD brain. Thus, soluble hiMWAβ aggregates may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD either independently or as a reservoir for release of loMWAβ oligomers.

  4. Major fraction of black carbon is flushed from the melting New Hampshire snowpack nearly as quickly as soluble impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarcik, James; Dibb, Jack E.; Adolph, Alden C.; Amante, Jacqueline M.; Wake, Cameron P.; Scheuer, Eric; Mineau, Madeleine M.; Albert, Mary R.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal snowpacks accumulate impurities derived from atmospheric aerosols and trace gases throughout the winter and release them during snowmelt. Previous field and laboratory studies have shown that a snowpack can lose up to 80% of the soluble ion burden in the first 20% of the melt, an event commonly known as an ionic pulse. Other studies have concluded that particulate impurities (e.g., black carbon (BC)) concentrate in surface layers during melt which can have important implications for snowpack albedo. However, model and field studies have indicated that meltwater scavenging efficiency of BC in melting snowpacks is still an area of uncertainty. To quantify BC melt dynamics and the release of soluble impurities, we collected and analyzed near-daily chemical profiles in the snowpack at three sites during two winters in New Hampshire, United States of America. We observe an ionic pulse and a pulse of BC from the snowpack at the onset of melt; up to 62% of BC leaves within the first 24% of the melt. Surface concentrations of BC are higher than seasonal medians at the end of the winter season, but surface enhancements do not appear to be closely linked to decreases in snow-water equivalence caused by melting.

  5. Mass spectrometry assessment of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 partitioning between soluble and particulate brain homogenate fractions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junjun; Huang, Richard Y-C; Turko, Illarion V

    2013-06-18

    Partitioning of specific proteins between soluble and insoluble forms because of aggregation, membrane attachment, and (or) association with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles is a major feature of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is an example of a neuron-specific protein which displays two different dimerization-dependent catalytic activities and can be farnesylated for membrane attachment, oxidized, and truncated. Decreased levels of soluble UCH-L1 are inversely proportional to the number of neurofibrillary tangles. Further assessment of a link between UCH-L1 function and the pathogenesis of AD requires an analytical method to separately quantify different UCH-L1 forms. In the present study, we have developed a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assay to measure UCH-L1 in the high-speed supernatant and pellet of frontal cortex homogenate. The well-characterized (15)N-labeled quantification concatamer (QconCAT) carrying prototypic tryptic peptides of UCH-L1 was used as an internal standard. The composed protocol of frontal cortex processing includes solubilization and reduction/alkylation of proteins in the presence of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and following with desalting/delipidation of the sample by chloroform/methanol precipitation with extra water washing of the protein pellet. The measurements were performed for frontal cortex samples from control and severe AD donors. The proposed workflow can be recommended for quantification of partitioning of other proteins of interest.

  6. Water-soluble fractions from defatted sesame seeds protect human neuroblast cells against peroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kitayama, Akemi; Fujimura, Makoto; Kitaguchi, Kohji; Yabe, Tomio

    2016-09-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development of aging-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases. Dietary antioxidants that can protect neuronal cells from oxidative damage play an important role in preventing such diseases. Previously, we reported that water-soluble fractions purified from defatted sesame seed flour exhibit good antioxidant activity in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of white and gold sesame seed water-soluble fractions (WS-wsf and GS-wsf, respectively) against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced oxidative stress in human neuroblast SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with WS-wsf and GS-wsf did not protect cells against AAPH-induced cytotoxicity, while simultaneous co-treatment with AAPH significantly improved cell viability and inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that WS-wsf and GS-wsf protect cells from AAPH-induced extracellular oxidative damage via direct scavenging of peroxyl radicals. When oxidative stress was induced by H2O2, pretreatment WS-wsf and GS-wsf significantly enhanced cell viability. These results suggest that in addition to radical scavenging, WS-wsf and GS-wsf enhance cellular resistance to intracellular oxidative stress by activation of the Nrf-2/ARE pathway as confirmed by the increased Nrf2 protein level in the nucleus and increased heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA expression. The roles of ferulic and vanillic acids as bioactive antioxidants in these fractions were also confirmed. In conclusion, our results indicated that WS-wsf and GS-wsf, which showed antioxidant activity in vitro, are also efficient antioxidants in a cell system protecting SH-SY5Y cells against both extracellular and intracellular oxidative stress.

  7. Milk-alkali syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000332.htm Milk-alkali syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Milk-alkali syndrome is a condition in which there ...

  8. Carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini oxysterols detected by LC-MS/MS survey of soluble fraction parasite extract.

    PubMed

    Vale, Nuno; Gouveia, Maria João; Botelho, Mónica; Sripa, Banchob; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Gomes, Paula; Brindley, Paul J; Correia da Costa, José Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has emerged as an informative tool to investigate oxysterols (oxidized derivatives of cholesterol) in helminth parasite associated cancers. Here, we used LC-MS/MS to investigate in soluble extracts of the adult developmental stage of Opisthorchis viverrini from experimentally infected hamsters. Using comparisons with known bile acids and the metabolites of estrogens, the LC-MS data indicated the existence of novel oxysterol derivatives in O. viverrini. Most of these derivatives were ramified at C-17, in similar fashion to bile acids and their conjugated salts. Several were compatible with the presence of an estrogen core, and/or hydroxylation of the steroid aromatic ring A, hydroxylation of both C-2 and C-3 of the steroid ring and further oxidation into an estradiol-2,3-quinone.

  9. Effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights from alkali pretreated rice straw hydrolyzate on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Wan, Yinhua

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of alkali lignins with different molecular weights on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. Different alkali lignins fractions, which were obtained from cascade ultrafiltration, were added into the dilute acid pretreated (DAP) and alkali pretreated (AP) rice straws respectively during enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the addition of alkali lignins enhanced the hydrolysis and the enhancement for hydrolysis increased with increasing molecular weights of alkali lignins, with maximum enhancement being 28.69% for DAP and 20.05% for AP, respectively. The enhancement was partly attributed to the improved cellulase activity, and filter paper activity increased by 18.03% when adding lignin with highest molecular weight. It was found that the enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was correlated with the adsorption affinity of cellulase on alkali lignins, and the difference in surface charge and hydrophobicity of alkali lignins were responsible for the difference in affinity between cellulase and lignins.

  10. Method for the safe disposal of alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry R.

    1977-01-01

    Alkali metals such as those employed in liquid metal coolant systems can be safely reacted to form hydroxides by first dissolving the alkali metal in relatively inert metals such as lead or bismuth. The alloy thus formed is contacted with a molten salt including the alkali metal hydroxide and possibly the alkali metal carbonate in the presence of oxygen. This oxidizes the alkali metal to an oxide which is soluble within the molten salt. The salt is separated and contacted with steam or steam-CO.sub.2 mixture to convert the alkali metal oxide to the hydroxide. These reactions can be conducted with minimal hydrogen evolution and with the heat of reaction distributed between the several reaction steps.

  11. Oxygen consumption and filtering rate of Daphnia Pulex after exposure to water-soluble fractions of naphthalene, phenanthrene, No. 2 fuel oil, and coal-tar creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, J.G.; Buikema, A.L.

    1981-12-01

    The effects of short-term exposure to water-soluble fractions (WSF) of naphthalene, phenanthrene, No. 2 fuel oil, and coal-tar creosote upon oxygen consumption and filtering rates of Daphnia pulex are examined. Approximately 60 young Daphnia were exposed to test solutions of LC20 and LC30 concentrations of WSF for at least three molt cycles. Oxygen consumption was determined by the azide modification of the Winkler Method (American Public Health Association et al. 1975). Algal counts were made for experimental and control bottles using an Electrozone electronic particle counter interfaced with a PDP-11 minicomputer. Filtering rates were computed and expressed as ml/Daphnia/day. Results indicate no significant differences in oxygen consumption rates. However, changes in filtering rates may be a sensitive indicator of sublethal stress. 3 tables (JMT)

  12. Toxicity of biodiesel, diesel and biodiesel/diesel blends: comparative sub-lethal effects of water-soluble fractions to microalgae species.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Solange A; Araújo, Vinicius Queiroz; Reboucas, Marcio V; Vieira, Fernanda Seabra V; de Almeida, Marcos Vinicio A; Chinalia, Fabio A; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade

    2012-02-01

    The water-soluble-fractions (WSF) from biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blends were compared to diesel in their sub-lethal toxicity to microalgae. Chemical analyses of aromatics, non-aromatics hydrocarbons and methanol were carried out in the WSF, the former showing positive correlation with increasing diesel concentrations (B100 < B5 < B3 < B2 < D). Biodiesel interacted with the aqueous matrix, generating methanol, which showed lower toxicity than the diesel contaminants in blends. The WSF caused 50% culture growth inhibition (IC50-96 h) at concentrations varying from 2.3 to 85.6%, depending on the tested fuels and species. However, the same species sensitivity trend (S. costatum > N. oculata > T. chuii > P. subcapitata) was observed for all the tested fuels.

  13. In vitro assay of the chlorophyll biosynthetic enzyme Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane-bound fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    The first committed step in chlorophyll synthesis is the Mg-chelatase-catalyzed insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX. Since iron insertion into protoporphyrin leads to heme formation, Mg-chelatase lies at the branch point of heme and chlorophyll synthesis in chloroplasts. Little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase, as it has been assayed only in intact cucumber chloroplasts. In this report we describe an in vitro assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts was 3- to 4-fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts. This activity survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated by centrifugation into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity, and both were inactivated by boiling indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane-bound protein(s). The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol of Mg-deuteroporphyrin per h per mg of protein, and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity and the enzymen was sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide (I{sub 50}, 20 {mu}M). Broken and reconstituted cucumber chloroplasts were unable to maintain Mg-chelatase activity. However, the cucumber supernatant fraction was active when combined with the pellet fraction of peas; the converse was not true, which suggested that the cucumber pellet was the component that lost activity during lysis.

  14. β-Alanine as an Ethylene Precursor. Investigations Towards Preparation, and Properties, of a Soluble Enzyme System From a Subcellular Particulate Fraction of Bean Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, Robert A.; Spencer, Mary

    1969-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation, from a subcellular particulate fraction of wax bean cotyledons, of a soluble enzyme system that is capable of converting β-alanine to ethylene. In the presence of ATP, CoA, thiamine pyrophosphate, MgSO4, and pyridoxal phosphate, ethylene production is maximum at a 0.5 mm concentration of β-alanine. The system exhibits a pH optimum at 7.0 but when the pH is raised above 8, evolution of the volatile again increases and continues to do so up to pH 12. The enzyme system is stimulated by either NADPH or NADH; the concentration of NADPH necessary to obtain maximum activity is twice that of NADH. The requirement for a reducing agent is in agreement with the proposal that malonate semialdehyde, formed by an aminotransferase reaction from β-alanine, is reduced to β-hydroxypropionate. Both malonate semialdehyde and β-hydroxypropionate are better stimulators of production of the volatile in the soluble system than is β-alanine, and β-hydroxypropionate is a better stimulator than malonate semialdehyde. This system is also able to incorporate tritium from tritiated water into ethylene; this supports the proposal that ethylene is formed by the decarboxylation of acrylate, the latter being formed from β-hydroxypropionate. Experiments with both cold and labeled malonate suggest that this compound stimulates ethylene production by acting as an end product inhibitor that prevents the loss of malonate semialdehyde from the pathway. Malonate does not appear to serve as a precursor. Addition of cytoplasmic enzymes to the `soluble system' (prepared from particulate enzymes) results in a considerable boost in ethylene production, but the specific activity (mμ1 / mg protein) is lowered from that of the particulate enzymes alone. PMID:16657194

  15. Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Nade, Vandana S.; Kanhere, Sampat V.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Yadav, Adhikrao V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT) and passive avoidance test (PAT) were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o). Results: The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF) attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI) was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL). EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH). Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders. PMID:21572646

  16. CV-Dust: Atmospheric aerosol in the Cape Verde region: carbon and soluble fractions of PM10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Custódio, D.; Cerqueira, M.; Patoilo, D.; Almeida, S. M.; Freitas, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    than 100 PM10 samples, addressing mainly their mass concentrations and the chemical composition of water soluble ions and carbon species (carbonates and organic and elemental carbon). Different PM10 samplers worked simultaneously in order to collect enough mass to make the aerosol characterization through the different methodologies and to collect aerosols in different filter matrixes, which have to be appropriated to the chemical and mineralogical analysis. The sampling site was located at Santiago Island, in the surroundings of Praia City (14° 55' N e 23° 29' W, 98 m at sea level). High concentrations, up to more than 400 μg m-3, are connected to north-east and north-northeast winds, and it was identified several dust events characteristic of "bruma seca", whose duration is on average of two to four days. Backward trajectories analysis confirms that the high concentrations in Cape Verde are associated with air masses passing over the Sahara. During dust events the percentage of inorganic water soluble ions for the total PM10 mass concentration decreased significantly to values lower than 10% in comparison with remainder data that range around 45±10%. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT) through the project PTDD/AAC-CLI/100331/2008 and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-008646 (CV-Dust). J. Cardoso acknowledges the PhD grant SFRH-BD-6105-2009 from FCT.

  17. Alkali metal propellants for MPD thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, J. E.; Pivirotto, T. J.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments performed in the United States in the 1960s and early 1970s and in the Soviet Union with alkali metal-fuelled MPD thrusters indicate performance levels substantially better than those achieved with gaseous propellants. Cathode wear appears to be less in engines with alkali metal propellants also. A critical review of the available data indicates that the data are consistent and reliable. An analysis of testing and systems-level considerations shows that pumping requirements for testing are substantially decreased and reductions in tankage fraction can be expected. In addition, while care must be exercised in handling the alkali metals, it is not prohibitively difficult or hazardous. The greatest disadvantage seems to be the potential for spacecraft contamination, but there appear to be viable strategies for minimizing the impact of propellant deposition on spacecraft surfaces. Renewed examination of alkali metal-fuelled MPD thrusters for ambitious SEI missions is recommended.

  18. Polysaccharide components from the scape of Musa paradisiaca: main structural features of water-soluble polysaccharide component.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyalu, Y V; Jagadish, R L; Raju, T S

    1997-06-01

    Polysaccharide components present in the pseudo-stem (scape) of M. paradisiaca were purified from acetone powder of the scape by delignification followed by extraction with aqueous solvents into water soluble polysaccharide (WSP), EDTA-soluble polysaccharide (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble polysaccharide (ASP) and alkali-insoluble polysaccharide (AISP) fractions. Sugar compositional analysis showed that WSP and EDTA-SP contained only D-Glc whereas ASP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 1:1:10 ratio, respectively, and AISP contained D-Glc, L-Ara and D-Xyl in approximately 10:1:2 ratio, respectively. WSP was further purified by complexation with iso-amylalcohol and characterized by specific rotation, IR spectroscopy, Iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and methylation linkage analysis, and shown to be a amylopectin type alpha-D-glucan.

  19. Functional characterization of the water-soluble organic carbon of size-fractionated aerosol in the southern Mississippi Valley

    PubMed Central

    Chalbot, M.-C. G.; Brown, J.; Chitranshi, P.; da Costa, G. Gamboa; Pollock, E. D.; Kavouras, I. G.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical content of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) as a function of particle size was characterized in Little Rock, Arkansas in winter and spring 2013. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the functional characteristics of coarse, fine and ultrafine WSOC and (ii) reconcile the sources of WSOC for periods when carbonaceous aerosol was the most abundant particulate component. The WSOC accounted for 5 % of particle mass for particles with δp > 0.96 μm and 10 % of particle mass for particles with δp < 0.96 μm. Non-exchangeable aliphatic (H–C), unsaturated aliphatic (H–C–C=), oxygenated saturated aliphatic (H–C–O), acetalic (O–CH–O) and aromatic (Ar–H) protons were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations varied from 4.1 ± 0.1 nmol m−3 for particles with 1.5 < δp < 3.0 μm to 73.9 ± 12.3 nmol m−3 for particles with δp < 0.49 μm. The molar H/C ratios varied from 0.48 ± 0.05 to 0.92 ± 0.09, which were comparable to those observed for combustion-related organic aerosol. The R–H was the most abundant group, representing about 45 % of measured total non-exchangeable organic hydrogen concentrations, followed by H–C–O (27 %) and H–C–C= (26 %). Levoglucosan, amines, ammonium and methanesulfonate were identified in NMR fingerprints of fine particles. Sucrose, fructose, glucose, formate and acetate were associated with coarse particles. These qualitative differences of 1H-NMR profiles for different particle sizes indicated the possible contribution of biological aerosols and a mixture of aliphatic and oxygenated compounds from biomass burning and traffic exhausts. The concurrent presence of ammonium and amines also suggested the presence of ammonium/aminium nitrate and sulfate secondary aerosol. The size-dependent origin of WSOC was further corroborated by the increasing δ13C abundance from −26.81 ± 0.18 ‰ for the smallest particles to

  20. The effect of dietary water soluble carbohydrate to nitrogen ratio on nitrogen partitioning and isotopic fractionation of lactating goats offered a high-nitrogen diet.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Edwards, G R; Dewhurst, R J; Nicol, A M; Pacheco, D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitrogen (N) partitioning and isotopic fractionation in lactating goats consuming diets with a constant high concentration of N and increasing levels of water soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Eight lactating goats were offered four different ratios of WSC : N in the diet. A two-period incomplete cross-over design was used, with two goats assigned to each treatment in each period. N balance measurements were conducted, with measurement of feed N intake and total output of N in milk, faeces and urine. Treatment, period and infusion effects were tested using general ANOVA; the relationships between variables were analysed by linear regression. Dietary treatment and period had significant effects on dry matter (DM) intake (g/day). DM digestibility (g/kg DM) and N digestibility (g/kg N) increased as the ratio of WSC : N increased in the diet. No treatment effect was observed on milk urea N concentration (g/l) or urinary excretion of purine derivatives (mM/day). Although dietary treatment and period had significant effects on N intake, the change of N intake was small; no effect was observed for N partitioning among faeces, milk and urine. Milk, plasma and faeces were enriched in 15N compared with feed, whilst urine was depleted in 15N relative to feed. No significant relationship was established between N partitioning and isotopic fractionation. This study failed to confirm the potential to use N isotopic fractionation as an indicator of N partitioning in dairy goats when diets provided N in excess to requirements, most likely because the range of milk N output/N intake and urinary N output/N intake were narrow.

  1. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    PubMed

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  2. The effects of dietary nitrogen to water-soluble carbohydrate ratio on isotopic fractionation and partitioning of nitrogen in non-lactating sheep.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Nicol, A M; Dewhurst, R J; Edwards, G R

    2013-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between partitioning and isotopic fractionation of nitrogen (N) in sheep consuming diets with varying ratios of N to water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Six non-lactating sheep were offered a constant dry matter (DM) allowance with one of three ratios of dietary N/WSC, achieved by adding sucrose and urea to lucerne pellets. A replicated 3 dietary treatments (Low, Medium and High N/WSC) × 3 (collection periods) and a Latin square design was used, with two sheep assigned to each treatment in each period. Feed, faeces, urine, plasma, wool, muscle and liver samples were collected and analysed for ¹⁵N concentration. Nitrogen intake and outputs in faeces and urine were measured for each sheep using 6-day total collections. Blood urea N (BUN) and urinary excretion of purine derivative were also measured. Treatment effects were tested using general ANOVA; the relationships between measured variables were analysed by linear regression. BUN and N intake increased by 46% and 35%, respectively, when N/WSC increased 2.5-fold. However, no indication of change in microbial protein synthesis was detected. Results indicated effects of dietary treatments on urinary N/faecal N, faecal N/N intake and retained N/N intake. In addition, the linear relationships between plasma δ¹⁵N and urinary N/N intake and muscle δ¹⁵N and retained N/N intake based on individual measurements showed the potential of using N isotopic fractionation as an easy-to-use indicator of N partitioning when N supply exceeds that required to match energy supply in the diet.

  3. Lethal and sublethal effects of the water-soluble fraction of Cook Inlet crude oil on Pacific herring (clupea harengus pallasi) reproduction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.D.; Babcock, M.M.; Brodersen, C.C.; Carls, M.G.; Gharrett, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed sale of continental shelf leases for petroleum development in Bristol Bay, Alaska, is generating concern about the possible effects on valuable fishery resources, such as Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi), in the area. The inshore spawning strategy of herring makes them particularly vulnerable to the effects of an oil spill. Using the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil, the effects of lethal and sublethal exposures on prespawn adult Pacific herring, eggs, yolk-sac larvae, and feeding larvae as well as on hatching success of eggs from exposed adults were studied. The effects of feeding oil-contaminated prey to herring larvae were also examined. The life stage at which the reproductive success of Pacific herring seems most likely to be impaired by oil is feeding larvae. Even if oil is present at levels too low to threaten the survival of herring, the fisheries could be impacted because the rapid bioaccumulation of oil hydrocarbons in the edible muscle and ovarian tissues could make the herring unmarketable.

  4. Necroptosis mediates the antineoplastic effects of the soluble fraction of polysaccharide from red wine in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Stipp, Maria Carolina; Bezerra, Iglesias de Lacerda; Corso, Claudia Rita; Dos Reis Livero, Francislaine A; Lomba, Luiz Alexandre; Caillot, Adriana Rute Cordeiro; Zampronio, Aleksander Roberto; Queiroz-Telles, José Ederaldo; Klassen, Giseli; Ramos, Edneia A S; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Acco, Alexandra

    2017-03-15

    Polysaccharides are substances that modify the biological response to several stressors. The present study investigated the antitumor activity of the soluble fraction of polysaccharides (SFP), extracted from cabernet franc red wine, in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats. The monosaccharide composition had a complex mixture, suggesting the presence of arabinoglactans, mannans, and pectins. Treatment with SFP (30 and 60mg/kg, oral) for 14days significantly reduced the tumor weight and volume compared with controls. Treatment with 60mg/kg SFP reduced blood monocytes and neutrophils, reduced the tumor activity of N-acetylglucosaminidase, myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide, increased blood lymphocytes, and increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in tumor tissue. Treatment with SFP also induced the expression of the cell necroptosis-related genes Rip1 and Rip3. The antineoplastic effect of SFP appears to be attributable to its action on the immune system by controlling the tumor microenvironment and stimulating TNF-α production, which may trigger the necroptosis pathway.

  5. Corn distillers grains with solubles derived from a traditional or partial fractionation process: Growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Loe, E R; Quinn, M J; Corrigan, M E; Gibson, M L; Karges, K K; Drouillard, J S

    2008-09-01

    Six hundred ten crossbred-yearling heifers (347 +/- 5 kg of initial BW) were obtained and used in a randomized complete-block design finishing study. Finishing diets were based on steam-flaked corn and ground alfalfa hay. The control (CONT) treatment contained no distillers grains with solubles (DGS), the second diet was formulated to contained 13% (DM basis) dried corn DGS derived from a traditional dry-grind ethanol process (TRAD), and the third diet was formulated to contained 13% (DM basis) dried corn DGS derived from a partial fractionation dry-grind process (FRAC). Dry matter intake, ADG, and gain efficiency were not different (P >/= 0.48) for yearling heifers fed CONT when compared with heifers fed DGS. Heifers fed TRAD consumed more (P = 0.01) feed than heifers fed FRAC. However, ADG and feed efficiency were not different (P >/= 0.07) for heifers fed DGS. Moderate inclusion levels of DGS in finishing flaked corn diets yielded satisfactory performance. Growth performance was not different for heifers fed DGS originating from either ethanol processing method.

  6. Maternal exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil, lead and their mixture induces autism-like behavioral deficits in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanchuan; Zhong, Hongxiu; Wang, Chonggang; Gao, Dongxu; Zhou, Yulin; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2016-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious debilitating mental illness with complex symptoms and multi-factorial pathogenesis. Although the pathogenesis of ASD remains unclear, etiology is thought to involve complex, multigenic interactions and possible environmental contributions. In the present study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to investigate whether maternal exposure to the water soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF, 5μg/L), lead (Pb, 20μg/L) and their mixture (5 μg/L WSF+20 μg/L Pb) could induce autism-like behavior in larvae. Our results showed that isolated and combined WSF/Pb exposure altered the behavioral pattern of fish swimming. WSF significantly increased anxiety and locomotor activity, decreased repetitive behavior in the open field test, and reduced the level of serotonin. However, co-exposure to WSF/Pb decreased behavioral activity and shoaling behavior, and increased cycle swimming and edge preference. Significant changes in the expression level of the multiple genes potentially critical for regulating environmental factor induced autism-like behavior were found. A gene network regulating ASD disturbed by WSF/Pb exposure was established using computational analysis. The information from the network could provide a clue for further mechanistic studies explaining molecular events regulating WSF/Pb mediated ASD.

  7. A Collaborative Evaluation of LC-MS/MS Based Methods for BMAA Analysis: Soluble Bound BMAA Found to Be an Important Fraction.

    PubMed

    Faassen, Elisabeth J; Antoniou, Maria G; Beekman-Lukassen, Wendy; Blahova, Lucie; Chernova, Ekaterina; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Combes, Audrey; Edwards, Christine; Fastner, Jutta; Harmsen, Joop; Hiskia, Anastasia; Ilag, Leopold L; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Lopicic, Srdjan; Lürling, Miquel; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi; Porojan, Cristina; Viner-Mozzini, Yehudit; Zguna, Nadezda

    2016-02-29

    Exposure to β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) might be linked to the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Analytical chemistry plays a crucial role in determining human BMAA exposure and the associated health risk, but the performance of various analytical methods currently employed is rarely compared. A CYANOCOST initiated workshop was organized aimed at training scientists in BMAA analysis, creating mutual understanding and paving the way towards interlaboratory comparison exercises. During this workshop, we tested different methods (extraction followed by derivatization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, or directly followed by LC-MS/MS analysis) for trueness and intermediate precision. We adapted three workup methods for the underivatized analysis of animal, brain and cyanobacterial samples. Based on recovery of the internal standard D₃BMAA, the underivatized methods were accurate (mean recovery 80%) and precise (mean relative standard deviation 10%), except for the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya. However, total BMAA concentrations in the positive controls (cycad seeds) showed higher variation (relative standard deviation 21%-32%), implying that D₃BMAA was not a good indicator for the release of BMAA from bound forms. Significant losses occurred during workup for the derivatized method, resulting in low recovery (<10%). Most BMAA was found in a trichloroacetic acid soluble, bound form and we recommend including this fraction during analysis.

  8. Chronic toxicity of water-soluble fractions of fresh and water-leached solvent refined coal-II liquids to a freshwater benthic invertebrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Fallon, W.E.; Gray, R.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    A solvent refined coal (SRC-II) liquid blend (2.9:1, middle to heavy distillate) obtained from a pilot plant was sequentially extracted with water to observe compositional changes in water soluble fractions (WSF). An initial WSF, designed to simulate chemicals present after contact with water, and a water-leached (artificially weathered) WSF, designed to represent conditions after exposure to the aqueous environment were chemically characterized. Toxicities of the two WSFs were compared by observing chronic effects on a freshwater benthic invertebrate, Tanytarsus dissimilis. Survival to emergence was suppressed at 3.0 ppth of the initial WSF and at 9.4 ppth of the artificially weathered WSF. However, based on equal concentrations of organic carbon and phenolics, weathered WSF solutions were three to five times more toxic. Concentrations, relative distributions, and loss over time of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons differed between aqueous extractions derived from the fresh and weathered SRC II material. Tests assessing long-term effects of complex materials must be designed and interpreted on the basis of organism exposure to compounds most likely to persist in the environment.

  9. A Collaborative Evaluation of LC-MS/MS Based Methods for BMAA Analysis: Soluble Bound BMAA Found to Be an Important Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Faassen, Elisabeth J.; Antoniou, Maria G.; Beekman-Lukassen, Wendy; Blahova, Lucie; Chernova, Ekaterina; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Combes, Audrey; Edwards, Christine; Fastner, Jutta; Harmsen, Joop; Hiskia, Anastasia; Ilag, Leopold L.; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; Lopicic, Srdjan; Lürling, Miquel; Mazur-Marzec, Hanna; Meriluoto, Jussi; Porojan, Cristina; Viner-Mozzini, Yehudit; Zguna, Nadezda

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) might be linked to the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Analytical chemistry plays a crucial role in determining human BMAA exposure and the associated health risk, but the performance of various analytical methods currently employed is rarely compared. A CYANOCOST initiated workshop was organized aimed at training scientists in BMAA analysis, creating mutual understanding and paving the way towards interlaboratory comparison exercises. During this workshop, we tested different methods (extraction followed by derivatization and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, or directly followed by LC-MS/MS analysis) for trueness and intermediate precision. We adapted three workup methods for the underivatized analysis of animal, brain and cyanobacterial samples. Based on recovery of the internal standard D3BMAA, the underivatized methods were accurate (mean recovery 80%) and precise (mean relative standard deviation 10%), except for the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya. However, total BMAA concentrations in the positive controls (cycad seeds) showed higher variation (relative standard deviation 21%–32%), implying that D3BMAA was not a good indicator for the release of BMAA from bound forms. Significant losses occurred during workup for the derivatized method, resulting in low recovery (<10%). Most BMAA was found in a trichloroacetic acid soluble, bound form and we recommend including this fraction during analysis. PMID:26938542

  10. Comparing the Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Biodiesel, Diesel and 5% Biodiesel/Diesel Blend on Oreochromis niloticus Using Histological Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; da Cruz, André Luís; Rodrigues, Luiz Erlon Araújo; Yamashita, Sayuri Rocha; Carqueija, César Roberto Goes; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade

    2015-11-01

    This study estimated end compared the potential toxic effects of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of biodiesel (B100), diesel and the commercial biodiesel (B5) on Oreochromis niloticus. After a 24 h-exposition to WSF-0% (control) and WSF-serial concentrations of 4.6%, 10%, 22%, 46% and 100%, samples of gill and liver of the exposed fishes were fixed in Bouin's solution, processed, stained using hematoxylin/eosin and analyzed by light-microscopy. WSF-hydrocarbons and methanol contents, analyzed by gas chromatography, were checked against the occurrence of abnormal histopathological alterations. These were not found in the control and WSF-4.6% exposed fishes, while exposures to or above 10%-WSF resulted in histopathological alterations whose severity increased in a dose-dependent manner, being higher in fishes exposed to WSF-diesel, or WSF-B5 when compared to biodiesel. These results, which were corroborated by the chemical analyses, highlighted the histological technique as an appropriate diagnostic tool that can be used for the preservation of water bodies' quality.

  11. Early life stages of an arctic keystone species (Boreogadus saida) show high sensitivity to a water-soluble fraction of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Nahrgang, Jasmine; Dubourg, Paul; Frantzen, Marianne; Storch, Daniela; Dahlke, Flemming; Meador, James P

    2016-11-01

    Increasing anthropogenic activities in the Arctic represent an enhanced threat for oil pollution in a marine environment that is already at risk from climate warming. In particular, this applies to species with free-living pelagic larvae that aggregate in surface waters and under the sea ice where hydrocarbons are likely to remain for extended periods of time due to low temperatures. We exposed the positively buoyant eggs of polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an arctic keystone species, to realistic concentrations of a crude oil water-soluble fraction (WSF), mimicking exposure of eggs aggregating under the ice to oil WSF leaking from brine channels following encapsulation in ice. Total hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels were in the ng/L range, with most exposure concentrations below the limits of detection throughout the experiment for all treatments. The proportion of viable, free-swimming larvae decreased significantly with dose and showed increases in the incidence and severity of spine curvature, yolk sac alterations and a reduction in spine length. These effects are expected to compromise the motility, feeding capacity, and predator avoidance during critical early life stages for this important species. Our results imply that the viability and fitness of polar cod early life stages is significantly reduced when exposed to extremely low and environmentally realistic levels of aqueous hydrocarbons, which may have important implications for arctic food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning.

  12. Stage-dependent and sex-dependent sensitivity to water-soluble fractions of fresh and weathered oil in the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus.

    PubMed

    Jager, Tjalling; Altin, Dag; Miljeteig, Cecilie; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2016-03-01

    Acute toxicity differs between species but also varies within a species. Important intraspecific factors are the exposure duration and properties of the animal such as life stage, sex, and physiological status. In the present study, the acute toxicity of water-soluble fractions (WSFs) from fresh and artificially weathered oil was followed over time in different life stages of the calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus, including adult males and females. The life stages differ in size but also in lipid content and physiology. To meaningfully compare the sensitivity of the different stages, the authors fitted a toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) model from the framework of the General Unified Threshold Model of Survival (GUTS) to the mortality patterns over time. The oil WSFs could not be treated as single compounds: the rapid effect at high doses could not be reconciled with the slow effect at low doses. Treating the oil as a mixture of 2 component blocks could, however, capture these patterns satisfactorily. Even though the early life stages of animals are generally considered to be the most vulnerable, the adult males of C. finmarchicus turned out to be most sensitive, followed by the early copepodites. Naupliar larvae were equally susceptible to oil toxicity as late copepodites and adult females. The relationship between the GUTS model parameters and the physiological traits for the different life stages remains, however, unclear.

  13. Production of furfural from xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses and water-soluble fraction of corncob via a tin-loaded montmorillonite solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiling; Ren, Junli; Zhong, Linjie; Sun, Runcang; Liang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of xylose, water-insoluble hemicelluloses (WIH) and water-soluble fraction (WSF) of corncob to furfural was performed using montmorillonite with tin ions (Sn-MMT) containing double acid sites as a solid acid catalyst. The co-existence of Lewis acids and Brønsted acids in Sn-MMT was shown to improve the furfural yield and selectivity. 76.79% furfural yield and 82.45% furfural selectivity were obtained from xylose using Sn-MMT as a catalyst in a biphasic system with 2-s-butylphenol (SBP) as the organic extracting layer and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the co-solvent in contact with an aqueous phase saturated with NaCl (SBP/NaCl-DMSO) at 180°C for 30min. Furthermore, Sn-MMT also demonstrated the excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of pentose-rich materials of corncob and 39.56% and 54.15% furfural yields can be directly obtained from WIH and WSF in the SBP/NaCl-DMSO system, respectively.

  14. Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues

    DOEpatents

    Soung, Wen Y.

    1984-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them (46, 53, 61, 69) with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide (63) to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased (81), preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated (84) to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process (86, 18, 17) where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  15. Characterization of EDTA-soluble polysaccharides from the scape of Musa paradisiaca (banana).

    PubMed

    Raju, T S; Jagadish, R L; Anjaneyalu, Y V

    2001-02-01

    The polysaccharide components present in the scape of Musa paradisiaca (banana) were fractionated into water-soluble (WSP), EDTA-soluble (EDTA-SP), alkali-soluble (ASP) and alkali-insoluble (AISP) polysaccharide fractions [Anjaneyalu, Jagadish and Raju (1997) Glycoconj. J. 14, 507-512]. The EDTA-SP was further fractionated by iso-amyl alcohol into EDTA-SP-A and EDTA-SP-B. The homogeneity of these two polysaccharides was established by repeated precipitation with iso-amyl alcohol, gel-filtration chromatography and sedimentation analysis. The polysaccharides were characterized by monosaccharide composition analysis, methylation linkage analysis, iodine affinity, ferricyanide number, blue value, hydrolysis with alpha-amylase, gold-electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Data from all of these studies suggest that EDTA-SP-A is a branched amylose-type alpha-D-glucan and that EDTA-SP-B is a highly branched amylopectin-type polymer. The nature of the branching patterns of these polysaccharides suggests that they are unique to M. paradisiaca.

  16. Serum Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Is Associated with Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Elevated Plasma Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shu-ichi; Tanaka, Suguru; Maeda, Daichi; Morita, Hideaki; Fujisaka, Tomohiro; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Ito, Takahide; Ishizaka, Nobukazu

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a biomarker of subclinical levels of inflammation, is significantly correlated with cardiovascular events. Purpose We investigated the association between suPAR and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) among cardiac inpatients. Methods and Results In total, 242 patients (mean age 71.3 ± 9.8 years; 70 women) admitted to the cardiology department were enrolled in the study. suPAR was significantly correlated with LVEF (R = -0.24, P<0.001), LVMI (R = 0.16, P = 0.014) and BNP (R = 0.46, P<0.001). In logistic regression analysis, the highest suPAR tertile (> 3236 pg/mL) was associated with low LVEF (< 50%) and elevated BNP (> 300 pg/mL) with an odds ratio of 3.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22–12.1) and 5.36 (95% CI, 1.32–21.8), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, log-transformed estimated glomerular filtration rate (log(eGFR)), C-reactive protein, and diuretic use. The association between suPAR and LVMI was not statistically significant. In multivariate receiver operating characteristic analysis, addition of log(suPAR) to the combination of age, sex, log(eGFR) and CRP incrementally improved the prediction of low LVEF (area under the curve [AUC], 0.827 to 0.852, P = 0.046) and BNP ≥ 300 pg/mL (AUC, 0.869 to 0.906; P = 0.029). Conclusions suPAR was associated with low LVEF and elevated BNP, but not with left ventricular hypertrophy, independent of CRP, renal function, and diuretic use among cardiac inpatients who were not undergoing chronic hemodialysis. PMID:28135310

  17. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOEpatents

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  18. PM chemical composition and oxidative potential of the soluble fraction of particles at two sites in the urban area of Milan, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Zhou, Jun; Malandrino, Mery; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rizzi, Cristiana; Ferrero, Luca; Dommen, Josef; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2016-03-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence support the hypothesis that health effects from inhalation of air particles are governed by more than just particle mass, since specific chemical components have been identified as important contributors to mortality and hospitality admissions. We studied the chemical composition and the oxidative potential (OP) of total suspended particle (TSP) samples from Milan at two sites with different traffic loads: a site in the low emission zone (LEZ) and a traffic site (TR) outside. Two a-cellular assays; dithiothreitol (OPDTT) and 2‧,7' dichlorofluorescin (OPDCFH) were used to characterize the OP of the soluble fraction of particles. TSP samples from LEZ showed significantly lower concentrations of traffic-related chemical components compared to TR. The decrease in the concentrations from TR to LEZ was maximum for EC, with a LEZ/TR ratio of 0.64 (±0.18), and a significant reduction (p < 0.01) was also observed for PAHs (LEZ/TR = 0.73 ± 0.16), elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb: LEZ/TR ranged between 0.64 and 0.82), OC (LEZ/TR = 0.85 ± 0.12) and NH4+ (LEZ/TR = 0.92 ± 0.07). OP measures, expressed as OP/m3 or OP/mg, were comparable between sites both for OPDTT and OPDCFH, thus not showing any significant impact of local traffic on OP values at sites. OPDTT and OPDCFH showed contrasting seasonal and daily trends, indicating that the two a-cellular assays gave complementary information on the OP of particles in Milan. The two OP assays resulted to be sensitive to different chemical properties of PM samples. OPDTT correlated positively only with Global Radiation (Spearman's rs = 0.38, p < 0.05), which could be considered as a proxy for high concentrations of secondary oxidizing organics, while OPDCFH was related to various PM chemical species, mainly correlated with total mass (rs = 0.65; p < 0.01), elements (e.g. Zn, rs = 0.67; As, rs = 0.65; p < 0.01) and the sum of sulfate and nitrate (rs = 0.63; p < 0.01), a proxy for secondary aerosol.

  19. Apparatus enables accurate determination of alkali oxides in alkali metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupraw, W. A.; Gahn, R. F.; Graab, J. W.; Maple, W. E.; Rosenblum, L.

    1966-01-01

    Evacuated apparatus determines the alkali oxide content of an alkali metal by separating the metal from the oxide by amalgamation with mercury. The apparatus prevents oxygen and moisture from inadvertently entering the system during the sampling and analytical procedure.

  20. pH Shifting alters solubility characteristics and thermal stability of soy protein isolate and its globulin fractions in different pH, salt concentration, and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2010-07-14

    Soy protein isolate (SPI), beta-conglycinin (7S), and glycinin (11S) were subjected to pH-shifting treatments, that is, unfolding at pH 1.5 or 12.0 followed by refolding at pH 7.0, to induce molten globule structures. Treated samples were analyzed for protein solubility, thermal stability, and aggregation in 0, 0.1, and 0.6 M NaCl solutions at pH 2.0-8.0. The pH(12) shifting resulted in drastic increases (up to 2.5-fold) in SPI solubility in the pH 6.0-7.0 range, especially at 0 M NaCl. The pH(1.5) shifting had a generally lesser effect on solubility. 11S exhibited a solubility pattern similar to that of SPI, but the solubility of 7S was unaffected by pH shifting except at 0.6 M NaCl. The pH shifting, notably at pH 12.0, produced soluble, disulfide-linked polymers from 11S and reduced (P < 0.05) its enthalpy but not its temperature of denaturation. Soy proteins structurally altered by pH shifting had a reduced sensitivity to thermal aggregation.

  1. Thermal positron interactions with alkali covered tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Iida, Shimpei; Terabe, Hiroki; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2016-11-01

    The branching ratios of positron reemission, positronium emission, positronium negative ion emission and capture to the surface state for thermalized positrons at polycrystalline tungsten surfaces coated with Na, K and Cs have been measured. The data shows that the ratios depend on the coverage of the alkali-metal coating. The fraction of the emitted positronium increases with the coverage of the coating up to 90%.

  2. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  3. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  4. Ideas about Acids and Alkalis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplis, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Investigates students' ideas, conceptions, and misconceptions about acids and alkalis before and after a teaching sequence in a small-scale research project. Concludes that student understanding of acids and alkalis is lacking. (DDR)

  5. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  6. Determination of water-soluble and insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions of Cd, Pb and Cu in Antarctic aerosol by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry: distribution and summer seasonal evolution at Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land).

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Illuminati, S; Bassotti, E; Scarponi, G

    2007-02-01

    Eight PM10 aerosol samples were collected in the vicinity of the "Mario Zucchelli" Italian Antarctic Station (formerly Terra Nova Bay Station) during the 2000-2001 austral summer using a high-volume sampler and precleaned cellulose filters. The aerosol mass was determined by differential weighing of filters carried out in a clean chemistry laboratory under controlled temperature and humidity. A two-step sequential extraction procedure was used to separate the water-soluble and the insoluble (dilute-HCl-extractable) fractions. Cd, Pb and Cu were determined in the two fractions using an ultrasensitive square wave anodic stripping voltammetric (SWASV) procedure set up for and applied to aerosol samples for the first time. Total extractable metals showed maxima at midsummer for Cd and Pb and a less clear trend for Cu. In particular, particulate metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd 0.84-9.2 microg g(-1) (average 4.7 microg g(-1)), Pb 13.2-81 microg g(-1) (average 33 microg g(-1)), Cu 126-628 microg g(-1) (average 378 microg g(-1)). In terms of atmospheric concentration, the values were: Cd 0.55-6.3 pg m(-3) (average 3.4 pg m(-3)), Pb 8.7-48 pg m(-3) (average 24 pg m(-3)), Cu 75-365 pg m(-3) (average 266 pg m(-3)). At the beginning of the season the three metals appear widely distributed in the insoluble (HCl-extractable) fraction (higher proportions for Cd and Pb, 90-100%, and lower for Cu, 70-90%) with maxima in the second half of December. The soluble fraction then increases, and at the end of the season Cd and Pb are approximately equidistributed between the two fractions, while for Cu the soluble fraction reaches its maximum level of 36%. Practically negligible contributions are estimated for crustal and sea-spray sources. Low but significant volcanic contributions are estimated for Cd and Pb (approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively), while there is an evident although not quantified marine biogenic source, at least for Cd. The estimated natural

  7. Chlor-Alkali Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatesh, S.; Tilak, B. V.

    1983-01-01

    Chlor-alkali technology is one of the largest electrochemical industries in the world, the main products being chlorine and caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) generated simultaneously by the electrolysis of sodium chloride. This technology is reviewed in terms of electrochemical principles and manufacturing processes involved. (Author/JN)

  8. Amino acid sequences of peptides from a tryptic digest of a urea-soluble protein fraction (U.S.3) from oxidized wool

    PubMed Central

    Corfield, M. C.; Fletcher, J. C.; Robson, A.

    1967-01-01

    1. A tryptic digest of the protein fraction U.S.3 from oxidized wool has been separated into 32 peptide fractions by cation-exchange resin chromatography. 2. Most of these fractions have been resolved into their component peptides by a combination of the techniques of cation-exchange resin chromatography, paper chromatography and paper electrophoresis. 3. The amino acid compositions of 58 of the peptides in the digest present in the largest amounts have been determined. 4. The amino acid sequences of 38 of these have been completely elucidated and those of six others partially derived. 5. These findings indicate that the parent protein in wool from which the protein fraction U.S.3 is derived has a minimum molecular weight of 74000. 6. The structures of wool proteins are discussed in the light of the peptide sequences determined, and, in particular, of those sequences in fraction U.S.3 that could not be elucidated. PMID:16742497

  9. [Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge by acid-alkali pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guang-Huan; Zhou, Xing-Qiu; Wu, Jian-Dong

    2012-06-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic digestion of excess sludge, acid-alkali pretreatment method was studied. Three different pretreatment methods (alkali alone,acid-alkali, alkali-acid) were compared to investigate their impacts on hydrolysis and acidification of activated sludge. In addition, their influences on methane-producing in subsequent anaerobic digestion process were also studied. The results showed that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of alkaline treatment alone was about 16% higher than the combining of acid and alkali treatment, SCOD concentration increased to 5406.1 mg x L(-1) after 8 d pretreatment. After treated by acid (pH 4.0, 4 d) and alkali (pH 10.0, 4 d), the acetic acid production and its content in short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were higher than other pretreatment methods. And the acetic acid production (as COD/VSS) could reach 74.4 mg x g(-1), accounting for 60.5% of SCFAs. After acid-alkali pretreatment, the C: N ratio of the sludge mixed liquor was about 25, and the C: P ratio was between 35-40, which was more favorable than C: N and C: P ratio of alkali alone and alkali-acid to subsequent anaerobic digestion. The control experiments showed that, after acid-alkali pretreatment, anaerobic digestion cumulative methane yield (CH4/VSS(in)) reached to 136.1 mL x g(-1) at 15 d, which was about 2.5-, 1.6-, and 1.7-fold of the blank (unpretreated), alkali alone pretreatment and alkali-acid pretreatment, respectively. After acid-alkali pretreatment for 8 d and anaerobic digestion for 15 d, the removal efficiency of VSS was about 60.9%, and the sludge reduction effect was better than other pretreatments. It is obvious that the acid-alkali pretreatment method was more favorable to anaerobic digestion and sludge reduction.

  10. Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

    2014-06-12

    In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity.

  11. Alkalis in alternative biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr.; Bryers, R.W.; Baxter, L.L.; Jenkins, B.M.; Oden, L.L.

    1994-12-31

    The alkali content and behavior of inorganic material of annually produced biofuels severely limits their use for generating electrical power in conventional furnaces. A recent eighteen-month investigation of the chemistry and firing characteristics of 26 different biofuels has been conducted. Firing conditions were simulated in the laboratory for eleven biofuels. This paper describes some results from the investigation including fuel properties, deposits, deposition mechanisms, and implications for biomass boiler design, fuel sampling and characterizations. Urban wood fuel, agricultural residues, energy crops, and other potential alternate fuels are included in the study. Conventional methods for establishing fuel alkali content and determining ash sticky temperatures were deceptive. The crux of the problem was found to be the high concentration of potassium in biofuels and its reactions with other fuel constituents which lower the ``sticky temperature`` of the ash to the 650 C to 760 C (1,200 F-1,400 F).

  12. Alkali-vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Komashko, A.; Krupke, W. F.

    2010-02-01

    We report on the results from several of our alkali laser systems. We show highly efficient performance from an alexandrite-pumped rubidium laser. Using a laser diode stack as a pump source, we demonstrate up to 145 W of average power from a CW system. We present a design for a transversely pumped demonstration system that will show all of the required laser physics for a high power system.

  13. Water and magmas: insights about the water solution mechanisms in alkali silicate melts from infrared, Raman, and 29Si solid-state NMR spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Losq, Charles; Mysen, Bjorn O.; Cody, George D.

    2015-12-01

    Degassing of water during the ascent of hydrous magma in a volcanic edifice produces dramatic changes in the magma density and viscosity. This can profoundly affect the dynamics of volcanic eruptions. The water exsolution history, in turn, is driven by the water solubility and solution mechanisms in the silicate melt. Previous studies pointed to dissolved water in silicate glasses and melts existing as molecules (H2Omol species) and hydroxyl groups, OH. These latter OH groups commonly are considered bonded to Si4+ but may form other bonds, such as with alkali or alkaline-earth cations, for instance. Those forms of bonding influence the structure of hydrous melts in different ways and, therefore, their properties. As a result, exsolution of water from magmas may have different eruptive consequences depending on the initial bonding mechanisms of the dissolved water. However, despite their importance, the solution mechanisms of water in silicate melts are not clear. In particular, how chemical composition of melts affects water solubility and solution mechanism is not well understood. In the present experimental study, components of such information are reported via determination of how water interacts with the cationic network of alkali (Li, Na, and K) silicate quenched melts. Results from 29Si single-pulse magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si SP MAS NMR), infrared, and Raman spectroscopies show that decreasing the ionic radius of alkali metal cation in silicate melts results in decreasing fraction of water dissolved as OH groups. The nature of OH bonding also changes as the alkali ionic radius changes. Therefore, as the speciation and bonding of water controls the degree of polymerization of melts, water will have different effects on the transport properties of silicate melts depending on their chemical composition. This conclusion, in turn, may affect volcanic phenomena related to the viscous relaxation of hydrous magmas, such as for instance the

  14. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity.

    PubMed

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  15. Removal of oxides from alkali metal melts by reductive titration to electrical resistance-change end points

    DOEpatents

    Tsang, Floris Y.

    1980-01-01

    Alkali metal oxides dissolved in alkali metal melts are reduced with soluble metals which are converted to insoluble oxides. The end points of the reduction is detected as an increase in electrical resistance across an alkali metal ion-conductive membrane interposed between the oxide-containing melt and a material capable of accepting the alkali metal ions from the membrane when a difference in electrical potential, of the appropriate polarity, is established across it. The resistance increase results from blocking of the membrane face by ions of the excess reductant metal, to which the membrane is essentially non-conductive.

  16. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOEpatents

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  17. Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The report describes a dual alkali (or double alkali) flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from the flue gas by a soluble sodium-based scrubbing liquor. The collected SO2 is precipitated as calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), or a mixed crystal of both salts, and is purged from the system.

  18. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOEpatents

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  19. Fractional factorial approach combining 4 Escherichia coli strains, 3 culture media, 3 expression temperatures and 5 N-terminal fusion tags for screening the soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Noguère, Christophe; Larsson, Anna M; Guyot, Jean-Christophe; Bignon, Christophe

    2012-08-01

    Producing recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is generally performed using a trial and error approach with the different expression variables being tested independently from each other. As a consequence, variable interactions are lost which makes the trial and error approach quite time-consuming. In this paper, we report how switching from a trial and error to a fractional factorial approach allows testing in less than 2 weeks four expression variables (E. coli strains, culture media, expression temperatures and N-terminal fusion tags) in a single experiment. The method, called "Fusion-InFFact", was validated using four test proteins. In all cases, Fusion-InFFact allowed finding conditions for expressing high yields of soluble proteins. The method was originally set-up for high throughput structural genomics programs, but can be used in any recombinant protein expression project.

  20. Alkali metal and alkali earth metal gadolinium halide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Parms, Shameka; Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Wiggins, Latoria K.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising a gadolinium halide, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A.sub.nGdX.sub.m:Ce; wherein A is nothing, an alkali metal, such as Li or Na, or an alkali earth metal, such as Ba; X is F, Br, Cl, or I; n is an integer from 1 to 2; m is an integer from 4 to 7; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The gadolinium halides or alkali earth metal gadolinium halides are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  1. Water-soluble ions in atmospheric aerosols measured in five sites in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Size-fractionated, seasonal variations and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Lijuan; Xu, Honghui; An, Junlin; Xue, Guoqiang; Cao, Jinfei

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate the regional variations of water-soluble ions (WSIs), size-resolved measurement of aerosol particles and WSIs was conducted by using Anderson Sampler and Ion Chromatography at five sites (Nanjing, Suzhou, Lin'an, Hangzhou and Ningbo) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, China in the Autumn of 2012 and Winter, Spring and Summer of 2013. WSIs exhibited obvious seasonal variations due to the monsoon conversion, with the highest level in winter and lowest level in summer. The aerosol mass concentrations and WSIs in different size segments varied with four seasons. The dominant ions concentrations in PM2.1 ranked in the order of SO42- > NO3- > NH4+ > Cl- > K+ > Ca2+, and the dominant ions concentrations in PM2.1-10 ranked in the order of Ca2+ > NO3- > SO42- > Cl- > NH4+ > Na+. The size spectra of mass and WSIs concentration peaked mostly at 0.43-0.65 μm in four seasons. The concentration discrepancies of WSIs in different cities were caused by the geographic locations and emission source. It's belonged to ammonium-rich distribution in PM2.1 and ammonium-poor distribution in PM2.1-10 in the YRD region. The impact of temperature on mass concentrations of NO3- and NH4+ in PM2.1 were stronger than those in PM2.1-10. PCA analysis shows that the sources of WSIs dominant by anthropogenic sources, soil particles or falling dust, sea salt and burning process.

  2. Anhydrite Solubility and Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Vapor-Liquid Field of the NaCl-H2O System: Implications for Hydrothermal Vent Fluids at Mid-ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, P.; Syverson, D. D.; Higgins, J. A.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were performed at 410, 420 and 450°C between 180-450 bar to investigate anhydrite (CaSO4) solubility and Ca isotope fractionation in the liquid-vapor stability field of the NaCl-H2O system. Experiments were conducted in flexible gold reaction cells and a fixed volume Ti reactor to reach all pressures between the critical curve and three-phase boundary. During isothermal decompression at 410°C, anhydrite solubility in the liquid phase increases (1 to 9 mmol/kg Ca), whereas the solubility decreases in the vapor phase (130 to < 10 umol/kg Ca). At 410°C and 290-270 bar, the partition coefficient, log Km = log (mv / ml), for Ca decreases from -1.35 to -2.46, and that of SO4 decreases from -1.76 to -2.82. At 420°C the Ca:SO4 ratio of the starting solution was 2:1, and the pH25°C decreases in the liquid and increases in the vapor upon decompression. Ca hydrolysis in the liquid and complex interactions between undetermined aqueous species in the vapor could explain this pattern. At 410 and 450°C, the experiments started with a Ca:SO4 ratio of 1:1. Along the 410°C isotherm, pH25°C initially increases in both the liquid and vapor, potentially caused by precipitation of an H+ bearing salt, such as NaHSO4. 30-40 bar below the critical curve there is a sudden decrease in pH25°C as the putative salt phase may become unstable and dissolve. At 450°C, pH25°C decreases in the vapor and increases in the liquid, as HCl and H2SO4 partition into the vapor. Ca isotope data at 420°C between 375-300 bar indicate that the vapor is isotopically light relative to the liquid. At lower pressures both phases approach the isotopic composition of the coexisting anhydrite, suggesting that dissolved Ca speciation becomes more structurally similar to anhydrite. This study furthers our understanding of elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation in mineral-fluid systems with implications for mass transfer reactions at/near the magma-hydrothermal boundary at

  3. Characterizing and sourcing ambient PM2.5 over key emission regions in China I: Water-soluble ions and carbonaceous fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiabin; Xing, Zhenyu; Deng, Junjun; Du, Ke

    2016-06-01

    During the past decade, huge research resources have been devoted into studies of air pollution in China, which generated abundant datasets on emissions and pollution characterization. Due to the complex nature of air pollution as well as the limitations of each individual investigating approach, the published results were sometimes perplexing and even contradicting. This research adopted a multi-method approach to investigate region-specific air pollution characteristics and sources in China, results obtained using different analytical and receptor modeling methods were inter-compared for validation and interpretation. A year-round campaign was completed for comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 over four key emission regions: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), Yangzi River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Sichuan Basin (SB). Atmospheric PM2.5 samples were collected from 10/2012 to 08/2013 at four regional sites, located on the diffusion paths of air masses from their corresponding megacities (i.e., Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Chengdu). The annual average PM2.5 mass concentrations showed distinct regional difference, with the highest observed at BTH and lowest at PRD site. Nine water-soluble ions together contributed 33-41% of PM2.5 mass, with three dominant ionic species being SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and carbonaceous particulate matter contributed 16-23% of PM2.5 mass. This implied that combustion and secondary formation were the main sources for PM2.5 in China. In addition, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and carbonaceous components (OC, EC) showed clear seasonal patterns with the highest concentration occurring in winter while the lowest in summer. Principal component analysis performed on aerosol data revealed that vehicular emissions, coal/biomass combustion, industry source, soil dust as well as secondary formation were the main potential sources for the ionic components of PM2.5. The characteristic chemical species combined with back trajectory analysis indicated

  4. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  5. Biochemical characterization of soluble proteins in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch].

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2008-09-10

    Pecans (cv. Desirable) contained approximately 10% protein on a dry weight basis. The minimum nitrogen solubility (5.9-7.5%) at 0.25-0.75 M trichloroacetic acid represented the nonprotein nitrogen. Among the solvents assessed for protein solubilization, 0.1 M NaOH was the most effective, while borate saline buffer (pH 8.45) was judged to be optimal for protein solubilization. The protein solubility was minimal in the pH range of 3-7 and significantly increased on either side of this pH range. Increasing the NaCl concentration from 0 to 4 M significantly improved ( approximately 8-fold increase) protein solubilization. Following Osborne protein fractionation, the alkali-soluble glutelin fraction (60.1%) accounted for a major portion of pecan proteins followed by globulin (31.5%), prolamin (3.4%), and albumin (1.5%), respectively. The majority of pecan polypeptides were in the molecular mass range of 12-66 kDa and in the pI range of 4.0-8.3. The pecan globulin fraction was characterized by the presence of several glycoprotein polypeptides. Lysine was the first limiting essential amino acid in the defatted flour, globulin, prolamin, and alkaline glutelin fractions. Leucine and tryptophan were the first limiting essential amino acids in albumin and acid glutelin fractions, respectively. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies detected a range of pecan polypeptides in the 12-60 kDa range, of which the globulin fraction contained the most reactive polypeptides.

  6. Superconductivity in an Alkali Doped Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Picene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokumoto, Madoka; Shimizu, Fumihiko; Hata, Yoshiaki; Sawai, Shinya; Han, Jing; Inoue, Katsuya

    2010-03-01

    The effect of carrier doping into polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including perylene and pentacene, has been extensively studied.[1] As a result of halogen or alkali metal doping, a drastic increase in electrical conductivity was observed. However, superconductivity has not been reported except the one by Sch"on et al.[2] Recently, Kubozono reported that one of them, i.e. picene (C22H14) showed superconductivity at 20 K by doping with potassium.[3] We anticipate that it will lead to surprising findings of hidden organic molecular superconductors. In this presentation, we will report on the characterization of superconducting properties of alkali doped picene. Instead of ordinary vapor phase alkali metal doping, we employ thermal decomposition of alkali azides, i.e. AN3 where A = K, Rb. We followed the doping procedure of thermal decomposition applied to fullerene C60.[4] A systematic variation of the superconducting transition temperature and fraction are studied as a function of alkali metal composition. [1] H. Akamatu, H. Inokuchi, and Y. Matsunaga, Nature 173 (1954) 168. [2] J. H. Sch"on, Ch. Kloc & B. Batlogg, Nature 406 (2000) 702; retraction, Nature 422 (2003) 93. [3] R. Mitsuhashi, Y. Kubozono et al.: private communication. [4] M. Tokumoto, et al. , J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 54 (1993) 1667.

  7. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard

    2017-01-17

    A method for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock. The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  8. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  9. Alkali element constraints on Earth-Moon relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Drake, M. J.; Jones, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    Given their range of volatilities, alkali elements are potential tracers of temperature-dependent processes during planetary accretion and formation of the Earth-Moon system. Under the giant impact hypothesis, no direct connection between the composition of the Moon and the Earth is required, and proto-lunar material does not necessarily experience high temperatures. Models calling for multiple collisions with smaller planetesimals derive proto-lunar materials mainly from the Earth's mantle and explicitly invoke vaporization, shock melting and volatility-related fractionation. Na/K, K/Rb, and Rb/Cs should all increase in response to thermal volatization, so theories which derive the Moon substantially from Earth's mantle predict these ratios will be higher in the Moon than in the primitive mantle of the Earth. Despite the overall depletion of volatile elements in the Moon, its Na/K and K/Rb are equal to or less than those of Earth. A new model presented here for the composition of Earth's continental crust, a major repository of the alkali elements, suggests the Rb/Cs of the Moon is also less than that of Earth. Fractionation of the alkali elements between Earth and Moon are in the opposite sense to predictions based on the relative volatilities of these elements, if the Moon formed by high-T processing of Earth's mantle. Earth, rather than the Moon, appears to carry a signature of volatility-related fractionation in the alkali elements. This may reflect an early episode of intense heating on Earth with the Moon's alkali budget accreting from cooler material.

  10. Effects of alkali stress on growth, free amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingping; Fu, Jinmin; Hu, Longxing

    2012-10-01

    Soil alkalization is one of the most prominent adverse environmental factors limiting plant growth, while alkali stress affects amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism. The objective of this study was conducted to investigate the effects of alkali stress on growth, amino acids and carbohydrates metabolism in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Seventy-day-old plants were subjected to four pH levels: 6.0 (control), 8.0 (low), 9.4 (moderate) and 10.3 (severe) for 7 days. Moderate to severe alkali stress (pH >9.4) caused a significant decline in turf quality and growth rate in Kentucky bluegrass. Soluble protein was unchanged in shoots, but decreased in roots as pH increased. The levels of amino acids was kept at the same level as control level at 4 days after treatment (DAT) in shoots, but greater at 7 DAT, when plants were subjected to severe (pH 10.3) alkali stress. The alkali stressed plants had a greater level of starch, water soluble carbohydrate and sucrose content, but lower level of fructose and glucose. Fructan and total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) increased at 4 DAT and decreased at 7 DAT for alkali stressed plants. These results suggested that the decrease in fructose and glucose contributed to the growth reduction under alkali stress, while the increase in amino acids, sucrose and storage form of carbohydrate (fructan, starch) could be an adaptative mechanism in Kentucky bluegrass under alkali stress.

  11. Pitch fractionation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, V.L.; White, J.L.

    1981-12-15

    Petroleum pitch (Ashland A240) has been subjected to thermal treatment and solvent fractionation to produce refined pitches to be evaluated as impregnants for carbon-carbon composites. The solvent fractions were obtained by sequential Soxhlet extraction with solvents such as hexane, cyclohexane, toluene, and pyridine. The most severe thermal treatment produced a mesophase pitch (approximately 50% mesophase); an appreciable portion of the mesophase was soluble in strong solvents. There were substantial differences in chemical composition and in pyrolysis behavior of the fractions. As the depth of fraction increased, the pyrolysis yield and bloating increased, and the microstructure of the coke became finer until glassy microconstituents were formed in the deepest fractions.

  12. Alkali solution extraction of rice residue protein isolates: Influence of alkali concentration on protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine formation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Furong; Ding, Wenhui; Qu, Wenjuan; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Xiong, Feng; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Ronghai; Ma, Haile

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the nutrient property and safety of the rice residue protein isolates (RRPI) product (extracted by different alkali concentrations) by exploring the protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine (LAL) formation. The results showed that with the rising of alkali concentration from 0.03M to 0.15M, the solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of RRPI increased at first and then descended. When the alkali concentration was greater than 0.03M, the RRPI surface hydrophobicity decreased and the content of thiol and disulfide bond, Lys and Cys significantly reduced. By the analysis of HPLC, the content of LAL rose up from 276.08 to 15,198.07mg/kg and decreased to 1340.98mg/kg crude protein when the alkali concentration increased from 0.03 to 0.09M and until to 0.15M. These results indicated that RRPI alkaline extraction concentration above 0.03M may cause severe nutrient or safety problems of protein.

  13. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  14. Fractionation of Eucalyptus grandis chips by dilute acid-catalysed steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Emmel, Alexandre; Mathias, Alvaro L; Wypych, Fernando; Ramos, Luiz P

    2003-01-01

    Steam explosion of Eucalyptus grandis has been carried out under various pretreatment conditions (200-210 degrees C, 2-5 min) after impregnation of the wood chips with 0.087 and 0.175% (w/w) H2SO4. This study, arranged as a 2(3) factorial design, indicated that pretreatment temperature is the most critical variable affecting the yield of steam-treated fractions. Pretreatment of 0.175% (w/w) H2SO4-impregnated chips at 210 degrees C for 2 min was the best condition for hemicellulose recovery (mostly as xylose) in the water soluble fraction, reaching almost 70% of the corresponding xylose theoretical yield. By contrast, lower pretreatment temperatures of 200 degrees C were enough to yield steam-treated substrates from which a 90% cellulose conversion was obtained in 48 h, using low enzyme loadings of a Celluclast 1.5 1 plus Novozym 188 mixture (Novo Nordisk). Release of water-soluble chromophores was monitored by UV spectroscopy and their concentration increased with pretreatment severity. The yield of alkali-soluble lignin increased at higher levels of acid impregnation and pretreatment temperatures. Thermoanalysis of these lignin fractions indicated a pattern of lignin fragmentation towards greater pretreatment severities but lignin condensation prevailed at the most drastic pretreatment conditions.

  15. Reduction of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits and decrease of expressions of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in foam cells by a water-soluble fraction of Polygonum multiflorum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng-Yuan; Almofti, Mohamad Radwan; Lu, Ling; Kang, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Tie-Jun; Rui, Yao-Cheng; Sun, Lian-Na; Chen, Wan-Sheng

    2005-11-01

    Polygonum multiflorum stilbeneglycoside (PMS) is a water-soluble fraction of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., one of the most famous tonic traditional Chinese medicines, that has protective effects on the cardiovascular system. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the effects of PMS on macrophage-derived foam cell functions and the reduction of severity of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. NZW rabbits were fed for 12 weeks with a normal diet, a high cholesterol diet, or a high cholesterol diet associated with irrigation with different doses of PMS (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg). Treatment of NZW rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet with 100 mg/kg PMS attenuated the increase in plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and plasma triglyceride. Treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg PMS caused 43% and 60% decrease in atherosclerotic lesioned area ratio to total surface area, respectively. In U937 foam cells, PMS could decrease the high expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 protein and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in the medium induced by oxidized lipoprotein when analyzed by flow cytometry. The results proved that PMS is a powerful agent against atherosclerosis and that PMS action could possibly be through the inhibition of the expression of ICAM-1 and VEGF in foam cells.

  16. Polymerization reactivity of sulfomethylated alkali lignin modified with horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dongjie; Wu, Xiaolei; Qiu, Xueqing; Chang, Yaqi; Lou, Hongming

    2014-03-01

    Alkali lignin (AL) was employed as raw materials in the present study. Sulfomethylation was conducted to improve the solubility of AL, while sulfomethylated alkali lignin (SAL) was further polymerized by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). HRP modification caused a significant increase in molecular weight of SAL which was over 20 times. It was also found to increase the amount of sulfonic and carboxyl groups while decrease the amount of phenolic and methoxyl groups in SAL. The adsorption quantity of self-assembled SAL film was improved after HRP modification. Sulfonation and HRP modification were mutually promoted. The polymerization reactivity of SAL in HRP modification was increased with its sulfonation degree. Meanwhile, HRP modification facilitated SAL's radical-sulfonation reaction.

  17. Alkali Metal Cluster Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. In this thesis, we apply the tight-binding Hubbard model to alkali metal clusters with Hartree-Fock self-consistent methods and perturbation methods for the numerical calculations. We have studied the relation between the equilibrium structures and the range of the hopping matrix elements in the Hubbard Hamiltonian. The results show that the structures are not sensitive to the interaction range but are determined by the number of valence electrons each atom has. Inertia tensors are used to analyse the symmetries of the clusters. The principal axes of the clusters are determined and they are the axes of rotational symmetries of clusters if the clusters have any. The eigenvalues of inertia tensors which are the indication of the deformation of clusters are compared between our model and the ellipsoidal jellium model. The agreement is good for large clusters. At a finite temperature, the thermal motion fluctuates the structures. We defined a fluctuation function with the distance matrix of a cluster. The fluctuation has been studied with the Monte-Carlo simulation method. Our studies show that the clusters remain in the solid state when temperature is low. The small values of fluctuation functions indicates the thermal vibration of atoms around their equilibrium positions. If the temperature is high, the atoms are delocalized. The cluster melts and enters the liquid region. The cluster melting is simulated by the Monte-Carlo simulation with the fluctuation function we defined. Energy levels of clusters are calculated from the Hubbard model. Ionization potentials and magic numbers are also obtained from these energy levels. The results confirm that the Hubbard model is a good approximation for a small cluster. The excitation energy is presented by the difference between the original level and excited level, and the electron-hole interactions. We also have studied cooling of clusters

  18. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  19. Process for recovering alkali metals and sulfur from alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier

    2016-10-25

    Alkali metals and sulfur may be recovered from alkali monosulfide and polysulfides in an electrolytic process that utilizes an electrolytic cell having an alkali ion conductive membrane. An anolyte solution includes an alkali monosulfide, an alkali polysulfide, or a mixture thereof and a solvent that dissolves elemental sulfur. A catholyte includes molten alkali metal. Applying an electric current oxidizes sulfide and polysulfide in the anolyte compartment, causes alkali metal ions to pass through the alkali ion conductive membrane to the catholyte compartment, and reduces the alkali metal ions in the catholyte compartment. Liquid sulfur separates from the anolyte solution and may be recovered. The electrolytic cell is operated at a temperature where the formed alkali metal and sulfur are molten.

  20. Pectin fraction interconversions: Insight into understanding texture evolution of thermally processed carrots.

    PubMed

    Sila, Daniel N; Doungla, Eugenie; Smout, Chantal; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2006-11-01

    In situ changes in pectin fractions for thermally processed carrots were related to textural changes. The texture of pretreated and subsequently thermally processed carrot disks was determined. Alcohol insoluble residue (AIR) was extracted from the pretreated and thermally processed tissues. The AIR was characterized in terms of the degree of methylation (DM) and changes in pectin fractions. Distinct differences in texture and DM were observed during thermal processing. Pretreatment conditions that induced a significant decrease in DM showed better textures. Demethoxylation caused interconversion of pectin fractions, water soluble pectin (WSP) changing into water insoluble pectin [chelator (CSP) and alkali (NSP) soluble pectin]. This process was reversed during cooking accompanied by remarkable alterations in molecular weight (MW) distribution patterns. The WSP depicted polydisperse MW distribution patterns, strongly dependent on the pretreatment condition. Confirmatory results of interconversions of pectin fractions (WSP, NSP) were demonstrated by the MW distribution patterns and neutral sugar profiles. All thermal related transformations of pectin structural parameters were decelerated by lowering the DM.

  1. On Barium Oxide Solubility in Barium-Containing Chloride Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2016-08-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl2-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl2-MCl systems.

  2. Electrical Resistivity of Alkali Elements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    rubidium, cesium, and francium ) and contains recommended reference values (or provisional or typical values). The compiled data include all the...and information on the electrical resistivity of alkali elements (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium ) and contains...107Ic. Magnetic Flux Density Dependence o.. .. ... .... 112 4.6. Francium ..........................115j a. Temperature Dependence

  3. Crystal growth of sulfide materials from alkali polysulfide liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The fluids experiment system was designed for low temperature solution growth, nominally aqueous solution growth. The alkali polysulfides, compositions in the systems Na2S-S and K2S-S form liquids in the temperature range of 190 C to 400 C. These can be used as solvents for other important classes of materials such as transition metal and other sulfides which are not soluble in aqueous media. Among these materials are luminescent and electroluminescent crystals whose physical properties are sensitive functions of crystal perfection and which could, therefore, serve as test materials for perfection improvement under microgravity conditions.

  4. The Impact of Post-Pretreatment Conditioning on Enzyme Accessibility and Water Interactions in Alkali Pretreated Rice Straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuna, Nardrapee

    Rice straw, a high-abundance lignocellulosic residue from rice production has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biofuel production in California. In this study, the impact of post-alkali pretreatment conditioning schemes on enzyme saccharification efficiency was examined, particularly focusing on understanding resulting biomass compositional impacts on water interactions with the biomass and enzyme accessibility to the cellulose fraction. Rice straw was pretreated with sodium hydroxide and subsequently washed by two different conditions: 1) by extensive washing with distilled water to reduce the pH to the optimum for cellulases which is pH 5--6, and 2) immediate pH adjustment to pH 5--6 with hydrochloric acid before extensive washing with distilled water. The two post-pretreatment conditions gave significant differences in ash, acid-insoluble lignin, glucan and xylan compositions. Alkali pretreatment improved cellulase digestibility of rice straw, and water washing improved enzymatic digestibility more than neutralization. Hydrolysis reactions with a purified Trichoderma reesei Cel7A, a reducing-end specific cellulase, demonstrated that the differences in saccharification are likely due to differences in the accessibility of the cellulose fraction to the cellulolytic enzymes. Further analyses were conducted to study the mobility of the water associated with the rice straw samples by measuring T2 relaxation times of the water protons by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed significant changes in water association with the rice straw due to the pretreatment and due to the two different post-pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment increased the amount of water at the surface of the rice straw samples as indicated by increased amplitude of the shortest T2 time peaks in the relaxation spectra. Moreover, the amount of water in the first T2 pool in the water washed sample was significantly greater than in the neutralized sample. These

  5. Emulsifying and Foaming Properties of Different Protein Fractions Obtained from a Novel Lupin Variety AluProt-CGNA(®) (Lupinus luteus).

    PubMed

    Burgos-Díaz, César; Piornos, José A; Wandersleben, Traudy; Ogura, Takahiro; Hernández, Xaviera; Rubilar, Mónica

    2016-07-01

    The use of vegetable proteins as food ingredient is becoming increasingly important due to their high versatility and environmental acceptability. This work describes a chemical characterization and techno-functional properties (emulsifying and foaming properties) of 3 protein fractions obtained from a protein-rich novel lupin variety, AluProt-CGNA(®) . This nongenetically modified variety have a great protein content in dehulled seeds (60.6 g protein/100 g, dry matter), which is higher than soybean and other lupin varieties. A simple procedure was utilized to obtain 3 different fractions by using alkali solubilization and isoelectric precipitation. Fractions 1 and 3 were mainly composed of protein and polysaccharides (NNE), whereas fraction 2 was mainly composed by protein (97%, w/w). Fraction 3 presented interesting and potential foaming properties in comparison to the other fractions evaluated in the study. Besides, its solubility, foaming and emulsifying capacity were practically not affected by pH variations. The 3 fractions also presented good emulsion stability, reaching values above a 95%. SDS-PAGE showed that fractions 1 and 2 contained mainly conglutin α, β, and δ, but in different ratios, whereas fraction 3 contained mainly conglutin γ and albumins. The results of this work will provide better understanding for the utilization of each protein fractions as potential ingredients in food industry.

  6. Superconductivity in alkali-doped fullerene nanowhiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeya, Hiroyuki; Konno, Toshio; Hirata, Chika; Wakahara, Takatsugu; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Tanaka, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Superconductivity in alkali metal-doped fullerene nanowhiskers (C60NWs) was observed in K3.3C60NWs, Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs with transition temperatures at 17, 25 and 26 K, respectively. Almost full shielding volume fraction (~80%) was observed in K3.3C60NWs when subjected to thermal treatment at 200 °C for a duration of 24 h. In contrast, the shielding fraction of Rb3.0C60NWs and Cs2.0Rb1.0C60NWs were calculated to be 8% and 6%, respectively. Here we report on an extensive investigation of the superconducting properties of these AC60NWs (A  =  K3.3, Rb3.0 and Cs2.0Rb1.0). These properties are compared to the ones reported on the corresponding conventional (single-crystal or powder) K-doped fullerene. We also evaluated the critical current densities of these C60NWs using the Bean model under an applied magnetic field up to 50 kOe.

  7. Review of alkali metal and refractory alloy compatibility for Rankine cycle applications

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.R. )

    1989-01-01

    The principal corrosion mechanisms in refractory metal-alkali systems are dissolution, mass transfer, and impurity reactions. In general, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten have low solubilities in the alkali metals, even to very high temperatures, and static corrosion studies have verified that the systems are basically compatible. Loop studies with niobium and tantalum based alloys do not indicate any serious problems due to temperature gradient mass transfer. Above 1000 K, dissimilar metal mass transfer is noted between the refractory metals and iron or nickel based alloys. The most serious corrosion problems encountered are related to impurity reactions associated with oxygen.

  8. Positron-alkali atom scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  9. Alkali metal/sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Joginder N.

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal/sulfur batteries in which the electrolyte-separator is a relatively fragile membrane are improved by providing means for separating the molten sulfur/sulfide catholyte from contact with the membrane prior to cooling the cell to temperatures at which the catholyte will solidify. If the catholyte is permitted to solidify while in contact with the membrane, the latter may be damaged. The improvement permits such batteries to be prefilled with catholyte and shipped, at ordinary temperatures.

  10. Tracking the weathering of basalts on Mars using lithium isotope fractionation models.

    PubMed

    Fairén, Alberto G; Losa-Adams, Elisabeth; Gil-Lozano, Carolina; Gago-Duport, Luis; Uceda, Esther R; Squyres, Steven W; Rodríguez, J Alexis P; Davila, Alfonso F; McKay, Christopher P

    2015-04-01

    Lithium (Li), the lightest of the alkali elements, has geochemical properties that include high aqueous solubility (Li is the most fluid mobile element) and high relative abundance in basalt-forming minerals (values ranking between 0.2 and 12 ppm). Li isotopes are particularly subject to fractionation because the two stable isotopes of lithium-(7)Li and (6)Li-have a large relative mass difference (∼15%) that results in significant fractionation between water and solid phases. The extent of Li isotope fractionation during aqueous alteration of basalt depends on the dissolution rate of primary minerals-the source of Li-and on the precipitation kinetics, leading to formation of secondary phases. Consequently, a detailed analysis of Li isotopic ratios in both solution and secondary mineral lattices could provide clues about past Martian weathering conditions, including weathering extent, temperature, pH, supersaturation, and evaporation rate of the initial solutions in contact with basalt rocks. In this paper, we discuss ways in which Martian aqueous processes could have lead to Li isotope fractionation. We show that Li isotopic data obtained by future exploration of Mars could be relevant to highlighting different processes of Li isotopic fractionation in the past, and therefore to understanding basalt weathering and environmental conditions early in the planet's history.

  11. The effect of composting on the organic colloidal fraction from domestic sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendros, Gonzalo; Leal, Juan A.; Martin, Francisco; Gonzalez-Vila, Francisco J.

    Due to the frequent use of domestic sewage sludges as organic additives to soils with low humus content, the chemical characteristics of the extractable polymers from composted and uncomposted sludges were described. The alkali-soluble, acid-insoluble sludge fraction (humic-like) was isolated after exhaustive lipid extraction, and analyzed by chemical degradation followed by combined gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It was observed that this sludge fraction contained an important amount of lipid compounds (more than 40% by weight). Most of this lipid material can be physically removed, but the residual polymer fractions were also found to be highly aliphatic in nature. The high yields upon degradation of several types of alkanoic acids and the relatively high proportion of polypeptides (30% by weight), as well as carbohydrates, suggested that the humic-like fractions from both the composted and uncomposted sludges consisted of slightly altered microbial and residual biopolymers. The effects of composting sludge mainly concern the selective biodegradation of the less resistant moieties. The great differences between the chemical nature of the humic-like fraction of the composted sludge and that of the soil humic acids are considered to reflect the low proportion of lignified materials in the original sludge.

  12. Tracking the weathering of basalts on Mars using lithium isotope fractionation models

    PubMed Central

    Losa‐Adams, Elisabeth; Gil‐Lozano, Carolina; Gago‐Duport, Luis; Uceda, Esther R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Rodríguez, J. Alexis P.; Davila, Alfonso F.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lithium (Li), the lightest of the alkali elements, has geochemical properties that include high aqueous solubility (Li is the most fluid mobile element) and high relative abundance in basalt‐forming minerals (values ranking between 0.2 and 12 ppm). Li isotopes are particularly subject to fractionation because the two stable isotopes of lithium—7Li and 6Li—have a large relative mass difference (∼15%) that results in significant fractionation between water and solid phases. The extent of Li isotope fractionation during aqueous alteration of basalt depends on the dissolution rate of primary minerals—the source of Li—and on the precipitation kinetics, leading to formation of secondary phases. Consequently, a detailed analysis of Li isotopic ratios in both solution and secondary mineral lattices could provide clues about past Martian weathering conditions, including weathering extent, temperature, pH, supersaturation, and evaporation rate of the initial solutions in contact with basalt rocks. In this paper, we discuss ways in which Martian aqueous processes could have lead to Li isotope fractionation. We show that Li isotopic data obtained by future exploration of Mars could be relevant to highlighting different processes of Li isotopic fractionation in the past, and therefore to understanding basalt weathering and environmental conditions early in the planet's history. PMID:27642264

  13. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Sheldon H. D.

    1992-01-01

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases.

  14. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1991-01-22

    This invention relates to a regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor 5 concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC 10 exhaust gases.

  15. Regenerable activated bauxite adsorbent alkali monitor probe

    DOEpatents

    Lee, S.H.D.

    1992-12-22

    A regenerable activated bauxite adsorber alkali monitor probe for field applications to provide reliable measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in combustion gas with special emphasis on pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) off-gas. More particularly, the invention relates to the development of a easily regenerable bauxite adsorbent for use in a method to accurately determine the alkali-vapor content of PFBC exhaust gases. 6 figs.

  16. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Vijay; Naik, Prashant; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and diethylamine) had lowered melting points while the alkali metal salt (sodium) had a higher melting point than BPA. The in vitro study showed that salt formation improves the physicochemical properties of BPA, leading to improved permeability through the skin. Amongst all the prepared salts, ethanolamine salt (1b) showed 7.2- and 5.4-fold higher skin permeation than the parent drug at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, using rat skin. PMID:26839810

  17. Effect of the alkali metal activator on the properties of fly ash-based geopolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaarsveld, J.G.S. van; Deventer, J.S.J. van

    1999-10-01

    The alkali and alkali earth metal cations present during the formation of most known aluminosilicate structures have a very significant effect on both the physical and chemical properties of the final product. Geopolymers are no exception, although this effect has not been thoroughly quantified and in the case of waste-based geopolymers it has not received any significant attention. The present study investigates the effect of mainly Na{sup +} and K{sup +} on the physical and chemical properties of fly ash-based geopolymeric binders both before and after setting has occurred. A variety of tests were conducted, including rheological measurements, various leaching tests, compressive strength testing, specific surface area determinations, and infrared spectroscopy (IR). It is concluded that the alkali metal cation controls and affects almost all stages of geopolymerization, from the ordering of ions and soluble species during the dissolution process to playing a structure-directing role during gel hardening and eventual crystal formation.

  18. Saturated vapor pressure above the amalgam of alkali metals in discharge lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrish, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    A theoretical and numerical analysis of the evaporation process of two-component compounds in vapors of alkali metals in discharge lamps is presented. Based on the developed mathematical model of calculation of saturated vapor pressure of the metal above the amalgam, dependences of mass fractions of the components in the discharge volume on design parameters and thermophysical characteristics of the lamp are obtained.

  19. Plasma formation in diode pumped alkali lasers sustained in Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markosyan, Aram H.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-11-01

    In diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), lasing action occurs on the resonant lines of alkali atoms following pumping by broadband semiconductor lasers. The goal is to convert the efficient but usually poor optical quality of inexpensive diode lasers into the high optical quality of atomic vapor lasers. Resonant excitation of alkali vapor leads to plasma formation through the excitation transfer from the 2P states to upper lying states, which then are photoionized by the pump and intracavity radiation. A first principles global model was developed to investigate the operation of the He/Cs DPAL system and the consequences of plasma formation on the efficiency of the laser. Over a range of pump powers, cell temperatures, excitation frequency, and mole fraction of the collision mixing agent (N2 or C2H6), we found that sufficient plasma formation can occur that the Cs vapor is depleted. Although N2 is not a favored collisional mixing agent due to large rates of quenching of the 2P states, we found a range of pump parameters where laser oscillation may occur. The poor performance of N2 buffered systems may be explained in part by plasma formation. We found that during the operation of the DPAL system with N2 as the collisional mixing agent, plasma formation is in excess of 1014-1015 cm-3, which can degrade laser output intensity by both depletion of the neutral vapor and electron collisional mixing of the laser levels.

  20. Phonon spectra of alkali metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeković, S.; Vukajlović, F.; Veljković, V.

    1982-10-01

    In this work we used a simple local model pseudopotential which includes screening for the phonon spectra calculations of alkali metals. The results obtained are in very good agreement with experimental data. In some branches of phonon spectra the differences between theoretical and experimental results are within 1-2%, while the maximum error is about 6%. The suggested form of the pseudopotential allows us to describe the phonon spectra of Na, K and Rb with only one, and, at the same time, a unique, parameter. In this case, the maximum disagreements from experiment are 9% for Na, 8% for K and 7% for Rb.

  1. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali-Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Shear-Degraded Wheat Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  2. Dissolution Process of Palladium in Hydrochloric Acid: A Route via Alkali Metal Palladates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Ryo; Miki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Hisashi; Tai, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    To improve the safety of the Pd recovery processes that use toxic oxidizers, dissolution of Pd in hydrochloric acid with alkali metal palladates was investigated. Alkali metal palladates were prepared by calcining a mixture of Pd black and alkali metal (Li, Na, and K) carbonates in air. Almost the entire amount of Pd was converted into Li2PdO2 after calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Li2CO3. In contrast, PdO was obtained by calcination at 1073 K (800 °C) using Na and K carbonates. Our results indicated that Li2CO3 is the most active reagent among the examined alkali metal carbonates for the formation of palladates. In addition, dissolution of the resulting Li2PdO2 in HCl solutions was evaluated under various conditions. In particular, Li2PdO2 rapidly dissolved in diluted (0.1 M) HCl at ambient temperature. Solubility of Pd of Li2PdO2 was found to be 99 pct or larger after dissolution treatment at 353 K (80 °C) for 5 minutes; in contrast, PdO hardly dissolved in 0.1 M HCl. The dissolution mechanism of Li2PdO2 in HCl was also elucidated by analysis of crystal structures and particulate properties. Since our process is completely free from toxic oxidizers, the dissolution process via alkali metal palladates is much safer than currently employed methods.

  3. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.

    1977-01-01

    Large quantities of alkali metals may be safely reacted for ultimate disposal by contact with a hot concentrated caustic solution. The alkali metals react with water in the caustic solution in a controlled reaction while steam dilutes the hydrogen formed by the reaction to a safe level.

  4. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C.

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  5. Method of handling radioactive alkali metal waste

    DOEpatents

    Wolson, Raymond D.; McPheeters, Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive alkali metal is mixed with particulate silica in a rotary drum reactor in which the alkali metal is converted to the monoxide during rotation of the reactor to produce particulate silica coated with the alkali metal monoxide suitable as a feed material to make a glass for storing radioactive material. Silica particles, the majority of which pass through a 95 mesh screen or preferably through a 200 mesh screen, are employed in this process, and the preferred weight ratio of silica to alkali metal is 7 to 1 in order to produce a feed material for the final glass product having a silica to alkali metal monoxide ratio of about 5 to 1.

  6. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalzer, D.K.; Steindler, M.J.; Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-12-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an alternative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no high temperature/high pressure (HTHP) sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-reaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial-grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6{und M}-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed in the following.

  7. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalzer, D.K.; Steindler, M.J.; Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an alternative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no high temperature/high pressure (HTHP) sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-reaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial-grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6[und M]-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed in the following.

  8. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of PFBC technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an altemative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. As shown in Fig. 1, the RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no HTHP sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-leaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6M-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite [8]. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  9. Measurement of alkali in PFBC exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.

    1992-11-01

    This project supports the DOE/METC Fossil Energy Program for the development of PFBC technology. Based on the analytical activated-bauxite sorber-bed technique, we are developing the RABSAM as an altemative to the on-line alkali analyzer for field application. As shown in Fig. 1, the RABSAM is a sampling probe containing a regenerable activated-bauxite adsorbent (RABA). It can be inserted directly into the PFBC exhaust duct and requires no HTHP sampling line. Alkali vapors are captured by the adsorbent purely through physical adsorption. The adsorbent is regenerated by a simple water-leaching process, which also recovers the adsorbed alkalis. The alkali analysis of the leachate by atomic absorption (AA) provides a basis for calculating the time-averaged alkali-vapor concentration in the PFBC exhaust. If the RABA is to use commercial grade activated bauxite, the clay impurities in activated bauxite can react with alkali vapors and, therefore, need to be either removed or deactivated. In earlier work, a 6M-LiCl-solution impregnation technique was shown to deactivate these impurities in fresh activated bauxite [8]. During this year, RABA prepared by this technique was tested in a pressurized alkali-vapor sorption test unit to determine its NaCl-vapor capture efficiency and the regenerability of the sorbent by water extraction. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  10. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. This slows digestion. Soluble fiber is found in ...

  11. Effect of cofiring coal and biofuel with sewage sludge on alkali problems in a circulating fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    K.O. Davidsson; L.-E. Aamand; A.-L. Elled; B. Leckner

    2007-12-15

    Cofiring experiments were performed in a 12 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel combinations were biofuel (wood+straw), coal+biofuel, coal+sewage sludge+biofuel, and sewage sludge+biofuel. Limestone or chlorine (PVC) was added in separate experiments. Effects of feed composition on bed ash and fly ash were examined. The composition of flue gas was measured, including on-line measurement of alkali chlorides. Deposits were collected on a probe simulating a superheater tube. It was found that the fuel combination, as well as addition of limestone, has little effect on the alkali fraction in bed ash, while chlorine decreases the alkali fraction in bed ash. Sewage sludge practically eliminates alkali chlorides in flue gas and deposits. Addition of enough limestone to coal and sludge for elimination of the SO{sub 2} emission does not change the effect of chlorine. Chlorine addition increases the alkali chloride in flue gas, but no chlorine was found in the deposits with sewage sludge as a cofuel. Cofiring of coal and biofuel lowers the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas to about a third compared with that of pure biofuel. This is not affected by addition of lime or chlorine. It is concluded that aluminum compounds in coal and sludge are more important than sulfur to reduce the level of KCl in flue gas and deposits. 24 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2006-07-26

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  13. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2007-10-23

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  14. Advancements in flowing diode pumped alkali lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz, Greg A.; Stalnaker, Donald M.; Guild, Eric M.; Oliker, Benjamin Q.; Moran, Paul J.; Townsend, Steven W.; Hostutler, David A.

    2016-03-01

    Multiple variants of the Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) have recently been demonstrated at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Highlights of this ongoing research effort include: a) a 571W rubidium (Rb) based Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) with a gain (2α) of 0.48 cm-1, b) a rubidium-cesium (Cs) Multi-Alkali Multi-Line (MAML) laser that simultaneously lases at both 795 nm and 895 nm, and c) a 1.5 kW resonantly pumped potassium (K) DPAL with a slope efficiency of 50%. The common factor among these experiments is the use of a flowing alkali test bed.

  15. Aqueous cathode for next-generation alkali-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuhao; Goodenough, John B; Kim, Youngsik

    2011-04-20

    The lithium-ion batteries that ushered in the wireless revolution rely on electrode strategies that are being stretched to power electric vehicles. Low-cost, safe electrical-energy storage that enables better use of alternative energy sources (e.g., wind, solar, and nuclear) requires an alternative strategy. We report a demonstration of the feasibility of a battery having a thin, solid alkali-ion electrolyte separating a water-soluble redox couple as the cathode and lithium or sodium in a nonaqueous electrolyte as the anode. The cell operates without a catalyst and has high storage efficiency. The possibility of a flow-through mode for the cathode allows flexibility of the cell design for safe, large-capacity electrical-energy storage at an acceptable cost.

  16. Alkalis in Coal and Coal Cleaning Products / Alkalia W Węglu I Productach Jego Wzbogacania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bytnar, Krzysztof; Burmistrz, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    In the coking process, the prevailing part of the alkalis contained in the coal charge goes to coke. The content of alkalis in coal (and also in coke) is determined mainly by the content of two elements: sodium and potasium. The presence of these elements in coal is connected with their occurrence in the mineral matter and moisture of coal. In the mineral matter and moisture of the coals used for the coke production determinable the content of sodium is 26.6 up to 62. per cent, whereas that of potassium is 37.1 up to 73.4 per cent of the total content of alkalis. Major carriers of alkalis are clay minerals. Occasionally alkalis are found in micas and feldspars. The fraction of alkalis contained in the moisture of the coal used for the production of coke in the total amount of alkalis contained there is 17.8 up to 62.0 per cent. The presence of sodium and potassium in the coal moisture is strictly connected with the presence of the chloride ions. The analysis of the water drained during process of the water-extracting from the flotoconcentrate showed that the Na to K mass ratio in the coal moisture is 20:1. Increased amount of the alkalis in the coal blends results in increased content of the alkalis in coke. This leads to the increase of the reactivity (CRI index), and to the decrease of strength (CSR index) determined with the Nippon Steel Co. method. W procesie koksowania przeważająca część zawartych we wsadzie węglowym alkaliów przechodzi do koksu. Zawartość alkaliów w węglu, a co za tym idzie i w koksie determinowana jest głównie zawartością dwóch pierwiastków: sodu i potasu. Obecność tych pierwiastków w węglu wiąże się z występowaniem ich w substancji mineralnej i wilgoci węgla. W substancji mineralnej oraz wilgoci węgli stosowanych do produkcji koksu, oznaczona zawartość sodu wynosi od 26.6 do 62.9%, a zawartość potasu od 37.1 do 73.4% alkaliów ogółem. Głównymi nośnikami alkaliów w substancji mineralnej są minera

  17. Alkali metal for ultraviolet band-pass filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick (Inventor); Fraschetti, George A. (Inventor); Mccann, Timothy A. (Inventor); Mayall, Sherwood D. (Inventor); Dunn, Donald E. (Inventor); Trauger, John T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alkali metal filter having a layer of metallic bismuth deposited onto the alkali metal is provided. The metallic bismuth acts to stabilize the surface of the alkali metal to prevent substantial surface migration from occurring on the alkali metal, which may degrade optical characteristics of the filter. To this end, a layer of metallic bismuth is deposited by vapor deposition over the alkali metal to a depth of approximately 5 to 10 A. A complete alkali metal filter is described along with a method for fabricating the alkali metal filter.

  18. Improved alkali-metal/silicate binders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of inorganic binders utilizes potassium or sodium oxide/silicate dispersion and employs high mole ratio of silicon dioxide to alkali-metal binder. Binders are stable, inexpensive, extremely water resistant, and easy to apply.

  19. Alkali Metal Handling Practices at NASA MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvail, Patrick G.; Carter, Robert R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is NASA s principle propulsion development center. Research and development is coordinated and carried out on not only the existing transportation systems, but also those that may be flown in the near future. Heat pipe cooled fast fission cores are among several concepts being considered for the Nuclear Systems Initiative. Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a capability to handle high-purity alkali metals for use in heat pipes or liquid metal heat transfer loops. This capability is a low budget prototype of an alkali metal handling system that would allow the production of flight qualified heat pipe modules or alkali metal loops. The processing approach used to introduce pure alkali metal into heat pipe modules and other test articles are described in this paper.

  20. Desulfurizing Coal With an Alkali Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental coal-desulfurization process uses alkalies and steam in fluidized-bed reactor. With highly volatile, high-sulfur bituminous coal, process removed 98 percent of pyritic sulfur and 47 percent of organic sulfur. Used in coal liquefaction and in production of clean solid fuels and synthetic liquid fuels. Nitrogen or steam flows through bed of coal in reactor. Alkalies react with sulfur, removing it from coal. Nitrogen flow fluidizes bed while heating or cooling; steam is fluidizing medium during reaction.

  1. Fractional randomness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapiero, Charles S.; Vallois, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    The premise of this paper is that a fractional probability distribution is based on fractional operators and the fractional (Hurst) index used that alters the classical setting of random variables. For example, a random variable defined by its density function might not have a fractional density function defined in its conventional sense. Practically, it implies that a distribution's granularity defined by a fractional kernel may have properties that differ due to the fractional index used and the fractional calculus applied to define it. The purpose of this paper is to consider an application of fractional calculus to define the fractional density function of a random variable. In addition, we provide and prove a number of results, defining the functional forms of these distributions as well as their existence. In particular, we define fractional probability distributions for increasing and decreasing functions that are right continuous. Examples are used to motivate the usefulness of a statistical approach to fractional calculus and its application to economic and financial problems. In conclusion, this paper is a preliminary attempt to construct statistical fractional models. Due to the breadth and the extent of such problems, this paper may be considered as an initial attempt to do so.

  2. Correlation of Helium Solubility in Liquid Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDresar, Neil T.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    A correlation has been developed for the equilibrium mole fraction of soluble gaseous helium in liquid nitrogen as a function of temperature and pressure. Experimental solubility data was compiled and provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Data from six sources was used to develop a correlation within the range of 0.5 to 9.9 MPa and 72.0 to 119.6 K. The relative standard deviation of the correlation is 6.9 percent.

  3. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Duyou; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-06-15

    Surface alteration of typical aggregates with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity, i.e. Spratt limestone (SL) and Pittsburg dolomitic limestone (PL), were studied by XRD and SEM/EDS after autoclaving in KOH, NaOH and LiOH solutions at 150 deg. C for 150 h. The results indicate that: (1) NaOH shows the strongest attack on both ASR and ACR aggregates, the weakest attack is with LiOH. For both aggregates autoclaved in different alkali media, the crystalline degree, morphology and distribution of products are quite different. More crystalline products are formed on rock surfaces in KOH than that in NaOH solution, while almost no amorphous product is formed in LiOH solution; (2) in addition to dedolomitization of PL in KOH, NaOH and LiOH solutions, cryptocrystalline quartz in PL involves in reaction with alkaline solution and forms typical alkali-silica product in NaOH and KOH solutions, but forms lithium silicate (Li{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) in LiOH solution; (3) in addition to massive alkali-silica product formed in SL autoclaved in different alkaline solutions, a small amount of dolomite existing in SL may simultaneously dedolomitize and possibly contribute to expansion; (4) it is promising to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to distinguish the alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity of aggregate when both ASR and ACR might coexist.

  4. Pretreatment of corn stover by combining ionic liquid dissolution with alkali extraction.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xinglian; Henderson, Wesley A

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment plays an important role in the efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass into fermentable sugars for biofuels. A highly effective pretreatment method is reported for corn stover which combines mild alkali-extraction followed by ionic liquid (IL) dissolution of the polysaccharides and regeneration (recovery of the polysaccharides as solids). Air-dried, knife-milled corn stover was soaked in 1% NaOH at a moderate condition (90°C, 1 h) and then thoroughly washed with hot deionized (DI) water. The alkali extraction solublized 75% of the lignin and 37% of the hemicellulose. The corn stover fibers became softer and smoother after the alkali extraction. Unextracted and extracted corn stover samples were separately dissolved in an IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C(4) mimCl), at 130°C for 2 h and then regenerated with DI water. The IL dissolution process did not significantly change the chemical composition of the materials, but did alter their structural features. Untreated and treated corn stover samples were hydrolyzed with commercial enzyme preparations including cellulases and hemicellulases at 50°C. The glucose yield from the corn stover sample that was both alkali-extracted and IL-dissolved was 96% in 5 h of hydrolysis. This is a highly effective methodology for minimizing the enzymatic loading for biomass hydrolysis and/or maximizing the conversion of biomass polysaccharides into sugars.

  5. Effects of Soluble Lignin on the Formic Acid-Catalyzed Formation of Furfural: A Case Study for the Upgrading of Hemicellulose.

    PubMed

    Dussan, Karla; Girisuta, Buana; Lopes, Marystela; Leahy, James J; Hayes, Michael H B

    2016-03-08

    A comprehensive study is presented on the conversion of hemicellulose sugars in liquors obtained from the fractionation of Miscanthus, spruce bark, sawdust, and hemp by using formic acid. Experimental tests with varying temperature (130-170 °C), formic acid concentration (10-80 wt%), carbohydrate concentrations, and lignin separation were carried out, and experimental data were compared with predictions obtained by reaction kinetics developed in a previous study. The conversions of xylose and arabinose into furfural were inherently affected by the presence of polymeric soluble lignin, decreasing the maximum furfural yields observed experimentally by up to 24%. These results were also confirmed in synthetic mixtures of pentoses with Miscanthus and commercial alkali lignin. This observation was attributed to side reactions involving intermediate stable sugar species reacting with solubilized lignin during the conversion of xylose into furfural.

  6. Alkali-solubilized organic matter from sludge and its degradability in the anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongzhe; Zhou, Yan; Tan, Youming; Pathak, Santosh; Majid, Maszenan Bin Abdul; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates alkali-solubilized dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its fate in the anaerobic treatment process. DOM was fractionated into high molecular weight (HMW) protein-like substances (PL), HMW saccharide-like substances (SL), low molecular weight (LMW) PL, LMW SL, and humic acid-like substances (HAL). The results indicate alkali-solubilized DOM is primarily composed of LMW PL, HMW SL, and HAL. Alkaline pretreatment improved the overall anaerobic degradability of DOM in sludge (removal efficiency of total DOM increased by 28.4%). However, certain DOM fractions (mainly HMW PL and HAL) exhibited low degradability during anaerobic treatment, primarily caused by the low degradability of aromatic groups (such as aromatic amine groups from tryptophan-like PL). Alkaline pretreatment also resulted in an increase of residual DOM, which is mainly composed of HAL (52.9%) and HMW SL (49.9%).

  7. Thermodynamic assessment of hydrothermal alkali feldspar-mica-aluminosilicate equilibria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sverjensky, D.A.; Hemley, J.J.; d'Angelo, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of minerals retrieved from consideration of solid-solid and dehydration equilibria with calorimetric reference values, and those of aqueous species derived from studies of electrolytes, are not consistent with experimentally measured high-temperature solubilities in the systems K2O- and Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-HCl (e.g., K-fs - Ms - Qtz - K+ - H+). This introduces major inaccuracies into the computation of ionic activity ratios and the acidities of diagenetic, metamorphic, and magmatic hydrothermal fluids buffered by alkali silicate-bearing assemblages. We report a thermodynamic analysis of revised solubility equilibria in these systems that integrates the thermodynamic properties of minerals obtained from phase equilibria studies (Berman, 1988) with the properties of aqueous species calculated from a calibrated equation of state (Shock and Helgeson, 1988). This was achieved in two separate steps. First, new values of the free energies and enthalpies of formation at 25??C and 1 bar for the alkali silicates muscovite and albite were retrieved from the experimental solubility equilibria at 300??C and Psat. Because the latter have stoichiometric reaction coefficients different from those for solid-solid and dehydration equilibria, our procedure preserves exactly the relative thermodynamic properties of the alkali-bearing silicates (Berman, 1988). Only simple arithmetic adjustments of -1,600 and -1,626 (??500) cal/mol to all the K- and Na-bearing silicates, respectively, in Berman (1988) are required. In all cases, the revised values are within ??0.2% of calorimetric values. Similar adjustments were derived for the properties of minerals from Helgeson et al. (1978). Second, new values of the dissociation constant of HCl were retrieved from the solubility equilibria at temperatures and pressures from 300-600??C and 0.5-2.0 kbars using a simple model for aqueous speciation. The results agree well with the conductance-derived dissociation

  8. Alkali basalts and enclosed ultramafic xenoliths near Ushuaia, Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel

    2016-01-01

    At the southernmost part of Tierra del Fuego a few outcrops and erratic boulders of alkali basaltic rocks with ultramafic enclaves have been studied. Alkali basalt plugs or pipes hitherto identified are scarce, and host rocks are constituted by slates that belong to Mesozoic deposition. The petrography, texture and composition of the basalt and xenoliths were investigated by petrographic microscope and electron microprobe analysis. Xenocrysts of amphibole and alkali feldspar, phenocrysts of nepheline, olivine, spinel, phlogopite and Fe-Ti minerals (10 %) and a diversity of xenoliths, mainly lherzolitic, pyroxenite and wehrlitic nodules (15 %), but also from metamorphic rocks provenance, are contained in the basalt groundmass (75 %). This finer-grained material is made up of laths or needles of plagioclase, pyroxene, opaque minerals, apatite and glass, with intersertal, hyalopilitic and pilotaxitic. Locally, rock has an even granoblastic texture. Former amygdules are filled by analcite, zeolites, sodalite and calcite. The normative classification, based on nepheline content, conclude that this rock is an alkali basalt. The chemical classification, considering immobile elements as Zr/TiO2 versus Nb/Y indicate an alkali basalt too and plots over the TAS diagram fall in the foidite (Na-rich or nephelinite) and basanite fields. The REE patterns are fractionated (La/Yb primitive mantle normalized is approximately 30). The K-Ar isotopic technique on individual macrocrysts gave ages of 146 ± 5 Ma (amphibole) and 127 ± 4 Ma (alkali feldspar); and K-Ar whole rock datum reported 8.3 ± 0.3 Ma. Nevertheless, fertile samples show geochemical features typical of deep derived material thus, based on the position in the actual tectonic setting, indicate that the basalt is older than its isotopic age.

  9. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1989-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  10. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  11. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOEpatents

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  12. In vitro and in situ degradation of alkali treated sorghum wet distillers grains alone or in combination with corn stalks to increase their nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of alkali treatment on in vitro and in situ digestibility of fiber sources. An in vitro and in situ experiment were conducted to determine the effects of treating sorghum WDG with solubles (SWDG) and corn stalks (CS) with calcium hydroxide on in ...

  13. Alkali metal vapors - Laser spectroscopy and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stwalley, W. C.; Koch, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the rapidly expanding use of lasers for spectroscopic studies of alkali metal vapors. Since the alkali metals (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium) are theoretically simple ('visible hydrogen'), readily ionized, and strongly interacting with laser light, they represent ideal systems for quantitative understanding of microscopic interconversion mechanisms between photon (e.g., solar or laser), chemical, electrical and thermal energy. The possible implications of such understanding for a wide variety of practical applications (sodium lamps, thermionic converters, magnetohydrodynamic devices, new lasers, 'lithium waterfall' inertial confinement fusion reactors, etc.) are also discussed.

  14. Alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete containing high-alkali cement and granite aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Owsiak, Z

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses results of the research into the influence of high-alkali Portland cement on granite aggregate. The deformation of the concrete structure occurred after 18 months. The research was carried out by means of a scanning electron microscope equipped with a high-energy dispersive X-ray analyzer that allowed observation of unpolished sections of concrete bars exhibiting the cracking pattern typical of the alkali-silica reaction. Both the microscopic observation and the X-ray elemental analysis confirm the presence of alkali-silica gel and secondary ettringite in the cracks.

  15. Common Prairie feeds with different soluble and insoluble fractions used for CPM diet formulation in dairy cattle: Impact of carbohydrate-protein matrix structure on protein and other primary nutrient digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship of carbohydrates molecular spectral characteristics to rumen degradability of primary nutrients in Prairie feeds in dairy cattle. In total, 12 different types of feeds were selected, each type of feed was from three different source with total 37 samples. Six types of them were energy-sourced feeds and the others were protein-sourced feeds. The carbohydrates molecular spectral intensity of various functional groups were collected using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FT/IR) spectroscopy. In the in situ study, the results showed that the rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of primary nutrients (DM, OM, NCP, and CP) were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the feeds. The spectral bands features were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the feeds. Spectral intensities of A_Cell, H_1415 and H_1370 were weakly positively correlated with in situ rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of DM, OM and NCP. Spectral intensities of H_1150, H_1015, A_1, and A_3 were weakly negatively associated with in situ rumen degradation of CP. Spectral intensities of A_1240 and H_1240, mainly associated with cellulosic compounds, were correlated with rumen CP degradation. The multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the spectral intensities of A_3 and H_1415 played the most important role and could be used as a potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feeds in dairy cattle. In conclusion, this study showed that the carbohydrates as a whole have an effect on protein rumen degradation, rather than cellulose alone, indicating carbohydrate-protein matrix structure impact protein utilization in dairy cattle. The non-invasive molecular spectral technique (ATR-FT/IR) could be used as a rapid potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feedstuffs by using molecular spectral bands intensities in carbohydrate fingerprint region.

  16. Common Prairie feeds with different soluble and insoluble fractions used for CPM diet formulation in dairy cattle: impact of carbohydrate-protein matrix structure on protein and other primary nutrient digestion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Quanhui; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship of carbohydrates molecular spectral characteristics to rumen degradability of primary nutrients in Prairie feeds in dairy cattle. In total, 12 different types of feeds were selected, each type of feed was from three different source with total 37 samples. Six types of them were energy-sourced feeds and the others were protein-sourced feeds. The carbohydrates molecular spectral intensity of various functional groups were collected using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FT/IR) spectroscopy. In the in situ study, the results showed that the rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of primary nutrients (DM, OM, NCP, and CP) were significantly different (P<0.05) among the feeds. The spectral bands features were significantly different (P<0.05) among the feeds. Spectral intensities of A_Cell, H_1415 and H_1370 were weakly positively correlated with in situ rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of DM, OM and NCP. Spectral intensities of H_1150, H_1015, A_1, and A_3 were weakly negatively associated with in situ rumen degradation of CP. Spectral intensities of A_1240 and H_1240, mainly associated with cellulosic compounds, were correlated with rumen CP degradation. The multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the spectral intensities of A_3 and H_1415 played the most important role and could be used as a potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feeds in dairy cattle. In conclusion, this study showed that the carbohydrates as a whole have an effect on protein rumen degradation, rather than cellulose alone, indicating carbohydrate-protein matrix structure impact protein utilization in dairy cattle. The non-invasive molecular spectral technique (ATR-FT/IR) could be used as a rapid potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feedstuffs by using molecular spectral bands intensities in carbohydrate fingerprint region.

  17. Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic alkali gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Robert J.

    1998-05-01

    I present a review of the time-independent Gross-Pitaevskii (GP), Bogoliubov, and finite-temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) mean-field theories used to study trapped, Bose-Einstein condensed alkali gases. Numerical solutions of the (zero-temperature) GP equation are presented for attractive (negative scattering length) and repulsive (positive scattering length) interactions. Comparison is made with the Thomas-Fermi and (variational) trial wavefunction appr oximations that are used in the literature to study condensed gases. Numerical calculations of the (zero-temperature) Bogoliubov quasi-particle excitation frequencies are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The finite-temperature properties of condensed gases are examined using the Popov approximation (of the HFB theory) and a simple two-gas model. Specific, quantitative comparisons are made with experimental results for finite-temperature excitation frequencies. Qualitative comparisons are made between the results of the Popov approximation, two-gas model, and other published models for condensate fraction and thermal density distribution. The time-independent mean-field theories are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental results at relatively low temperatures (high condensate fractions). However, at higher temperatures (and condensate fractions of less than 50%) there are significant discrepancies between experimental data and theoretical calculations. This work was undertaken at the University of Maryland at College Park and was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9601261) and the U.S. Office of Naval Research.

  18. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    DOEpatents

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  19. Near Infrared Spectroscopy for On-line Monitoring of Alkali- Free Cloth/Phenolic Resin Prepreg During Manufacture

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bo; Huang, Yu Dong

    2007-01-01

    A NIR method was developed for the on-line monitoring of alkali-free cloth/phenolic resin prepreg during its manufacturing process. First, the sizing content of the alkali-free cloth was analyzed, and then the resin, soluble resin and volatiles content of the prepreg was analyzed simultaneously using the FT-NIR spectrometer. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop the calibration models, which for the sizing content was preprocessed by 1stDER +MSC, for the volatile content by 1stDER +VN, for the soluble resin content by 1stDER +MSC and for the resin content by the VN spectral data preprocessing method. RMSEP of the prediction model for the sizing content was 0.732 %, for the resin content it was 0.605, for the soluble resin content it was 0.101 and for volatiles content it was 0.127. The results of the paired t-test revealed that there was no significant difference between the NIR method and the standard method. The NIR spectroscopy method could be used to predict the resin, soluble resin and the volatiles content of the prepreg simultaneously, as well as sizing content of alkali-free cloth. The processing parameters of the prepreg during manufacture could be adjusted quickly with the help of the NIR analysis results. The results indicated that the NIR spectroscopy method was sufficiently accurate and effective for the on-line monitoring of alkali-free cloth/phenolic resin prepreg.

  20. Solvent- and catalyst-free mechanochemical synthesis of alkali metal monohydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Hlova, Ihor Z.; Castle, Andra; Goldston, Jennifer F.; Gupta, Shalabh; Prost, Timothy; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Scott Chumbley, L.; Pruski, Marek; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    2016-07-06

    Alkali metal monohydrides, AH (A = Li–Cs) have been synthesized in quantitative yields at room temperature by reactive milling of alkali metals in the presence of hydrogen gas at 200 bar or less. The mechanochemical approach reported here eliminates problems associated with the malleability of alkali metals — especially Li, Na, and K — and promotes effective solid–gas reactions, ensuring their completion. This is achieved by incorporating a certain volume fraction of the corresponding hydride powder as a process control agent, which allows continuous and efficient milling primarily by coating the surface of metal particles, effectively blocking cold welding. Formation of high-purity crystalline monohydrides has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and volumetric analyses of reactively desorbed H2 from as-milled samples. The proposed synthesis method is scalable and particularly effective for extremely air-sensitive materials, such as alkali and alkaline earth metal hydrides. Furthermore, the technique may also be favorable for production in continuous reactors operating at room temperature, thereby reducing the total processing time, energy consumption and, hence, the cost of production of these hydrides or their derivatives and composites.

  1. Solvent- and catalyst-free mechanochemical synthesis of alkali metal monohydrides

    DOE PAGES

    Hlova, Ihor Z.; Castle, Andra; Goldston, Jennifer F.; ...

    2016-07-06

    Alkali metal monohydrides, AH (A = Li–Cs) have been synthesized in quantitative yields at room temperature by reactive milling of alkali metals in the presence of hydrogen gas at 200 bar or less. The mechanochemical approach reported here eliminates problems associated with the malleability of alkali metals — especially Li, Na, and K — and promotes effective solid–gas reactions, ensuring their completion. This is achieved by incorporating a certain volume fraction of the corresponding hydride powder as a process control agent, which allows continuous and efficient milling primarily by coating the surface of metal particles, effectively blocking cold welding. Formationmore » of high-purity crystalline monohydrides has been confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and volumetric analyses of reactively desorbed H2 from as-milled samples. The proposed synthesis method is scalable and particularly effective for extremely air-sensitive materials, such as alkali and alkaline earth metal hydrides. Furthermore, the technique may also be favorable for production in continuous reactors operating at room temperature, thereby reducing the total processing time, energy consumption and, hence, the cost of production of these hydrides or their derivatives and composites.« less

  2. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4740 - Alkali metal nitrites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal nitrites. 721.4740... Substances § 721.4740 Alkali metal nitrites. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The category of chemical substances which are nitrites of the alkali metals (Group IA in...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1878 - Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal alkyl borohydride... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1878 Alkali metal alkyl borohydride (generic). (a) Chemical substance... alkali metal alkyl borohydride (PMN P-00-1089) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151)...

  7. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general.

  8. Rb-Sr Isotopic Systematics of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Yamato-74442 LL-Chondritic Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokoyama, T.; Misawa, K.; Okano, O.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simo, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2012-01-01

    Alkali-rich igneous fragments were identified in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Kr henberg (LL5)], Bhola (LL3-6) and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4), and show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkaline elements. The K-Rb-Cs-rich fragments in Kr henberg, Bhola, and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography (olivine + pyroxene + glass), suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials. We have undertaken Rb-Sr isotopic studies on alkali-rich fragments in Y-74442 to precisely determine their crystallization ages and the isotopic signatures of their precursor material(s).

  9. Intrinsic fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectral features of cottonseed protein fractions and the effects of denaturants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the functional and physicochemical properties of cottonseed protein, we investigated the intrinsic fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectral features of cottonseed protein isolate (CSPI) and sequentially extracted water (CSPw) and alkali (CSPa) protein fractions, an...

  10. Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

    2014-11-18

    In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

  11. Computational studies of solid-state alkali conduction in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhi; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-25

    The facile conduction of alkali ions in a crystal host is of crucial importance in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, the dominant form of energy storage today. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of computational approaches to study solid-state alkali diffusion. We demonstrate how these methods have provided useful insights into the design of materials that form the main components of a rechargeable alkali-ion battery, namely the electrodes, superionic conductor solid electrolytes and interfaces. We will also provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. Here, the scope of this review includes the monovalent lithium- and sodium-ion chemistries that are currently of the most commercial interest.

  12. Computational studies of solid-state alkali conduction in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Deng, Zhi; Mo, Yifei; Ong, Shyue Ping

    2016-03-25

    The facile conduction of alkali ions in a crystal host is of crucial importance in rechargeable alkali-ion batteries, the dominant form of energy storage today. In this review, we provide a comprehensive survey of computational approaches to study solid-state alkali diffusion. We demonstrate how these methods have provided useful insights into the design of materials that form the main components of a rechargeable alkali-ion battery, namely the electrodes, superionic conductor solid electrolytes and interfaces. We will also provide a perspective on future challenges and directions. Here, the scope of this review includes the monovalent lithium- and sodium-ion chemistries that aremore » currently of the most commercial interest.« less

  13. Solubility of sparingly soluble drug derivatives of anthranilic acid.

    PubMed

    Domańska, Urszula; Pobudkowska, Aneta; Pelczarska, Aleksandra

    2011-03-24

    This work is a continuation of our systematic study of the solubility of pharmaceuticals (Pharms). All substances here are derivatives of anthranilic acid, and have an anti-inflammatory direction of action (niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, and diclofenac sodium). The basic thermal properties of pure Pharms, i.e., melting and glass-transition temperatures as well as the enthalpy of melting, have been measured with the differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Molar volumes have been calculated with the Barton group contribution method. The equilibrium mole fraction solubilities of three pharmaceuticals were measured in a range of temperatures from 285 to 355 K in three important solvents for Pharm investigations: water, ethanol, and 1-octanol using a dynamic method and spectroscopic UV-vis method. The experimental solubility data have been correlated by means of the commonly known G(E) equation: the NRTL, with the assumption that the systems studied here have revealed simple eutectic mixtures. pK(a) precise measurement values have been investigated with the Bates-Schwarzenbach spectrophotometric method.

  14. Ingestion of caustic alkali farm products.

    PubMed

    Neidich, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the Poison Prevention Packaging Act took effect, the number of ingestions of caustic alkali from household products has been significantly reduced. Commercial caustic alkalis used on farms, however, were not included in this legislation. Fourteen children over a 5 year period were seen after ingestion of commercial caustic alkalis used on farms. Seven of the children had ingested liquid pipeline cleaners and seven had ingested solid agents used for a variety of reasons. Six of seven children ingesting liquid agents did so from nonoriginal containers into which the caustic had been transferred for convenience. All seven children ingesting solid agents did so from the original container. Eight of the 14 children were found to have second-degree or worse esophageal involvement. Both solid and liquid caustic agents used commercially on farms can cause significant morbidity. Development of a child-resistant container for daily transfer of liquid pipeline agents could be helpful in preventing injuries from liquid pipeline cleaners. Pediatric gastroenterologists as well as primary care physicians in rural areas should be familiar with this type of injury and should take an active role in instructing parents of children living on farms to prevent such injuries. Extension of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act to caustic alkalis used on farms needs to be considered.

  15. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  16. Cohesive Energy of the Alkali Metals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a method, considered appropriate for presentation to undergraduate students in materials science and related courses, for the calculation of cohesive energies of the alkali metals. Uses a description based on the free electron model and gives results to within 0.1 eV of the experimental values. (Author/GS)

  17. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-05-12

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization.

  18. Modeling of the solubility of a one-component H2O or CO2 fluid in silicate liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papale, Paolo

    dioxide. When compared with the experimental data, the H2O and CO2 solubility models correctly predict many features of the saturation surface in the P-T-composition space, including the change from retrograde to prograde H2O solubility in albitic liquids with increasing pressure, the so-called alkali effect, the increasing CO2 solubility with increasing degree of silica undersaturation, the Henrian behavior of CO2 in most silicate liquids up to about 30-50 MPa, and the proportionality between the fugacity in the gas phase, or the saturation activity in the liquid phase, and the square of the mole fraction of the dissolved volatile found in some unrelated silicate liquid compositions.

  19. Understanding Multiplication of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetland, Robert D.

    1984-01-01

    Discussed the use of Cuisenaire rods in teaching the multiplication of fractions. Considers whole number times proper fraction, proper fraction multiplied by proper fraction, mixed number times proper fraction, and mixed fraction multiplied by mixed fractions. (JN)

  20. Apolar Bioactive Fraction of Melipona scutellaris Geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Galvão, Lívia Câmara de Carvalho; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the bioactive nonpolar fraction of geopropolis on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The ethanolic extract of Melipona scutellaris geopropolis was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition, thus obtaining the bioactive hexane fraction (HF) possessing antimicrobial activity. The effects of HF on S. mutans UA159 biofilms generated on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs were analyzed by inhibition of formation, killing assay, and glycolytic pH-drop assays. Furthermore, biofilms treated with vehicle control and HF were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HF at 250 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL caused 38% and 53% reduction in the biomass of biofilm, respectively, when compared to vehicle control (P < 0.05) subsequently observed at SEM images, and this reduction was noticed in the amounts of extracellular alkali-soluble glucans, intracellular iodophilic polysaccharides, and proteins. In addition, the S. mutans viability (killing assay) and acid production by glycolytic pH drop were not affected (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the bioactive HF of geopropolis was promising to control the S. mutans biofilm formation, without affecting the microbial population but interfering with its structure by reducing the biochemical content of biofilm matrix. PMID:23843868

  1. Fractionation of Cl/Br during fluid phase separation in magmatic-hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung Hun; Zajacz, Zoltán

    2016-06-01

    Brine and vapor inclusions were synthesized to study Cl/Br fractionation during magmatic-hydrothermal fluid phase separation at 900 °C and pressures of 90, 120, and 150 MPa in Li/Na/K halide salt-H2O systems. Laser ablation ICP-MS microanalysis of high-density brine inclusions show an elevated Cl/Br ratio compared to the coexisting low-density vapor inclusions. The degree of Cl/Br fractionation between vapor and brine is significantly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal in the system: stronger vapor partitioning of Br occurs in the Li halide-H2O system compared to the systems of K and Na halide-H2O. The effect of the identity of alkali-metals in the system is stronger compared to the effect of vapor-brine density contrast. We infer that competition between alkali-halide and alkali-OH complexes in high-temperature fluids might cause the Cl/Br fractionation, consistent with the observed molar imbalances of alkali metals compared to halides in the analyzed brine inclusions. Our experiments show that the identity of alkali metals controls the degrees of Cl/Br fractionation between the separating aqueous fluid phases at 900 °C, and suggest that a significant variability in the Cl/Br ratios of magmatic fluids can arise in Li-rich systems.

  2. Calcium-Alkali Syndrome in the Modern Era

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ami M.; Adeseun, Gbemisola A.; Goldfarb, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The ingestion of calcium, along with alkali, results in a well-described triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal insufficiency. Over time, the epidemiology and root cause of the syndrome have shifted, such that the disorder, originally called the milk-alkali syndrome, is now better described as the calcium-alkali syndrome. The calcium-alkali syndrome is an important cause of morbidity that may be on the rise, an unintended consequence of shifts in calcium and vitamin D intake in segments of the population. We review the pathophysiology of the calcium-alkali syndrome. PMID:24288027

  3. The behaviour of alkali metals in biomass conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hald, P.

    1995-12-31

    Alkali metals present in biomass contribute to problems as agglomeration, deposition and corrosion. In order to reduce the problems. It is of interest to describe the behavior of alkali metals in the conversion systems. Useful tools for die description are equilibrium calculations combined with measurements of gaseous alkali metal and analyses of solid materials. A comprehensive equilibrium study has been conducted and the results organized in tables, showing which alkali metal components can be present, dependent on the temperature and the ratios alkali metal to sulphur and alkali metal to chlorine. The tables presented can be used as a catalogue, giving easy access to equilibrium results. A sampling method for die measurement of gaseous alkali metal is described and the sampling efficiency is given. The developed tools are demonstrated for a straw gasifier and a fluidized bed combustor using a coal/straw mixture as a fuel.

  4. K-Ca Dating of Alkali-Rich Fragments in the Y-74442 and Bhola LL-Chondritic Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokoyama, T; Misawa, K.; Okano, O; Shih, C. -Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Simon, J. I.; Tappa, M. J.; Yoneda, S.

    2013-01-01

    Alkali-rich igneous fragments in the brecciated LL-chondrites, Krahenberg (LL5) [1], Bhola (LL3-6) [2], Siena (LL5) [3] and Yamato (Y)-74442 (LL4) [4-6], show characteristic fractionation patterns of alkali and alkaline elements [7]. The alkali-rich fragments in Krahenberg, Bhola and Y-74442 are very similar in mineralogy and petrography, suggesting that they could have come from related precursor materials [6]. Recently we reported Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of alkali-rich igneous rock fragments in Y-74442: nine fragments from Y-74442 yield the Rb-Sr age of 4429 plus or minus 54 Ma (2 sigma) for lambda(Rb-87) = 0.01402 Ga(exp -1) [8] with the initial ratio of Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.7144 plus or minus 0.0094 (2 sigma) [9]. The Rb-Sr age of the alkali-rich fragments of Y-74442 is younger than the primary Rb-Sr age of 4541 plus or minus 14 Ma for LL-chondrite whole-rock samples [10], implying that they formed after accumulation of LL-chondrite parental bodies, although enrichment may have happened earlier. Marshall and DePaolo [11,12] demonstrated that the K-40 - Ca-40 decay system could be an important chronometer as well as a useful radiogenic tracer for studies of terrestrial rocks. Shih et al. [13,14] and more recently Simon et al. [15] determined K-Ca ages of lunar granitic rocks, and showed the application of the K-Ca chronometer for K-rich planetary materials. Since alkali-rich fragments in the LL-chondritic breccias are highly enriched in K, we can expect enhancements of radiogenic Ca-40. Here, we report preliminary results of K-Ca isotopic systematics of alkali-rich fragments in the LL-chondritic breccias, Y-74442 and Bhola.

  5. Alkali-aggregate reaction under the influence of deicing salts in the Hokuriku district, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Tetsuya . E-mail: katayamat@kge.co.jp; Tagami, Masahiko; Sarai, Yoshinori; Izumi, Satoshi; Hira, Toshikatsu

    2004-11-15

    Concrete cores taken from highway bridges and culverts undergoing alkali-silica reaction (ASR) were investigated petrographically by means of core scanning, point counting, polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), electron-probe microanalysis with energy-dispersive spectrometry, in conjunction with wet chemical analyses and expansion tests. Field damage was roughly proportional to the content of andesite in the gravel aggregates due to the presence of highly reactive cristobalite and tridymite. Electron-probe microanalyzer analysis of unhydrated cement phases in the concrete revealed that the cement used had contained at least 0.5% to 1.0% alkali (Na{sub 2}Oeq) and that both the aggregates and the deicing salts had supplied part of the water-soluble alkali to concrete toward the threshold of producing ASR (Na{sub 2}O{sub eq} 3.0 kg/m{sup 3}). An accelerated concrete core expansion test (1 M NaOH, 80 deg. C) of the damaged structures mostly gave core expansions of >0.10% at 21 days (or >0.05% at 14 days), nearly comparable to those of a slow expansion test with saturated NaCl solution (50 deg. C, 91 days) which produced Cl-containing ASR gel.

  6. Alkali-Ion-Crown Ether in Art and Conservation: The Applied Bioinorganic Chemistry Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hilfrich, Uwe; Taylor, Harold; Weser, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    Dried varnish is rich in many ester moieties, which may be broken down into small, soluble compounds by esterase activity or alkaline hydrolysis. Two methods for varnish removal have been developed, including the treatment of either lipase or RbOH / PEG-400 crown ether which allow aged oil varnishes or paint coverings to be removed or thinned. These techniques are designed to proceed in a controlled manner without damaging lower paint or base layers. Unfortunately, lipase did not react with the aged ester groups of dried linseed oil varnish. Surprisingly, the varnish came off in the presence of Tris buffer alone which, in addition, formed reactive metal complexes. A better choice was the use of high Mr alkali ion polyethylene glycol–400 (PEG-400) crown ether type chelates. PEG-400 complexes alkali ions including rubidium and other alkaliions impeding the diffusion of their basic counter ions into lower varnish or paint layers. Possible migration of alkali metal ions into the paint layer during alkaline varnish removal was determined by labelling the cleansing solutions with 86Rb. Fortunately, varnish is degraded on the surface only. Lower paint or varnish layers are not attacked even if chemically similar to the varnish or over painting to be removed as virtually no 86Rb was detected on the paint surface. PMID:18365066

  7. Mystery Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Sonalee; Namakshi, Nama; Zunker, Christina; Warshauer, Hiroko K.; Warshauer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Making math more engaging for students is a challenge that every teacher faces on a daily basis. These authors write that they are constantly searching for rich problem-solving tasks that cover the necessary content, develop critical-thinking skills, and engage student interest. The Mystery Fraction activity provided here focuses on a key number…

  8. Pitch Fractionation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-15

    13 3. Solvent Fractionation Experiments .................................... 15 4. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra for A240 Petrolem Pitch AG 12...34 and Mesophase Pitch AG 164B ............................... 21 5. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra ................................... 23 6...compared by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis using a Digilab Model FTS 14 spectrophotometer (Rockwell International, Anaheim, California

  9. Release Fraction Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Glissmeyer, John A.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents results of experiments conducted to measure release fractions during certain tank retrieval processes. The tests were performed in a 1/4 scale model of a waste storage tank. The retrieval processes simulated were: (1) Discharging liquid or slurry from the mouth of a vertically oriented two-in. Schedule 40 pipe. The discharging material was in free-fall from the mouth of the pipe near the top of the tank into a liquid or slurry pool at the bottom of the tank. (2) The jet from a 9/16-in.-diameter nozzle transferring liquid or slurry waste from one side of the tank to the other. The discharging liquid was aimed at the opposite side of the tank from the nozzle and either impacted the tank wall or fell into a liquid or slurry pool in the bottom of the tank. (3) A high pressure fan jet of liquid striking a steel plate or simulated waste from a stand-off distance of a few inches. For each process, a water-soluble fluorescent dye was added to the liquid fraction as a tracer. Kaolin clay was used to represent the solids. The tank was covered and there was no forced ventilation in the tank during the tests. Six air samples were collected during each test. The air samples were collected at fixed positions in the tank. The air sample filters were dried and weighed to determine the solids collection. The fluorescent dye was then leached from each filter and quantified with a fluorometer to determine the collection of liquid. Samples of the slurry and liquid simulants were also collected to determine the quantities of simulant used in each test. To calculate the release fraction, the quantity collected on each air sample was adjusted for the fraction of the tank volume sampled and divided by the quantity of material exposed in the simulation. The method was not as sensitive for the solids content as it was for the liquid content, but in those instances where a solids release fraction was determined, it was in relatively good agreement with that of the

  10. Petrography study on altered flint aggregate by alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bulteel, D. . E-mail: bulteel@ensm-douai.fr; Rafai, N.; Degrugilliers, P.; Garcia-Diaz, E.

    2004-11-15

    The aim of our study is to improve our understanding of an alkali-silica reaction (ASR) via petrography. We used a chemical concrete subsystem: flint aggregate, portlandite and KOH. The altered flint aggregate is followed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after acid treatment at different intervals. After acid treatment, the observations showed an increase in aggregate porosity and revealed internal degradation of the aggregate. This degradation created amorphous zones. Before acid treatment, the analyses on polished sections by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) enabled visualization of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} penetration into the aggregate. The appearance of amorphous zones and penetration of positive ions into the aggregate are correlated with the increase in the molar fraction of silanol sites. This degradation is specific to the alkali-silica reaction.

  11. High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Paananen, Markus; Sixta, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) was effectively utilised to prevent major polysaccharide losses while maintaining the delignification rate. A yield increase of 6.7 wt% on wood was observed for a HALT pulp compared to a conventionally produced kappa number 60 pulp with comparable viscosity. Approximately 70% of the yield increase was attributed to improved galactoglucomannan preservation and 30% to cellulose. A two-stage oxygen delignification sequence with inter-stage peroxymonosulphuric acid treatment was used to ensure delignification to a bleachable grade. In a comparison to conventional pulp, HALT pulp effectively maintained its yield advantage. Diafiltration trials indicate that purified black liquor can be directly recycled, as large lignin fractions and basically all dissolved polysaccharides were separated from the alkali-rich BL.

  12. Sugar production from barley straw biomass pretreated by combined alkali and enzymatic extrusion.

    PubMed

    Duque, A; Manzanares, P; Ballesteros, I; Negro, M J; Oliva, J M; González, A; Ballesteros, M

    2014-04-01

    A pretreatment that combines a thermo-mechanical process (extrusion) with chemical and biological catalysts to produce fermentable sugars from barley straw (BS) biomass was investigated. BS was firstly extruded with alkali and then, the pretreated material (extrudate) was submitted to extrusion with hydrolytic enzymes (bioextrusion). The bioextrudate was found to have 35% (w/w dwb) of total solids in soluble form, partly coming from carbohydrate hydrolysis during bioextrusion. About 48% of soluble solids dry weight is comprised by sugars, mostly glucose and xylose. Further enzymatic hydrolysis of bioextrudate could be successfully carried out at high solid loading level of 30% (w/v), with sugar production yield of 32 g glucose and 18 g xylose/100g bioextrudate at 72 h incubation (equivalent to 96 and 52 g/l concentration, respectively). These results, together with the high level of integration of the process, indicate a great potential of this pretreatment technology for sugar production from lignocellulosic substrates.

  13. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  14. Geopolymers and Related Alkali-Activated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provis, John L.; Bernal, Susan A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of new, sustainable, low-CO2 construction materials is essential if the global construction industry is to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities, which is incurred particularly through the production of Portland cement. One type of non-Portland cement that is attracting particular attention is based on alkali-aluminosilicate chemistry, including the class of binders that have become known as geopolymers. These materials offer technical properties comparable to those of Portland cement, but with a much lower CO2 footprint and with the potential for performance advantages over traditional cements in certain niche applications. This review discusses the synthesis of alkali-activated binders from blast furnace slag, calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash, including analysis of the chemical reaction mechanisms and binder phase assemblages that control the early-age and hardened properties of these materials, in particular initial setting and long-term durability. Perspectives for future research developments are also explored.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Alkali Shock and Alkali Adaptation in Listeria monocytogenes 10403S

    PubMed Central

    Giotis, Efstathios S.; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Natesan, Senthil; Wilkinson, Brian J.; Blair, Ian S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Alkali stress is an important means of inactivating undesirable pathogens in a wide range of situations. Unfortunately, Listeria monocytogenes can launch an alkaline tolerance response, significantly increasing persistence of the pathogen in such environments. This study compared transcriptome patterns of alkali and nonalkali-stressed L. monocytogenes 10403S cells, to elucidate the mechanisms by which Listeria adapts and/or grows during short- or long-term alkali stress. Transcription profiles associated with alkali shock (AS) were obtained by DNA microarray analysis of midexponential cells suspended in pH 9 media for 15, 30, or 60 min. Transcription profiles associated with alkali adaptation (AA) were obtained similarly from cells grown to midexponential phase at pH 9. Comparison of AS and AA transcription profiles with control cell profiles identified a high number of differentially regulated open-reading frames in all tested conditions. Rapid (15 min) changes in expression included upregulation of genes encoding for multiple metabolic pathways (including those associated with Na+/H+ antiporters), ATP-binding cassette transporters of functional compatible solutes, motility, and virulence-associated genes as well as the σB controlled stress resistance network. Slower (30 min and more) responses to AS and adaptation during growth in alkaline conditions (AA) involved a different pattern of changes in mRNA concentrations, and genes involved in proton export. PMID:20677981

  16. Water and acid soluble trace metals in atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Harriss, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Continental aerosols are collected above a deciduous forest in eastern Tennessee and subjected to selective extractions to determine the water-soluble and acid-leachable concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn. The combined contributions of these metals to the total aerosol mass is 0.5 percent, with approximately 70 percent of this attributable to Pb alone. A substantial fraction (approximately 50 percent or more) of the acid-leachable metals is soluble in distilled water. In general, this water-soluble fraction increases with decreasing particle size and with increasing frequency of atmospheric water vapor saturation during the sampling period. The pattern of relative solubilities (Zn being greater than Mn, which is approximately equal to Cd, which is greater than Pb) is found to be similar to the general order of the thermodynamic solubilities of the most probable salts of these elements in continental aerosols with mixed fossil fuel and soil sources.

  17. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    DOEpatents

    Ballif, III, John L.; Yuan, Wei W.

    1980-01-01

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  18. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-07-01

    One approach to fission power system design uses alkali metal heat pipes for the core primary heat-transfer system. Heat pipes may also be used as radiator elements or auxiliary thermal control elements. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where information that is more detailed can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstration purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Nasa Project Prometheus point designs. (author)

  19. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    One approach to space fission power system design is predicated on the use of alkali metal heat pipes, either as radiator elements, thermal management components, or as part of the core primary heat-transfer system. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where more detailed information can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstrational purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Project Prometheus point designs.

  20. What Variables Affect Solubility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Helps middle school students understand the concept of solubility through hands-on experience with a variety of liquids and solids. As they explore factors that affect solubility and saturation, students gain content mastery and an understanding of the inquiry process. Also enables teachers to authentically assess student performance on several…

  1. Applications of Solubility Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkins, Reginald P. T.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several applications of the use of solubility data. It is not meant to be exhaustive but rather to show that knowledge of solubility data is required in a variety of technical applications that assist in the design of chemical processes. (Contains 3 figures and 1 table.)

  2. Petrology and geochemistry of alkali gabbronorites from Lunar Breccia 67975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Odette B.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Flohr, Marta K.

    Clasts of an unusual type of lunar highlands igneous rock, alkali gabbronorite, have been found in Apollo 16 breccia 67975. The alkali gabbronorites form two distinct subgroups, magnesian and ferroan. Modes and bulk compositions are highly varied. The magnesian alkali gabbronorites are composed of bytownitic plagioclase (Or2-5An82-89), hypersthene (Wo3-5En49-62), augite (Wo39-42En36-44), a silica mineral, and trace Ba-rich K-feldspar. The ferroan alkali gabbronorites are composed of ternary plagioclase (Or11-22An65-74), pigeonite (Wo6-9En35-47), augite (Wo38-40En29-35), Ba-rich K-feldspar, and a silica mineral. Trace minerals in both subgroups are apatite, REE-rich whitlockite, and zircon. The magnesian and ferroan alkali gabbronorites appear to have formed by progressive differentiation of the same, or closely related, parent magmas; the compositional data indicate that these magmas were REE-rich. The ternary plagioclase is probably a high-temperature metastable phase formed during crystallization. In composition and mineralogy, the 67975 alkali gabbronorites show many similarities to Apollo 12 and 14 alkali norites, alkali gabbronorites, and alkali anorthosites, and all these rocks together constitute a distinctive alkali suite. In addition, the alkali gabbronorites show some similarities to KREEP basalts, Mg-norites, and some felsites. These data suggest genetic links between some or all of these types of pristine rocks. Two types of relationships are possible. The first is that alkali-suite rocks crystallized in plutons of KREEP basalt magma, and KREEP basalts are their extrusive equivalents. The second is that the alkali-suite rocks and some felsites all crystallized in plutons of Mg-norite parent magmas, and KREEP basalt magmas formed by remelting of these plutons. Additional studies are needed to resolve which of these hypotheses is correct.

  3. Petrology and geochemistry of alkali gabbronorites from lunar breccia 67975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Odette B.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Flohr, Marta K.

    1987-09-01

    Clasts of an unusual type of lunar highlands igneous rock, alkali gabbronorite, have been found in Apollo 16 breccia 67975. The alkali gabbronorites form two distinct subgroups, magnesian and ferroan. Modes and bulk compositions are highly varied. The magnesian alkali gabbronorites are composed of bytownitic plagioclase (Or2-5An82-89), hypersthene (Wo3-5En49-62), augite (Wo39-42En36-44), a silica mineral, and trace Ba-rich K-feldspar. The ferroan alkali gabbronorites are composed of ternary plagioclase (Or11-22An65-74), pigeonite (Wo6-9En35-47), augite (Wo38-40En29-35), Ba-rich K-feldspar, and a silica mineral. Trace minerals in both subgroups are apatite, REE-rich whitlockite, and zircon. The magnesian and ferroan alkali gabbronorites appear to have formed by progressive differentiation of the same, or closely related, parent magmas; the compositional data indicate that these magmas were REE-rich. The ternary plagioclase is probably a high-temperature metastable phase formed during crystallization. In composition and mineralogy, the 67975 alkali gabbronorites show many similarities to Appllo 12 and 14 alkali norites, alkali gabbronorites, and alkali anorthosites, and all these rocks together constitute a distinctive alkali suite. In addition, the alkali gabbronorites, show some similarities to KREEP basalts, Mg-norites, and some felsites. These data suggest genetic links between some or all of these types of pristine rocks. Two types of relationships are possible. The first is that alkali-suite rocks crystallized in plutons of KREEP basalt magma, and KREEP basalts are their extrusive equivalents. The second is that the alkali-suite rocks and some felsites all crystallized in plutons of Mg-norite parent magmas, and KREEP basalt magmas formed by remelting of these plutons. Additional studies are needed to resolve which of these hypotheses is correct.

  4. Fraction Reduction through Continued Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carley, Holly

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a method of reducing fractions without factoring. The ideas presented may be useful as a project for motivated students in an undergraduate number theory course. The discussion is related to the Euclidean Algorithm and its variations may lead to projects or early examples involving efficiency of an algorithm.

  5. Transport properties of alkali metal doped fullerides

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Daluram Yadav, Nishchhal

    2015-07-31

    We have studied the intercage interactions between the adjacent C{sub 60} cages and expansion of lattice due to the intercalation of alkali atoms based on the spring model to estimate phonon frequencies from the dynamical matrix for the intermolecular alkali-C{sub 60} phonons. We considered a two-peak model for the phonon density of states to investigate the nature of electron pairing mechanism for superconducting state in fullerides. Coulomb repulsive parameter and the electron phonon coupling strength are obtained within the random phase approximation. Transition temperature, T{sub c}, is obtained in a situation when the free electrons in lowest molecular orbital are coupled with alkali-C{sub 60} phonons as 5 K, which is much lower as compared to reported T{sub c} (20 K). The superconducting pairing is mainly driven by the high frequency intramolecular phonons and their effects enhance it to 22 K. The importance of the present study, the pressure effect and normal state transport properties are calculated within the same model leading superconductivity.

  6. Chemically induced fracturing in alkali feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidl, K. S.; Schaeffer, A.-K.; Petrishcheva, E.; Habler, G.; Fischer, F. D.; Schreuer, J.; Abart, R.

    2014-01-01

    Fracturing in alkali feldspar during Na+-K+ cation exchange with a NaCl-KCl salt melt was studied experimentally. Due to a marked composition dependence of the lattice parameters of alkali feldspar, any composition gradient arising from cation exchange causes coherency stress. If this stress exceeds a critical level fracturing occurs. Experiments were performed on potassium-rich gem-quality alkali feldspars with polished (010) and (001) surfaces. When the feldspar was shifted toward more sodium-rich compositions over more than about 10 mole %, a system of parallel cracks with regular crack spacing formed. The cracks have a general (h0l) orientation and do not correspond to any of the feldspar cleavages. The cracks are rather oriented (sub)-perpendicular to the direction of maximum tensile stress. The critical stress needed to initiate fracturing is about 325 MPa. The critical stress intensity factor for the propagation of mode I cracks, K Ic, is estimated as 2.30-2.72 MPa m1/2 (73-86 MPa mm1/2) from a systematic relation between characteristic crack spacing and coherency stress. An orientation mismatch of 18° between the crack normal and the direction of maximum tensile stress is ascribed to the anisotropy of the longitudinal elastic stiffness which has pronounced maxima in the crack plane and a minimum in the direction of the crack normal.

  7. FMC limestone double-alkali flue gas desulfurization process: Pilot plant testing: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Troupe, J.S.; Shepley, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents pilot plant testing of a 3 MW (9500 acfm equivalent flue gas flow) FMC limestone double alkali FGD process operating on a slipstream of a commercial 420 MW boiler burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The report discusses the rationale behind EPRI's decision to participate in the testing aspects of this project, the history of the development of limestone double alkali technology, and the chemistry involved in this technology's operation. The largest part of the report is devoted to the results obtained from tests conducted during 65 days of pilot plant operation. All of the major raw and reduced operating and analytical data taken during testing are reproduced in the appendices to the report, along with quality assurance information to support the validity of the data obtained. The report discusses the test results in detail and presents technical observations regarding their implications. The FMC limestone double alkali FGD process (1) can consistently remove 92 to 93% of SO/sub 2/ from high-sulfur coal flue gas, (2) can achieve high limestone utilization and low soda ash losses, (3) produces a manageable waste filter cake, (4) is highly tolerant of upsets in limestone feed, soda ash makeup, and regeneration residence time, and (5) presents no unusual safety or environmental problems. The process, like conventional limestone scrubbing, shows some adverse effects of increasing soluble magnesium concentration on solids quality and requires a finely ground limestone feed material to achieve high limestone utilization. However, neither limestone grind nor magnesium concentration appears to affect SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency. The report suggests specific lines of future developmental work and future demonstration testing to enhance the attractiveness of this process to the electric utility industry. A bibliography of limestone double alkali literature is included. 3 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A rash of new controversy has emerged around the subject of mass-independent isotope fractionation effects, particularly in the case of the oxygen isotopes. To be sure, the controversy has been around for awhile, but it has been given new impetus by the results of a recent study by Mark H. Thiemens and John E. Heidenreich III of the University of California, San Diego (Science, March 4, 1983).Gustav Arrhenius has been trying to convince the planetary science community that chemical effects in isotope fractionation processes could explain observations in meteorites that appear to be outside of the traditionally understood mass-dependent fractionations (G. Arrhenius, J . L. McCrumb, and N. F. Friedman, Astrophys. Space Sci, 65, 297, 1974). Robert Clayton had made the basic observations of oxygen in carbonaceous chondrites that the slope of the δ17 versus δ18 line was 1 instead of the slope of ½ characteristic of terrestrial rocks and lunar samples (Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci., 28, 501, 1978). The mass-independent effects were ascribed to the apparent contribution of an ancient presolar system component of O16.

  9. Hot alkali carbonation of sodium metaphosphate modified fly ash/calcium aluminate blend hydrothermal cements

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.

    1996-11-01

    Sodium metaphosphate-modified fly ash/calcium aluminate blend (SFCB) cements were prepared by autoclaving for 1 day at 300 C and their resistance was evaluated in a highly concentrated Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution at 300 C. The hydroxyapatite and analcime phases formed in the autoclaved SFCB cements played an essential role in conferring resistance to the degradation of cements caused by alkali carbonation. Although the carbonating reaction of the analcime phase led to the formation of cancrinite, this analcime cancrinite transformation did not show any influence on the changes in the mechanical and physical properties of the cements. Additionally, there was no formation of the water-soluble calcium bicarbonate in the cements exposed for 28 days. Contrarily, the conventional class G cement systems were very vulnerable to a hot alkali carbonation. The major reason for the damage caused by carbonation of the cements was the fact that the xonotlite phase formed in the 300{degree} autoclaved cements was converted into two carbonation products, calcite and pectolite. Furthermore, the reaction between calcite and carbonic acid derived from Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} led to the formation of water-soluble calcium bicarbonate, thereby causing the alteration of dense structures into porous ones and the loss of strength of cements.

  10. A novel method of sludge pretreatment using the combination of alkalis.

    PubMed

    Banu, J Rajesh; Khac, Uan Do; Kumar, S Adish; Ick-Tae, Yeom; Kaliappan, S

    2012-03-01

    The present study aims to utilise the advantage of higher sludge solubilisation potential of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sludge management properties of lime to achieve sludge pretreatment and its subsequent management. The optimum dosage and time required for sludge pretreatment using NaOH was found to be 1.6 g l(-1) and 3 hr, respectively. At the optimized condition, lime was added at varying concentration (0.3 to 1.6 g l(-1)) to study its effect on capillary suction time, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release and total phosphorous (TP) removal. A lime dosage of 0.7g l(-1) was found to be beneficial for soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) release. When compared to control, the combination of alkalis (NaOH and lime) reduced the TP and capillary suction time (CST) in the supernatant of the sludge. The TP removal was from 100 to 40 mg l(-1) and CST reduction was from 1360 to 350 sec, respectively. The combined alkali pretreatment not only prevent the subsequent TP increase in the effluent, but also decreased the time to filter the sludge, thus makes the digested sludge easier to manage.

  11. Alteration of alkali reactive aggregates autoclaved in different alkali solutions and application to alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete (II) expansion and microstructure of concrete microbar

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Duyou . E-mail: duyoulu@njut.edu.cn; Mei Laibao; Xu Zhongzi; Tang Mingshu; Mo Xiangyin; Fournier, Benoit

    2006-06-15

    The effect of the type of alkalis on the expansion behavior of concrete microbars containing typical aggregate with alkali-silica reactivity and alkali-carbonate reactivity was studied. The results verified that: (1) at the same molar concentration, sodium has the strongest contribution to expansion due to both ASR and ACR, followed by potassium and lithium; (2) sufficient LiOH can completely suppress expansion due to ASR whereas it can induce expansion due to ACR. It is possible to use the duplex effect of LiOH on ASR and ACR to clarify the ACR contribution when ASR and ACR may coexist. It has been shown that a small amount of dolomite in the fine-grained siliceous Spratt limestone, which has always been used as a reference aggregate for high alkali-silica reactivity, might dedolomitize in alkaline environment and contribute to the expansion. That is to say, Spratt limestone may exhibit both alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactivity, although alkali-silica reactivity is predominant. Microstructural study suggested that the mechanism in which lithium controls ASR expansion is mainly due to the favorable formation of lithium-containing less-expansive product around aggregate particles and the protection of the reactive aggregate from further attack by alkalis by the lithium-containing product layer.

  12. A Modular Control Platform for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    A Modular Control Platform for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser Joshua Shapiro, Scott W. Teare New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy...gain media, such as is done in diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), has been proposed and early experiments have shown promising results. However...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Modular Control Platform for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser 5a

  13. Determination of the common and rare alkalies in mineral analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.; Stevens, R.E.

    1934-01-01

    Methods are described which afford a determination of each member of the alkali group and are successful in dealing with the quantities of the rare alkalies found in rocks and minerals. The procedures are relatively rapid and based chiefly on the use of chloroplatinic acid, absolute alcohol and ether, and ammonium sulfate. The percentages of all the alkalies found in a number of minerals are given.

  14. Transport of soluble species in backfill and rock

    SciTech Connect

    Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Light, W.B.; Pigford, T.H.

    1992-03-01

    In this report we study the release and transport of soluble species from spent nuclear fuel. By soluble species we mean a fraction of certain fission product species. Our previously developed methods for calculating release rates of solubility-limited species need to be revised for these soluble species. Here we provide methods of calculating release rates of soluble species directly into rock and into backfill and then into rock. Section 2 gives a brief discussion of the physics of fission products dissolution from U0{sub 2} spent fuel. Section 3 presents the mathematics for calculating release rates of soluble species into backfill and then into rock. The calculation of release rates directly into rock is a special case. Section 4 presents numerical illustrations of the analytic results.

  15. Dissolution Model of Multiple Species: Leaching of Highly Soluble Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Luis; Ordóñez, Javier I.; Cisternas, Luis A.

    2017-03-01

    Dissolution of multi-species from a solid matrix is widely extended in different processes such as leaching of minerals; however, its modeling is often focused on a single species. A model for the simultaneous dissolution of soluble species was developed, which considers different solubilities and dissolution rates and considers that particle collapses when the rapidly soluble species is depleted. The collapsed matter is formed by inert material and a fraction of the soluble species with lower dissolution rate that has not dissolved yet. The model is applied to the leaching of a water-soluble mineral (caliche) with two soluble species dissolving simultaneously with different rates. Measured outlet concentrations of nitrate and magnesium were used to validate the model. Results showed that the model reproduced adequately the leaching of species with rapid and intermediate dissolution rate. Effect of the operating and kinetic parameters on the leaching process is also shown using the actual conditions of heap leaching for caliche mineral.

  16. Fractionation and utilization of gossypol resin

    SciTech Connect

    Tursunov, A.K.; Dzhailov, A.T.; Fatkhullaev, E.; Sadykov, A.A.

    1985-10-01

    Gossypol resin is formed as a secondary waste product during distillation of fatty acides isolated from cottonseed oil soap stocks; it is insoluble in water but soluble in products of petroleum distillation. For fractionation, gossypol resin was saponified with caustic soda or caustic potash. Using this method, the resin was separated into unsaponifiable (21-24%) and saponifiable (76-79%) parts. Details of the individual fractions of gossypol resin are presented. The unsaponifiable fraction contains hydrocarbons, alcohols, beta-sito-sterol, beta-amyrin, and vitamin E. The fatty acid fraction of the resin is a mixture of fatty acids and lactones.

  17. What Should We Teach Beginners about Solubility and Solubility Products?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that consideration should be given to whether teaching solubility product calculations is at all useful. Claims that experienced teachers seriously misunderstand and misuse solubility product calculations. (DDR)

  18. Study on alkali removal technology from coal gasification gas

    SciTech Connect

    Inai, Motoko; Kajibata, Yoshihiro; Takao, Shoichi; Suda, Masamitsu

    1999-07-01

    The authors have proposed a new coal based combined cycle power plant concept. However, there are certain technical problems that must be overcome to establish this system. Major technical problem of the system is hot corrosion of gas turbine blades caused by sulfur and alkali vapor, because of high temperature dust removal without sulfur removal from the coal gas. So the authors have conducted several fundamental studies on dry type alkali removal sorbents for the purposed of reducing the corrosion on gas turbine blades. Based on the fundamental studies the authors found preferable alkali removal sorbents, and made clear their alkali removal performance.

  19. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, David C.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  20. Alkali cation specific adsorption onto fcc(111) transition metal electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mills, J N; McCrum, I T; Janik, M J

    2014-07-21

    The presence of alkali cations in electrolyte solutions is known to impact the rate of electrocatalytic reactions, though the mechanism of such impact is not conclusively determined. We use density functional theory (DFT) to examine the specific adsorption of alkali cations to fcc(111) electrode surfaces, as specific adsorption may block catalyst sites or otherwise impact surface catalytic chemistry. Solvation of the cation-metal surface structure was investigated using explicit water models. Computed equilibrium potentials for alkali cation adsorption suggest that alkali and alkaline earth cations will specifically adsorb onto Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces in the potential range of hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution catalysis in alkaline solutions.

  1. Electrochemical devices utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Hitchcock, D.C.; Mailhe, C.C.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1985-07-10

    Electrochemical cells are provided with a reactive metal to reduce the oxide of the alkali metal electrode-reactant. Cells employing a molten alkali metal electrode, e.g., sodium, in contact with a ceramic electrolyte, which is a conductor of the ions of the alkali metal forming the electrode, exhibit a lower resistance when a reactive metal, e.g., vanadium, is allowed to react with and reduce the alkali metal oxide. Such cells exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte and of the glass seals often used to joining the electrolyte to the other components of the cell under cycling conditions.

  2. Characterization of Gasolines, Diesel Fuels and Their Water Soluble Fractions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    low on the basis of comparison to the dynamic headspace analysis data (Table IV.) The best estimates of the levels of aromatic hydrocarbons appear to...0.2 0.1 a determined by dynamic headspace analysis (see Table 3). bincludes ethylbenzene and xylenes. 6 Table III. Chemical Composition of the Water

  3. Structure of pectic polysaccharides from sunflower salts-soluble fraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The manuscript discusses the structural features of pectin polysaccharides extracted from seedless sunflower head residues. The analysis using 1H, 13C and two-dimensional gHSQC NMR showed various numbers of methyl and hydroxyl groups attached to the anomeric carbons in the pectin backbone at differe...

  4. Learning about Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Dino G.; Reyes, Juan G.

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative questions are proposed to assess the understanding of solubility and some of its applications. To improve those results, a simple quantitative problem on the precipitation of proteins is proposed.

  5. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Optimizing solubility: kinetic versus thermodynamic solubility temptations and risks.

    PubMed

    Saal, Christoph; Petereit, Anna Christine

    2012-10-09

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of kinetic and thermodynamic solubility data in guiding medicinal chemistry during lead optimization. The solubility of 465 research compounds was measured using a kinetic and a thermodynamic solubility assay. In the thermodynamic assay, polarized-light microscopy was used to investigate whether the result referred to the crystalline or to the amorphous compound. From the comparison of kinetic and thermodynamic solubility data it was noted that kinetic solubility measurements frequently yielded results which show considerably higher solubility compared to thermodynamic solubility. This observation is ascribed to the fact that a kinetic solubility assay typically delivers results which refer to the amorphous compound. In contrast, results from thermodynamic solubility determinations more frequently refer to a crystalline phase. Accordingly, thermodynamic solubility data--especially when used together with an assessment of the solid state form--are deemed to be more useful in guiding solubility optimization for research compounds.

  7. Effect of Alkali Ions on the Amorphous to Crystalline Phase Transition of Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venezia, A. M.; La Parola, V.; Longo, A.; Martorana, A.

    2001-11-01

    The effect of the addition of alkali ions to commercial amorphous silica, generally used as support for heterogeneous catalysts, has been investigated from the point of view of morphological and structural changes. Samples of alkali-doped silica were prepared by impregnation and subsequent calcination at various temperatures. The structural effect of Li, Na, K, and Cs was determined by use of techniques such as wide-angle (WAXS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The WAXS diffractograms, analyzed with the Rietveld method using the GSAS program, allowed qualitative and quantitative identification of the fraction of the different silica polymorphs like quartz, tridymite, and cristobalite. SAXS measurements, using the classical method based on Porod's law, yielded the total surface area of the systems. The calculated areas were compared with the surface areas determined by the nitrogen adsorption technique using the analytical method of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The results are explained in terms of sizes of the alkali ions and cell volume of the different crystalline phases.

  8. Dry season aerosol iron solubility in tropical northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, V. Holly L.; Edwards, Ross; Bowie, Andrew R.; Keywood, Melita; Williams, Alistair G.; Chambers, Scott D.; Selleck, Paul W.; Desservettaz, Maximilien; Mallet, Marc D.; Paton-Walsh, Clare

    2016-10-01

    Marine nitrogen fixation is co-limited by the supply of iron (Fe) and phosphorus in large regions of the global ocean. The deposition of soluble aerosol Fe can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from the Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season (SAFIRED) campaign in northern Australia that reflects coincident dust and biomass burning sources of soluble aerosol Fe. The mean soluble and total aerosol Fe concentrations were 40 and 500 ng m-3 respectively. Our results show that while biomass burning species may not be a direct source of soluble Fe, biomass burning may substantially enhance the solubility of mineral dust. We observed fractional Fe solubility up to 12 % in mixed aerosols. Thus, Fe in dust may be more soluble in the tropics compared to higher latitudes due to higher concentrations of biomass-burning-derived reactive organic species in the atmosphere. In addition, biomass-burning-derived particles can act as a surface for aerosol Fe to bind during atmospheric transport and subsequently be released to the ocean upon deposition. As the aerosol loading is dominated by biomass burning emissions over the tropical waters in the dry season, additions of biomass-burning-derived soluble Fe could have harmful consequences for initiating nitrogen-fixing toxic algal blooms. Future research is required to quantify biomass-burning-derived particle sources of soluble Fe over tropical waters.

  9. (abstract) Fundamental Mechanisms of Electrode Kinetics and Alkali Metal Atom Transport at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kisor, A.; Kikkert, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanisms of electrode kinetics and mass transport of alkali metal oxidation and alkali metal cation reduction at the solid electrolyte/porous electrode boundary as well as alkali metal transport through porous metal electrodes has important applications in optimizing device performance in alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) cells which are high temperature, high current density electrochemical cells. Basic studies of these processes also affords the opportunity to investigate a very basic electrochemical reaction over a wide range of conditions; and a variety of mass transport modes at high temperatures via electrochemical techniques. The temperature range of these investigations covers 700K to 1240K; the alkali metal vapor pressures range from about 10(sup -2) to 10(sup 2) Pa; and electrodes studied have included Mo, W, Mo/Na(sub 2)MoO(sub 4), W/Na(sub 2)WO(sub 4), WPt(sub x), and WRh(sub x) (1.0 < x < 6.0 ) with Na at Na-beta'-alumina, and Mo with K at K-beta'-alumina. Both liquid metal/solid electrolyte/alkali metal vapor and alkali metal vapor/solid electrolyte/vapor cells have been used to characterize the reaction and transport processes. We have previously reported evidence of ionic, free molecular flow, and surface transport of sodium in several types of AMTEC electrodes.

  10. Alkali Halide Nanotubes: Structure and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A.; Henkes, Aline Verônica; da Silveira, Enio F.; Nascimento, Marco Antonio Chaer

    2013-01-01

    Accurate density functional theory (DFT) and coupled-cluster (CCSD) calculations on a series of (LiF)n=2,36 neutral clusters suggest that nanotube structures with hexagonal and octagonal transversal cross sections show stability equal to or greater than that of the typical cubic form of large LiF crystals. The nanotube stability was further corroborated by quantum dynamic calculations at room temperature. The fact that stable nanotube structures were also found for other alkali halides (e.g., NaCl and KBr) suggests that this geometry may be widely implemented in material sciences. PMID:24376901

  11. Cathode architectures for alkali metal / oxygen batteries

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J; Nimon, Vitaliy; De Jonghe, Lutgard C; Volfkovich, Yury; Bograchev, Daniil

    2015-01-13

    Electrochemical energy storage devices, such as alkali metal-oxygen battery cells (e.g., non-aqueous lithium-air cells), have a cathode architecture with a porous structure and pore composition that is tailored to improve cell performance, especially as it pertains to one or more of the discharge/charge rate, cycle life, and delivered ampere-hour capacity. A porous cathode architecture having a pore volume that is derived from pores of varying radii wherein the pore size distribution is tailored as a function of the architecture thickness is one way to achieve one or more of the aforementioned cell performance improvements.

  12. Intensity Scaling for Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    unphased diode lasers is absorbed in the near IR by atomic potassium, rubidium , or cesium. The gain cell for a DPAL system using a heat pipe design is...demonstrated linear scaling of a rubidium laser to 32 times threshold.3 In our present work, we explore scaling to pump in- tensities of >100kW/cm2. The...of output power. Each alkali atom in the laser medium may be required to cycle as many as 1010 pump photons per second. We demonstrated a rubidium

  13. High power diode pumped alkali vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Krupke, B.

    2008-05-01

    Diode pumped alkali lasers have developed rapidly since their first demonstration. These lasers offer a path to convert highly efficient, but relatively low brightness, laser diodes into a single high power, high brightness beam. General Atomics has been engaged in the development of DPALs with scalable architectures. We have examined different species and pump characteristics. We show that high absorption can be achieved even when the pump source bandwidth is several times the absorption bandwidth. In addition, we present experimental results for both potassium and rubidium systems pumped with a 0.2 nm bandwidth alexandrite laser. These data show slope efficiencies of 67% and 72% respectively.

  14. Electrodes For Alkali-Metal Thermoelectric Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M.; Wheeler, Bob L.; Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara; Lamb, James L.; Bankston, C. Perry; Cole, Terry

    1989-01-01

    Combination of thin, porous electrode and overlying collector grid reduces internal resistance of alkali-metal thermoelectric converter cell. Low resistance of new electrode and grid boosts power density nearly to 1 W/cm2 of electrode area at typical operating temperatures of 1,000 to 1,300 K. Conductive grid encircles electrode film on alumina tube. Bus wire runs along tube to collect electrical current from grid. Such converters used to transform solar, nuclear, and waste heat into electric power.

  15. Connecting the solubility and CCN activation of complex organic aerosols: a theoretical study using solubility distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riipinen, I.; Rastak, N.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-06-01

    We present a theoretical study investigating the cloud activation of multicomponent organic particles. We modeled these complex mixtures using solubility distributions (analogous to volatility distributions in the VBS, i.e., volatility basis set, approach), describing the mixture as a set of surrogate compounds with varying water solubilities in a given range. We conducted Köhler theory calculations for 144 different mixtures with varying solubility range, number of components, assumption about the organic mixture thermodynamics and the shape of the solubility distribution, yielding approximately 6000 unique cloud condensation nucleus (CCN)-activation points. The results from these comprehensive calculations were compared to three simplifying assumptions about organic aerosol solubility: (1) complete dissolution at the point of activation; (2) combining the aerosol solubility with the molar mass and density into a single effective hygroscopicity parameter κ; and (3) assuming a fixed water-soluble fraction ϵeff. The complete dissolution was able to reproduce the activation points with a reasonable accuracy only when the majority (70-80%) of the material was dissolved at the point of activation. The single-parameter representations of complex mixture solubility were confirmed to be powerful semi-empirical tools for representing the CCN activation of organic aerosol, predicting the activation diameter within 10% in most of the studied supersaturations. Depending mostly on the condensed-phase interactions between the organic molecules, material with solubilities larger than about 0.1-100 g L-1 could be treated as soluble in the CCN activation process over atmospherically relevant particle dry diameters and supersaturations. Our results indicate that understanding the details of the solubility distribution in the range of 0.1-100 g L-1 is thus critical for capturing the CCN activation, while resolution outside this solubility range will probably not add

  16. Alkali sorber (RABSAM), September 1, 1990--August 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a regenerable activated-bauxite sorber alkali monitor that requires no high-temperature/high-pressure sampling line for the reliable in situ measurement of alkali-vapor concentration in the exhaust from the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of coal. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  18. Formation of lysinoalanine in egg white under alkali treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the formation mechanism of lysinoalanine (LAL) in eggs during the alkali treatment process, NaOH was used for the direct alkali treatment of egg white, ovalbumin, and amino acids; in addition, the amount of LAL formed during the alkali treatment process was measured. The results showed that the alkali treatment resulted in the formation of LAL in the egg white. The LAL content increased with increasing pH and temperature, with the LAL content first increasing and then leveling off with increasing time. The amount of LAL formed in the ovalbumin under the alkali treatment condition accounted for approximately 50.51% to 58.68% of the amount of LAL formed in the egg white. Thus, the LAL formed in the ovalbumin was the main source for the LAL in the egg white during the alkali treatment process. Under the alkali treatment condition, free L-serine, L-cysteine, and L-cystine reacted with L-lysine to form LAL; therefore, they are the precursor amino acids of LAL formed in eggs during the alkali treatment process.

  19. [Raman spectra of endospores of Bacillus subtilis by alkali stress].

    PubMed

    Dong, Rong; Lu, Ming-qian; Li, Feng; Shi, Gui-yu; Huang, Shu-shi

    2013-09-01

    To research the lethal mechanism of spores stressed by alkali, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) combined with principal components analysis (PCA) was used to study the physiological process of single spore with alkali stress. The results showed that both spores and germinated spores had tolerance with alkali in a certain range, but the ability of spores was obviously lower than that of spores due to the release of their Ca2+ -DPA which plays a key role in spores resistance as well as spores resistance to many stresses; A small amount of Ca2+ -DPA of spores was observed to release after alkali stress, however, the behavior of release was different with the normal Ca2+ -DPA release behavior induced by L-alanine; The data before and after alkali stress of the spores and g. spores with PCA reflected that alkali mainly injured the membrane of spores, and alkali could be easily enter into the inner structure of spores to damage the structure of protein backbone and injure the nucleic acid of spores. We show that the alkali could result in the small amount of Ca2+ -DPA released by destroying the member channel of spores.

  20. Self-discharge in bimetallic cells containing alkali metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, M. S.; Hesson, J. C.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of thermally regenerative bimetallic cells with alkali metal anodes shows a relation between the current drawn and the rate of discharge under open-circuit conditions. The self-discharge rate of the cell is due to the dissolution and ionization of alkali metal atoms in the fused-salt electrolyte

  1. Superconductivity in alkali metal intercalated iron selenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzton-Maziopa, A.; Svitlyk, V.; Pomjakushina, E.; Puzniak, R.; Conder, K.

    2016-07-01

    Alkali metal intercalated iron selenide superconductors A x Fe2-y Se2 (where A  =  K, Rb, Cs, Tl/K, and Tl/Rb) are characterized by several unique properties, which were not revealed in other superconducting materials. The compounds crystallize in overall simple layered structure with FeSe layers intercalated with alkali metal. The structure turned out to be pretty complex as the existing Fe-vacancies order below ~550 K, which further leads to an antiferromagnetic ordering with Néel temperature fairly above room temperature. At even lower temperatures a phase separation is observed. While one of these phases stays magnetic down to the lowest temperatures the second is becoming superconducting below ~30 K. All these effects give rise to complex relationships between the structure, magnetism and superconductivity. In particular the iron vacancy ordering, linked with a long-range magnetic order and a mesoscopic phase separation, is assumed to be an intrinsic property of the system. Since the discovery of superconductivity in those compounds in 2010 they were investigated very extensively. Results of the studies conducted using a variety of experimental techniques and performed during the last five years were published in hundreds of reports. The present paper reviews scientific work concerning methods of synthesis and crystal growth, structural and superconducting properties as well as pressure investigations.

  2. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.

    2015-11-01

    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  3. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6).

  4. On the origin of alkali metals in Europa exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgurel, Ozge; Pauzat, Françoise; Ellinger, Yves; Markovits, Alexis; Mousis, Olivier; LCT, LAM

    2016-10-01

    At a time when Europa is considered as a plausible habitat for the development of an early form of life, of particular concern is the origin of neutral sodium and potassium atoms already detected in its exosphere (together with magnesium though in smaller abundance), since these atoms are known to be crucial for building the necessary bricks of prebiotic species. However their origin and history are still poorly understood. The most likely sources could be exogenous and result from the contamination produced by Io's intense volcanism and/or by meteoritic bombardment. These sources could also be endogenous if these volatile elements originate directly from Europa's icy mantle. Here we explore the possibility that neutral sodium and potassium atoms were delivered to the satellite's surface via the upwelling of ices formed in contact with the hidden ocean. These metallic elements would have been transferred as ions to the ocean at early epochs after Europa's formation, by direct contact of water with the rocky core. During Europa's subsequent cooling, the icy layers formed at the top of the ocean would have kept trapped the sodium and potassium, allowing their future progression to the surface and final identification in the exosphere of the satellite. To support this scenario, we have used chemistry numerical models based on first principle periodic density functional theory (DFT). These models are shown to be well adapted to the description of compact ice and are capable to describe the trapping and neutralization of the initial ions in the ice matrix. The process is found relevant for all the elements considered, alkali metals like Na and K, as well as for Mg and probably for Ca, their respective abundances depending essentially of their solubility and chemical capabilities to blend with water ices.

  5. Effects of alkali treatments on Ag nanowire transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Kang, Jun-gu; Eom, Tae-yil; Moon, Bongjin; Lee, Hoo-Jeong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we employ various alkali materials (alkali metals with different base strengths, and ammonia gas and solution) to improve the conductivity of silver nanowire (Ag NW)-networked films. The alkali treatment appears to remove the surface oxide and improve the conductivity. When applied with TiO2 nanoparticles, the treatment appears more effective as the alkalis gather around wire junctions and help them weld to each other via heat emitted from the reduction reaction. The ammonia solution treatment is found to be quick and aggressive, damaging the wires severely in the case of excessive treatment. On the other hand, the ammonia gas treatment seems much less aggressive and does not damage the wires even after a long exposure. The results of this study highlight the effectiveness of the alkali treatment in improving of the conductivity of Ag NW-networked transparent conductive films.

  6. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  7. Structural features of soluble cereal arabinoxylan fibers associated with a slow rate of in vitro fermentation by human fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Rumpagaporn, Pinthip; Reuhs, Brad L; Kaur, Amandeep; Patterson, John A; Keshavarzian, Ali; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-10-05

    Most soluble dietary fibers ferment rapidly in the proximal colon, potentially causing discomfort and poor tolerability. Alkali-extracted arabinoxylan isolates from corn, wheat, rice and sorghum brans were prepared, through hydrolysis (except sorghum) and ethanol fractionation, to have a broad range of initial fermentation rates, and their linkage patterns were determined to understand structural aspects related to slow fermentation rate. They were all highly branched polymers with degree of substitution greater than 64%. There was no relationship of molecular mass, arabinose:xylose ratio, or degree of substitution to fermentation rate patterns. Slow fermenting wheat and corn arabinoxylans had much higher amount of terminal xylose in branches than fast fermenting rice and sorghum arabinoxylans. The slowest fermenting wheat arabinoxylan additionally contained a complex trisaccharide side chain with two arabinoses linked at the O-2 and O-3 positions of an arabinose that is O-2 linked to the xylan backbone. Structural features were proposed for tolerable slowly fermentable arabinoxylan with possible beneficial fermentation function into the distal colon.

  8. Anhydrite solubility in differentiated arc magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masotta, M.; Keppler, H.

    2015-06-01

    The solubility of anhydrite in differentiated arc magmas was experimentally studied at 200 MPa and 800-1000 °C over a range of oxygen fugacities, from 0.5 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer to the hematite-magnetite buffer. Anhydrite is stable only at oxidizing conditions (fO2 ⩾ Re-ReO2), whereas sulfides only form under reducing conditions. The solubility of anhydrite in the melt ultimately regulates the amount of sulfur available to partition between melt and fluid phase during the eruption. At oxidizing conditions, the solubility product of anhydrite increases with temperature, nbo/t and melt water content. We provide a new calibration of the anhydrite solubility product (KSP = XCaO * XSO3), which reproduces all available experimental data with greatly improved accuracy: In this equation, the molar fractions XCaO and XSO3 in the melt as well as the number of non-bridging oxygen atoms per tetrahedron (nbo/t) are calculated on an anhydrous basis (H2O refers to the melt water content, T is temperature in Kelvin). We apply our model to estimate the sulfur yield of some recent volcanic eruptions and we show that the sulfur yield of the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo dacite eruption was unusually large, because only a small fraction of the sulfur was locked up in anhydrite. In general, high sulfur yields are expected when anhydrite solubility in the melt is high, i.e. for somewhat depolymerized melts. For rhyolitic systems, most of the available sulfur will be locked up in anhydrite, so that even very large eruptions may only have a small effect on global surface temperatures. Our model therefore allows improved predictions of the environmental impact of explosive volcanic eruptions.

  9. Synergism between soluble and dietary fiber bound antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-03-04

    This study investigates the synergism between antioxidants bound to dietary fibers (DF) of grains and soluble antioxidants of highly consumed beverages or their pure antioxidants. The interaction between insoluble fractions of grains containing bound antioxidants and soluble antioxidants was investigated using (i) a liposome-based system by measuring the lag phase before the onset of oxidation and (ii) an ESR-based system by measuring the reduction percentage of Fremy's salt radical. In both procedures, antioxidant capacities of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were measured as well as their combinations, which were prepared at different ratios. The simple addition effects of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were compared with measured values. The results revealed a clear synergism for almost all combinations in both liposome- and ESR-based systems. The synergism observed in DF-bound-soluble antioxidant system paints a promising picture considering the role of fiber in human gastrointestinal (GI) tract health.

  10. Metal solubility enhancing peptides derived from barley protein.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Ewelina; Bamdad, Fatemeh; Chen, Lingyun

    2014-09-15

    Mineral supplements are required to be soluble as their bioavailability is highly correlated to their solubility in body fluids. In this study, metal binding capacity of barley protein hydrolysates and their purified fractions was investigated and expressed as increase in solubility of metal ions. Metal ions in the presence of hydrolysates exhibited a remarkable increase in solubility: 118, 32, 10, 29 and 35-fold for Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively. A mixture of low molecular weight peptides possesses a synergistic combination of both charged and hydrophobic residues and achieves the best binding metal ions. Electrostatic interactions via charged side chains and coordination binding with His and Cys, initially attract the metal ions and, afterward, hydrophobic interactions and aromatic ring stacking stabilize the positioning of metal ions in the structure of the peptide. Barley hordein hydrolysates show potential as dietary supplements that enhance both mineral solubility and bioavailability.

  11. Geochemistry of Kauai volcanics and a mixing model for the origin of Hawaiian alkali basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenson, Mark D.

    1984-09-01

    A comprehensive model is developed to explain the major, trace element and strontium and neodymium isotopic characteristics of alkali basalts from Hawaii. The model is similar to that of Chen and Frey (1983) in that it requires mixing of a small melt fraction of MORB-source material with another component to generate the alkalic suite of a particular Hawaiian volcano. It differs from the Chen and Frey model in that the other end-member must be different from primitive mantle if it is to be consistent with both trace element and isotopic data. Alkali basalts and tholeiites from Kauai analyzed in this study show a nearly complete transition in Sr and Nd isotopes. There is a relatively well-constrained array on a Nd-Sr isotope correlation plot that can be explained by two-component mixing of Kauai tholeiite magma and a small amount of melt of East Pacific Rise source rock. After corrections are made for fractional crystallization (involving primarily clinopyroxene and olivine), the Sr and Ba concentrations of Kauai lavas plot along mixing curves defined by the above sources, providing positive tests of the mixing hypothesis. Implications of this model are: (1) the main source of Hawaiian shield-building tholeiites is a mixture of subducted crust, primitive mantle and depleted asthenosphere that has been homogenized prior to melting, (2) early alkalic volcanism (as at Loihi seamount) will be characterized by greater isotopic heterogeneity than will late-stage alkali basalt production, and (3) there are two fundamentally distinct types of alkalic lavas erupted towards the end of magmatism at a given Hawaiian volcano. One represents smaller degrees of melting of the same source that generated shield-building tholeiites (Kohala-type); the other derives from the mixed source discussed in this paper (Haleakala-, Kauai-type).

  12. Alkali oxide-tantalum oxide and alkali oxide-niobium oxide ionic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. S.; Parker, H. S.; Brower, W. S.; Minor, D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for new cationic conducting phases in alkali-tantalate and niobate systems. The phase equilibrium diagrams were constructed for the six binary systems Nb2O5-LiNbO3, Nb2O5-NaNbO3, Nb2O5-KNbO3, Ta2O5-NaTaO3, Ta2O5-LiTaO3, and Ta2O5-KTaO3. Various other binary and ternary systems were also examined. Pellets of nineteen phases were evaluated (by the sponsoring agency) by dielectric loss measurements. Attempts were made to grow large crystals of eight different phases. The system Ta2O5-KTaO3 contains at least three phases which showed peaks in dielectric loss vs. temperature. All three contain structures related to the tungsten bronzes with alkali ions in non-stoichiometric crystallographic positions.

  13. The solubility of hydrogen in rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and nickel.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclellan, R. B.; Oates, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    The temperature variation of the solubility of hydrogen in rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and nickel in equilibrium with H2 gas at 1 atm pressure has been measured by a technique involving saturating the solvent metal with hydrogen, quenching, and analyzing in resultant solid solutions. The solubilities determined are small (atom fraction of H is in the range from 0.0005 to 0.00001, and the results are consistent with the simple quasi-regular model for dilute interstitial solid solutions. The relative partial enthalpy and excess entropy of the dissolved hydrogen atoms have been calculated from the solubility data and compared with well-known correlations between these quantities.

  14. Moisture sorption kinetics for water-soluble substances. IV: Studies with mixtures of solids.

    PubMed

    Kontny, M J; Zografi, G

    1985-02-01

    This paper extends earlier work from this laboratory concerning the sorption kinetics of water vapor on deliquescent water-soluble substances to mixtures of these solids. A theoretical model, based on heat transport control, excellently predicted a priori the rate of water uptake by a variety of binary mixtures of alkali halides and sugars. The rates for mixtures containing highly water-soluble quaternary ammonium salts, as either one or both of the components, were less successfully predicted as the combined water solubilities of the two components increased. It is concluded that water-soluble deliquescent substances, normally encountered in pharmaceutical dosage forms, rapidly form saturated aqueous solutions in the aqueous film formed as water vapor uptake proceeds, and that the water uptake rate can be predicted a priori from known and experimentally determinable parameters using the heat transport model.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of the dynamic and energetic properties of alkali and halide ions using water-model-specific ion parameters.

    PubMed

    Joung, In Suk; Cheatham, Thomas E

    2009-10-08

    The dynamic and energetic properties of the alkali and halide ions were calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy simulations with various different water and ion force fields including our recently developed water-model-specific ion parameters. The properties calculated were activity coefficients, diffusion coefficients, residence times of atomic pairs, association constants, and solubility. Through calculation of these properties, we can assess the validity and range of applicability of the simple pair potential models and better understand their limitations. Due to extreme computational demands, the activity coefficients were only calculated for a subset of the models. The results qualitatively agree with experiment. Calculated diffusion coefficients and residence times between cation-anion, water-cation, and water-anion showed differences depending on the choice of water and ion force field used. The calculated solubilities of the alkali-halide salts were generally lower than the true solubility of the salts. However, for both the TIP4P(EW) and SPC/E water-model-specific ion parameters, solubility was reasonably well-reproduced. Finally, the correlations among the various properties led to the following conclusions: (1) The reliability of the ion force fields is significantly affected by the specific choice of water model. (2) Ion-ion interactions are very important to accurately simulate the properties, especially solubility. (3) The SPC/E and TIP4P(EW) water-model-specific ion force fields are preferred for simulation in high salt environments compared to the other ion force fields.

  16. CCN activation of fumed silica aerosols mixed with soluble pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalirian, M.; Keskinen, H.; Ahlm, L.; Ylisirniö, A.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Laaksonen, A.; Virtanen, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2015-04-01

    Particle-water interactions of completely soluble or insoluble particles are fairly well understood but less is known of aerosols consisting of mixtures of soluble and insoluble components. In this study, laboratory measurements were performed to investigate cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of silica particles mixed with ammonium sulfate (a salt), sucrose (a sugar) and bovine serum albumin known as BSA (a protein). The agglomerated structure of the silica particles was investigated using measurements with a differential mobility analyser (DMA) and an aerosol particle mass analyser (APM). Based on these data, the particles were assumed to be compact agglomerates when studying their CCN activation capabilities. Furthermore, the critical supersaturations of particles consisting of pure and mixed soluble and insoluble compounds were explored using existing theoretical frameworks. These results showed that the CCN activation of single-component particles was in good agreement with Köhler- and adsorption theory based models when the agglomerated structure was accounted for. For mixed particles the CCN activation was governed by the soluble components, and the soluble fraction varied considerably with particle size for our wet-generated aerosols. Our results confirm the hypothesis that knowing the soluble fraction is the key parameter needed for describing the CCN activation of mixed aerosols, and highlight the importance of controlled coating techniques for acquiring a detailed understanding of the CCN activation of atmospheric insoluble particles mixed with soluble pollutants.

  17. [Amelioration of secondary bare alkali-saline patches in Songnen Plain through inserting cornstalk].

    PubMed

    He, Nianpeng; Wu, Ling; Jiang, Shicheng; Zhou, Daowei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the field experiment on Songnen grassland, a new method was established to ameliorate the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) through inserting cornstalk. The experiment was rested on the assumption that through inserting cornstalk in the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) to retain seeds moving over its surface, the necessary seed source could be gained; and these seeds should be able to germinate and survive successfully on the cornstalk itself or in its neighborhood, where should be more fit to grow than other sites in SAP, due to the decomposition of cornstalk and its special role, so that, the aim to restore vegetation of SAP could be achieved at a pretty low cost and rapid speed. The results showed that the seed bank in soil was increased significantly, owing to the inserted cornstalk and its operating processes. The seed number in ameliorated soil was 4020.0 +/- 1773.6 seeds x m(-2), while that in the secondary bare alkali-saline patches (SAP) was only 10.0 +/- 31.6 seeds x m(-2). Although the soil chemical and physical characters in ameliorated zone were improved to some extent, the overall situation of soil was still bad for plant growth, as the pH, soluble saline ion and organic matter were concerned. Most of Chloris virgata grew around or on the cornstalk, the plants around each cornstalk being 3.9 +/- 2.2, and the total being 48.64 +/- 38.72 g x m(-2). Therefore, this method demanded a few resources, and needed simple technology and low cost, which is potentially deserved to popularize.

  18. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  19. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  20. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  1. Heat pipes containing alkali metal working fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A technique for improving high temperature evaporation-condensation heat-transfer devices which have important and unique advantage in terrestrial and space energy processing is described. The device is in the form of a heat pipe comprising a sealed container or envelope which contains a capillary wick. The temperature of one end of the heat pipe is raised by the input of heat from an external heat source which is extremely hot and corrosive. A working fluid of a corrosive alkali metal, such as lithium, sodium, or potassium transfers this heat to a heat receiver remote from the heat source. The container and wick are fabricated from a superalloy containing a small percentage of a corrosion inhibiting or gettering element. Lanthanum, scandium, yttrium, thorium, and hafnium are utilized as the alloying metal.

  2. Volcanic Origin of Alkali Halides on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The recent observation of NaCl (gas) on Io confirms our earlier prediction that NaCl is produced volcanically. Here we extend our calculations by modeling thermochemical equilibrium of O, S, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, F, Cl, Br, and I as a function of temperature and pressure in a Pele-like volcanic gas with O/S/Na/Cl/K = 1.518/1/0.05/0.04/0.005 and CI chondritic ratios of the other (as yet unobserved) alkalis and halogens. For reference, the nominal temperature and pressure for Pele is 1760 plus or minus 210 K and 0.01 bars based on Galileo data and modeling.

  3. Matrix diffusion of some alkali- and alkaline earth-metals in granitic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, H.; Byegaard, J.; Skarnemark, G.; Skaalberg, M.

    1997-12-31

    Static through-diffusion experiments were performed to study the diffusion of alkali- and alkaline earth-metals in fine-grained granite and medium-grained Aespoe-diorite. Tritiated water was used as an inert reference tracer. Radionuclides of the alkali- and alkaline earth-metals (mono- and divalent elements which are not influenced by hydrolysis in the pH-range studied) were used as tracers, i.e., {sup 22}Na{sup +}, {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} and {sup 85}Sr{sup 2+}. The effective diffusivity and the rock capacity factor were calculated by fitting the breakthrough curve to the one-dimensional solution of the diffusion equation. Sorption coefficients, K{sub d}, that were derived from the rock capacity factor (diffusion experiments) were compared with K{sub d} determined in batch experiments using crushed material of different size fractions. The results show that the tracers were retarded in the same order as was expected from the measured batch K{sub d}. Furthermore, the largest size fraction was the most representative when comparing batch K{sub d} with K{sub d} evaluated from the diffusion experiments. The observed effective diffusivities tended to decrease with increasing cell lengths, indicating that the transport porosity decreases with increasing sample lengths used in the diffusion experiments.

  4. Ionic alkali halide XUV laser feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.T.; Gylys, V.T.; Bower, R.D.; Harris, D.G.; Blauer, J.A.; Turner, C.E.; Hindy, R.N.

    1989-11-10

    The objective of this work is to assess the feasibility of a select set of ionic alkali halide XUV laser concepts by obtaining the relevant kinetic and spectroscopic parameters required for a proof-of-principle and conceptual design. The proposed lasers operate in the 80--200 nm spectral region and do not require input from outside radiation sources for their operation. Frequency up-conversion and frequency mixing techniques and therefore not considered in the work to be described. An experimental and theoretical study of a new type of laser operating in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region has been conducted. The lasing species are singly ionized alkali halide molecules such as Rb{sup 2+}F{sub {minus}}, Rb{sup 2+}Br{sup {minus}} and Cs{sup 2+}F{sup {minus}}. These species are similar in electronic structure to the rare gas halide excimers, such as XeF and Krf, except that the ionic molecules emit at wavelengths of 80--200 nm, much shorter than the conventional rare-gas halide excimer laser. The radiative lifetime of these molecules are typically near 1 ns, which is about an order of magnitude shorter than that for rare-gas halide systems. The values of the cross section for stimulated emission are on the order of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}16}cm{sup 2}. Because of the fundamental similarity to existing UV lasers, these systems show promise as a high power, efficient XUV lasers. 55 refs., 50 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Ultrasonic coal washing to leach alkali elements from coals.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, S; Reddy, V Midhun; Nagarajan, R

    2015-11-01

    Deposition of fly ash particles onto heat-transfer surfaces is often one of the reasons for unscheduled shut-downs of coal-fired boilers. Fouling deposits encountered in convective sections of a boiler are characterized by arrival of ash particles in solidified (solid) state. Fouling is most frequently caused by condensation and chemical reaction of alkali vapors with the deposited ash particles creating a wet surface conducive to collect impacting ash particles. Hence, the amount of alkali elements present in coals, which, in turn, is available in the flue gas as condensable vapors, determines the formation and growth of fouling deposits. In this context, removal of alkali elements becomes vital when inferior coals having high-ash content are utilized for power generation. With the concept of reducing alkali elements present in a coal entering the combustor, whereby the fouling deposits can either be minimized or be weakened due to absence of alkali gluing effect, the ultrasonic leaching of alkali elements from coals is investigated in this study. Ultrasonic water-washing and chemical-washing, in comparison with agitation, are studied in order to estimate the intensification of the alkali removal process by sonication.

  6. Alkali elemental and potassium isotopic compositions of Semarkona chondrules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of K isotope ratios in 28 Semarkona chondrules with a wide range of petrologic types and bulk compositions as well as the compositions of CPX-mesostasis pairs in 17 type I Semarkona chondrules, including two chondrules with radial alkali zonation and 19 type II chondrules. Despite the wide range in K/Al ratios, no systematic variations in K isotopic compositions were found. Semarkona chondrules do not record a simple history of Rayleigh-type loss of K. Experimentally determined evaporation rates suggest that considerable alkali evaporation would have occurred during chondrule formation. Nevertheless, based on Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients, the alkali contents of the cores of most chondrules in Semarkona were probably established at the time of final crystallization. However, Na CPX-mesostasis distribution coefficients also show that alkali zonation in type I Semarkona chondrules was produced by entry of alkalis after solidification, probably during parent body alteration. This alkali metasomatism may have gone to completion in some chondrules. Our preferred explanation for the lack of systematic isotopic enrichments, even in alkali depleted type I chondrule cores, is that they exchanged with the ambient gas as they cooled. ?? The Meteoritical Society, 2005.

  7. Controlled in-situ dissolution of an alkali metal

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jeffrey Donald; Dooley, Kirk John; Tolman, David Donald

    2012-09-11

    A method for the controllable dissolution of one or more alkali metals from a vessel containing a one or more alkali metals and/or one or more partially passivated alkali metals. The vessel preferably comprising a sodium, NaK or other alkali metal-cooled nuclear reactor that has been used. The alkali metal, preferably sodium, potassium or a combination thereof, in the vessel is exposed to a treatment liquid, preferably an acidic liquid, more preferably citric acid. Preferably, the treatment liquid is maintained in continuous motion relative to any surface of unreacted alkali metal with which the treatment liquid is in contact. The treatment liquid is preferably pumped into the vessel containing the one or more alkali metals and the resulting fluid is extracted and optionally further processed. Preferably, the resulting off-gases are processed by an off-gas treatment system and the resulting liquids are processed by a liquid disposal system. In one preferred embodiment, an inert gas is pumped into the vessel along with the treatment liquid.

  8. Sputtering and secondary ion emission properties of alkali metal films and adsorbed monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A R; Gruen, D M

    1980-01-01

    The secondary ion emission of alkali metal adsorbed monlayer and multilayer films has been studied. Profiling with sub-monolayer resolution has been performed by Auger, x-ray photoemission and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Characteristic differences in the sputtering yields, and ion fraction have been observed which are associated with both the surface bonding properties and the mechanism leading to the formation of secondary ions. By sputtering with a negative bias applied to the sample, positive secondary ions are returned to the surface, resulting in a reduced sputter-induced erosion rate. Comparison with the results obtained with K and Li overlayers sputtered without sample bias provides an experimental value of both the total and secondary ion sputtering yields. The first and second monolayers can be readily identified and the first monolayer exhibits a lower sputtering yield and higher secondary ion fraction. This result is related to adsorption theory and measured values are compared with those obtained by thermal desorption measurements.

  9. The lack of potassium-isotopic fractionation in Bishunpur chondrules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, C.M. O'D.; Grossman, J.N.; Wang, Jingyuan; Zanda, B.; Bourot-Denise, M.; Hewins, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    In a search for evidence of evaporation during chondrule formation, the mesostases of 11 Bishunpur chondrules and melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in 7 of them have been analyzed for their alkali element abundances and K-isotopic compositions. Except for six points, all areas of the chondrules that were analyzed had δ41K compositions that were normal within error (typically ±3%, 2s̀). The six “anomalous” points are probably all artifacts. Experiments have shown that free evaporation of K leads to large 41K enrichments in the evaporation residues, consistent with Rayleigh fractionation. Under Rayleigh conditions, a 3% enrichment in δ41K is produced by ∼12% loss of K. The range of L-chondrite-normalized K/Al ratios (a measure of the K-elemental fractionation) in the areas analyzed vary by almost three orders of magnitude. If all chondrules started out with L-chondrite-like K abundances and the K loss occurred via Rayleigh fractionation, the most K-depleted chondrules would have had compositions of up to δ41K ≅ 200%. Clearly, K fractionation did not occur by evaporation under Rayleigh conditions. Yet experiments and modeling indicate that K should have been lost during chondrule formation under currently accepted formation conditions (peak temperature, cooling rate, etc.). Invoking precursors with variable alkali abundances to produce the range of K/Al fractionation in chondrules does not explain the K-isotopic data because any K that was present should still have experienced sufficient loss during melting for there to have been a measurable isotopic fractionation. If K loss and isotopic fractionation was inevitable during chondrule formation, the absence of K-isotopic fractionation in Bishunpur chondrules requires that they exchanged K with an isotopically normal reservoir during or after formation. There is evidence for alkali exchange between chondrules and rim-matrix in all unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. However, melt inclusions can have

  10. Co-digestion of grass silage and cow manure in a CSTR by re-circulation of alkali treated solids of the digestate.

    PubMed

    Jagadabhi, P S; Lehtomäki, A; Rintala, J

    2008-10-01

    Three laboratory, continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) co-digesting grass silage and cow manure (forming 30% and 70% of substrate volatile solids (VS), respectively) were operated to evaluate the effects of re-circulating an alkali-treated and untreated solid fraction of the digestate back to the reactors. The CSTRs were operated at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 kg VS m(-3) day(-1) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days with a semi-continuous mode of feeding. The feasibility of co-digestion with substrate VS containing 30% VS of crop was reinforced, resulting in average specific methane yield of about 180-185 1 CH4 kg(-1) VS. Re-circulation of the solid fraction of digestate back to the reactors in both alkali-treated and untreated forms decreased the methane yield by 11% and 21%, respectively, and resulted in operational problems such as scum formation and accumulation of the reactor materials. Batch studies were conducted to evaluate (i) the methane potentials of the solid fraction of digestate, and whole digestate with alkali treatments ranging from 20-60 g NaOH kg(-1) VS of substrate, and (ii) methane potentials of the accumulated reactor materials as top, middle and bottom layers. The solid fraction of digestate treated with 20 g NaOH kg(-1) VS showed higher specific methane yield (340 l CH4 kg(-1) VS) than the higher range of alkali treatments. The bottom layers of the control reactor and the reactor fed with alkali-treated solids gave a higher specific methane yield (93 and 85 l CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively), and all three layers of untreated solids gave similar methane potentials.

  11. Near atomically smooth alkali antimonide photocathode thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun; Karkare, Siddharth; Nasiatka, James; Schubert, Susanne; Smedley, John; Padmore, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Nano-roughness is one of the major factors degrading the emittance of electron beams that can be generated by high efficiency photocathodes, such as the thermally reacted alkali antimonide thin films. In this paper, we demonstrate a co-deposition based method for producing alkali antimonide cathodes that produce near atomic smoothness with high reproducibility. We calculate the effect of the surface roughness on the emittance and show that such smooth cathode surfaces are essential for operation of alkali antimonide cathodes in high field, low emittance radio frequency electron guns and to obtain ultracold electrons for ultrafast electron diffraction applications.

  12. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.K.

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  13. Control of alkali species in gasification systems: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turn, S.; Kinoshita, C.; Ishimura, D. Zhou, J.; Hiraki, T.; Masutani, S.

    2000-07-13

    Gas-phase alkali metal compounds contribute to fouling, slagging, corrosion, and agglomeration problems in energy conversion facilities. One mitigation strategy applicable at high temperature is to pass the gas stream through a fixed bed sorbent or getter material, which preferentially absorbs alkali via physical adsorption or chemisorption. This report presents results of an experimental investigation of high-temperature alkali removal from a hot filtered gasifier product gas stream using a packed bed of sorbent material. Two getter materials, activated bauxite and emathlite, were tested at two levels of space time by using two interchangeable reactors of different internal diameters. The effect of getter particle size was also investigated.

  14. Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOEpatents

    Virkar, Anil V.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1983-11-04

    An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

  15. Mechanistic insights into solubilization of rice protein isolates by freeze-milling combined with alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Li; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zhengxing

    2015-07-01

    The solubilization of rice protein isolates (RPIs) has been regarded as one of the critical and challenging processes affecting commercial availability. Simultaneous treatment with freezing and milling (freeze-milling) combined with alkali pretreatment can remarkably increase the maximum achievable amounts of soluble RPIs by up to 42 times. This study investigates the mechanism of solubilization of RPIs by freeze-milling (RPI(fm)). Structural analyses reveal that milling causes proteins to unfold with ice crystals formed inside protein bodies. Fluorescent and Fourier transform infrared spectra show that RPI(fm) possesses disrupted hydrophobic surface and exposed hydrophilic inner groups. Size exclusion chromatography results reveal that RPI(fm) exhibits disaggregation and strong water-protein interactions. These results indicate that freeze-milling may be a promising manufacturing technique in food industry.

  16. Surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates pretreated by alkali hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueping; Jiang, Yan; Rong, Xianjian; Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuangfei; Nie, Shuangxi

    2016-09-01

    The surface characterization and chemical analysis of bamboo substrates by alkali hydrogen peroxide pretreatment (AHPP) were investigated in this study. The results tended to manifest that AHPP prior to enzymatic and chemical treatment was potential for improving accessibility and reactivity of bamboo substrates. The inorganic components, organic solvent extractives and acid-soluble lignin were effectively removed by AHPP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that the surface of bamboo chips had less lignin but more carbohydrate after pre-treatment. Fiber surfaces became etched and collapsed, and more pores and debris on the substrate surface were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Brenauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) results showed that both of pore volume and surface area were increased after AHPP. Although XRD analysis showed that AHPP led to relatively higher crystallinity, pre-extraction could overall enhance the accessibility of enzymes and chemicals into the bamboo structure.

  17. Characterization of polysaccharides extracted from spent coffee grounds by alkali pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Lina F; Cerqueira, Miguel A; Teixeira, José A; Mussatto, Solange I

    2015-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds (SCG), obtained during the processing of coffee powder with hot water to make soluble coffee, are the main coffee industry residues and retain approximately seventy percent of the polysaccharides present in the roasted coffee beans. The purpose of this study was to extract polysaccharides from SCG by using an alkali pretreatment with sodium hydroxide at 25°C, and determine the chemical composition, as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extracted polysaccharides. Galactose (60.27%mol) was the dominant sugar in the recovered polysaccharides, followed by arabinose (19.93%mol), glucose (15.37%mol) and mannose (4.43%mol). SCG polysaccharides were thermostable, and presented a typical carbohydrate pattern. Additionally, they showed good antioxidant activity through different methods and presented high antimicrobial percent inhibition against Phoma violacea and Cladosporium cladosporioides (41.27% and 54.60%, respectively). These findings allow identifying possible applications for these polysaccharides in the food industry.

  18. Thermodynamic modeling for solubility prediction of indomethacin in self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) and its individual components.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2014-09-01

    Abstract For the development of an effective self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of poorly soluble drugs, the knowledge of the solubility in its oil phase and SNEDDS are one of the most important factors to avoid possibility of drug to get phase separated or precipitated upon dilution with gastrointestinal fluids. With this background, this study was undertaken to determine the equilibrium saturated solubility as well as mole fraction solubility of indomethacin in prepared SNEDDS and its individual components at the temperature range of 295.15 to 320.15 K. The equilibrium solubilities of indomethacin in each sample matrices were determined by an isothermal mechanical shaking method and the resulting data was analyzed by regression analysis. The experimental mole fraction solubility data of indomethacin at various temperatures was well correlated with the modified Apelblat model. The equilibrium saturated solubility as well as mole fraction solubility of indomethacin was found to be increased with increase in temperature in SNEDDS as well as in its individual components. The mole fraction solubility of indomethacin was found to be significantly higher in Tween-80 than SNEDDS, Labrafil-M1944CS and Transcutol-HP. These preliminary studies on solubility could be a useful tool for the development of an efficient and thermodynamically stable SNEDDS formulation of various poorly soluble drugs to enhance their solubility/dissolution and oral bioavailability.

  19. Ultramafic inclusions and host alkali olivine basalts of the southern coastal plain of the Red Sea, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ghent, Edward D.; Coleman, Robert Griffin; Hadley, Donald G.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of mafic and ultramafic inclusions occur within the pyroclastic components of the Al Birk basalt, erupted on the southern Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia from Pleistocene time to the present. Depleted harzburgites are the only inclusions contained within the basalts that were erupted through Miocene oceanic crust (15 km thick) in the vicinity of Jizan, whereas to the north in the vicinity of Al Birk, alkali basalts that were erupted through a thicker Precambrian crust (48 km thick) contain mixtures of harzburgites, cumulate gabbro, and websterite inclusions accompanied by large (> 2 cm) megacrysts of glassy alumina-rich clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and spinel. Microprobe analyses of individual minerals from the harzburgites, websterites, and cumulate gabbros reveal variations in composition that can be related to a complex mantle history during the evolution of the alkali basalts. Clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts may represent early phases that crystallized from the alkali olivine basalt magma at depths less than 35 km. Layered websterites and gabbros with cumulate plagioclase and clinopyroxene may represent continuing crystallization of the alkali olivine basalt magma in the lower crust when basaltic magma was not rapidly ascending. It is significant that the megacrysts and cumulate inclusions apparently form only where the magmas have traversed the Precambrian crust, whereas the harzburgite-bearing basalts that penetrated a much thinner Miocene oceanic crust reveal no evidence of mantle fractionation. These alkali olivine basalts and their contained inclusions are related in time to present-day rifting in the Red Sea axial trough. The onshore, deep-seated, undersaturated magmas are separated from the shallow Red Sea rift subalkaline basalts by only 170 km. The contemporaneity of alkaline olivine and subalkaline basalts requires that they must relate directly to the separation of the Arabian plate from the African plate.

  20. Efficient recycling of WC-Co hardmetal sludge by oxidation followed by alkali and sulfuric acid treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dong-hyo; Srivastava, Rajiv Ranjan; Kim, Min-seuk; Nam, Dao Duy; Lee, Jae-chun; Huynh, Hai Trung

    2016-09-01

    We present a process to recycle strategic metals, viz. tungsten and cobalt, from a WC-Co hardmetal sludge (WCHS) via oxidation followed by a two-step hydrometallurgical treatment with alkali and acid solutions. The oxidation of WCHS was investigated in the temperature range of 500 to 1000 °C and optimized at 600 °C to transform the maximum WC into an alkali-soluble WO3. The conditions for the selective dissolution of WO3 in stage-I were optimized as follows: 4.0 M NaOH, pulp density of 175 g/L, and temperature of 100 °C for 1 h, yielding maximum efficacy. Subsequently, in the second step, the optimal conditions for cobalt leaching from the alkali-treated residue were established as follows: 2.0 M H2SO4, 25 g/L pulp density, and 75 °C temperature for 30 min. Downstream processing of the obtained metal ions in solutions was also easier, as the only impurity of dicobaltite ions with the Na2WO4 solution was precipitated as Co(OH)3 under atmospheric O2; meanwhile, the CoSO4 solution obtained through the second step of processing can be treated via electrolysis to recover the metallic cobalt. The present process is simpler in operation, and the efficient use of eco-friendly lixiviants eliminates the previously reported disadvantage.

  1. Soluble and insoluble fiber (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary fiber is the part of food that is not affected by the digestive process in the body. ... of the stool. There are two types of dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber retains water and ...

  2. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  3. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered.

  4. The 4843 Alkali Metal Storage Facility Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The 4843 AMSF has been used primarily to provide a centralized building to receive and store dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste, including sodium and lithium, which has been generated at the Fast Flux Test Facility and at various other Hanford Site operations that used alkali metals. Most of the dangerous and mixed alkali metal waste received consists of retired equipment from liquid sodium processes. The unit continues to store material. In general, only solid alkali metal waste that is water reactive is stored at the 4843 AMSF. The 4843 AMSF will be closed in a manner consistent with Ecology guidelines and regulations (WAC 173-303-610). The general closure procedure is detailed as follows.

  5. Effect of cavitation on removal of alkali elements from coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivalli, H.; Nirmal, L.; Nagarajan, R.

    2015-12-01

    The main impurities in coal are sulphur, ash and alkali. On combustion, the volatile forms of these impurities are either condensed on the boilers, or emitted in the form of potentially hazardous gases. The alkali elements present in coal help the fly ash particles adhere to boiler surfaces by providing a wet surface on which collection of these particles can take place. Use of ultrasonic techniques in cleaning of coal has stirred interest among researchers in recent times. Extraction of alkali elements by cavitation effect using low-frequency ultrasound, in the presence of reagents (HNO3 and H2O2) is reported in this paper. Powdered coal was dissolved with the reagent and exposed to ultrasonic fields of various frequencies at different time intervals. The treated solution is filtered and tested for alkali levels.

  6. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, M.M.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.

    1995-08-22

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  7. Electric field-induced softening of alkali silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, C.; Heffner, W.; Jain, H.; Tessarollo, R.; Raj, R.

    2015-11-02

    Motivated by the advantages of two-electrode flash sintering over normal sintering, we have investigated the effect of an external electric field on the viscosity of glass. The results show remarkable electric field-induced softening (EFIS), as application of DC field significantly lowers the softening temperature of glass. To establish the origin of EFIS, the effect is compared for single vs. mixed-alkali silicate glasses with fixed mole percentage of the alkali ions such that the mobility of alkali ions is greatly reduced while the basic network structure does not change much. The sodium silicate and lithium-sodium mixed alkali silicate glasses were tested mechanically in situ under compression in external electric field ranging from 0 to 250 V/cm in specially designed equipment. A comparison of data for different compositions indicates a complex mechanical response, which is observed as field-induced viscous flow due to a combination of Joule heating, electrolysis and dielectric breakdown.

  8. Method for intercalating alkali metal ions into carbon electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, Marca M.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard

    1995-01-01

    A low cost, relatively flexible, carbon electrode for use in a secondary battery is described. A method is provided for producing same, including intercalating alkali metal salts such as sodium and lithium into carbon.

  9. Hall Determination of Atomic Radii of Alkali Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    I will propose here an alternative method for determining atomic radii of alkali metals based on the Hall measurements of their free electron densities and the knowledge of their crystal structure. (Contains 2 figures.)

  10. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 76. Solubility of Ethyne in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, Peter G. T.; Bligh, Sim-wan Annie; Derrick, M. Elizabeth; Yampol'skii, Yuri P.; Clever, H. Lawrence; Skrzecz, Adam; Young, Colin L.; Fogg, Peter G. T.

    2001-11-01

    Ethyne was probably first made in the laboratory by Edmund Davy in 1836. It was rediscovered nearly a quarter of a century later by Berthelot who gave it the name acetylene. Since that time ethyne has become a cheap raw material for the synthesis of organic materials and an important industrial fuel. A summary of the available solubility data for ethyne was published by Miller in 1965 [S. A Miller, Acetylene—Its Properties, Manufacture, and Uses (Academic, New York, 1965), Vol. I]. Many more data are now available in a wide range of research papers and patent applications. These data vary in their reliability. In the current work the data for systems included in Miller's book have been reassessed and complemented by data published more recently. Literature has been surveyed to 1999. Data for a system may be unreliable unless two or more groups of workers have published values in close agreement. Where possible values of the mole fraction solubility at a partial pressure of 101.3 kPa have been tabulated. Equations have been given for the variation of mole fraction with temperature in cases in which values over a temperature range are available. The greater the number of independent sources of the data the more the reliance which can be placed on the utility of the resulting equation. Extrapolation of such equations beyond the temperature range of experimental measurements can lead to errors. In many of the systems it may be assumed that approximate values of the mole fraction solubility, x1, at a partial pressure of 101.3 kPa may be obtained by linear extrapolation of values for lower partial pressures, p1, on the assumption that x1/p1 is approximately constant. However a similar linear extrapolation of solubilities at pressures appreciably higher that 101.3 kPa to give mole fraction solubilities at 101.3 kPa can lead to gross errors. For the purpose of evaluation of data use has been made of the Krichevsky-Il'inskaya equation to obtain approximate values of

  11. Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulphur species for combustion. Quarterly report No. 7, March--May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Mwabe, P.O.

    1992-12-31

    Table 5 shows a total sodium capture of 97 % for no chlorine case and 75 % for excess chlorine case. Similar results are shown for the water insoluble capture; 78 % for the no chlorine case against 48 % capture for excess chlorine case. Figure 15 shows comparative plate by plate mass loadings for Sample 244 and sample 303, while Figure 11 shows the partition of fraction oxides in the same impacters. Fraction mass distribution of the sampled kaolinite is shown in Figure 12, with a corresponding fraction mass distribution of water soluble sodium oxide is shown in Figure 13. The fraction oxide mass distribution of the 22% water soluble sodium from the no chlorine case (Figure 18), shows similar distribution to the kaolinite fraction mass distribution (Figure 12). This suggests that the water soluble sodium oxide in the absence of chlorine was probably capillary condensed or it was reacted sodium oxide that is water soluble. Surface condensation is unlikely as there would have been a shift to the smaller size range. This argument had been shown by Neville et al (1985) that condensation on its own would result in the bulk of the mass being found in the submicron size range. The fraction oxide mass distribution of the 52% water soluble sodium oxide, from the excess chlorine correlate weakly with the kaolinite fraction mass distribution, instead, there is a clear shift towards the fume size range of the after filter and stage 8. This indicates that the water soluble sodium oxide, from excess chlorine case, was predominantly uncaptured sodium. Presence of chlorine in this case reduced sodium capture by 30%.

  12. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOEpatents

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  13. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  14. Rock Degradation by Alkali Metals: A Possible Lunar Erosion Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Naughton, J J; Barnes, I L; Hammond, D A

    1965-08-06

    When rocks melt under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions, their alkali components volatilize as metals. These metal vapors act to comminute polycrystalline rocks to their component minerals. The resultant powder is porous and loosely packed and its characteristics may be compatible with the lunar surface as revealed by the Ranger photographs. If meteorite impact or lunar volcanism has produced vaporization or areas of molten lava, alkali erosion may have given dust of this character in adjacent solid areas.

  15. Partial purification of fatty-acid binding protein by ammonium sulphate fractionation.

    PubMed

    Avanzati, B; Catalá, A

    1983-07-01

    By fractionation of rat liver cytosol with 70% saturation ammonium sulphate, a soluble fraction showing high affinity for oleic acid was obtained. The binding of oleic acid to this fraction was inhibited by flavaspidic acid. The molecular weight of the main protein present in this fraction was 12 000 as determined by SDS-poly-acrylamide-gel electrophoresis. This soluble fraction stimulated the transfer of oleic acid from microsomes to phosphatidylcholine liposomes as demonstrated by a transfer assay in vitro. The behaviour of this fraction is similar to that described for fatty-acid binding protein.

  16. Vibrations of alkali metal overlayers on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusina, G. G.; Eremeev, S. V.; Echenique, P. M.; Benedek, G.; Borisova, S. D.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2008-06-01

    We review the current progress in the understanding of vibrations of alkalis adsorbed on metal surfaces. The analysis of alkali vibrations was made on the basis of available theoretical and experimental results. We also include in this discussion our recent calculations of vibrations in K/Pt(111) and Li(Na)/Cu(001) systems. The dependence of alkali adlayer localized modes on atomic mass, adsorption position and coverage as well as the dependence of vertical vibration frequency on the substrate orientation is discussed. The square root of atomic mass dependence of the vertical vibration energy has been confirmed by using computational data for alkalis on the Al(111) and Cu(001) substrates. We have confirmed that in a wide range of submonolayer coverages the stretch mode energy remains nearly constant while the energy of in-plane polarized modes increases with the increase of alkali coverage. It was shown that the spectrum of both stretch and in-plane vibrations can be very sensitive to the adsorption position of alkali atoms and substrate orientation.

  17. Alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide double alkoxide precursors to alkali metal yttrium oxide nanomaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Neville, Michael L.; Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; ...

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a series of alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide ([AY(ONep)4]) compounds were developed as precursors to alkali yttrium oxide (AYO2) nanomaterials. The reaction of yttrium amide ([Y(NR2)3] where R=Si(CH3)3) with four equivalents of H-ONep followed by addition of [A(NR2)] (A=Li, Na, K) or Ao (Ao=Rb, Cs) led to the formation of a complex series of AnY(ONep)3+n species, crystallographically identified as [Y2Li3(μ3-ONep)(μ3-HONep)(μ-ONep)5(ONep)3(HONep)2] (1), [YNa2(μ3-ONep)4(ONep)]2 (2), {[Y2K3(μ3-ONep)3(μ-ONep)4(ONep)2(ηξ-tol)2][Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4]•ηx-tol]} (3), [Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4] (3a), [Y2Rb3(μ4-ONep)3(μ-ONep)6] (4), and [Y2Cs4(μ6-O)(μ3-ONep)6(μ3-HONep)2(ONep)2(ηx-tol)4]•tol (5). Compounds 1–5 were investigated as single source precursors to AYOx nanomaterials following solvothermal routes (pyridine, 185 °C for 24h). The final products after thermal processing weremore » found by powder X-ray diffraction experiments to be Y2O3 with variable sized particles based on transmission electron diffraction. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies indicated that the heavier alkali metal species were present in the isolated nanomaterials.« less

  18. Soluble ferrous iron (Fe (II)) enrichment in airborne dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, Abinash; Reche, Isabel; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    The input of soluble iron in dust delivered to the ocean and lakes is critical to their biogeochemistry and phytoplankton productivity. Most iron in soils and sediment deposits is insoluble, while only a tiny fraction is soluble and therefore suitable to meet the phytoplankton's requirements for photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation. Aerosol deposition constitutes a major source of soluble iron to oceans and lakes, and in some regions the low phytoplankton productivity has been related to limitations in the supply of soluble iron from terrestrial sources. It is suggested that during atmospheric transport part of the insoluble iron is converted into soluble form. While the understanding of increased bioavailability of iron during atmospheric transport is improving, there are only a limited number of studies that actually quantify the increase in iron bioavailability in dust. In this study we compare the soluble ferrous iron, Fe (II) content in dust collected at deposition sites in the high-altitude mountains of the Sierra Nevada, Spain, to the source of dust in North Africa. We found that the dust is greatly enriched (on average 15 times) in Fe (II) relative to the fine fraction (<45 µm) of the parent soil collected from North African dust sources.

  19. Relation between the electroforming voltage in alkali halide-polymer diodes and the bandgap of the alkali halide

    SciTech Connect

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Wang, Jingxin; Janssen, René A. J.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Gomes, Henrique L.; De Leeuw, Dago M.

    2014-12-08

    Electroforming of indium-tin-oxide/alkali halide/poly(spirofluorene)/Ba/Al diodes has been investigated by bias dependent reflectivity measurements. The threshold voltages for electrocoloration and electroforming are independent of layer thickness and correlate with the bandgap of the alkali halide. We argue that the origin is voltage induced defect formation. Frenkel defect pairs are formed by electron–hole recombination in the alkali halide. This self-accelerating process mitigates injection barriers. The dynamic junction formation is compared to that of a light emitting electrochemical cell. A critical defect density for electroforming is 10{sup 25}/m{sup 3}. The electroformed alkali halide layer can be considered as a highly doped semiconductor with metallic transport characteristics.

  20. Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Alkali Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsam; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien T; Churchill, David G

    2016-01-01

    The common Group 1 alkali metals are indeed ubiquitous on earth, in the oceans and in biological systems. In this introductory chapter, concepts involving aqueous chemistry and aspects of general coordination chemistry and oxygen atom donor chemistry are introduced. Also, there are nuclear isotopes of importance. A general discussion of Group 1 begins from the prevalence of the ions, and from a comparison of their ionic radii and ionization energies. While oxygen and water molecule binding have the most relevance to biology and in forming a detailed understanding between the elements, there is a wide range of basic chemistry that is potentially important, especially with respect to biological chelation and synthetic multi-dentate ligand design. The elements are widely distributed in life forms, in the terrestrial environment and in the oceans. The details about the workings in animal, as well as plant life are presented in this volume. Important biometallic aspects of human health and medicine are introduced as well. Seeing as the elements are widely present in biology, various particular endogenous molecules and enzymatic systems can be studied. Sodium and potassium are by far the most important and central elements for consideration. Aspects of lithium, rubidium, cesium and francium chemistry are also included; they help in making important comparisons related to the coordination chemistry of Na(+) and K(+). Physical methods are also introduced.

  1. Superconductivity in alkali-metal-doped picene.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Ryoji; Suzuki, Yuta; Yamanari, Yusuke; Mitamura, Hiroki; Kambe, Takashi; Ikeda, Naoshi; Okamoto, Hideki; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Yamaji, Minoru; Kawasaki, Naoko; Maniwa, Yutaka; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2010-03-04

    Efforts to identify and develop new superconducting materials continue apace, motivated by both fundamental science and the prospects for application. For example, several new superconducting material systems have been developed in the recent past, including calcium-intercalated graphite compounds, boron-doped diamond and-most prominently-iron arsenides such as LaO(1-x)F(x)FeAs (ref. 3). In the case of organic superconductors, however, no new material system with a high superconducting transition temperature (T(c)) has been discovered in the past decade. Here we report that intercalating an alkali metal into picene, a wide-bandgap semiconducting solid hydrocarbon, produces metallic behaviour and superconductivity. Solid potassium-intercalated picene (K(x)picene) shows T(c) values of 7 K and 18 K, depending on the metal content. The drop of magnetization in K(x)picene solids at the transition temperature is sharp (<2 K), similar to the behaviour of Ca-intercalated graphite. The T(c) of 18 K is comparable to that of K-intercalated C(60) (ref. 4). This discovery of superconductivity in K(x)picene shows that organic hydrocarbons are promising candidates for improved T(c) values.

  2. The timing of alkali metasomatism in paleosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, A. W.; Holland, H. D.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the concentrations of rubidium and strontium and 87Sr/86Sr values of whole-rock samples from three paleosols of different ages. The oldest of the three weathering horizons, the 2,760 Ma Mt. Roe #1 paleosol in the Fortescue Group of Western Australia, experienced addition of Rb, and probably Sr, at 2,168 +/- 10 Ma. The intermediate paleosol, developed on the Hekpoort Basalt in South Africa, is estimated to have formed at 2,200 Ma, and yields a Rb-Sr isochron age of 1,925 +/- 32 Ma. The youngest of the three paleosols, developed on the Ongeluk basalt in Griqualand West, South Africa ca. 1,900 Ma, yielded a Rb-Sr age of 1,257 +/- 11 Ma. The Rb-Sr systematics of all three paleosols were reset during post-weathering metasomatism related to local or regional thermal disturbances. The Rb-Sr systematics of the paleosols were not subsequently disturbed. The near-complete removal of the alkali and alkaline earth elements from these paleosols during weathering made them particularly susceptible to resetting of their Rb-Sr systematics. Paleosols of this type are therefore sensitive indicators of the timing of thermal disturbances.

  3. Bioconcentration factors and lipid solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S. ); Baughman, G.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The log-log relationship between bioconcentration and hydrophobicity breaks down for several medium and high molecular weight solutes that bioconcentrate either to a small extent or not at all. Much of the failure is attributed to the relatively low solubility of these compounds in lipid. Inclusion of a term in octanol solubility (in place of lipid solubility, which is generally unavailable) considerably improves the quality of the relationship (r = 0.95). It is speculated that the octanol solubility term compensates for the relatively low solubility of large compounds in lipid.

  4. Efficient destruction of CF4 through in situ generation of alkali metals from heated alkali halide reducing mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Churl; Choi, Wonyong

    2002-03-15

    Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are the most potent green house gases that are very recalcitrant at destruction. An effective way of converting PFCs using hot solid reagents into safe products has been recently introduced. By investigating the thermal reductive destruction of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) we provided new insight and more physicochemical consideration on this novel process. The complete destruction of CF4was successfully achieved by flowing the gas through a heated reagent bed (400-950 degrees C) that contained powder mixtures of alkali halides, CaO, and Si. The silicon acted as a reducing agent of alkali halides for the in-situ production of alkali metals, and the calcium oxide played the role of a halide ion acceptor. The absence of any single component in this ternary mixture drastically reduced the destruction efficiency of CF4. The CF4 destruction efficiencies with the solid reagent containing the alkali halide, MX, increased in the order of Li approximately Na < K < Cs for alkali cations and I < Br < Cl < F for halide anions. This trend agreed with the endothermicity of the alkali metal generation reaction: the higher the endothermicity, the lower the destruction efficiency. Alkali metal generation was indirectly detected by monitoring H2 production from its reaction with water. The production of alkali metals increased with NaF, KF, and CsF in this order. The CsF/CaO/Si system exhibited the complete destruction of CF4 at as low as 600 degrees C. The solid product analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of CaF2 and the depletion of Si with black carbon particles formed in the solid reagent residue. No CO/CO2 and toxic HF and SiF4 formation were detected in the exhaust gas.

  5. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonomo, Raffaele P.; Tabbi, Giovanni; Vagliasindi, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    A simple experiment was devised to let students determine the solubility and solubility product, "K"[subscript sp], of calcium sulfate dihydrate in a first-level laboratory. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. The determination of…

  6. On-chip fabrication of alkali-metal vapor cells utilizing an alkali-metal source tablet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Ban, K.; Hirai, Y.; Sugano, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Mizutani, N.; Tabata, O.

    2013-11-01

    We describe a novel on-chip microfabrication technique for the alkali-metal vapor cell of an optically pumped atomic magnetometer (OPAM), utilizing an alkali-metal source tablet (AMST). The newly proposed AMST is a millimeter-sized piece of porous alumina whose considerable surface area holds deposited alkali-metal chloride (KCl) and barium azide (BaN6), source materials that effectively produce alkali-metal vapor at less than 400 °C. Our experiments indicated that the most effective pore size of the AMST is between 60 and 170 µm. The thickness of an insulating glass spacer holding the AMST was designed to confine generated alkali metal to the interior of the vapor cell during its production, and an integrated silicon heater was designed to seal the device using a glass frit, melted at an optimum temperature range of 460-490 °C that was determined by finite element method thermal simulation. The proposed design and AMST were used to successfully fabricate a K cell that was then operated as an OPAM with a measured sensitivity of 50 pT. These results demonstrate that the proposed concept for on-chip microfabrication of alkali-metal vapor cells may lead to effective replacement of conventional glassworking approaches.

  7. Alkali-aggregate reactivity of typical siliceious glass and carbonate rocks in alkali-activated fly ash based geopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Duyou; Liu, Yongdao; Zheng, Yanzeng; Xu, Zhongzi; Shen, Xiaodong

    2013-08-01

    For exploring the behaviour of alkali-aggregate reactivity (AAR) in alkali-activated geopolymeric materials and assessing the procedures for testing AAR in geopolymers, the expansion behaviour of fly ash based geopolymer mortars with pure silica glass and typical carbonate rocks were studied respectively by curing at various conditions, i.e. 23°C and 38°C with relative humidity over 95%, immersed in 1M NaOH solution at 80°C. Results show that, at various curing conditions, neither harmful ASR nor harmful ACR was observed in geopolymers with the criteria specified for OPC system. However, with the change of curing conditions, the geopolymer binder and reactive aggregates may experience different reaction processes leading to quite different dimensional changes, especially with additional alkalis and elevated temperatures. It suggests that high temperature with additional alkali for accelerating AAR in traditional OPC system may not appropriate for assessing the alkali-aggregate reactivity behaviour in geopolymers designed for normal conditions. On the other hand, it is hopeful to control the dimensional change of geopolymer mortar or concrete by selecting the type of aggregates and the appropriate curing conditions, thus changing the harmful AAR in OPC into beneficial AAR in geopolymers and other alkali-activated cementitious systems.

  8. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    DOEpatents

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  9. Influence of Slightly Soluble Organics on Aerosol Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Razzak, Hayder; Ghan, Steven J.

    2005-03-22

    This paper examines the effects of slightly soluble organics on aerosol activation in a parcel of air rising adiabatically. Slightly soluble organics can affect aerosol activation by three mechanisms: lowering surface tension, altering the bulk hygroscopicity, and delaying the growth of particles due to their lower solubilities. Here, we address the third mechanism by simulating the activation process of aerosol particles modeled using a single lognormal size distribution and consisting of an internal uniform chemical mixture of adipic acid (representing slightly soluble organics having extremely low solubility) and ammonium sulfate. The simulations were carried out using measured solubility of adipic acid spanning a wide range of physical and dynamical parameters. The same conditions were re-simulated but assuming fully soluble aerosols. Results of the simulations show that although that the low solubility of the adipic acid alters Köhler curves and increases critical supersaturation of the smaller particles (Köhler curves of the larger particles are not effected since these particles are completely dissolved at the initial supersaturation of zero), it has minimal to no effect on the parcel’s supersaturation except for particles consisting of more than 95% adipic acid. Accordingly, since aerosols in realistic atmospheric conditions do not contain more than 90% organics, we conclude that it is not necessary to retune the parameterization of aerosol activation previously developed and modified to address the other two mechanisms. The slightly soluble organics can thus be assumed to be fully soluble for the purpose of predicting the fraction of activation and the maximum supersaturation with negligible error.

  10. The reaction dynamics of alkali dimer molecules and electronically excited alkali atoms with simple molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Hongtao

    1995-12-01

    This dissertation presents the results from the crossed molecular beam studies on the dynamics of bimolecular collisions in the gas phase. The primary subjects include the interactions of alkali dimer molecules with simple molecules, and the inelastic scattering of electronically excited alkali atoms with O2. The reaction of the sodium dimers with oxygen molecules is described in Chapter 2. Two reaction pathways were observed for this four-center molecule-molecule reaction, i.e. the formations of NaO2 + Na and NaO + NaO. NaO2 products exhibit a very anisotropic angular distribution, indicating a direct spectator stripping mechanism for this reaction channel. The NaO formation follows the bond breaking of O2, which is likely a result of a charge transfer from Na2 to the excited state orbital of O2-. The scattering of sodium dimers from ammonium and methanol produced novel molecules, NaNH3 and Na(CH3OH), respectively. These experimental observations, as well as the discussions on the reaction dynamics and the chemical bonding within these molecules, will be presented in Chapter 3. The lower limits for the bond dissociation energies of these molecules are also obtained. Finally, Chapter 4 describes the energy transfer between oxygen molecules and electronically excited sodium atoms.

  11. Mixed alkali effect on the spectroscopic properties of alkali-alkaline earth oxide borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, G.; Ramesh, B.; Shareefuddin, Md.; Chary, M. N.; Sayanna, R.

    2016-05-01

    The mixed alkali and alkaline earth oxide borate glass with the composition xK2O - (25-x) Li2O-12.5BaO-12.5MgO-50B2O3 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25mol %) and doped with 1mol% CuO were prepared by the melt quenching technique. From the optical absorption spectra the optical band gap, electronic polarizability(α02-), interaction parameter (A), theoretical and experimental optical basicity (Λ) values were evaluated. From the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectral data the number of spins (N) and susceptibility (χ) were evaluated. The values of (α02-), and (Λ) increases with increasing of K2O content and electronic polarizability and interaction parameter show opposite behaviuor which may be due to the creation of non-bridging oxygens and expansion of borate network. The reciprocal of susceptibility (1/χ) and spin concentration (N) as a function of K2O content, varied nonlinearly which may be due to creation of non-bridging oxygens in the present glass system. This may be attributed to mixed alkali effect (MAE).

  12. Changes in labeling of soluble and solubilized hippocampus proteins after a learning experiment in rats.

    PubMed

    Popov, N; Schulzeck, S; Matthies, H

    1976-01-01

    At various intervals after acquisition of a brightness discrimination in rats labeled leucine was intraventricularly applied. Hippocampus tissue was fractionated in soluble and solubilized insoluble protein fractions. Protein content and labeling of several electrophoretically resolved bands showed a biphasic time course: a first increase was observed 20 minutes after training including preferably soluble proteins, whereas a second increase (about eight hours after training) was mainly related to solubilized insoluble proteins.

  13. Hg soil pollution around the Flix chlor-alkali plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esbrí, José Maria; López-Berdoces, Miguel Angel; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Fernández-Calderon, Sergio; Díez, Sergi; León Higueras, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    Main mercury consumer in industrialized countries is the chlor-alkali industry. In Spain, this industry declares 2.54 tons of mercury emissions to the atmosphere per year, but the losses of mercury in this industrial process seem to be higher than this. In the next 15 years, these industries are going to make a technology change to a free mercury based technology. This study has been applied to the Flix (Tarragona, NE Spain) plant, located very near the Ebro River. Local industrial activity started in the late 18th Century, being the first Spanish industrial precinct in activity. Technology used in this plant is obsolete, and produces important emissions to the atmosphere. Besides, it has also produced an important pollution problem in the Ebro River. The aim of this work is the characterization of mercury soil pollution around the oldest chlor-alkali plant (CAP), actually in process of decommissioning. For this porpoises, we provided data of mercury in soils and in olive oil leaves, in order to assess the extent of this pollution, and the consequences in terms of transferring to local agricultural biota. We present data from two soils geochemistry surveys, one centered in the general area, and a second one centered in an anomalous area identified by the first survey, at the Ebro margins downstream the town area. A total of 126 surface soil samples were taken and analyzed for total mercury by means of a Lumex RA-915+ device with RP- 91C pyrolysis attachment. Soil-plant transfer was studied based on mercury contents in olive leaves, the most ubiquitous plant species in the area; these biological samples were thoroughly clean and freeze-dried before its total mercury analysis in a Lumex RA-915+ device with its RP-91c pyrolysis attachment. Mercury contents in soils reach maximum levels in the vicinity of CAP (495 mg kg-1), much higher than baseline levels found in the area (0.18 mg kg-1, in average). These polluted soils are located near CAP and the riverbanks of Ebro

  14. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was

  15. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-03-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  16. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-01-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  17. Alkali content of alpine ultramafic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, W.; Mountjoy, W.

    1965-01-01

    The lower limit of abundance of sodium and potassium in ultramafic rocks is less than the threshold amount detectable by conventional analytical methods. By a dilutionaddition modification of the flame-spectrophotometric method, sodium and potassium have been determined in 40 specimens of alpine ultramafic rocks. Samples represent six regions in the United States and one in Australia, and include dunite, peridotite, pyroxenite, and their variably serpentinized and metamorphosed derivatives. The median value found for Na2O is 0.004 per cent, and the range of Na2O is 0.001-0.19. The median value for K2O is 0.0034 per cent and the range is 0.001-0.031 per cent. Alkali concentrations are below 0.01 per cent Na2O in 28 samples and below 0.01 per cent K2O in 35. Derivation of basalt magma from upper-mantle material similar to such ultramafic rocks, as has been postulated, is precluded by the relative amounts of sodium and potassium, which are from 200 to 600 times more abundant in basalt than in the ultramafic rocks. Similar factors apply to a number of other elements. No reasonable process could produce such concentrations in, for example, tens of thousands of cubic miles of uniform tholeiitic basalt. The ultramafic rocks might have originated either as magmatic crystal precipitates or as mantle residues left after fusion and removal of basaltic magma. Injection of ultramafic rocks to exposed positions is tectonic rather than magmatic. ?? 1965.

  18. Solubility of nitrous oxide in amine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bensetiti, Z.; Iliuta, I.; Larachi, F.; Grandjean, B.P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The solubility of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in 13 amine solvents and solutions was correlated to amine mole fractions and temperature using feedforward neural networks. This general correlation, using a massive database, predicted N{sub 2}O solubility at temperatures between 283 and 398 K in pure solvents [H{sub 2}O, monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanolamine (AMP)], in binary aqueous amine solutions [H{sub 2}O/MEA, H{sub 2}O/DEA, H{sub 2}O/MDEA, and H{sub 2}O/AMP], and in ternary aqueous amine blends [AMP/MDEA/H{sub 2}O, AMP/DEA/H{sub 2}O, DEA/MDEA/H{sub 2}O, MDEA/MEA/H{sub 2}O, and AMP/MEA/H{sub 2}O]. Combined with the N{sub 2}O analogy, this present improved correlation can be advantageously implemented in amine plant design software and procedures for the prediction of CO{sub 2} solubility in amine blend solutions over wide temperature and concentration ranges.

  19. Fractional vector calculus and fractional Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-11-15

    The theory of derivatives and integrals of non-integer order goes back to Leibniz, Liouville, Grunwald, Letnikov and Riemann. The history of fractional vector calculus (FVC) has only 10 years. The main approaches to formulate a FVC, which are used in the physics during the past few years, will be briefly described in this paper. We solve some problems of consistent formulations of FVC by using a fractional generalization of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. We define the differential and integral vector operations. The fractional Green's, Stokes' and Gauss's theorems are formulated. The proofs of these theorems are realized for simplest regions. A fractional generalization of exterior differential calculus of differential forms is discussed. Fractional nonlocal Maxwell's equations and the corresponding fractional wave equations are considered.

  20. Utilization of alkali-tolerant strains in fermentation of excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Jie, Weiguang; Peng, Yongzhen; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Baikun

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at exploring a new approach for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from excess sludge (ES). Two representative alkali-tolerant bacteria (HIT-01 and HIT-02) were isolated from ES, and inoculated separately or jointly into ES to investigate their effects on VFAs accumulation, soluble organic compounds concentrations, and bacterial community structure of ES under alkaline anaerobic conditions (pH 10.0). Four fermentation conditions were examined for 20days. Joint-inoculation with the two strains achieved the highest VFAs concentration (3139mg/L). Acetic and propionic acids were the dominant acid species. On the 9th day, all the inoculated ES had the higher concentrations of soluble organic compounds than the un-inoculated control ES. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that these two strains (HIT-01 and HIT-02) became predominant in the bacterial community during alkaline anaerobic fermentation. The results demonstrated that bioaugmentation might be useful for enhancing VFAs accumulation from ES.

  1. An assessment of Mercury immobilisation in alkali activated fly ash (AAFA) cements.

    PubMed

    Donatello, Shane; Fernández-Jiménez, Ana; Palomo, Angel

    2012-04-30

    This paper presents total and soluble Mercury contents for three coal fly ashes and alkali-activated fly ash (AAFA) cements consisting of 100% fly ash as starting material. To evaluate the potential of the AAFA cement matrix to immobilise Hg from an external source, another batch of cements, doped with 5000 mg/kg Hg as highly soluble HgCl(2), was prepared. The ashes and control AAFA cements complied with Mercury leaching criteria for non-hazardous wastes according to both TCLP and EN 12457 tests. Fly ash activated cements doped with 5000 mg/kg Hg and aged for 2 days immobilised 98.8-99.6% and 97.3-98.8% of Hg according to TCLP and EN 12457 tests respectively. Evidence from SEM-EDX suggests that Hg was immobilised by precipitation as highly insoluble HgS or Hg(2)S, although partial precipitation as less insoluble HgO or Hg silicates could not be entirely ruled out based on data presented. The results for Hg-doped cements contribute to the growing body of evidence that shows AAFA cement as a useful material for immobilizing elevated concentrations of toxic and hazardous elements.

  2. Solubility changes of proteins in sea urchin eggs upon fertilization.

    PubMed

    MONROY, A; ODDO, A M

    1951-11-01

    The results presented in this paper give evidence of changes in solubility occurring in a protein fraction of the eggs of Arbacia lixula upon fertilization. The electrophoretic analysis indicates that it is only one part of one of the components of the KCl fraction that undergoes the change. However, under some experimental conditions (freezing and thawing of the KCl fraction or extraction of the whole eggs with water at room temperature) a larger portion of the KCl fraction, namely the whole group of components a and b, may be involved and undergoes coagulation. Therefore assuming that the results obtained on the extracts of frozen-dried fertilized eggs do reflect what actually occurs under natural conditions, we must also assume the existence of mechanisms controlling the extent of this change in the living eggs. The fact that in many cases one part or the whole of the sensitive fraction has been found to undergo an increase in solubility may suggest that the process of coagulation discovered by Mirsky is a two-step process. In the first step the sensitive fraction undergoes a change that makes it more soluble and then, when certain conditions are fulfilled, coagulation occurs. An alternative explanation could also be that the coagulated or coagulating fraction is attacked by the proteolytic enzyme that, as shown by Lundblad (1949, 1950), is activated on fertilization. This, however, seems to be less probable, as extraction was always carried out at 0 degrees C. and in as short a time as possible. However, further experiments are needed to decide whether the coagulation of the sensitive fraction is an actual occurrence under natural conditions. The results obtained with the eggs of Arbacia punctulata may cast some doubt on this assumption.

  3. SOLUBILITY CHANGES OF PROTEINS IN SEA URCHIN EGGS UPON FERTILIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Monroy, Alberto; Oddo, Anna Monroy

    1951-01-01

    The results presented in this paper give evidence of changes in solubility occurring in a protein fraction of the eggs of Arbacia lixula upon fertilization. The electrophoretic analysis indicates that it is only one part of one of the components of the KCl fraction that undergoes the change. However, under some experimental conditions (freezing and thawing of the KCl fraction or extraction of the whole eggs with water at room temperature) a larger portion of the KCl fraction, namely the whole group of components a and b, may be involved and undergoes coagulation. Therefore assuming that the results obtained on the extracts of frozen-dried fertilized eggs do reflect what actually occurs under natural conditions, we must also assume the existence of mechanisms controlling the extent of this change in the living eggs. The fact that in many cases one part or the whole of the sensitive fraction has been found to undergo an increase in solubility may suggest that the process of coagulation discovered by Mirsky is a two-step process. In the first step the sensitive fraction undergoes a change that makes it more soluble and then, when certain conditions are fulfilled, coagulation occurs. An alternative explanation could also be that the coagulated or coagulating fraction is attacked by the proteolytic enzyme that, as shown by Lundblad (1949, 1950), is activated on fertilization. This, however, seems to be less probable, as extraction was always carried out at 0° C. and in as short a time as possible. However, further experiments are needed to decide whether the coagulation of the sensitive fraction is an actual occurrence under natural conditions. The results obtained with the eggs of Arbacia punctulata may cast some doubt on this assumption. PMID:14898017

  4. Crystal fractionation of the basalt comendite series of the mount Edziza volcanic complex, British Columbia: Major and trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souther, J. G.; Hickson, C. J.

    1984-06-01

    The Mount Edziza Volcanic Complex in north-central British Columbia includes a group of overlapping basaltic shields, salic composite volcanoes, domes and small calderas that range in age from 7.5 Ma to less than 2000 years B.P. The volcanic assemblage is chemically bimodal, comprising voluminous alkali olivine basalt and hawaiite, a salic suite of mainly peralkaline trachyte and comendite, plus a relatively small volume of intermediate rocks (trachybasalt, tristanite, mugearite, benmoreite). The complex is the product of five cycles of magmatic activity, each of which began with alkali olivine basalt and culminated with the eruption of salic magma. The regular chemical variation shown by almost 100 major- and trace-element analyses suggests a genetic lineage between the basic and salic members of each cycle. Least-squares mathematical modelling, indicates that the salic rocks (trachyte and comendite) have formed by fractionation of observed phenocryst and cumulate nodule mineral phases from a common alkali olivine basalt parent magma. Hawaiite is thought to be a cumulate rock, formed by partial fractionation and feldspar accumulation within rising columns of primary alkali olivine basalt. Fractionation leading from alkali olivine basalt through trachybasalt and trachyte to comendite is believed to have taken place where primary basalt became trapped in large crustal reservoirs. The early removal of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase, leading to a trachytic residuum, and subsequent fractionation of mainly alkali feldspar, leading to the peralkaline end members, is consistent with major- and trace-element variation and with isotopic and REE data. The chemical diversity of the complex is attributed to its location over a zone of crustal extension where mantle-derived basalt, trapped in large high-level reservoirs, underwent prolonged fractionation.

  5. Ideal gas solubilities and solubility selectivities in a binary mixture of room-temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Finotello Alexia; Bara Jason E.; Narayan Suguna; Campder Dean; Noble Richard D.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the solubility behaviors of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} gases in binary mixtures of imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) using l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ((C{sub 2}mim)(Tf{sub 2}N)) and l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ((C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4})) at 40{sup o}C and low pressures (about 1 atm). The mixtures tested were 0, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 100 mol % (C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4}) in (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf2{sub N}). Results show that regular solution theory (RST) can be used to describe the gas solubility and selectivity behaviors in RTIL mixtures using an average mixture solubility parameter or an average measured mixture molar volume. Interestingly, the solubility selectivity, defined as the ratio of gas mole fractions in the RTIL mixture, of CO{sub 2} with N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} in pure (C{sub 2}mim)(BF4) can be enhanced by adding 5 mol% (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf{sub 2}N).

  6. Lithium and Sodium Resistance of Alkali Metal Vapor Resistant Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishinevski, Anatoly; Hall, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    A common challenge in atomic physics is that of containing an alkali metal vapor at an elevated temperature and concurrently being able to excite and probe atomic transitions within. Typically glass is used as the material to construct the container, as it is easy to manipulate into any geometry and offers thermal, mechanical, and optical properties that no other material is capable. Unfortunately it has been well established that alkali metal gasses/vapors react readily with silica containing glass and results in a progressive darkening of the material. As the darkening reaction progresses, the optical transmission properties of the glass progressively degrade to an eventual point of uselessness. Alkali metals have been used extensively in frequency standards and magnetometers. The finite life of these alkali metal vapor-containing devices has been accepted despite varying attempts by different teams to solve this problem. As a viable solution, it has been identified there exist a family of glass compositions that contain a marginal amount of silica, may be lampworked using traditional glassblowing techniques, and that offer substantially better alkali vapor resistance. The evaluation of these glasses and their resistance to sodium and lithium vapor at varying pressures and temperatures are discussed.

  7. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  8. Effect of drying on heavy metal fraction distribution in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanbing; Huang, Biao; Darilek, Jeremy Landon

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how redox conditions affect soil heavy metal fractions in rice paddies is important due to its implications for heavy metal mobility and plant uptake. Rice paddy soil samples routinely undergo oxidation prior to heavy metal analysis. Fraction distribution of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd from paddy soil with a wide pH range was investigated. Samples were both dried according to standard protocols and also preserved under anaerobic conditions through the sampling and analysis process and heavy metals were then sequentially extracted for the exchangeable and carbonate bound fraction (acid soluble fraction), iron and manganese oxide bound fraction (reducible fraction), organic bound fraction (oxidizable fraction), and residual fraction. Fractions were affected by redox conditions across all pH ranges. Drying decreased reducible fraction of all heavy metals. Curesidual fraction, Pboxidizable fraction, Cdresidual fraction, and Niresidual fraction increased by 25%, 33%, 35%, and >60%, respectively. Pbresidual fraction, Niacid soluble fraction, and Cdoxidizable fraction decreased 33%, 25%, and 15%, respectively. Drying paddy soil prior to heavy metal analysis overestimated Pb and underestimated Cu, Ni, and Cd. In future studies, samples should be stored after injecting N2 gas to maintain the redox potential of soil prior to heavy metal analysis, and investigate the correlation between heavy metal fraction distribution under field conditions and air-dried samples.

  9. Influence of measurement uncertainties on soluble aerosol iron over the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meskhidze, N.; Johnson, M. S.; Hurley, D.; Dawson, K.

    2015-09-01

    The atmospheric supply of dust iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in the Earth's biogeochemical cycle and is of specific importance as a micronutrient in the marine environment. Observations show several orders of magnitude variability in the fractional solubility of Fe in dust aerosols, making it hard to assess the role of mineral dust for global ocean biogeochemical Fe cycle. In this study we compare the operational solubility of dust aerosol Fe associated with one of the flow-through leaching protocols to the results of the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. In the protocol aerosol Fe is defined soluble by first deionized water leaching of mineral dust through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane followed by acidification and storage of the leachate over a long period of time prior to the analysis. To assess the concentrations of soluble Fe inferred by this flow-through leaching protocol we are using in situ measurements of dust size distribution with the prescribed of 50 % fractional solubility of Fe in less than 0.45 μm sized dust particles collected in the leachate. In the model, the fractional solubility of Fe is either explicitly calculated using complex dust Fe dissolution module, or prescribed to be 1 and 4 %. Calculations show that the fractional solubility of Fe derived through the flow-through leaching is typically higher compared to the model results. The largest differences (>30 %) are predicted to occur farther away from the dust source regions, over the areas where sub-0.45 μm sized mineral dust particles contribute a larger fraction of the total dust mass. This study suggests that inconsistences in the operational definition of soluble Fe could contribute to the wide range of the fractional solubility of dust aerosol Fe reported in the literature.

  10. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  11. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  12. Tempered fractional calculus

    SciTech Connect

    Sabzikar, Farzad; Meerschaert, Mark M.; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-07-15

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered fractional difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series.

  13. An Investigation of Ion-Pairing of Alkali Metal Halides in Aqueous Solutions Using the Electrical Conductivity and the Monte Carlo Computer Simulation Methods

    PubMed Central

    Gujt, Jure; Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Hribar-Lee, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The ion pairing is, in very dilute aqueous solutions, of rather small importance for solutions’ properties, which renders its precise quantification quite a laborious task. Here we studied the ion pairing of alkali halides in water by using the precise electric conductivity measurements in dilute solutions, and in a wide temperature range. The low-concentration chemical model was used to analyze the results, and to estimate the association constant of different alkali halide salts. It has been shown that the association constant is related to the solubility of salts in water and produces a ’volcano relationship’, when plotted against the difference between the free energy of hydration of the corresponding individual ions. The computer simulation, using the simple MB+dipole water model, were used to interprete the results, to find a microscopic basis for Collins’ law of matching water affinities. PMID:24526801

  14. Maternal exposure to alkali, alkali earth, transition and other metals: Concentrations and predictors of exposure.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, A L; Stasinska, A; Callan, A C; Heyworth, J; Ramalingam, M; Boyce, M; McCafferty, P; Odland, J Ø

    2015-09-01

    Most studies of metals exposure focus on the heavy metals. There are many other metals (the transition, alkali and alkaline earth metals in particular) in common use in electronics, defense industries, emitted via combustion and which are naturally present in the environment, that have received limited attention in terms of human exposure. We analysed samples of whole blood (172), urine (173) and drinking water (172) for antimony, beryllium, bismuth, cesium, gallium, rubidium, silver, strontium, thallium, thorium and vanadium using ICPMS. In general most metals concentrations were low and below the analytical limit of detection with some high concentrations observed. Few factors examined in regression models were shown to influence biological metals concentrations and explained little of the variation. Further study is required to establish the source of metals exposures at the high end of the ranges of concentrations measured and the potential for any adverse health impacts in children.

  15. Phenolic compounds containing/neutral fractions extract and products derived therefrom from fractionated fast-pyrolysis oils

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

    1993-06-29

    A process is described for preparing phenol-formaldehyde novolak resins and molding compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils. The fractionation consists of a neutralization stage which can be carried out with aqueous solutions of bases or appropriate bases in the dry state, followed by solvent extraction with an organic solvent having at least a moderate solubility parameter and good hydrogen bonding capacity. Phenolic compounds-containing/neutral fractions extracts obtained by fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils from a lignocellulosic material, is such that the oil is initially in the pH range of 2-4, being neutralized with an aqueous bicarbonate base, and extracted into a solvent having a solubility parameter of approximately 8.4-9.11 [cal/cm[sup 3

  16. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess.

    PubMed

    Yung, C Y

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study.

  17. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of alkali metal deficiency and excess

    SciTech Connect

    Yung, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The alkali metals from the Group IA of the periodic table (lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium) are reviewed. The neuropsychiatric aspects of alkali metal deficiencies and excesses (intoxications) are described. Emphasis was placed on lithium due to its clinical uses. The signs and symptoms of these conditions are characterized by features of an organic brain syndrome with delirium and encephalopathy prevailing. There are no clinically distinctive features that could be reliably used for diagnoses. Sodium and potassium are two essential alkali metals in man. Lithium is used as therapeutic agent in bipolar affective disorders. Rubidium has been investigated for its antidepressant effect in a group of psychiatric disorders. Cesium is under laboratory investigation for its role in carcinogenesis and in depressive illness. Very little is known of francium due to its great instability for experimental study.

  18. Superconductivity at 5 K in alkali-metal-doped phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Liu, R H; Gui, Z; Xie, Y L; Yan, Y J; Ying, J J; Luo, X G; Chen, X H

    2011-10-18

    Organic superconductors have π-molecular orbitals, from which electrons can become delocalized, giving rise to metallic conductivity due to orbital overlap between adjacent molecules. Here we report the discovery of superconductivity at a transition temperature (T(c)) of ~5 K in alkali-metal-doped phenanthrene. A 1-GPa pressure leads to a 20% increase of T(c), suggesting that alkali-metal-doped phenanthrene shows unconventional superconductivity. Raman spectra indicate that alkali-metal doping injects charge into the system to realize the superconductivity. The discovery of superconductivity in A(3)phenanthrene (where A can be either K or Rb) produces a novel broad class of superconductors consisting of fused hydrocarbon benzene rings with π-electron networks. An increase of T(c) with increasing number of benzene rings from three to five suggests that organic hydrocarbons with long chains of benzene rings are potential superconductors with high T(c).

  19. Alkali-vapor emission from PFBC of Illinois coals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. H. D.; Teats, F. G.; Swift, W. M.; Banerjee, D. D.; Chemical Engineering; Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal

    1992-01-01

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were combusted in a laboratory-scale PFBC/alkali sorber facility with a bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950oC and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali vapor emission (Na and K) from combustion was determined by analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas of these coals and that there is a positive linear relationship between the level of sodium-vapor emission with both Na and Cl contents in the coals.

  20. Formation and stability of high-spin alkali clusters.

    PubMed

    Schulz, C P; Claas, P; Schumacher, D; Stienkemeier, F

    2004-01-09

    Helium nanodroplet isolation has been applied to agglomerate alkali clusters at temperatures of 380 mK. The very weak binding to the surface of the droplets allows a selection of only weakly bound, high-spin states. Here we show that larger clusters of alkali atoms in high-spin states can be formed. The lack of strong bonds from pairing electrons makes these systems nonmetallic, van der Waals-like complexes of metal atoms. We find that sodium and potassium readily form such clusters containing up to 25 atoms. In contrast, this process is suppressed for rubidium and cesium. Apparently, for these heavy alkalis, larger high-spin aggregates are not stable and depolarize spontaneously upon cluster formation.

  1. Formation and Stability of High-Spin Alkali Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, C. P.; Claas, P.; Schumacher, D.; Stienkemeier, F.

    2004-01-01

    Helium nanodroplet isolation has been applied to agglomerate alkali clusters at temperatures of 380mK. The very weak binding to the surface of the droplets allows a selection of only weakly bound, high-spin states. Here we show that larger clusters of alkali atoms in high-spin states can be formed. The lack of strong bonds from pairing electrons makes these systems nonmetallic, vanderWaals like complexes of metal atoms. We find that sodium and potassium readily form such clusters containing up to 25atoms. In contrast, this process is suppressed for rubidium and cesium. Apparently, for these heavy alkalis, larger high-spin aggregates are not stable and depolarize spontaneously upon cluster formation.

  2. A case of severe airbag related ocular alkali injury.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Shawn S; Wong, William; Affeldt, John C

    2012-08-01

    While airbags have saved many lives and are clearly beneficial overall, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) powder produced by the inflation reaction can cause significant alkali ocular injury if not irrigated promptly. Here we report a case of severe airbag related ocular alkali injury as a way to bring attention to the need for prompt ocular irrigation following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) with airbag deployment. A 47-year-old man was involved in a MVA with airbag deployment in a rural setting. Attention was paid to several other life-threatening traumatic injuries, however, ocular irrigation was not performed until some 6-7 hours after the MVA. Over the course of 6 months, airbag related alkali injury caused severe limbal ischemia, conjunctivalization of the cornea, corneal epithelial defects, cicatricial scarring, haze, and corneal/limbal vascularization despite amniotic membrane graft. Awareness of the importance of ocular irrigation following airbag deployment must be raised both in the ophthalmology and emergency medicine communities.

  3. Theoretical study of the alkali and alkaline-earth monosulfides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Ab initio calculations have been used to obtain accurate spectroscopic constants for the X2Pi and A2Sigma(+) states of the alkali sulfides and the X1Sigma(+), a3Pi, and A1Pi states of the alkaline-earth sulfides. In contrast to the alkali oxides, the alkali sulfides are found to have X2Pi ground states, due to the larger electrostatic interaction. Dissociation energies of 3.27 eV for BeS, 2.32 eV for MgS, 3.29 eV for CaS, and 3.41 eV for SrS have been obtained for the X1Sigma(+) states of the alkaline-earth sulfides, in good agreement with experimental results. Core correlation is shown to increase the Te values for the a3Pi and A1Pi states of MgS, CaS, and SrS.

  4. Spectroscopic and theoretical study on alkali metal phenylacetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regulska, E.; Świsłocka, R.; Samsonowicz, M.; Lewandowski, W.

    2013-07-01

    The influence of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium cations on the electronic system of phenylacetic acid was studied. The FT-IR, FT-Raman and 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded for studied compounds. Characteristic shifts in IR and NMR spectra along alkali metal phenylacetates were observed. Good correlations between the wavenumbers of the vibrational bands in the IR spectra of phenylacetates and some alkali metal parameters such as ionic potential, electronegativity, inverse of atomic mass, atomic radius and ionization energy were found. The density functional hybrid method B3LYP with 6-311++G** basis set was used to calculate optimized geometrical structures of studied compounds. Aromaticity indices, atomic charges, dipole moments and energies were calculated as well as the wavenumbers and intensities of IR spectra and chemical shifts in NMR spectra. The theoretical parameters were compared to experimental characteristic of alkali metal phenylacetates.

  5. Design and Implementation of Alkali Activated Cement For Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseson, Alexander James

    Herein, progress is presented on the design and implementation of technology for sustainable development in general and international development in particular. Necessarily interdisciplinary, the work draws upon the tools and techniques of Mechanical, Materials, and Civil Engineering; and History & Politics. The work was conducted along two paths, the first being the theory and methodology of sustainable development. A flexible design and dissemination framework was developed, Technology Seeding, defined as: development by the transfer and participatory adaptation of appropriate proven conceptual designs. The methodology was developed in part through two case studies which implemented, respectively, wood-turning lathes in Tanzania and upland rice planters in Thailand. The second path is the design and investigation of alkali-activated cements (AACs) for practical use. Those developed herein, for US markets, comprise ground granulated blast furnace slag, soda ash (sodium carbonate), and up to 68 wt.% granular limestone. Mixture Design of Experiment (DOE) was utilized to guide empirical and theoretical analysis of performance (e.g. compressive strength), economic & ecological aspects (e.g. cost, CO2 production, energy consumption), and chemistry (e.g. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffractograms). Models were derived to understand the impact of mix design on performance and for optimization. Successful formulations are hydraulic and cure at room temperature, with strengths as high as 41 MPa at 3 days and 65 MPa at 28 days. Some of these formulations, compared to OPC, are competitive in performance, reduce cost by up to 40%, and reduce both CO2 production and energy consumption by up to 97%. Major chemical products include calcium silicate hydrates / calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (C-(A)-S-H), gaylussite, and calcite (both newly formed and remaining from limestone). Calcite/dolomite and C-(A)-S-H both contribute to strength. A fraction of the limestone is consumed

  6. Spill-Resistant Alkali-Metal-Vapor Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, William

    2005-01-01

    A spill-resistant vessel has been developed for dispensing an alkali-metal vapor. Vapors of alkali metals (most commonly, cesium or rubidium, both of which melt at temperatures slightly above room temperature) are needed for atomic frequency standards, experiments in spectroscopy, and experiments in laser cooling. Although the present spill-resistant alkali-metal dispenser was originally intended for use in the low-gravity environment of outer space, it can also be used in normal Earth gravitation: indeed, its utility as a vapor source was confirmed by use of cesium in a ground apparatus. The vessel is made of copper. It consists of an assembly of cylinders and flanges, shown in the figure. The uppermost cylinder is a fill tube. Initially, the vessel is evacuated, the alkali metal charge is distilled into the bottom of the vessel, and then the fill tube is pinched closed to form a vacuum seal. The innermost cylinder serves as the outlet for the vapor, yet prevents spilling by protruding above the surface of the alkali metal, no matter which way or how far the vessel is tilted. In the event (unlikely in normal Earth gravitation) that any drops of molten alkali metal have been shaken loose by vibration and are floating freely, a mesh cap on top of the inner cylinder prevents the drops from drifting out with the vapor. Liquid containment of the equivalent of 1.2 grams of cesium was confirmed for all orientations with rubbing alcohol in one of the prototypes later used with cesium.

  7. Thermal effects in Cs DPAL and alkali cell window damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Rotondaro, M. D.; Shaffer, M. K.; Knize, R. J.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments on power scaling of Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs) revealed some limiting parasitic effects such as alkali cell windows and gain medium contamination and damage, output power degradation in time and others causing lasing efficiency decrease or even stop lasing1 . These problems can be connected with thermal effects, ionization, chemical interactions between the gain medium components and alkali cells materials. Study of all these and, possibly, other limiting effects and ways to mitigate them is very important for high power DPAL development. In this talk we present results of our experiments on temperature measurements in the gain medium of operating Cs DPAL at different pump power levels in the range from lasing threshold to the levels causing damage of the alkali cell windows. For precise contactless in situ temperature measurements, we used an interferometric technique, developed in our lab2 . In these experiments we demonstrated that damage of the lasing alkali cell starts in the bulk with thermal breakdown of the hydrocarbon buffer gas. The degradation processes start at definite critical temperatures of the gain medium, different for each mixture of buffer gas. At this critical temperature, the hydrocarbon and the excited alkali metal begin to react producing the characteristic black soot and, possibly, some other chemical compounds, which both harm the laser performance and significantly increase the harmful heat deposition within the laser medium. This soot, being highly absorptive, is catastrophically heated to very high temperatures that visually observed as bulk burning. This process quickly spreads to the cell windows and causes their damage. As a result, the whole cell is also contaminated with products of chemical reactions.

  8. The amorphous solid dispersion of the poorly soluble ABT-102 forms nano/microparticulate structures in aqueous medium: impact on solubility.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kerstin J; Westedt, Ulrich; Rosenblatt, Karin M; Hölig, Peter; Rosenberg, Jörg; Mägerlein, Markus; Fricker, Gert; Brandl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are a promising formulation approach for poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), because they ideally enhance both dissolution rate and solubility. However, the mechanism behind this is not understood in detail. In the present study, we investigated the supramolecular and the nano/microparticulate structures that emerge spontaneously upon dispersion of an ASD in aqueous medium and elucidated their influence on solubility. The ASD, prepared by hot melt extrusion, contained the poorly soluble ABT-102 (solubility in buffer, 0.05 μg/mL), a hydrophilic polymer, and three surfactants. The apparent solubility of ABT-102 from the ASD-formulation was enhanced up to 200 times in comparison to crystalline ABT-102. At the same time, the molecular solubility, as assessed by inverse equilibrium dialysis, was enhanced two times. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation in combination with a multiangle light-scattering detector, an ultraviolet detector, and a refractometer enabled us to separate and identify the various supramolecular assemblies that were present in the aqueous dispersions of the API-free ASD (placebo) and of binary/ternary blends of the ingredients. Thus, the supramolecular assemblies with a molar mass between 20,000 and 90,000 could be assigned to the polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate 64, while two other kinds of assemblies were assigned to different surfactant assemblies (micelles). The amount of ABT-102 remaining associated with each of the assemblies upon fractionation was quantified offline with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible. The polymeric and the micellar fraction contributed to the substantial increase in apparent solubility of ABT-102. Furthermore, a microparticulate fraction was isolated by centrifugation and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray scattering, and infrared spectroscopy. The microparticles were found to be amorphous and to contain two of the

  9. Fraction Sense: Foundational Understandings.

    PubMed

    Fennell, Francis Skip; Karp, Karen

    2016-08-09

    The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and computational estimation. Such foundations are then extended to operations involving fractions and decimals and applications involving proportional reasoning. These components of fraction sense are all addressed in the studies provided in this issue, with particular consideration devoted to the significant importance of the use of the number line as a central representational tool for conceptually understanding fraction magnitude.

  10. TEMPERED FRACTIONAL CALCULUS

    PubMed Central

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; SABZIKAR, FARZAD; CHEN, JINGHUA

    2014-01-01

    Fractional derivatives and integrals are convolutions with a power law. Multiplying by an exponential factor leads to tempered fractional derivatives and integrals. Tempered fractional diffusion equations, where the usual second derivative in space is replaced by a tempered fractional derivative, govern the limits of random walk models with an exponentially tempered power law jump distribution. The limiting tempered stable probability densities exhibit semi-heavy tails, which are commonly observed in finance. Tempered power law waiting times lead to tempered fractional time derivatives, which have proven useful in geophysics. The tempered fractional derivative or integral of a Brownian motion, called a tempered fractional Brownian motion, can exhibit semi-long range dependence. The increments of this process, called tempered fractional Gaussian noise, provide a useful new stochastic model for wind speed data. A tempered difference forms the basis for numerical methods to solve tempered fractional diffusion equations, and it also provides a useful new correlation model in time series. PMID:26085690

  11. Feasibility of supersonic diode pumped alkali lasers: Model calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2013-04-08

    The feasibility of supersonic operation of diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) is studied for Cs and K atoms applying model calculations, based on a semi-analytical model previously used for studying static and subsonic flow DPALs. The operation of supersonic lasers is compared with that measured and modeled in subsonic lasers. The maximum power of supersonic Cs and K lasers is found to be higher than that of subsonic lasers with the same resonator and alkali density at the laser inlet by 25% and 70%, respectively. These results indicate that for scaling-up the power of DPALs, supersonic expansion should be considered.

  12. Alkali Metal/Salt Thermal-Energy-Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Wayne W.; Stearns, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed thermal-energy-storage system based on mixture of alkali metal and one of its halide salts; metal and salt form slurry of two immiscible melts. Use of slurry expected to prevent incrustations of solidified salts on heat-transfer surfaces that occur where salts alone used. Since incrustations impede heat transfer, system performance improved. In system, charging heat-exchanger surface immersed in lower liquid, rich in halide-salt, phase-charge material. Discharging heat exchanger surface immersed in upper liquid, rich in alkali metal.

  13. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  14. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  15. Quantification of the boron speciation in alkali borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shaodong; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Yanqi; Peng, MingYing; Skibsted, Jørgen; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and related analytical techniques have been widely used to study the microstructure of different materials. However, few research works have been performed in the field of glasses, possibly due to the electron-beam irradiation damage. In this paper, we have developed a method based on electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) data acquisition and analyses, which enables determination of the boron speciation in a series of ternary alkali borosilicate glasses with constant molar ratios. A script for the fast acquisition of EELS has been designed, from which the fraction of BO4 tetrahedra can be obtained by fitting the experimental data with linear combinations of the reference spectra. The BO4 fractions (N4) obtained by EELS are consistent with those from 11B MAS NMR spectra, suggesting that EELS can be an alternative and convenient way to determine the N4 fraction in glasses. In addition, the boron speciation of a CeO2 doped potassium borosilicate glass has been analyzed by using the time-resolved EELS spectra. The results clearly demonstrate that the BO4 to BO3 transformation induced by the electron beam irradiation can be efficiently suppressed by doping CeO2 to the borosilicate glasses. PMID:26643370

  16. Petrochemistry, age and isotopic composition of alkali basalts from Ponape Island, Western Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dixon, T.H.; Batiza, Rodey; Futa, K.; Martin, D.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven analyzed lava samples from Ponape Island are alkali olivine basalt, basanite and basanitoid. Most lavas are aphyric or sparsely phyric (< 10% phenocrysts) and have phenocrysts of olivine (Fo77-80), clinopyroxene and titanomagnetite, and microphenocrysts of plagioclase (An53-68) in a fine-grained groundmass of olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, opaques, potassic oligoclase, ?? nepheline and accessary phases. Oxygen isotope and Fe2O3 FeO data suggest that most samples are fresh, although H2O contents are high. Xenoliths of chromite-bearing harzburgites and dunites, both with cumulate textures occur in one locality. Major- and trace-element concentrations are similar to other oceanic volcanic islands. Most major elements and compatible trace elements vary systematically with respect to the Mg number [ 100Mg (Mg + Fe2+)]. In contrast, the incompatible trace elements do not correlate with the Mg number, but do covary with other incompatible elements. Simple closed-system shallow fractionation cannot be invoked to explain the observed chemical variation in the lavas. Derivation of the fractionated lavas (Mg number = 66-48) probably involved polybaric crystal fractionation from a high-Mg-number parental liquid. In addition, variable-source concentration of a trace-element-rich minor phase is postulated. However, the mantle was homogeneous with respect to the ratio of 87Sr 86Sr. New KAr age data are not consistent with the hypothesis that Ponape and the Caroline Ridge represent a simple "hot spot". ?? 1984.

  17. Solubility of Plutonium (IV) Oxalate During Americium/Curium Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-08-11

    Approximately 15,000 L of solution containing isotopes of americium and curium (Am/Cm) will undergo stabilization by vitrification at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Prior to vitrification, an in-tank pretreatment will be used to remove metal impurities from the solution using an oxalate precipitation process. Material balance calculations for this process, based on solubility data in pure nitric acid, predict approximately 80 percent of the plutonium in the solution will be lost to waste. Due to the uncertainty associated with the plutonium losses during processing, solubility experiments were performed to measure the recovery of plutonium during pretreatment and a subsequent precipitation process to prepare a slurry feed for a batch melter. A good estimate of the plutonium content of the glass is required for planning the shipment of the vitrified Am/Cm product to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The plutonium solubility in the oxalate precipitation supernate during pretreatment was 10 mg/mL at 35 degrees C. In two subsequent washes with a 0.25M oxalic acid/0.5M nitric acid solution, the solubility dropped to less than 5 mg/mL. During the precipitation and washing steps, lanthanide fission products in the solution were mostly insoluble. Uranium, and alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal impurities were soluble as expected. An elemental material balance for plutonium showed that greater than 94 percent of the plutonium was recovered in the dissolved precipitate. The recovery of the lanthanide elements was generally 94 percent or higher except for the more soluble lanthanum. The recovery of soluble metal impurities from the precipitate slurry ranged from 15 to 22 percent. Theoretically, 16 percent of the soluble oxalates should have been present in the dissolved slurry based on the dilution effects and volumes of supernate and wash solutions removed. A trace level material balance showed greater than 97 percent recovery of americium-241 (from the beta dec

  18. Solubility of iron and other trace elements over the Southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimburger, A.; Losno, R.; Triquet, S.

    2013-03-01

    The fraction of soluble aerosols that is deposited on the open ocean is vital for phytoplankton growth. It is believed that a large proportion of this dissolved fraction is bioavailable for marine biota and thus plays an important role in primary production, especially in HNLC oceanic areas where this production is limited by micronutrient supply. There is still much uncertainty surrounding the solubility of atmospheric particles in global biogeochemical cycles and it is not well understood. In this study, we present the solubilities of seven elements (Al, Ce, Fe, La, Mn, Nd, Ti) in rainwater on Kerguelen Islands, in the middle of the Southern Indian Ocean. The solubilities exhibit high values, generally greater than 70%, and Ti remains the least soluble element. Because the Southern Indian Ocean is remote from its dust sources, only the fraction of smaller aerosols reaches Kerguelen Islands after undergoing several cloud and chemical processes during their transport resulting in a drastic increase in solubility. Finally, we deduced an average soluble iron deposition flux of 23 μg m-2 d-1 (0.4 μmol m-2 d-1) for the studied oceanic area, taking into account a~median iron solubility of 82% ± 18%.

  19. Ternary alkali-metal and transition metal or metalloid acetylides as alkali-metal intercalation electrodes for batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, Karoly; Srajer, George; Harkay, Katherine C; Terdik, Joseph Z

    2015-02-10

    Novel intercalation electrode materials including ternary acetylides of chemical formula: A.sub.nMC.sub.2 where A is alkali or alkaline-earth element; M is transition metal or metalloid element; C.sub.2 is reference to the acetylide ion; n is an integer that is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 when A is alkali element and 0, 1, or 2 when A is alkaline-earth element. The alkali elements are Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs) and Francium (Fr). The alkaline-earth elements are Berilium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra). M is a transition metal that is any element in groups 3 through 12 inclusive on the Periodic Table of Elements (elements 21 (Sc) to element 30 (Zn)). In another exemplary embodiment, M is a metalloid element.

  20. The Ksp-Solubility Conundrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roy W.; Bonicamp, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that there are only a few cases in which solubility and Ksp are related in a simple way. States that illustrations of the solubility product principle for one-to-one salts are adequate for students. Contains 23 references. (DDR)

  1. Solubility Behavior of Cyanophycin Depending on Lysine Content

    PubMed Central

    Wiefel, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Study of the synthesis of cyanophycin (CGP) in recombinant organisms focused for a long time mostly on the insoluble form of CGP, due to its easy purification and its putative use as a precursor for biodegradable chemicals. Recently, another form of CGP, which, in contrast to the insoluble form, was soluble at neutral pH, became interesting due to its high lysine content, which was also assumed to be the reason for the solubility of the polymer. In this study, we demonstrate that lysine incorporated into insoluble CGP affected the solubility of the polymer in relation to its lysine content. Insoluble CGP can be separated along a temperature gradient of 90°C to 30°C, where CGP showed an increasing lysine content corresponding to a decreasing temperature needed for solubilization. CGP with less than 3 to 4 mol% lysine did not become soluble even at 90°C, while CGP with 31 mol% lysine was soluble at 30°C. In lysine fractions at higher than 31 mol%, CGP was soluble. The temperature separation will be suitable for improving the downstream processing of CGP synthesized in large-scale fermentations, including faster and more efficient purification of CGP, as well as enrichment and separation of dipeptides and CGP with specific amino acid compositions. PMID:24271185

  2. Recombinant soluble adenovirus receptor

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are isolated polypeptides from human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) protein which bind adenovirus. Specifically disclosed are amino acid sequences which corresponds to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2. In other aspects, the disclosure relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains as well as expression vectors which encode the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. Also disclosed is an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide sequence fused to a polypeptide sequence which facilitates folding of D1 into a functional, soluble domain when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application for example in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a virus which binds to D1, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. Also included is a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  3. Milk alkali syndrome—an unusual syndrome causing an unusual complication

    PubMed Central

    George, S; Clark, J

    2000-01-01

    Milk alkali syndrome is rare and although pancreatitis secondary to hypercalcaemia is well recognised, there has only been one other reported case of pancreatitis secondary to the milk alkali syndrome. Such a case, caused by self medication of over the counter medication, is reported.


Keywords: milk alkali syndrome; pancreatitis; over the counter medication PMID:10878206

  4. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali and amine salts. 721.2565 Section 721.2565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2565 Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali and amine salts. 721.2565 Section 721.2565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2565 Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali and amine salts. 721.2565 Section 721.2565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2565 Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and...

  7. Non-Adiabatic Atomic Transitions: Computational Cross Section Calculations of Alkali Metal-Noble Gas Collisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    collisions were computationally simulated. The alkali metals were potassium, rubidium, and cesium and the noble gas partners were helium, neon, and argon...195 20. Spin-Orbit split energies of Potassium, Rubidium, and Cesium ...composed of an alkali metal typically Rubidium[26, 37] or Cesium [5, 18]. The unique character of the alkali atoms, having a single valence electron in

  8. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5985 - Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5985 Fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as a fatty alkyl phosphate, alkali metal salt (PMN P-99-0385) is subject to reporting under...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5452 - Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkali metal salt of halogenated... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5452 Alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (generic). (a... generically as alkali metal salt of halogenated organoborate (PMN P-00-0638) is subject to reporting...

  18. Formation of alkali-metal nanoparticles in alkali-silicate glasses under electron irradiation and thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkareva, E. S.; Sidorov, A. I.; Ignat'ev, A. I.; Nikonorov, N. V.; Podsvirov, O. A.

    2017-02-01

    Experiments and numerical simulation show that the irradiation of alkali-containing glasses using electrons at an energy of 35 keV and the subsequent thermal processing at a temperature above the vitrification point lead to the formation of spherical metal (lithium, sodium, and potassium) nanoparticles with oxide sheaths that exhibit plasmon resonances in the visible spectral range. Glasses containing two alkali metals exhibit mutual effect of metals on the formation of nanoparticles with two compositions due to the difference of ion radii and mobilities of metal ions.

  19. Cathodoluminescence characterization of experimentally shocked alkali feldspar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayama, M.; Nishido, H.; Sekine, T.; Ninagawa, K.

    2009-12-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and microscopy provide important information to know the existence and distribution of defects and trace elements in materials. CL features of materials depend on varieties of luminescence centers, host chemical compositions and crystal fields, all of which are closely related to the genetic processes. Advanced investigations on CL of shock-induced silica minerals have been attempted to estimate their shock pressures, although very few studies have been reported for feldspars. In this study, CL and Raman spectra of experimentally shocked alkali feldspar were measured to evaluate the shock metamorphic effect. A single crystal of sanidine (Or81Ab19) from Eifel, Germany was selected as a starting material for shock recovery experiments at peak pressures of about 10, 20, 32 and 40 GPa by a propellant gun. Polished thin sections of recovered samples were used for CL and Raman measurements. CL was collected in the range from 300 to 800 nm by a secondary electron microscopy-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) system. CL spectra of unshocked sample consist of two emission bands at around 420 nm in blue region and 720 nm in red-IR region assigned to Al-O--Al defect and Fe3+ impurity center, respectively. There are three features between unshocked and shocked sanidine. (1) The blue emission is absent in the shocked samples. (2) The peak wavelength of the red-IR emission shifts to a short wavelength side with an increase in shock pressure up to 20 GPa, suggesting the alteration of the crystal field related to Fe3+ activator by shock metamorphic effect. The Raman spectrum of the unshocked sample exhibits pronounced peaks at around 180, 205, 290, 490 and 520 cm-1. The intensities of these peaks decrease with an increase in shock pressure. The shocked samples above 32 GPa show only two weak peaks at around 490 and 580 cm-1 which were also observed in maskelynite in Martian meteorites. Shock pressure causes partly breaking of the framework structure

  20. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-05-18

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.