Science.gov

Sample records for alkaline anaerobic respiration

  1. Alkaline Anaerobic Respiration: Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Alkaliphilic and Metal-Reducing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Roh, Yul; Carroll, Susan L.; Blair, Benjamin; Zhou, Jizhong; Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2004-01-01

    Iron-reducing enrichments were obtained from leachate ponds at the U.S. Borax Company in Boron, Calif. Based on partial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (approximately 500 nucleotides), six isolates shared 98.9% nucleotide identity. As a representative, the isolate QYMF was selected for further analysis. QYMF could be grown with Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(III)-EDTA, Co(III)-EDTA, or Cr(VI) as electron acceptors, and yeast extract and lactate could serve as electron donors. Growth during iron reduction occurred over the pH range of 7.5 to 11.0 (optimum, pH 9.5), a sodium chloride range of 0 to 80 g/liter (optimum, 20 g/liter), and a temperature range of 4 to 45°C (optimum, approximately 35°C), and iron precipitates were formed. QYMF was a strict anaerobe that could be grown in the presence of borax, and the cells were straight rods that produced endospores. Sodium chloride and yeast extract stimulated growth. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA gene indicated that the bacterium was a low-G+C gram-positive microorganism and had 96 and 92% nucleotide identity with Alkaliphilus transvaalensis and Alkaliphilus crotonatoxidans, respectively. The major phospholipid fatty acids were 14:1, 16:1ω7c, and 16:0, which were different from those of other alkaliphiles but similar to those of reported iron-reducing bacteria. The results demonstrated that the isolate might represent a novel metal-reducing alkaliphilic species. The name Alkaliphilus metalliredigens sp. nov. is proposed. The isolation and activity of metal-reducing bacteria from borax-contaminated leachate ponds suggest that bioremediation of metal-contaminated alkaline environments may be feasible and have implications for alkaline anaerobic respiration. PMID:15345448

  2. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stams, A J M; Oude Elferink, S J W H; Westermann, P

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect to negative interactions in anaerobic digesters. In this chapter we review competitive and inhibitory interactions between anaerobic respiring populations and methanogenic consortia in bioreactors. Due to the few studies in anaerobic digesters, many of our discussions are based upon studies of defined cultures or natural ecosystems.

  3. Molecular AND logic gate based on bacterial anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Arugula, Mary Anitha; Shroff, Namita; Katz, Evgeny; He, Zhen

    2012-10-21

    Enzyme coding genes that integrate information for anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were used as input for constructing an AND logic gate. The absence of one or both genes inhibited electrochemically-controlled anaerobic respiration, while wild type bacteria were capable of accepting electrons from an electrode for DMSO reduction.

  4. Identification of Anaerobic Selenate-Respiring Bacteria from Aquatic Sediments▿

    PubMed Central

    Narasingarao, Priya; Häggblom, Max M.

    2007-01-01

    The diversity population of microorganisms with the capability to use selenate as a terminal electron acceptor, reducing it to selenite and elemental selenium by the process known as dissimilatory selenate reduction, is largely unknown. The overall objective of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of anaerobic biotransformation of selenium in the environment, particularly anaerobic respiration, and to characterize the microorganisms catalyzing this process. Here, we demonstrate the isolation and characterization of four novel anaerobic dissimilatory selenate-respiring bacteria enriched from a variety of sources, including sediments from three different water bodies in Chennai, India, and a tidal estuary in New Jersey. Strains S5 and S7 from India, strain KM from the Meadowlands, NJ, and strain pn1, categorized as a laboratory contaminant, were all phylogenetically distinct, belonging to various phyla in the bacterial domain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence shows that strain S5 constitutes a new genus belonging to Chrysiogenetes, while strain S7 belongs to the Deferribacteres, with greater than 98% 16S rRNA gene similarity to Geovibrio ferrireducens. Strain KM is related to Malonomonas rubra, Pelobacter acidigallici, and Desulfuromusa spp., with 96 to 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity. Strain pn1 is 99% similar to Pseudomonas stutzeri. Strains S5, S7, and KM are obligately anaerobic selenate-respiring microorganisms, while strain pn1 is facultatively anaerobic. Besides respiring selenate, all these strains also respire nitrate. PMID:17435005

  5. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  6. The Energetics of Aerobic versus Anaerobic Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Timothy D.; Schwenz, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and a discussion of the results of an experiment designed to investigate the difference in energy gained from the aerobic and anaerobic oxidation of glucose are presented. Sample experimental and calculated data are included. (CW)

  7. Anaerobic respiration of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shari A; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2011-10-01

    The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in

  8. [Anaerobic humus respiration by Shewanella cinica D14T].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-cheng; Hong, Yi-guo; Luo, Wei; Chen, Xing-juan; Sun, Guo-ping; Xu, Mei-ying; Guo, Jun; Cen, Ying-hua

    2006-12-01

    Experimental results suggested Shewanella cinica D14T is capable of humus respiration utilizing various organic acids and some important environmental pollutants (e.g., toluene. etc) as electron donors and AQS or AQDS as a sole terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic condition. The dissimilatory reduction of 1mmol/L AQDS can couple to the production of enough ATP to support cell growth about 60 generations; The oxidization of electron donors was coupled to the reduction of humus, as reduced humus increased corresponding with increasing of electron donor; The typical inhibitors such as Cu2+ which inhibited Fe-S center, Stigmatellin which was methyl-naphthoquinone model, Dicumarol which inhibited oxidized methyl-naphthoquinone transform to reduced one, Metyrapone which was specific inhibitor for P450 enzyme blocked the humus respiration seriously. These were powerful evidences for humus-respiration by D14.

  9. Alkaline post-treatment for improved sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Zou, Shuxin; Li, Chenchen; Jin, Yiying

    2013-07-01

    Alkaline post-treatment was tested in order to improve sludge anaerobic digestion. Between the 8th and the 12th hour of a 24-h digestion cycle, 5% of sludge was extracted from a semi-continuous digester with a sludge retention time of 20 days. The sludge was then disintegrated with 0.1 mol/L NaOH and returned to the digester after neutralization. The results showed that alkaline post-treatment increased the level of soluble organic substances in the extracted sludge, particularly of volatile fatty acids and polysaccharides. This process resulted in a 33% enhancement of biogas production in comparison with the control. When the ratio of the recycled sludge was further increased to 10% or 15%, the increment of biogas yield was reduced, due to excessive inactivation of anaerobic bacteria in the digester. Alkaline post-treatment had a minimal impact on the dewaterability of digested sludge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The respiration pattern as an indicator of the anaerobic threshold.

    PubMed

    Mirmohamadsadeghi, Leila; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Lemay, Mathieu; Deriaz, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    The anaerobic threshold (AT) is a good index of personal endurance but needs a laboratory setting to be determined. It is important to develop easy AT field measurements techniques in order to rapidly adapt training programs. In the present study, it is postulated that the variability of the respiratory parameters decreases with exercise intensity (especially at the AT level). The aim of this work was to assess, on healthy trained subjects, the putative relationships between the variability of some respiration parameters and the AT. The heart rate and respiratory variables (volume, rate) were measured during an incremental exercise performed on a treadmill by healthy moderately trained subjects. Results show a decrease in the variance of 1/tidal volume with the intensity of exercise. Consequently, the cumulated variance (sum of the variance measured at each level of the exercise) follows an exponential relationship with respect to the intensity to reach eventually a plateau. The amplitude of this plateau is closely related to the AT (r=-0.8). It is concluded that the AT is related to the variability of the respiration.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa anaerobic respiration in biofilms: relationships to cystic fibrosis pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang Sun; Hennigan, Robert F; Hilliard, George M; Ochsner, Urs A; Parvatiyar, Kislay; Kamani, Moneesha C; Allen, Holly L; DeKievit, Teresa R; Gardner, Paul R; Schwab, Ute; Rowe, John J; Iglewski, Barbara H; McDermott, Timothy R; Mason, Ronald P; Wozniak, Daniel J; Hancock, Robert E W; Parsek, Matthew R; Noah, Terry L; Boucher, Richard C; Hassett, Daniel J

    2002-10-01

    Recent data indicate that cystic fibrosis (CF) airway mucus is anaerobic. This suggests that Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in CF reflects biofilm formation and persistence in an anaerobic environment. P. aeruginosa formed robust anaerobic biofilms, the viability of which requires rhl quorum sensing and nitric oxide (NO) reductase to modulate or prevent accumulation of toxic NO, a byproduct of anaerobic respiration. Proteomic analyses identified an outer membrane protein, OprF, that was upregulated approximately 40-fold under anaerobic versus aerobic conditions. Further, OprF exists in CF mucus, and CF patients raise antisera to OprF. An oprF mutant formed poor anaerobic biofilms, due, in part, to defects in anaerobic respiration. Thus, future investigations of CF pathogenesis and therapy should include a better understanding of anaerobic metabolism and biofilm development by P. aeruginosa.

  12. The effect of metabolic inhibitors on the development of respiration in anaerobically grown yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, W.; Tustanoff, E. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Iodoacetate and fluoride did not prevent the development of respiration in aerobically grown yeast. 2. The effect of dinitrophenol suggested that phosphorylation developed simultaneously with respiration in anaerobically grown yeast, but the effect of oligomycin suggested that the phosphorylation and oxidation were not tightly coupled. 3. Inhibitors of electron transport showed that both the respiratory peak and the subsequent respiration were cyanide-sensitive, but the peak respiration was insensitive to antimycin. 4. Of the inhibitors of protein or RNA synthesis tested, only p-fluorophenylalanine inhibited the development of respiration. The results are not consistent with a new synthesis of mitochondria. 5. 2-Phenylethanol inhibited the development of respiration in anaerobically grown yeast and also yeast growth. Other inhibitors of DNA synthesis had no effect on the development of respiration. 6. The relevance of the results to mitochondrial morphogenesis is discussed. PMID:4290405

  13. Anaerobic digestion of tomato processing waste: Effect of alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Greco, Rosa; Evangelou, Alexandros; Komilis, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the work was to assess the effect of mild alkaline pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradability of tomato processing waste (TPW). Experiments were carried out in duplicate BMP bottles using a pretreatment contact time of 4 and 24 h and a 1% and 5% NaOH dosage. The cumulative methane production during a 30 d period was recorded and modelled. The alkaline pretreatment did not significantly affect methane production in any of the treatments in comparison to the control. The average methane production for all runs was 320 NmL/gVS. Based on first order kinetic modelling, the alkaline pretreatment was found to slow down the rate of methanogenesis, mainly in the two reactors with the highest NaOH dosage. The biodegradability of the substrates ranged from 0.75 to 0.82 and from 0.66 to 0.72 based on two different approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial Drug Tolerance under Clinical Conditions Is Governed by Anaerobic Adaptation but not Anaerobic Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Hemsley, Claudia M.; Luo, Jamie X.; Andreae, Clio A.; Butler, Clive S.; Soyer, Orkun S.

    2014-01-01

    Noninherited antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon whereby a subpopulation of genetically identical bacteria displays phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics. We show here that compared to Escherichia coli, the clinically relevant genus Burkholderia displays much higher levels of cells that tolerate ceftazidime. By measuring the dynamics of the formation of drug-tolerant cells under conditions that mimic in vivo infections, we show that in Burkholderia bacteria, oxygen levels affect the formation of these cells. The drug-tolerant cells are characterized by an anaerobic metabolic signature and can be eliminated by oxygenating the system or adding nitrate. The transcriptome profile suggests that these cells are not dormant persister cells and are likely to be drug tolerant as a consequence of the upregulation of anaerobic nitrate respiration, efflux pumps, β-lactamases, and stress response proteins. These findings have important implications for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections and the methodologies and conditions that are used to study drug-tolerant and persister cells in vitro. PMID:25049258

  15. Bacterial drug tolerance under clinical conditions is governed by anaerobic adaptation but not anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Hemsley, Claudia M; Luo, Jamie X; Andreae, Clio A; Butler, Clive S; Soyer, Orkun S; Titball, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Noninherited antibiotic resistance is a phenomenon whereby a subpopulation of genetically identical bacteria displays phenotypic tolerance to antibiotics. We show here that compared to Escherichia coli, the clinically relevant genus Burkholderia displays much higher levels of cells that tolerate ceftazidime. By measuring the dynamics of the formation of drug-tolerant cells under conditions that mimic in vivo infections, we show that in Burkholderia bacteria, oxygen levels affect the formation of these cells. The drug-tolerant cells are characterized by an anaerobic metabolic signature and can be eliminated by oxygenating the system or adding nitrate. The transcriptome profile suggests that these cells are not dormant persister cells and are likely to be drug tolerant as a consequence of the upregulation of anaerobic nitrate respiration, efflux pumps, β-lactamases, and stress response proteins. These findings have important implications for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections and the methodologies and conditions that are used to study drug-tolerant and persister cells in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Hemsley et al.

  16. Influence of the molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis on anaerobic respiration, biofilm formation and motility in Burkholderia thailandensis.

    PubMed

    Andreae, Clio A; Titball, Richard W; Butler, Clive S

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis is closely related to Burkholderia pseudomallei, a bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis. B. pseudomallei can survive and persist within a hypoxic environment for up to one year and has been shown to grow anaerobically in the presence of nitrate. Currently, little is known about the role of anaerobic respiration in pathogenesis of melioidosis. Using B. thailandensis as a model, a library of 1344 transposon mutants was created to identify genes required for anaerobic nitrate respiration. One transposon mutant (CA01) was identified with an insertion in BTH_I1704 (moeA), a gene required for the molybdopterin biosynthetic pathway. This pathway is involved in the synthesis of a molybdopterin cofactor required for a variety of molybdoenzymes, including nitrate reductase. Disruption of molybdopterin biosynthesis prevented growth under anaerobic conditions, when using nitrate as the sole terminal electron acceptor. Defects in anaerobic respiration, nitrate reduction, motility and biofilm formation were observed for CA01. Mutant complementation with pDA-17:BTH_I1704 was able to restore anaerobic growth on nitrate, nitrate reductase activity and biofilm formation, but did not restore motility. This study highlights the potential importance of molybdoenzyme-dependent anaerobic respiration in the survival and virulence of B. thailandensis. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Cholera Toxin Production Induced upon Anaerobic Respiration is Suppressed by Glucose Fermentation in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Kang-Mu; Bari, Wasimul; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2016-03-01

    The causative agent of pandemic cholera, Vibrio cholerae, infects the anaerobic environment of the human intestine. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly induced during anaerobic respiration with trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. However, the molecular mechanism of TMAO-stimulated CT production is not fully understood. Herein, we reveal that CT production during anaerobic TMAO respiration is affected by glucose fermentation. When the seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain N16961 was grown with TMAO and additional glucose, CT production was markedly reduced. Furthermore, an N16961 Δcrp mutant, devoid of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), was defective in CT production during growth by anaerobic TMAO respiration, further suggesting a role of glucose metabolism in regulating TMAO-mediated CT production. TMAO reductase activity was noticeably decreased when grown together with glucose or by mutation of the crp gene. A CRP binding region was identified in the promoter region of the torD gene, which encodes a structural subunit of the TMAO reductase. Gel shift assays further confirmed the binding of purified CRP to the torD promoter sequence. Together, our results suggest that the bacterial ability to respire using TMAO is controlled by CRP, whose activity is dependent on glucose availability. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of major virulence factor production by V. cholerae under anaerobic growth conditions.

  18. Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Jin, Shuguang; Li, Dongyi; Zhang, Meixia; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion efficiency, combination pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization was applied to pretreat sewage sludge. Effect of alkaline dosage on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated in detail. SCOD of sludge supernatant significantly increased with the alkaline dosage increase after the combined pretreatment because of sludge disintegration. Organics were significantly degraded after the anaerobic digestion, and the maximal SCOD, TCOD and VS removal was 73.5%, 61.3% and 43.5%, respectively. Cumulative biogas production, methane content in biogas and biogas production rate obviously increased with the alkaline dosage increase. Considering both the biogas production and alkaline dosage, the optimal alkaline dosage was selected as 0.04 mol/L. Relationships between biogas production and sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas was mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration. The methane yield linearly increased with the DDCOD increase as Methane yield (ml/gVS)=4.66 DDCOD-9.69. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Siderophores are not involved in Fe(III) solubilization during anaerobic Fe(III) respiration by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Fennessey, Christine M; Jones, Morris E; Taillefert, Martial; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2010-04-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 respires a wide range of anaerobic electron acceptors, including sparingly soluble Fe(III) oxides. In the present study, S. oneidensis was found to produce Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligands during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration, a respiratory strategy postulated to destabilize Fe(III) and produce more readily reducible soluble organic Fe(III). In-frame gene deletion mutagenesis, siderophore detection assays, and voltammetric techniques were combined to determine (i) if the Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligands produced by S. oneidensis during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration were synthesized via siderophore biosynthesis systems and (ii) if the Fe(III)-siderophore reductase was required for respiration of soluble organic Fe(III) as an anaerobic electron acceptor. Genes predicted to encode the siderophore (hydroxamate) biosynthesis system (SO3030 to SO3032), the Fe(III)-hydroxamate receptor (SO3033), and the Fe(III)-hydroxamate reductase (SO3034) were identified in the S. oneidensis genome, and corresponding in-frame gene deletion mutants were constructed. DeltaSO3031 was unable to synthesize siderophores or produce soluble organic Fe(III) during aerobic respiration yet retained the ability to solubilize and respire Fe(III) at wild-type rates during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration. DeltaSO3034 retained the ability to synthesize siderophores during aerobic respiration and to solubilize and respire Fe(III) at wild-type rates during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration. These findings indicate that the Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligands produced by S. oneidensis during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration are not synthesized via the hydroxamate biosynthesis system and that the Fe(III)-hydroxamate reductase is not essential for respiration of Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as an anaerobic electron acceptor.

  20. Contribution of cell elongation to the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mi Young; Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2011-01-18

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacterium of clinical importance, forms more robust biofilm during anaerobic respiration, a mode of growth presumed to occur in abnormally thickened mucus layer lining the cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airway. However, molecular basis behind this anaerobiosis-triggered robust biofilm formation is not clearly defined yet. Here, we identified a morphological change naturally accompanied by anaerobic respiration in P. aeruginosa and investigated its effect on the biofilm formation in vitro. A standard laboratory strain, PAO1 was highly elongated during anaerobic respiration compared with bacteria grown aerobically. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that cell elongation likely occurred as a consequence of defective cell division. Cell elongation was dependent on the presence of nitrite reductase (NIR) that reduces nitrite (NO(2) (-)) to nitric oxide (NO) and was repressed in PAO1 in the presence of carboxy-PTIO, a NO antagonist, demonstrating that cell elongation involves a process to respond to NO, a spontaneous byproduct of the anaerobic respiration. Importantly, the non-elongated NIR-deficient mutant failed to form biofilm, while a mutant of nitrate reductase (NAR) and wild type PAO1, both of which were highly elongated, formed robust biofilm. Taken together, our data reveal a role of previously undescribed cell biological event in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and suggest NIR as a key player involved in such process.

  1. Contribution of Cell Elongation to the Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Anaerobic Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative bacterium of clinical importance, forms more robust biofilm during anaerobic respiration, a mode of growth presumed to occur in abnormally thickened mucus layer lining the cystic fibrosis (CF) patient airway. However, molecular basis behind this anaerobiosis-triggered robust biofilm formation is not clearly defined yet. Here, we identified a morphological change naturally accompanied by anaerobic respiration in P. aeruginosa and investigated its effect on the biofilm formation in vitro. A standard laboratory strain, PAO1 was highly elongated during anaerobic respiration compared with bacteria grown aerobically. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that cell elongation likely occurred as a consequence of defective cell division. Cell elongation was dependent on the presence of nitrite reductase (NIR) that reduces nitrite (NO2−) to nitric oxide (NO) and was repressed in PAO1 in the presence of carboxy-PTIO, a NO antagonist, demonstrating that cell elongation involves a process to respond to NO, a spontaneous byproduct of the anaerobic respiration. Importantly, the non-elongated NIR-deficient mutant failed to form biofilm, while a mutant of nitrate reductase (NAR) and wild type PAO1, both of which were highly elongated, formed robust biofilm. Taken together, our data reveal a role of previously undescribed cell biological event in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and suggest NIR as a key player involved in such process. PMID:21267455

  2. Activation of Cholera Toxin Production by Anaerobic Respiration of Trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor. PMID:23019319

  3. Activation of cholera toxin production by anaerobic respiration of trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Bari, Wasimul; Yoon, Mi Young; Go, Junhyeok; Kim, Sang Cheol; Lee, Hyung-Il; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2012-11-16

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes cholera. Although the pathogenesis caused by this deadly pathogen takes place in the intestine, commonly thought to be anaerobic, anaerobiosis-induced virulence regulations are not fully elucidated. Anerobic growth of the V. cholerae strain, N16961, was promoted when trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) was used as an alternative electron acceptor. Strikingly, cholera toxin (CT) production was markedly induced during anaerobic TMAO respiration. N16961 mutants unable to metabolize TMAO were incapable of producing CT, suggesting a mechanistic link between anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production. TMAO reductase is transported to the periplasm via the twin arginine transport (TAT) system. A similar defect in both anaerobic TMAO respiration and CT production was also observed in a N16961 TAT mutant. In contrast, the abilities to grow on TMAO and to produce CT were not affected in a mutant of the general secretion pathway. This suggests that V. cholerae may utilize the TAT system to secrete CT during TMAO respiration. During anaerobic growth with TMAO, N16961 cells exhibit green fluorescence when stained with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, a specific dye for reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, CT production was decreased in the presence of an ROS scavenger suggesting a positive role of ROS in regulating CT production. When TMAO was co-administered to infant mice infected with N16961, the mice exhibited more severe pathogenic symptoms. Together, our results reveal a novel anaerobic growth condition that stimulates V. cholerae to produce its major virulence factor.

  4. Bacteria associated with deep, alkaline, anaerobic groundwaters in Southeast Washington.

    PubMed

    Stevens, T O; McKinley, J P; Fredrickson, J K

    1993-01-01

    The microbial diversity in two deep, confined aquifers, the Grande Ronde (1270 m) and the Priest Rapids (316 m), Hanford Reservation, Washington, USA, was investigated by sampling from artesian wells. These basaltic aquifers were alkaline (pH 8.5 to 10.5) and anaerobic (Eh -200 to -450 mV). The wells were allowed to free-flow until pH and Eh stabilized, then the microflora was sampled with water filtration and flow-through sandtrap methods. Direct microscopic counts showed 7.6 × 10(5) and 3.6 × 10(3) bacteria ml(-1) in water from the Grande Ronde and Priest Rapids aquifers, respectively. The sand filter method yielded 5.7 × 10(8) and 1.1 × 10(5) cells g(-1) wet weight of sand. The numbers of bacteria did not decrease as increasing volumes of water were flushed out. The heterotrophic diversity of these bacterial populations was assessed using enrichments for 20 functional groups. These groups were defined by their ability to grow in a matrix of five different electron acceptors (O2, Fe(III), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-)) and four groups of electron donors (fermentation products, monomers, polymers, aromatics) in a mineral salts medium at pH 9.5. Growth was assessed by protein production. Culture media were subsequently analyzed to determine substrate utilization patterns. Substrate utilization patterns proved to be more reliable indicators of the presence of a particular physiological group than was protein production. The sand-trap method obtained a greater diversity of bacteria than did water filtration, presumably by enriching the proportion of normally sessile bacteria relative to planktonic bacteria. Substrate utilization patterns were different for microflora from the two aquifers and corresponded to their different geochemistries. Activities in the filtered water enrichments more closely matched those predicted by aquifer geochemistry than did the sand-trap enrichments. The greatest activities were found in Fe(III)-reducing enrichments from both wells, SO4

  5. Anaerobic growth and potential for amino acid production by nitrate respiration in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Seiki; Ohnishi, Junko; Komatsu, Tomoha; Masaki, Tatsuya; Sen, Kikuo; Ikeda, Masato

    2007-07-01

    Oxygen limitation is a crucial problem in amino acid fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Toward this subject, our study was initiated by analysis of the oxygen-requiring properties of C. glutamicum, generally regarded as a strict aerobe. This organism formed colonies on agar plates up to relatively low oxygen concentrations (0.5% O(2)), while no visible colonies were formed in the absence of O(2). However, in the presence of nitrate (NO3-), the organism exhibited limited growth anaerobically with production of nitrite (NO2-), indicating that C. glutamicum can use nitrate as a final electron acceptor. Assays of cell extracts from aerobic and hypoxic cultures yielded comparable nitrate reductase activities, irrespective of nitrate levels. Genome analysis revealed a narK2GHJI cluster potentially relevant to nitrate reductase and transport. Disruptions of narG and narJ abolished the nitrate-dependent anaerobic growth with the loss of nitrate reductase activity. Disruption of the putative nitrate/nitrite antiporter gene narK2 did not affect the enzyme activity but impaired the anaerobic growth. These indicate that this locus is responsible for nitrate respiration. Agar piece assays using L-lysine- and L-arginine-producing strains showed that production of both amino acids occurred anaerobically by nitrate respiration, indicating the potential of C. glutamicum for anaerobic amino acid production.

  6. The regulatory role of ferric uptake regulator (Fur) during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-Wei; He, Ying; Xu, Jun; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT), but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs) were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system.

  7. The Regulatory Role of Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) during Anaerobic Respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin-Wei; He, Ying; Xu, Jun; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT), but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs) were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system. PMID:24124499

  8. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Torres, M. Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-11-15

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

  9. Low-heat, mild alkaline pretreatment of switchgrass for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang; Bierma, Tom; Walker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of alkaline pretreatment under mild heat conditions (100°C or 212°F) on the anaerobic co-digestion of switchgrass. The effects of alkaline concentration, types of alkaline, heating time and rinsing were evaluated. In addition to batch studies, continuous-feed studies were performed in triplicate to identify potential digester operational problems caused by switchgrass co-digestion while accounting for uncertainty due to digester variability. Few studies have examined anaerobic digestion of switchgrass or the effects of mild heating to enhance alkaline pretreatment prior to biomass digestion. Results indicate that pretreatment can significantly enhance digestion of coarse-ground (≤ 0.78 cm particle size) switchgrass. Energy conversion efficiency as high as 63% was observed, and was comparable or superior to fine-grinding as a pretreatment method. The optimal NaOH concentration was found to be 5.5% (wt/wt alkaline/biomass) with a 91.7% moisture level. No evidence of operational problems such as solids build-up, poor mixing, or floating materials were observed. These results suggest the use of waste heat from a generator could reduce the concentration of alkaline required to adequately pretreat lignocellulosic feedstock prior to anaerobic digestion.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of thermal-alkaline-pretreated cephalosporin bacterial residues for methane production.

    PubMed

    Li, Guixia; Zhong, Weizhang; Wang, Rui; Chen, Jiaqi; Li, Zaixing

    2017-08-01

    Optimum anaerobic conditions of cephalosporin bacterial residues after thermal-alkaline pretreatment were determined by orthogonal experiments. And through biochemical methane potential tests (BMPs) for cephalosporin bacterial residues, the ability for bacterial degradation of cephalosporin was also evaluated. The thermal-alkaline pretreatment with the optimum values of 6% NaOH at 105 °C for 15 min significantly improved digestion performance. With the thermal-alkaline pretreatment, the specific methane yield of the pretreated cephalosporin bacterial residue increased by 254.79% compared with that of the un-pretreated cephalosporin bacterial residue. The results showed that anaerobic digestion of thermal-alkaline-pretreated cephalosporin bacterial residues could be one of the options for efficient methane production and waste treatment. This work investigates the thermal-alkaline pretreatment of cephalosporin bacterial residues, which can increase their methane yield by 254.79% compared with no pretreatment. The digestion performance is significantly improved under the condition of 6% NaOH at 105 °C for 15 min. The results show that anaerobic digestion of thermal-alkaline-pretreated cephalosporin bacterial residues could be one of the options for efficient methane production and waste treatment.

  11. Dissimilatory reduction of extracellular electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Richter, Katrin; Schicklberger, Marcus; Gescher, Johannes

    2012-02-01

    An extension of the respiratory chain to the cell surface is necessary to reduce extracellular electron acceptors like ferric iron or manganese oxides. In the past few years, more and more compounds were revealed to be reduced at the surface of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and the list does not seem to have an end so far. Shewanella as well as Geobacter strains are model organisms to discover the biochemistry that enables the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular electron acceptors. In both cases, c-type cytochromes are essential electron-transferring proteins. They make the journey of respiratory electrons from the cytoplasmic membrane through periplasm and over the outer membrane possible. Outer membrane cytochromes have the ability to catalyze the last step of the respiratory chains. Still, recent discoveries provided evidence that they are accompanied by further factors that allow or at least facilitate extracellular reduction. This review gives a condensed overview of our current knowledge of extracellular respiration, highlights recent discoveries, and discusses critically the influence of different strategies for terminal electron transfer reactions.

  12. Impacts of Shewanella oneidensis c-type cytochromes on aerobic and anaerobic respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Barua, Soumitra; Liang, Yili; Wu, Lianming; Dong, Yangyang; Reed, Samantha B.; Chen, Jingrong; Culley, David E.; Kennedy, David W.; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Tiedje, James M.; Romine, Margaret F.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-06-24

    Shewanella are renowned for their ability to utilize a wide range of electron acceptors (EA) for respiration, which has been partially accredited to the presence of a large number of the c-type cytochromes. To investigate the involvement of c-type cytochrome proteins in aerobic and anaerobic respiration of Shewanella oneidensis Mr -1, 36 in-frame deletion mutants, among possible 41 predicted, c-type cytochrome genes were obtained. The potential involvement of each individual c-type cytochrome in the reduction of a variety of EAs was assessed individually as well as in competition experiments. While results on the wellstudied c-type cytochromes CymA(SO4591) and MtrC(SO1778) were consistent with previous findings, collective observations were very interesting: the responses of S. oneidensis Mr -1 to low and highly toxic metals appeared to be significantly different; CcoO, CcoP and PetC, proteins involved in aerobic respiration in various organisms, played critical roles in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration with highly toxic metals as EA. In addition, these studies also suggested that an uncharacterized c-type cytochrome (SO4047) may be important to both aerobiosis and anaerobiosis.

  13. Impacts of Shewanella oneidensis c-type cytochromes on aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haichun; Barua, Soumitra; Liang, Yili; Wu, Lin; Dong, Yangyang; Reed, Samantha; Chen, Jingrong; Culley, Dave; Kennedy, David; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Nealson, Kenneth H; Fredrickson, James K; Tiedje, James M; Romine, Margaret; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-07-01

    Shewanella are renowned for their ability to utilize a wide range of electron acceptors (EA) for respiration, which has been partially accredited to the presence of a large number of the c-type cytochromes. To investigate the involvement of c-type cytochrome proteins in aerobic and anaerobic respiration of Shewanella oneidensis Mr -1, 36 in-frame deletion mutants, among possible 41 predicted, c-type cytochrome genes were obtained. The potential involvement of each individual c-type cytochrome in the reduction of a variety of EAs was assessed individually as well as in competition experiments. While results on the well-studied c-type cytochromes CymA(SO4591) and MtrC(SO1778) were consistent with previous findings, collective observations were very interesting: the responses of S. oneidensis Mr -1 to low and highly toxic metals appeared to be significantly different; CcoO, CcoP and PetC, proteins involved in aerobic respiration in various organisms, played critical roles in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration with highly toxic metals as EA. In addition, these studies also suggested that an uncharacterized c-type cytochrome (SO4047) may be important to both aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Impacts of Shewanella oneidensis c‐type cytochromes on aerobic and anaerobic respiration

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Haichun; Barua, Soumitra; Liang, Yili; Wu, Lin; Dong, Yangyang; Reed, Samantha; Chen, Jingrong; Culley, Dave; Kennedy, David; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrickson, James K.; Tiedje, James M.; Romine, Margaret; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    Summary Shewanella are renowned for their ability to utilize a wide range of electron acceptors (EA) for respiration, which has been partially accredited to the presence of a large number of the c‐type cytochromes. To investigate the involvement of c‐type cytochrome proteins in aerobic and anaerobic respiration of Shewanella oneidensis Mr ‐1, 36 in‐frame deletion mutants, among possible 41 predicted, c‐type cytochrome genes were obtained. The potential involvement of each individual c‐type cytochrome in the reduction of a variety of EAs was assessed individually as well as in competition experiments. While results on the well‐studied c‐type cytochromes CymA(SO4591) and MtrC(SO1778) were consistent with previous findings, collective observations were very interesting: the responses of S. oneidensis Mr ‐1 to low and highly toxic metals appeared to be significantly different; CcoO, CcoP and PetC, proteins involved in aerobic respiration in various organisms, played critical roles in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration with highly toxic metals as EA. In addition, these studies also suggested that an uncharacterized c‐type cytochrome (SO4047) may be important to both aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. PMID:21255343

  15. Taurine reduction in anaerobic respiration of Bilophila wadsworthia RZATAU.

    PubMed

    Laue, H; Denger, K; Cook, A M

    1997-05-01

    Organosulfonates are important natural and man-made compounds, but until recently (T. J. Lie, T. Pitta, E. R. Leadbetter, W. Godchaux III, and J. R. Leadbetter. Arch. Microbiol. 166:204-210, 1996), they were not believed to be dissimilated under anoxic conditions. We also chose to test whether alkane- and arenesulfonates could serve as electron sinks in respiratory metabolism. We generated 60 anoxic enrichment cultures in mineral salts medium which included several potential electron donors and a single organic sulfonate as an electron sink, and we used material from anaerobic digestors in communal sewage works as inocula. None of the four aromatic sulfonates, the three unsubstituted alkanesulfonates, or the N-sulfonate tested gave positive enrichment cultures requiring both the electron donor and electron sink for growth. Nine cultures utilizing the natural products taurine, cysteate, or isethionate were considered positive for growth, and all formed sulfide. Two clearly different pure cultures were examined. Putative Desulfovibrio sp. strain RZACYSA, with lactate as the electron donor, utilized sulfate, aminomethanesulfonate, taurine, isethionate, and cysteate, converting the latter to ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Strain RZATAU was identified by 16S rDNA analysis as Bilophila wadsworthia. In the presence of, e.g., formate as the electron donor, it utilized, e.g., cysteate and isethionate and converted taurine quantitatively to cell material and products identified as ammonia, acetate, and sulfide. Sulfite and thiosulfate, but not sulfate, were utilized as electron sinks, as was nitrate, when lactate was provided as the electron donor and carbon source. A growth requirement for 1,4-naphthoquinone indicates a menaquinone electron carrier, and the presence of cytochrome c supports the presence of an electron transport chain. Pyruvate-dependent disappearance of taurine from cell extracts, as well as formation of alanine and release of ammonia and acetate, was

  16. Online estimation of VFA, alkalinity and bicarbonate concentrations by electrical conductivity measurement during anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Lara, Cesar-Arturo; Latrille, Eric; Conte, T; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of electrical conductivity for measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA), alkalinity and bicarbonate concentrations, during the anaerobic fermentation process. Two anaerobic continuous processes were studied: the first was a laboratory reactor for hydrogen production from molasses and the second was a pilot process for anaerobic digestion (AD) of vinasses producing methane. In the hydrogen production process, the total VFA concentration, but not bicarbonate concentration, was well estimated from the on-line electrical conductivity measurements with a simple linear regression model. In the methane production process, the bicarbonate concentration and the VFA concentration were well estimated from the simultaneous on-line measurements of pH and electrical conductivity by means of non-linear regression with neural network models. Moreover, the total alkalinity concentration was well estimated from electrical conductivity measurements with a simple linear regression model. This demonstrates the use of electrical conductivity for monitoring the AD processes.

  17. Transport, anoxia and energy control on anaerobic respiration and methanogenesis in anoxic peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaiuti, Simona; Blodau, Christian; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2017-04-01

    In deep and permanently water saturated peat deposits, extremely low diffusive transport and concomitant build-up of metabolic end-products, i.e of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and methane (CH4), have been found to slow-down anaerobic respiration and methanogenesis. Such accumulation of DIC and CH4 lowers the Gibbs free energy yield of terminal respiration and methanogenesis, which can inhibit the course of anaerobic metabolic processes. In particular, this affects terminal steps of the breakdown of organic carbon (C), such as methanogenesis, acetogenesis and fermentation processes, which occur near thermodynamic minimum energy thresholds. This effect is thus of critical importance for the long-term C sequestration, as the slow-down of decomposition ultimately regulates the long-term fate of C in deep peat deposits. The exact controls of this observed slow-down of organic matter mineralization are not yet fully understood. Moreover, altered patterns of water or gas transport due to predicted changes in climate may affect these controls in peat soils. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how burial of peat leads to an inactivation of anaerobic decomposition and to investigate the effects of advective water transport and persistently anoxic conditions on anaerobic decomposition, temporal evolution of thermodynamic energy yields to methanogenesis and methanogenic pathways. To this end, we conducted a column experiment with homogenized, ombrotrophic peat over a period of 300 days at 20˚ C. We tested i) a control treatment under diffusive transport only, ii) an advective flow treatment with a flow of 10 mm d-1, and iv) an anoxic treatment to evaluate changes in decomposition in absence of oxygen in the unsaturated zone of the cores. A slow-down of anaerobic respiration and methanogenesis generally set in at larger depths after 150 days at CH4 concentrations of 0.6-0.9 mmol L-1 and DIC concentrations of 6-12 mmol L-1. This effect occurred at higher

  18. Distinct and diverse anaerobic respiration of methanogenic community in response to MnO2 nanoparticles in anaerobic digester sludge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Qiao, Sen; Yu, Cong; Tian, Yihui; Yang, Yue; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-10-15

    Recently, the influence of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on methanogenesis in anaerobic digestion has drawn much attention, however, the changes in NPs and functioning consortia within the methanogenic community are usually not investigated. Therefore, the methanogenesis performance, NPs transformation and methanogenic community development in anaerobic digester sludge under MnO2 NP supplementation were demonstrated in this study. MnO2 NPs (400 mg/gVSS) stimulated the methane (CH4) yield by 42% for a final CH4 proportion of 81.8% of the total gas production. Meanwhile, the coenzyme F420 and INT-electron transport system activities showed positive correlation with MnO2 concentration. Microbial Mn reduction and oxidation occurred in conjunction with methanogenesis, resulting in transformation of the shape of the MnO2 NPs from wire-like to globular particles. Microbial community analysis indicated that the relative abundances of genera Methanobacterium, Methanosaeta, and Methanosarcina were higher in the presence of MnO2 NPs. Moreover, a new and different crucial synergy within the methanogenic community was formed with low-abundance consortia driving Mn respiration coupled to methanogenesis in anaerobic digestion. To our knowledge, this is the first report on transformation of metal oxides NPs combined with syntrophic community development in studies focusing on methanogenesis in response to NPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Gene expression profiling of Corynebacterium glutamicum during Anaerobic nitrate respiration: induction of the SOS response for cell survival.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Taku; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2011-03-01

    The gene expression profile of Corynebacterium glutamicum under anaerobic nitrate respiration revealed marked differences in the expression levels of a number of genes involved in a variety of cellular functions, including carbon metabolism and respiratory electron transport chain, compared to the profile under aerobic conditions using DNA microarrays. Many SOS genes were upregulated by the shift from aerobic to anaerobic nitrate respiration. An elongated cell morphology, similar to that induced by the DivS-mediated suppression of cell division upon cell exposure to the DNA-damaging reagent mitomycin C, was observed in cells subjected to anaerobic nitrate respiration. None of these transcriptional and morphological differences were observed in a recA mutant strain lacking a functional RecA regulator of the SOS response. The recA mutant cells additionally showed significantly reduced viability compared to wild-type cells similarly grown under anaerobic nitrate respiration. These results suggest a role for the RecA-mediated SOS response in the ability of cells to survive any DNA damage that may result from anaerobic nitrate respiration in C. glutamicum.

  20. Selenihalanaerobacter shriftii gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic anaerobe from Dead Sea sediments that respires selenate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Switzer, Blum J.; Stolz, J.F.; Oren, A.; Oremland, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    We isolated an obligately anaerobic halophilic bacterium from the Dead Sea that grew by respiration of selenate. The isolate, designated strain DSSe-1, was a gram-negative, non-motile rod. It oxidized glycerol or glucose to acetate+CO2 with concomitant reduction of selenate to selenite plus elemental selenium. Other electron acceptors that supported anaerobic growth on glycerol were nitrate and trimethylamine-N-oxide; nitrite, arsenate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite or sulfate could not serve as electron acceptors. Growth on glycerol in the presence of nitrate occurred over a salinity range from 100 to 240 g/l, with an optimum at 210 g/l. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence suggests that strain DSSe-1 belongs to the order Halanaerobiales, an order of halophilic anaerobes with a fermentative or homoacetogenic metabolism, in which anaerobic respiratory metabolism has never been documented. The highest 16S rRNA sequence similarity (90%) was found with Acetohalobium arabaticum (X89077). On the basis of physiological properties as well as the relatively low homology of 16S rRNA from strain DSSe-1 with known genera, classification in a new genus within the order Halanaerobiales, family Halobacteroidaceae is warranted. We propose the name Selenihalanaerobacter shriftii. Type strain is strain DSSe-1 (ATCC accession number BAA-73).

  1. Anaerobic respiration on tellurate and other metalloids in bacteria from hydrothermal vent fields in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Csotonyi, Julius T; Stackebrandt, Erko; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports the discovery of anaerobic respiration on tellurate by bacteria isolated from deep ocean (1,543 to 1,791 m) hydrothermal vent worms. The first evidence for selenite- and vanadate-respiring bacteria from deep ocean hydrothermal vents is also presented. Enumeration of the anaerobic metal(loid)-resistant microbial community associated with hydrothermal vent animals indicates that a greater proportion of the bacterial community associated with certain vent fauna resists and reduces metal(loid)s anaerobically than aerobically, suggesting that anaerobic metal(loid) respiration might be an important process in bacteria that are symbiotic with vent fauna. Isolates from Axial Volcano and Explorer Ridge were tested for their ability to reduce tellurate, selenite, metavanadate, or orthovanadate in the absence of alternate electron acceptors. In the presence of metal(loid)s, strains showed an ability to grow and produce ATP, whereas in the absence of metal(loid)s, no growth or ATP production was observed. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone depressed metal(loid) reduction. Anaerobic tellurate respiration will be a significant component in describing biogeochemical cycling of Te at hydrothermal vents.

  2. Alkaline fermentation of waste sludge causes a significant reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic reactors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haining; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Hui; Wan, Rui; Su, Yinglong

    2017-02-15

    Alkaline fermentation has been reported to be an effective method to recover valuable products from waste sludge. However, to date, the potential effect of alkaline pH on the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during anaerobic fermentation of sludge has never been documented. In this study, the target ARGs in sludge was observed to be removed effectively and stably when sludge was anaerobically fermented at pH10. Compared with the control (without pH adjustment), the abundances of target ARGs at pH10 were reduced by 0.87 (sulI), 1.36 (sulII), 0.42 (tet(O)), 1.11 (tet(Q)), 0.79 (tet(C)) and 1.04 (tet(X)) log units. Further investigations revealed that alkaline fermentation shifted the community structures of potential ARGs hosts. Moreover, alkaline fermentation remarkably decreased the quantities and the ARGs-possessing ability of genetic vectors (plasmid DNA, extracellular DNA and phage DNA), which might limit the transfer of ARGs via conjugation, transformation and transduction. These results suggest that the shifted compositions of gene hosts and restricted gene transfer potential might be the critical reasons for the attenuation of ARGs at pH10.

  3. Anaerobic soil volume as a major controlling factor for soil denitrification and respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reent Köster, Jan; Tong, Bingxin; Grosz, Balázs; Burkart, Stefan; Ruoss, Nicolas; Well, Reinhard

    2017-04-01

    Gas diffusion in soil is a key variable to control denitrification and its N2O to N2 product ratio since it affects two major proximal denitrification factors, i.e. the concentrations of O2 and of N2O. Gas diffusivity is governed by the structure and the state of water saturation of the pore system. At a given O2 consumption rate decreasing diffusivity causes an enhanced anaerobic soil volume where denitrification can occur. Gas diffusivity is generally quantified as bulk diffusion coefficients that represent the lineal diffusive gas flux through the soil matrix. However, the spatial distribution of respiratory O2 consumption and denitrification - and hence the local concentration of O2 and N2O - is highly non-homogeneous. Knowledge of the anaerobic soil volume fraction (ansvf) has been proposed as a key control on denitrification, and has subsequently been used in many denitrification models. The ansvf has previously been quantified by direct measurement of O2 distribution in individual soil aggregates using microsensors. The measured ansvf corresponded to modelled values based on measured aggregate diffusivity and respiration, but was not yet correlated with measured denitrification rates. In the present ongoing study, we are incubating soil cores amended with nitrate and organic litter in an automated mesocosm system under aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. An N2 depleted incubation atmosphere and the 15N labeled soil nitrate pool facilitate quantification of the N2 production in the soil by IRMS, and fluxes of N2O and CO2 are monitored via gas chromatography. The ansvf and the measured denitrification and respiration rates will then be used for model validation. During the session we will present first results of this study.

  4. Anaerobic Respiration Using a Complete Oxidative TCA Cycle Drives Multicellular Swarming in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Alteri, Christopher J.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Engstrom, Michael D.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components. PMID:23111869

  5. Microbial metal reduction by members of the genus Shewanella: novel strategies for anaerobic respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Dichristina, Thomas; Bates, David J.; Burns, Justin L.; Dale, Jason R.; Payne, Amanda N.

    2006-01-01

    Metal-reducing members of the genus Shewanella are important components of the microbial community residing in redox-stratified freshwater and marine environments. Metal-reducing gram-negative bacteria such as Shewanella, however, are presented with a unique physiological challenge: they are required to respire anaerobically on terminal electron acceptors which are either highly insoluble (Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-oxides) and reduced to soluble end-products or highly soluble (U(VI) and Tc(VII)) and reduced to insoluble end-products. To overcome physiological problems associated with metal solubility, metal-respiring Shewanella are postulated to employ a variety of novel respiratory strategies not found in other gram-negative bacteria which respire on soluble electron acceptors such as O2, NO3 and SO4. The following chapter highlights the latest findings on the molecular mechanism of Fe(III), U(VI) and Tc(VII) reduction by Shewanella, with particular emphasis on electron transport chain physiology.

  6. Anaerobic respiration using a complete oxidative TCA cycle drives multicellular swarming in Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Engstrom, Michael D; Mobley, Harry L T

    2012-10-30

    Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components. Bacterial locomotion and the existence of microbes were the first scientific

  7. Siderophores Are Not Involved in Fe(III) Solubilization during Anaerobic Fe(III) Respiration by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Fennessey, Christine M.; Jones, Morris E.; Taillefert, Martial; DiChristina, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 respires a wide range of anaerobic electron acceptors, including sparingly soluble Fe(III) oxides. In the present study, S. oneidensis was found to produce Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligands during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration, a respiratory strategy postulated to destabilize Fe(III) and produce more readily reducible soluble organic Fe(III). In-frame gene deletion mutagenesis, siderophore detection assays, and voltammetric techniques were combined to determine (i) if the Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligands produced by S. oneidensis during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration were synthesized via siderophore biosynthesis systems and (ii) if the Fe(III)-siderophore reductase was required for respiration of soluble organic Fe(III) as an anaerobic electron acceptor. Genes predicted to encode the siderophore (hydroxamate) biosynthesis system (SO3030 to SO3032), the Fe(III)-hydroxamate receptor (SO3033), and the Fe(III)-hydroxamate reductase (SO3034) were identified in the S. oneidensis genome, and corresponding in-frame gene deletion mutants were constructed. ΔSO3031 was unable to synthesize siderophores or produce soluble organic Fe(III) during aerobic respiration yet retained the ability to solubilize and respire Fe(III) at wild-type rates during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration. ΔSO3034 retained the ability to synthesize siderophores during aerobic respiration and to solubilize and respire Fe(III) at wild-type rates during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration. These findings indicate that the Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligands produced by S. oneidensis during anaerobic Fe(III) oxide respiration are not synthesized via the hydroxamate biosynthesis system and that the Fe(III)-hydroxamate reductase is not essential for respiration of Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as an anaerobic electron acceptor. PMID:20190086

  8. Effects of alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion from food waste.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujun; Zhang, Jishi; Wang, Xikui

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of some alkalinity sources on the stability of anaerobic digestion (AD) from food waste (FW). Four alkalinity sources, namely lime mud from papermaking (LMP), waste eggshell (WES), CaCO3 and NaHCO3, were applied as buffer materials and their stability effects were evaluated in batch AD. The results showed that LMP and CaCO3 had more remarkable effects than NaHCO3 and WES on FW stabilization. The methane yields were 120.2, 197.0, 156.2, 251.0 and 194.8 ml g(-1) VS for the control and synergistic digestions of CaCO3, NaHCO3, LMP and WES added into FW, respectively. The corresponding final alkalinity reached 5906, 7307, 9504, 7820 and 6782 mg l(-1), while the final acidities were determined to be 501, 200, 50, 350 and 250 mg l(-1), respectively. This indicated that the synergism between alkalinity and inorganic micronutrients from different alkalinity sources played an important role in the process stability of AD from FW.

  9. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K.; Zhang, Yang; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, S. oneidensis MR-1 uses the cAMP receptor protein, CRP, for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an E. coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, DMSO, or Fe(III), whereas the deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III), and to a lesser extent with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and the cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagella biosynthesis, and electron transport, were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant, but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration, and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  10. Involvement of a membrane-bound class III adenylate cyclase in regulation of anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    PubMed

    Charania, M A; Brockman, K L; Zhang, Y; Banerjee, A; Pinchuk, G E; Fredrickson, J K; Beliaev, A S; Saffarini, D A

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases, respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an Escherichia coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or Fe(III), whereas deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III) and, to a lesser extent, with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways, such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagellum biosynthesis, and electron transport were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  11. Involvement of a Membrane-Bound Class III Adenylate Cyclase in Regulation of Anaerobic Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    SciTech Connect

    Charania, M.; Brockman, K. L.; Zhang, Y.; Banerjee, A.; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Saffarini, Daad

    2009-07-01

    Unlike other bacteria that use FNR to regulate anaerobic respiration, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 uses the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) for this purpose. Three putative genes, cyaA, cyaB, and cyaC, predicted to encode class I, class IV, and class III adenylate cyclases, respectively, have been identified in the genome sequence of this bacterium. Functional validation through complementation of an Escherichia coli cya mutant confirmed that these genes encode proteins with adenylate cyclase activities. Chromosomal deletion of either cyaA or cyaB did not affect anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or Fe(III), whereas deletion of cyaC caused deficiencies in respiration with DMSO and Fe(III) and, to a lesser extent, with fumarate. A phenotype similar to that of a crp mutant, which lacks the ability to grow anaerobically with DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III), was obtained when both cyaA and cyaC were deleted. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the crp and cyaC mutants revealed the involvement of both genes in the regulation of key respiratory pathways, such as DMSO, fumarate, and Fe(III) reduction. Additionally, several genes associated with plasmid replication, flagellum biosynthesis, and electron transport were differentially expressed in the cyaC mutant but not in the crp mutant. Our results indicated that CyaC plays a major role in regulating anaerobic respiration and may contribute to additional signaling pathways independent of CRP.

  12. Enrichment and analysis of anode-respiring bacteria from diverse anaerobic inocula.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Joseph F; Parameswaran, Prathap; Kang, Dae-Wook; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Torres, César I

    2012-09-18

    One of the limitations currently faced by microbial electrochemical cell (MXC) technologies lies in the shortage of different organisms capable of forming a biofilm and channeling electrons from substrates to the anode at high current densities. Using a poised anode (-0.30 V vs Ag/AgCl) and acetate as the electron donor in a MXC, we demonstrated the presence of highly efficient anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) able to produce high current densities (>1.5 A/m(2) anode) in seven out of thirteen environmental samples. These included marshes, lake sediments, saline microbial mats, and anaerobic soils obtained from geographically diverse locations. Our microbial ecology analysis, using pyrosequencing, shows that bacteria related to the genus Geobacter, a known and commonly found ARB, dominate only two of the biofilm communities producing high current; other biofilm communities contained different known and/or novel ARB. The presence of ARB in geographically diverse locations indicates that ARB thrive in a wide range of ecosystems. Studying ARB from different environmental conditions will allow us to better understand the ubiquity of anode respiration, compare the capabilities of different ARB consortia, and find ARB with useful metabolic capacities for future applications.

  13. Anaerobic respiration: In vitro efficacy of Nitazoxanide against mitochondriate Acanthamoeba castellanii of the T4 genotype.

    PubMed

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Farooq, Maria; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protist pathogen that is responsible for serious human and animal infection. Being one of the most frequently isolated protists from the environment, it is likely that it readily encounters microaerophilic environments. For respiration under anaerobic or low oxygen conditions in several amitochondriate protists, decarboxylation of pyruvate is catalyzed by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase instead of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In support, Nitazoxanide, an inhibitor of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, is effective and non-mutagenic clinically against a range of amitochondriate protists, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The overall aim of the present study was to determine in vitro efficacy of Nitazoxanide against Acanthamoeba castellanii. At micromolar concentrations, the findings revealed that Nitazoxanide neither affected A. castellanii growth or viability nor amoeba-mediated host cell monolayer damage in vitro or extracellular proteolytic activities. Similarly, microaerophilic conditions alone had no significant effects. In contrast, microaerophilic conditions together with Nitazoxanide showed amoebicidal effects and inhibited A. castellanii-mediated host cell monolayer damage as well as extracellular proteases. Using encystation assays, it was observed that Nitazoxanide inhibited trophozoite transformation into cysts both under aerophilic and microaerophilic conditions. Furthermore, pre-treatment of cysts with Nitazoxanide inhibited A. castellanii excystation. These findings are important in the identification of potential targets that could be useful against parasite-specific respiration as well as to understand the basic biology of the life cycle of Acanthamoeba. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural organic matter as electron acceptor: experimental evidence for its important role in anaerobic respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Maximilian Peter; Sander, Michael; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Hupfer, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Microbial respiration is a key driver of element cycling in oxic and anoxic environments. Upon depletion of oxygen as terminal electron acceptor (TEA), a number of anaerobic bacteria can employ alternative TEA for intracellular energy generation. Redox active quinone moieties in dissolved organic matter (DOM) are well known electron acceptors for microbial respiration. However, it remains unclear whether quinones in adsorbed and particulate OM accept electrons in a same way. In our studies we aim to understand the importance of natural organic matter (NOM) as electron acceptors for microbial energy gain and its possible implications for methanogenesis. Using a novel electrochemical approach, mediated electrochemical reduction and -oxidation, we can directly quantify reduced hydroquinone and oxidized quionone moieties in dissolved and particulate NOM samples. In a mesocosm experiment, we rewetted sediment and peat soil and followed electron transfer to the inorganic and organic electron acceptors over time. We found that inorganic and organic electron acceptor pools were depleted over the same timescales. More importantly, we showed that organic, NOM-associated electron accepting moieties represent as much as 21 40% of total TEA inventories. These findings support earlier studies that propose that the reduction of quinone moieties in particulate organic matter competitively suppresses methanogenesis in wetland soils. Our results indicate that electron transfer to organic, particulate TEA in inundated ecosystems has to be accounted for when establishing carbon budgets in and projecting greenhouse gas emissions from these systems.

  15. Peptide Inhibitors Targeting the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Pivotal Anaerobic Respiration Factor AniA.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Aleksandra E; Mills, Robert H; Weber, Jacob V; Hamza, Adel; Passow, Bryan W; Romaine, Andrew; Williamson, Zachary A; Reed, Robert W; Zielke, Ryszard A; Korotkov, Konstantin V

    2017-08-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea, which is highly prevalent worldwide and has a major impact on reproductive and neonatal health. The superbug status of N. gonorrhoeae necessitates the development of drugs with different mechanisms of action. Here, we focused on targeting the nitrite reductase AniA, which is a pivotal component of N. gonorrhoeae anaerobic respiration and biofilm formation. Our studies showed that gonococci expressing AniA containing the altered catalytic residues D137A and H280A failed to grow under anaerobic conditions, demonstrating that the nitrite reductase function is essential. To facilitate the pharmacological targeting of AniA, new crystal structures of AniA were refined to 1.90-Å and 2.35-Å resolutions, and a phage display approach with libraries expressing randomized linear dodecameric peptides or heptameric peptides flanked by a pair of cysteine residues was utilized. Biopanning experiments led to the identification of 29 unique peptides, with 1 of them, C7-3, being identified multiple times. Evaluation of their ability to interact with AniA using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and computational docking studies revealed that C7-3 was the most promising inhibitor, binding near the type 2 copper site of the enzyme, which is responsible for interaction with nitrite. Subsequent enzymatic assays and biolayer interferometry with a synthetic C7-3 and its derivatives, C7-3m1 and C7-3m2, demonstrated potent inhibition of AniA. Finally, the MIC50 value of C7-3 and C7-3m2 against anaerobically grown N. gonorrhoeae was 0.6 mM. We present the first peptide inhibitors of AniA, an enzyme that should be further exploited for antigonococcal drug development. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. The multidrug efflux pump MdtEF protects against nitrosative damage during the anaerobic respiration in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiliang; Xiao, Minfeng; Horiyama, Tsukasa; Zhang, Yinfeng; Li, Xuechen; Nishino, Kunihiko; Yan, Aixin

    2011-07-29

    Drug efflux represents an important protection mechanism in bacteria to withstand antibiotics and environmental toxic substances. Efflux genes constitute 6-18% of all transporters in bacterial genomes, yet the expression and functions of only a handful of them have been studied. Among the 20 efflux genes encoded in the Escherichia coli K-12 genome, only the AcrAB-TolC system is constitutively expressed. The expression, activities, and physiological functions of the remaining efflux genes are poorly understood. In this study we identified a dramatic up-regulation of an additional efflux pump, MdtEF, under the anaerobic growth condition of E. coli, which is independent of antibiotic exposure. We found that expression of MdtEF is up-regulated more than 20-fold under anaerobic conditions by the global transcription factor ArcA, resulting in increased efflux activity and enhanced drug tolerance in anaerobically grown E. coli. Cells lacking mdtEF display a significantly decreased survival rate under the condition of anaerobic respiration of nitrate. Deletion of the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of indole, tnaAB, or replacing nitrate with fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor during the anaerobic respiration restores the decreased survival of ΔmdtEF cells. Moreover, ΔmdtEF cells are susceptible to indole nitrosative derivatives, a class of toxic byproducts formed and accumulated within E. coli when the bacterium respires nitrate under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, we conclude that the multidrug efflux pump MdtEF is up-regulated during the anaerobic physiology of E. coli to protect the bacterium from nitrosative damage through expelling the nitrosyl indole derivatives out of the cells.

  17. Cholera toxin production during anaerobic trimethylamine N-oxide respiration is mediated by stringent response in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Mi Young; Bari, Wasimul; Go, Junhyeok; Min, Kyung Bae; Raskin, David M; Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2014-05-09

    As a facultative anaerobe, Vibrio cholerae can grow by anaerobic respiration. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly promoted during anaerobic growth using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of TMAO-stimulated CT production and uncovered the crucial involvement of stringent response in this process. V. cholerae 7th pandemic strain N16961 produced a significantly elevated level of ppGpp, the bacterial stringent response alarmone, during anaerobic TMAO respiration. Bacterial viability was impaired, and DNA replication was also affected under the same growth condition, further suggesting that stringent response is induced. A ΔrelA ΔspoT ppGpp overproducer strain produced an enhanced level of CT, whereas anaerobic growth via TMAO respiration was severely inhibited. In contrast, a ppGpp-null strain (ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV) grew substantially better, but produced no CT, suggesting that CT production and bacterial growth are inversely regulated in response to ppGpp accumulation. Bacterial capability to produce CT was completely lost when the dksA gene, which encodes a protein that works cooperatively with ppGpp, was deleted. In the ΔdksA mutant, stringent response growth inhibition was alleviated, further supporting the inverse regulation of CT production and anaerobic growth. In vivo virulence of ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV or ΔdksA mutants was significantly attenuated. The ΔrelA ΔspoT mutant maintained virulence when infected with exogenous TMAO despite its defective growth. Together, our results reveal that stringent response is activated under TMAO-stimulated anaerobic growth, and it regulates CT production in a growth-dependent manner in V. cholerae.

  18. The Multidrug Efflux Pump MdtEF Protects against Nitrosative Damage during the Anaerobic Respiration in Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiliang; Xiao, Minfeng; Horiyama, Tsukasa; Zhang, Yinfeng; Li, Xuechen; Nishino, Kunihiko; Yan, Aixin

    2011-01-01

    Drug efflux represents an important protection mechanism in bacteria to withstand antibiotics and environmental toxic substances. Efflux genes constitute 6–18% of all transporters in bacterial genomes, yet the expression and functions of only a handful of them have been studied. Among the 20 efflux genes encoded in the Escherichia coli K-12 genome, only the AcrAB-TolC system is constitutively expressed. The expression, activities, and physiological functions of the remaining efflux genes are poorly understood. In this study we identified a dramatic up-regulation of an additional efflux pump, MdtEF, under the anaerobic growth condition of E. coli, which is independent of antibiotic exposure. We found that expression of MdtEF is up-regulated more than 20-fold under anaerobic conditions by the global transcription factor ArcA, resulting in increased efflux activity and enhanced drug tolerance in anaerobically grown E. coli. Cells lacking mdtEF display a significantly decreased survival rate under the condition of anaerobic respiration of nitrate. Deletion of the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of indole, tnaAB, or replacing nitrate with fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor during the anaerobic respiration restores the decreased survival of ΔmdtEF cells. Moreover, ΔmdtEF cells are susceptible to indole nitrosative derivatives, a class of toxic byproducts formed and accumulated within E. coli when the bacterium respires nitrate under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, we conclude that the multidrug efflux pump MdtEF is up-regulated during the anaerobic physiology of E. coli to protect the bacterium from nitrosative damage through expelling the nitrosyl indole derivatives out of the cells. PMID:21642439

  19. Cholera Toxin Production during Anaerobic Trimethylamine N-Oxide Respiration Is Mediated by Stringent Response in Vibrio cholerae*

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Taek; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Mi Young; Bari, Wasimul; Go, Junhyeok; Min, Kyung Bae; Raskin, David M.; Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2014-01-01

    As a facultative anaerobe, Vibrio cholerae can grow by anaerobic respiration. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly promoted during anaerobic growth using trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of TMAO-stimulated CT production and uncovered the crucial involvement of stringent response in this process. V. cholerae 7th pandemic strain N16961 produced a significantly elevated level of ppGpp, the bacterial stringent response alarmone, during anaerobic TMAO respiration. Bacterial viability was impaired, and DNA replication was also affected under the same growth condition, further suggesting that stringent response is induced. A ΔrelA ΔspoT ppGpp overproducer strain produced an enhanced level of CT, whereas anaerobic growth via TMAO respiration was severely inhibited. In contrast, a ppGpp-null strain (ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV) grew substantially better, but produced no CT, suggesting that CT production and bacterial growth are inversely regulated in response to ppGpp accumulation. Bacterial capability to produce CT was completely lost when the dksA gene, which encodes a protein that works cooperatively with ppGpp, was deleted. In the ΔdksA mutant, stringent response growth inhibition was alleviated, further supporting the inverse regulation of CT production and anaerobic growth. In vivo virulence of ΔrelA ΔspoT ΔrelV or ΔdksA mutants was significantly attenuated. The ΔrelA ΔspoT mutant maintained virulence when infected with exogenous TMAO despite its defective growth. Together, our results reveal that stringent response is activated under TMAO-stimulated anaerobic growth, and it regulates CT production in a growth-dependent manner in V. cholerae. PMID:24648517

  20. FNR-mediated regulation of bioluminescence and anaerobic respiration in the light-organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Septer, Alecia N; Bose, Jeffrey L; Dunn, Anne K; Stabb, Eric V

    2010-05-01

    Vibrio fischeri induces both anaerobic respiration and bioluminescence during symbiotic infection. In many bacteria, the oxygen-sensitive regulator FNR activates anaerobic respiration, and a preliminary study using the light-generating lux genes from V. fischeri MJ1 cloned in Escherichia coli suggested that FNR stimulates bioluminescence. To test for FNR-mediated regulation of bioluminescence and anaerobic respiration in V. fischeri, we generated fnr mutants of V. fischeri strains MJ1 and ES114. In both strains, FNR was required for normal fumarate- and nitrate-dependent respiration. However, contrary to the report in transgenic E. coli, FNR mediated the repression of lux. ArcA represses bioluminescence, and P(arcA)-lacZ reporters showed reduced expression in fnr mutants, suggesting a possible indirect effect of FNR on bioluminescence via arcA. Finally, the fnr mutant of ES114 was not impaired in colonization of its host squid, Euprymna scolopes. This study extends the characterization of FNR to the Vibrionaceae and underscores the importance of studying lux regulation in its native background.

  1. FNR-mediated regulation of bioluminescence and anaerobic respiration in the light-organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Septer, Alecia N.; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Dunn, Anne K.; Stabb, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri induces both anaerobic respiration and bioluminescence during symbiotic infection. In many bacteria, the oxygen-sensitive regulator FNR activates anaerobic respiration, and a preliminary study using the light-generating lux genes from V. fischeri MJ1 cloned in Escherichia coli suggested that FNR stimulates bioluminescence. To test for FNR-mediated regulation of bioluminescence and anaerobic respiration in V. fischeri, we generated fnr mutants of V. fischeri strains MJ1 and ES114. In both strains, FNR was required for normal fumarate- and nitrate-dependent respiration. However, contrary to the report in transgenic E. coli, FNR mediated repression of lux. ArcA represses bioluminescence, and ParcA-lacZ reporters showed reduced expression in fnr mutants, suggesting a possible indirect effect of FNR on bioluminescence via arcA. Finally, the fnr mutant of ES114 was not impaired in colonization of its host squid, Euprymna scolopes. This study extends characterization of FNR to the Vibrionaceae and underscores the importance of studying lux regulation in its native background. PMID:20298504

  2. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    PubMed Central

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  3. Enhanced coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks by a three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi-Yu; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A three-stage anaerobic fermentation process including H(2) fermentation I, H(2) fermentation II, methane fermentation was developed for the coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks. Hydrogen production from cornstalks using direct microbial conversion by Clostridium thermocellum 7072 was markedly enhanced in the two-stage thermophilic hydrogen fermentation process integrated with alkaline treatment. The highest total hydrogen yield from cornstalks in the two-stage fermentation process reached 74.4 mL/g-cornstalk. The hydrogen fermentation effluents and alkaline hydrolyzate were further used for methane fermentation by anaerobic granular sludge, and the total methane yield reached 205.8 mL/g-cornstalk. The total energy recovery in the three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis reached 70.0%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of urea dosing for alkalinity supply during anaerobic digestion of vinasse.

    PubMed

    Boncz, M A; Formagini, E L; Santos, L da S; Marques, R D; Paulo, P L

    2012-01-01

    Pushed by demand for renewable energy, the ethanol industry in Brazil is expanding. However, production of 1 m(3) of ethanol generates around 13 m(3) of liquid residues (vinasse), so this expansion results in an increasing need for a more adequate destination of these residues. Nowadays the vinasse is dispersed on the sugar cane fields in the practice of fertirrigation, but anaerobic digestion of this residue may be a better solution, additionally offering an alternative source of energy, able to complement hydroelectric power supply in the dry season. However, when trying to digest vinasse at reduced hydraulic retention times, complications arise from its strong tendency toward acidification, upsetting the fragile balance of transformations normally occurring under anaerobic conditions. For successful operation of an anaerobic treatment process with acceptable hydraulic residence times, increasing alkalinity levels inside the reactor is neces-sary. In the present work we show that pH regulation by means of urea dosing, in spite of the risk posed by ammonia toxicity towards methanogenic biomass, can be a viable alternative to avoid vinasse acidification. The ammonia formed in urea conversion remains in solution, rather than escaping to the biogas, and so its use as fertiliser can offset its cost of application in the process.

  5. Effect of thermal alkaline pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of wasted activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Carmona, S E; Ramírez, F; Noyola, A; Monroy, O

    2011-01-01

    The effect of alkaline pretreatment of waste-activated sludge, using two models to study the sequential hydrolysis rates of suspended (Sanders' surface model) and dissolved (Goel's saturation model) solids, on the mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion rate is evaluated. The pretreatment, which reduces the size of the solids, increases the reaction rate by increasing the surface area and the specific surface hydrolysis constant (K(SBK)); at thermophilic conditions from 0.45 x 10(-3) kg m(-2) d(-1) for the fresh sludge to 0.74 x 10(-3) kg m(-2) d(-1) for the pretreated sludge and at mesophilic conditions these values are 0.28 x 10(-3) kg m(-2) d(-1) and 0.47 x 10(-3) kg m(-2) d(-1) confirming the usefulness of a pretreatment for solids reduction. But for soluble solids, the thermoalkaline pretreatment decreases the reaction rates by inducing a competitive inhibition on the thermophilic anaerobic digestion rate while in the mesophilic range, a non-competitive inhibition is observed. A mathematical simulation of the consecutive reactions, suspended solids to dissolved solids and to methane in staged anaerobic thermophilic-mesophilic digestion, shows that with 4% suspended solids concentration it is better not to use a thermoalkaline pretreatment because overall solids reduction and total methane production are not as good as without pretreatment.

  6. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride and chloroform by trichloroethene respiring anaerobic mixed cultures and supernatant.

    PubMed

    Vickstrom, Kyle E; Azizian, Mohammad F; Semprini, Lewis

    2017-09-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF) were transformed in batch reactor experiments conducted with anaerobic dechlorinating cultures and supernatant (ADC + S) harvested from continuous flow reactors. The Evanite (EV) and Victoria/Stanford (VS) cultures, capable of respiring trichloroethene (TCE), 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cDCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to ethene (ETH), were grown in continuous flow reactors receiving an influent feed of saturated TCE (10 mM; 60 mEq) and formate (45 mM; 90 mEq) but no CT or CF. Cells and supernatant were harvested from the chemostats and inoculated into batch reactors at the onset of each experiment. CT transformation was complete following first order kinetics with CF, DCM and CS2 as the measurable transformation products, representing 20-40% of the original mass of CT, with CO2 likely the unknown transformation product. CF was transformed to DCM and likely CO2 at an order of magnitude rate lower than CT, while DCM was not further transformed. An analytical first order model including multiple key reactions effectively simulated CT transformation, product formation and transformation, and provided reasonable estimates of transformation rate coefficients. Biotic and abiotic treatments indicated that CT was mainly transformed via abiotic processes. However, the presence of live cells was associated with the transformation of CF to DCM. In biotic tests both TCE and CT were simultaneously transformed, with TCE transformed to ETH and approximately 15-53% less CF formed via CT transformation. A 14-day exposure to CF (CFmax = 1.4 μM) reduced all rates of chlorinated ethene respiration by a factor of 10 or greater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Systems-level analysis of Escherichia coli response to silver nanoparticles: the roles of anaerobic respiration in microbial resistance.

    PubMed

    Du, Huamao; Lo, Tat-Ming; Sitompul, Johnner; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2012-08-10

    Despite extensive use of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications, cellular mechanisms underlying microbial response to silver nanoparticles remain to be further elucidated at the systems level. Here, we report systems-level response of Escherichia coli to silver nanoparticles using transcriptome-based biochemical and phenotype assays. Notably, we provided the evidence that anaerobic respiration is induced upon exposure to silver nanoparticles. Further we showed that anaerobic respiration-related regulators and enzymes play an important role in E. coli resistance to silver nanoparticles. In particular, our results suggest that arcA is essential for resistance against silver NPs and the deletion of fnr, fdnH and narH significantly increases the resistance. We envision that this study offers novel insights into modes of antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles, and cellular mechanisms contributing to the development of microbial resistance to silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anaerobic Respiration on Self-Doped Conjugated Polyelectrolytes: Impact of Chemical Structure.

    PubMed

    Kirchhofer, Nathan D; McCuskey, Samantha R; Mai, Cheng-Kang; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2017-06-01

    We probe anaerobic respiration of bacteria in the presence of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs). Three different CPEs were used to probe how structural variations impact biocurrent generation from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. For the self-doped anionic CPE only, absorption spectroscopy shows that the addition of S. oneidensis MR-1 leads to the disappearance of the polaron (radical cation) band at >900 nm and an increase in the band at 735 nm due to the neutral species, consistent with electron transfer from microbe to polymer. Microbial three-electrode electrochemical cells (M3Cs) show an increase in the current generated by S. oneidensis MR-1 with addition of the self-doped CPE relative to other CPEs and controls. These experiments combined with in situ cyclic voltammetry suggest that the doped CPE facilitates electron transport to electrodes and reveal structure-function relationships relevant to developing materials for biotic/abiotic interfaces. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A novel regulatory circuit to control indole biosynthesis protects Escherichia coli from nitrosative damages during the anaerobic respiration of nitrate.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yong; Xu, Zeling; Yan, Aixin

    2017-02-01

    Indole is a widely distributed microbial secondary metabolite. It mediates a broad range of physiological processes in both its producing and surrounding species. Yet, indole biosynthesis during the anaerobiosis of bacteria remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we find that while indole production is promoted during fermentation and anaerobic respiration of fumarate and trimethylamine N-oxide in E. coli, its biosynthesis is repressed during anaerobic respiration of nitrate especially during exponential growth. We show that expression of the indole biosynthetic operon tnaCAB is repressed under this condition by the two component systems NarXL and NarPQ in the global regulator FNR dependent manner. During stationary growth phase of nitrate respiration, indole biosynthesis is derepressed. However, cellular indole concentration remains low. We demonstrate that this is due to the rapid conversion of indole into mutagenic indole nitrosative derivatives under this condition. Consistent with this, a supplement of exogenous indole during nitrate respiration causes elevated mutation frequencies in E. coli cells lacking the detoxifying efflux genes mdtEF, and ectopic over-expression of tnaAB genes decreases the fitness of E. coli to this physiological condition. Together, these results suggest that indole production is tuned to the bioenergetics activities of E. coli to facilitate its adaptation and fitness. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Substrate-level phosphorylation is the primary source of energy conservation during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kristopher A; Flynn, Jeffrey M; Naranjo, Belén; Shikhare, Indraneel D; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2010-07-01

    It is well established that respiratory organisms use proton motive force to produce ATP via F-type ATP synthase aerobically and that this process may reverse during anaerobiosis to produce proton motive force. Here, we show that Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a nonfermentative, facultative anaerobe known to respire exogenous electron acceptors, generates ATP primarily from substrate-level phosphorylation under anaerobic conditions. Mutant strains lacking ackA (SO2915) and pta (SO2916), genes required for acetate production and a significant portion of substrate-level ATP produced anaerobically, were tested for growth. These mutant strains were unable to grow anaerobically with lactate and fumarate as the electron acceptor, consistent with substrate-level phosphorylation yielding a significant amount of ATP. Mutant strains lacking ackA and pta were also shown to grow slowly using N-acetylglucosamine as the carbon source and fumarate as the electron acceptor, consistent with some ATP generation deriving from the Entner-Doudoroff pathway with this substrate. A deletion strain lacking the sole F-type ATP synthase (SO4746 to SO4754) demonstrated enhanced growth on N-acetylglucosamine and a minor defect with lactate under anaerobic conditions. ATP synthase mutants grown anaerobically on lactate while expressing proteorhodopsin, a light-dependent proton pump, exhibited restored growth when exposed to light, consistent with a proton-pumping role for ATP synthase under anaerobic conditions. Although S. oneidensis requires external electron acceptors to balance redox reactions and is not fermentative, we find that substrate-level phosphorylation is its primary anaerobic energy conservation strategy. Phenotypic characterization of an ackA deletion in Shewanella sp. strain MR-4 and genomic analysis of other sequenced strains suggest that this strategy is a common feature of Shewanella.

  11. Isolation, growth, and metabolism of an obligately anaerobic, selenate- respiring bacterium, strain SES-3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Blum, J.S.; Culbertson, C.W.; Visscher, P.T.; Miller, L.G.; Dowdle, P.; Strohmaier, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    A gram-negative, strictly anaerobic, motile vibrio was isolated from a selenate-respiring enrichment culture. The isolate, designated strain SES-3, grew by coupling the oxidation of lactate to acetate plus CO2 with the concomitant reduction of selenate to selenite or of nitrate to ammonium. No growth was observed on sulfate or selenite, but cell suspensions readily reduced selenite to elemental selenium (Se0). Hence, SES-3 can carry out a complete reduction of selenate to Se0. Washed cell suspensions of selenate- grown cells did not reduce nitrate, and nitrate-grown cells did not reduce selenate, indicating that these reductions are achieved by separate inducible enzyme systems. However, both nitrate-grown and selenate-grown cells have a constitutive ability to reduce selenite or nitrite. The oxidation of [14C]lactate to 14CO2 coupled to the reduction of selenate or nitrate by cell suspensions was inhibited by CCCP (carbonyl cyanide m- chlorophenylhydrazone), cyanide, and azide. High concentrations of selenite (5 mM) were readily reduced to Se0 by selenate-grown cells, but selenite appeared to block the synthesis of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Tracer experiments with [75Se]selenite indicated that cell suspensions could achieve a rapid and quantitative reduction of selenite to Se0. This reduction was totally inhibited by sulfite, partially inhibited by selenate or nitrite, but unaffected by sulfate or nitrate. Cell suspensions could reduce thiosulfate, but not sulfite, to sulfide. These results suggest that reduction of selenite to Se0 may proceed, in part, by some of the components of a dissimilatory system for sulfur oxyanions.

  12. Metabolic potential of fatty acid oxidation and anaerobic respiration by abundant members of Thaumarchaeota and Thermoplasmata in deep anoxic peat.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xueju; Handley, Kim M; Gilbert, Jack A; Kostka, Joel E

    2015-12-01

    To probe the metabolic potential of abundant Archaea in boreal peats, we reconstructed two near-complete archaeal genomes, affiliated with Thaumarchaeota group 1.1c (bin Fn1, 8% abundance), which was a genomically unrepresented group, and Thermoplasmata (bin Bg1, 26% abundance), from metagenomic data acquired from deep anoxic peat layers. Each of the near-complete genomes encodes the potential to degrade long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) via β-oxidation. Fn1 has the potential to oxidize LCFA either by syntrophic interaction with methanogens or by coupling oxidation with anaerobic respiration using fumarate as a terminal electron acceptor (TEA). Fn1 is the first Thaumarchaeota genome without an identifiable carbon fixation pathway, indicating that this mesophilic phylum encompasses more diverse metabolisms than previously thought. Furthermore, we report genetic evidence suggestive of sulfite and/or organosulfonate reduction by Thermoplasmata Bg1. In deep peat, inorganic TEAs are often depleted to extremely low levels, yet the anaerobic respiration predicted for two abundant archaeal members suggests organic electron acceptors such as fumarate and organosulfonate (enriched in humic substances) may be important for respiration and C mineralization in peatlands.

  13. Metabolic potential of fatty acid oxidation and anaerobic respiration by abundant members of Thaumarchaeota and Thermoplasmata in deep anoxic peat

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Xueju; Handley, Kim M.; Gilbert, Jack A.; ...

    2015-12-01

    To probe the metabolic potential of abundant Archaea in boreal peats, we reconstructed two near-complete archaeal genomes, affiliated with Thaumarchaeota group 1.1c (bin Fn1, 8% abundance), which was a genomically unrepresented group, and Thermoplasmata (bin Bg1, 26% abundance), from metagenomic data acquired from deep anoxic peat layers. Each of the near-complete genomes encodes the potential to degrade long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) via β-oxidation. Fn1 has the potential to oxidize LCFA either by syntrophic interaction with methanogens or by coupling oxidation with anaerobic respiration using fumarate as a terminal electron acceptor (TEA). Fn1 is the first Thaumarchaeota genome without an identifiablemore » carbon fixation pathway, indicating that this mesophilic phylum encompasses more diverse metabolisms than previously thought. Furthermore, we report genetic evidence suggestive of sulfite and/or organosulfonate reduction by Thermoplasmata Bg1. In deep peat, inorganic TEAs are often depleted to extremely low levels, yet the anaerobic respiration predicted for two abundant archaeal members suggests organic electron acceptors such as fumarate and organosulfonate (enriched in humic substances) may be important for respiration and C mineralization in peatlands.« less

  14. Metabolic potential of fatty acid oxidation and anaerobic respiration by abundant members of Thaumarchaeota and Thermoplasmata in deep anoxic peat

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Xueju; Handley, Kim M.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2015-12-01

    To probe the metabolic potential of abundant Archaea in boreal peats, we reconstructed two near-complete archaeal genomes, affiliated with Thaumarchaeota group 1.1c (bin Fn1, 8% abundance), which was a genomically unrepresented group, and Thermoplasmata (bin Bg1, 26% abundance), from metagenomic data acquired from deep anoxic peat layers. Each of the near-complete genomes encodes the potential to degrade long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) via β-oxidation. Fn1 has the potential to oxidize LCFA either by syntrophic interaction with methanogens or by coupling oxidation with anaerobic respiration using fumarate as a terminal electron acceptor (TEA). Fn1 is the first Thaumarchaeota genome without an identifiable carbon fixation pathway, indicating that this mesophilic phylum encompasses more diverse metabolisms than previously thought. Furthermore, we report genetic evidence suggestive of sulfite and/or organosulfonate reduction by Thermoplasmata Bg1. In deep peat, inorganic TEAs are often depleted to extremely low levels, yet the anaerobic respiration predicted for two abundant archaeal members suggests organic electron acceptors such as fumarate and organosulfonate (enriched in humic substances) may be important for respiration and C mineralization in peatlands.

  15. Enhancement of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thickened waste activated sludge by combined microwave and alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yongzhi; Li, Yuyou; Fei, Xuening; Wang, Shaopo; Yuan, Hongying

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Pretreatment of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) by combined microwave and alkaline pretreatment (MAP) was studied to improve thermophilic anaerobic digestion efficiency. Uniform design was applied to determine the combination of target temperature (11 degrees-210 degrees C), microwave holding time (1-51 min), and NaOH dose (0-2.5 g NaOH/g suspended solids (SS)) in terms of their effect on volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilization. Maximum solubilization ratio (85.1%) of VSS was observed at 210 degrees C with 0.2 g-NaOH/g-SS and 35 min holding time. The effects of 12 different pretreatment methods were investigated in 28 thermophilic batch reactors by monitoring cumulative methane production (CMP). Improvements in methane production in the TWAS were directly related to the microwave and alkaline pretreatment of the sludge. The highest CMP was a 27% improvement over the control. In spite of the increase in soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration and the decrease in dewaterability of digested sludge, a semi-continuous thermophilic reactor fed with pretreated TWAS without neutralization (at 170 degrees C with 1 min holding time and 0.05 g NaOH/g SS) was stable and functioned well, with volatile solid (VS) and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) reductions of 28% and 18%, respectively, which were higher than those of the control system. Additionally, methane yields (L@STP/g-CODadded, at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions of 0 degree C and 101.325 kPa) and (L@STP/g VSadded) increased by 17% and 13%, respectively, compared to the control reactor.

  16. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400 mg L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3 g L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45 h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53 cm(3) h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400 g L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation.

  17. Low-heat alkaline pretreatment of biomass for dairy anaerobic codigestion.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guang; Bierma, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In this research, low-heat alkaline pretreatment was evaluated to determine the extent to which urban landscape waste (yard waste), corn stover, and switchgrass could be codigested under conditions typical of US farm-based anaerobic digestion (AD). Waste heat from combined heat and power (CHP) units associated with AD could make such pretreatment economical. Short-term batch digestion studies and 8-week continuous-feed studies were used to screen and evaluate various pretreatment conditions. Results indicate that maple and oak leaves did not digest well, even with pretreatment. Pretreatment did improve digestion of corn leaves and stalks as well as switchgrass. However, these materials also digested reasonably well even without pretreatment. No digester operational problems were observed during continuous-feed studies of intermittently stirred bench top digesters, but optimal levels of alkali, temperature, and pretreatment time may be specific to the feedstock, particle size, and digester loading rate. Results suggest that some common lignocellulosic biomass materials, such as corn stover and switchgrass, could be successfully codigested in many existing farm-based digesters. Interestingly, without pretreatment, switchgrass digestion improved over 20-fold when digested with seed culture from a dairy digester compared to seed culture from a municipal digester, suggesting that culture acclimation could be as important as pretreatment in improving digestion of specific lignocellulosic feedstocks.

  18. Aerobically respiring prokaryotic strains exhibit a broader temperature–pH–salinity space for cell division than anaerobically respiring and fermentative strains

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Jesse P.; Dobinson, Luke; Freeman, Kenneth; McKenzie, Ross; Wyllie, Dale; Nixon, Sophie L.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Biological processes on the Earth operate within a parameter space that is constrained by physical and chemical extremes. Aerobic respiration can result in adenosine triphosphate yields up to over an order of magnitude higher than those attained anaerobically and, under certain conditions, may enable microbial multiplication over a broader range of extremes than other modes of catabolism. We employed growth data published for 241 prokaryotic strains to compare temperature, pH and salinity values for cell division between aerobically and anaerobically metabolizing taxa. Isolates employing oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor exhibited a considerably more extensive three-dimensional phase space for cell division (90% of the total volume) than taxa using other inorganic substrates or organic compounds as the electron acceptor (15% and 28% of the total volume, respectively), with all groups differing in their growth characteristics. Understanding the mechanistic basis of these differences will require integration of research into microbial ecology, physiology and energetics, with a focus on global-scale processes. Critical knowledge gaps include the combined impacts of diverse stress parameters on Gibbs energy yields and rates of microbial activity, interactions between cellular energetics and adaptations to extremes, and relating laboratory-based data to in situ limits for cell division. PMID:26354829

  19. Aerobically respiring prokaryotic strains exhibit a broader temperature-pH-salinity space for cell division than anaerobically respiring and fermentative strains.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jesse P; Dobinson, Luke; Freeman, Kenneth; McKenzie, Ross; Wyllie, Dale; Nixon, Sophie L; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-09-06

    Biological processes on the Earth operate within a parameter space that is constrained by physical and chemical extremes. Aerobic respiration can result in adenosine triphosphate yields up to over an order of magnitude higher than those attained anaerobically and, under certain conditions, may enable microbial multiplication over a broader range of extremes than other modes of catabolism. We employed growth data published for 241 prokaryotic strains to compare temperature, pH and salinity values for cell division between aerobically and anaerobically metabolizing taxa. Isolates employing oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor exhibited a considerably more extensive three-dimensional phase space for cell division (90% of the total volume) than taxa using other inorganic substrates or organic compounds as the electron acceptor (15% and 28% of the total volume, respectively), with all groups differing in their growth characteristics. Understanding the mechanistic basis of these differences will require integration of research into microbial ecology, physiology and energetics, with a focus on global-scale processes. Critical knowledge gaps include the combined impacts of diverse stress parameters on Gibbs energy yields and rates of microbial activity, interactions between cellular energetics and adaptations to extremes, and relating laboratory-based data to in situ limits for cell division. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Positive regulation of the Shewanella oneidensis OmpS38, a major porin facilitating anaerobic respiration, by Crp and Fur.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tong; Ju, Lili; Yin, Jianhua; Gao, Haichun

    2015-09-18

    Major porins are among the most abundant proteins embedded in the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria, playing crucial roles in maintenance of membrane structural integrity and OM permeability. Although many OM proteins (especially c-type cytochromes) in Shewanella oneidensis, a research model for respiratory versatility, have been extensively studied, physiological significance of major porins remains largely unexplored. In this study, we show that OmpS38 and OmpA are two major porins, neither of which is responsive to changes in osmolarity or contributes to the intrinsic resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. However, OmpS38 but not OmpA is largely involved in respiration of non-oxygen electron acceptors. We then provide evidence that expression of ompS38 is transcribed from two promoters, the major of which is favored under anaerobic conditions while the other appears constitutive. The major promoter is under the direct control of Crp, the master regulator dictating respiration. As a result, the increase in the level of OmpS38 correlates with an elevated activity in Crp under anaerobic conditions. In addition, we show that the activity of the major promoter is also affected by Fur, presumably indirectly, the transcription factor for iron-dependent gene expression.

  1. Positive regulation of the Shewanella oneidensis OmpS38, a major porin facilitating anaerobic respiration, by Crp and Fur

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tong; Ju, Lili; Yin, Jianhua; Gao, Haichun

    2015-01-01

    Major porins are among the most abundant proteins embedded in the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria, playing crucial roles in maintenance of membrane structural integrity and OM permeability. Although many OM proteins (especially c-type cytochromes) in Shewanella oneidensis, a research model for respiratory versatility, have been extensively studied, physiological significance of major porins remains largely unexplored. In this study, we show that OmpS38 and OmpA are two major porins, neither of which is responsive to changes in osmolarity or contributes to the intrinsic resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. However, OmpS38 but not OmpA is largely involved in respiration of non-oxygen electron acceptors. We then provide evidence that expression of ompS38 is transcribed from two promoters, the major of which is favored under anaerobic conditions while the other appears constitutive. The major promoter is under the direct control of Crp, the master regulator dictating respiration. As a result, the increase in the level of OmpS38 correlates with an elevated activity in Crp under anaerobic conditions. In addition, we show that the activity of the major promoter is also affected by Fur, presumably indirectly, the transcription factor for iron-dependent gene expression. PMID:26381456

  2. [Effects of D-arginine on polyamine content and anaerobic respiration metabolism of cucumber seedling roots under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Hu, Xiao-hui; Guo, Shi-rong; Jia, Yong-xia; Du, Chang-xia

    2007-02-01

    By the method of solution culture, this paper studied the effects of D-arginine on the seedling roots polyamine content and anaerobic respiration metabolism of two cucumber ( Cucumis Sativus L. ) cultivars Zhongnong No. 8 and Lübachun No. 4 differed in hypoxia tolerance. The results showed that under hypoxia stress, the putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) contents in the seedling roots of test cultivars increased significantly, and anaerobic respiration accelerated. The ethanol fermentation activity was higher in the seedling roots of hypoxia-tolerant cultivar Lübachun No. 4 than in those of hypoxia-sensitive cultivar Zhongnong No. 8, while lactate fermentation activity had an opposite trend. Comparing with treatment hypoxia, hypoxia plus D -arginine decreased the Put, Spd and Spm contents in roots significantly, enhanced the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the contents of ethanol and lactate, and inhibited plant growth. Exogenous Put application lessened the effects of D-arginine. Higher level of polyamines in roots could have great benefits for cucumber seedlings to improve their resistance to hypoxia stress.

  3. Tellurite-, tellurate-, and selenite-based anaerobic respiration by strain CM-3 isolated from gold mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Chris; Piercey-Normore, Michele D; Yurkov, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    The newly discovered strain CM-3, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium from gold mine tailings of the Central Mine in Nopiming Provincial Park, Canada, is capable of dissimilatory anaerobic reduction of tellurite, tellurate, and selenite. CM-3 possesses very high level resistance to these oxides, both aerobically and anaerobically. During aerobic growth, tellurite and tellurate resistance was up to 1500 and 1000 µg/ml, respectively. In the presence of selenite, growth occurred at the highest concentration tested, 7000 µg/ml. Under anaerobic conditions, resistance was decreased to 800 µg/ml for the Te oxides; however, much like under aerobic conditions, growth with selenite still took place at 7000 µg/ml. In the absence of oxygen, CM-3 couples oxide reduction to an increase in biomass. Following an initial drop in viable cells, due to switching from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, there was an increase in CFU/ml greater than one order of magnitude in the presence of tellurite (6.6 × 10(3)-8.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml), tellurate (4.6 × 10(3)-1.4 × 10(5) CFU/ml), and selenite (2.7 × 10(5)-5.6 × 10(6) CFU/ml). A control culture without metalloid oxides showed a steady decrease in CFU/ml with no recovery. ATP production was also increased in the presence of each oxide, further indicating anaerobic respiration. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a 99.0 % similarity of CM-3 to Pseudomonas reactans.

  4. Gaseous elemental mercury emissions and CO(2) respiration rates in terrestrial soils under controlled aerobic and anaerobic laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Daniel; Faïn, Xavier; Berger, Carsen

    2010-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in terrestrial soils are linked to the presence of organic carbon (C). Carbon pools are highly dynamic and subject to mineralization processes, but little is known about the fate of Hg during decomposition. This study evaluated relationships between gaseous Hg emissions from soils and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) respiration under controlled laboratory conditions to assess potential losses of Hg to the atmosphere during C mineralization. Results showed a linear correlation (r(2)=0.49) between Hg and CO(2) emissions in 41 soil samples, an effect unlikely to be caused by temperature, radiation, different Hg contents, or soil moisture. Stoichiometric comparisons of Hg/C ratios of emissions and underlying soil substrates suggest that 3% of soil Hg was subject to evasion. Even minute emissions of Hg upon mineralization, however, may be important on a global scale given the large Hg pools sequestered in terrestrial soils and C stocks. We induced changes in CO(2) respiration rates and observed Hg flux responses, including inducement of anaerobic conditions by changing chamber air supply from N(2)/O(2) (80% and 20%, respectively) to pure N(2). Unexpectedly, Hg emissions almost quadrupled after O(2) deprivation while oxidative mineralization (i.e., CO(2) emissions) was greatly reduced. This Hg flux response to anaerobic conditions was lacking when repeated with sterilized soils, possibly due to involvement of microbial reduction of Hg(2+) by anaerobes or indirect abiotic effects such as alterations in soil redox conditions. This study provides experimental evidence that Hg volatilization, and possibly Hg(2+) reduction, is related to O(2) availability in soils from two Sierra Nevada forests. If this result is confirmed in soils from other areas, the implication is that Hg volatilization from terrestrial soils is partially controlled by soil aeration and that low soil O(2) levels and possibly low soil redox potentials lead to increased Hg volatilization from

  5. The contribution of genes required for anaerobic respiration to the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum for chickens.

    PubMed

    Paiva, J B; Penha Filho, R A C; Pereira, E A; Lemos, M V F; Barrow, P A; Lovell, M A; Berchieri, A

    2009-10-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG) is an intracellular pathogen of chickens. To survive, to invade and to multiply in the intestinal tract and intracellularly it depends on its ability to produce energy in anaerobic conditions. The fumarate reductase (frdABCD), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase (dmsABC), and nitrate reductase (narGHIJ) operons in Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) encode enzymes involved in anaerobic respiration to the electron acceptors fumarate, DMSO, TMAO, and nitrate, respectively. They are regulated in response to nitrate and oxygen availability and changes in cell growth rate. In this study mortality rates of chickens challenged with mutants of Salmonella Gallinarum, which were defective in utilising anaerobic electron acceptors, were assessed in comparison to group of bird challenged with wild strain. The greatest degree of attenuation was observed with mutations affecting nitrate reductase (napA, narG) with additional attenuations induced by a mutation affecting fumarate reductase (frdA) and a double mutant (dmsA torC) affecting DMSO and TMAO reductase.

  6. Treatment of a high-strength sulphate-rich alkaline leachate using an anaerobic filter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Banks, C.J.

    2007-07-01

    The research looks at the feasibility of treating an alkaline sulphate-rich leachate arising from the co-disposal of municipal solid waste with cement kiln dust by means of an anaerobic filter (AF). This type of leachate with a high sulphate concentration is commonly prohibited for discharge to sewer and requires an on-site treatment solution. The AF used had a working volume of 4 l and contained reticulated polyurethane foam as the biomass support material. The filters were operated over a 152 day experimental period during which the COD loading onto the filter was increased from 0.76 to 7.63 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. In the early stages of operation at low loading, soluble sulphides accumulated that inhibited methanogenic activity. This was restored by dosing FeCl{sub 3} to the reactor. The continued dosing allowed efficient COD removal of between 75% and 90% until the nominal retention time in the reactor was 3 days, at which point reactor performance declined significantly. The main mechanism for COD removal was by sulphate-reducing bacteria, which also resulted in up to 88% sulphate removal from the leachate. The average methane generation rate was 0.10 l g{sup -1} COD removed. The results indicate the potential for using this approach as a pre-treatment that could significantly reduce the COD load to a second stage treatment process, but problems associated with the implementation of the technology at a larger scale have been identified.

  7. Evaluation of near infrared spectroscopy and software sensor methods for determination of total alkalinity in anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Ward, Alastair J; Hobbs, Philip J; Holliman, Peter J; Jones, David L

    2011-03-01

    In this study two approaches to predict the total alkalinity (expressed as mg L(-1)HCO(3)(-)) of an anaerobic digester are examined: firstly, software sensors based on multiple linear regression algorithms using data from pH, redox potential and electrical conductivity and secondly, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). Of the software sensors, the model using data from all three probes but a smaller dataset using total alkalinity values below 6000 mg L(-1)HCO(3)(-) produced the best calibration model (R(2)=0.76 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 969 mg L(-1)HCO(3)(-)). When validated with new data, the NIRS method produced the best model (R(2)=0.87 RMSEP=1230 mg L(-1)HCO(3)(-)). The NIRS sensor correlated better with new data (R(2)=0.54). In conclusion, this study has developed new and improved algorithms for monitoring total alkalinity within anaerobic digestion systems which will facilitate real-time optimisation of methane production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol Mineralization Promoted by Anaerobic Reductive Dechlorination of Acclimated Sludge and Extracellular Respiration Dechlorination Pathway].

    PubMed

    Song, Jia-xiu; Li, Ling; Sheng, Fan-fan; Guo, Cui-xiang; Zhang, Yong-ming; Li, Zu-yuan; Wang, Tian-li

    2015-10-01

    In anaerobic conditions, the acclimation of activated sludge was studied with sodium lactate as the electron donor and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol as the electron acceptor. Metabolic characteristics of dechlorination were the focus of this study. The result showed highly efficient dechlorination on 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol that the conversion rate reached to 100% in 9 - 24 h when initial concentrations of sodium lactate and 2,4, 6-trichlorophenol were 20 mmol x L(-1) and 40 - 80 μmol x L(-1), respectively. The intermediate product 2,4-dichlorophenol was found in low concentration (< 4.22 μmol x L(-1)). And 4-chlorophenol and phenol were the main products. Ortho chlorophenol (2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol, 2, 4-dichlorophenol) can be converted rapidly by acclimated sludge, while the further conversion of 4-chlorophenol and phenol was limited. The residues of anaerobic metabolism were degraded by aerobic sludge, among which 4-chlorophenol (initial concentration of 33 mol x L(-1)) removal rate was up to 100% under aerobic conditions. The acclimated bacteria can rapidly transfer Fe(III) and humus (AQDS) into reductive Fe(II) and AQH2DS which indicated that the dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria was enriched in the acclimated sludge. The electron mediator [Fe(III) and AQDS] significantly accelerated the dechlorination rate. The acclimated sludge could perform extracellular respiration dechlorination with electron mediators.

  9. Anaerobic

    MedlinePlus

    ... more prolonged exercise like walking or jogging. Anaerobic reactions are faster. We need them during shorter, more intense activities like sprinting. Anaerobic exercise leads to a buildup of lactic acid in our tissues. We need oxygen to remove ...

  10. Denitrifying community in coastal sediments performs aerobic and anaerobic respiration simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Hannah K; Ahmerkamp, Soeren; Lavik, Gaute; Tegetmeyer, Halina E; Graf, Jon; Klatt, Judith M; Holtappels, Moritz; Walpersdorf, Eva; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2017-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) input to the coastal oceans has increased considerably because of anthropogenic activities, however, concurrent increases have not occurred in open oceans. It has been suggested that benthic denitrification in sandy coastal sediments is a sink for this N. Sandy sediments are dynamic permeable environments, where electron acceptor and donor concentrations fluctuate over short temporal and spatial scales. The response of denitrifiers to these fluctuations are largely unknown, although previous observations suggest they may denitrify under aerobic conditions. We examined the response of benthic denitrification to fluctuating oxygen concentrations, finding that denitrification not only occurred at high O2 concentrations but was stimulated by frequent switches between oxic and anoxic conditions. Throughout a tidal cycle, in situtranscription of genes for aerobic respiration and denitrification were positively correlated within diverse bacterial classes, regardless of O2 concentrations, indicating that denitrification gene transcription is not strongly regulated by O2 in sandy sediments. This allows microbes to respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions, but also means that denitrification is utilized as an auxiliary respiration under aerobic conditions when imbalances occur in electron donor and acceptor supply. Aerobic denitrification therefore contributes significantly to N-loss in permeable sediments making the process an important sink for anthropogenic N-inputs.

  11. Iron and manganese in anaerobic respiration: environmental significance, physiology, and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Saffarini, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dissimilatory iron and/or manganese reduction is known to occur in several organisms, including anaerobic sulfur-reducing organisms such as Geobacter metallireducens or Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and facultative aerobes such as Shewanella putrefaciens. These bacteria couple both carbon oxidation and growth to the reduction of these metals, and inhibitor and competition experiments suggest that Mn(IV) and Fe(III) are efficient electron acceptors similar to nitrate in redox abilities and capable of out-competing electron acceptors of lower potential, such as sulfate (sulfate reduction) or CO2 (methanogenesis). Field studies of iron and/or manganese reduction suggest that organisms with such metabolic abilities play important roles in coupling the oxidation of organic carbon to metal reduction under anaerobic conditions. Because both iron and manganese oxides are solids or colloids, they tend to settle downward in aquatic environments, providing a physical mechanism for the movement of oxidizing potential into anoxic zones. The resulting biogeochemical metal cycles have a strong impact on many other elements including carbon, sulfur, phosphorous, and trace metals.

  12. Iron and manganese in anaerobic respiration: environmental significance, physiology, and regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Saffarini, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dissimilatory iron and/or manganese reduction is known to occur in several organisms, including anaerobic sulfur-reducing organisms such as Geobacter metallireducens or Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, and facultative aerobes such as Shewanella putrefaciens. These bacteria couple both carbon oxidation and growth to the reduction of these metals, and inhibitor and competition experiments suggest that Mn(IV) and Fe(III) are efficient electron acceptors similar to nitrate in redox abilities and capable of out-competing electron acceptors of lower potential, such as sulfate (sulfate reduction) or CO2 (methanogenesis). Field studies of iron and/or manganese reduction suggest that organisms with such metabolic abilities play important roles in coupling the oxidation of organic carbon to metal reduction under anaerobic conditions. Because both iron and manganese oxides are solids or colloids, they tend to settle downward in aquatic environments, providing a physical mechanism for the movement of oxidizing potential into anoxic zones. The resulting biogeochemical metal cycles have a strong impact on many other elements including carbon, sulfur, phosphorous, and trace metals.

  13. Sewage sludge pretreatment by microwave irradiation combined with activated carbon fibre at alkaline pH for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dedong; Guo, Sixiao; Ma, Nina; Wang, Guowen; Ma, Chun; Hao, Jun; Xue, Mang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the effects of microwave-assisted activated carbon fibre (ACF) (MW-ACF) treatment on sewage sludge at alkaline pH. The disintegration and biodegradability of sewage sludge were studied. It was found that the MW-ACF process at alkaline pH provided a rapid and efficient process to disrupt the microbial cells in the sludge. The results suggested that when irradiated at 800 W MW for 110 s with a dose of 1.0 g ACF/g solid concentration (SS) at pH 10.5, the MW-ACF pretreatment achieved 55% SS disintegration, 23% greater than the value of MW alone (32%). The concentration of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand, protein, and polysaccharide increased by 60%, 144%, 145%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. An increase in biogas production by 63.7% was achieved after 20 days of anaerobic digestion (AD), compared to the control. The results indicated that the MW-ACF pretreatment process at alkaline pH provides novel sludge management options in disintegration of sewage sludge for further AD.

  14. Reductive Dechlorination of Carbon Tetrachloride by Tetrachloroethene and Trichloroethene Respiring Anaerobic Mixed Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickstrom, K. E.; Azizian, M.; Semprini, L.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CT) is a toxic and recalcitrant groundwater contaminant with the potential to form a broad range of transformation products. Of the possible biochemical pathways through which CT can be degraded, reductive dehalogenation to less chlorinated compounds and mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2) appear to be the most frequently utilized pathways by anaerobic organisms. Results will be presented from batch experiments of CT degradation by the Evanite (EV), Victoria Strain (VS) and Point Mugu (PM) anaerobic dechlorinating cultures. The cultures are grown in chemostats and are capable of transforming tetrachloroethene (PCE) or trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene by halorespiration via reductive dehalogenase enzymes. For the batch CT transformation tests, the cells along with supernatant were harvested from chemostats fed PCE or TCE, but never CT. The batch reactors were initially fed 0.0085 mM CT and an excess of formate (EV and VS) or lactate (PM) as electron donor. Transformation of CT was 100% with about 20% converted to chloroform (CF) and undetected products. Multiple additions of CT showed a slowing of pseudo first-order CT transformation rates across all cultures. Batch reactors were then established and fed 0.085 mM CT with an excess of electron donor in order to better quantify the reductive pathway. CT was transformed to CF and dichloromethane (DCM), with trace amounts of chloromethane (CM) detected. Between 60-90% of the mass added to the system was accounted for, showing that the majority of the carbon tetrachloride present is being reductively dehalogenated. Results from batch reactors that were poisoned using sodium azide, and from reactors not provided electron donor will be presented to distinguish between biotic and abiotic reactions. Furthermore, results from reactors prepared with acetylene (a potent, reversible inhibitor of reductive dehalogenases (1)) will be presented as a means of identifying the enzymes involved in the

  15. Proteomic analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae biofilms shows shift to anaerobic respiration and changes in nutrient transport and outermembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Nancy J; Steichen, Christopher T; Schilling, Birgit; Post, Deborah M B; Niles, Richard K; Bair, Thomas B; Falsetta, Megan L; Apicella, Michael A; Gibson, Bradford W

    2012-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, can form biofilms in vitro and in vivo. In biofilms, the organism is more resistant to antibiotic treatment and can serve as a reservoir for chronic infection. We have used stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to compare protein expression in biofilm and planktonic organisms. Two parallel populations of N. gonorrhoeae strain 1291, which is an arginine auxotroph, were grown for 48 h in continuous-flow chambers over glass, one supplemented with (13)C(6)-arginine for planktonic organisms and the other with unlabeled arginine for biofilm growth. The biofilm and planktonic cells were harvested and lysed separately, and fractionated into three sequential protein extracts. Corresponding heavy (H) planktonic and light (L) biofilm protein extracts were mixed and separated by 1D SDS-PAGE gels, and samples were extensively analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Overall, 757 proteins were identified, and 152 unique proteins met a 1.5-fold cutoff threshold for differential expression with p-values <0.05. Comparing biofilm to planktonic organisms, this set included 73 upregulated and 54 downregulated proteins. Nearly a third of the upregulated proteins were involved in energy metabolism, with cell envelope proteins making up the next largest group. Of the downregulated proteins, the largest groups were involved in protein synthesis and energy metabolism. These proteomics results were compared with our previously reported results from transcriptional profiling of gonococcal biofilms using microarrays. Nitrite reductase and cytochrome c peroxidase, key enzymes required for anaerobic growth, were detected as highly upregulated in both the proteomic and transcriptomic datasets. These and other protein expression changes observed in the present study were consistent with a shift to anaerobic respiration in gonococcal biofilms, although changes in membrane proteins not explicitly related

  16. Systematic genomic analysis reveals the complementary aerobic and anaerobic respiration capacities of the human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Thiele, Ines

    2014-01-01

    Because of the specific anatomical and physiological properties of the human intestine, a specific oxygen gradient builds up within this organ that influences the intestinal microbiota. The intestinal microbiome has been intensively studied in recent years, and certain respiratory substrates used by gut inhabiting microbes have been shown to play a crucial role in human health. Unfortunately, a systematic analysis has not been previously performed to determine the respiratory capabilities of human gut microbes (HGM). Here, we analyzed the distribution of aerobic and anaerobic respiratory reductases in 254 HGM genomes. In addition to the annotation of known enzymes, we also predicted a novel microaerobic reductase and novel thiosulfate reductase. Based on this comprehensive assessment of respiratory reductases in the HGM, we proposed a number of exchange pathways among different bacteria involved in the reduction of various nitrogen oxides. The results significantly expanded our knowledge of HGM metabolism and interactions in bacterial communities.

  17. Physiological roles of ArcA, Crp, and EtrA and their interactive control on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Xiaohu; Chen, Jingrong; Liang, Yili; Chen, Haijiang; Palzkill, Timothy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, genes encoding the global regulators ArcA, Crp, and EtrA have been identified. All these proteins deviate from their counterparts in E. coli significantly in terms of functionality and regulon. It is worth investigating the involvement and relationship of these global regulators in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis. In this study, the impact of the transcriptional factors ArcA, Crp, and EtrA on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis were assessed. While all these proteins appeared to be functional in vivo, the importance of individual proteins in these two major biological processes differed. The ArcA transcriptional factor was critical in aerobic respiration while the Crp protein was indispensible in anaerobic respiration. Using a newly developed reporter system, it was found that expression of arcA and etrA was not influenced by growth conditions but transcription of crp was induced by removal of oxygen. An analysis of the impact of each protein on transcription of the others revealed that Crp expression was independent of the other factors whereas ArcA repressed both etrA and its own transcription while EtrA also repressed arcA transcription. Transcriptional levels of arcA in the wild type, crp, and etrA strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions were further validated by quantitative immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against ArcA. This extensive survey demonstrated that all these three global regulators are functional in S. oneidensis. In addition, the reporter system constructed in this study will facilitate in vivo transcriptional analysis of targeted promoters.

  18. Physiological roles of ArcA, Crp, and EtrA and their interactive control on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haichun; Wang, Xiaohu; Yang, Zamin K; Chen, Jingrong; Liang, Yili; Chen, Haijiang; Palzkill, Timothy; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-12-28

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, genes encoding the global regulators ArcA, Crp, and EtrA have been identified. All these proteins deviate from their counterparts in E. coli significantly in terms of functionality and regulon. It is worth investigating the involvement and relationship of these global regulators in aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis. In this study, the impact of the transcriptional factors ArcA, Crp, and EtrA on aerobic and anaerobic respiration in S. oneidensis were assessed. While all these proteins appeared to be functional in vivo, the importance of individual proteins in these two major biological processes differed. The ArcA transcriptional factor was critical in aerobic respiration while the Crp protein was indispensible in anaerobic respiration. Using a newly developed reporter system, it was found that expression of arcA and etrA was not influenced by growth conditions but transcription of crp was induced by removal of oxygen. An analysis of the impact of each protein on transcription of the others revealed that Crp expression was independent of the other factors whereas ArcA repressed both etrA and its own transcription while EtrA also repressed arcA transcription. Transcriptional levels of arcA in the wild type, crp, and etrA strains under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions were further validated by quantitative immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against ArcA. This extensive survey demonstrated that all these three global regulators are functional in S. oneidensis. In addition, the reporter system constructed in this study will facilitate in vivo transcriptional analysis of targeted promoters.

  19. Genomic analysis of anaerobic respiration in the archaeon Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1: dimethyl sulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as terminal electron acceptors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jochen A; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated anaerobic respiration of the archaeal model organism Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 by using phenotypic and genetic analysis, bioinformatics, and transcriptome analysis. NRC-1 was found to grow on either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, with a doubling time of 1 day. An operon, dmsREABCD, encoding a putative regulatory protein, DmsR, a molybdopterin oxidoreductase of the DMSO reductase family (DmsEABC), and a molecular chaperone (DmsD) was identified by bioinformatics and confirmed as a transcriptional unit by reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD in-frame deletion mutants were individually constructed. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD are required for anaerobic respiration on DMSO and TMAO. The requirement for dmsR, whose predicted product contains a DNA-binding domain similar to that of the Bat family of activators (COG3413), indicated that it functions as an activator. A cysteine-rich domain was found in the dmsR gene, which may be involved in oxygen sensing. Microarray analysis using a whole-genome 60-mer oligonucleotide array showed that the dms operon is induced during anaerobic respiration. Comparison of dmsR+ and DeltadmsR strains by use of microarrays showed that the induction of the dmsEABCD operon is dependent on a functional dmsR gene, consistent with its action as a transcriptional activator. Our results clearly establish the genes required for anaerobic respiration using DMSO and TMAO in an archaeon for the first time.

  20. Genomic Analysis of Anaerobic Respiration in the Archaeon Halobacterium sp. Strain NRC-1: Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Trimethylamine N-Oxide as Terminal Electron Acceptors†

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jochen A.; DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated anaerobic respiration of the archaeal model organism Halobacterium sp. strain NRC-1 by using phenotypic and genetic analysis, bioinformatics, and transcriptome analysis. NRC-1 was found to grow on either dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as the sole terminal electron acceptor, with a doubling time of 1 day. An operon, dmsREABCD, encoding a putative regulatory protein, DmsR, a molybdopterin oxidoreductase of the DMSO reductase family (DmsEABC), and a molecular chaperone (DmsD) was identified by bioinformatics and confirmed as a transcriptional unit by reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD in-frame deletion mutants were individually constructed. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that dmsR, dmsA, and dmsD are required for anaerobic respiration on DMSO and TMAO. The requirement for dmsR, whose predicted product contains a DNA-binding domain similar to that of the Bat family of activators (COG3413), indicated that it functions as an activator. A cysteine-rich domain was found in the dmsR gene, which may be involved in oxygen sensing. Microarray analysis using a whole-genome 60-mer oligonucleotide array showed that the dms operon is induced during anaerobic respiration. Comparison of dmsR+ and ΔdmsR strains by use of microarrays showed that the induction of the dmsEABCD operon is dependent on a functional dmsR gene, consistent with its action as a transcriptional activator. Our results clearly establish the genes required for anaerobic respiration using DMSO and TMAO in an archaeon for the first time. PMID:15716436

  1. Diversity and ubiquity of bacteria capable of utilizing humic substances as electron donors for anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Coates, John D; Cole, Kimberly A; Chakraborty, Romy; O'Connor, Susan M; Achenbach, Laurie A

    2002-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced humic substances (HS) can be reoxidized by anaerobic bacteria such as Geobacter, Geothrix, and Wolinella species with a suitable electron acceptor; however, little is known of the importance of this metabolism in the environment. Recently we investigated this metabolism in a diversity of environments including marine and aquatic sediments, forest soils, and drainage ditch soils. Most-probable-number enumeration studies were performed using 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHDS), an analog for reduced HS, as the electron donor with nitrate as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic organisms capable of utilizing reduced HS as an electron donor were found in all environments tested and ranged from a low of 2.31 x 10(1) in aquifer sediments to a high of 9.33 x 10(6) in lake sediments. As part of this study we isolated six novel organisms capable of anaerobic AHDS oxidation. All of the isolates coupled the oxidation of AHDS to the reduction of nitrate with acetate (0.1 mM) as the carbon source. In the absence of cells, no AHDS oxidation was apparent, and in the absence of AHDS, no cell density increase was observed. Generally, nitrate was reduced to N(2). Analysis of the AHDS and its oxidized form, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate (AQDS), in the medium during growth revealed that the anthraquinone was not being biodegraded as a carbon source and was simply being oxidized as an energy source. Determination of the AHDS oxidized and nitrate reduced accounted for 109% of the theoretical electron transfer. In addition to AHDS, all of these isolates could also couple the oxidation of reduced humic substances to the reduction of nitrate. No HS oxidation occurred in the absence of cells and in the absence of a suitable electron acceptor, demonstrating that these organisms were capable of utilizing natural HS as an energy source and that AHDS serves as a suitable analog for studying this metabolism. Alternative electron donors included

  2. Diversity and Ubiquity of Bacteria Capable of Utilizing Humic Substances as Electron Donors for Anaerobic Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Coates, John D.; Cole, Kimberly A.; Chakraborty, Romy; O'Connor, Susan M.; Achenbach, Laurie A.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that reduced humic substances (HS) can be reoxidized by anaerobic bacteria such as Geobacter, Geothrix, and Wolinella species with a suitable electron acceptor; however, little is known of the importance of this metabolism in the environment. Recently we investigated this metabolism in a diversity of environments including marine and aquatic sediments, forest soils, and drainage ditch soils. Most-probable-number enumeration studies were performed using 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AHDS), an analog for reduced HS, as the electron donor with nitrate as the electron acceptor. Anaerobic organisms capable of utilizing reduced HS as an electron donor were found in all environments tested and ranged from a low of 2.31 × 101 in aquifer sediments to a high of 9.33 × 106 in lake sediments. As part of this study we isolated six novel organisms capable of anaerobic AHDS oxidation. All of the isolates coupled the oxidation of AHDS to the reduction of nitrate with acetate (0.1 mM) as the carbon source. In the absence of cells, no AHDS oxidation was apparent, and in the absence of AHDS, no cell density increase was observed. Generally, nitrate was reduced to N2. Analysis of the AHDS and its oxidized form, 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate (AQDS), in the medium during growth revealed that the anthraquinone was not being biodegraded as a carbon source and was simply being oxidized as an energy source. Determination of the AHDS oxidized and nitrate reduced accounted for 109% of the theoretical electron transfer. In addition to AHDS, all of these isolates could also couple the oxidation of reduced humic substances to the reduction of nitrate. No HS oxidation occurred in the absence of cells and in the absence of a suitable electron acceptor, demonstrating that these organisms were capable of utilizing natural HS as an energy source and that AHDS serves as a suitable analog for studying this metabolism. Alternative electron donors included

  3. Mechanism and Consequences of Anaerobic Respiration of Cobalt by Shewanella oneidensis Strain MR-1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Heidi H.; Gilbert, Alan; Coursolle, Dan; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria from the genus Shewanella are the most diverse respiratory organisms studied to date and can utilize a variety of metals and metal(loid)s as terminal electron acceptors. These bacteria can potentially be used in bioremediation applications since the redox state of metals often influences both solubility and toxicity. Understanding molecular mechanisms by which metal transformations occur and the consequences of by-products that may be toxic to the organism and thus inhibitory to the overall process is significant to future applications for bioremediation. Here, we examine the ability of Shewanella oneidensis to catalyze the reduction of chelated cobalt. We describe an unexpected ramification of [Co(III)-EDTA]− reduction by S. oneidensis: the formation of a toxic by-product. We found that [Co(II)-EDTA]2−, the product of [Co(III)-EDTA]− respiration, inhibited the growth of S. oneidensis strain MR-1 and that this toxicity was partially abolished by the addition of MgSO4. We demonstrate that [Co(III)-EDTA]− reduction by S. oneidensis requires the Mtr extracellular respiratory pathway and associated pathways required to develop functional Mtr enzymes (the c-type cytochrome maturation pathway) and ensure proper localization (type II secretion). The Mtr pathway is known to be required for a variety of substrates, including some chelated and insoluble metals and organic compounds. Understanding the full substrate range for the Mtr pathway is crucial for developing S. oneidensis strains as a tool for bioremediation. PMID:18836009

  4. Effect of thermal-alkaline pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of streptomycin bacterial residues for methane production.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weizhang; Li, Zaixing; Yang, Jingliang; Liu, Chun; Tian, Baokuo; Wang, Yongjun; Chen, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of streptomycin bacterial residues, solutions with hazardous waste treatments and bioenergy recovery, was tested in laboratory-scale digesters at 35°C at various organic loading rates (OLRs). The methane production and biomass digestion were efficient at OLRs below 2.33 gVS L(-1) d(-1) but were deteriorated as OLR increased because of the increased total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentration from cell protein decay. The thermal-alkaline pretreatment with 0.10 NaOH/TS at 70°C for 2 h significantly improved the digestion performance. With the thermal-alkaline pretreatment, the volumetric reactor productivity and specific methane yield of the pretreated streptomycin bacterial residue increased by 22.08-27.08% compared with those of the unpretreated streptomycin bacterial residue at an OLR of 2.33 gVS L(-1) d(-1). The volatile solid removal was 64.09%, with less accumulation of TAN and total volatile fatty acid.

  5. Dissimilatory Reduction of Elemental Selenium to Selenide in Sediments and Anaerobic Cultures of Selenium Respiring Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbel, M. J.; Switzer-Blum, J.; Oremland, R. S.

    2001-12-01

    Selenium contaminated environments often contain elemental Se (Se0) in their sediments that originates from dissimilatory reduction of Se oxyanions. The forms of Se in sedimentary rocks similarly contain high proportions of Se0, but much of the Se is also in the form of metal selenides, Se-2. It is not clear if the occurrence of these selenides is due to microbial reduction of Se0, or some other biological or chemical process. In this investigation we examined the possibility that bacterial respiratory reduction of Se0 to Se-2 could explain the presence of the latter species in sedimentary rocks. We conducted incubations of anoxic sediment slurries amended with different forms of Se0. High levels of Se0 (mM) were added to San Francisco Bay sediments in order to enhance the detection of soluble HSe-, which was precipitated with Cu2+ then redissolved and quantified by ICP-MS. Concentrations of HSe- were highest in live samples amended with red amorphous Se0 formed by either microbial reduction of Se+4 ("biogenic Se0") or by chemical oxidation of H2Se(g) ("chem. Se0"); very little HSe- was formed in those amended with black crystalline Se0, indicating the general lack of reactivity of this allotrope. Controls poisoned with 10% formalin did not produce HSe- from additions of chem. Se0. Reduction of both forms of red amorphous Se0 to HSe- occurred vigorously in growing cultures of Bacillus selenitireducens, an anaerobic halophile previously isolated from sediments of Mono Lake, CA. Up to 73% and 68% of red amorphous, biogenic Se0 or chem. Se0, respectively, was reduced to HSe- during growth of B. selenitireducens, (incubation time ~ 200 hrs): oxidation of lactate to acetate as well as cell density increases indicated that a dissimilatory reduction pathway was likely. Reduction was most enhanced when cells were previously grown on elemental sulfur or Se+4. In contrast to the growth experiments, washed cell suspensions of B. selenitireducens exhibited no HSe- production

  6. What iron minerals contribute to anaerobic respiration in peats differing in maturity on the Arctic Coastal Plain ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masue-Slowey, Y.; Wagner, F. E.; Lipson, D.; Raab, T. K.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial Fe-reduction accounts for 30-60% of ecosystem respiration in drained thaw-lake tundra of the Arctic Coastal Plain. Near Barrow, we collected diffraction, Fe-XANES, Moessbauer spectra (RT and liqHe), and wet-chemical data on the Fe mineralogy of DTLB over an age gradient from 0 - 5500 y BP to delineate the important phases involved in microbial cycling of Fe. Soils were cored frozen in early June of 2010/ 2011, wrapped/ transported to CA by overnight express. Cores varying in age since formation were further sectioned, and transferred to an anaerobic hood for size-fractionation based on settling velocity, and subjected to bulk XRD at SSRL. Fe-XANES of both clay-separates and bulk soil were collected at BL 4-1. Subsamples were packed into anaerobic vials and sent for Moessbauer spectroscopy. Present in bulk soils of all ages by XRD were quartz, albite and vermiculite. Additional smectitic minerals, goethite and Fe-phosphates were evident in some basin classes, esp. Young and Medium. XANES confirmed wet-chem results of a highly-reduced state for Fe in bulk soils, and fits of XAFS indicated goethite as 20% of the reactive Fe-pool among basin-age classes. The most abundant Fe-containing minerals in clay fractions (Old and Young soils) were a ferrosmectite, or hornblende-derived mineral. (Fig.1) MB spectra from various depths of an Old Basin (300-2000 yrs BP) - the DTLB class of greatest areal extent -- revealed largely reduced Fe pools (50-60%), with goethite and a Fhd-like component visible (~23%). LHe spectra indicated the presence of goethite as ~ 20% of the MB-visible pool (Fig 2). Two prominent quadrupole doublets had QS=3.24 mm/s; IS = 1.10 mm/s and QS = 2.84; IS=1.05 mm/s, respectively, and upon oxidation, demonstrated divergent kinetics. We attribute the doublet with lower splitting to the ferrosmectite component visible by XAFS. Although previous sequential extractions of Barrow soil minerals suggested a sizeable component of siderites (indeed geochem

  7. [Isolation and characterization of a facultative anaerobe Pantoea agglomerans MFC-3 and its humic substance-and Fe(III) - respiring activity].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Yuan; Li, Fang-Bai; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Zhuang, Li; Wang, Yue-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    A strain of humic substance- and Fe(III)- reducing bacterium was isolated from the subterranean forest sediment and designated as MFC-3. The strain is facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative, motile and rod (1.0-3.0 microm long, 0.5-1.0 microm wide) and identified as Pantoea agglomerans with the 16S rDNA sequence analyses. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate its humic substance-and Fe(III)-respiring activity. The results showed that MFC-3 was capable of anaerobic respiration on anthraquinone-2,6-disulphonate (AQDS) as the sole terminal electron acceptor with glucose as the electron donor. Within 48 h, MFC-3 could reduce 0.3 mmol x L(-1) AQDS at the expense of 4.5 mmol x L(-1) glucose, and the population of bacteria was increased by 7 times. The strain could use sucrose, glucose, citrate, lactate and formate as electron donors for anaerobic respiration, and the reduction rates of AQDS ranked as sucrose (77%) > glucose (66%) > citrate (50%) > lactate (33%) > glycerol (25%) > formate (17%). MFC-3 can also effectively reduce four types of Fe(III) oxides. After 25 d, the total Fe(II) concentration in the tests of using ferrihydrite, alpha-FeOOH, gamma-FeOOH or alpha-Fe2 O3 as electron acceptor reached 2.5, 2.1, 2.3 and 0.8 mmol x L(-1), respectively. As a strain of environmental origin, MFC-3 is quite useful for the study of extracellular respiration and bioremediation of chlorinated organic pollutants in Fe(III)/humic substance-rich environments.

  8. Enhancing the solid-state anaerobic digestion of fallen leaves through simultaneous alkaline treatment.

    PubMed

    Liew, Lo Niee; Shi, Jian; Li, Yebo

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that alkali pretreatment prior to anaerobic digestion (AD) can increase the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass and methane yield. In order to simplify the process and reduce the capital cost, simultaneous alkali treatment and anaerobic digestion was evaluated for methane production from fallen leaves. The highest methane yield of 82 L/kg volatile solids (VS) was obtained at NaOH loading of 3.5% and substrate-to-inoculum (S/I) ratio of 4.1. The greatest enhancement in methane yield was achieved at S/I ratio of 6.2 with NaOH loading of 3.5% which was 24-fold higher than that of the control (without NaOH addition). Reactors at S/I ratio of 8.2 resulted in failure of the AD process. In addition, increasing the total solid (TS) content from 20% to 26% reduced biogas yield by 35% at S/I ratio of 6.2 and NaOH loading of 3.5%. Cellulose and hemicellulose degradation and methane yields are highly related. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anaerobic biodegradation of polylactic acid under mesophilic condition using thermal-alkaline pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samitthiwetcharong, Sutisa; Kullavanijaya, Pratin; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2017-07-01

    The propose of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal-alkaline pretreatment with emphasis on sodium hydroxide concentration (NaOH), temperature and reaction time, on enhancement of polylactic acid (PLA) films degradation and biogas production. The results found that NaOH concentration and reaction time were two main parameters influencing on PLA degradation. While, less significant was found for temperature. From the Response Surface Methodology (RSM), it was concluded that the optimum pretreatment conditions were at 0.5 M of NaOH, temperature of 60°C and 24 hr of reaction time. This was generated about 3.7 times (215.47 ml/gVSadded) higher gas production comparing to non-pretreated PLA films which was 58.28 ml/gVSadded. The maximum biodegradability of PLA film was 20.14%. This was estimated to be 4.7 times higher than non-pretreated PLA (4.32%). This finding demonstrated the benefit of thermal-alkaline pretreatment on surface of PLA films destruction. Consequently, the microbial enzymes could degrade PLA more easily, resulting in an increase of biogas production.

  10. Analysis of MSW full-scale facilities based on anaerobic digestion and/or composting using respiration indices as performance indicators.

    PubMed

    Colón, J; Ponsá, S; Álvarez, C; Vinot, M; Lafuente, F J; Gabriel, D; Sánchez, A

    2017-07-01

    The Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) forces European States to reduce the amount of biodegradable municipal waste landfilled to 35% of 1995 levels. Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) plants are the main alternative to waste incineration and landfilling. In this work, the waste treatment efficiency of six full-scale MBT facilities has been analysed using respiration indices (Dynamic Respiration Index and Cumulative Oxygen Consumption) to monitor plant performance. MBTs relying on anaerobic digestion plus composting achieved a high grade of stability on final compost (0.24±0.09mgO2g(-1)DMh(-1) and 20±9mgO2g(-1)DM for dynamic respiration and cumulative consumption, respectively). On the contrary, MBTs relying only on composting showed a poor performance (1.3±0.2mgO2g(-1)DMh(-1) and 104±18mgO2g(-1)DM for dynamic respiration and cumulative consumption, respectively). These results highlight the usefulness of respirometric balances to assess the performance of MBT full-scale plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge by using H₂O₂ oxidation, electrolysis, electro-oxidation and thermo-alkaline pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Feki, Emna; Khoufi, Sonia; Loukil, Slim; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-10-01

    Disintegration of municipal waste-activated sludge (WAS) is regarded as a prerequisite of the anaerobic digestion process to reduce sludge volume and improve biogas yield. Pretreatment of WAS using thermo-alkaline (TA), H2O2 oxidation, electrolysis and electro-oxidation (EO) processes were investigated and compared in term of COD solubilization and biogas production. For each pretreatment, the influences of different operational variables were studied in detail. At optimum conditions, EO gave the maximum COD solubilization (28 %). The effects of pretreatments under the optimum conditions on anaerobic digestion were experienced with biochemical methane potential assay. Significant increases in biogas yield up to 78 and 40 % were observed respectively in the EO and TA pretreated samples compared to raw sludge. Results clearly revealed that the application of EO is a significant alternative method for the improvement of WAS anaerobic digestion.

  12. Engineering a synthetic anaerobic respiration for reduction of xylose to xylitol using NADH output of glucose catabolism by Escherichia coli AI21.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Andrew; Garza, Erin; Manow, Ryan; Wang, Jinhua; Gao, Yuanyuan; Grayburn, Scott; Zhou, Shengde

    2016-04-16

    Anaerobic rather than aerobic fermentation is preferred for conversion of biomass derived sugars to high value redox-neutral and reduced commodities. This will likely result in a higher yield of substrate to product conversion and decrease production cost since substrate often accounts for a significant portion of the overall cost. To this goal, metabolic pathway engineering has been used to optimize substrate carbon flow to target products. This approach works well for the production of redox neutral products such as lactic acid from redox neutral sugars using the reducing power NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced) generated from glycolysis (2 NADH per glucose equivalent). Nevertheless, greater than two NADH per glucose catabolized is needed for the production of reduced products (such as xylitol) from redox neutral sugars by anaerobic fermentation. The Escherichia coli strain AI05 (ΔfrdBC ΔldhA ΔackA Δ(focA-pflB) ΔadhE ΔptsG ΔpdhR::pflBp 6-(aceEF-lpd)), previously engineered for reduction of xylose to xylitol using reducing power (NADH equivalent) of glucose catabolism, was further engineered by 1) deleting xylAB operon (encoding for xylose isomerase and xylulokinase) to prevent xylose from entering the pentose phosphate pathway; 2) anaerobically expressing the sdhCDAB-sucABCD operon (encoding for succinate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA synthetase) to enable an anaerobically functional tricarboxcylic acid cycle with a theoretical 10 NAD(P)H equivalent per glucose catabolized. These reducing equivalents can be oxidized by synthetic respiration via xylose reduction, producing xylitol. The resulting strain, AI21 (pAI02), achieved a 96 % xylose to xylitol conversion, with a yield of 6 xylitol per glucose catabolized (molar yield of xylitol per glucose consumed (YRPG) = 6). This represents a 33 % improvement in xylose to xylitol conversion, and a 63 % increase in xylitol yield per glucose catabolized over

  13. Anaerobic respiration and antioxidant responses of Corythucha ciliata (Say) adults to heat-induced oxidative stress under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Wei, He-Ping; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Xu-Hui; Li, Bo

    2014-03-01

    High temperature often induces oxidative stress and antioxidant response in insects. This phenomenon has been well documented under controlled laboratory conditions, but whether it happens under fluctuating field conditions is largely unknown. In this study, we used an invasive lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) as a model species to compare the effects of controlled thermal treatments (2 h at 33-43 °C with 2 °C intervals in the laboratory) and naturally fluctuating thermal conditions (08:00-14:00 at 2-h intervals (29.7-37.2 °C) on a hot summer day in a field in Shanghai, China) on lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) was the marker) and anaerobic respiration (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was the marker), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione reductase (GR). The results show that MDA concentration increased significantly in response to heat stresses with similar trend in the laboratory and field. LDH activities did not significantly vary across temperatures in the laboratory-exposed individuals, but they significantly increased by rising temperature in the field. The activities or concentrations of SOD, CAT, GSH, and GR all significantly increased with increasing temperature in the two populations. These findings indicate that high temperature induces oxidative stress, resulting in high anaerobic respiration and antioxidant defenses in C. ciliata under both the laboratory and field conditions, which likely provide a defense mechanism against oxidative damage due to the accumulation of ROS.

  14. Improved volatile fatty acids anaerobic production from waste activated sludge by pH regulation: Alkaline or neutral pH?

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xingchun; Liu, He; Liu, Hongbo; Fu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the anaerobic fermentation was carried out for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production at different pH (between 7.0 and 10.0) conditions with untreated sludge and heat-alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge. In the fermentation with untreated sludge, the extent of hydrolysis of organic matters and extent of acidification at alkaline pH are 54.37% and 30.37%, respectively, resulting in the highest VFAs yield at 235.46mg COD/gVS of three pH conditions. In the fermentation with heat-alkaline pretreated sludge, the acidification rate and VFAs yield at neutral pH are 30.98% and 240.14mg COD/gVS, respectively, which are higher than that at other pH conditions. With the glucose or bovine serum albumin as substrate for VFAs production, the neutral pH showed a higher VFAs concentration than the alkaline pH condition. The results of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated that the alkaline pH caused low microbial richness. Based on the results in this study, we demonstrated that the alkaline pH is favor of hydrolysis of organic matter in sludge while neutral pH improved the acidogenesis for the VFAs production from sludge. Our finding is obvious different to the previous research and helpful for the understanding of how heat-alkaline pretreatment and alkaline fermentation influence the VFAs production, and beneficial to the development of VFAs production process.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways, alternative respiration and enterotoxin genes in anaerobic growth of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, M; Abee, T

    2009-09-01

    To assess genes specifically activated during anaerobic growth that are involved in metabolism and pathogenesis of the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Growth under anaerobic conditions in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth revealed a reduced growth rate and lower yield as compared to growth under aerobic conditions. Subsequently, comparative transcriptome analysis showed specific genes induced under anaerobic conditions. These included novel genes identified for anaerobic growth of B. cereus, encoding metabolic pathways, such as the arginine deiminase pathway (ArcABDC), formate dehydrogenase (FdhF) and pyruvate formate lyase (Pfl), and alternative respiratory proteins, such as arsenate reductases. Notably, haemolytic enzyme encoding genes were induced during anaerobic growth, and enterotoxin genes were induced in high cell density transition and stationary phases of aerobic cultures. These data point to induction of stress adaptation and pathogenicity factors and rearrangements of expression of metabolic pathways in response to oxygen limitations in B. cereus. The reported changes in gene expression show that the foodborne pathogen B. cereus can adjust to anaerobic conditions, such as encountered in the human GI-tract.

  16. Generation of High Current Densities by Pure Cultures of Anode-Respiring Geoalkalibacter spp. under Alkaline and Saline Conditions in Microbial Electrochemical Cells

    PubMed Central

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Torres, César I.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) generate electric current in microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) by channeling electrons from the oxidation of organic substrates to an electrode. Production of high current densities by monocultures in MXCs has resulted almost exclusively from the activity of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a neutrophilic freshwater Fe(III)-reducing bacterium and the highest-current-producing member documented for the Geobacteraceae family of the Deltaproteobacteria. Here we report high current densities generated by haloalkaliphilic Geoalkalibacter spp., thus broadening the capability for high anode respiration rates by including other genera within the Geobacteraceae. In this study, acetate-fed pure cultures of two related Geoalkalibacter spp. produced current densities of 5.0 to 8.3 and 2.4 to 3.3 A m−2 under alkaline (pH 9.3) and saline (1.7% NaCl) conditions, respectively. Chronoamperometric studies of halophilic Glk. subterraneus DSM 23483 and alkaliphilic Glk. ferrihydriticus DSM 17813 suggested that cells performed long-range electron transfer through electrode-attached biofilms and not through soluble electron shuttles. Glk. ferrihydriticus also oxidized ethanol directly to produce current, with maximum current densities of 5.7 to 7.1 A m−2 and coulombic efficiencies of 84 to 95%. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) elicited a sigmoidal response with characteristic onset, midpoint, and saturation potentials, while CV performed in the absence of an electron donor suggested the involvement of redox molecules in the biofilm that were limited by diffusion. These results matched those previously reported for actively respiring Gb. sulfurreducens biofilms producing similar current densities (~5 to 9 A m−2). PMID:23631915

  17. Comparative genomic analysis of regulation of anaerobic respiration in ten genomes from three families of gamma-proteobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Vibrionaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Gerasimova, Anna V; Mironov, Andrey A; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2007-01-01

    Background Gamma-proteobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, can use a variety of respiratory substrates employing numerous aerobic and anaerobic respiratory systems controlled by multiple transcription regulators. Thus, in E. coli, global control of respiration is mediated by four transcription factors, Fnr, ArcA, NarL and NarP. However, in other Gamma-proteobacteria the composition of global respiration regulators may be different. Results In this study we applied a comparative genomic approach to the analysis of three global regulatory systems, Fnr, ArcA and NarP. These systems were studied in available genomes containing these three regulators, but lacking NarL. So, we considered several representatives of Pasteurellaceae, Vibrionaceae and Yersinia spp. As a result, we identified new regulon members, functioning in respiration, central metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, citrate cicle, metabolism of pyruvate and lactate), metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids, transcriptional regulation and transport, in particular: the ATP synthase operon atpIBEFHAGCD, Na+-exporting NADH dehydrogenase operon nqrABCDEF, the D-amino acids dehydrogenase operon dadAX. Using an extension of the comparative technique, we demonstrated taxon-specific changes in regulatory interactions and predicted taxon-specific regulatory cascades. Conclusion A comparative genomic technique was applied to the analysis of global regulation of respiration in ten gamma-proteobacterial genomes. Three structurally different but functionally related regulatory systems were described. A correlation between the regulon size and the position of a transcription factor in regulatory cascades was observed: regulators with larger regulons tend to occupy top positions in the cascades. On the other hand, there is no obvious link to differences in the species' lifestyles and metabolic capabilities. PMID:17313674

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of regulation of anaerobic respiration in ten genomes from three families of gamma-proteobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Vibrionaceae).

    PubMed

    Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Gerasimova, Anna V; Mironov, Andrey A; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2007-02-21

    Gamma-proteobacteria, such as Escherichia coli, can use a variety of respiratory substrates employing numerous aerobic and anaerobic respiratory systems controlled by multiple transcription regulators. Thus, in E. coli, global control of respiration is mediated by four transcription factors, Fnr, ArcA, NarL and NarP. However, in other Gamma-proteobacteria the composition of global respiration regulators may be different. In this study we applied a comparative genomic approach to the analysis of three global regulatory systems, Fnr, ArcA and NarP. These systems were studied in available genomes containing these three regulators, but lacking NarL. So, we considered several representatives of Pasteurellaceae, Vibrionaceae and Yersinia spp. As a result, we identified new regulon members, functioning in respiration, central metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, citrate cicle, metabolism of pyruvate and lactate), metabolism of carbohydrates and fatty acids, transcriptional regulation and transport, in particular: the ATP synthase operon atpIBEFHAGCD, Na+-exporting NADH dehydrogenase operon nqrABCDEF, the D-amino acids dehydrogenase operon dadAX. Using an extension of the comparative technique, we demonstrated taxon-specific changes in regulatory interactions and predicted taxon-specific regulatory cascades. A comparative genomic technique was applied to the analysis of global regulation of respiration in ten gamma-proteobacterial genomes. Three structurally different but functionally related regulatory systems were described. A correlation between the regulon size and the position of a transcription factor in regulatory cascades was observed: regulators with larger regulons tend to occupy top positions in the cascades. On the other hand, there is no obvious link to differences in the species' lifestyles and metabolic capabilities.

  19. MudPIT Profiling Reveals a Link between Anaerobic Metabolism and the Alkaline Adaptive Response of Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Rolf E.; Ross, Tom; Bowman, John P.; Britz, Margaret L.

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne human pathogen capable of causing life-threatening disease in susceptible populations. Previous proteomic analysis we performed demonstrated that different strains of L. monocytogenes initiate a stringent response when subjected to alkaline growth conditions. Here, using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT), we show that in L. monocytogenes EGD-e this response involves an energy shift to anaerobic pathways in response to the extracellular pH environment. Importantly we show that this supports a reduction in relative lag time following an abrupt transition to low oxygen tension culture conditions. This has important implications for the packaging of fresh and ready-to-eat foods under reduced oxygen conditions in environments where potential exists for alkaline adaptation. PMID:23342094

  20. Comparative Genomics Analysis and Phenotypic Characterization of Shewanella putrefaciens W3-18-1: Anaerobic Respiration, Bacterial Microcompartments, and Lateral Flagella

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, D.; Tu, Q.; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Respiratory versatility and psychrophily are the hallmarks of Shewanella. The ability to utilize a wide range of electron acceptors for respiration is due to the large number of c-type cytochrome genes present in the genome of Shewanella strains. More recently the dissimilatory metal reduction of Shewanella species has been extensively and intensively studied for potential applications in the bioremediation of radioactive wastes of groundwater and subsurface environments. Multiple Shewanella genome sequences are now available in the public databases (Fredrickson et al., 2008). Most of the sequenced Shewanella strains were isolated from marine environments and this genus was believed to be of marine origin (Hau and Gralnick, 2007). However, the well-characterized model strain, S. oneidensis MR-1, was isolated from the freshwater lake sediment of Lake Oneida, New York (Myers and Nealson, 1988) and similar bacteria have also been isolated from other freshwater environments (Venkateswaran et al., 1999). Here we comparatively analyzed the genome sequence and physiological characteristics of S. putrefaciens W3-18-1 and S. oneidensis MR-1, isolated from the marine and freshwater lake sediments, respectively. The anaerobic respirations, carbon source utilization, and cell motility have been experimentally investigated. Large scale horizontal gene transfers have been revealed and the genetic divergence between these two strains was considered to be critical to the bacterial adaptation to specific habitats, freshwater or marine sediments.

  1. Asparagus stem as a new lignocellulosic biomass feedstock for anaerobic digestion: increasing hydrolysis rate, methane production and biodegradability by alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohua; Gu, Yu; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-07-01

    Recently, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass for methane production has attracted considerable attention. However, there is little information regarding methane production from asparagus stem, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, by anaerobic digestion. In this study, alkaline pretreatment of asparagus stem was investigated for its ability to increase hydrolysis rate and methane production and to improve biodegradability (BD). The hydrolysis rate increased with increasing NaOH dose, due to higher removal rates of lignin and hemicelluloses. However, the optimal NaOH dose was 6% (w/w) according to the specific methane production (SMP). Under this condition, the SMP and the technical digestion time of the NaOH-treated asparagus stem were 242.3 mL/g VS and 18 days, which were 38.4% higher and 51.4% shorter than those of the untreated sample, respectively. The BD was improved from 40.1% to 55.4%. These results indicate that alkaline pretreatment could be an efficient method for increasing methane production from asparagus stem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular and Stable Isotope Investigation of Nitrite Respiring Bacterial Communities Capable of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) and Denitrifying Anaerobic Methane Oxidation (DAMO) in Nitrogen Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, B.; Hirsch, M.; Taylor, J.; Smith, R. L.; Repert, D.; Tobias, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) and denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) are two recently discovered N2 production pathways in the microbial nitrogen cycle. ANAMMOX has been relatively well investigated in various aquatic ecosystems, while DAMO has been examined only in freshwater wetlands. However, neither ANAMMOX nor DAMO have been studied in groundwater ecosystems as microbial N removal processes where they could compliment or compete with denitrification to remediate N contaminated aquifers. Thus, we conducted molecular and stable isotope analyses to detect and measure ANAMMOX and DAMO in a nitrogen contaminated aquifer on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The study site has a plume of nitrogen contaminated groundwater as a result of continuous discharge of treated wastewater over 60 years. Groundwater was collected from multiport sampling devices installed at two sites, near the waste-water disposal location (A) and more than 3 km down gradient (B) along the contamination plume. Biomass was collected from water samples for DNA extraction and 15N tracer incubation experiments. PCR with specific 16S rRNA gene primers detected the presence of ANAMMOX and DAMO bacteria at both sites. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the ANAMMOX community at site A was most associated with Kuenenia spp. while site B had a community more closely related to Brocadia spp. The DAMO communities at the two sites were quite different based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. The communities at site B are closely associated with Candidatus “Methylomirabilis oxyfera”, which is the first enriched DAMO culture. Most of the 16S rRNA sequences detected in site A were related to those found in other DAMO enrichment cultures established from a eutrophic ditch sediment. In order to determine active members of ANAMMOX communities, the transcriptional expression of hydrazine oxidase (hzo) and hydrazine hydrolase (hh) genes was examined at both sites. In addition, 15N tracer

  3. The tetraheme cytochrome CymA is required for anaerobic respiration with dimethyl sulfoxide and nitrite in Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Schwalb, Carsten; Chapman, Stephen K; Reid, Graeme A

    2003-08-12

    The tetraheme c-type cytochrome, CymA, from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has previously been shown to be required for respiration with Fe(III), nitrate, and fumarate [Myers, C. R., and Myers, J. M. (1997) J. Bacteriol. 179, 1143-1152]. It is located in the cytoplasmic membrane where the bulk of the protein is exposed to the periplasm, enabling it to transfer electrons to a series of redox partners. We have expressed and purified a soluble derivative of CymA (CymA(sol)) that lacks the N-terminal membrane anchor. We show here, by direct measurements of electron transfer between the purified proteins, that CymA(sol) efficiently reduces S. oneidensis fumarate reductase. This indicates that no further proteins are required for electron transfer between the quinone pool and fumarate if we assume direct reduction of CymA by quinols. By expressing CymA(sol) in a mutant lacking CymA, we have shown that this soluble form of the protein can complement the defect in fumarate respiration. We also demonstrate that CymA is essential for growth with DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) and for reduction of nitrite, implicating CymA in at least five different electron transfer pathways in Shewanella.

  4. Shewanella putrefaciens produces an Fe(III)-solubilizing organic ligand during anaerobic respiration on insoluble Fe(III) oxides.

    PubMed

    Taillefert, Martial; Beckler, Jordon S; Carey, Elizabeth; Burns, Justin L; Fennessey, Christine M; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2007-11-01

    The mechanism of Fe(III) reduction was investigated using voltammetric techniques in anaerobic incubations of Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 supplemented with Fe(III) citrate or a suite of Fe(III) oxides as terminal electron acceptor. Results indicate that organic complexes of Fe(III) are produced during the reduction of Fe(III) at rates that correlate with the reactivity of the Fe(III) phase and bacterial cell density. Anaerobic Fe(III) solubilization activity is detected with either Fe(III) oxides or Fe(III) citrate, suggesting that the organic ligand produced is strong enough to destabilize Fe(III) from soluble or solid Fe(III) substrates. Results also demonstrate that Fe(III) oxide dissolution is not controlled by the intrinsic chemical reactivity of the Fe(III) oxides. Instead, the chemical reaction between the endogenous organic ligand is only affected by the number of reactive surface sites available to S. putrefaciens. This report describes the first application of voltammetric techniques to demonstrate production of soluble organic-Fe(III) complexes by any Fe(III)-reducing microorganism and is the first report of a Fe(III)-solubilizing ligand generated by a metal-reducing member of the genus Shewanella.

  5. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH)2. The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH)2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans QseBC is activated by catecholamines and iron and regulates genes encoding proteins associated with anaerobic respiration and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Weigel, W A; Demuth, D R; Torres-Escobar, A; Juárez-Rodríguez, M D

    2015-10-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans QseBC regulates its own expression and is essential for biofilm growth and virulence. However, the signal that activates the QseC sensor has not been identified and the qseBC regulon has not been defined. In this study, we show that QseC is activated by catecholamine hormones and iron but not by either component alone. Activation of QseC requires an EYRDD motif in the periplasmic domain of the sensor and site-specific mutations in EYRDD or the deletion of the periplasmic domain inhibits catecholamine/iron-dependent induction of the ygiW-qseBC operon. Catecholamine/iron-dependent induction of transcription also requires interaction of the QseB response regulator with its binding site in the ygiW-qseBC promoter. Whole genome microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles of A. actinomycetemcomitans grown in a chemically defined medium with and without catecholamine and iron supplementation. Approximately 11.5% of the A. actinomycetemcomitans genome was differentially expressed by at least two-fold upon exposure to catecholamines and iron. The expression of ferritin was strongly induced, suggesting that intracellular iron storage capacity is increased upon QseBC activation. Consistent with this, genes encoding iron binding and transport proteins were down-regulated by QseBC. Strikingly, 57% of the QseBC up-regulated genes (56/99) encode proteins associated with anaerobic metabolism and respiration. Most of these up-regulated genes were recently reported to be induced during in vivo growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans. These results suggest that detection of catecholamines and iron by QseBC may alter the cellular metabolism of A. actinomycetemcomitans for increased fitness and growth in an anaerobic host environment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans QseBC is activated by catecholamines and iron and regulates genes encoding proteins associated with anaerobic respiration and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, WA; Demuth, DR; Torres-Escobar, A; Juárez-Rodríguez, MD

    2015-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans QseBC regulates its own expression and is essential for biofilm growth and virulence. However, the signal that activates the QseC sensor has not been identified and the qseBC regulon has not been defined. In this study, we show that QseC is activated by catecholamine hormones and iron but not by either component alone. Activation of QseC requires an EYRDD motif in the periplasmic domain of the sensor and site-specific mutations in EYRDD or the deletion of the periplasmic domain inhibits catecholamine/iron-dependent induction of the ygiW-qseBC operon. Catecholamine/iron-dependent induction of transcription also requires interaction of the QseB response regulator with its binding site in the ygiW-qseBC promoter. Whole genome microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles of A. actinomycetemcomitans grown in a chemically defined medium with and without catecholamine and iron supplementation. Approximately 11.5% of the A. actinomycetemcomitans genome was differentially expressed by at least two-fold upon exposure to catecholamines and iron. The expression of ferritin was strongly induced, suggesting that intracellular iron storage capacity is increased upon QseBC activation. Consistent with this, genes encoding iron binding and transport proteins were down-regulated by QseBC. Strikingly, 57% of the QseBC up-regulated genes (56/99) encode proteins associated with anaerobic metabolism and respiration. Most of these up-regulated genes were recently reported to be induced during in vivo growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans. These results suggest that detection of catecholamines and iron by QseBC may alter the cellular metabolism of A. actinomycetemcomitans for increased fitness and growth in an anaerobic host environment. PMID:25923132

  8. Anaerobic respiration of elemental sulfur and thiosulfate by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 requires psrA, a homolog of the phsA gene of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2.

    PubMed

    Burns, Justin L; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a facultatively anaerobic gammaproteobacterium, respires a variety of anaerobic terminal electron acceptors, including the inorganic sulfur compounds sulfite (SO3(2-)), thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)), tetrathionate (S4O6(2-)), and elemental sulfur (S(0)). The molecular mechanism of anaerobic respiration of inorganic sulfur compounds by S. oneidensis, however, is poorly understood. In the present study, we identified a three-gene cluster in the S. oneidensis genome whose translated products displayed 59 to 73% amino acid similarity to the products of phsABC, a gene cluster required for S(0) and S2O3(2-) respiration by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Homologs of phsA (annotated as psrA) were identified in the genomes of Shewanella strains that reduce S(0) and S2O3(2-) yet were missing from the genomes of Shewanella strains unable to reduce these electron acceptors. A new suicide vector was constructed and used to generate a markerless, in-frame deletion of psrA, the gene encoding the putative thiosulfate reductase. The psrA deletion mutant (PSRA1) retained expression of downstream genes psrB and psrC but was unable to respire S(0) or S2O3(2-) as the terminal electron acceptor. Based on these results, we postulate that PsrA functions as the main subunit of the S. oneidensis S2O3(2-) terminal reductase whose end products (sulfide [HS-] or SO3(2-)) participate in an intraspecies sulfur cycle that drives S(0) respiration.

  9. Anaerobic Respiration of Elemental Sulfur and Thiosulfate by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Requires psrA, a Homolog of the phsA Gene of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Justin L.; DiChristina, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a facultatively anaerobic gammaproteobacterium, respires a variety of anaerobic terminal electron acceptors, including the inorganic sulfur compounds sulfite (SO32−), thiosulfate (S2O32−), tetrathionate (S4O62−), and elemental sulfur (S0). The molecular mechanism of anaerobic respiration of inorganic sulfur compounds by S. oneidensis, however, is poorly understood. In the present study, we identified a three-gene cluster in the S. oneidensis genome whose translated products displayed 59 to 73% amino acid similarity to the products of phsABC, a gene cluster required for S0 and S2O32− respiration by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Homologs of phsA (annotated as psrA) were identified in the genomes of Shewanella strains that reduce S0 and S2O32− yet were missing from the genomes of Shewanella strains unable to reduce these electron acceptors. A new suicide vector was constructed and used to generate a markerless, in-frame deletion of psrA, the gene encoding the putative thiosulfate reductase. The psrA deletion mutant (PSRA1) retained expression of downstream genes psrB and psrC but was unable to respire S0 or S2O32− as the terminal electron acceptor. Based on these results, we postulate that PsrA functions as the main subunit of the S. oneidensis S2O32− terminal reductase whose end products (sulfide [HS−] or SO32−) participate in an intraspecies sulfur cycle that drives S0 respiration. PMID:19542325

  10. Effect of influent pH and alkalinity on the removal of chlorophenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactors.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, S K

    2009-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of influent pH and alkalinity on the performance of sequential UASB and RBC reactors for the removal of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP from two different simulated wastewaters. The performance of methanogens at low (<6.0) to high (>8.0) pH values and at sufficiently high alkalinity (1500-3500 mg/l as CaCO(3)) is described in this paper. Sequential reactors were capable of handling wastewaters with influent pH, 5.5-8.5. However, with influent pH 7.0+/-0.1 UASB reactor showed best performance for 2-CP (99%) and 2,4-DCP (88%) removals. Increase in alkalinity/COD ratio in the influent (>1.1) caused gradual decrease in the chlorophenol removal in UASB reactors. The UASB reactors could not tolerate wastewater with higher alkalinity/COD ratio (2.6) and showed significant deterioration of its performance in terms of chlorophenols removal achieving only 74.7% 2-CP and 60% 2,4-DCP removals, respectively.

  11. The contribution of aerobic and anaerobic respiration to intestinal colonization and virulence for Salmonella typhimurium in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul Andrew; Berchieri, Angelo; Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano de; Lovell, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    The basic mechanism whereby Salmonella serovars colonize the chicken intestine remains poorly understood. Previous studies have indicated that proton-translocating proteins utilizing oxygen as terminal electron acceptor do not appear to be of major importance in the gut of the newly hatched chicken and consequently they would be even less significant during intestinal colonization of more mature chickens where the complex gut microflora would trap most of the oxygen in the lumen. Consequently, alternative electron acceptors may be more significant or, in their absence, substrate-level phosphorylation may also be important to Salmonella serovars in this environment. To investigate this we constructed mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium defective in various aspects of oxidative or substrate-level phosphorylation to assess their role in colonization of the chicken intestine, assessed through faecal shedding, and virulence. Mutations affecting use of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors did not eliminate faecal shedding. By contrast mutations in either pta (phosphotransacetylase) or ackA (acetate kinase) abolished shedding. The pta but not the ackA mutation also abolished systemic virulence for chickens. An additional ldhA (lactate dehydrogenase) mutant also showed poor colonizing ability. We hypothesise that substrate-level phosphorylation may be more important than respiration using oxygen or alternative electron acceptors for colonization of the chicken caeca.

  12. Hydrogen-dependent growth of Escherichia coli in anaerobic respiration and the presence of hydrogenases with different functions.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, I; Ishimoto, M

    1978-09-01

    E. coli K10 was found to grow anaerobically on molecular hydrogen by reducing nitrate, fumarate, and trimethylamine N-oxide when peptone was added to the culture medium. Molar growth yields based on consumed hydrogen estimated from the amounts of reduction products were all 7.8 g cells/mol, suggesting that 1 mol of ATP was produced in the oxidation of 1 mol of hydrogen. Hydrogenase activity measured in terms of hydrogen evolution was several times higher in cells grown on glucose than in cells grown on hydrogen in the presence of fumarate and trimethylamine N-oxide, while hydrogenase activity measured in terms of hydrogen uptake was unchanged in both cases. The ratio of hydrogenase activities measured in terms of hydrogen uptake and evolution was also high in the extract and centrifugal fractions from cells grown in hydrogen. The soluble fraction and trypsin digest of the precipitate at 100,000 X g were subjected to polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis and hydrogenase bands were stained by reduction of benzyl viologen with hydrogen and by oxidation of reduced methyl viologen. The resulting patterns suggest that multiple forms of hydrogenase are present and that the amounts of forms functioning in hydrogen evolution were greatly decresed in cells grown on hydrogen in the presence of acceptors.

  13. Alkaline-mechanical pretreatment process for enhanced anaerobic digestion of thickened waste activated sludge with a novel crushing device: Performance evaluation and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Si-Kyung; Ju, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2014-08-01

    Although various pretreatments have been widely investigated to enhance the anaerobic digestion (AD) of waste activated sludge (WAS), economic feasibility issues have limited real-world applications. The authors examined the performance and economic analysis of an alkaline-mechanical process with a novel mechanical crushing device for thickened WAS pretreatment. The pretreatment at 40gTS/L, pH 13, and 90min reaction time achieved 64% of solubilization efficiency and 8.3 times higher CH4 yield than the control. In addition, a synergistic CH4 yield enhancement was observed when the pretreated and raw WAS were used together as feedstock, and the greatest synergy was observed at a volumetric mixture ratio of 50:50. Economic estimates indicate that up to 22% of WAS treatment costs would be saved by the installation of the suggested process. The experimental results clearly indicate that the alkaline-mechanical process would be highly effective and economically feasible for the AD of thickened WAS.

  14. Anaerobic respiration sustains mitochondrial membrane potential in a prolyl hydroxylase pathway-activated cancer cell line in a hypoxic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eiji; Sato, Michihiko

    2014-02-15

    To elucidate how tumor cells produce energy in oxygen-depleted microenvironments, we studied the possibility of mitochondrial electron transport without oxygen. We produced well-controlled oxygen gradients (ΔO2) in monolayer-cultured cells. We then visualized oxygen levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΦm) in individual cells by using the red shift of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence and a cationic fluorescent dye, respectively. In this two-dimensional tissue model, ΔΦm was abolished in cells >500 μm from the oxygen source [the anoxic front (AF)], indicating limitations in diffusional oxygen delivery. This result perfectly matched GFP-determined ΔO2. In cells pretreated with dimethyloxaloylglycine (DMOG), a prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD) inhibitor, the AF was expanded to 1,500-2,000 μm from the source. In these cells, tissue ΔO2 was substantially decreased, indicating that PHD pathway activation suppressed mitochondrial respiration. The expansion of the AF and the reduction of ΔO2 were much more prominent in a cancer cell line (Hep3B) than in the equivalent fibroblast-like cell line (COS-7). Hence, the results indicate that PHD pathway-activated cells can sustain ΔΦm, despite significantly decreased electron flux to complex IV. Complex II inhibition abolished the effect of DMOG in expanding the AF, although tissue ΔO2 remained shallow. Separate experiments demonstrated that complex II plays a substantial role in sustaining ΔΦm in DMOG-pretreated Hep3B cells with complex III inhibition. From these results, we conclude that PHD pathway activation can sustain ΔΦm in an otherwise anoxic microenvironment by decreasing tissue ΔO2 while activating oxygen-independent electron transport in mitochondria.

  15. Differences in nitric oxide steady states between arginine, hypoxanthine, uracil auxotrophs (AHU) and non-AHU strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae during anaerobic respiration in the presence of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Barth, Kenneth; Clark, Virginia L

    2008-08-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae can grow by anaerobic respiration using nitrite as an alternative electron acceptor. Under these growth conditions, N. gonorrhoeae produces and degrades nitric oxide (NO), an important host defense molecule. Laboratory strain F62 has been shown to establish and maintain a NO steady-state level that is a function of the nitrite reductase/NO reductase ratio and is independent of cell number. The nitrite reductase activities (122-197 nmol NO2 reduced x min(-1) x OD600(-1)) and NO reductase activities (88-155 nmol NO reduced x min(-1) x OD600(-1)) in a variety of gonococcal clinical isolates were similar to the specific activities seen in F62 (241 nmol NO2 reduced x min(-1) x OD600(-1) and 88 nmol NO reduced x min(-1) x OD600(-1), respectively). In seven gonococcal strains, the NO steady-state levels established in the presence of nitrite were similar to that of F62 (801-2121 nmol x L-1 NO), while six of the strains, identified as arginine, hypoxanthine, and uracil auxotrophs (AHU), that cause asymptomatic infection in men had either two- to threefold (373-579 nmol x L-1 NO) or about 100-fold (13-24 nmol x L-1 NO) lower NO steady-state concentrations. All tested strains in the presence of a NO donor, 2,2'-(hydroxynitrosohydrazono)bis-ethanimine/NO, quickly lowered and maintained NO levels in the noninflammatory range of NO (<300 nmol x L-1). The generation of a NO steady-state concentration was directly affected by alterations in respiratory control in both F62 and an AHU strain, although differences in membrane function are suspected to be responsible for NO steady-state level differences in AHU strains.

  16. Combined treatment of alkaline and disperser for improving solubilization and anaerobic biodegradability of dairy waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Uma Rani, R; Kaliappan, S; Adish Kumar, S; Rajesh Banu, J

    2012-12-01

    An investigation into the influence of combined alkaline and disperser pretreatment on sludge disintegration was studied. The effects of four variables, alkalines (NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)(2)), treatment time (15-180 min), pH (8-11) and rpm (4000-24,000) were investigated. The effect of sludge pretreatment was evaluated by COD solubilization, suspended solids reduction and biogas production. The best performances, in terms of COD solubilization, SS reduction and biogas production, were the ones that occurred for specific energy input of 4544 kJ kg(-1) TS for NaOH at pH10, were found to be 24%, 23.3% and 76%, higher than the control, respectively. Not only the increase in biogas production was investigated, excluding protein hydrolysis was also performed successfully by this combined pretreatment even at low specific energy input. Thus, this chemo-mechanical is an effective method for enhancement of biodegradability and it laid the basis to produce higher biogas quantities, to improve clean energy generation from WAS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of anaerobic arsenite-oxidizing and arsenate-reducing bacteria associated with an alkaline saline lake in Khovsgol, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Natsuko; Itai, Takaaki; Liu, Yitai; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Damdinsuren, Narantuya; Inskeep, William P

    2014-10-01

    Microbial arsenic transformation pathways associated with a saline lake located in northern Mongolia were examined using molecular biological and culturing approaches. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered from saline lake sediments and soils were affiliated with haloalkaliphiles, including Bacillus and Halomonas spp. Diverse sequences of arsenate respiratory reductase (arrA) and a new group of arsenite oxidase (arxA) genes were also identified. Pure cultures of arsenate-reducing Nitrincola strain and anaerobic arsenite-oxidizing Halomonas strain were isolated. The chemoorganotrophic Halomonas strain contains arxA gene similar to that of a chemoautotrophic arsenite-oxidizing Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii strain MLHE-1. These results revealed the diversity of arsenic transformation pathways associated with a geographically distinct saline system and the potential contribution of arx-dependent arsenite oxidation by heterotrophic bacteria.

  18. Reduction of N2O and NO generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) biological wastewater treatment process by using sludge alkaline fermentation liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yinguang

    2011-03-15

    This paper reported an efficient method to significantly reduce nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and nitric oxide (NO) generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) processes. It was found that by the use of waste-activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid as the synthetic wastewater-carbon source, compared with the commonly used carbon source in the literature (e.g., acetic acid), the generation of N(2)O and NO was reduced by 68.7% and 50.0%, respectively, but the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were improved. Both N(2)O and NO were produced in the low dissolved oxygen (DO) stage, and the use of sludge fermentation liquid greatly reduced their generation from the denitrification. The presences of Cu(2+) and propionic acid in fermentation liquid were observed to play an important role in the reduction of N(2)O and NO generation. The analysis of the activities of denitrifying enzymes suggested that sludge fermentation liquid caused the significant decrease of both nitrite reductase activity to NO reductase activity ratio and NO reductase activity to N(2)O reductase activity ratio, which resulted in the lower generation of NO and N(2)O. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the number of glycogen accumulating bacteria, which was reported to be relevant to nitrous oxide generation, in sludge fermentation liquid reactor was much lower than that in acetic acid reactor. The quantitative detection of the nosZ gene, encoding nitrous oxide reductase, showed that the use of fermentation liquid increased the number of bacteria capable of reducing N(2)O to N(2). The feasibility of using sludge fermentation liquid to reduce NO and N(2)O generation in an anaerobic-low DO process was finally confirmed for a municipal wastewater.

  19. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Autotrophy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2008-12-01

    That microbes have resistance to the toxic arsenic oxyanions arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] has been recognized for some time. More recently it was shown that certain prokaryotes can demonstrate As- dependent growth by conserving the energy gained from the aerobic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), or from the reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anaerobic conditions. During the course of our field studies of two alkaline, hypersaline soda lakes (Mono Lake and Searles Lake, CA) we have discovered several new anaerobic chemo- and photo-autotrophic bacteria that can center their energy gain around the redox reactions between As(III) and As(V). Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, isolated from the water column of Mono Lake is a nitrate-respiring, As(III)-oxidizing chemoautotroph of the gamma-proteobacteria that has a highly flexible metabolism. It can function either as a facultative anaerobe or as a chemo-autotroph, or as a heterotroph (Hoeft et al., 2007). In contrast, strain MLMS-1 of the delta-proteobacteria was also isolated from Mono Lake, but to date is the first example of an obligate As(V)-respirer that is also an obligate chemo-autotroph, gaining its energy via the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate (Hoeft et al., 2004). Strain SLAS-1, isolated from salt-saturated Searles Lake is a member of the Halananerobiales, and can either grow as a heterotroph (lactate e-donor) or chemo- autotroph (sulfide e-donor) while respiring As(V). The fact that it can achieve this feat at salt-saturation (~ 340 g/L) makes it a true extremophile (Oremland et. al., 2005). Finally, strain PHS-1 isolated from a hot spring on Paoha island in Mono Lake is the first example of a photosynthetic bacterium of the gamma- proteobacteria able to link its growth to As(III)-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis (Kulp et al., 2008). These novel microbes give us new insights into the evolution of arsenic-based metabolism and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of this toxic element. Hoeft, S.E., et

  20. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Alexandra M. F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2014-07-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  1. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Alexandra M.F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer. PMID:25431515

  2. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Alexandra M F; Malkin, Sairah Y; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J R

    2014-07-05

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  3. Interactions of Cd and Cu in anaerobic estuarine sediments. 2: Bioavailability, body burdens and respiration effects as related to geochemical partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, J.H.; Alden, R.W. III

    1996-04-01

    The relationship between Cd and Cu distribution in sediment geochemical fractions and their bioavailability was studied. A fine-sandy textured estuarine sediment was treated with all combinations of 0, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg Cd and 0, 12, and 25 mg/kg Cu using the chloride salts of each metal. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), and hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) were exposed to the treated sediments in aquaria with 20 ppt artificial seawater for 14 d. Sediments were sequentially extracted before and after organism exposure to determine the exchangeable, easily reducible, organic-sulfide, moderately reducible, and acid extractable phases. Low mortalities were observed for all organism types and none were attributable to any of the treatments. The Cd and Cu concentrations in the easily reducible and organic-sulfide phases were found to be significantly related to the bioavailability of these metals. The most highly significant relationship was established between Cd in the easily reducible phase and body burden of Cd in the blue mussel. Notable interactions were found between Cd and Cu in some of the geochemical phases, body burdens, and respiration rates. Metal uptake, respiration, and interactions were highly dependent on the test species. A significant correlation was found between increased body burden and depressed respiration for Cd but not for Cu. Multiple regression models are used to describe these relationships. It appears that the interactive responses in the organisms are driven primarily by the sediment geochemical effects and mediated by individual organism processes. These results underscore the necessity of multicomponent (multielement) studies in assessing the fate and effects of toxic elements in the environment.

  4. Anaerobic Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell death stems from intracellular acidification mitigated by the DosR regulon.

    PubMed

    Reichlen, Matthew J; Leistikow, Rachel L; Scobey, Micah S; Born, Sarah E M; Voskuil, Martin I

    2017-09-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a strict aerobe capable of prolonged survival in the absence of oxygen. We investigated the ability of anaerobic Mtb to counter challenges to internal pH homeostasis in the absence of aerobic respiration, the primary mechanism of proton efflux for aerobic bacilli. Anaerobic Mtb populations were markedly impaired for survival under a mildly acidic pH relative to standard culture conditions. Acidic environmental pH greatly increased the susceptibility of anaerobic bacilli to collapse of proton motive force by protonophores, to antimicrobial compounds that target entry into the electron transport system, and to small organic acids with uncoupling activity. However, anaerobic bacilli exhibited high tolerance to these challenges at near neutral pH. At a slightly alkaline pH which was near the optimum intracellular pH, protonophore addition even improved long-term bacilli survival. Although anaerobic Mtb in acidic conditions maintained 40% lower ATP levels than bacilli at standard culture conditions, ATP loss alone could not explain the viability drop. Protonophores decreased ATP levels by more than 90% regardless of extracellular pH but were bactericidal only under acidic conditions, indicating anaerobic bacilli could survive extreme ATP loss provided the external pH was within viable intracellular parameters. Acidic conditions drastically decreased anaerobic survival of a DosR mutant while an alkaline environment improved survival of the DosR mutant. Together these findings indicate intracellular acidification is a primary challenge for anaerobic Mtb survival and that the DosR regulon plays a critical role in sustaining internal pH homeostasis.Importance: During infection, Mtb bacilli are prevalent in environments largely devoid of oxygen. Yet the factors that influence survival of these severely growth- and metabolically-limited bacilli remain poorly understood. We determined how anaerobic bacilli respond to fluctuations in

  5. Selenate reduction to elemental selenium by anaerobic bacteria in sediments and culture: biogeochemical significance of a novel, sulfate-independent respiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Hollibaugh, James T.; Maest, Ann S.; Presser, Theresa S.; Miller, Laurence G.; Culbertson, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    Interstitial water profiles of SeO42−, SeO32−, SO42−, and Cl− in anoxic sediments indicated removal of the seleno-oxyanions by a near-surface process unrelated to sulfate reduction. In sediment slurry experiments, a complete reductive removal of SeO42− occurred under anaerobic conditions, was more rapid with H2 or acetate, and was inhibited by O2, NO3−, MnO2, or autoclaving but not by SO42− or FeOOH. Oxidation of acetate in sediments could be coupled to selenate but not to molybdate. Reduction of selenate to elemental selenium was determined to be the mechanism for loss from solution. Selenate reduction was inhibited by tungstate and chromate but not by molybdate. A small quantity of the elemental selenium precipitated into sediments from solution could be resolublized by oxidation with either nitrate or FeOOH, but not with MnO2. A bacterium isolated from estuarine sediments demonstrated selenate-dependent growth on acetate, forming elemental selenium and carbon dioxide as respiratory end products. These results indicate that dissimilatory selenate reduction to elemental selenium is the major sink for selenium oxyanions in anoxic sediments. In addition, they suggest application as a treatment process for removing selenium oxyanions from wastewaters and also offer an explanation for the presence of selenite in oxic waters.

  6. BENTHIC MICROBIAL RESPIRATION IN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAIN, PIEDMONT, AND COASTAL PLAINS, STREAMS OF THE EASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our study had two objectives. First, in order to quantify the potential underestimation of community respiration caused by the exclusion of anaerobic processes, we compared benthic microbial respiration measured as 02 consumption with estimated based on DHA. Second, our previous ...

  7. BENTHIC MICROBIAL RESPIRATION IN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAIN, PIEDMONT, AND COASTAL PLAINS, STREAMS OF THE EASTERN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our study had two objectives. First, in order to quantify the potential underestimation of community respiration caused by the exclusion of anaerobic processes, we compared benthic microbial respiration measured as 02 consumption with estimated based on DHA. Second, our previous ...

  8. Evaluation of ultrasonic, acid, thermo-alkaline and enzymatic pre-treatments on anaerobic digestion of Ulva rigida for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Karray, Raida; Hamza, Manel; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Pre-treatment of macroalgae has received considerable research globally due to its influence on the technical, economic and environmental sustainability of algae biogas production. Some of the most promising pre-treatment methods require the application of chemicals, enzymatic, and mechanical. This study focused on these pre-treatments of Ulva rigida for biogas production. The evaluation of different pre-treatment in terms of reducing sugar yields demonstrates that 3.62, 2.88, 2.53 and 7.3g/L of reducing sugar was obtained in acid catalysis, thermoalkaline, ultrasonication and enzymatic pre-treatment, respectively. However in crude macroalgae only 0.6g/L of reducing sugar was given. After anaerobic digestion, the enzymatic hydrolysis was demonstrated the best biogas yield than other pre-treatment which reached 626.5mL/gCODint with 62.65% of biodegradability. The best demonstrated method which uses crude broth of Aspergillus niger showed an effective and environmentally friendly strategy for enhancing the biogas production yields after the anaerobic digestion.

  9. Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    van Leerdam, Robin C; Bonilla-Salinas, Monica; de Bok, Frank A M; Bruning, H; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M; Janssen, Albert J H

    2008-11-01

    Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda lakes. MT degradation started after 32 days of incubation. During the first 252 days, complete degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 7.5 mmol MT/L/day, and sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide were the main reaction products. Temporary inhibition of MT degradation occurred after MT peak loads and in the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which is the autooxidation product of MT. From day 252 onwards, methanol was dosed to the reactor as co-substrate at a loading rate of 3-6 mmol/L/day to stimulate growth of methylotrophic methanogens. Methanol was completely degraded and also a complete MT degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 13 mmol MT/L/day (0.77 mmol MT/gVSS/day). However, from day 354 till the end of the experimental run (day 365), acetate was formed and MT was not completely degraded anymore, indicating that methanol-degrading homoacetogenic bacteria had partially outcompeted the methanogenic MT-degrading archea. The archeal community in the reactor sludge was analyzed by DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The methanogenic archea responsible for the degradation of MT in the reactor were related to Methanolobus oregonensis. A pure culture, named strain SODA, was obtained by serial dilutions in medium containing both trimethyl amine and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Strain SODA degraded MT, DMS, trimethyl amine, and methanol. Flow sheet simulations revealed that for sufficient MT removal from liquefied petroleum gas, the extraction and biological degradation process should be operated above pH 9.

  10. Differences in nitric oxide steady-states between arginine, hypoxanthine, uracil auxotrophs (AHU) and non-AHU strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae during anaerobic respiration in the presence of nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Kenneth; Clark, Virginia L.

    2008-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae can grow by anaerobic respiration using nitrite as an alternative electron acceptor. Under these growth conditions, N. gonorrhoeae produces and degrades nitric oxide (NO), an important host defense molecule. Laboratory strain F62 has been shown to establish and maintain a NO steady-state level that is a function of the nitrite reductase/nitric oxide reductase ratio and is independent of cell number. The nitrite reductase activities (122–197 nmoles NO2 reduced/ min-OD600) and nitric oxide reductase activities (88–155 nmoles NO reduced/ min-OD600) in a variety of gonococcal clinical isolates were similar to the specific activities seen in F62 (241 nmoles NO2 reduced/ min-OD and 88 nmoles NO reduced/ min-OD, respectively). In 7 gonococcal strains, the NO steady state levels established in the presence of nitrite were similar to that of F62 (801–2121 nM NO), while 6 of the strains, identified as arginine, hypoxanthine, and uracil auxotrophs (AHU), that cause asymptomatic infection in men, had either a 2- to 3-fold (373–579 nM NO) or about 100-fold (13–24 nM NO) lower NO steady state concentrations. All tested strains in the presence of a NO-donor, DETA/NO, quickly lowered and maintained NO levels in the non-inflammatory range of NO (<300 nM). The generation of a NO steady-state concentration was directly affected by alterations in respiratory control in both F62 and an AHU strain, although differences in membrane function are suspected to be responsible for NO steady-state level differences in AHU strains. PMID:18772926

  11. BACTERIAL RESPIRATION OF ARSENIC AND SELENIUM. (R826105)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Oxyanions of arsenic and selenium can be used in microbial anaerobic respiration as terminal electron acceptors. The detection of arsenate and selenate respiring bacteria in numerous pristine and contaminated environments and their rapid appearance in enrichme...

  12. Waiting to inhale: HIF-1 modulates aerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Adam T; Johnson, Randall S

    2007-04-06

    The hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1 is known to promote anaerobic respiration during low oxygen conditions (hypoxia). In this issue, Fukuda et al. (2007) expand the range of HIF-1's functions by showing that it modulates aerobic respiration as well.

  13. BACTERIAL RESPIRATION OF ARSENIC AND SELENIUM. (R826105)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Oxyanions of arsenic and selenium can be used in microbial anaerobic respiration as terminal electron acceptors. The detection of arsenate and selenate respiring bacteria in numerous pristine and contaminated environments and their rapid appearance in enrichme...

  14. Diversity of Arsenate Respiratory Reductase Genes Along Gradients of Arsenate and Arsenite Within Hypersaline, Alkaline Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltikov, C. W.; Nilsen, J.; Oremland, R. S.; Kulp, T. R.; Hoeft, S. E.; Miller, L. G.; Switzer Blum, J.; Baesman, S.; Han, S.; Lanoil, B.

    2005-12-01

    There are several soda lakes in western United States that contain high arsenic concentrations (up to 4 mM total As). Interestingly, these lakes have high rates of anaerobic arsenate reduction, which is catalyzed by arsenate respiring prokaryotes. Several cultured arsenate respiring prokaryotes have been shown to respire and reduce arsenate via a membrane-associated enzyme, ArrA. This enzyme is present in many diverse arsenate respiring prokaryotes. To investigate arsenate respiring microbial communities within these extreme environments, we used functional gene analysis to detect the presence, abundance, and diversity of the arrA gene in core samples collected from two arsenic enriched, hypersaline, alkaline lakes, Mono Lake and Searles Lake. Each sample exhibited concentration gradients for dissolved arsenic species and oxygen. Porewater arsenite concentration increased with depth and was correlated with oxygen depletion. To investigate the depth dependency of the arrA gene in these core samples we utilized the Malasarn et al. (2004) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers to detect a partial arrA gene fragment in nucleic acids extracted from sediment samples. The arrA gene fragment was detected only in the top 1-2 cm of the Mono Lake core and no detection was observed in the Searles Lake homogenized core. After the primers were redesigned to include the nucleotide codon bias for haloalkaliphilic archaea ( Halobacterium), the arrA gene fragments could be detected at each depth interval throughout the Mono Lake core and in the homogenized core of Searles Lake. Work is currently focused on characterizing the diversity and abundance of the arrA gene fragments obtained in each core sample and at different depths. Although no haloalkaliphilic arsenate respiring archaea have been isolated to date, these results suggest that the arrA gene fragments detected in these soda lakes may be of archaeal origins.

  15. Millimeter-scale alkalinity measurement in marine sediment using DET probes and colorimetric determination.

    PubMed

    Metzger, E; Viollier, E; Simonucci, C; Prévot, F; Langlet, D; Jézéquel, D

    2013-10-01

    Constrained DET (Diffusive Equilibration in Thin films) probes equipped with 75 sampling layers of agarose gel (DGT Research(©)) were used to sample bottom and pore waters in marine sediment with a 2 mm vertical resolution. After retrieval, each piece of hydrogel, corresponding to 25 μL, was introduced into 1 mL of colorimetric reagent (CR) solution consisting of formic acid and bromophenol blue. After the elution/reaction time, absorbance of the latter mixture was read at 590 nm and compared to a calibration curve obtained with the same protocol applied to mini DET probes soaked in sodium hydrogen carbonate standard solutions. This method allows rapid alkalinity determinations for the small volumes of anoxic pore water entrapped into the gel. The method was assessed on organic-rich coastal marine sediments from Thau lagoon (France). Alkalinity values in the overlying waters were in agreement with data obtained by classical sampling techniques. Pore water data showed a progressive increase of alkalinity in the sediment from 2 to 10 mmol kg(-1), corresponding to anaerobic respiration in organic-rich sediments. Moreover, replicates of high-resolution DET profiles showed important lateral heterogeneity at a decimeter scale. This underlines the importance of high-resolution spatial methods for alkalinity profiling in coastal marine systems.

  16. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  17. Respiration in spiders (Araneae).

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Spiders (Araneae) are unique regarding their respiratory system: they are the only animal group that breathe simultaneously with lungs and tracheae. Looking at the physiology of respiration the existence of tracheae plays an important role in spiders with a well-developed tracheal system. Other factors as sex, life time, type of prey capture and the high ability to gain energy anaerobically influence the resting and the active metabolic rate intensely. Most spiders have metabolic rates that are much lower than expected from body mass; but especially those with two pairs of lungs. Males normally have higher resting rates than females; spiders that are less evolved and possess a cribellum have lower metabolic rates than higher evolved species. Freely hunting spiders show a higher energy turnover than spiders hunting with a web. Spiders that live longer than 1 year will have lower metabolic rates than those species that die after 1 year in which development and reproduction must be completed. Lower temperatures and starvation, which most spiders can cope with, will decrease the metabolic rate as well.

  18. Anaerobic Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... doses of antibiotics taken by mouth for months. Bacteroides and Prevotella infections. Bacterial organisms from species called Bacteroides and Prevotella are anaerobic. They are common organisms ...

  19. Nosepiece respiration monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, A. L.; Long, L. E.; Rice, N. E.

    1968-01-01

    Comfortable, inexpensive nosepiece respiration monitor produces rapid response signals to most conventional high impedance medical signal conditioners. The monitor measures respiration in a manner that produces a large signal with minimum delay.

  20. Respirator Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... it last? That depends on how much filtering capacity the respirator has and the amount of hazard ... and it will vary by each respirator model's capacities. That's why your emergency plan must include some ...

  1. Chemoautotrophic production and respiration in the hyporheic zone of a sonoran desert stream

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.B. Jr.; Holmes, R.M.; Fisher, S.G.; Grimm, N.B.

    1994-12-31

    Chemoautotrophic production and respiration (aerobic and anaerobic) were examined along flowpaths in three subsystems in Sycamore Creek, Arizona. Chemoautotrophic production was highest where surface waters enter parafluvial sediments (64 to 76 mgC{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}d{sup {minus}1}) and lowest in anoxic bank sediments (14 to 16 mgC{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}d{sup {minus}1}). Aerobic respiration was considerable greater than chemoautotrophy in oxygenated hyporheic and parafluvial zones (2,400 to 4,900 mgC{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}d{sup {minus}1}). In anoxic bank sediments, respiration was also much greater than chemoautotrophy, but was entirely anaerobic (i.e., methane production; 3,500 mgC{center_dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}d{sup {minus}1}). Weighting subsystems by areal extent, the largest proportion of aerobic respiration and chemoautotrophic production occurred in parafluvial sediments (64 to 76%), whereas anoxic bank sediments were most important for anaerobic respiration (94% of total anaerobic respiration). Overall, chemoautotrophic production was only 1.0 to 1.3% of respiration and methane production was only 5% of total sediment respiration.

  2. Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealson, K. H.; Moser, D. P.; Saffarini, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

  3. Anaerobic electron acceptor chemotaxis in Shewanella putrefaciens.

    PubMed

    Nealson, K H; Moser, D P; Saffarini, D A

    1995-04-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens MR-1 can grow either aerobically or anaerobically at the expense of many different electron acceptors and is often found in abundance at redox interfaces in nature. Such redox interfaces are often characterized by very strong gradients of electron acceptors resulting from rapid microbial metabolism. The coincidence of S. putrefaciens abundance with environmental gradients prompted an examination of the ability of MR-1 to sense and respond to electron acceptor gradients in the laboratory. In these experiments, taxis to the majority of the electron acceptors that S. putrefaciens utilizes for anaerobic growth was seen. All anaerobic electron acceptor taxis was eliminated by the presence of oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, elemental sulfur, or dimethyl sulfoxide, even though taxis to the latter was very weak and nitrate and nitrite respiration was normal in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Studies with respiratory mutants of MR-1 revealed that several electron acceptors that could not be used for anaerobic growth nevertheless elicited normal anaerobic taxis. Mutant M56, which was unable to respire nitrite, showed normal taxis to nitrite, as well as the inhibition of taxis to other electron acceptors by nitrite. These results indicate that electron acceptor taxis in S. putrefaciens does not conform to the paradigm established for Escherichia coli and several other bacteria. Carbon chemo-taxis was also unusual in this organism: of all carbon compounds tested, the only positive response observed was to formate under anaerobic conditions.

  4. Development of a Molecular System for Studying Microbial Arsenate Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltikov, C. W.; Newman, D. K.

    2002-12-01

    The toxic element arsenic is a major contaminant of many groundwaters and surface waters throughout the world. Arsenic enrichment is primarily of geological origin resulting from weathering processes and geothermal activity. Not surprisingly, microorganisms inhabiting anoxic arsenic-contaminated environments have evolved to exploit arsenate during respiration. Numerous bacteria have been isolated that use arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor for respiratory growth. The diversity of this metabolism appears to be widespread throughout the microbial tree of life, suggesting respiratory arsenate reduction is ancient in origin. Yet little is known about the molecular mechanisms for how these organisms respire arsenate. We have developed a model system in Shewanella trabarsenatis, strain ANA-3, a facultative anaerobe that respires arsenate and tolerates high concentrations of arsenite (10 mM). Through loss-of-function studies, we have identified genes involved in both arsenic resistance and arsenate respiration. The genes that confer resistance to arsenic are homologous to the well-characterized ars operon of E. coli. However, the respiratory arsenate reductase is predicted to encode a novel protein that shares homologous regions (~ 40 % similarity) to molybdopterin anaerobic reductases specific for DMSO, thiosulfate, nitrate, and polysulfide. I will discuss our emerging model for how strain ANA-3 respires arsenate and the relationship between arsenite resistance and arsenate respiration. I will also highlight the relevance of this type of analysis for biogeochemical studies.

  5. Speech and respiration.

    PubMed

    Conrad, B; Schönle, P

    1979-04-12

    This investigation deals with the temporal aspects of air volume changes during speech. Speech respiration differs fundamentally from resting respiration. In resting respiration the duration and velocity of inspiration (air flow or lung volume change) are in a range similar to that of expiration. In speech respiration the duration of inspiration decreases and its velocity increases; conversely, the duration of expiration increases and the volume of air flow decreases dramatically. The following questions arise: are these two respiration types different entities, or do they represent the end points of a continuum from resting to speech respiration? How does articulation without the generation of speech sound affect breathing? Does (verbalized?) thinking without articulation or speech modify the breathing pattern? The main test battery included four tasks (spontaneous speech, reading, serial speech, arithmetic) performed under three conditions (speaking aloud, articulating subvocally, quiet performance by tryping to exclusively 'think' the tasks). Respiratory movements were measured with a chest pneumograph and evaluated in comparison with a phonogram and the identified spoken text. For quiet performance the resulting respiratory time ratio (relation of duration of inspiration versus expiration) showed a gradual shift in the direction of speech respiration--the least for reading, the most for arithmetic. This change was even more apparent for the subvocal tasks. It is concluded that (a) there is a gradual automatic change from resting to speech respiration and (b) the degree of internal verbalization (activation of motor speech areas) defines the degree of activation of the speech respiratory pattern.

  6. Voluntary use of respirators.

    PubMed

    Feiner, Lynn

    2009-11-01

    Allowing voluntary use of respirators can provide workers with an added level of comfort and relief from nuisance levels of particulates, gases, or vapors. But misuse can result in illness or injury to the worker. Understanding and following OSHA's guidelines on voluntary use of respirators is one of the many ways you help provide a safe workplace and ensure your employees stay healthy.

  7. Microbial Iron Respiration Can Protect Steel from Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Dubiel, M.; Hsu, C. H.; Chien, C. C.; Mansfeld, F.; Newman, D. K.

    2002-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MC) of steel has been attributed to the activity of biofilms that include anaerobic microorganisms such as iron-respiring bacteria, yet the mechanisms by which these organisms influence corrosion have been unclear. To study this process, we generated mutants of the iron-respiring bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 that were defective in biofilm formation and/or iron reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to determine changes in the corrosion rate and corrosion potential as a function of time for these mutants in comparison to the wild type. Counter to prevailing theories of MC, our results indicate that biofilms comprising iron-respiring bacteria may reduce rather than accelerate the corrosion rate of steel. Corrosion inhibition appears to be due to reduction of ferric ions to ferrous ions and increased consumption of oxygen, both of which are direct consequences of microbial respiration. PMID:11872499

  8. Biotransformation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by obligate marine Shewanella marisflavi EP1 under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiexun; Ning, Guojing; Li, Feili; Sheng, G Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic transformation of 2,4-DNT by obligate marine Shewanella marisflavi EP1 was investigated. The cell growth of EP1 was proportional to the total amount of 2,4-DNT reduced. The eventual transformation product was 2,4-diaminotoluene, via 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene and 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene as intermediates. The presence of Cu(2+), dicumarol, metyrapone and flavins intensively influenced the reduction activity of 2,4-DNT, suggesting that dehydrogenease, menaquinone, cytochromes and flavins are essentially involved in electron transport process for 2,4-DNT reduction. These results indicate that biotransformation of 2,4-DNT by EP1 is a form of microbial anaerobic respiration. Furthermore, EP1 was capable of transforming 2,4-DNT at relatively alkaline range of pH (7-9), and at a wide range of temperature (4-40°C) and salinity (2-8% NaCl concentration). Our findings not only deepen our understanding of the environmental fate of 2,4-DNT, but also provide an extension to the application of shewanellae in the site bioremediation and/or wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Teaching Cellular Respiration & Alternate Energy Sources with a Laboratory Exercise Developed by a Scientist-Teacher Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Brandon; Mitton, Teri; Smith, Rosemary; Magnuson, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells are a current research area that harvests electricity from bacteria capable of anaerobic respiration. Graphite is an electrically conductive material that bacteria can respire on, thus it can be used to capture electrons from bacteria. When bacteria transfer electrons to graphite, an electrical potential is created that can…

  10. Teaching Cellular Respiration & Alternate Energy Sources with a Laboratory Exercise Developed by a Scientist-Teacher Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Brandon; Mitton, Teri; Smith, Rosemary; Magnuson, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells are a current research area that harvests electricity from bacteria capable of anaerobic respiration. Graphite is an electrically conductive material that bacteria can respire on, thus it can be used to capture electrons from bacteria. When bacteria transfer electrons to graphite, an electrical potential is created that can…

  11. Transcriptional regulation of dimethyl sulfoxide respiration in a haloarchaeon, Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qiuzi; Ito, Yoshiyasu; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Taketomo

    2016-01-01

    The halophilic euryarchaeon Haloferax volcanii can grow anaerobically by DMSO respiration. DMSO reductase was induced by DMSO respiration not only under anaerobic growth conditions but also in denitrifying cells of H. volcanii. Deletion of the dmsR gene, encoding a putative regulator for the DMSO reductase, resulted in the loss of anaerobic growth by DMSO respiration. Reporter experiments revealed that only the anaerobic condition was essential for transcription of the dmsEABCD genes encoding DMSO reductase and that transcription was enhanced threefold by supplementation of DMSO. In the ∆dmsR mutant, transcription of the dmsEABCD genes induced by the anaerobic condition was not enhanced by DMSO, suggesting that DmsR is a DMSO-responsive regulator. Transcriptions of the dmsR and mgd genes for Mo-bisMGD biosynthesis were regulated in the same manner as the dmsEABCD genes. These results suggest that the genetic regulation of DMSO respiration in H. volcanii is controlled by at least two systems: one is the DMSO-responsive DmsR, and the other is an unknown anaerobic regulator.

  12. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  13. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  14. Draft Genome of Thermanaerothrix daxensis GNS-1, a Thermophilic Facultative Anaerobe from the Chloroflexi Class Anaerolineae

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Laura A.; Ward, Lewis M.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2015-01-01

    We present the draft genome of Thermanaerothrix daxensis GNS-1, a thermophilic member of the Chloroflexi phylum. This organism was initially characterized as a nonmotile, strictly anaerobic fermenter; however, genome analysis demonstrates that it encodes genes for a flagellum and multiple pathways for aerobic and anaerobic respiration. PMID:26586891

  15. Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, Jan; Sträuber, Heike; Kretzschmar, Jörg; Denysenko, Velina; Nelles, Michael

    2017-04-09

    The term anaerobic digestion usually refers to the microbial conversion of organic material to biogas, which mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. The technical application of the naturally-occurring process is used to provide a renewable energy carrier and - as the substrate is often waste material - to reduce the organic matter content of the substrate prior to disposal.Applications can be found in sewage sludge treatment, the treatment of industrial and municipal solid wastes and wastewaters (including landfill gas utilization), and the conversion of agricultural residues and energy crops.For biorefinery concepts, the anaerobic digestion (AD) process is, on the one hand, an option to treat organic residues from other production processes. Concomitant effects are the reduction of organic carbon within the treated substance, the conversion of nitrogen and sulfur components, and the production of an energy-rich gas - the biogas. On the other hand, the multistep conversion of complex organic material offers the possibility of interrupting the conversion chain and locking out intermediates for utilization as basic material within the chemical industry.

  16. Anaerobic Degradation of the Benzene Nucleus by a Facultatively Anaerobic Microorganism1

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barrie F.; Campbell, William L.; Chinoy, Ira

    1970-01-01

    A bacterium was isolated by elective culture with p-hydroxybenzoate as substrate and nitrate as electron acceptor. It grew either aerobically or anaerobically, by nitrate respiration, on a range of aromatic compounds. The organism was identified as a pseudomonad and was given the trivial name Pseudomonas PN-1. Benzoate and p-hydroxybenzoate were metabolized aerobically via protocatechuate, followed by meta cleavage catalyzed by protocatechuic acid-4,5-oxygenase, to yield α-hydroxy-γ-carboxymuconic semialdehyde. Pseudomonas PN-1 grew rapidly on p-hydroxybenzoate under strictly anaerobic conditions, provided nitrate was present, even though protocatechuic acid-4,5-oxygenase was repressed. Suspensions of cells grown anaerobically on p-hydroxybenzoate oxidized benzoate with nitrate and produced 4 to 5 μmoles of CO2 per μmole of benzoate added; these cells did not oxidize benzoate aerobically. The patterns of the oxidation of aromatic substrates with oxygen or nitrate by cells grown aerobically or anaerobically on different aromatic compounds indicated that benzoate rather than protocatechuate was a key intermediate in the early stages of anaerobic metabolism. It was concluded that the pathway for the anaerobic breakdown of the aromatic ring is different and quite distinct from the aerobic pathway. Mechanisms for the anaerobic degradation of the benzene nucleus by Pseudomonas PN-1 are discussed. PMID:5419260

  17. Anaerobic thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-02-26

    The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely

  18. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has

  19. Perspectives of the microbial carbon pump with special references to microbial respiration and ecological efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H.; Jiao, N.

    2014-01-01

    Although respiration consumes fixed carbon and produce CO2, it provides energy for essential biological processes of an ecosystem, including the microbial carbon pump (MCP). In MCP-driving biotransformation of labile DOC to recalcitrant DOC (RDOC), microbial respiration provides the metabolic energy for environmental organic substrate sensing, cellular enzyme syntheses and catalytic processes such as uptake, secretion, modification, fixation and storage of carbon compounds. The MCP efficiency of a heterotrophic microorganism is thus related to its energy production efficiency and hence to its respiration efficiency. Anaerobically respiring microbes usually have lower energy production efficiency and lower energy-dependent carbon transformation efficiency, and consequently lower MCP efficiency at per cell level. This effect is masked by the phenomena that anoxic environments often store more organic matter. Here we point out that organic carbon preservation and RDOC production is different in mechanisms, and anaerobically respiring ecosystems could also have lower MCP ecological efficiency. Typical cases can be found in large river estuarine ecosystems. Due to strong terrigenous input of nutrients and organic matter, estuarine ecosystems usually experience intense heterotrophic respiration processes that rapidly consume dissolved oxygen, potentially producing hypoxic and anoxic zones in the water column. The lowered availability of dissolved oxygen and the excessive supply of nutrients such as nitrate from river input prompt enhanced anaerobic respiration processes. Thus, some nutrients may be consumed by anaerobically respiring heterotrophic microorganisms, instead of being utilized by phytoplankton for carbon fixation and primary production. In this situation, the ecological functioning of the estuarine ecosystem is altered and the ecological efficiency is lowered, as less carbon is fixed and less energy is produced. Ultimately this would have negatively impacts

  20. Anaerobic growth of a "strict aerobe" (Bacillus subtilis).

    PubMed

    Nakano, M M; Zuber, P

    1998-01-01

    There was a long-held belief that the gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a strict aerobe. But recent studies have shown that B. subtilis will grow anaerobically, either by using nitrate or nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor, or by fermentation. How B. subtilis alters its metabolic activity according to the availability of oxygen and alternative electron acceptors is but one focus of study. A two-component signal transduction system composed of a sensor kinase, ResE, and a response regulator, ResD, occupies an early stage in the regulatory pathway governing anaerobic respiration. One of the essential roles of ResD and ResE in anaerobic gene regulation is induction of fnr transcription upon oxygen limitation. FNR is a transcriptional activator for anaerobically induced genes, including those for respiratory nitrate reductase, narGHJI.B. subtilis has two distinct nitrate reductases, one for the assimilation of nitrate nitrogen and the other for nitrate respiration. In contrast, one nitrite reductase functions both in nitrite nitrogen assimilation and nitrite respiration. Unlike many anaerobes, which use pyruvate formate lyase, B. subtilis can carry out fermentation in the absence of external electron acceptors wherein pyruvate dehydrogenase is utilized to metabolize pyruvate.

  1. Wetting increases respiration loss from the Arctic tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zona, Donatella; Lipson, David; Barott, Katie; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Oberbauer, Steven; Olivas, Paulo; Hastings, Steven; Hinzman, Larry; Oechel, Walter

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies (Billings et al. 1982; Peterson et al. 1984; Oberbauer et al. 1991; Funk et al., 1994; Oechel et al., 1998) have demonstrated that decreasing soil moisture and increasing soil oxygen increase respiration loss in the Arctic tundra. Warming and drying of tundra soils due to climate change are assumed to increase greenhouse gas emissions and the potential for strong positive feedbacks on the climate of the Arctic. However, here we show that an increase in the water table can lead to the same result, increasing respiration. In the largest scale water table manipulation experiment ever performed in the Arctic tundra, we showed that increasing the water table to 7.5 cm above the surface caused the ecosystem to more than half its net C uptake (9 gCm-2season-1) compared to the 23 gCm-2season-1 of a control site where water table was about 2 cm below the surface. Standing water saturated the moss layer, increased the heat conduction into the soil, and lead to higher soil temperature, deeper thaw and, surprisingly, to higher respiration rates in the most anaerobic area of the manipulation experiment. Probably, the increase in thaw depth increased substrate availability and freed sufficient Fe(III) to act as an electron acceptor in place of oxygen for respiration and CO2 production in these anaerobic soils (Zehnder and Stumm 1988, Kappler et al. 2004, Lipson et al. in review). In contrast to the general assumption that aerobic peat soils release more CO2 than soils under anaerobic conditions (Billing et al., 1982; Funk et al., 1994; Bridgham et al., 1998), here we show that this is not always the case. That the increase in the water table can result in increased respiration, even under nearly fully anaerobic conditions, through previously underestimated pathways, highlights yet another unexpected positive feedback on climate change of carbon exchange in the Arctic. That anaerobic conditions do not necessarily prevent CO2 loss in permafrost areas has major

  2. Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2013-02-01

    Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaerobic Catabolism of Aromatic Compounds: a Genetic and Genomic View

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F.; Valderrama, J. Andrés; Barragán, María J. L.; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach. PMID:19258534

  4. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  5. A study of photosynthetic biogas upgrading based on a high rate algal pond under alkaline conditions: Influence of the illumination regime.

    PubMed

    Franco-Morgado, Mariana; Alcántara, Cynthia; Noyola, Adalberto; Muñoz, Raúl; González-Sánchez, Armando

    2017-03-20

    Microalgal-bacterial processes have emerged as environmental friendly systems for the cost-effective treatment of anaerobic effluents such as biogas and nutrients-laden digestates. Environmental parameters such as temperature, irradiation, nutrient concentration and pH effect the performance of the systems. In this paper, the potential of a microalgal-bacterial photobioreactor operated under high pH (≈9.5) and high alkalinity to convert biogas into biomethane was evaluated. The influence of the illumination regime (continuous light supply vs 12h/12h light/dark cycles) on the synthetic biogas upgrading efficiency, biomass productivity and nutrient removal efficiency was assessed in a High-Rate Algal Pond interconnected to a biogas absorption bubble column. No significant differences in the removal efficiency of CO2 and H2S (91.5±2% and 99.5%±0.5, respectively) were recorded regardless of the illumination regime. The high fluctuations of the dissolved oxygen concentration during operation under light/dark cycles allowed to evaluate the specific growth rate and the specific partial degradation rate of the microalgae biomass by photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. The respiration reduced the net microalgae biomass productivity under light/dark cycles compared with process operation under the continuous light supply.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion Analysis. Training Module 5.120.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with alkalinity, volatile acids and carbon dioxide determinations for an anaerobic sludge digester. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers total and bicarbonate…

  7. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and…

  8. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  9. Bacterial respiration of arsenic and selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolz, J.F.; Oremland, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Oxyanions of arsenic and selenium can be used in microbial anaerobic respiration as terminal electron acceptors. The detection of arsenate and selenate respiring bacteria in numerous pristine and contaminated environments and their rapid appearance in enrichment culture suggest that they are widespread and metabolically active in nature. Although the bacterial species that have been isolated and characterized are still few in number, they are scattered throughout the bacterial domain and include Gram- positive bacteria, beta, gamma and epsilon Proteobacteria and the sole member of a deeply branching lineage of the bacteria, Chrysiogenes arsenatus. The oxidation of a number of organic substrates (i.e. acetate, lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, ethanol) or hydrogen can be coupled to the reduction of arsenate and selenate, but the actual donor used varies from species to species. Both periplasmic and membrane-associated arsenate and selenate reductases have been characterized. Although the number of subunits and molecular masses differs, they all contain molybdenum. The extent of the environmental impact on the transformation and mobilization of arsenic and selenium by microbial dissimilatory processes is only now being fully appreciated.

  10. Alkaline igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitton, J.G.; Upton, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this volume, an international team of scientists provides an up-to-date overview of the nature, origin, and evolution of alkaline magmas. Particular attention is paid to carbonatites, lamprophyres, and lamproites which are rock suites of current interest not recently reviewed elsewhere. Recent work on the classical alkaline provinces of East Africa, South Greenland, and the Kola Peninsula is included together with reviews of other areas of alkaline magmatism in North and South America, East Greenland, Europe, West Africa, and the ocean basins. Other papers discuss the impact of experimental isotopic and geochemical studies of the petrogenesis of alkaline rocks. This book will be of interest to petrologists and geochemists studying alkaline igneous rocks, and to other earth scientists as a reference on the rapidly expanding field of igneous petrology.

  11. Discovery of anaerobic lithoheterotrophic haloarchaea, ubiquitous in hypersaline habitats.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Messina, Enzo; Smedile, Francesco; Roman, Pawel; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, Maria Carmen; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N; Kublanov, Ilya V; Samarov, Nazar I; Toshchakov, Stepan V; La Cono, Violetta; Yakimov, Michail M

    2017-05-01

    Hypersaline anoxic habitats harbour numerous novel uncultured archaea whose metabolic and ecological roles remain to be elucidated. Until recently, it was believed that energy generation via dissimilatory reduction of sulfur compounds is not functional at salt saturation conditions. Recent discovery of the strictly anaerobic acetotrophic Halanaeroarchaeum compels to change both this assumption and the traditional view on haloarchaea as aerobic heterotrophs. Here we report on isolation and characterization of a novel group of strictly anaerobic lithoheterotrophic haloarchaea, which we propose to classify as a new genus Halodesulfurarchaeum. Members of this previously unknown physiological group are capable of utilising formate or hydrogen as electron donors and elemental sulfur, thiosulfate or dimethylsulfoxide as electron acceptors. Using genome-wide proteomic analysis we have detected the full set of enzymes required for anaerobic respiration and analysed their substrate-specific expression. Such advanced metabolic plasticity and type of respiration, never seen before in haloarchaea, empower the wide distribution of Halodesulfurarchaeum in hypersaline inland lakes, solar salterns, lagoons and deep submarine anoxic brines. The discovery of this novel functional group of sulfur-respiring haloarchaea strengthens the evidence of their possible role in biogeochemical sulfur cycling linked to the terminal anaerobic carbon mineralisation in so far overlooked hypersaline anoxic habitats.

  12. Soil Respiration in Different Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in an Arid Region

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Liming; Zhao, Xuechun; Jiang, Lianhe; Wang, Yongji; Luo, Liangguo; Zheng, Yuanrun; Chen, Xi; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The variation of different ecosystems on the terrestrial carbon balance is predicted to be large. We investigated a typical arid region with widespread saline/alkaline soils, and evaluated soil respiration of different agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil respiration for five ecosystems together with soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil electric conductivity and soil organic carbon content were investigated in the field. Comparing with the natural ecosystems, the mean seasonal soil respiration rates of the agricultural ecosystems were 96%–386% higher and agricultural ecosystems exhibited lower CO2 absorption by the saline/alkaline soil. Soil temperature and moisture together explained 48%, 86%, 84%, 54% and 54% of the seasonal variations of soil respiration in the five ecosystems, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between soil respiration and soil electrical conductivity, but a weak correlation between soil respiration and soil pH or soil organic carbon content. Our results showed that soil CO2 emissions were significantly different among different agricultural and natural ecosystems, although we caution that this was an observational, not manipulative, study. Temperature at the soil surface and electric conductivity were the main driving factors of soil respiration across the five ecosystems. Care should be taken when converting native vegetation into cropland from the point of view of greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:23082234

  13. Quinolone activity against anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, P C

    1999-01-01

    The first generation of fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are inactive against most anaerobic bacteria. However, some broad-spectrum quinolones, which have recently become clinically available or are under active development, have significant antianaerobic activity. This review summarises the in vitro activity of currently available, as well as experimental, quinolones against clinically significant anaerobic bacteria. Quinolones with low activity against anaerobes include ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, fleroxacin, pefloxacin, enoxacin and lomefloxacin. Compounds with intermediate antianaerobic activity include sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin. Trovafloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin yield low MICs against most groups of anaerobes. Quinolones with the greatest in vitro activity against anaerobes include clinafloxacin and sitafloxacin (DU-6859a).

  14. Enhanced alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon release in intertidal sands from the Oosterschelde (The Netherlands) induced by a natural macrofaunal community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Heiko; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip

    2014-05-01

    The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde (The Netherlands) on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) generation was examined using measurements of sediment-water fluxes of bromide, oxygen, nutrients, TA and DIC. Sediments from the Oosterschelde typically contain the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina, the sub-surface bioturbator Macoma balthica and the surface bioturbator Cerastoderma edule. Measurements were carried out in six tanks (106 cm x 87 cm x 20 cm). The sediment was collected in November 2012. Measurements were started in June 2013. Each tank was sampled twice for benthic fluxes over the course of one month. Prior measurements three tanks were defaunated by covering the sediment surface with a black plastic sheet. Benthic flux measurements were carried out in closed plastic chambers (diameter 66 cm). These chambers typically contained about 10 cm sediment and 20 cm overlying water. The tank was completely covered with opaque a black plastic sheet during measurements. The incubation time ranged from 6 to 8 hours. Here we present preliminary results from both experimental runs. High benthic fluxes of TA (10 - 70 mmol m-2 d-1) and DIC (35 - 150 mmol m-2 d-1) were observed in all tanks. Whereas benthic TA and DIC fluxes were significantly higher in faunated tanks, total oxygen uptake (TOU: 30 - 75 mmol m-2 d-1) did not show any meaningful trend between the two treatments. Therefore, the apparent community respiratory quotient (CRQ = DIC/TOU) varied between 0.9 and 3.3, with significant higher values in faunated tanks, suggesting enhanced flushing of DIC produced in deeper layers and released by bioirrigation. This DIC was either produced by anaerobic respiration or carbonate dissolution. To unravel the contribution of carbonate dissolution and anaerobic respiration on the observed TA and DIC fluxes, we further present estimations for relevant

  15. REGULATORY MECHANISMS OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION

    PubMed Central

    Barron, E. S. Guzman; Nelson, Leonard; Ardao, Maria Isabel

    1948-01-01

    Oxidizing agents of sulfhydryl groups such as iodosobenzoate, alkylating agents such as iodoacetamide, and mercaptide-forming agents such as cadmium chloride, mercuric chloride, p-chloromercuribenzoate, sodium arsenite, and p-carboxyphenylarsine oxide, added in small concentrations to a suspension of sea urchin sperm produced an increase in respiration. When the concentration was increased there was an inhibition. These effects are explained by postulating the presence in the cells of two kinds of sulfhydryl groups: soluble sulfhydryl groups, which regulate cellular respiration, and fixed sulfhydryl groups, present in the protein moiety of enzymes. Small concentrations of sulfhydryl reagents combine only with the first, thus producing an increase in respiration; when the concentration is increased, the fixed sulfhydryl groups are also attacked and inhibition of respiration is the consequence. Other inhibitors of cell respiration, such as cyanide and urethanes, which do not combine with —SH groups, did not stimulate respiration in small concentration. PMID:18891144

  16. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  17. C4-Dicarboxylate Utilization in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Strecker, Alexander; Kleefeld, Alexandra; Kim, Ok Bin

    2016-06-01

    C4-dicarboxylates and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid l-aspartate support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria. In aerobic growth, succinate, fumarate, D- and L-malate, L-aspartate, and L-tartrate are metabolized by the citric acid cycle and associated reactions. Because of the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate (fumarate respiration). In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), utilization of C4-dicarboxylates, such as tartrate, is independent of fumarate respiration and uses a Na+-dependent membrane-bound oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Uptake of the C4-dicarboxylates into the bacteria (and anaerobic export of succinate) is achieved under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by different sets of secondary transporters. Expression of the genes for C4-dicarboxylate metabolism is induced in the presence of external C4-dicarboxylates by the membrane-bound DcuS-DcuR two-component system. Noncommon C4-dicarboxylates like l-tartrate or D-malate are perceived by cytoplasmic one-component sensors/transcriptional regulators. This article describes the pathways of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and their regulation. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are covered in other articles and discussed here only in the context of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism like transport, sensing, and regulation will be treated in more detail. This article is an updated version of an article published in 2004 in EcoSal Plus. The update includes new literature, but, in particular, the sections on the metabolism of noncommon C4-dicarboxylates and their regulation, on the DcuS-DcuR regulatory system, and on succinate production by engineered E. coli are largely revised or new.

  18. Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

    1994-01-01

    Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the

  19. Anaerobic bacteria from hypersaline environments.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, B; Caumette, P; Garcia, J L; Mah, R A

    1994-03-01

    Strictly anaerobic halophiles, namely fermentative, sulfate-reducing, homoacetogenic, phototrophic, and methanogenic bacteria are involved in the oxidation of organic carbon in hypersaline environments. To date, six anaerobic fermentative genera, containing nine species, have been described. Two of them are homoacetogens. Six species belong to the family Haloanaerobiaceae, as indicated by their unique 16S rRNA oligonucleotide sequences. Desulfohalobium retbaense and Desulfovibrio halophilus represent the only two moderately halophilic sulfate reducers so far reported. Among anoxygenic phototrophic anaerobes, a few purple bacteria with optimal growth at salinities between 6 and 11% NaCl have been isolated from hypersaline habitats. They belong to the genera Rhodospirillum, Chromatium, Thiocapsa, and Ectothiorhodospira. The commonest organisms isolated so far are Chromatium salexigens, Thiocapsa halophila, and Rhodospirillum salinarum. Extremely halophilic purple bacteria have most commonly been isolated from alkaline brines and require about 20 to 25% NaCl for optimal growth. They belong to the family Ectothiorodhospiraceae. Their osmoregulation involves synthesis or uptake of compatible solutes such as glycine-betaine that accumulate in their cytoplasm. The existence of methanogens in hypersaline environments is related to the presence of noncompetitive substrates such as methylamines, which originate mainly from the breakdown of osmoregulatory amines. Methanogenesis probably does not contribute to the mineralization of carbohydrates at NaCl concentrations higher than 15%. Above this concentration, sulfate reduction is probably the main way to oxidize H2 (although at rates too low to use up all the H2 formed) and occupies a terminal function kn the degradation of carbohydrates. Three genera and five species of halophilic methylotrophic methanogens have been reported. A bloom of phototrophic bacteria in the marine salterns of Salins-de-Giraud, located on the

  20. Cytochrome c Biogenesis Genes Involved in Arsenate Respiration by Shewanella trabarsenatis ANA-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, D. K.

    2002-12-01

    Arsenate can be used as a terminal electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration by diverse bacteria. The detection of these bacteria in numerous contaminated environments suggests that they are widespread and metabolically active in nature. Arsenate-respiring bacteria have been implicated in the mobilization of arsenic from arsenic-contaminated sediments. However, the enzymatic mechanisms supporting arsenate respiration are largely unknown. Here, we describe c-type cytochromes that are involved in arsenate respiration by the bacterium Shewanella trabarsenatis strain ANA-3, a facultative anaerobe that is able to use a variety of electron acceptors for growth. We performed transposon mutagenesis to study the electron transport pathway in ANA-3 during arsenate respiration. 10 arsenate-respiration deficient mutants were found after screening up to 7,000 mutants, and 4 were shown to have unique transposon insertions through Southern Blot analysis. The physiological properties of these mutants were determined, including characterization of their growth on different electron acceptors. The genes flanking the transposon insertions were sequenced for each mutant, and several were found to encode c-type cytochrome biogenesis genes. UV/VIS spectra and SDS/PAGE were used to confirm the absence of c-type cytochromes in the mutants. Based on these findings, we proposed a model for respiratory electron transport to arsenate.

  1. Respiration Capacity of the Fermenting Bacterium Lactococcus lactis and Its Positive Effects on Growth and Survival†

    PubMed Central

    Duwat, Patrick; Sourice, Sophie; Cesselin, Bénédicte; Lamberet, Gilles; Vido, Karin; Gaudu, Philippe; Le Loir, Yves; Violet, Florent; Loubière, Pascal; Gruss, Alexandra

    2001-01-01

    Oxygen is a major determinant of both survival and mortality of aerobic organisms. For the facultative anaerobe Lactococcus lactis, oxygen has negative effects on both growth and survival. We show here that oxygen can be beneficial to L. lactis if heme is present during aerated growth. The growth period is extended and long-term survival is markedly improved compared to results obtained under the usual fermentation conditions. We considered that improved growth and survival could be due to the capacity of L. lactis to undergo respiration. To test this idea, we confirmed that the metabolic behavior of lactococci in the presence of oxygen and hemin is consistent with respiration and is most pronounced late in growth. We then used a genetic approach to show the following. (i) The cydA gene, encoding cytochrome d oxidase, is required for respiration and plays a direct role in oxygen utilization. cydA expression is induced late in growth under respiration conditions. (ii) The hemZ gene, encoding ferrochelatase, which converts protoporphyrin IX to heme, is needed for respiration if the precursor, rather than the final heme product, is present in the medium. Surprisingly, survival improved by respiration is observed in a superoxide dismutase-deficient strain, a result which emphasizes the physiological differences between fermenting and respiring lactococci. These studies confirm respiratory metabolism in L. lactis and suggest that this organism may be better adapted to respiration than to traditional fermentative metabolism. PMID:11443085

  2. Water Quality Interaction with Alkaline Phosphatase in the Ganga River: Implications for River Health.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Amita; Pandey, Jitendra

    2017-07-01

    Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus inputs through atmospheric deposition, surface runoff and point sources were measured in the Ganga River along a gradient of increasing human pressure. Productivity variables (chlorophyll a, gross primary productivity, biogenic silica and autotrophic index) and heterotrophy (respiration, substrate induced respiration, biological oxygen demand and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis) showed positive relationships with these inputs. Alkaline phosphatase (AP), however, showed an opposite trend. Because AP is negatively influenced by available P, and eutrophy generates a feedback on P fertilization, the study implies that the alkaline phosphatase can be used as a high quality criterion for assessing river health.

  3. Phenotypic and Genomic Properties of Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., A Haloalkaliphilic Anaerobic Chitinolytic Bacterium Representing a Novel Class in the Phylum Fibrobacteres

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Rakitin, Andrey L.; Gumerov, Vadim M.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment from sediments of hypersaline alkaline lakes in Wadi el Natrun (Egypt) with chitin resulted in the isolation of a fermentative haloalkaliphilic bacterium, strain ACht6-1, growing exclusively with insoluble chitin as the substrate in a sodium carbonate-based medium at pH 8.5–10.5 and total Na+ concentrations from 0.4 to 1.75 M. The isolate had a Gram-negative cell wall and formed lipid cysts in old cultures. The chitinolytic activity was associated with cells. Analysis of the 4.4 Mb draft genome identified pathways for chitin utilization, particularly, secreted chitinases linked to the cell surface, as well as genes for the hydrolysis of other polysaccharides and fermentation of sugars, while the genes needed for aerobic and anaerobic respiration were absent. Adaptation to a haloalkaliphilic lifestyle was reflected by the gene repertoire encoding sodium rather than proton-dependent membrane-bound ion pumps, including the Rnf-type complex, oxaloacetate decarboxylase, V-type ATPase, and pyrophosphatase. The phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene and ribosomal proteins indicated that ACht6-1 forms a novel deep lineage at the class level within the bacterial candidate division TG3. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and genomic analyses, the novel chitinolytic bacterium is described as Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., within a novel class Chitinispirillia that could be included into the phylum Fibrobacteres. PMID:27065971

  4. Phenotypic and Genomic Properties of Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., A Haloalkaliphilic Anaerobic Chitinolytic Bacterium Representing a Novel Class in the Phylum Fibrobacteres.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Rakitin, Andrey L; Gumerov, Vadim M; Beletsky, Alexey V; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Mardanov, Andrey V; Ravin, Nikolai V

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment from sediments of hypersaline alkaline lakes in Wadi el Natrun (Egypt) with chitin resulted in the isolation of a fermentative haloalkaliphilic bacterium, strain ACht6-1, growing exclusively with insoluble chitin as the substrate in a sodium carbonate-based medium at pH 8.5-10.5 and total Na(+) concentrations from 0.4 to 1.75 M. The isolate had a Gram-negative cell wall and formed lipid cysts in old cultures. The chitinolytic activity was associated with cells. Analysis of the 4.4 Mb draft genome identified pathways for chitin utilization, particularly, secreted chitinases linked to the cell surface, as well as genes for the hydrolysis of other polysaccharides and fermentation of sugars, while the genes needed for aerobic and anaerobic respiration were absent. Adaptation to a haloalkaliphilic lifestyle was reflected by the gene repertoire encoding sodium rather than proton-dependent membrane-bound ion pumps, including the Rnf-type complex, oxaloacetate decarboxylase, V-type ATPase, and pyrophosphatase. The phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene and ribosomal proteins indicated that ACht6-1 forms a novel deep lineage at the class level within the bacterial candidate division TG3. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and genomic analyses, the novel chitinolytic bacterium is described as Chitinispirillum alkaliphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., within a novel class Chitinispirillia that could be included into the phylum Fibrobacteres.

  5. Ecology and Biotechnology of Selenium-Respiring Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In nature, selenium is actively cycled between oxic and anoxic habitats, and this cycle plays an important role in carbon and nitrogen mineralization through bacterial anaerobic respiration. Selenium-respiring bacteria (SeRB) are found in geographically diverse, pristine or contaminated environments and play a pivotal role in the selenium cycle. Unlike its structural analogues oxygen and sulfur, the chalcogen selenium and its microbial cycling have received much less attention by the scientific community. This review focuses on microorganisms that use selenate and selenite as terminal electron acceptors, in parallel to the well-studied sulfate-reducing bacteria. It overviews the significant advancements made in recent years on the role of SeRB in the biological selenium cycle and their ecological role, phylogenetic characterization, and metabolism, as well as selenium biomineralization mechanisms and environmental biotechnological applications. PMID:25631289

  6. Hybrid respiration-signal conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinard, G. A.; Steffen, D. A.; Sturm, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid impedance-pneumograph and respiration-rate signal conditioner element of hand-held vital signs monitor measures changes in impedance of chest during breathing cycle and generates analog respiration signal as output along with synchronous square wave that can be monitored by breath-rate processor.

  7. Pyruvate kinase triggers a metabolic feedback loop that controls redox metabolism in respiring cells.

    PubMed

    Grüning, Nana-Maria; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Bluemlein, Katharina; Mülleder, Michael; Wamelink, Mirjam M C; Lehrach, Hans; Jakobs, Cornelis; Breitenbach, Michael; Ralser, Markus

    2011-09-07

    In proliferating cells, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is known as the Warburg effect, whose reversal inhibits cancer cell proliferation. Studying its regulator pyruvate kinase (PYK) in yeast, we discovered that central metabolism is self-adapting to synchronize redox metabolism when respiration is activated. Low PYK activity activated yeast respiration. However, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) did not increase, and cells gained resistance to oxidants. This adaptation was attributable to accumulation of the PYK substrate phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). PEP acted as feedback inhibitor of the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase (TPI). TPI inhibition stimulated the pentose phosphate pathway, increased antioxidative metabolism, and prevented ROS accumulation. Thus, a metabolic feedback loop, initiated by PYK, mediated by its substrate and acting on TPI, stimulates redox metabolism in respiring cells. Originating from a single catalytic step, this autonomous reconfiguration of central carbon metabolism prevents oxidative stress upon shifts between fermentation and respiration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxygen regulated gene expression in facultatively anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Unden, G; Becker, S; Bongaerts, J; Schirawski, J; Six, S

    1994-01-01

    In facultatively anaerobic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, oxygen and other electron acceptors fundamentally influence catabolic and anabolic pathways. E. coli is able to grow aerobically by respiration and in the absence of O2 by anaerobic respiration with nitrate, nitrite, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide as acceptors or by fermentation. The expression of the various catabolic pathways occurs according to a hierarchy with 3 or 4 levels. Aerobic respiration at the highest level is followed by nitrate respiration (level 2), anaerobic respiration with the other acceptors (level 3) and fermentation. In other bacteria, different regulatory cascades with other underlying principles can be observed. Regulation of anabolism in response to O2 availability is important, too. It is caused by different requirements of cofactors or coenzymes in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and by the requirement for different O2-independent biosynthetic routes under anoxia. The regulation mainly occurs at the transcriptional level. In E. coli, 4 global regulatory systems are known to be essential for the aerobic/anaerobic switch and the described hierarchy. A two-component sensor/regulator system comprising ArcB (sensor) and ArcA (transcriptional regulator) is responsible for regulation of aerobic metabolism. The FNR protein is a transcriptional sensor-regulator protein which regulates anaerobic respiratory genes in response to O2 availability. The gene activator FhlA regulates fermentative formate and hydrogen metabolism with formate as the inductor. ArcA/B and FNR directly respond to O2, FhlA indirectly by decreased levels of formate in the presence of O2. Regulation of nitrate/nitrite catabolism is effected by two 2-component sensor/regulator systems NarX(Q)/NarL(P) in response to nitrate/nitrite. Co-operation of the different regulatory systems at the target promoters which are in part under dual (or manifold) transcriptional control causes the expression

  9. Tolerance of anaerobic bacteria to chlorinated solvents.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Joanna C; Groissmeier, Kathrin D; Manefield, Mike J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation.

  10. Alkaline phosphatase: an overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ujjawal; Pal, Deeksha; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; E.C.3.I.3.1.) is an ubiquitous membrane-bound glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters at basic pH values. Alkaline phosphatase is divided into four isozymes depending upon the site of tissue expression that are Intestinal ALP, Placental ALP, Germ cell ALP and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase or liver/bone/kidney (L/B/K) ALP. The intestinal and placental ALP loci are located near the end of long arm of chromosome 2 and L/B/K ALP is located near the end of the short arm of chromosome 1. Although ALPs are present in many mammalian tissues and have been studied for the last several years still little is known about them. The bone isoenzyme may be involved in mammalian bone calcification and the intestinal isoenzyme is thought to play a role in the transport of phosphate into epithelial cells of the intestine. In this review, we tried to provide an overview about the various forms, structure and functions of alkaline phosphatase with special focus on liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase.

  11. Respiration in the open ocean.

    PubMed

    del Giorgio, Paul A; Duarte, Carlos M

    2002-11-28

    A key question when trying to understand the global carbon cycle is whether the oceans are net sources or sinks of carbon. This will depend on the production of organic matter relative to the decomposition due to biological respiration. Estimates of respiration are available for the top layers, the mesopelagic layer, and the abyssal waters and sediments of various ocean regions. Although the total open ocean respiration is uncertain, it is probably substantially greater than most current estimates of particulate organic matter production. Nevertheless, whether the biota act as a net source or sink of carbon remains an open question.

  12. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  13. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  14. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method.

  15. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs.

  16. C4-Dicarboxylate Degradation in Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth.

    PubMed

    Unden, Gottfried; Kleefeld, Alexandra

    2004-12-01

    C4-dicarboxylates, like succinate, fumarate, L- and D-malate, tartrate, and the C4-dicarboxylic amino acid aspartate, support aerobic and anaerobic growth of Escherichia coli and related bacteria and can serve as carbon and energy sources. In aerobic growth, the C4-dicarboxylates are oxidized in the citric acid cycle. Due to the interruption of the citric acid cycle under anaerobic conditions, anaerobic metabolism of the C4-dicarboxylates depends on fumarate reduction to succinate. In some related bacteria (e.g., Klebsiella), degradation of C4-dicarboxylates, like tartrate, uses a different mechanism and pathway. It requires the functioning of an Na+-dependent and membrane-associated oxaloacetate decarboxylase. Due to the incomplete function of the citric acid cycle in anaerobic growth, succinate supports only aerobic growth of E. coli. This chapter describes the pathways of and differences in aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism and the physiological consequences. The citric acid cycle, fumarate respiration, and fumarate reductase are discussed here only in the context of aerobic and anaerobic C4-dicarboxylate metabolism. Some recent aspects of C4-dicarboxylate metabolism, such as transport and sensing of C4-dicarboxylates, and their relationships are treated in more detail.

  17. Extracellular respiration of dimethyl sulfoxide by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1.

    PubMed

    Gralnick, Jeffrey A; Vali, Hojatollah; Lies, Douglas P; Newman, Dianne K

    2006-03-21

    Shewanella species are renowned for their respiratory versatility, including their ability to respire poorly soluble substrates by using enzymatic machinery that is localized to the outside of the cell. The ability to engage in "extracellular respiration" to date has focused primarily on respiration of minerals. Here, we identify two gene clusters in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 that each contain homologs of genes required for metal reduction and genes that are predicted to encode dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase subunits. Molecular and genetic analyses of these clusters indicate that one (SO1427-SO1432) is required for anaerobic respiration of DMSO. We show that DMSO respiration is an extracellular respiratory process through the analysis of mutants defective in type II secretion, which is required for transporting proteins to the outer membrane in Shewanella. Moreover, immunogold labeling of DMSO reductase subunits reveals that they reside on the outer leaflet of the outer membrane under anaerobic conditions. The extracellular localization of the DMSO reductase in S. oneidensis suggests these organisms may perceive DMSO in the environment as an insoluble compound.

  18. [Advances of alkaline amylase production and applications].

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-04-01

    Alkaline amylase is one of alkaline enzymes with optimum pH in the alkaline range, and it could keep stability and efficiently hydrolyze starch under alkaline conditions. Alkaline amylase finds wide applications in textile, detergent, pharmaceutical, food and other fields. Alkaline amylases could be produced by alkaliphilic microorganisms. In this work, the advances of alkaline amylase production and applications were reviewed.

  19. 78 FR 18601 - Respirator Certification Fees; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Respirator Certification Fees; Public Meeting... stakeholders to present information the impact of an increase on respirator fees on individual respirator... in respirator certification and approval fees on individual respirator manufacturers, the...

  20. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  1. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K.; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Graco, Michelle I.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein. PMID:26192623

  2. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones.

    PubMed

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Löscher, Carolin; Schunck, Harald; Desai, Dhwani K; Hauss, Helena; Kiko, Rainer; Holtappels, Moritz; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz, Ruth A; Graco, Michelle I; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.

  3. Interpreting, measuring, and modeling soil respiration

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Ryan; Beverly E. Law

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of soil respiration in determining ecosystem carbon balance, and the conceptual basis for measuring and modeling soil respiration. We developed it to provide background and context for this special issue on soil respiration and to synthesize the presentations and discussions at the workshop. Soil respiration is the largest component of...

  4. Anaerobic performance at altitude.

    PubMed

    Coudert, J

    1992-10-01

    Anaerobic metabolism is usually evaluated by the determination of the anaerobic capacity and the maximal anaerobic mechanical external power (Wmax). Conflicting results are reported on anaerobic capacity evaluated by maximal oxygen deficit and debt, and maximal blood lactate concentration during acute or chronic hypoxia (acclimatized subjects). Data on muscle biopsies (lactate concentration, changes in ATP, phosphocreatine and glycogen stores, glycolytic enzyme activities) and the few studies on lactate flux give in most cases evidence of a non-alteration of the anaerobic capacity for altitudes up to 5,500 m. No differences are observed in Wmax measured at high altitudes up to 5,200 m during intense short-term exercises: (1) jumps on a force platform which is a good indicator of alactic Wmax, and (2) 7-10 s sprints (i.e. force-velocity test) which solicit alactic metabolism but also lactic pathway. For exercises of duration equal or more than 30 s (i.e. Wingate test), there are conflicting results because a lower participation of aerobic metabolism during this test at high altitude can interfere with anaerobic performance. In conclusion, we can admit that anaerobic performances are not altered by high altitudes up to 5,200 m if the length of exposure does not exceed 5 weeks. After this period, muscle mass begins to decrease.

  5. Improved methane production from waste activated sludge with low organic content by alkaline pretreatment at pH 10.

    PubMed

    Feng, L Y; Yang, L Q; Zhang, L X; Chen, H L; Chen, J

    2013-01-01

    Sludge with low organic content always results in an unsatisfactory performance, even failure of anaerobic digestion. The alkaline pretreatment effect on anaerobic digestion of sludge with low organic content has seldom been studied although it gives many benefits for sludge with high organic content. In this study the influence of alkaline pretreatment (pH 10, an effective alkaline pH) on the solubilization and methane production from waste activated sludge (WAS) with low organic content was investigated. Results from biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments showed that anaerobic biodegradability of WAS was greatly improved by alkaline pretreatment at pH 10. Methane production from the current WAS under conditions of pretreatment time 4 h and digestion time 15 d was 139.6 mL/g VS (volatile solids), much higher than that from the unpretreated WAS with digestion time of 20 d (75.2 mL/g VS). Also, the solubilization of WAS was significantly accelerated by alkaline pretreatment. Mechanism exploration indicated that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, specific activities of key enzymes and the amounts of methanogens were enhanced by alkaline pretreatment at pH 10, showing good agreement with methane production.

  6. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  7. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  8. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher B

    2005-01-01

    Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production) although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis). An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure. PMID:15958171

  9. Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

    2014-11-01

    To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure and crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.; Robinson, S.

    1981-05-01

    Research on the feasibility of fermenting manure crop residue mixtures to methane, and on factors affecting the rate and extent of methane production is summarized. Experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and alkaline pretreatment on the rate and extent of hydrolysis of manure straw mixtures. The effects of mixing duration and vacuum fermenters on methane production rates from anaerobically fermented beef cattle wastes were also determined.

  11. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2 litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen.

  12. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, N.; Torikai, E.; Kawami, Y.; Takenaka, H.

    Results are presented of experimental studies of possible separators and electrodes for use in advanced, high-temperature, high-pressure alkaline water electrolyzers. Material evaluations in alkaline water electrolyzers at temperatures from 100 to 120 C have shown a new type polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with potassium titanate to be the most promising when the separator is prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of a porous PFTE membrane impregnated with hydrated titanium oxide. Measurements of cell voltages in 30% KOH at current densities from 5 to 100 A/sq dm at temperatures up to 120 C with nickel electrodes of various structures have shown the foamed nickel electrode, with an average pore size of 1-1.5 mm, to have the best performance. When the foamed nickel is coated by fine powdered nickel, carbonyl nickel or Raney nickel to increase electrode surface areas, even lower cell voltages were found, indicating better performance.

  13. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Anaerobic brain abscess

    PubMed Central

    Sudhaharan, Sukanya; Chavali, Padmasri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Brain abscess remains a potentially fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease, especially in developing countries. Anaerobic abscess is difficult to diagnose because of cumbersome procedures associated with the isolation of anaerobes. Materials and Methods: This is a hospital-based retrospective microbiological analysis of 430 brain abscess materials (purulent aspirates and/or tissue), for anaerobic organisms, that were received between 1987–2014, by the Microbiology Laboratory in our Institute. Results: Culture showed growth of bacteria 116/430 (27%) of the cases of which anaerobes were isolated in 48/116 (41.1%) of the cases. Peptostreptococcus (51.4 %), was the predominant organism isolated in four cases followed by Bacteroides and Peptococcus species. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and detection of these organisms would help in the appropriate management of these patients. PMID:27307977

  15. Defining Anaerobic Digestion Stability-Full Scale Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demitry, M. E., Sr.

    2014-12-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester receiving a mixture of primary and secondary sludge was monitored for one hundred days. A chemical oxygen demand, COD, and a volatile solids, VS, mass balance was conducted to evaluate the stability of the digester and its capability of producing methane gas. The COD mass balance could account for nearly 90% of the methane gas produced while the VS mass balance showed that 91% of the organic matter removed resulted in biogas formation. Other parameters monitored included: pH, alkalinity, VFA, and propionic acid. The values of these parameters showed that steady state had occurred. Finally, at mesophilic temperature and at steady state performance, the anaerobic digester stability was defined as a constant ratio of methane produced per substrate of ΔVS (average ratio=0.404 l/g). This ratio can be used as universal metric to determine the anaerobic digester stability in an easy and inexpensive way.

  16. Electrical stimulation to restore respiration.

    PubMed

    Creasey, G; Elefteriades, J; DiMarco, A; Talonen, P; Bijak, M; Girsch, W; Kantor, C

    1996-04-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used for over 25 years to restore breathing to patients with high quadriplegia causing respiratory paralysis and patients with central alveolar hypoventilation. Three groups have developed electrical pacing systems for long-term support of respiration in humans. These systems consist of electrodes implanted on the phrenic nerves, connected by leads to a stimulator implanted under the skin, and powered and controlled from a battery-powered transmitter outside the body. The systems differ principally in the electrode design and stimulation waveform. Approximately 1,000 people worldwide have received one of the three phrenic pacing devices, most with strongly positive results: reduced risk of tracheal problems and chronic infection, the ability to speak and smell more normally, reduced risk of accidental interruption of respiration, greater independence, and reduced costs and time for ventilatory care. For patients with partial lesions of the phrenic nerves, intercostal muscle stimulation may supplement respiration.

  17. Measuring aerobic respiration in stream ecosystems using the resazurin-resorufin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GonzáLez-Pinzón, Ricardo; Haggerty, Roy; Myrold, David D.

    2012-09-01

    The use of smart tracers to study hydrologic systems is becoming more widespread. Smart tracers are compounds that irreversibly react in the presence of a process or condition under investigation. Resazurin (Raz) is a smart tracer that undergoes an irreversible reduction to resorufin (Rru) in the presence of cellular metabolic activity. We quantified the relationship between the transformation of Raz and aerobic bacterial respiration in pure culture experiments using two obligate aerobes and two facultative anaerobes, and in colonized surface and shallow (<10 cm) hyporheic sediments using reach-scale experiments. We found that the transformation of Raz to Rru was nearly perfectly (minr2 = 0.986), positively correlated with aerobic microbial respiration in all experiments. These results suggest that Raz can be used as a surrogate to measure respiration in situ and in vivoat different spatial scales, thus providing an alternative to investigate mechanistic controls of solute transport and stream metabolism on nutrient processing. Lastly, a comparison of respiration and mass-transfer rates in streams suggests that field-scale respiration is controlled by the slower of respiration and mass transfer, highlighting the need to understand both biogeochemistry and physics in stream ecosystems.

  18. An alkaline phosphatase reporter for use in Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Adrianne N; Pascual, Ricardo A; Childress, Kevin O; Nawrocki, Kathryn L; Woods, Emily C; McBride, Shonna M

    2015-04-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes severe gastrointestinal disease in humans and other mammals. C. difficile is notoriously difficult to work with and, until recently, few tools were available for genetic manipulation and molecular analyses. Despite the recent advances in the field, there is no simple or cost-effective technique for measuring gene transcription in C. difficile other than direct transcriptional analyses (e.g., quantitative real-time PCR and RNA-seq), which are time-consuming, expensive and difficult to scale-up. We describe the development of an in vivo reporter assay that can provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of C. difficile gene expression. Using the Enterococcus faecalis alkaline phosphatase gene, phoZ, we measured expression of C. difficile genes using a colorimetric alkaline phosphatase assay. We show that inducible alkaline phosphatase activity correlates directly with native gene expression. The ability to analyze gene expression using a standard reporter is an important and critically needed tool to study gene regulation and design genetic screens for C. difficile and other anaerobic clostridia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Dark respiration of terrestrial vegetations: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Wei; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2013-06-01

    The source and sink effect of terrestrial plants is one of the hotspots in terrestrial ecosystem research under the background of global change. Dark respiration of terrestrial plants accounts for a large fraction of total net carbon balance, playing an important role in the research of carbon cycle under global climate change. However, there is little study on plant dark respiration. This paper summarized the physiological processes of plant dark respiration, measurement methods of the dark respiration, and the effects of plant biology and environmental factors on the dark respiration. The uncertainty of the dark respiration estimation was analyzed, and the future hotspots of related researches were pointed out.

  20. Extracellular respiration of dimethyl sulfoxide by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1

    PubMed Central

    Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Vali, Hojatollah; Lies, Douglas P.; Newman, Dianne K.

    2006-01-01

    Shewanella species are renowned for their respiratory versatility, including their ability to respire poorly soluble substrates by using enzymatic machinery that is localized to the outside of the cell. The ability to engage in “extracellular respiration” to date has focused primarily on respiration of minerals. Here, we identify two gene clusters in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 that each contain homologs of genes required for metal reduction and genes that are predicted to encode dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase subunits. Molecular and genetic analyses of these clusters indicate that one (SO1427–SO1432) is required for anaerobic respiration of DMSO. We show that DMSO respiration is an extracellular respiratory process through the analysis of mutants defective in type II secretion, which is required for transporting proteins to the outer membrane in Shewanella. Moreover, immunogold labeling of DMSO reductase subunits reveals that they reside on the outer leaflet of the outer membrane under anaerobic conditions. The extracellular localization of the DMSO reductase in S. oneidensis suggests these organisms may perceive DMSO in the environment as an insoluble compound. PMID:16537430

  1. Energy metabolism of the anaerobic protozoon Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Lindmark, D G

    1980-03-01

    Cells of the aerotolerant anaerobe Giardia lamblia respire in the presence of oxygen. Endogenous respiration is stimulated by glucose but not by other carbohydrates and Krebs cycle intermediates. Endogenous and glucose-stimulated respiration are insensitive to cyanide, malonate, and 2,4-dinitrophenol, but are inhibited by atabrin and iodoacetamide. G. lamblia produces ethanol, acetate and CO2 both aerobically and anaerobically either from endogenous reserves or exogenous glucose. Molecular hydrogen is not produced. The following enzyme activities were detected in homogenates: hexokinase, fructose-biphosphate aldolase, pyruvate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), pyruvate synthase, acetyl-CoA synthetase, alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+), NADH dehydrogenase, NADPH dehydrogenase, NADPH oxidoreductase and superoxide dismutase. The enzymes of energy and carbohydrate metabolism are nonsedimentable (109 000 x g for 30 min). Activities of lactate dehydrogenase, hydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, acetate kinase, citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase and catalase were below the limits of detection. The results suggest the occurrence of glycolysis, energy production by substrate level phosphorylation and a flavin, iron-sulfur protein mediated electron transport system as well as the absence of cytochrome mediated oxidative phosphorylation and functional Krebs cycle.

  2. Gender comparisons in anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity tests.

    PubMed Central

    Maud, P J; Shultz, B B

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity test scores between young active men and women. Three performance measures of anaerobic power and two of anaerobic capacity were administered to a sample comprising 52 male and 50 female college students (means age = 21.4 yrs). Results indicated significant differences between men and women in body height, weight and per cent fat, in fat free mass (FFM), anaerobic power, and anaerobic capacity when recorded as gross work completed and relative to body weight. However, these differences are reduced when data is adjusted for body weight and further reduced when corrected for FFM. The study found no significant differences between men and women in either anaerobic power or anaerobic capacity when values were given relative to FFM. PMID:3730753

  3. Soil Respiration - A Geochemist's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cappellen, P.

    2015-12-01

    Soil biogeochemistry is largely driven by the decomposition of plant-derived organic matter by soil microorganisms. In addition to its effects on water quality and soil fertility, the decomposition of organic matter couples soil processes to climate, via the production and emission of greenhouse gases. In this presentation, I will review a number of key factors controlling the rate of decomposition of soil organic matter. In particular, I will discuss the importance of the spatial and temporal variations in redox conditions as drivers of soil respiration. The discussion will highlight the limitations of current soil respiration models based on partitioning soil organic matter in a finite number of pools of different degradability. In order to predict the sensitivity of soil respiration to anthropogenic pressures - including climate warming - it is crucial to relate the apparent degradability of soil organic matter to the geochemical and hydrological dynamics of the soil environment. Overall, there remains much scope for geochemists to help develop more robust, process-based, representations of soil respiration in global carbon models and climate predictions.

  4. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  5. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  6. Life at extreme limits: the anaerobic halophilic alkalithermophiles.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Noha M; Wiegel, Juergen

    2008-03-01

    The ability of anaerobic microorganisms to proliferate under extreme conditions is of widespread importance for microbial physiology, remediation, industry, and evolution. The halophilic alkalithermophiles are a novel group of polyextremophiles. Tolerance to alkaline pH, elevated NaCl concentrations, and high temperatures necessitates mechanisms for cytoplasmic pH acidification; permeability control of the cell membrane; and stability of proteins, the cell wall, and other cellular constituents to multiple extreme conditions. Although it is generally assumed that extremophiles growing at more than one extreme combine adaptive mechanisms for each individual extreme, adaptations for individual extremes often counteract each other. However, in alkaline, hypersaline niches heated via intense solar irradiation, culture-independent analyses have revealed the presence of an extensive diversity of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms belonging to Bacteria and Archaea that survive and grow under multiple harsh conditions. Thus, polyextremophiles must have developed novel adaptive strategies enabling them to grow and proliferate under multiple extreme conditions. The recent isolation of two novel anaerobic, halophilic alkalithermophiles, Natranaerobius thermophilus and Halonatronum saccharophilum, will provide a platform for detailed biochemical, genomic, and proteomic experiments, allowing a greater understanding of the novel adaptive mechanisms undoubtedly employed by polyextremophiles. In this review, we highlight growth characteristics, ecology, and phylogeny of the anaerobic halophilic alkalithermophiles isolated. We also describe the bioenergetic and physiological problems posed by growth at the multiple extreme conditions of alkaline pH, high NaCl concentration, and elevated temperature under anoxic conditions and highlight recent findings and unresolved problems regarding adaptation to multiple extreme conditions.

  7. [Effects of simulated acid rain on respiration rate of cropland system with different soil pH].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-zhu; Zhang, Gao-chuan; Li, Hui

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the respiration rate of cropland system, an outdoor pot experiment was conducted with paddy soils of pH 5.48 (S1), pH 6.70 (S1) and pH 8.18 (S3) during the 2005-2007 wheat-growing seasons. The cropland system was exposed to acid rain by spraying the wheat foliage and irrigating the soil with simulated rainwater of T1 (pH 6.0), T2 (pH 6.0, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), and T3 (pH 4.4, ionic concentration was twice as rainwater T1), respectively. The static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure CO2 fluxes from cropland system. The results showed that acid rain affected the respiration rate of cropland system through crop plant, and the cropland system could adapt to acid rain. Acid rainwater significantly increased the average respiration rate in alkaline soil (S3) cropland system, while it had no significant effects on the average respiration rate in neutral soil (S2) and acidic soil (S1) cropland systems. During 2005-2006, after the alkaline soil cropland system was treated with rainwater T3, the average respiration rate was 23.6% and 27.6% higher than that of alkaline soil cropland system treated with rainwater T1 and T2, respectively. During March to April, the respiration rate was enhanced with the increase of rainwater ionic concentration, while it was dropped with the decrease of rainwater pH value in acidic soil cropland system. It was demonstrated that soil pH and crop plant played important roles on the respiration rate of cropland system.

  8. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production.

  9. A coral polyp model of photosynthesis, respiration and calcification incorporating a transcellular ion transport mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Nadaoka, K.; Watanabe, A.

    2013-09-01

    A numerical simulation model of coral polyp photosynthesis, respiration and calcification was developed. The model is constructed with three components (ambient seawater, coelenteron and calcifying fluid), and incorporates photosynthesis, respiration and calcification processes with transcellular ion transport by Ca-ATPase activity and passive transmembrane CO2 transport and diffusion. The model calculates dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity in the ambient seawater, coelenteron and calcifying fluid, dissolved oxygen (DO) in the seawater and coelenteron and stored organic carbon (CH2O). To reconstruct the drastic variation between light and dark respiration, respiration rate dependency on DO in the coelenteron is incorporated. The calcification rate depends on the aragonite saturation state in the calcifying fluid (Ω a cal). Our simulation result was a good approximation of "light-enhanced calcification." In our model, the mechanism is expressed as follows: (1) DO in the coelenteron is increased by photosynthesis, (2) respiration is stimulated by increased DO in the light (or respiration is limited by DO depletion in the dark), then (3) calcification increases due to Ca-ATPase, which is driven by the energy generated by respiration. The model simulation results were effective in reproducing the basic responses of the internal CO2 system and DO. The daily calcification rate, the gross photosynthetic rate and the respiration rate under a high-flow condition increased compared to those under the zero-flow condition, but the net photosynthetic rate decreased. The calculated calcification rate responses to variations in the ambient aragonite saturation state (Ω a amb) were nonlinear, and the responses agreed with experimental results of previous studies. Our model predicted that in response to ocean acidification (1) coral calcification will decrease, but will remain at a higher value until Ω a amb decreases to 1, by maintaining a higher Ω a cal due to

  10. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  11. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  12. Comparative investigation on microbial community and electricity generation in aerobic and anaerobic enriched MFCs.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiang-chun; Quan, Yan-ping; Tao, Kun; Jiang, Xiao-man

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in microbial community and power generation capacity of air-cathode MFCs enriched under anode aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Results showed that MFCs successfully started with continuous air inputting to anode chamber. The aerobic enriched MFC produced comparable and even more electricity with the fuels of acetate, glucose and ethanol compared to the anaerobic MFC when returning to anaerobic condition. The two MFCs showed a slightly different microbial community for anode biofilms (a similarity of 77%), but a highly similar microbial community (a similarity of 97%) for anolyte microbes. The anode biofilm of aerobic enriched MFC showed the presence of some specific bacteria closely related to Clostridium sticklandii, Leucobacter komagatae and Microbacterium laevaniformans. The anaerobic enriched MFC found the presence of a large number of yeast Trichosporon sp. This research demonstrates that it is possible to enrich oxygen-tolerant anode respiring bacteria through purposely aeration in anode chamber. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alkali-solubilized organic matter from sludge and its degradability in the anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongzhe; Zhou, Yan; Tan, Youming; Pathak, Santosh; Majid, Maszenan Bin Abdul; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates alkali-solubilized dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its fate in the anaerobic treatment process. DOM was fractionated into high molecular weight (HMW) protein-like substances (PL), HMW saccharide-like substances (SL), low molecular weight (LMW) PL, LMW SL, and humic acid-like substances (HAL). The results indicate alkali-solubilized DOM is primarily composed of LMW PL, HMW SL, and HAL. Alkaline pretreatment improved the overall anaerobic degradability of DOM in sludge (removal efficiency of total DOM increased by 28.4%). However, certain DOM fractions (mainly HMW PL and HAL) exhibited low degradability during anaerobic treatment, primarily caused by the low degradability of aromatic groups (such as aromatic amine groups from tryptophan-like PL). Alkaline pretreatment also resulted in an increase of residual DOM, which is mainly composed of HAL (52.9%) and HMW SL (49.9%).

  14. Dynamics and genetic diversification of Escherichia coli during experimental adaptation to an anaerobic environment.

    PubMed

    Finn, Thomas J; Shewaramani, Sonal; Leahy, Sinead C; Janssen, Peter H; Moon, Christina D

    2017-01-01

    Many bacteria are facultative anaerobes, and can proliferate in both anoxic and oxic environments. Under anaerobic conditions, fermentation is the primary means of energy generation in contrast to respiration. Furthermore, the rates and spectra of spontaneous mutations that arise during anaerobic growth differ to those under aerobic growth. A long-term selection experiment was undertaken to investigate the genetic changes that underpin how the facultative anaerobe, Escherichia coli, adapts to anaerobic environments. Twenty-one populations of E. coli REL4536, an aerobically evolved 10,000th generation descendent of the E. coli B strain, REL606, were established from a clonal ancestral culture. These were serially sub-cultured for 2,000 generations in a defined minimal glucose medium in strict aerobic and strict anaerobic environments, as well as in a treatment that fluctuated between the two environments. The competitive fitness of the evolving lineages was assessed at approximately 0, 1,000 and 2,000 generations, in both the environment of selection and the alternative environment. Whole genome re-sequencing was performed on random colonies from all lineages after 2,000-generations. Mutations were identified relative to the ancestral genome, and based on the extent of parallelism, traits that were likely to have contributed towards adaptation were inferred. There were increases in fitness relative to the ancestor among anaerobically evolved lineages when tested in the anaerobic environment, but no increases were found in the aerobic environment. For lineages that had evolved under the fluctuating regime, relative fitness increased significantly in the anaerobic environment, but did not increase in the aerobic environment. The aerobically-evolved lineages did not increase in fitness when tested in either the aerobic or anaerobic environments. The strictly anaerobic lineages adapted more rapidly to the anaerobic environment than did the fluctuating lineages. Two main

  15. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  16. The anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rivard, C.J.; Boone, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  17. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1984-04-10

    First, the organic waste slurry of sewage sludge and/or kitchen garbage is stored in a stable condition after effecting partially thereto a liquefaction treatment in advance by adding liquefying bacteria, and next this slurry is effectively digested anaerobically by way of a liquefaction/gasification-mixed step or a liquefaction/gasification separated step.

  18. Cardiopulmonary fitness and respirator clearance: an update.

    PubMed

    Belafsky, Sheri; Vlach, Justin; McCurdy, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    This review addresses five key questions regarding respirator clearance: What is the efficacy of different methods of respirator clearance? Which diagnostic test is most predictive of cardiac event during respirator use? Is spirometry accurate in predicting respiratory distress/insufficiency during respirator use? Is exercise tolerance testing accurate in predicting cardiac injury during respirator use? Which periodicity of clearance evaluations is most protective against cardiac event during respirator use? The medical literature was searched using PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Relevant articles were reviewed to assess current recommendations and practices in respirator clearance. Between the years 1970 and 2011, 144 articles were identified, and 21 were included in this review. Current recommendations for respirator clearance are based on consensus rather than outcome studies, and opinions differed between expert sources. Many authors observed the need for cost-effective respirator clearance, but none proposed evidence-based strategies. Prospective studies on respirator clearance that evaluate cardiac and pulmonary outcomes are necessary to establish an evidence base for improving the validity, efficiency, and consistency of respirator clearance testing.

  19. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles inhibit cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhimin; Morrow, Matthew P; Asefa, Tewodros; Sharma, Krishna K; Duncan, Cole; Anan, Abhishek; Penefsky, Harvey S; Goodisman, Jerry; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2008-05-01

    We studied the effect of two types of mesoporous silica nanoparticles, MCM-41 and SBA-15, on mitochondrial O 2 consumption (respiration) in HL-60 (myeloid) cells, Jurkat (lymphoid) cells, and isolated mitochondria. SBA-15 inhibited cellular respiration at 25-500 microg/mL; the inhibition was concentration-dependent and time-dependent. The cellular ATP profile paralleled that of respiration. MCM-41 had no noticeable effect on respiration rate. In cells depleted of metabolic fuels, 50 microg/mL SBA-15 delayed the onset of glucose-supported respiration by 12 min and 200 microg/mL SBA-15 by 34 min; MCM-41 also delayed the onset of glucose-supported respiration. Neither SBA-15 nor MCM-41 affected cellular glutathione. Both nanoparticles inhibited respiration of isolated mitochondria and submitochondrial particles.

  20. [Research advances in forest soil respiration].

    PubMed

    Luan, Junwei; Xiang, Chenghua; Luo, Zongshi; Gong, Yuanbo

    2006-12-01

    Among the methods of measuring forest soil respiration, infrared CO2 analysis is the optimal one so far. Comparing with empirical model, the process-based model in simulating the production and transportation of soil CO2 has the advantage of considering the biological and physical processes of soil respiration. Generally, soil respiration is positively correlated with soil temperature and moisture, but there are still many uncertainties about the relationships between soil respiration and forest management activities such as firing, cutting, and fertilization. The relationships of soil respiration with vegetation type and soil microbial biomass, as well as the spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration, are the hotspots in recent researches. Some issues and future development in forest soil respiration research were discussed in this paper.

  1. Sulfate reduction and oxic respiration in marine sediments: implications for organic carbon preservation in euxinic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.; DeVincenzi, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    Compilations have been made of sulfate reduction rates and oxic respiration rates over the entire range of marine sedimentation rates, and sedimentary environments, including several euxinic sites. These data show, consistent with the findings of Jorgensen (1982, Nature, 296, 643-645), that sulfate reduction and oxic respiration oxidize equal amounts of organic carbon in nearshore sediments. As sedimentation rates decrease, oxic respiration, becomes progressively more important, and in deep-sea sediments 100-1000 times more organic carbon is oxidized by oxic respiration than by sulfate reduction. By contrast, nearly as much organic carbon is oxidized by sulfate reduction in euxinic sediments as is oxidized by the sum of sulfate reduction and oxic respiration in normal marine sediments of similar deposition rate. This observation appears at odds with the enhanced preservation of organic carbon observed in euxinic sediments. However, only small reductions in (depth-integrated) organic carbon decomposition rates (compared to normal marine) are required to give both high organic carbon concentrations and enhanced carbon preservation in euxinic sediments. Lower rates of organic carbon decomposition (if only by subtle amounts) are explained by the diminished ability of anaerobic bacteria to oxidize the full suite of sedimentary organic compounds.

  2. Sulfate reduction and oxic respiration in marine sediments: implications for organic carbon preservation in euxinic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, D. E.; DeVincenzi, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1989-01-01

    Compilations have been made of sulfate reduction rates and oxic respiration rates over the entire range of marine sedimentation rates, and sedimentary environments, including several euxinic sites. These data show, consistent with the findings of Jorgensen (1982, Nature, 296, 643-645), that sulfate reduction and oxic respiration oxidize equal amounts of organic carbon in nearshore sediments. As sedimentation rates decrease, oxic respiration, becomes progressively more important, and in deep-sea sediments 100-1000 times more organic carbon is oxidized by oxic respiration than by sulfate reduction. By contrast, nearly as much organic carbon is oxidized by sulfate reduction in euxinic sediments as is oxidized by the sum of sulfate reduction and oxic respiration in normal marine sediments of similar deposition rate. This observation appears at odds with the enhanced preservation of organic carbon observed in euxinic sediments. However, only small reductions in (depth-integrated) organic carbon decomposition rates (compared to normal marine) are required to give both high organic carbon concentrations and enhanced carbon preservation in euxinic sediments. Lower rates of organic carbon decomposition (if only by subtle amounts) are explained by the diminished ability of anaerobic bacteria to oxidize the full suite of sedimentary organic compounds.

  3. Impact of Anodic Respiration on Biopolymer Production and Consequent Membrane Fouling.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, So; Terada, Kotaro; Miyake, Hiroshi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-09-06

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have recently been integrated with membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment and energy recovery. However, the impact of integration of the two reactors on membrane fouling of MBR has not been reported yet. In this study, MFCs equipped with different external resistances (1-10 000 ohm) were operated, and membrane-fouling potentials of the MFC anode effluents were directly measured to study the impact of anodic respiration by exoelectrogens on membrane fouling. It was found that although the COD removal efficiency was comparable, the fouling potential was significantly reduced due to less production of biopolymer (a major foulant) in MFCs equipped with lower external resistance (i.e., with higher current generation) as compared with aerobic respiration. Furthermore, it was confirmed that Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA, a dominant exoelectrogen in anode biofilms of MFCs in this study, produced less biopolymer under anodic respiration condition than fumarate (anaerobic) respiration condition, resulting in lower membrane-fouling potential. Taken together, anodic respiration can mitigate membrane fouling of MBR due to lower biopolymer production, suggesting that development of an electrode-assisted MBR (e-MBR) without aeration is feasible.

  4. Anaerobic Biotransformation and Mobility of Pu and of Pu-EDTA

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, Luying

    2009-11-20

    The enhanced mobility of radionuclides by co-disposed chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), is likely to occur only under anaerobic conditions. Our extensive effort to enrich and isolate anaerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria has failed. Others has tried and also failed. To explain the lack of anaerobic biodegradation of EDTA, we proposed that EDTA has to be transported into the cells for metabolism. A failure of uptake may contribute to the lack of EDTA degradation under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrated that an aerobic EDTA-degrading bacterium strain BNC1 uses an ABC-type transporter system to uptake EDTA. The system has a periplasmic binding protein that bind EDTA and then interacts with membrane proteins to transport EDTA into the cell at the expense of ATP. The bind protein EppA binds only free EDTA with a Kd of 25 nM. The low Kd value indicates high affinity. However, the Kd value of Ni-EDTA is 2.4 x 10^(-10) nM, indicating much stronger stability. Since Ni and other trace metals are essential for anaerobic respiration, we conclude that the added EDTA sequestrates all trace metals and making anaerobic respiration impossible. Thus, the data explain the lack of anaerobic enrichment cultures for EDTA degradation. Although we did not obtain an EDTA degrading culture under anaerobic conditions, our finding may promote the use of certain metals that forms more stable metal-EDTA complexes than Pu(III)-EDTA to prevent the enhanced mobility. Further, our data explain why EDTA is the most dominant organic pollutant in surface waters, due to the lack of degradation of certain metal-EDTA complexes.

  5. Adaptation and Antibiotic Tolerance of Anaerobic Burkholderia pseudomallei ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Mohamad A.; Austin, Chad R.; Stewart, Amanda L.; Higgins, Mike; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés; Voskuil, Martin I.

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis and is remarkably resistant to most classes of antibacterials. Even after months of treatment with antibacterials that are relatively effective in vitro, there is a high rate of treatment failure, indicating that this pathogen alters its patterns of antibacterial susceptibility in response to cues encountered in the host. The pathology of melioidosis indicates that B. pseudomallei encounters host microenvironments that limit aerobic respiration, including the lack of oxygen found in abscesses and in the presence of nitric oxide produced by macrophages. We investigated whether B. pseudomallei could survive in a nonreplicating, oxygen-deprived state and determined if this physiological state was tolerant of conventional antibacterials. B. pseudomallei survived initial anaerobiosis, especially under moderately acidic conditions similar to those found in abscesses. Microarray expression profiling indicated a major shift in the physiological state of hypoxic B. pseudomallei, including induction of a variety of typical anaerobic-environment-responsive genes and genes that appear specific to anaerobic B. pseudomallei. Interestingly, anaerobic B. pseudomallei was unaffected by antibacterials typically used in therapy. However, it was exquisitely sensitive to drugs used against anaerobic pathogens. After several weeks of anaerobic culture, a significant loss of viability was observed. However, a stable subpopulation that maintained complete viability for at least 1 year was established. Thus, during the course of human infection, if a minor subpopulation of bacteria inhabited an oxygen-restricted environment, it might be indifferent to traditional therapy but susceptible to antibiotics frequently used to treat anaerobic infections. PMID:21537012

  6. Characterization of anaerobic fermentative growth of Bacillus subtilis: identification of fermentation end products and genes required for growth.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, M M; Dailly, Y P; Zuber, P; Clark, D P

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis can grow anaerobically by respiration with nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor. In the absence of external electron acceptors, it grows by fermentation. Identification of fermentation products by using in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance scans of whole cultures indicated that B. subtilis grows by mixed acid-butanediol fermentation but that no formate is produced. An ace mutant that lacks pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was unable to grow anaerobically and produced hardly any fermentation product. These results suggest that PDH is involved in most or all acetyl coenzyme A production in B. subtilis under anaerobic conditions, unlike Escherichia coli, which uses pyruvate formate lyase. Nitrate respiration was previously shown to require the ResDE two-component signal transduction system and an anaerobic gene regulator, FNR. Also required are respiratory nitrate reductase, encoded by the narGHJI operon, and moaA, involved in biosynthesis of a molybdopterin cofactor of nitrate reductase. The resD and resDE mutations were shown to moderately affect fermentation, but nitrate reductase activity and fnr are dispensable for fermentative growth. A search for genes involved in fermentation indicated that ftsH is required, and is also needed to a lesser extent for nitrate respiration. These results show that nitrate respiration and fermentation of B. subtilis are governed by divergent regulatory pathways. PMID:9352926

  7. Effect of alkalinity on the performance of a simulated landfill bioreactor digesting organic solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Ağdağ, Osman Nuri; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2005-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of alkalinity on the anaerobic treatment of the organic solid wastes collected from the kitchen of Engineering Faculty in Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey and the leachate characteristics treated in three simulated landfill anaerobic bioreactors. All of the reactors were operated with leachate recirculation. One reactor was operated without alkalinity addition. The second reactor was operated by the addition of 3 g l-1 d-1 of NaHCO3 alkalinity to the leachate and the third reactor was operated by the addition of 6 g l-1 d-1 NaHCO3 alkalinity to the leachate. After 65 d of anaerobic incubation, it was observed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations, and biochemical oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand (BOD5/COD) ratios in the leachate samples produced from the alkalinity added reactors were lower than the control reactor while the pH values were higher than the control reactor. The COD values were measured as 18900, 3800 and 2900 mg l-1 while the VFA concentrations were 6900, 1400 and 1290 mg l-1, respectively, in the leachate samples of the control, and reactors containing 3 g l-1 NaHCO3 and 6 g l-1 NaHCO3 after 65 d of anaerobic incubation. The total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) concentrations in organic solid waste (OSW) significantly reduced in the reactor containing 6 g l-1 NaHCO3 by d 65. The values of pH were 6.54, 7.19 and 7.31, after 65 d of anaerobic incubation, respectively, in the aforementioned reactors results in neutral environmental conditions in alkalinity added reactors. Methane percentage of the control, reactors containing 3 g l-1 NaHCO3 and 6 g l-1 NaHCO3 were 37%, 64% and 65%, respectively, after 65 d of incubation. BOD5/COD ratios of 0.27 and 0.25 were achieved in the 3 and 6 g l-1 NaHCO3 containing reactors, indicating a better OSW stabilization. Alkalinity addition reduced the waste quantity, the organic content of the

  8. Genomic characterization of three unique Dehalococcoides that respire on persistent polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanquan; Chng, Kern Rei; Wilm, Andreas; Zhao, Siyan; Yang, Kun-Lin; Nagarajan, Niranjan; He, Jianzhong

    2014-08-19

    Fastidious anaerobic bacteria play critical roles in environmental bioremediation of halogenated compounds. However, their characterization and application have been largely impeded by difficulties in growing them in pure culture. Thus far, no pure culture has been reported to respire on the notorious polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and functional genes responsible for PCB detoxification remain unknown due to the extremely slow growth of PCB-respiring bacteria. Here we report the successful isolation and characterization of three Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains that respire on commercial PCBs. Using high-throughput metagenomic analysis, combined with traditional culture techniques, tetrachloroethene (PCE) was identified as a feasible alternative to PCBs to isolate PCB-respiring Dehalococcoides from PCB-enriched cultures. With PCE as an alternative electron acceptor, the PCB-respiring Dehalococcoides were boosted to a higher cell density (1.2 × 10(8) to 1.3 × 10(8) cells per mL on PCE vs. 5.9 × 10(6) to 10.4 × 10(6) cells per mL on PCBs) with a shorter culturing time (30 d on PCE vs. 150 d on PCBs). The transcriptomic profiles illustrated that the distinct PCB dechlorination profile of each strain was predominantly mediated by a single, novel reductive dehalogenase (RDase) catalyzing chlorine removal from both PCBs and PCE. The transcription levels of PCB-RDase genes are 5-60 times higher than the genome-wide average. The cultivation of PCB-respiring Dehalococcoides in pure culture and the identification of PCB-RDase genes deepen our understanding of organohalide respiration of PCBs and shed light on in situ PCB bioremediation.

  9. Diatoms respire nitrate to survive dark and anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Anja; de Beer, Dirk; Nitsch, Jana L; Lavik, Gaute; Stief, Peter

    2011-04-05

    Diatoms survive in dark, anoxic sediment layers for months to decades. Our investigation reveals a correlation between the dark survival potential of marine diatoms and their ability to accumulate NO(3)(-) intracellularly. Axenic strains of benthic and pelagic diatoms that stored 11-274 mM NO(3)(-) in their cells survived for 6-28 wk. After sudden shifts to dark, anoxic conditions, the benthic diatom Amphora coffeaeformis consumed 84-87% of its intracellular NO(3)(-) pool within 1 d. A stable-isotope labeling experiment proved that (15)NO(3)(-) consumption was accompanied by the production and release of (15)NH(4)(+), indicating dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). DNRA is an anaerobic respiration process that is known mainly from prokaryotic organisms, and here shown as dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathway used by a eukaryotic phototroph. Similar to large sulfur bacteria and benthic foraminifera, diatoms may respire intracellular NO(3)(-) in sediment layers without O(2) and NO(3)(-). The rapid depletion of the intracellular NO(3)(-) storage, however, implies that diatoms use DNRA to enter a resting stage for long-term survival. Assuming that pelagic diatoms are also capable of DNRA, senescing diatoms that sink through oxygen-deficient water layers may be a significant NH(4)(+) source for anammox, the prevalent nitrogen loss pathway of oceanic oxygen minimum zones.

  10. Diatoms respire nitrate to survive dark and anoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kamp, Anja; de Beer, Dirk; Nitsch, Jana L.; Lavik, Gaute; Stief, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms survive in dark, anoxic sediment layers for months to decades. Our investigation reveals a correlation between the dark survival potential of marine diatoms and their ability to accumulate NO3− intracellularly. Axenic strains of benthic and pelagic diatoms that stored 11–274 mM NO3− in their cells survived for 6–28 wk. After sudden shifts to dark, anoxic conditions, the benthic diatom Amphora coffeaeformis consumed 84–87% of its intracellular NO3− pool within 1 d. A stable-isotope labeling experiment proved that 15NO3− consumption was accompanied by the production and release of 15NH4+, indicating dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). DNRA is an anaerobic respiration process that is known mainly from prokaryotic organisms, and here shown as dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathway used by a eukaryotic phototroph. Similar to large sulfur bacteria and benthic foraminifera, diatoms may respire intracellular NO3− in sediment layers without O2 and NO3−. The rapid depletion of the intracellular NO3− storage, however, implies that diatoms use DNRA to enter a resting stage for long-term survival. Assuming that pelagic diatoms are also capable of DNRA, senescing diatoms that sink through oxygen-deficient water layers may be a significant NH4+ source for anammox, the prevalent nitrogen loss pathway of oceanic oxygen minimum zones. PMID:21402908

  11. Comparison of cytochromes from anaerobically and aerobically grown cells of Pseudomonas perfectomarinus.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, M C; Payne, W J; Peck, H D; LeGall, J

    1983-01-01

    Pseudomonas perfectomarinus (ATCC 14405) is a facultative anaerobe capable of either oxygen respiration or anaerobic nitrate respiration, i.e., denitrification. A comparative study of the electron transfer components of cells revealed five c-type cytochromes and cytochrome cd in the soluble fraction from anaerobically grown cells and four c-type cytochromes in the soluble fraction from aerobically grown cells. Purification procedures yielded three c-type cytochromes (designated c-551, c-554, and acidic c-type) from both kinds of cells as indicated by similarities in absorption spectra, molecular weight, and electrophoretic mobility. Cytochrome cd, a diheme c-type cytochrome (cytochrome c-552), and a split-alpha c-type cytochrome were recovered only from anaerobically grown cells. A c-type cytochrome with a low ratio of alpha to beta absorption peak heights was uniquely present in the aerobically grown cells. Liquid N2 temperature absorption spectroscopy on the membrane fraction from anaerobically grown cells revealed residual cytochrome cd as well as differences in the relative amounts of c-type and b-type cytochromes in membranes prepared from cells grown under the two different conditions. PMID:6833178

  12. Surface production fuels deep heterotrophic respiration in northern peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizabeth Corbett, J.; Burdige, David J.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Dial, Angela R.; Cooper, William T.; Glaser, Paul H.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple analyses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from pore waters were conducted to define the processes that govern carbon balance in peatlands: (1) source, reactivity, and transport of DOC with respect to vegetation, peat, and age of carbon substrate, (2) reactivity of DOC with respect to molecular size, and (3) lability to photoxidation of surficial DOC. We found that surface organic production fuels heterotrophic respiration at depth in advection-dominated peatlands, especially in fens. Fen DOC was Δ14C enriched relative to the surrounding fen peat, and fen respiration products were similar to this enriched DOC indicating that DOC was the main microbial substrate. Bog DOC was more variable showing either enrichment in ∆14C at depth or ∆14C values that follow peat values. This variability in bogs is probably controlled by the relative importance of vertical transport of labile carbon substrates within the peat profile versus DOC production from bog peat. These results extended our set of observations to 10 years at one bog-fen pair and add two additional bog-fen pairs to our series of observations. Anaerobic incubations of peat, rinsed free of residual DOC, produced DOC and respiration products that were strikingly similar to the peat values in a bog and two fens. This result demonstrated conclusively that downward advection is the process responsible for the presence of modern DOC found at depth in the peat column. Fen DOC has lower C/N values and up to twice as much LMW (<1 kDa) DOC as bogs due to differences in organic inputs and greater microbial processing. Fluorescence irradiation experiments showed that fen DOC is more photolabile than bog DOC.

  13. Effect of Rocking Movements on Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Omlin, Ximena; Crivelli, Francesco; Heinicke, Lorenz; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Achermann, Peter; Riener, Robert

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, rocking has been used to promote sleep in babies or toddlers. Recent research suggested that relaxation could play a role in facilitating the transition from waking to sleep during rocking. Breathing techniques are often used to promote relaxation. However, studies investigating head motions and body rotations showed that vestibular stimulation might elicit a vestibulo-respiratory response, leading to an increase in respiration frequency. An increase in respiration frequency would not be considered to promote relaxation in the first place. On the other hand, a coordination of respiration to rhythmic vestibular stimulation has been observed. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of different movement frequencies and amplitudes on respiration frequency. Furthermore, we tested whether subjects adapt their respiration to movement frequencies below their spontaneous respiration frequency at rest, which could be beneficial for relaxation. Twenty-one healthy subjects (24–42 years, 12 males) were investigated using an actuated bed, moving along a lateral translation. Following movement frequencies were applied: +30%, +15%, -15%, and -30% of subjects’ rest respiration frequency during baseline (no movement). Furthermore, two different movement amplitudes were tested (Amplitudes: 15 cm, 7.5 cm; movement frequency: 0.3 Hz). In addition, five subjects (25–28 years, 2 males) were stimulated with their individual rest respiration frequency. Rocking movements along a lateral translation caused a vestibulo-respiratory adaptation leading to an increase in respiration frequency. The increase was independent of the applied movement frequencies or amplitudes but did not occur when stimulating with subjects’ rest respiration frequency. Furthermore, no synchronization of the respiration frequency to the movement frequency was observed. In particular, subjects did not lower their respiration frequency below their resting frequency. Hence, it was not

  14. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  15. Exploring relationships of calcification rate with respiration rate and predator cue presence in juvenile Crassostrea virginica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCutcheon, M.; Hu, X.

    2016-02-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is a biologically and economically important calcifier that has been experiencing a global population decline due to multiple stressors. The process of biomineralization is essential in the growth and predator defense of oysters. Several studies investigating morphological and mechanical shell properties have noted a phenotypic plasticity in response to predator presence. We present the first study that attempts to detect an alteration in the calcification rate of juvenile C. virginica as well as measure respiration rates in the presence and absence of predator exudates. An alkalinity anomaly technique was used to quantify calcification and respiration rates of oysters exposed to blue crab or mud crab cues or a no cue control condition. No significant differences in calcification rate were detected between predator and control treatments. However, the linear relationship between calcification and respiration rates differed between treatments. This changing relationship is not fully understood and warrants further investigation. In addition, this study also revealed our experimental oysters maintained calcification rates comparable to literature values while respiration rates were an order of magnitude lower than previously reported levels. Future direction for this research involves inclusion of acidification treatments. Any environmental factors (including predator presence) that may on their own or in conjunction with estuarine acidification alter calcification (or respiration) rates will impact the local to regional carbon cycle as well as oyster fitness and consequent future population dynamics.

  16. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  17. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-01-01

    The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety, minimum environmental impact and, as far as possible, on valorization of the waste and final recycling of the end products. One of the main trends of today's waste management policies is to reduce the stream of waste going to landfills and to recycle the organic material and the plant nutrients back to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments as well as future perspectives will be discussed.

  18. Anaerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Roopathy, R.

    1995-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used aerobic tempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic microorganisms. In many cases attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions results in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. Trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitrate from trinitrotoluene is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the production of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. This presentation will review the data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT and other nitroaromatics.

  19. Aerobic Microbial Respiration in Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Schunck, Harald; Loescher, Carolin; Desai, Dhwani K.; LaRoche, Julie; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the tropical oceans, sluggish ventilation combined with strong microbial respiration of sinking organic matter results in the depletion of oxygen (O2). When O2 concentrations drop below ~5 µmol/L, organic matter is generally assumed to be respired with nitrate, ultimately leading to the loss of fixed inorganic nitrogen via anammox and denitrification. However, direct measurements of microbial O2 consumption at low O2 levels are - apart from a single experiment conducted in the OMZ off Peru - so far lacking. At the same time, consistently observed active aerobic ammonium and nitrite oxidation at non-detectable O2 concentrations (<1 µmol/L) in all major OMZs, suggests aerobic microorganisms, likely including heterotrophs, to be well adapted to near-anoxic conditions. Consequently, microaerobic (≤5 µmol/L) remineralization of organic matter, and thus release of ammonium, in low- O2 environments might be significantly underestimated at present. Here we present extensive measurements of microbial O2 consumption in OMZ waters, combined with highly sensitive O2 (STOX) measurements and meta-omic functional gene analyses. Short-term incubation experiments with labelled O2 (18-18O2) carried out in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZ, revealed persistent aerobic microbial activity at depths with non-detectable concentrations of O2 (≤50 nmol/L). In accordance, examination of metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from Chilean and Peruvian OMZ waters identified genes encoding for terminal respiratory oxidases with high O2 affinities as well as their expression by diverse microbial communities. Oxygen consumption was particularly enhanced near the upper OMZ boundaries and could mostly (~80%) be assigned to heterotrophic microbial activity. Compared to previously identified anaerobic microbial processes, microaerobic organic matter respiration was the dominant remineralization pathway and source of ammonium (~90%) in the upper Namibian and

  20. Anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, M.; Haga, R.; Odawara, Y.

    1982-10-19

    An algae culture grown on the water from the digested slurry of a biogasification plant serves as a means of removing CO/sub 2/ from the methane stream while purifying the wastewater and providing more biomass for the anaerobic digestion plant. Tested on a sewage-sludge digestion system, the proposed process improved the methane yield by 32% and methane concentration by 53-98 vol % while lowering the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the final water.

  1. The effects of operational and environmental variations on anaerobic wastewater treatment systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Leitão, Renato Carrhá; van Haandel, Adrianus Cornelius; Zeeman, Grietje; Lettinga, Gatze

    2006-06-01

    With the aim of improving knowledge about the stability and reliability of anaerobic wastewater treatment systems, several researchers have studied the effects of operational or environmental variations on the performance of such reactors. In general, anaerobic reactors are affected by changes in external factors, but the severity of the effect is dependent upon the type, magnitude, duration and frequency of the imposed changes. The typical responses include a decrease in performance, accumulation of volatile fatty acids, drop in pH and alkalinity, change in biogas production and composition, and sludge washout. This review summarises the causes, types and effects of operational and environmental variation on anaerobic wastewater treatment systems. However, there still remain some unclear technical and scientific aspects that are necessary for the improvement of the stability and reliability of anaerobic processes.

  2. Soil respiration under climate warming: differential response of heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Lingli; Piao, Shilong; Janssens, Ivan A; Tang, Jianwu; Liu, Weixing; Chi, Yonggang; Wang, Jing; Xu, Shan

    2014-10-01

    Despite decades of research, how climate warming alters the global flux of soil respiration is still poorly characterized. Here, we use meta-analysis to synthesize 202 soil respiration datasets from 50 ecosystem warming experiments across multiple terrestrial ecosystems. We found that, on average, warming by 2 °C increased soil respiration by 12% during the early warming years, but warming-induced drought partially offset this effect. More significantly, the two components of soil respiration, heterotrophic respiration and autotrophic respiration showed distinct responses. The warming effect on autotrophic respiration was not statistically detectable during the early warming years, but nonetheless decreased with treatment duration. In contrast, warming by 2 °C increased heterotrophic respiration by an average of 21%, and this stimulation remained stable over the warming duration. This result challenged the assumption that microbial activity would acclimate to the rising temperature. Together, our findings demonstrate that distinguishing heterotrophic respiration and autotrophic respiration would allow us better understand and predict the long-term response of soil respiration to warming. The dependence of soil respiration on soil moisture condition also underscores the importance of incorporating warming-induced soil hydrological changes when modeling soil respiration under climate change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Don E; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8 Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent with the carbon isotope record and other considerations of the carbon cycle, that marine rates of primary production at this time were probably an order of magnitude (or more) less than today. We conclude that the flux of reduced species to the Earth surface at this time may have been sufficient to drive anaerobic ecosystems of sufficient activity to be consistent with the carbon isotope record. Conversely, an ecosystem based on oxygenic photosynthesis was also possible with complete removal of the oxygen by reaction with reduced species from the mantle. PMID:17008221

  4. Effects of respirator use on worker performance

    SciTech Connect

    Cardarelli, R.

    1995-03-01

    In 1993, EPRI funded Yankee Atomic Electric Company to examine the effects of respirator use on worker efficiency. Phase I of Yankee`s effort was to develop a study design to determine respirator effects. Given success in Phase I, a larger population will be tested to determine if a stasitically significant respirator effect on performance can be measured. This paper summarizes the 1993 EPRI/Yankee Respirator Effects of Pilot Study, and describes the study design for the 1994 EPRI/Yankee Respirator Study to be conducted at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Also described is a summary of respirator effect studies that have been conducted during the last ten (10) years.

  5. Validation of Respirator Filter Efficacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    A 1980’ s unpublished ECBC report presented calculations of the required degree of filtration needed to protect a respirator wearer from a given...tested against three bioaerosols ranging in size from 0.69 – 0.88 µm aerodynamic diameter (Mycobacterium abscessus , staphylococcus epidermidis , and 10...and penetration beginning with 99.97% @ 0.3 µm for 10 cm/ s face velocity, a fiber diameter of 0.9 µm, a 0.07 solidity, a 0.3 mm media thickness, and

  6. Respirators: Supervisors Self-Study #43442

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-04-20

    This course, Respirators: Supervisors Self-Study (#43442), addresses training requirements for supervisors of respirator wearers as specified by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Standard for Respiratory Protection, ANSI Z88.2, and as incorporated by reference in the Department of Energy (DOE) Worker Health and Safety Rule, 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 851. This course also presents the responsibilities of supervisors of respirator wearers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  7. Simple Method for Culturing Anaerobes

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C. E.; Hunter, W. J.; Ryan, J. L.; Braude, A. I.

    1973-01-01

    A simple, effective method is needed for growing obligate anaerobes in the clinical laboratory. This report describes a pre-reduced anaerobic bottle that can be taken to the bedside for direct inoculation, provides a flat agar surface for evaluation of number and morphology of colonies, and can be incubated in conventional bacteriological incubators. Each anaerobic culture set consisted of two bottles containing brain heart infusion agar and CO2. Gentamicin sulfate (50 μg/ml) was added to one of these to inhibit facultative enteric bacilli. Comparison of the anaerobic bottles with an identical aerobic bottle which was also routinely inoculated permitted early identification of anaerobic colonies. Representative species of most anaerobic genera of proven pathogenicity for man have been isolated from this system during 10 months of routine use. Images PMID:4571657

  8. Automatic online buffer capacity (alkalinity) measurement of wastewater using an electrochemical cell.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Charles, Wipa; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The use of an automatic online electrochemical cell (EC) for measuring the buffer capacity of wastewater is presented. pH titration curves of different solutions (NaHCO3, Na2HPO4, real municipal wastewater, and anaerobic digester liquid) were obtained by conventional chemical titration and compared to the online EC measurements. The results show that the pH titration curves from the EC were comparable to that of the conventional chemical titration. The results show a linear relationship between the response of the online EC detection system and the titrimetric partial alkalinity and total alkalinity of all tested samples. This suggests that an EC can be used as a simple online titration device for monitoring the buffer capacity of different industrial processes including wastewater treatment and anaerobic digestion processes.

  9. An evaluation of respirator maintenance requirements.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, L M; Traubel, K

    1997-03-01

    A telephone survey was developed as part of a pilot study to evaluate the inspection, cleaning, maintenance, and storage aspects of respirator protection programs (RPP). Regulations and consensus standards such as those published by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) require or recommend that RPP contain elements that ensure that the respirators provide proper protection. A great deal of research has been done to evaluate the effectiveness of new respirators; however, little research has been conducted to evaluate how respirators behave over time in real industrial settings Respirator inspection, cleaning, maintenance, and storage are significant factors in determining how well a respirator continues to perform. The telephone survey was developed by reviewing the requirements and recommendations of CFR 1910.134 and ANSI Z88.2-1980. Approximately 30 companies were selected based on their use of negative air-purifying respirators. Most of the companies represented the hardgoods manufacturing or service industries. Although the majority of companies were meeting requirements, responses indicated that the following improvements in RPP were necessary: (1) inspection of all respirator parts should be carried out before and after each use, (2) replacement parts should be made readily available on site, (3) regular cleaning should be performed, and (4) more hands-on practice with respirators and their maintenance should be incorporated into training sessions.

  10. Respirator selection for clandestine methamphetamine laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gary O; Bronder, Gregory D; Larson, Scott A; Parker, Jay A; Metzler, Richard W

    2012-01-01

    First responders to illicit drug labs may not always have SCBA protection available. Air-purifying respirators using organic vapor cartridges with P-100 filters may not be sufficient. It would be better to use a NIOSH-approved CBRN respirator with its required multi-purpose cartridge system, which includes a P-100 filter. This would remove all the primary drug lab contaminants—organic vapors, acid gases, ammonia, phosphine, iodine, and airborne meth particulates. To assure the proper selection and use of a respirator, it is recommended that the contaminants present be identified and quantified and the OSHA 29 CFR 1910.134 respirator protection program requirements followed.

  11. Uncoupling Mitochondrial Respiration for Diabesity.

    PubMed

    Larrick, James W; Larrick, Jasmine W; Mendelsohn, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Until recently, the mechanism of adaptive thermogenesis was ascribed to the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown and beige adipocytes. UCP1 is known to catalyze a proton leak of the inner mitochondrial membrane, resulting in uncoupled oxidative metabolism with no production of adenosine triphosphate and increased energy expenditure. Thus increasing brown and beige adipose tissue with augmented UCP1 expression is a viable target for obesity-related disorders. Recent work demonstrates an UCP1-independent pathway to uncouple mitochondrial respiration. A secreted enzyme, PM20D1, enriched in UCP1+ adipocytes, exhibits catalytic and hydrolytic activity to reversibly form N-acyl amino acids. N-acyl amino acids act as endogenous uncouplers of mitochondrial respiration at physiological concentrations. Administration of PM20D1 or its products, N-acyl amino acids, to diet-induced obese mice improves glucose tolerance by increasing energy expenditure. In short-term studies, treated animals exhibit no toxicity while experiencing 10% weight loss primarily of adipose tissue. Further study of this metabolic pathway may identify novel therapies for diabesity, the disease state associated with diabetes and obesity.

  12. Process performance of anaerobic co-digestion of raw and acidified pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Moset, V; Cerisuelo, A; Sutaryo, S; Møller, H B

    2012-10-15

    The effect of incorporating different ratios of acidified pig slurry on methane yield was evaluated in two scales of anaerobic digesters: Thermophilic (50 °C) pilot scale digester (120 l), operating with an average hydraulic retention time of 20 days and thermophilic (52 °C) full-scale digesters (10 and 30 m(3)), operating with an average hydraulic retention time of 30 days. In the lab-scale digester, different inclusion levels of acidified slurry (0-60%) were tested each 15 days, to determine the maximum ratio of acidified to non-acidified slurry causing inhibition and to find process state indicators helping to prevent process failure. In the full-scale digesters, the level of inclusion of the acidified slurry was chosen from the ratio causing methane inhibition in the pilot scale experiment and was carried on in a long-term process of 100 days. The optimal inclusion level of acidified pig slurry in anaerobic co-digestion with conventional slurry was 10%, which promoted anaerobic methane yield by nearly 20%. Higher inclusion levels caused methane inhibition and volatile fatty acids accumulations in both experiments. In order to prevent process failure, the most important traits to monitor in the anaerobic digestion of acidified pig slurry were found to be: sulfate content of the slurry, alkalinity parameters (especially partial alkalinity and the ratio of alkalinity) and total volatile fatty acids (especially acetic and butyric acids). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  14. Anaerobic digestion of recalcitrant textile dyeing sludge with alternative pretreatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xinyi; Chen, Xiaoguang; Dai, Ruobin; Luo, Ying; Ma, Puyue; Ni, Shengsheng; Ma, Chengyu

    2016-12-01

    Abundant organic compounds in textile dyeing sludge (TDS) provide possibility for its anaerobic digestion (AD) treatment. However, preliminary test showed little biogas generation in direct AD of the TDS during 20days. In order to improve the AD availability of TDS, alkaline, acid, thermal and thermal alkaline pretreatments were performed. Color and aromatic amines were specifically measured as extra characteristics for the AD of TDS. The rate-limiting steps of AD of TDS were slow hydrolysis rate and inhibited acidogenesis, which were somewhat overcome by pretreatments. Thermal alkaline pretreated TDS performed best enhancement on solubilisation. The biochemical methane potential tests revealed that thermal pretreated TDS showed highest total methane production of 55.9mL/gVSfed compared to the control with little methane generation. However, thermal alkaline pretreated TDS did not perform well in BMP test as expected. Moreover, the hydrophilicity of reactive dyes in TDS could seriously affect dewaterability of TDS.

  15. Oxygen Respiration rates of benthic foraminifera measured under laboratory conditions using oxygen microelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geslin, Emmanuelle; Risgaard-Petersen, N.; Langlet, D.; Metzger, E.; Jorissen, F.

    2010-05-01

    Oxygen respiration rates of benthic foraminifera are not well documented because of the difficulties to measure them. However, the determination of the respiration rates of benthic foraminifera is important in order: 1) to compare the metabolic rates of different species, of various size, and with different microhabitats in the sediment; 2) to estimate the contribution of benthic foraminifera in the aerobic mineralization of organic matter. Benthic foraminifera from 4 different natural environments were used: three species from the intertidal rocky shore of Yeu island, two species from the muddy Bay of Aiguillon, two species from the Bay of Biscay and eleven species from the Rhône prodelta (France). Living foraminifera were placed in a small tube, in which oxygen gradients were determined using oxygen microelectrodes. Respiration rates were calculated on the basis of the oxygen fluxes measured in the vivinity of the foraminiferal specimens. Foraminiferal biovolumes were estimated on the basis of the overall shape of the various species (for example, Ammonia is assimilated to a half sphere) and the width of the shell walls. The results show a wide range of respiration rates according to the species (around 90 to 5300 pmol. cell-1.day-1) and a clear correlation with the biovolume of the foraminifera. No clear relationship between respiration rates and microhabitat is observed. A comparison with previously published data shows that our estimations are generally lower for the small size species. For example, the respiration rate estimations published recently by Nomaki et al. (Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 37, 281-286, 2007) show a range of 900 to 10 000 pmol. cell-1.day-1. The total contribution of benthic foraminifera in the aerobic mineralization of organic matter is estimated for the studied areas. The first results suggest a minor role of benthic foraminifera in this process, which strongly contrasts with their strong contribution to anaerobic mineralisation

  16. [Enhancement for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge pretreated by microwave and its combined processes ].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-bao; Ni, Xiao-tang; Wei, Yuan-song; Tong, Juan; Wang, Ya-wei

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion and dewatering of sludge, impacts of sludge pretreated by microwave (MW) and its combined processes on sludge anaerobic digestion and dewatering were investigated. The results showed that microwave and its combined processes could effectively enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. Not only the cumulative methane production in the test of the MW-H2O2-alkaline (0. 2) was increased by 13. 34% compared with the control, but also its methane production rate was much higher than that of the control. Compared with the single MW process, the addition of both H2O2 and alkaline enhanced the solubilization of particle COD( >0. 45 micron) , indicating that synergistically generated soluble organics were faster to biodegrade which resulted in the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. The MW-acid process was effective in improving sludge dewaterability, e. g. , Capillary Suction Time (CST) at only 9. 85 s. The improvement of sludge dewatering was significantly correlated with sludge physical properties such as zeta potential, surface charge density and particle size. Under different sludge pretreatment conditions, the sludge dewatering after anaerobic digestion was similar, though the difference of sludge dewatering to some degrees was observed for pretreated sludge.

  17. Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Siti Roshayu; Dahlan, Irvan

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

  18. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  19. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  20. Respiration of Microbiota-Derived 1,2-propanediol Drives Salmonella Expansion during Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Franziska; Spiga, Luisella; Byndloss, Mariana X.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L.; Winter, Sebastian E.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product. 1,2-propanediol utilization required intestinal inflammation induced by virulence factors of the pathogen. S. Typhimurium used both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to consume 1,2-propanediol and expand in the murine large intestine. 1,2-propanediol-utilization did not confer a benefit in germ-free mice, but the pdu genes conferred a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium in mice mono-associated with Bacteroides fragilis or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Collectively, our data suggest that intestinal inflammation enables S. Typhimurium to sidestep nutritional competition by respiring a microbiota-derived fermentation product. PMID:28056091

  1. Respiration of Microbiota-Derived 1,2-propanediol Drives Salmonella Expansion during Colitis.

    PubMed

    Faber, Franziska; Thiennimitr, Parameth; Spiga, Luisella; Byndloss, Mariana X; Litvak, Yael; Lawhon, Sara; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene L; Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases the availability of electron acceptors that fuel a respiratory growth of the pathogen in the intestinal lumen. Here we show that one of the carbon sources driving this respiratory expansion in the mouse model is 1,2-propanediol, a microbial fermentation product. 1,2-propanediol utilization required intestinal inflammation induced by virulence factors of the pathogen. S. Typhimurium used both aerobic and anaerobic respiration to consume 1,2-propanediol and expand in the murine large intestine. 1,2-propanediol-utilization did not confer a benefit in germ-free mice, but the pdu genes conferred a fitness advantage upon S. Typhimurium in mice mono-associated with Bacteroides fragilis or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Collectively, our data suggest that intestinal inflammation enables S. Typhimurium to sidestep nutritional competition by respiring a microbiota-derived fermentation product.

  2. Direct reading of electrocardiograms and respiration rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, J. P.

    1969-01-01

    Technique for reading heart and respiration rates is more accurate and direct than the previous method. Index of a plastic calibrated card is aligned with a point on the electrocardiogram. Complexes are counted as indicated on the card and heart or respiration rate is read directly from the appropriate scale.

  3. Photosynthesis and Respiration in a Jar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, Joseph K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity that reduces the biosphere to a water-filled jar to simulate the relationship between cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and energy. Allows students in high school biology and related courses to explore quantitatively cellular respiration and photosynthesis in almost any laboratory setting. (ASK)

  4. Photosynthesis and Respiration in a Jar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, Joseph K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity that reduces the biosphere to a water-filled jar to simulate the relationship between cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and energy. Allows students in high school biology and related courses to explore quantitatively cellular respiration and photosynthesis in almost any laboratory setting. (ASK)

  5. 78 FR 18535 - Respirator Certification Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... respiratory protection market generated revenues around $1,830 million in 2007, the most recent data available.\\4\\ A summary of market segmentation, by respirator type, is offered in Table 1, below. \\4\\ Frost... and paint applications and hazardous materials management. Of the U.S. respirator market of products...

  6. Respirators: APR Issuer Self Study 33461

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-07-13

    Respirators: APR Issuer Self-Study (course 33461) is designed to introduce and familiarize employees selected as air-purifying respirator (APR) issuers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with the responsibilities, limitations, procedures, and resources for issuing APRs at LANL. The goal is to enable these issuers to consistently provide proper, functioning APRs to authorized users

  7. Mitochondrial respiration is sensitive to cytoarchitectural breakdown.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Judith; Angelin, Alessia A; Wallace, Douglas C; Eckmann, David M

    2016-11-07

    An abundance of research suggests that cellular mitochondrial and cytoskeletal disruption are related, but few studies have directly investigated causative connections between the two. We previously demonstrated that inhibiting microtubule and microfilament polymerization affects mitochondrial motility on the whole-cell level in fibroblasts. Since mitochondrial motility can be indicative of mitochondrial function, we now further characterize the effects of these cytoskeletal inhibitors on mitochondrial potential, morphology and respiration. We found that although they did not reduce mitochondrial inner membrane potential, cytoskeletal toxins induced significant decreases in basal mitochondrial respiration. In some cases, basal respiration was only affected after cells were pretreated with the calcium ionophore A23187 in order to stress mitochondrial function. In most cases, mitochondrial morphology remained unaffected, but extreme microfilament depolymerization or combined intermediate doses of microtubule and microfilament toxins resulted in decreased mitochondrial lengths. Interestingly, these two particular exposures did not affect mitochondrial respiration in cells not sensitized with A23187, indicating an interplay between mitochondrial morphology and respiration. In all cases, inducing maximal respiration diminished differences between control and experimental groups, suggesting that reduced basal respiration originates as a largely elective rather than pathological symptom of cytoskeletal impairment. However, viability experiments suggest that even this type of respiration decrease may be associated with cell death.

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Respiration in Sleep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliwise, Donald L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Associations between depression and impaired respiration in sleep are frequently noted clinically. This relationship was documented psychometrically with the Geriatric Depression Scale, a self-report measure of nonsomatic depressive symptoms. Mean values and effect size suggest that impaired respiration in sleep was associated with only relatively…

  9. Decolorization of azo dyes under batch anaerobic and sequential anaerobic/aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Işik, Mustafa; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Batch anaerobic and sequential anaerobic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)/aerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were used to determine the color and COD removals under anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Two azo dyes namely "Reactive Black 5 (RB 5)," "Congo Red (CR)," and glucose as a carbon source were used for synthetic wastewater. The course of the decolorization process approximates to first order and zero order kinetics with respect to dye concentration for RB 5 and Congo Red azo dyes, respectively, in batch conditions. The decolorization kinetic constant (K0) values increased from 3.6 to 11.8 mg(L h)(-1) as increases in dye concentrations from 200 to 3200 mg L(-1) for CR. Increases in dye concentrations from 0 to 3200 mg L(-1) reduce the decolorization rate constant (k1) values from 0.0141 to 0.0019 h(-1) in batch studies performed with RB 5. Decolorization was achieved effectively under test conditions but ultimate decolorization of azo dyes was not observed at all dye concentrations in batch assay conditions. Dye concentrations of 100 mg L(-1) and 3000 mg L(-1) of glucose-COD containing basal medium were used for continuous studies. The effect of organic loadings and HRT, on the color removal efficiencies and methane gas productions were monitored. 94.1-45.4% COD and 79-73% color removal efficiencies were obtained at an organic system during decolorization of Reactive Black 5. 92.3-77.0% COD and 95.3-92.2% decolorization efficiencies were achieved at a organic loading rate of 1.03-6.65 kg (m3 day)(-1) and a HRT of 3.54-0.49 for Congo Red treatment. The results of this study showed that, although decolorization continued, COD removal efficiencies and methane gas production were depressed at high organic loadings under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, VFA accumulation, alkalinity consumption, and methane gas percentage were monitored at organic loading as high as 2.49-4.74 kg (m3 day)(-1) and 24.60-30.62 kg (m3 day)(-1), respectively, through the

  10. Expedited CO2 respiration in people with Miltenberger erythrocyte phenotype GP.Mur.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kate; Kuo, Mei-Shin; Yao, Ching-Che; Lee, Ting-Ying; Chen, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Han-Chih; Lin, Chia-Hao; Yu, Tzung-Han; Lin, Hui-Ju

    2015-05-22

    In Southeast Asia, Miltenberger antigen subtype III (Mi.III; GP.Mur) is considered one of the most important red blood cell antigens in the field of transfusion medicine. Mi.III functions to promote erythrocyte band 3 expression and band 3-related HCO3(-) transport, with implications in blood CO2 metabolism. Could Mi.III affect physiologic CO2 respiration in its carriers? Here, we conducted a human trial to study the impacts of Mi.III expression in respiration. We recruited 188 healthy, adult subjects for blood typing, band 3 measurements, and respiratory tests before and after exercise. The 3-minute step exercise test forced the demand for CO2 dissipation to rise. We found that immediately following exercise, Mi.III + subjects exhaled CO2 at greater rates than Miltenberger-negative subjects. Respiration rates were also higher for Mi.III + subjects immediately after exercise. Blood gas tests further revealed distinct blood CO2 responses post-exercise between Mi.III and non-Mi.III. In contrast, from measurements of heart rates, blood O2 saturation and lactate, Mi.III phenotype was found to be independent of one's aerobic and anaerobic capacities. Thus, Mi.III expression supported physiologic CO2 respiration. Conceivably, Mi.III + people may have advantages in performing physically enduring activities.

  11. Proteomics of the organohalide-respiring Epsilonproteobacterium Sulfurospirillum multivorans adapted to tetrachloroethene and other energy substrates

    PubMed Central

    Goris, Tobias; Schiffmann, Christian L.; Gadkari, Jennifer; Schubert, Torsten; Seifert, Jana; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Diekert, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Organohalide respiration is an environmentally important but poorly characterized type of anaerobic respiration. We compared the global proteome of the versatile organohalide-respiring Epsilonproteobacterium Sulfurospirillum multivorans grown with different electron acceptors (fumarate, nitrate, or tetrachloroethene [PCE]). The most significant differences in protein abundance were found for gene products of the organohalide respiration region. This genomic region encodes the corrinoid and FeS cluster containing PCE reductive dehalogenase PceA and other proteins putatively involved in PCE metabolism such as those involved in corrinoid biosynthesis. The latter gene products as well as PceA and a putative quinol dehydrogenase were almost exclusively detected in cells grown with PCE. This finding suggests an electron flow from the electron donor such as formate or pyruvate via the quinone pool and a quinol dehydrogenase to PceA and the terminal electron acceptor PCE. Two putative accessory proteins, an IscU-like protein and a peroxidase-like protein, were detected with PCE only and might be involved in PceA maturation. The proteome of cells grown with pyruvate instead of formate as electron donor indicates a route of electrons from reduced ferredoxin via an Epsilonproteobacterial complex I and the quinone pool to PCE. PMID:26387727

  12. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  13. Artificial Respiration and Artificial Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Joseph; Brook, Morris H.; Lopez, Jose F.

    1965-01-01

    A training program in the newer methods of treatment of acute cardiopulmonary emergencies which was developed at the University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, is reported. Artificial respiration by the chance rescuer, primary and secondary resuscitation, and post-resuscitation measures involving the use of special drugs and equipment by trained personnel are described. Figures and tables designed for wall-mounting and ready reference in an emergency situation are presented. Firstaid ventilatory adjuncts for use by trained personnel are classified and critically appraised, and the propriety of their use is emphasized. A plea is made to the medical profession and allied agencies to assume the responsibility of spreading knowledge of the new techniques more widely. Unless effective treatment is instituted early enough to prevent death or permanent anoxic damage to heart and brain, follow-through therapy will often be fruitless. PMID:14339303

  14. Improving respiration measurements with gas exchange analyzers.

    PubMed

    Montero, R; Ribas-Carbó, M; Del Saz, N F; El Aou-Ouad, H; Berry, J A; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-12-01

    Dark respiration measurements with open-flow gas exchange analyzers are often questioned for their low accuracy as their low values often reach the precision limit of the instrument. Respiration was measured in five species, two hypostomatous (Vitis Vinifera L. and Acanthus mollis) and three amphistomatous, one with similar amount of stomata in both sides (Eucalyptus citriodora) and two with different stomata density (Brassica oleracea and Vicia faba). CO2 differential (ΔCO2) increased two-fold with no change in apparent Rd, when the two leaves with higher stomatal density faced outside. These results showed a clear effect of the position of stomata on ΔCO2. Therefore, it can be concluded that leaf position is important to guarantee the improvement of respiration measurements increasing ΔCO2 without affecting the respiration results by leaf or mass units. This method will help to increase the accuracy of leaf respiration measurements using gas exchange analyzers.

  15. Sleep and Respiration in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Paiva, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Sleep is often reported to be of poor quality in microgravity, and studies on the ground have shown a strong relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and sleep disruption. During the 16-day Neurolab mission, we studied the influence of possible changes in respiratory function on sleep by performing comprehensive sleep recordings on the payload crew on four nights during the mission. In addition, we measured the changes in the ventilatory response to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide in the same subjects during the day, hypothesizing that changes in ventilatory control might affect respiration during sleep. Microgravity caused a large reduction in the ventilatory response to reduced oxygen. This is likely the result of an increase in blood pressure at the peripheral chemoreceptors in the neck that occurs when the normally present hydrostatic pressure gradient between the heart and upper body is abolished. This reduction was similar to that seen when the subjects were placed acutely in the supine position in one-G. In sharp contrast to low oxygen, the ventilatory response to elevated carbon dioxide was unaltered by microgravity or the supine position. Because of the similarities of the findings in microgravity and the supine position, it is unlikely that changes in ventilatory control alter respiration during sleep in microgravity. During sleep on the ground, there were a small number of apneas (cessation of breathing) and hypopneas (reduced breathing) in these normal subjects. During sleep in microgravity, there was a reduction in the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour compared to preflight. Obstructive apneas virtually disappeared in microgravity, suggesting that the removal of gravity prevents the collapse of upper airways during sleep. Arousals from sleep were reduced in microgravity compared to preflight, and virtually all of this reduction was as a result of a reduction in the number of arousals from apneas and hypopneas. We conclude that any sleep

  16. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  17. The role of anaerobic bacteria in the neutralization of acid mine drainage. [Desulfovibrio

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    In contrast to the acidic water column, the sediments underlying Lake Anna, which receives acid mine drainage, are circumneutral and contain 1-4 meq alkalinity/L. Indirect fluorescent antibody counts of a methanogen (strain CA) and a sulfate reducer (Desulfovibrio strain SM) demonstrated that these organisms were present in the sediments at numbers of approximately 10{sup 6} bacteria/mL sediment. Anaerobic heterotrophs in the sediments underlying the acidified arm of the lake outnumbered anaerobic heterotrophs in a non-acidified arm of the lake. A major storm event resulted in the deposition of 11 cm of oxidized, acidic new sediment material over the older circumneutral sediments. The Eh in the new sediments decreased by 200 mV within one week after the storm event. The pH and alkalinity increased even in the 1-cm layer by two weeks after the storm and products of sulfate reduction (acid volatile sulfide) increased at three weeks after the storm. This suggests that biological processes other than sulfate reduction were responsible for the initial buffering of these sediments. Laboratory experiments using the sulfate reducer and two anaerobes (also isolated from the sediments) suggested that alkalinity production during sulfate reduction decreases with decreasing carbon concentration. Generation of alkalinity was found not to be a simple function of sulfate reduction or of iron reduction. The generation of alkalinity was found to be a function of the carbon source, and concentration, organisms present, and mineral phase formed. Iron reduction rates in the sediments of Contrary Creek ranged from 4.9-27.8 mM/m{sup 2}-sediment-day. Alkalinity was produced in the floc layer in the absence of sulfate reduction. Iron reduction could be responsible for the mineralization of 15-90% of the carbon input to this system.

  18. The effect of gender and respirator brand on the association of respirator fit with facial dimensions.

    PubMed

    Oestenstad, R Kent; Elliott, Leshan J; Beasley, T Mark

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the association of facial dimensions with respirator fit considering the effect of gender and respirator brand. Forty-one subjects (20 white females and 21 white males) participated in the study. Each subject was measured for 12 facial dimensions using anthropometric sliding and spreading calipers and a steel measuring tape. Three quantitative fit tests were conducted with the same subject wearing one size of three different brands of half-mask respirators resulting in a total of nine fit tests. Linear mixed model analysis was used to model respirator fit as a function of gender and respirator brand while controlling for facial dimensions. Results indicated that the gender by respirator brand interaction was not statistically significant (p = 0.794), and there was no significant difference in respirator fit between males and females (p = 0.356). There was a significant difference in respirator fit among respirator brands (p < 0.001). Because correlations between facial dimensions and respirator fit differed across gender and respirator brand, six separate linear mixed models were fit to assess which facial dimensions most strongly relate to respirator fit using a "one variable at a step" backward elimination procedure. None of the 12 facial dimensions were significantly associated with respirator fit in all six models. However, bigonial breadth and menton-nasion length were significantly associated with respirator fit in five of the six models, and biectoorbitale breadth, bizygomatic breadth, and lip width were significantly associated with respirator fit in four of the six models. Although this study resulted in significant findings related to the correlation of respirator fit with menton-nasion length and lip width (the dimensions currently used to define the half-mask respirator test panel), other facial dimensions were also shown to be significantly associated with respirator fit. Based on these findings and findings from previous studies

  19. Diversity of anaerobic halophilic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, Aharon; Oremland, Roland S.

    2000-12-01

    Life in the presence of high salt concentrations is compatible with life in the absence of oxygen. Halophilic and halotolerant anaerobic prokaryotes are found both in the archaeal and in the bacterial domain, and they display a great metabolic diversity. Many of the representatives of the Halobacteriales (Archaea), which are generally considered aerobes, have the potential of anaerobic growth. Some can use alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate, fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide or trimethylamine-N-oxide Halobacterium salinarum can also grow fermentatively on L-arginine, and bacteriorhodopsin-containing cells may even grow anaerobically, energized by light. Obligatory anaerobic halophilic methanogenic Archaea also exist. The bacterial domain contains many anaerobic halophiles, including sulfate reducers. There is also a group of specialized obligatory anaerobic Bacteria, phylogenetically clustering in the low G + C branch of the Firmicutes. Most representatives of this group (order Haloanaerobiales, families Haloanaerobiaceae and Halobacteroidaceae) are fermentative, using a variety of carbohydrates and amino acids. One species combines the potential for anaerobic growth at high salt concentrations with a preference for high temperatures. Others are homoacetogens; Acetohalobium arabaticum can grow anaerobically as a chemolithotroph, producing acetate from hydrogen and CO2. The Haloanaerobiales accumulate high concentrations of K+ and Cl- in their cytoplasm, thereby showing a strategy of salt adaptation similar to that used by the Halobacteriales. Recently a new representative of the Haloanaerobiales was isolated from bottom sediments of the Dead Sea (strain DSSe1), which grows anaerobically by oxidation of glycerol to acetate and CO2 while reducing selenate to selenite and elementary selenium. Other electron acceptors supporting anaerobic growth of this strain are nitrate and trimethylamine-N-oxide. The versatility of life at high salt concentrations with respect

  20. Syntrophic anaerobic photosynthesis via direct interspecies electron transfer

    DOE PAGES

    Ha, Phuc T.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Shi, Liang; ...

    2017-01-09

    Microbial phototrophs, key primary producers on Earth, use H2O, H2, H2S and other reduced inorganic compounds as electron donors. Here we describe a form of metabolism linking anoxygenic photosynthesis to anaerobic respiration that we call ‘syntrophic anaerobic photosynthesis’. We show that photoautotrophy in the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestaurii can be driven by either electrons from a solid electrode or acetate oxidation via direct interspecies electron transfer from a heterotrophic partner bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens. Photosynthetic growth of P. aestuarii using reductant provided by either an electrode or syntrophy is robust and light-dependent. In contrast, P. aestuarii does not grow inmore » co-culture with a G. sulfurreducens mutant lacking a trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex required for direct intercellular electron transfer. Syntrophic anaerobic photosynthesis is therefore a carbon cycling process that could take place in anoxic environments. Lastly, this process could be exploited for biotechnological applications, such as waste treatment and bioenergy production, using engineered phototrophic microbial communities.« less

  1. Anaerobic Metabolism in Haloferax Genus: Denitrification as Case of Study.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa-Crespo, J; Martínez-Espinosa, R M; Esclapez, J; Bautista, V; Pire, C; Camacho, M; Richardson, D J; Bonete, M J

    2016-01-01

    A number of species of Haloferax genus (halophilic archaea) are able to grow microaerobically or even anaerobically using different alternative electron acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate, chlorate, dimethyl sulphoxide, sulphide and/or trimethylamine. This metabolic capability is also shown by other species of the Halobacteriaceae and Haloferacaceae families (Archaea domain) and it has been mainly tested by physiological studies where cell growth is observed under anaerobic conditions in the presence of the mentioned compounds. This work summarises the main reported features on anaerobic metabolism in the Haloferax, one of the better described haloarchaeal genus with significant potential uses in biotechnology and bioremediation. Special attention has been paid to denitrification, also called nitrate respiration. This pathway has been studied so far from Haloferax mediterranei and Haloferax denitrificans mainly from biochemical point of view (purification and characterisation of the enzymes catalysing the two first reactions). However, gene expression and gene regulation is far from known at the time of writing this chapter. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Syntrophic anaerobic photosynthesis via direct interspecies electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Phuc T.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Shi, Liang; Dohnalkova, Alice C.; Fredrickson, James K.; Madigan, Michael T.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2017-01-01

    Microbial phototrophs, key primary producers on Earth, use H2O, H2, H2S and other reduced inorganic compounds as electron donors. Here we describe a form of metabolism linking anoxygenic photosynthesis to anaerobic respiration that we call ‘syntrophic anaerobic photosynthesis'. We show that photoautotrophy in the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestaurii can be driven by either electrons from a solid electrode or acetate oxidation via direct interspecies electron transfer from a heterotrophic partner bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens. Photosynthetic growth of P. aestuarii using reductant provided by either an electrode or syntrophy is robust and light-dependent. In contrast, P. aestuarii does not grow in co-culture with a G. sulfurreducens mutant lacking a trans-outer membrane porin-cytochrome protein complex required for direct intercellular electron transfer. Syntrophic anaerobic photosynthesis is therefore a carbon cycling process that could take place in anoxic environments. This process could be exploited for biotechnological applications, such as waste treatment and bioenergy production, using engineered phototrophic microbial communities. PMID:28067226

  3. Anaerobic Metabolism of Indoleacetate

    PubMed Central

    Ebenau-Jehle, Christa; Thomas, Markus; Scharf, Gernot; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Knapp, Bettina; Schühle, Karola; Heider, Johann

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of indoleacetate (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) in the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Azoarcus evansii was studied. The strain oxidized IAA completely and grew with a generation time of 10 h. Enzyme activities that transformed IAA were present in the soluble cell fraction of IAA-grown cells but were 10-fold downregulated in cells grown on 2-aminobenzoate or benzoate. The transformation of IAA did not require molecular oxygen but required electron acceptors like NAD+ or artificial dyes. The first products identified were the enol and keto forms of 2-oxo-IAA. Later, polar products were observed, which could not yet be identified. The first steps likely consist of the anaerobic hydroxylation of the N-heterocyclic pyrrole ring to the enol form of 2-oxo-IAA, which is catalyzed by a molybdenum cofactor-containing dehydrogenase. This step is probably followed by the hydrolytic ring opening of the keto form, which is catalyzed by a hydantoinase-like enzyme. A comparison of the proteome of IAA- and benzoate-grown cells identified IAA-induced proteins. Owing to the high similarity of A. evansii with strain EbN1, whose genome is known, we identified a cluster of 14 genes that code for IAA-induced proteins involved in the early steps of IAA metabolism. These genes include a molybdenum cofactor-dependent dehydrogenase of the xanthine oxidase/aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a hydantoinase, a coenzyme A (CoA) ligase, a CoA transferase, a coenzyme B12-dependent mutase, an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a fusion protein of an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, a beta-ketothiolase, and a periplasmic substrate binding protein for ABC transport as well as a transcriptional regulator of the GntR family. Five predicted enzymes form or act on CoA thioesters, indicating that soon after the initial oxidation of IAA and possibly ring opening, CoA thioesters are formed, and the carbon skeleton is rearranged, followed by a CoA-dependent thiolytic

  4. Clinical pulmonary function and industrial respirator wear

    SciTech Connect

    Raven, P.B.; Moss, R.F.; Page, K.; Garmon, R.; Skaggs, B.

    1981-12-01

    This investigation was the initial step in determining a clinical pulmonary test which could be used to evaluate workers as to their suitability to industrial respirator wear. Sixty subjects, 12 superior, 37 normal, and 11 moderately impaired with respect to lung function tests were evaluated with a battery of clinical pulmonary tests while wearing an industrial respirator. The respirator was a full-face mask (MSA-Ultravue) demand breathing type equipped with an inspiratory resistance of 85mm H/sub 2/O at 85 L/min air flow and an expiratory resistance of 25mm H/sub 2/O at 85 L/min air flow. Comparisons of these tests were made between the three groups of subjects both with and without a respirator. It appears that those lung tests which measure the flow characteristics of the lung especially those that are effort dependant are more susceptible to change as a result of respirator wear. Hence, the respirator affects the person with superior lung function to a greater degree than the moderately impaired person. It was suggested that the clinical test of 15 second maximum voluntary ventilations (MVV./sub 25/) may be the test of choice for determining worker capability in wearing an industrial respirator.

  5. Re-interpreting anaerobic metabolism: an argument for the application of both anaerobic glycolysis and excess post-exercise oxygen comsumption (EPOC) as independent sources of energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Scott, C B

    1998-02-01

    Due to current technical difficulties and changing cellular conditions, the measurement of anaerobic and recovery energy expenditure remains elusive. During rest and low-intensity steady-state exercise, indirect calorimetric measurements successfully represent energy expenditure. The same steady-state O2 uptake methods are often used to describe the O2 deficit and excess post-oxygen consumption (EPOC): 1 l O2 = 5 kcal = 20.9 kJ. However, an O2 deficit plus exercise O2 uptake measurement ignores energy expenditure during recovery, and an exercise O2 uptake plus EPOC measurement misrepresents anaerobic energy expenditure. An alternative solution has not yet been proposed. Anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration are construed here as a symbiotic union of metabolic pathways, each contributing independently to energy expenditure and heat production. Care must be taken when using O2 uptake alone to quantify energy expenditure because various high-intensity exercise models reveal that O2 uptake can lag behind estimated energy demands or exceed them. The independent bioenergetics behind anaerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration can acknowledge these discrepancies. Anaerobic glycolysis is an additive component to an exercise O2 uptake measurement. Moreover, it is the assumptions behind steady-state O2 uptake that do not permit proper interpretation of energy expenditure during EPOC; 1 l O2 not = 20.9 kJ. Using both the O2 deficit and a modified EPOC for interpretation, rather than one or the other, leads to a better method of quantifying energy expenditure for higher intensity exercise and recovery.

  6. Energetics of Respiration and Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hards, Kiel; Vilchèze, Catherine; Hartman, Travis; Berney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacteria inhabit a wide range of intracellular and extracellular environments. Many of these environments are highly dynamic and therefore mycobacteria are faced with the constant challenge of redirecting their metabolic activity to be commensurate with either replicative growth or a non-replicative quiescence. A fundamental feature in this adaptation is the ability of mycobacteria to respire, regenerate reducing equivalents and generate ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. Mycobacteria harbor multiple primary dehydrogenases to fuel the electron transport chain and two terminal respiratory oxidases, an aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome bd-type menaquinol oxidase, are present for dioxygen reduction coupled to the generation of a protonmotive force. Hypoxia leads to the downregulation of key respiratory complexes, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this expression are unknown. Despite being obligate aerobes, mycobacteria have the ability to metabolize in the absence of oxygen and a number of reductases are present to facilitate the turnover of reducing equivalents under these conditions (e.g. nitrate reductase, succinate dehydrogenase/fumarate reductase). Hydrogenases and ferredoxins are also present in the genomes of mycobacteria suggesting the ability of these bacteria to adapt to an anaerobic-type of metabolism in the absence of oxygen. ATP synthesis by the membrane-bound F1FO-ATP synthase is essential for growing and non-growing mycobacteria and the enzyme is able to function over a wide range of protonmotive force values (aerobic to hypoxic). The discovery of lead compounds that target respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlights the importance of this area for the generation of new front line drugs to combat tuberculosis. PMID:25346874

  7. Thermochemical Pretreatment for Anaerobic Digestion of Sorted Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, W.; Hongtao, W.

    2008-02-01

    The effect of alkaline hydrothermal pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion of mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) and source-sorted waste was studied. Waste was hydrothermally pre-treated in dilute alkali solution. Hydrolysis product was incubated in 500 ml saline bottle to determine methane potential (MP) under mesospheric anaerobic conditions. Optimum reaction condition obtained in the study is 170 °C at the dose of 4 g NaOH/100 g solid for one hour. Soluble COD was 13936 mg/L and methane yield was 164 ml/g VS for 6 days incubation at optimum conditions. More than 50% biogas increase was achieved over the control, and methane conversion ratio on carbon basis was enhanced to 30.6%. The digestion period was less than 6 days when pre-treatment temperature was above 130 °C. The organic part of sorted waste is mainly constituted of kitchen garbage and leaf. Model kitchen garbage was completely liquidized at 130 °C for one hour and the methane yield was 276 ml/g VS. Addition of alkali enhance hydroxylation rate and methane yield slightly. The biogas potential of leaf could be observed by pre-treatment above 150 °C under alkaline condition.

  8. Anaerobic Origin of Ergothioneine.

    PubMed

    Burn, Reto; Misson, Laëtitia; Meury, Marcel; Seebeck, Florian P

    2017-10-02

    Ergothioneine is a sulfur metabolite that occurs in microorganisms, fungi, plants, and animals. The physiological function of ergothioneine is not clear. In recent years broad scientific consensus has formed around the idea that cellular ergothioneine primarily protects against reactive oxygen species. Herein we provide evidence that this focus on oxygen chemistry may be too narrow. We describe two enzymes from the strictly anaerobic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium limicola that mediate oxygen-independent biosynthesis of ergothioneine. This anoxic origin suggests that ergothioneine is also important for oxygen-independent life. Furthermore, one of the discovered ergothioneine biosynthetic enzymes provides the first example of a rhodanese-like enzyme that transfers sulfur to non-activated carbon. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. BOREAS TE-5 Soil Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. Soil respiration data were collected from 26-May-94 to 07-Sep-94 in the BOREAS NSA and SSA to compare the soil respiration rates in different forest sites using a LI-COR 6200 soil respiration chamber (model 6299). The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  10. Alkaline Phosphatase in Normal Infants

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Joan M. L.; Stephenson, Pearl

    1971-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase was measured in plasma from children receiving vitamin D supplements in day nurseries in the London area, and from children exposed to sunlight in the West Indies. The distribution of values showed that there was no precise upper limit which could be used in the diagnosis of subclinical vitamin D deficiency. PMID:5576029

  11. Mantle metasomatism and alkaline magmatism

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.M.; Pasteris, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The 24 papers in this volume were presented at the Symposium on Alkalic Rocks and Kimberlites, held at the Geological Society of America South-Central Section meeting, April 15-16, 1985, in Fayetteville, Arkansas. This two-day symposium included a total of 55 papers dealing with mantle metasomatism and the origin of alkaline magmas, kimberlites and related rocks, alkalic rocks in oceanic settings, and alkalic rocks in continental settings. Papers presented at this symposium heightened the awareness that alkaline magmatism may occur in virtually all tectonic and petrologic settings. Two papers deal specifically with data from California sites. These research papers on aspects of alkaline rock petrology contribute to a better insight into the complex diversity of alkalic systems, the mantle processes which precede and accompany alkaline magmatism, and kimberlitic and oceanic systems. Abstracts of all papers presented at the symposium and not published in full in the volume are included in an appendix to show the broad scope of data presented at the meeting.

  12. Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

  13. Anaerobic Halo-Alkaliphilic Baterial Community of Athalassic, Hypersaline Mono Lake in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Ng, Joseph D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The microorganisms of soda Mono Lake and other similar athalassic hypersaline alkaline soda lakes are of significance to Astrobiology. The microorganisms of these regimes represent the best known terrestrial analogs for microbial life that might have inhabited the hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters during the late Noachian and early Hesperian epochs (3.6 - 4.2 Gya) of ancient Mars. We have investigated the anaerobic microbiota of soda Mono Lake in northern California. In this paper we discuss the astrobiological significance of these ecosystems and describe several interesting features of two novel new species of anaerobic halo-alkaliphilic bacteria (Spirochaeta americana, sp. nov. and Desulfonatronum paiuteum, sp. nov) that we have isolated from Mono Lake.

  14. Anaerobic Halo-Alkaliphilic Baterial Community of Athalassic, Hypersaline Mono Lake in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Ng, Joseph D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The microorganisms of soda Mono Lake and other similar athalassic hypersaline alkaline soda lakes are of significance to Astrobiology. The microorganisms of these regimes represent the best known terrestrial analogs for microbial life that might have inhabited the hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters during the late Noachian and early Hesperian epochs (3.6 - 4.2 Gya) of ancient Mars. We have investigated the anaerobic microbiota of soda Mono Lake in northern California. In this paper we discuss the astrobiological significance of these ecosystems and describe several interesting features of two novel new species of anaerobic halo-alkaliphilic bacteria (Spirochaeta americana, sp. nov. and Desulfonatronum paiuteum, sp. nov) that we have isolated from Mono Lake.

  15. PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

  16. Respiration in Neonate Sea Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Paladino, Frank V.; Strohl, Kingman P.; Pilar Santidrián, T.; Klann, Kenneth; Spotila, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The pattern and control of respiration is virtually unknown in hatchling sea turtles. Using incubator-raised turtles, we measured oxygen consumption, frequency, tidal volume, and minute volume for leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtle hatchlings for the first six days after pipping. In addition, we tested the hatchlings’ response to hypercapnic, hyperoxic, and hypoxic challenges over this time period. Hatchling sea turtles generally showed resting ventilation characteristics that are similar to those of adults: a single breath followed by a long respiratory pause, slow frequency, and high metabolic rate. With hypercapnic challenge, both species responded primarily by elevating respiratory frequency via a decrease in the non-ventilatory period. Leatherback resting tidal volume increased with age but otherwise, neither species’ resting respiratory pattern nor response to gas challenge changed significantly over the first few days after hatching. At the time of nest emergence, sea turtles have achieved a respiratory pattern that is similar to that of actively diving adults. PMID:17258487

  17. Light respiration by subtropical seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Matheus C; Eyre, Bradley D

    2017-03-20

    Here we report the first-ever measurements of light CO2 respiration rate (CRR) by seaweeds. We measured the influence of temperature (15 to 25°C) and light (irradiance from 60 to 670 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) ) on the light CCR of two subtropical seaweed species, and measured the CRR of seven different seaweed species under the same light (150 μmol · m(-2) · s(-1) ) and temperature (25°C). There was little effect of irradiance on light CRR, but there was an effect of temperature. Across the seven species light CRR was similar to OCR (oxygen consumption rate in the dark), with the exception of a single species. The outlier species was a coralline alga, and the higher light CRR was probably driven by calcification. CRR could be estimated from OCR, as well as carbon photosynthetic rates from oxygen photosynthetic rates, which suggests that previous studies have probably provided good estimations of gross photosynthesis for seaweeds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Respiration in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Perry, Steven F; Spinelli Oliveira, Elisabeth

    2010-08-31

    Multidisciplinary respiratory research highlighted in the present symposium uses existing and new models from all Kingdoms in both basic and applied research and bears upon molecular signaling processes that have been present from the beginning of life and have been maintained as an integral part of it. Many of these old mechanisms are still recognizable as ROS and oxygen-dependent pathways that probably were in place even before photosynthesis evolved. These processes are not only recognizable through relatively small molecules such as nucleotides and their derivatives. Also some DNA sequences such as the hypoxia response elements and pas gene family are ancient and have been co-opted in various functions. The products of pas genes, in addition to their function in regulating nuclear response to hypoxia as part of the hypoxia-inducible factor HIF, play key roles in development, phototransduction, and control of circadian rhythmicity. Also RuBisCO, an enzyme best known for incorporating CO(2) into organic substrates in plants also has an ancient oxygenase function, which plays a key role in regulating peroxide balance in cells. As life forms became more complex and aerobic metabolism became dominant in multicellular organisms, the signaling processes also took on new levels of complexity but many ancient elements remained. The way in which they are integrated into remodeling processes involved in tradeoffs between respiration and nutrition or in control of aging in complex organisms is an exciting field for future research. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Respiration during sleep in kyphoscoliosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sawicka, E H; Branthwaite, M A

    1987-01-01

    Eleven subjects with non-paralytic and 10 with paralytic kyphoscoliosis and nine normal control subjects were studied during sleep. The Cobb angle of those with kyphoscoliosis varied from 60 degrees to 140 degrees (median 100 degrees) and the vital capacity varied from 17% to 56% (median 28%) of the value predicted on the basis of span. Recordings made during sleep included expired carbon dioxide tension at the nose, gas flow at the mouth, arterial oxygen saturation, chest wall movement, and the electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram. In three subjects transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension was measured simultaneously. Patients with kyphoscoliosis hypoventilated during sleep, particularly in rapid eye movement sleep, resulting in a rise in end tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension, and a reduction in oxygen saturation to a degree not observed in normal subjects. Reduced chest wall movement was the major cause of these episodes, which were more frequent and occupied a greater proportion of sleep time in those with kyphoscoliosis than in normal subjects. Serious cardiac arrhythmias were rarely associated. It is concluded that disturbances of respiration during sleep occur in patients with kyphoscoliosis and that these may be important in the pathogenesis of cardiorespiratory failure. PMID:3424256

  20. The Low Energy-Coupling Respiration in Zymomonas mobilis Accelerates Flux in the Entner-Doudoroff Pathway.

    PubMed

    Rutkis, Reinis; Strazdina, Inese; Balodite, Elina; Lasa, Zane; Galinina, Nina; Kalnenieks, Uldis

    2016-01-01

    Performing oxidative phosphorylation is the primary role of respiratory chain both in bacteria and eukaryotes. Yet, the branched respiratory chains of prokaryotes contain alternative, low energy-coupling electron pathways, which serve for functions other than oxidative ATP generation (like those of respiratory protection, adaptation to low-oxygen media, redox balancing, etc.), some of which are still poorly understood. We here demonstrate that withdrawal of reducing equivalents by the energetically uncoupled respiratory chain of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis accelerates its fermentative catabolism, increasing the glucose consumption rate. This is in contrast to what has been observed in other respiring bacteria and yeast. This effect takes place after air is introduced to glucose-consuming anaerobic cell suspension, and can be simulated using a kinetic model of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in combination with a simple net reaction of NADH oxidation that does not involve oxidative phosphorylation. Although aeration hampers batch growth of respiring Z. mobilis culture due to accumulation of toxic byproducts, nevertheless under non-growing conditions respiration is shown to confer an adaptive advantage for the wild type over the non-respiring Ndh knock-out mutant. If cells get occasional access to limited amount of glucose for short periods of time, the elevated glucose uptake rate selectively improves survival of the respiring Z. mobilis phenotype.

  1. The Low Energy-Coupling Respiration in Zymomonas mobilis Accelerates Flux in the Entner-Doudoroff Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rutkis, Reinis; Strazdina, Inese; Balodite, Elina; Lasa, Zane; Galinina, Nina; Kalnenieks, Uldis

    2016-01-01

    Performing oxidative phosphorylation is the primary role of respiratory chain both in bacteria and eukaryotes. Yet, the branched respiratory chains of prokaryotes contain alternative, low energy-coupling electron pathways, which serve for functions other than oxidative ATP generation (like those of respiratory protection, adaptation to low-oxygen media, redox balancing, etc.), some of which are still poorly understood. We here demonstrate that withdrawal of reducing equivalents by the energetically uncoupled respiratory chain of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis accelerates its fermentative catabolism, increasing the glucose consumption rate. This is in contrast to what has been observed in other respiring bacteria and yeast. This effect takes place after air is introduced to glucose-consuming anaerobic cell suspension, and can be simulated using a kinetic model of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in combination with a simple net reaction of NADH oxidation that does not involve oxidative phosphorylation. Although aeration hampers batch growth of respiring Z. mobilis culture due to accumulation of toxic byproducts, nevertheless under non-growing conditions respiration is shown to confer an adaptive advantage for the wild type over the non-respiring Ndh knock-out mutant. If cells get occasional access to limited amount of glucose for short periods of time, the elevated glucose uptake rate selectively improves survival of the respiring Z. mobilis phenotype. PMID:27100889

  2. Photosynthesis and Respiration in Leaf Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how leaf slices provide an inexpensive material for illustrating several fundamental points about the biochemistry of photosynthesis and respiration. Presents experiments that illustrate the effects of photon flux density and herbicides and carbon dioxide concentration. (DDR)

  3. Respiration rates of two species of Gnathostomulids.

    PubMed

    Schiemer, Fritz

    1973-12-01

    Respiration rates for two species of Gnathostomulida from poorly oxygenated subtidal sands of Bermuda were measured using Cartesian diver respirometers.ForHaplognathia cf.ruberrima a respiration-body weight regression gaveR=0.790·W (0,649) (in μl·10(-3)O2/h and μg wet weight). Respiration rates for adult animals ofGnathostomula sp. of a mean weight of 1.3 μg ranged between 0.25 and 0.63 μl·10(-3) O2/h. These rates are low when compared with literature data on meiobenthic species from a wider habitat range but similar to respiration rates of marine and limnic nematodes living in sediments with strongly reducing capacity.

  4. Photosynthesis and Respiration in Leaf Slices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates how leaf slices provide an inexpensive material for illustrating several fundamental points about the biochemistry of photosynthesis and respiration. Presents experiments that illustrate the effects of photon flux density and herbicides and carbon dioxide concentration. (DDR)

  5. Anaerobic digestion of glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Siles López, José Angel; Martín Santos, María de Los Angeles; Chica Pérez, Arturo Francisco; Martín Martín, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion of glycerol derived from biodiesel manufacturing, in which COD was found to be 1010 g/kg, was studied in batch laboratory-scale reactors at mesophilic temperature using granular and non-granular sludge. Due to the high KOH concentration of this by-product, H(3)PO(4) was added to recover this alkaline catalyst as agricultural fertilizer (potassium phosphates). Although it would not be economically viable, a volume of glycerol was distilled and utilised as reference substrate. The anaerobic revalorisation of glycerol using granular sludge achieved a biodegradability of around 100%, while the methane yield coefficient was 0.306 m(3) CH(4)/kg acidified glycerol. Anaerobic digestion could be a good option for revalorising this available, impure and low priced by-product derived from the surplus of biodiesel companies. The organic loading rate studied was 0.21-0.38 g COD/g VSS d, although an inhibition phenomenon was observed at the highest load.

  6. Anaerobic methane oxidation in a landfill-leachate plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Ethan L.; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2002-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer adjacent to Norman Landfill, OK, provides an excellent natural laboratory for the study of anaerobic processes impacting landfill-leachate contaminated aquifers. We collected groundwaters from a transect of seven multilevel wells ranging in depth from 1.3 to 11 m that were oriented parallel to the flow path. The center of the leachate plume was characterized by (1) high alkalinity and elevated concentrations of total dissolved organic carbon, reduced iron, and methane, and (2) negligible oxygen, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Methane concentrations and stable carbon isotope (δ13C) values suggest anaerobic methane oxidation was occurring within the plume and at its margins. Methane δ13C values increased from about −54‰ near the source to >−10‰ downgradient and at the plume margins. The isotopic fractionation associated with this methane oxidation was −13.6 ± 1.0‰. Methane 13C enrichment indicated that 80−90% of the original landfill methane was oxidized over the 210-m transect. First-order rate constants ranged from 0.06 to 0.23 per year, and oxidation rates ranged from 18 to 230 μM/y. Overall, hydrochemical data suggest that a sulfate reducer-methanogen consortium may mediate this methane oxidation. These results demonstrate that natural attenuation through anaerobic methane oxidation can be an important sink for landfill methane in aquifer systems.

  7. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The need for energy efficient Domestic Wastewater (DWW) treatment is increasing annually with population growth and expanding global energy demand. Anaerobic treatment of low strength DWW produces methane which can be used to as an energy product. Temperature sensitivity, low removal efficiencies (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS), and Nutrients), alkalinity demand, and potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have limited its application to warmer climates. Although well designed anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBRs) are able to effectively treat DWW at psychrophilic temperatures (10–30 °C), lower temperatures increase methane solubility leading to increased energy losses in the form of dissolved methane in the effluent. Estimates of dissolved methane losses are typically based on concentrations calculated using Henry's Law but advection limitations can lead to supersaturation of methane between 1.34 and 6.9 times equilibrium concentrations and 11–100% of generated methane being lost in the effluent. In well mixed systems such as AnMBRs which use biogas sparging to control membrane fouling, actual concentrations approach equilibrium values. Non-porous membranes have been used to recover up to 92.6% of dissolved methane and well suited for degassing effluents of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors which have considerable solids and organic contents and can cause pore wetting and clogging in microporous membrane modules. Micro

  8. Organohalide respiration: microbes breathing chlorinated molecules

    PubMed Central

    Leys, David; Adrian, Lorenz; Smidt, Hauke

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial respiration has taken advantage of almost every redox couple present in the environment. The reduction of organohalide compounds to release the reduced halide ion drives energy production in organohalide respiring bacteria. This process is centred around the reductive dehalogenases, an iron–sulfur and corrinoid containing family of enzymes. These enzymes, transcriptional regulators and the bacteria themselves have potential to contribute to future bioremediation solutions that address the pollution of the environment by halogenated organic compounds. PMID:23479746

  9. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  10. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  11. Dance--Aerobic and Anaerobic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlette

    1984-01-01

    This article defines and explains aerobic exercise and its effects on the cardiovascular system. Various studies on dancers are cited indicating that dance is an anaerobic activity with some small degree of aerobic benefit. (DF)

  12. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  13. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  14. Modelling of the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater with olive mill solid waste using anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1).

    PubMed

    Boubaker, Fezzani; Ridha, Ben Cheikh

    2008-09-01

    The anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1), conceived by the international water association (IWA) task group for mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion processes is a structured generic model which includes multiples steps describing biochemical and physicochemical processes encountered in the anaerobic degradation of complex organic substrates and a common platform for further model enhancement and validation of dynamic simulations for a variety of anaerobic processes. In this study the ADM1 model was modified and applied to simulate the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with olive mill solid waste (OMSW). The ADM1 equations were coded and implemented using the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink. The most sensitive parameters were calibrated and validated using updated experimental data of our previous work. The results indicated that the ADM1 model could simulate with good accuracy: gas flows, methane and carbon-dioxide contents, pH and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentrations of effluents for various feed concentrations digested at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and especially at HRTs of 36 and 24 days. Furthermore, effluent alkalinity and ammonium nitrogen were successfully predicted by the model at HRTs of 12 and 24 days for some feed concentrations.

  15. Evaluation of respirator filters for asbestos fibers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Holmes, Thomas D; Fan, Bijian

    2006-01-01

    Fiber aerosols are known to have different aerodynamic behaviors than spherical particles and usually carry higher electrostatic charges. We investigated the effects of flow rate and charge status of filter cartridges on the penetration of spherical and fiber aerosols. Four types of test respirator filters were selected: two for passive respirators, one for a powered respirator, and one disposable respirator. Surface charges on respirator filters were determined using a noncontact field electrostatic field meter. Penetration tests were performed for filter cartridges before and after charge neutralization. The surface charge measurements on the respirator filters showed that some filters, including those used in disposable face masks, are charged to enhance the collection efficiency. Only high-efficiency particulate air filters performed consistently for both spherical test aerosols and the three types of asbestos fibers. The surface charge potential of filter cartridges and flow rate did not appear to affect the performance of these filters. In contrast to the high-efficiency filters, the aerosol penetration performance of low-efficiency filters and face masks deteriorated when the charge potential on the filter was removed. Our data also showed that the surface charges decreased in a high-temperature, high-humidity environment and disappeared after 1 week. Deposition of spherical particles and fibers in the charged disposable facemask filter was enhanced. For charged-neutralized, low-efficiency filter cartridges, asbestos fibers may penetrate more than spherical particles with a mean particle size of 0.3 microm diameter.

  16. Telephone communications with several commercial respirators.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A T; Scott, W H; Coyne, K M; Koh, F C; Rebar, J E

    2001-01-01

    Previous work showed that telephone communications while wearing military respirators degraded both word comprehension and recognition speed. In addition, electronic amplification of the speech diaphragm signal had shown no advantage to the extra hardware. This experiment was performed to test effects of different configurations of commercially available respirators on telephone communications accuracy and speed. Twelve pairs of subjects were separated into different rooms and communicated by telephone. Modified rhyme-test words were presented by computer to the speaker, who transmitted the word by telephone to the listener. During the first replication, subjects were given no instruction about telephone communications procedure. During the second replication subjects followed a communications protocol that instructed them when to move the telephone handset from their ears to their mouths. Results showed that the protocol uniformly improved communications accuracy without incurring any extra time penalty. Word comprehension was still twice as fast without a respirator as with a respirator. Accuracy with the protocol nearly equaled the no respirator control value for most respirators tested.

  17. Cyanide-Resistant Respiration in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Lambowitz, Alan M.; Slayman, Carolyn W.

    1971-01-01

    Cell respiration in wild type and poky was studied as part of a long-term investigation of cyanide-resistant respiration in Neurospora. Respiration in wild type proceeds via a cytochrome chain which is similar to that of higher organisms; it is sensitive to antimycin A or cyanide. Poky, on the other hand, respires by means of two alternative oxidase systems. One of these is analogous to the wild-type cytochrome chain in that it can be inhibited by antimycin A or cyanide; this system accounts for as much as 15% of the respiration of poky f− and 34% of the respiration of poky f+. The second oxidase system is unaffected by antimycin A or cyanide at concentrations which inhibit the cytochrome chain maximally. It can, however, be specifically inhibited by salicyl hydroxamic acid. The cyanide-resistant oxidase is not exclusive to poky, but is also present in small quantities in wild type grown under ordinary circumstances. These quantities may be greatly increased (as much as 20-fold) by growing wild type in the presence of antimycin A, cyanide, or chloramphenicol. PMID:4333318

  18. Enrichment of anaerobic polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorinators from sediment with iron as a hydrogen source.

    PubMed

    Rysavy, Jason P; Yan, Tao; Novak, Paige J

    2005-02-01

    Little is known about anaerobic polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination, although it is believed that some microorganisms are capable of respiring PCBs, gaining energy for growth from PCB dechlorination. If this is the case, the amendment of appropriate electron donors to contaminated sediment should stimulate dechlorination. The effect of elemental iron (Fe0) addition, an easily amended electron donor, on the microbial dechlorination of the PCB congeners 3,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (3,4,5-CB) and 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyl (2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-CB) was investigated in microcosms containing estuarine sediment from Baltimore Harbor. Results showed that the addition of 0.1 g Fe0/g sediment reduced the lag time for removal of doubly flanked para chlorines by approximately 100 days. Because Fe0 is a source of cathodic hydrogen (H2), the effect of direct H2 addition to sediment microcosms was also tested. The addition of 0.001 atm H2 in the headspace generated the same dechlorination activity and reduction in lag time as the addition of 0.1g Fe0/g. Higher concentrations of Fe0 or H2 increased the lag prior to dechlorination. Additional results showed that an alkaline pH (> or = 7.5), high [Fe2+] (3.3 g/L), or HS- (0.1 mg/L total sulfide) inhibited dechlorination. Elevated concentrations of Fe2+, OH-, and HS- are products of Fe0 oxidation or increased microbial activity (methanogenesis, homoacetogenesis, and sulfate reduction), both of which would result from the amendment of large quantities of Fe0 or H2 to sediment. This research shows that not only can PCB dechlorination be stimulated through the addition of electron donor, but implies that the dechlorinators are enriched by the continuous addition of low concentrations of H2, similar to other known dechlorinators, such as the dehalorespirer Dehalococcoides ethenogenes. These results suggest that the direct addition of controlled amounts of Fe0 to sediments may be an effective remediation tool to reduce the

  19. Humic acids facilitated microbial reduction of polymeric Pu(IV) under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jinchuan; Liang, Wei; Lin, Jianfeng; Zhou, Xiaohua; Li, Mei

    2017-08-25

    Flavins and humic substances have been extensively studied with emphasis on their ability to transfer extracellular electrons to insoluble metal oxides. Nevertheless, whether the low-solubility Pu(IV) polymers are microbially reduced to aqueous Pu(III) remains uncertain. Experiments were conducted under anaerobic and slightly alkaline conditions to study the difference between humic acids and flavins to transport extracellular electrons to Pu(IV) polymers. Our study demonstrates that Shewanella putrefaciens was unable to directly reduce polymeric Pu(IV) with a notably low reduction rate (3.4×10(-12)mol/L Pu(III)aq within 144h). The relatively high redox potential of flavins reveals the thermodynamically unfavorable reduction: Eh(PuO2(am)/Pu(3+))respired on the humic acids. In contrast, flavins were able to substantially reduce aqueous Pu(IV)-EDTA (1.9×10(-9)mol/L Pu(III)aq) because of the available driving force for electron transfer: ΔrGm=-F[Eh(PuL2(4-)/PuL2(5-))-Eh(o)'(FMN/FMNH2)]=-33.5kJ/mol is a result of Eh(PuL2(4-)/PuL2(5-))≫Eh(PuO2(am)/Pu(3+)), where L is the EDTA ligand. In the presence of humic acids, the reduction of Pu(IV)-EDTA exhibited the most rapid rate (2.2×10(-9)mol/L Pu(III)aq). This result further demonstrates that humic acids facilitated the extracellular electron transfer to polymeric and aqueous Pu(IV). Reductive solubilization of the polymers may enhance Pu mobility in the geosphere and hence increases risks to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  1. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  2. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  3. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  4. 42 CFR 84.191 - Chemical cartridge respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators; required components... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.191 Chemical cartridge respirators; required components. (a) Each chemical cartridge respirator described in § 84.190 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  5. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  6. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  7. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  8. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  9. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  10. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  11. 42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...

  12. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except..., durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type of respirator it...

  13. Mitochondrial respiration without ubiquinone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquinone (UQ), a.k.a. coenzyme Q, is a redox-active lipid that participates in several cellular processes, in particular mitochondrial electron transport. Primary UQ deficiency is a rare but severely debilitating condition. Mclk1 (a.k.a. Coq7) encodes a conserved mitochondrial enzyme that is necessary for UQ biosynthesis. We engineered conditional Mclk1 knockout models to study pathogenic effects of UQ deficiency and to assess potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of UQ deficiencies. We found that Mclk1 knockout cells are viable in the total absence of UQ. The UQ biosynthetic precursor DMQ9 accumulates in these cells and can sustain mitochondrial respiration, albeit inefficiently. We demonstrated that efficient rescue of the respiratory deficiency in UQ-deficient cells by UQ analogues is side chain length dependent, and that classical UQ analogues with alkyl side chains such as idebenone and decylUQ are inefficient in comparison with analogues with isoprenoid side chains. Furthermore, Vitamin K2, which has an isoprenoid side chain, and has been proposed to be a mitochondrial electron carrier, had no efficacy on UQ-deficient mouse cells. In our model with liver-specific loss of Mclk1, a large depletion of UQ in hepatocytes caused only a mild impairment of respiratory chain function and no gross abnormalities. In conjunction with previous findings, this surprisingly small effect of UQ depletion indicates a nonlinear dependence of mitochondrial respiratory capacity on UQ content. With this model, we also showed that diet-derived UQ10 is able to functionally rescue the electron transport deficit due to severe endogenous UQ deficiency in the liver, an organ capable of absorbing exogenous UQ. PMID:23847050

  14. Improving methane production and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of particulate saline sludge from a brackish aquaculture recirculation system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedong; Ferreira, Rui B; Hu, Jianmei; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2014-06-01

    In this study, batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of trehalose and glycine betaine as well as potassium on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), acid and alkaline phosphatase activity of anaerobic biomass and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion of saline sludge from a brackish recirculation aquaculture system. The results of ANOVA and Tukey's HSD (honestly significant difference) tests showed that glycine betaine and trehalose enhanced SMA of anaerobic biomass and reactive phosphorus release from the particulate waste. Moreover, SMA tests revealed that methanogenic sludge, which was long-term acclimatized to a salinity level of 17 g/L was severely affected by the increase in salinity to values exceeding 35 g/L. Addition of compatible solutes, such as glycine betaine and trehalose, could be used to enhance the specific methane production rate and phosphorus release in anaerobic digestion from particulate organic waste produced in marine or brackish aquaculture recirculation systems.

  15. Microbial Preference for Soil Organic Carbon Changes Along Redox Gradients as a Function of the Energetic Cost of Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, H.; Keiluweit, M.; Fendorf, S. E.; Farrant, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) chemistry is known to impact carbon preservation via mineral associations and physical protection, which chemically or physically block SOC from microbial enzymatic access for decomposition. However, SOC decay models that include these processes do not reliably predict SOC dynamics. We propose that the energetics of respiration additionally regulate SOC cycling. Specifically, organic carbon will only be respired if the available electron acceptors yield enough energy for microbial growth when metabolically coupled to the SOC. To test this hypothesis, we constructed dual pore domain reactors in which water flows normal to a column of packed soil, allowing oxygen to diffuse from the upper channel through the soil and establish a redox gradient. With increasing depth into the soil column, the soil experiences a typical redox profile indicative of anaerobic respiration processes: after oxygen is consumed, nitrate, Mn, Fe, and sulfate serve as electron acceptors. We measure porewater and effluent for nitrate, sulfate, Fe(II) and Mn(II) and take microsensor profiles of dissolved oxygen and H2S to characterize the redox gradient and respiration pathways. To this we couple incubations of solid material at each depth post-experiment and quantify CO2 and CH4 production to assess respiration potential along the redox gradient. Porewater SOC chemistry is analyzed via spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to interpret SOC oxidation state and composition and thus test thermodynamic predictions on SOC stability given the available redox acceptors at a given depth in the reactor. Within 0.5 cm of the soil surface, oxygen concentrations drop below detection and signs of anaerobic respiration (Fe(II) production, loss of nitrate) initiate while respiration rates drops precipitously. More oxidized SOC is preferentially utilized with progression along the redox gradient, supporting thermodynamic predictions. This work highlights the potential of SOC chemistry

  16. Alkaline hydrothermal conversion of cellulose to bio-oil: influence of alkalinity on reaction pathway change.

    PubMed

    Yin, Sudong; Mehrotra, Anil K; Tan, Zhongchao

    2011-06-01

    The effects of alkalinity on alkaline hydrothermal conversion (alkaline-HTC) of cellulose to bio-oil were investigated in this study. The results showed that the initial alkalinity greatly influenced the reaction pathways. Under initial strong alkaline conditions with final pH greater than 7, alkaline-HTC only followed the alkaline pathway. However, under initial weak alkaline conditions with final pH of less than 7, acidic as well as alkaline pathways were involved. The main mechanism behind this change of reaction pathways under weak alkaline conditions was that carboxylic acids were first formed from cellulose via the alkaline pathway and then neutralized/acidified the alkaline solutions. Once the pH of the alkaline solutions decreased to less than 7, the acidic instead of the alkaline reaction pathway occurred. This change of the reaction pathways with initial alkalinity partly explained the inconsistent results in the literature of alkaline-HTC bio-oil compositions and yields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  18. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1991-02-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

  19. [Research progress on photosynthesis regulating and controlling soil respiration].

    PubMed

    Jing, Yan-Li; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2013-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of soil respiration and accurately estimate its magnitude are the crucial basis of evaluating global carbon balance. However, the previously built soil respiration forecast models usually neglect the physiological processes that photosynthesis supplies substrates for rhizospheric respiration, leading to the defect in evaluating the mechanisms of soil respiration. This paper summarized the research progress on the mechanisms of photosynthetic regulation and control of soil respiration, introduced the related main research methods, and discussed the existing problems and research hotspots.

  20. Modeling of vapor intrusion from hydrocarbon-contaminated sources accounting for aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Verginelli, Iason; Baciocchi, Renato

    2011-11-01

    A one-dimensional steady state vapor intrusion model including both anaerobic and oxygen-limited aerobic biodegradation was developed. The aerobic and anaerobic layer thickness are calculated by stoichiometrically coupling the reactive transport of vapors with oxygen transport and consumption. The model accounts for the different oxygen demand in the subsurface required to sustain the aerobic biodegradation of the compound(s) of concern and for the baseline soil oxygen respiration. In the case of anaerobic reaction under methanogenic conditions, the model accounts for the generation of methane which leads to a further oxygen demand, due to methane oxidation, in the aerobic zone. The model was solved analytically and applied, using representative parameter ranges and values, to identify under which site conditions the attenuation of hydrocarbons migrating into indoor environments is likely to be significant. Simulations were performed assuming a soil contaminated by toluene only, by a BTEX mixture, by Fresh Gasoline and by Weathered Gasoline. The obtained results have shown that for several site conditions oxygen concentration below the building is sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation. For these scenarios the aerobic biodegradation is the primary mechanism of attenuation, i.e. anaerobic contribution is negligible and a model accounting just for aerobic biodegradation can be used. On the contrary, in all cases where oxygen is not sufficient to sustain aerobic biodegradation alone (e.g. highly contaminated sources), anaerobic biodegradation can significantly contribute to the overall attenuation depending on the site specific conditions.

  1. Prebiotic Synthesis of Glycine from Ethanolamine in Simulated Archean Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Tian, Ge; Gao, Jing; Han, Mei; Su, Rui; Wang, Yanxiang; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-09-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition. This study aims to propose a new method for the synthesis of glycine in simulated Archean submarine alkaline vent systems. We investigated the formation of glycine from ethanolamine under conditions of high temperature (80-160 °C) and highly alkaline solutions (pH = 9.70). Experiments were performed in an anaerobic environment under mild pressure (0.1-8.0 MPa) at the same time. The results suggested that the formation of glycine from ethanolamine occurred rapidly and efficiently in the presence of metal powders, and was favored by high temperatures and high pressures. The experiment provides a new pathway for prebiotic glycine formation and points out the phenomenal influence of high-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in origin of life in the early ocean.

  2. Prebiotic Synthesis of Glycine from Ethanolamine in Simulated Archean Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianlong; Tian, Ge; Gao, Jing; Han, Mei; Su, Rui; Wang, Yanxiang; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-09-23

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition. This study aims to propose a new method for the synthesis of glycine in simulated Archean submarine alkaline vent systems. We investigated the formation of glycine from ethanolamine under conditions of high temperature (80-160 °C) and highly alkaline solutions (pH = 9.70). Experiments were performed in an anaerobic environment under mild pressure (0.1-8.0 MPa) at the same time. The results suggested that the formation of glycine from ethanolamine occurred rapidly and efficiently in the presence of metal powders, and was favored by high temperatures and high pressures. The experiment provides a new pathway for prebiotic glycine formation and points out the phenomenal influence of high-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in origin of life in the early ocean.

  3. Anaerobic treatment of Tequila vinasses in a CSTR-type digester.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Acosta, Hugo Oscar; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Alcaraz-González, Víctor; González-Alvarez, Víctor; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Tequila industries in general produce great volumes of effluents with high pollutant loads, which are discharged (untreated or partially treated) into natural receivers, thus causing severe environmental problems. In this contribution, we propose an integrated system as a first step to comply with the Mexican ecological norms and stabilize the anaerobic treatment of Tequila vinasses with main design criteria: simple and easy operation, reduce operating time and associated costs (maintenance), integrated and compact design, minimal cost of set-up, start-up, monitoring and control. This system is composed of a fully instrumented and automated lab-scale CSTR-type digester, on-line measuring devices of key variables (pH, temperature, flow rates, etc.), which are used along with off-line readings of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biogas composition, alkalinity and volatile fatty acids to guarantee the operational stability of the anaerobic digestion process. The system performance was evaluated for 200 days and the experimental results show that even under the influence of load disturbances, it is possible to reduce the COD concentration to 85% in the start-up phase and up to 95% during the normal operation phase while producing a biogas with a methane composition greater than 65%. It is also shown that in order to maintain an efficient treatment, the buffering capacity (given by the alkalinity ratio, alpha = intermediate alkalinity/total alkalinity) must be closely monitored.

  4. Medium factors on anaerobic production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG and a simplifying medium for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Jidong; Han, Siqin; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Aerobic production of rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was extensively studied. But effect of medium composition on anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa was unknown. A simplifying medium facilitating anaerobic production of rhamnolipid is urgently needed for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Medium factors affecting anaerobic production of rhamnolipid were investigated using P. aeruginosa SG (Genbank accession number KJ995745). Medium composition for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa is different from that for aerobic production of rhamnolipid. Both hydrophobic substrate and organic nitrogen inhibited rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions. Glycerol and nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen source. The commonly used N limitation under aerobic conditions was not conducive to rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions because the initial cell growth demanded enough nitrate for anaerobic respiration. But rhamnolipid was also fast accumulated under nitrogen starvation conditions. Sufficient phosphate was needed for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. SO4(2-) and Mg(2+) are required for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Results will contribute to isolation bacteria strains which can anaerobically produce rhamnolipid and medium optimization for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Based on medium optimization by response surface methodology and ions composition of reservoir formation water, a simplifying medium containing 70.3 g/l glycerol, 5.25 g/l NaNO3, 5.49 g/l KH2PO4, 6.9 g/l K2HPO4·3H2O and 0.40 g/l MgSO4 was designed. Using the simplifying medium, 630 mg/l of rhamnolipid was produced by SG, and the anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil to EI24 = 82.5 %. The simplifying medium was promising for in situ MEOR applications.

  5. Optical tweezers and non-ratiometric fluorescent-dye-based studies of respiration in sperm mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Timothy; Shi, Linda Z.; Zhu, Qingyuan; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie; Berns, Michael W.

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the mitochondrial membrane potential affects sperm motility using laser tweezers and a non-ratiometric fluorescent probe, DiOC6(3). A 1064 nm Nd:YVO4 continuous wave laser was used to trap motile sperm at a power of 450 mW in the trap spot. Using customized tracking software, the curvilinear velocity (VCL) and the escape force from the laser tweezers were measured. Human (Homo sapiens), dog (Canis lupis familiaris) and drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus) sperm were treated with DiOC6(3) to measure the membrane potential in the mitochondria-rich sperm midpieces. Sperm from all three species exhibited an increase in fluorescence when treated with the DiOC6(3). When a cyanide inhibitor (CCCP) of aerobic respiration was applied, sperm of all three species exhibited a reduction in fluorescence to pre-dye levels. With respect to VCL and escape force, the CCCP had no effect on dog or human sperm, suggesting a major reliance upon anaerobic respiration (glycolysis) for ATP in these two species. Based on the preliminary study on drill sperm, CCCP caused a drop in the VCL, suggesting potential reliance on both glycolysis and aerobic respiration for motility. The results demonstrate that optical trapping in combination with DiOC6(3) is an effective way to study sperm motility and energetics.

  6. The restricted metabolism of the obligate organohalide respiring bacterium Dehalobacter restrictus: lessons from tiered functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Rupakula, Aamani; Kruse, Thomas; Boeren, Sjef; Holliger, Christof; Smidt, Hauke; Maillard, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Dehalobacter restrictus strain PER-K23 is an obligate organohalide respiring bacterium, which displays extremely narrow metabolic capabilities. It grows only via coupling energy conservation to anaerobic respiration of tetra- and trichloroethene with hydrogen as sole electron donor. Dehalobacter restrictus represents the paradigmatic member of the genus Dehalobacter, which in recent years has turned out to be a major player in the bioremediation of an increasing number of organohalides, both in situ and in laboratory studies. The recent elucidation of the D. restrictus genome revealed a rather elaborate genome with predicted pathways that were not suspected from its restricted metabolism, such as a complete corrinoid biosynthetic pathway, the Wood–Ljungdahl (WL) pathway for CO2 fixation, abundant transcriptional regulators and several types of hydrogenases. However, one important feature of the genome is the presence of 25 reductive dehalogenase genes, from which so far only one, pceA, has been characterized on genetic and biochemical levels. This study describes a multi-level functional genomics approach on D. restrictus across three different growth phases. A global proteomic analysis allowed consideration of general metabolic pathways relevant to organohalide respiration, whereas the dedicated genomic and transcriptomic analysis focused on the diversity, composition and expression of genes associated with reductive dehalogenases. PMID:23479754

  7. Genetic identification of three ABC transporters as essential elements for nitrate respiration in Haloferax volcanii.

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, C; Soppa, J

    1999-01-01

    More than 40 nitrate respiration-deficient mutants of Haloferax volcanii belonging to three different phenotypic classes were isolated. All 15 mutants of the null phenotype were complemented with a genomic library of the wild type. Wild-type copies of mutated genes were recovered from complemented mutants using two different approaches. The DNA sequences of 13 isolated fragments were determined. Five fragments were found to overlap; therefore nine different genomic regions containing genes essential for nitrate respiration could be identified. Three genomic regions containing genes coding for subunits of ABC transporters were further characterized. In two cases, genes coding for an ATP-binding subunit and a permease subunit were clustered and overlapped by four nucleotides. The third gene for a permease subunit had no additional ABC transporter gene in proximity. One ABC transporter was found to be glucose specific. The mutant reveals that the ABC transporter solely mediates anaerobic glucose transport. Based on sequence similarity, the second ABC transporter is proposed to be molybdate specific, explaining its essential role in nitrate respiration. The third ABC transporter is proposed to be anion specific. Genome sequencing has shown that ABC transporters are widespread in Archaea. Nevertheless, this study represents only the second example of a functional characterization. PMID:10430572

  8. Key respiratory genes elucidate bacterial community respiration in a seasonally anoxic estuary.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Erin M; Lee, Dong Y; Owens, Michael S; Cornwell, Jeffrey C; Crump, Byron C; Hewson, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Intense annual spring phytoplankton blooms and thermohaline stratification lead to anoxia in Chesapeake Bay bottom waters. Once oxygen becomes depleted in the system, microbial communities use energetically favourable alternative electron acceptors for respiration. The extent to which changes in respiration are reflected in community gene expression have only recently been investigated. Metatranscriptomes prepared from near-bottom water plankton over a 4-month time series in central Chesapeake Bay demonstrated changes consistent with terminal electron acceptor availability. The frequency of respiration-related genes in metatranscriptomes was examined by BLASTx against curated databases of genes intimately and exclusively involved in specific electron acceptor utilization pathways. The relative expression of genes involved in denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium were coincident with changes in nitrate, nitrite and ammonium concentrations. Dissimilatory iron and manganese reduction transcript ratios increase during anoxic conditions and corresponded with the highest soluble reactive phosphate and manganese concentrations. The sulfide concentration peaked in late July and early August and also matched dissimilatory sulfate reduction transcript ratios. We show that rather than abrupt transitions between terminal electron acceptors, there is substantial overlap in time and space of these various anaerobic respiratory processes in Chesapeake Bay. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mixed-valence cytoplasmic iron granules are linked to anaerobic respiration.

    PubMed

    Glasauer, S; Langley, S; Boyanov, M; Lai, B; Kemner, K; Beveridge, T J

    2007-02-01

    Intracellular granules containing ferric and ferrous iron formed in Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 during dissimilatory reduction of solid-phase ferric iron. It is the first in situ detection at high resolution (150 nm) of a mixed-valence metal particle residing within a prokaryotic cell. The relationship of the internal particles to Fe(III) reduction may indicate a respiratory role.

  10. Distribution of Microbial Biomass and Potential for Anaerobic Respiration in Hanford Site 300 Area Subsurface Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xueju; Kennedy, David; Peacock, Aaron; McKinley, James; Resch, Charles T.; Fredrickson, James

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface sediments were recovered from a 52-m-deep borehole cored in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State to assess the potential for biogeochemical transformation of radionuclide contaminants. Microbial analyses were made on 17 sediment samples traversing multiple geological units: the oxic coarse-grained Hanford formation (9 to 17.4 m), the oxic fine-grained upper Ringold formation (17.7 to 18.1 m), and the reduced Ringold formation (18.3 to 52 m). Microbial biomass (measured as phospholipid fatty acids) ranged from 7 to 974 pmols per g in discrete samples, with the highest numbers found in the Hanford formation. On average, strata below 17.4 m had 13-fold less biomass than those from shallower strata. The nosZ gene that encodes nitrous oxide reductase (measured by quantitative real-time PCR) had an abundance of 5 to 17 relative to that of total 16S rRNA genes below 18.3 m and <5 above 18.1 m. Most nosZ sequences were affiliated with Ochrobactrum anthropi (97 sequence similarity) or had a nearest neighbor of Achromobacter xylosoxidans (90 similarity). Passive multilevel sampling of groundwater geochemistry demonstrated a redox gradient in the 1.5-m region between the Hanford-Ringold formation contact and the Ringold oxic-anoxic interface. Within this zone, copies of the dsrA gene and Geobacteraceae had the highest relative abundance. The majority of dsrA genes detected near the interface were related to Desulfotomaculum spp. These analyses indicate that the region just below the contact between the Hanford and Ringold formations is a zone of active biogeochemical redox cycling. PMID:22138990

  11. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2, and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply could fuel bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean considerably. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a down-regulation of ammonium excretion. We exposed calanoid copepods from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA; Undinula vulgaris and Pleuromamma abdominalis) and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP; Euphausia mucronata) and the ETNA (Euphausia gibboides) to different temperatures, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels to study their survival, respiration and excretion rates at these conditions. An increase in temperature by 10 °C led to an approximately 2-fold increase of the respiration and excretion rates of U. vulgaris (Q10, respiration = 1.4; Q10, NH4-excretion = 1.6), P. abdominalis (Q10, respiration = 2.0; Q10, NH4-excretion = 2.4) and

  12. Respiration and Reproductive Effort in Xanthium canadense

    PubMed Central

    KINUGASA, TOSHIHIKO; HIKOSAKA, KOUKI; HIROSE, TADAKI

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The proportion of resources devoted to reproduction in the plant is called the reproductive effort (RE), which is most commonly expressed as the proportion of reproductive biomass to total plant biomass production (REW). Reproductive yield is the outcome of photosynthates allocated to reproductive structures minus subsequent respiratory consumption for construction and maintenance of reproductive structures. Thus, REW can differ from RE in terms of photosynthates allocated to reproductive structures (REP). • Methods Dry mass growth and respiration of vegetative and reproductive organs were measured in Xanthium canadense and the amount of photosynthates and its partitioning to dry mass growth and respiratory consumption were determined. Differences between REW and REP were analysed in terms of growth and maintenance respiration. • Key Results The fraction of allocated photosynthates that was consumed by respiration was smaller in the reproductive organ than in the vegetative organs. Consequently, REP was smaller than REW. The smaller respiratory consumption in the reproductive organ resulted from its shorter period of existence and a seasonal decline in temperature, as well as a slower rate of maintenance respiration, although the fraction of photosynthates consumed by growth respiration was larger than in the vegetative organs. • Conclusions Reproductive effort in terms of photosynthates (REP) was smaller than that in terms of biomass (REW). This difference resulted from respiratory consumption for maintenance, which was far smaller in the reproductive organ than in vegetative organs. PMID:15837721

  13. Respiration rate in human pituitary tumor explants.

    PubMed

    Anniko, M; Bagger-Sjöbäck, D; Hultborn, R

    1982-01-01

    Studies on the respiration rate of human pituitary tumor tissue have so far been lacking in the literature. This study presents the results from four adenomas causing acromegaly, all with different clinical degrees of the disease. Determination of oxygen uptake was performed in vitro with a spectrophotorespirometric system. Pieces of the tumors were explanted to an organ culture system with a high degree of stability. The secretion rate of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) was determined. After 4-8 days in vitro, specimens were analyzed for respiration rate. This was approximately 1-1.5 microliters O2/h/micrograms dry weight. The activity of the pituitary tumor tissue was characterized by both the hormone secretion rate and the respiration rate. Particularly active foci were found to occur in the adenoma tissue. Depending on the individual tumor, the GH secretion rate was approximately 0.1-100 pmol/micrograms dry weight/h and PRL secretion rate approximately 0.4-18 micrograms/micrograms dry weight/h. The respiration rate--as is also the hormone secretion rate--is dependent on the time in vitro prior to analysis. The respiration rate in individual tumors is a parameter which does not reflect GH or PRL serum levels or clinical activity of the disease.

  14. A rapid in situ respiration test for measuring aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchee, R.E.; Ong, S.K. )

    1992-10-01

    A in situ test method to measure the aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil is presented. The test method provides an initial assessment of bioventing as a remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. The in situ respiration test consists of ventilating the contaminated soil of the unsaturated zone with air and periodically monitoring the depletion of oxygen (O[sub 2]) and production of carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) over time after the air is turned off. The test is simple to implement and generally takes about four to five days to complete. The test was applied at eight hydrocarbon-contaminated sites of different geological and climatic conditions. These sites were contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum fuels, except for two sites where the contaminants were primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Oxygen utilization rates for the eight sites ranged from 0.02 to 0.99 percent O[sub 2]/hour. Estimated biodegradation rates ranged from 0.4 to 19 mg/kg of soil/day. These rates were similar to the biodegradation rates obtained from field and pilot studies using mass balance methods. Estimated biodegradation rates based on O[sub 2] utilization were generally more reliable (especially for alkaline soils) than rates based on CO[sub 2] production, CO[sub 2] produced from microbial respiration was probably converted to carbonate under alkaline conditions. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. A rapid in situ respiration test for measuring aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in soil.

    PubMed

    Hinchee, R E; Ong, S K

    1992-10-01

    An in situ test method to measure the aerobic biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil is presented. The test method provides an initial assessment of bioventing as a remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. The in situ respiration test consists of ventilating the contaminated soil of the unsaturated zone with air and periodically monitoring the depletion of oxygen (O2) and production of carbon dioxide (CO2) over time after the air is turned off. The test is simple to implement and generally takes about four to five days to complete. The test was applied at eight hydrocarbon-contaminated sites of different geological and climatic conditions. These sites were contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum fuels, except for two sites where the contaminants were primarily polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Oxygen utilization rates for the eight sites ranged from 0.02 to 0.99 percent O2/hour. Estimated biodegradation rates ranged from 0.4 to 19 mg/kg of soil/day. These rates were similar to the biodegradation rates obtained from field and pilot studies using mass balance methods. Estimated biodegradation rates based on O2 utilization were generally more reliable (especially for alkaline soils) than rates based on CO2 production. CO2 produced from microbial respiration was probably converted to carbonate under alkaline conditions.

  16. Biology of gut anaerobic fungi.

    PubMed

    Bauchop, T

    1989-01-01

    The obligately anaerobic nature of the gut indigenous fungi distinguishes them from other fungi. They are distributed widely in large herbivores, both in the foregut of ruminant-like animals and in the hindgut of hindgut fermenters. Comparative studies indicate that a capacious organ of fermentative digestion is required for their development. These fungi have been assigned to the Neocallimasticaceae, within the chytridiomycete order Spizellomycetales. The anaerobic fungi of domestic ruminants have been studied most extensively. Plant material entering the rumen is rapidly colonized by zoospores that attach and develop into thalli. The anaerobic rumen fungi have been shown to produce active cellulases and xylanases and specifically colonise and grow on plant vascular tissues. Large populations of anaerobic fungi colonise plant fragment in the rumens of cattle and sheep on high-fibre diets. The fungi actively ferment cellulose which results in formation of a mixture of products including acetate, lactate, ethanol, formate, succinate, CO2 and H2. The properties of the anaerobic fungi together with the extent of their populations on plant fragments in animals on high-fibre diets indicates a significant role for the fungi in fibre digestion.

  17. Anaerobic benzene degradation by bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Carsten; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Richnow, Hans‐Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Summary Benzene is a widespread and toxic contaminant. The fate of benzene in contaminated aquifers seems to be primarily controlled by the abundance of oxygen: benzene is aerobically degraded at high rates by ubiquitous microorganisms, and the oxygen‐dependent pathways for its breakdown were elucidated more than 50 years ago. In contrast, benzene was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions until 25 years ago. Nevertheless, within the last 15 years, several benzene‐degrading cultures have been enriched under varying electron acceptor conditions in laboratories around the world, and organisms involved in anaerobic benzene degradation have been identified, indicating that anaerobic benzene degradation is a relevant environmental process. However, only a few benzene degraders have been isolated in pure culture so far, and they all use nitrate as an electron acceptor. In some highly enriched strictly anaerobic cultures, benzene has been described to be mineralized cooperatively by two or more different organisms. Despite great efforts, the biochemical mechanism by which the aromatic ring of benzene is activated in the absence of oxygen is still not fully elucidated; methylation, hydroxylation and carboxylation are discussed as likely reactions. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the ‘key players’ of anaerobic benzene degradation under different electron acceptor conditions and the possible pathway(s) of anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:21450012

  18. Coproduction of hydrogen and methane via anaerobic fermentation of cornstalk waste in continuous stirred tank reactor integrated with up-flow anaerobic sludge bed.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi-Yu; Li, Qian; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-06-01

    A 10 L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system was developed for a two-stage hydrogen fermentation process with an integrated alkaline treatment. The maximum hydrogen production rate reached 218.5 mL/L h at a cornstalk concentration of 30 g/L, and the total hydrogen yield and volumetric hydrogen production rate reached 58.0 mL/g-cornstalk and 0.55-0.57 L/L d, respectively. A 10 L up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) was used for continuous methane fermentation of the effluents obtained from the two-stage hydrogen fermentation. At the optimal organic loading rate of 15.0 g-COD/Ld, the COD removal efficiency and volumetric biogas production rate reached 83.3% and 4.6L/Ld, respectively. Total methane yield reached 200.9 mL/g-cornstalk in anaerobic fermentation with the effluents and alkaline hydrolysate. As a result, the total energy recovery by coproduction of hydrogen and methane with anaerobic fermentation of cornstalk reached 67.1%.

  19. Soil respiration partition and its components in the total agro-ecosystem respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delogu, Emilie; LeDantec, Valerie; Mordelet, Patrick; Buysse, Pauline; Aubinet, Marc; Pattey, Elizabeth; Mary, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Close to 15% of the Earth's terrestrial surface is used for cropland. In the context of global warming, and acknowledged by the Kyoto Protocol, agricultural soils could be a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. Understanding the factors influencing carbon fluxes of agricultural soils is essential for implementing efficient mitigation practices. Most of the soil respiration modeling studies was carried out in forest ecosystems, but only a few was carried out in agricultural ecosystems. In the study, we evaluated simple formalisms to model soil respiration using wheat data from four contrasting geographical mi-latitude regions. Soil respiration were measured in three winter wheat fields at Lamasquère (43°49'N, 01°23'E, 2007) and Auradé (43°54'N, 01°10'E, 2008), South-West France and Lonzée (50°33'N, 4°44'E, 2007), Belgium, and in a spring wheat field at Ottawa (45°22'N, 75°43'W, 2007, 2011), Ontario, Canada. Manual closed chambers were used in the French sites. The Belgium and Canadian sites were equipped with automated closed chamber systems, which continuously collected 30-min soil respiration exchanges. All the sites were also equipped with eddy flux towers. When eddy flux data were collected over bare soil, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was equal to soil respiration exchange. These NEE data were used to validate the model. Different biotic and abiotic descriptors were used to model daily soil respiration and its heterotrophic and autotrophic components: soil temperature, soil relative humidity, Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), shoot biomass, crop height, with different formalisms. It was interesting to conclude that using biotic descriptors did not improve the performances of the model. In fact, a combination of abiotic descriptors (soil humidity and soil temperature) allowed significant model formalism to model soil respiration. The simple soil respiration model was used to calculate the heterotrophic and autotrophic source contributions to

  20. Diclofenac salts. III. Alkaline and earth alkaline salts.

    PubMed

    Fini, Adamo; Fazio, Giuseppe; Rosetti, Francesca; Angeles Holgado, M; Iruín, Ana; Alvarez-Fuentes, Josefa

    2005-11-01

    Diclofenac salts containing the alkaline and two earth alkaline cations have been prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX spectroscopy; and by thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA): all of them crystallize as hydrate when precipitated from water. The salts dehydrate at room temperature and more easily on heating, but recovery the hydration, when placed in a humid environment. X-ray diffraction spectra suggest that on dehydration new peaks appear on diffractograms and the lattice of the salts partially looses crystallinity. This phenomenon is readily visible in the case of the calcium and magnesium salts, whose thermograms display a crystallization exotherm, before melting or decomposing at temperatures near or above 200 degrees C; these last salts appear to form solvates, when prepared from methanol. The thermogram of each salt shows a complex endotherm of dehydration about 100 degrees C; the calcium salt displays two endotherms, well separated at about 120 and 160 degrees C, which disappear after prolonged heating. Decomposition exotherms, before or soon after the melting, appear below 300 degrees C. The ammonium salt is thermally unstable and, when heated to start dehydration, dissociates and leaves acidic diclofenac.

  1. Carbonic anhydrases of anaerobic microbes.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2013-03-15

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and are abundantly distributed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. There are five classes (α,β,γ,δ,ζ) with no significant sequence or structural identity among them, a remarkable example of convergent evolution. The β and γ classes predominate in anaerobic microbes, living without O2, that comprise a substantial portion of the living protoplasm on Earth. Anaerobes reside in the lower intestinal tract of humans, one of many O2-free environments on Earth, where they convert complex biomass to methane and CO2 contributing an essential link in the global carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is a universal metabolite of anaerobes necessitating CA for a diversity of proposed functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Shrubs stimulate heterotrophic respiration in arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. A.; Wurzburger, N.

    2016-12-01

    The response of arctic ecosystems to global change will have critical effects on future climate. Climate warming has already triggered the expansion of shrubs across tundra, raising questions about how shrubs will affect ecosystem carbon balance. Shrub litter quality and mycorrhizal symbionts may accelerate the activity of soil microorganisms that facilitate the release of large stores of soil carbon. We investigated how shrubs affect the activity of soil microorganisms by creating soil mesocosms from areas with and without shrub species as dominants of the plant community in arctic Alaska. We hypothesized that relative to their non-shrub counterparts, heterotrophic respiration of shrub soils would: (1) be greater, (2) demonstrate greater response to additions of shrub litter, and (3) be less nutrient limited. We created mesocosms with root-free soils at constant moisture and temperature, and quantified basal heterotrophic soil respiration rates, and the response of respiration to litter and nutrient inputs in a series of laboratory experiments inputs. (1) We found that the presence of shrubs generally produced higher rates of basal soil respiration in both horizons, suggesting that shrubs stimulate microbial activity. (2) Litter addition increased respiration across both horizons with no differences in response between shrub and non-shrub soils. (3) N additions did not increase heterotrophic respiration, but P and N+P additions induced a short respiratory pulse in all soils, suggesting mild P limitation. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that shrubs stimulate heterotrophic microbial activity to enhance carbon loss, but generate new questions about the mechanisms driving these patterns.

  3. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  4. Developments in Alkaline Tin Electrorefining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, A. E.; Afifi, S. E.; El Sherief, A. E.

    1988-08-01

    Although alkaline stannate baths for electrorefining of tin have been used for some time, there is still room for improvement The effects of alkali concentration, current density and temperature on the cathodic current efficiency have been studied, and a bath temperature of 75°C is recommended. To avoid unstable conditions in the bath, a special treatment to the anode and application of an auxiliary cathode are necessary. Many of the metallic impurities present in the crude tin anode go into the slimes in the form of hydroxides, but lead impurities can only be tolerated if concentrations are less than one percent.

  5. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more than two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  6. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  7. The Transition from Aerobic to Anaerobic Metabolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, James S.; McLellan, Thomas H.

    1980-01-01

    The transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is discussed. More research is needed on different kinds of athletes and athletic activities and how they may affect aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms. (CJ)

  8. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  9. BOREAS TE-2 Wood Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of wood respiration conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  10. BOREAS TE-2 Root Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set includes means of tree root respiration measurements on roots having diameters ranging from 0 to 2 mm conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  11. BOREAS TE-2 Continuous Wood Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Ryan, Michael G.; Lavigne, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of wood respiration measured continuously (about once per hour) in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  12. BOREAS TE-2 Foliage Respiration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Michael G.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Lavigne, Michael; Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-2 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the respiration of the foliage, roots, and wood of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of foliar respiration conducted in the NSA during the growing season of 1994. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  13. Changes in soil respiration components and their specific respiration along three successional forests in the subtropics

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Tianfeng; Liu, Juxiu; Wang, Gangsheng; ...

    2016-01-16

    1.Understanding how soil respiration components change with forest succession is critical for modelling and predicting soil carbon (C) processes and its sequestration below-ground. The specific respiration (a ratio of respiration to biomass) is increasingly being used as an indicator of forest succession conceptually based on Odum's theory of ecosystem development. However, the hypothesis that specific soil respiration declines with forest succession remains largely untested. 2.We used a trenching method to partition soil respiration into heterotrophic respiration and autotrophic respiration (RH and RA) and then evaluated the specific RH and specific RA in three successional forests in subtropical China. 3.Our resultsmore » showed a clear seasonality in the influence of forest succession on RH, with no significant differences among the three forests in the dry season but a higher value in the old-growth forest than the other two forests in the wet season. RA in the old-growth forest tended to be the highest among the three forests. Both the specific RH and specific RA decreased with the progressive maturity of three forests. 4.Lastly, our results highlight the importance of forest succession in determining the variation of RH in different seasons. With forest succession, soil microbes and plant roots become more efficient to conserve C resources, which would result in a greater proportion of C retained in soils.« less

  14. Respiration the forgotten flux: new insights on ecosystem respiration and its global significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, Ashley

    2017-04-01

    There is strong evidence that most of the variability in the global carbon cycle is due to processes occurring in the terrestrial biosphere; however, identifying these processes is extremely challenging. The two largest fluxes in the global carbon cycle are gross primary productivity and total respiration of the terrestrial biosphere. Considerable research has focused on factors controlling primary productivity, but total respiration has received much less attention. Here results are shared indicating that much of the previously identified variability in the global carbon cycle is due to the temperature sensitivity of respiration in the tropics. Furthermore, the recent acceleration in net terrestrial carbon uptake is due to diminished respiration during the recent warming hiatus. Lastly, total soil respiration at the global scale is sensitive to precipitation and soil moisture. I hypothesize that this reflects the sensitivity of autotrophic respiration to precipitation and the sensitivity of heterotrophic respiration to soil moisture. I am seeking creative ways in which to experimentally test this hypothesis through experimental manipulation or model simulation.

  15. Respiration the forgotten flux: new insights on ecosystem respiration and its global significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A.; Hursh, A.; Anderegg, W.; Poulter, B.; Cooper, L. A.; Li, W.

    2016-12-01

    There is strong evidence that most of the variability in the global carbon cycle is due to processes occurring in the terrestrial biosphere; however, identifying these processes is extremely challenging. The two largest fluxes in the global carbon cycle are gross primary productivity and total respiration of the terrestrial biosphere. Considerable research has focused on factors controlling primary productivity, but total respiration has received much less attention. Here we share results indicating that much of the previously identified variability in the global carbon cycle is due to the temperature sensitivity of respiration in the tropics. Furthermore, we note that the recent acceleration in net terrestrial carbon uptake is due to diminished respiration during the recent warming hiatus. Lastly, we show that total soil respiration at the global scale is sensitive to precipitation and soil moisture. We hypothesize that this reflects the sensitivity of autotrophic respiration to precipitation and the sensitivity of heterotrophic respiration to soil moisture. We are looking for creative ways in which to experimentally test this hypothesis through experimental manipulation or model simulation.

  16. Anaerobic bioprocessing of organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, W; de Beer, D; Pena, M; Lettinga, G; Lens, P

    1996-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of dissolved, suspended and solid organics has rapidly evolved in the last decades but nevertheless still faces several scientific unknowns. In this review, some fundamentals of bacterial conversions and adhesion are addressed initially. It is argued in the light of ΔG-values of reactions, and in view of the minimum energy quantum per mol, that anaerobic syntrophs must have special survival strategies in order to support their existence: redistributing the available energy between the partners, reduced end-product fermentation reactions and special cell-to-cell physiological interactions. In terms of kinetics, it appears that both reaction rates and residual substrate thresholds are strongly related to minimum ΔG-values. These new fundamental insights open perspectives for efficient design and operation of anaerobic bioprocesses. Subsequently, an overview is given of the current anaerobic biotechnology. For treating wastewaters, a novel and high performance new system has been introduced during the last decade; the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system (UASB). This reactor concept requires anaerobic consortia to grow in a dense and eco-physiologically well-organized way. The microbial principles of such granular sludge growth are presented. Using a thermodynamic approach, the formation of different types of aggregates is explained. The application of this bioprocess in worldwide wastewater treatment is indicated. Due to the long retention times of the active biomass, the UASB is also suitable for the development of bacterial consortia capable of degrading xenobiotics. Operating granular sludge reactors at high upflow velocities (5-6 m/h) in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) systems enlarges the application field to very low strength wastewaters (chemical oxygen demand < 1 g/l) and psychrophilic temperatures (10°C). For the treatment of organic suspensions, there is currently a tendency to evolve from the conventional mesophilic

  17. Anaerobic treatment of food wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Criner, G. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes a research project at the University of Maine in which food wastes from the University cafeteria salad bar are processed in the anaerobic facility which normally treats only animal wastes. The project has benefited the University in several ways: avoidance of waste disposal fees; increased electricity co-generated from the biogas process; and use of the residual as fertilizer. An economic analysis indicated that the estimated cost of anaerobic treatment of the salad bar wastes was $4520/yr and benefits were $4793/yr. Since the digester was already in use, this cost was not factored into the analysis. Further studies are being planned.

  18. Changes in gene expression of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in response to anaerobic stress reveal induction of central metabolism and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Zhu, Jiawen; Yang, Kui; Xu, Zhuofei; Liu, Ziduo; Zhou, Rui

    2014-06-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is an important porcine respiratory pathogen causing great economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Oxygen deprivation is a stress that A. pleuropneumoniae will encounter during both early infection and the later, persistent stage. To understand modulation of A. pleuropneumoniae gene expression in response to the stress caused by anaerobic conditions, gene expression profiles under anaerobic and aerobic conditions were compared in this study. The microarray results showed that 631 genes (27.7% of the total ORFs) were differentially expressed in anaerobic conditions. Many genes encoding proteins involved in glycolysis, carbon source uptake systems, pyruvate metabolism, fermentation and the electron respiration transport chain were up-regulated. These changes led to an increased amount of pyruvate, lactate, ethanol and acetate in the bacterial cells as confirmed by metabolite detection. Genes encoding proteins involved in cell surface structures, especially biofilm formation, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis were up-regulated as well. Biofilm formation was significantly enhanced under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that induction of central metabolism is important for basic survival of A. pleuropneumoniae after a shift to an anaerobic environment. Enhanced biofilm formation may contribute to the persistence of this pathogen in the damaged anaerobic host tissue and also in the early colonization stage. These discoveries give new insights into adaptation mechanisms of A. pleuropneumoniae in response to environmental stress.

  19. Isolation and Cr(VI) reduction characteristics of quinone respiration in Mangrovibacter plantisponsor strain CR1.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jing; Li, Zifu; Xu, Zhifang; Guo, Jianbo; Hu, Zhenzhen; Guo, Yankai; Li, Min; Yang, Jingliang

    2016-07-01

    A Cr(VI)-reducing Mangrovibacter plantisponsor strain, CR1, was isolated from tannery effluent sludge and had quinone respiration characteristics. Its chromate (CrO4 (2-) ) resistance, quinone respiration characteristics, and Cr(VI) reduction efficiencies were evaluated in detail. Strain CR1 exhibited a high Cr(VI) resistance with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 mM in LB medium, and its quinone respiration could occur when an electron donor and strain CR1 both existed in the reaction system. Cr(VI) reduction by strain CR1 was significantly enhanced by a factor of 0.4-4.3 with five different quinone compounds: anthraquinone-2,7-disulfonate, anthraquinone-1-sulfonate, anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS), anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate, and anthraquinone-1,5-disulfonate. AQS was the best electron shuttle among them, and the greatest enhancement to the Cr(VI) bio-reduction was achieved with 0.96 mM AQS. The correlation between the reaction constant k (mg Cr(VI) g(-1) dry cell weight H(-1) ) and thermodynamic temperature T (K) was expressed as an Arrhenius equation lnk=-7662.9/T+27.931(R2=0.9486); the activation energy Ea was 63.71 kJ mol(-1) , and the pre-exponential factor A was 1.35 × 10(12)  mg Cr(VI) g(-1) dry cell weight H(-1) . During the Cr(VI) reduction process, the pH tended to become neutral, and the oxidation-reduction potential decreased to -440 mV. The efficient reduction of Cr(VI) mediated by a quinone respiration strain shows potential for the rapid anaerobic removal of Cr(VI). © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Cytochrome p450nor, a novel class of mitochondrial cytochrome P450 involved in nitrate respiration in the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Takaya, N; Suzuki, S; Kuwazaki, S; Shoun, H; Maruo, F; Yamaguchi, M; Takeo, K

    1999-12-15

    Fusarium oxysporum, an imperfect filamentous fungus performs nitrate respiration under limited oxygen. In the respiratory system, Cytochrome P450nor (P450nor) is thought to catalyze the last step; reduction of nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. We examined its intracellular localization using enzymatic, spectroscopic, and immunological analyses to show that P450nor is found in both the mitochondria and the cytosol. Translational fusions between the putative mitochondrial targeting signal on the amino terminus of P450nor and Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase resulted in significant beta-galactosidase activity in the mitochondrial fraction of nitrate-respiring cells, suggesting that one of the isoforms of P450nor (P450norA) is in anaerobic mitochondrion of F. oxysporum and acts as nitric oxide reductase. Furthermore, these findings suggest the involvement of P450nor in nitrate respiration in mitochondria.

  1. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of "deceleration aging factor" as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models.

  2. How anaerobic is the Wingate Anaerobic Test for humans?

    PubMed

    Beneke, R; Pollmann, C; Bleif, I; Leithäuser, R M; Hütler, M

    2002-08-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) is generally used to evaluate anaerobic cycling performance, but knowledge of the metabolic profile of WAnT is limited. Therefore the energetics of WAnT was analysed with respect to working efficiency and performance. A group of 11 male subjects [mean (SD), age 21.6 (3.8) years, height 178.6 (6.6) cm, body mass 82.2 (12.1) kg] performed a maximal incremental exercise test and a WAnT. Lactic and alactic anaerobic energy outputs were calculated from net lactate production and the fast component of the kinetics of post-exercise oxygen uptake. Aerobic metabolism was determined from oxygen uptake during exercise. The WAnT mean power of 683 (96.0) W resulted from a total energy output above the value at rest of 128.1 (23.2) kJ x 30 s(-1) [mean metabolic power=4.3 (0.8) kW] corresponding to a working efficiency of 16.2 (1.6)%. The WAnT working efficiency was lower (P < 0.01) than the corresponding value of 24.1 (1.7)% at 362 (41) W at the end of an incremental exercise test. During WAnT the fractions of the energy from aerobic, anaerobic alactic and lactic acid metabolism were 18.6 (2.5)%, 31.1 (4.6)%, and 50.3 (5.1)%, respectively. Energy from metabolism of anaerobic lactic acid explained 83% and 81% of the variance of WAnT peak and mean power, respectively. The results indicate firstly that WAnT requires the use of more anaerobically derived energy than previously estimated, secondly that anaerobic metabolism is dominated by glycolysis, thirdly that WAnT mechanical efficiency is lower than that found in aerobic exercise tests, and fourthly that the latter finding partly explains discrepancies between previously published and the present data about the metabolic profile of WAnT.

  3. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  4. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  5. Evaluation of the 5 and 8 pH point titration methods for monitoring anaerobic digesters treating solid waste.

    PubMed

    Vannecke, T P W; Lampens, D R A; Ekama, G A; Volcke, E I P

    2015-01-01

    Simple titration methods certainly deserve consideration for on-site routine monitoring of volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and alkalinity during anaerobic digestion (AD), because of their simplicity, speed and cost-effectiveness. In this study, the 5 and 8 pH point titration methods for measuring the VFA concentration and carbonate system alkalinity (H2CO3*-alkalinity) were assessed and compared. For this purpose, synthetic solutions with known H2CO3*-alkalinity and VFA concentration as well as samples from anaerobic digesters treating three different kind of solid wastes were analysed. The results of these two related titration methods were verified with photometric and high-pressure liquid chromatography measurements. It was shown that photometric measurements lead to overestimations of the VFA concentration in the case of coloured samples. In contrast, the 5 pH point titration method provides an accurate estimation of the VFA concentration, clearly corresponding with the true value. Concerning the H2CO3*-alkalinity, the most accurate and precise estimations, showing very similar results for repeated measurements, were obtained using the 8 pH point titration. Overall, it was concluded that the 5 pH point titration method is the preferred method for the practical monitoring of AD of solid wastes due to its robustness, cost efficiency and user-friendliness.

  6. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  7. Comparison of liquid hot water and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed for improved enzymatic digestibility and biogas energy production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Danping; Ge, Xumeng; Zhang, Quanguo; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed biomass were compared in terms of digestibility, methane production, and cost-benefit efficiency for electricity generation via anaerobic digestion with a combined heat and power system. Compared to LHW pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment retained more of the dry matter in giant reed biomass solids due to less severe conditions. Under their optimal conditions, LHW pretreatment (190°C, 15min) and alkaline pretreatment (20g/L of NaOH, 24h) improved glucose yield from giant reed by more than 2-fold, while only the alkaline pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) increased cumulative methane yield (by 63%) over that of untreated biomass (217L/kgVS). LHW pretreatment obtained negative net electrical energy production due to high energy input. Alkaline pretreatment achieved 27% higher net electrical energy production than that of non-pretreatment (3859kJ/kg initial total solids), but alkaline liquor reuse is needed for improved net benefit.

  8. Treatment of municipal landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic digester and activated sludge system

    SciTech Connect

    Kheradmand, S.; Karimi-Jashni, A.; Sartaj, M.

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of treating sanitary landfill leachate using a combined anaerobic and activated sludge system. A high-strength leachate from Shiraz municipal landfill site was treated using this system. A two-stage laboratory-scale anaerobic digester under mesophilic conditions and an activated sludge unit were used. Landfill leachate composition and characteristics varied considerably during 8 months experiment (COD concentrations of 48,552-62,150 mg/L). It was found that the system could reduce the COD of the leachate by 94% at a loading rate of 2.25 g COD/L/d and 93% at loading rate of 3.37 g COD/L/d. The anaerobic digester treatment was quite effective in removing Fe, Cu, Mn, and Ni. However, in the case of Zn, removal efficiency was about 50%. For the rest of the HMs the removal efficiencies were in the range 88.8-99.9%. Ammonia reduction did not occur in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic reactors increased alkalinity about 3.2-4.8% in the 1st digester and 1.8-7.9% in the 2nd digester. In activated sludge unit, alkalinity and ammonia removal efficiency were 49-60% and 48.6-64.7%, respectively. Methane production rate was in the range of 0.02-0.04, 0.04-0.07, and 0.02-0.04 L/g COD{sub rem} for the 1st digester, the 2nd digester, and combination of both digesters, respectively; the methane content of the biogas varied between 60% and 63%.

  9. Volatile fatty acids production from marine macroalgae by anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Nhan; Nam, Woo Joong; Jeon, Young Joong; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2012-11-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced from the marine macroalgae, Laminaria japonica, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, and Enteromorpha crinite by anaerobic fermentation using a microbial community derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Methanogen inhibitor (iodoform), pH control, substrate concentration, and alkaline and thermal pretreatments affected VFA productivity. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids were the main products. A maximum VFA concentration of 15.2g/L was obtained from 50 g/L of L. japonica in three days at 35°C and pH 6.5-7.0. Pretreatment with 0.5 N NaOH improved VFA productivity by 56% compared to control. The result shows the applicability of marine macroalgae as biomass feedstock for the production of VFAs which can be converted to mixed alcohol fuels.

  10. 30 CFR 57.5044 - Respirators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respirators. 57.5044 Section 57.5044 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical...

  11. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).

    PubMed

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta<5°C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of cadmium on heart mitochondrial respiration

    SciTech Connect

    Kisling, G.M.; Kopp, S.J.; Paulson, D.J.; Tow, J.P.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the direct effect of cadmium on isolated heart mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria were rapidly prepared by polytroning hearts from male Sprague-Dawley rats in a 0.25 M Sucrose, 4 mM Tris, 1 mM EGTA, 0.2% BSA buffer (pH 7.4), followed by a two-part differential centrifugation. Mitochondria were resuspended in this same Tris-sucrose-BSA buffer minus EGTA and mitochondrial respiration was assayed using a Clark oxygen electrode system at a concentration of 0.5 mg total mitochondrial protein/ml assay buffer. At 5 x 10/sup -6/ M cadmium, mitochondrial state 3 respiration (pyruvate plus malate) was reduced to a level 74.8% of the control value. A 50% reduction in state 3 respiratory rate was achieved at a cadmium concentration of 8.75 x 10/sup -6/ M. The respiratory control ratio did not change significantly but at higher cadmium concentrations (< greater than or equal to 1.25 x 10/sup -5/ M) the ADP/O ratio was increased. None of the cadmium concentrations tested, from 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -4/ M, demonstrated an uncoupling response. These data suggest that cadmium acts strictly as an inhibitor of heart mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. These results contrast those of earlier work involving liver mitochondria in which cadmium was reported to uncouple mitochondrial respiration.

  13. Temperature, Pulse, and Respiration. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Lillian

    This learning activity package on temperature, pulse, and respiration is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  14. Electrophrenic respiration in patients with high quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, P C; Halter, J A; Nakajima, K

    1989-04-01

    After determining that 15 patients with high spinal cord injuries who were permanently apneic had viable phrenic nerves, electrophrenic respiration units were implanted. Thirteen of the patients (86%) achieved full-time respiration and two more achieved half-time respiration. Despite the loss of 8 patients to unrelated problems, 7 now use electrophrenic respiration continuously, one having done so for 16 years. The patient selection criteria, neurophysiological evaluation method, surgical procedure, postoperative care, and methods for diagnosis of system failures are presented. A comparison of the cervical and thoracic procedures is made. The cervical approach is preferred. Complications consisted primarily of equipment failures. For the external components there were several cases of antenna connection and battery connection failures. The implanted receivers failed in 6 cases with an average lifetime of 48 months, ranging from 24 to 108 months. In one case fibrosis around the electrode resulted in failure to stimulate the phrenic nerve effectively. In another case, infection required removal of the system which was reimplanted later and has continued to provide successful ventilation.

  15. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4)...

  16. Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a {open_quotes}waffle-iron{close_quotes} effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors.

  17. Estimating Canopy Dark Respiration for Crop Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje Mejia, Oscar Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Crop production is obtained from accurate estimates of daily carbon gain.Canopy gross photosynthesis (Pgross) can be estimated from biochemical models of photosynthesis using sun and shaded leaf portions and the amount of intercepted photosyntheticallyactive radiation (PAR).In turn, canopy daily net carbon gain can be estimated from canopy daily gross photosynthesis when canopy dark respiration (Rd) is known.

  18. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4) Air...

  19. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4) Air...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4) Air...

  1. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4) Air...

  2. 30 CFR 57.5044 - Respirators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respirators. 57.5044 Section 57.5044 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical...

  3. Proteomic, Microarray, and Signature-Tagged Mutagenesis Analyses of Anaerobic Pseudomonas aeruginosa at pH 6.5, Likely Representing Chronic, Late-Stage Cystic Fibrosis Airway Conditions▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Mark D.; Schurr, Michael J.; Sauer, Karin; Vazquez, Gustavo; Kukavica-Ibrulj, Irena; Potvin, Eric; Levesque, Roger C.; Fedynak, Amber; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Schurr, Jill; Hwang, Sung-Hei; Lau, Gee W.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Rowe, John J.; Lieberman, Michael A.; Barraud, Nicolas; Webb, Jeremy; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Hunt, Donald F.; Hassett, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) commonly harbor the important pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in their airways. During chronic late-stage CF, P. aeruginosa is known to grow under reduced oxygen tension and is even capable of respiring anaerobically within the thickened airway mucus, at a pH of ∼6.5. Therefore, proteins involved in anaerobic metabolism represent potentially important targets for therapeutic intervention. In this study, the clinically relevant “anaerobiome” or “proteogenome” of P. aeruginosa was assessed. First, two different proteomic approaches were used to identify proteins differentially expressed under anaerobic versus aerobic conditions. Microarray studies were also performed, and in general, the anaerobic transcriptome was in agreement with the proteomic results. However, we found that a major portion of the most upregulated genes in the presence of NO3− and NO2− are those encoding Pf1 bacteriophage. With anaerobic NO2−, the most downregulated genes are those involved postglycolytically and include many tricarboxylic acid cycle genes and those involved in the electron transport chain, especially those encoding the NADH dehydrogenase I complex. Finally, a signature-tagged mutagenesis library of P. aeruginosa was constructed to further screen genes required for both NO3− and NO2− respiration. In addition to genes anticipated to play important roles in the anaerobiome (anr, dnr, nar, nir, and nuo), the cysG and dksA genes were found to be required for both anaerobic NO3− and NO2− respiration. This study represents a major step in unraveling the molecular machinery involved in anaerobic NO3− and NO2− respiration and offers clues as to how we might disrupt such pathways in P. aeruginosa to limit the growth of this important CF pathogen when it is either limited or completely restricted in its oxygen supply. PMID:18203836

  4. Do Tree Stems Recapture Respired CO2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilman, B.; Angert, A.

    2016-12-01

    Tree stem respiration is an important, yet not well understood, component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Predicting how trees as whole organisms respond to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 requires understanding of the variability in the fraction of assimilated carbon allocated to respiration, versus the allocation to growth, damage repair, and to rhizosphere symbionts. Here we used the ratio of CO2 efflux/O2 influx (Apparent Respiratory Quotient, ARQ) to study stem respiration. The ARQ in trees stems is predicted to be 1.0, as a result of carbohydrates metabolism. Lower than 1.0 ARQ values may indicate a local assimilation of respired CO2, or dissolution and transport of CO2 in the xylem stream. We measured stems ARQ in 16 tree species at tropical, Mediterranean and temperate ecosystems using stem chambers and in-vitro incubations. The CO2 and O2 were measured by a system we developed, which is based on an IRGA and a Fuel-cell O2 analyzer (Hilman and Angert 2016). We found typical values of ARQ in the range of 0.4-0.8. Since incubations of detach stem tissues yielded similar ARQ values, and since the influence of natural variations in the transpiration stream on ARQ was found to be small, we conclude that the removal of the respired CO2 is not via dissolution in the xylem stream. Using 13C labeling, dark fixation of stem tissues was detected, which is most probably phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) mediated. Hence, we suggest that in-stem dark fixation of respired CO2 to organic acids (e.g. malate) affects the outgoing efflux. Further research should determine if these organic acids are transported to the canopy, stored in the stem, or transported to the roots to serve as exudates. Hilman B, Angert A (2016) Measuring the ratio of CO2 efflux to O2 influx in tree stem respiration. Tree Physiol 2016, doi: 10.1093/treephys/tpw057

  5. 42 CFR 84.1131 - Respirators; required components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination...) Attached blower; and (5) Breathing tube. (b) The components of each respirator shall meet the minimum...

  6. Identification of Electrode Respiring, Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacterial Strain Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MK2 Highlights the Untapped Potential for Environmental Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Venkidusamy, Krishnaveni; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2016-01-01

    Electrode respiring bacteria (ERB) possess a great potential for many biotechnological applications such as microbial electrochemical remediation systems (MERS) because of their exoelectrogenic capabilities to degrade xenobiotic pollutants. Very few ERB have been isolated from MERS, those exhibited a bioremediation potential toward organic contaminants. Here we report once such bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MK2, a facultative anaerobic bacterium isolated from a hydrocarbon fed MERS, showed a potent hydrocarbonoclastic behavior under aerobic and anaerobic environments. Distinct properties of the strain MK2 were anaerobic fermentation of the amino acids, electrode respiration, anaerobic nitrate reduction and the ability to metabolize n-alkane components (C8–C36) of petroleum hydrocarbons (PH) including the biomarkers, pristine and phytane. The characteristic of diazoic dye decolorization was used as a criterion for pre-screening the possible electrochemically active microbial candidates. Bioelectricity generation with concomitant dye decolorization in MERS showed that the strain is electrochemically active. In acetate fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs), maximum current density of 273 ± 8 mA/m2 (1000 Ω) was produced (power density 113 ± 7 mW/m2) by strain MK2 with a coulombic efficiency of 34.8%. Further, the presence of possible alkane hydroxylase genes (alkB and rubA) in the strain MK2 indicated that the genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation are of diverse origin. Such observations demonstrated the potential of facultative hydrocarbon degradation in contaminated environments. Identification of such a novel petrochemical hydrocarbon degrading ERB is likely to offer a new route to the sustainable bioremedial process of source zone contamination with simultaneous energy generation through MERS. PMID:28018304

  7. The Bradyrhizobium japonicum napEDABC genes encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase are essential for nitrate respiration.

    PubMed

    Delgado, María J; Bonnard, Nathalie; Tresierra-Ayala, Alvaro; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Müller, Peter

    2003-12-01

    The napEDABC gene cluster that encodes the periplasmic nitrate reductase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 has been isolated and characterized. napA encodes the catalytic subunit, and the napB and napC gene products are predicted to be a soluble dihaem c and a membrane-anchored tetrahaem c-type cytochrome, respectively. napE encodes a transmembrane protein of unknown function, and the napD gene product is a soluble protein which is assumed to play a role in the maturation of NapA. Western blots of the periplasmic fraction from wild-type cells grown anaerobically with nitrate revealed the presence of a protein band with a molecular size of about 90 kDa corresponding to NapA. A B. japonicum mutant carrying an insertion in the napA gene was unable to grow under nitrate-respiring conditions, lacked nitrate reductase activity, and did not show the 90 kDa protein band. Complementation of the mutant with a plasmid bearing the napEDABC genes restored both nitrate-dependent anaerobic growth of the cells and nitrate reductase activity. A membrane-bound and a periplasmic c-type cytochrome, with molecular masses of 25 kDa and 15 kDa, respectively, were not detected in the napA mutant strain incubated anaerobically with nitrate, which identifies those proteins as the NapC and the NapB components of the B. japonicum periplasmic nitrate reductase enzyme. These results suggest that the periplasmic nitrate reductase is the enzyme responsible for anaerobic growth of B. japonicum under nitrate-respiring conditions. The promoter region of the napEDABC genes has been characterized by primer extension. A major transcript initiates 66.5 bp downstream of the centre of a putative FNR-like binding site.

  8. Temperature preference and respiration of acaridid mites.

    PubMed

    Hubert, J; Pekár, S; Nesvorná, M; Sustr, V

    2010-12-01

    The thermal preferences in a grain mass and respiration at various temperatures in mites (Acari: Acarididae) of medical and economical importance [Acarus siro (L. 1758), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes 1961, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank 1871), and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank 1781)] were studied under laboratory conditions. Based on the distribution of mites in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., grain along a thermal gradient from 10 to 40 degrees C, L. destructor, D. farinae, and A. siro were classified as eurythermic and T. putrescentiae as stenothermic. The lowest preferred temperature was found for D. farinae (28 degrees C), followed by A. siro (28.5 degrees C), L. destructor (29.5 degrees C), and T. putrescentiae (31.5 degrees C). The relationship between the respiration rate and the temperature was similar for all four mite species. The highest respiration was found in the range from 31 to 33 degrees C. This is approximately 2 degrees C higher than the preferred temperature of these species. The lower temperature threshold of respiration ranged from 1 to 5 degrees C and the upper threshold ranged from 45 to 48 degrees C. Acclimatization of A. siro to temperature regimes of 5, 15, and 35 degrees C resulted in thermal preferences between 9 and 12 degrees C, 9 and 20 degrees C, and 28 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The respiration rate of acclimatized specimens increased with the temperature, reaching a maximum at 29.0 degrees C for mites acclimatized at 5 and 15 degrees C and a maximum at 33.7 degrees C for those acclimatized at 30 degrees C.

  9. Treatment of Alkaline Cr(VI)-Contaminated Leachate with an Alkaliphilic Metal-Reducing Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Watts, Mathew P; Khijniak, Tatiana V; Boothman, Christopher; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-08-15

    Chromium in its toxic Cr(VI) valence state is a common contaminant particularly associated with alkaline environments. A well-publicized case of this occurred in Glasgow, United Kingdom, where poorly controlled disposal of a cementitious industrial by-product, chromite ore processing residue (COPR), has resulted in extensive contamination by Cr(VI)-contaminated alkaline leachates. In the search for viable bioremediation treatments for Cr(VI), a variety of bacteria that are capable of reduction of the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) to the relatively nontoxic and less mobile Cr(III) oxidation state, predominantly under circumneutral pH conditions, have been isolated. Recently, however, alkaliphilic bacteria that have the potential to reduce Cr(VI) under alkaline conditions have been identified. This study focuses on the application of a metal-reducing bacterium to the remediation of alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated leachates from COPR. This bacterium, belonging to the Halomonas genus, was found to exhibit growth concomitant to Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline conditions (pH 10). Bacterial cells were able to rapidly remove high concentrations of aqueous Cr(VI) (2.5 mM) under anaerobic conditions, up to a starting pH of 11. Cr(VI) reduction rates were controlled by pH, with slower removal observed at pH 11, compared to pH 10, while no removal was observed at pH 12. The reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) resulted in the precipitation of Cr(III) biominerals, which were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effectiveness of this haloalkaliphilic bacterium for Cr(VI) reduction at high pH suggests potential for its use as an in situ treatment of COPR and other alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated environments.

  10. Treatment of Alkaline Cr(VI)-Contaminated Leachate with an Alkaliphilic Metal-Reducing Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Mathew P.; Khijniak, Tatiana V.; Boothman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Chromium in its toxic Cr(VI) valence state is a common contaminant particularly associated with alkaline environments. A well-publicized case of this occurred in Glasgow, United Kingdom, where poorly controlled disposal of a cementitious industrial by-product, chromite ore processing residue (COPR), has resulted in extensive contamination by Cr(VI)-contaminated alkaline leachates. In the search for viable bioremediation treatments for Cr(VI), a variety of bacteria that are capable of reduction of the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) to the relatively nontoxic and less mobile Cr(III) oxidation state, predominantly under circumneutral pH conditions, have been isolated. Recently, however, alkaliphilic bacteria that have the potential to reduce Cr(VI) under alkaline conditions have been identified. This study focuses on the application of a metal-reducing bacterium to the remediation of alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated leachates from COPR. This bacterium, belonging to the Halomonas genus, was found to exhibit growth concomitant to Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline conditions (pH 10). Bacterial cells were able to rapidly remove high concentrations of aqueous Cr(VI) (2.5 mM) under anaerobic conditions, up to a starting pH of 11. Cr(VI) reduction rates were controlled by pH, with slower removal observed at pH 11, compared to pH 10, while no removal was observed at pH 12. The reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) resulted in the precipitation of Cr(III) biominerals, which were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (TEM-EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effectiveness of this haloalkaliphilic bacterium for Cr(VI) reduction at high pH suggests potential for its use as an in situ treatment of COPR and other alkaline Cr(VI)-contaminated environments. PMID:26048926

  11. The investigation of effect of organic carbon sources addition in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) sequencing batch reactor for nutrients removal from wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Tong, Juan; Li, Hongjing; Chen, Yinguang

    2009-05-01

    The effect of addition of organic carbon sources (acetic acid and waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid) on anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen, 0.15-0.45 mg/L) biological municipal wastewater treatment was investigated. The results showed that carbon source addition affected not only the transformations of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), glycogen, nitrogen and phosphorus, but the net removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. The removal efficiencies of TN and TP were, respectively, 61% and 61% without organic carbon source addition, 81% and 95% with acetic acid addition, and 83% and 97% with waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid addition. It seems that the alkaline fermentation liquid of waste biosolids generated in biological wastewater treatment plant can be used to replace acetic acid as an additional carbon source to improve the anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) municipal wastewater nutrients removal although its use was observed to cause a slight increase of effluent BOD and COD concentrations.

  12. Rates and potential mechanism of anaerobic nitrate-dependent microbial pyrite oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Julian; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2012-12-01

    Pyrite (FeS2) is a major iron- and sulfur-containing mineral phase in the environment. Oxidation of pyrite by aerobic micro-organisms has been well investigated. However, the reactivity of pyrite under anoxic conditions is still an open question. In the present paper, we summarize field and laboratory data on this chemolithotrophic respiration process with nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. Geochemical and stable isotope field data indicate that this process is occurring. Laboratory studies are more ambiguous, but recent positive results provide evidence that anaerobic microbial pyrite oxidation can, in fact, occur with nitrate as electron acceptor.

  13. The phylogeny of archaebacteria, including novel anaerobic thermoacidophiles in the light of RNA polymerase structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zillig, Wolfram; Schnabel, Ralf; Tu, Jenn; Stetter, Karl Otto

    1982-05-01

    DNA-dependent RNA polymerases of archaebacteria are distinct from those of eubacteria both in structure and in function. They show similarities to those of the eukaryotic cytoplasm. Extremely thermophilic anaerobic sulfur-respiring archaebacteria isolated from solfataric waters represent four different families, the Thermoproteaceae, the “stiff filaments”, the Desulfurococcaceae and the Thermococcaceae, of a novel order, Thermoproteales. Together with the Sulfolobales, they form the second branch of the urkingdom of the archaebacteria besides that of the methanogens and extreme halophiles. Thermoplasma appears isolated.

  14. Effects of dietary Acid load on exercise metabolism and anaerobic exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Caciano, Susan L; Inman, Cynthia L; Gockel-Blessing, Elizabeth E; Weiss, Edward P

    2015-06-01

    Dietary acid load, quantified as the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet, affects systemic pH and acid-base regulation. In a previous cross-sectional study, we reported that a low dietary PRAL (i.e. alkaline promoting diet) is associated with higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values during maximal exercise. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the previous findings with a short-term dietary intervention study. Additionally, we sought to determine if changes in PRAL affects submaximal exercise RER (as a reflection of substrate utilization) and anaerobic exercise performance. Subjects underwent a graded treadmill exercise test (GXT) to exhaustion and an anaerobic exercise performance test on two occasions, once after following a low-PRAL diet and on a separate occasion, after a high-PRAL diet. The diets were continued as long as needed to achieve an alkaline or acid fasted morning urine pH, respectively, with all being 4-9 days in duration. RER was measured during the GXT with indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic performance test was a running time-to-exhaustion test lasting 1-4 min. Maximal exercise RER was lower in the low-PRAL trial compared to the high-PRAL trial (1.10 ± 0.02 vs. 1.20 ± 0.05, p = 0.037). The low-PRAL diet also resulted in a 21% greater time to exhaustion during anaerobic exercise (2.56 ± 0.36 vs. 2.11 ± 0.31 sec, p = 0.044) and a strong tendency for lower RER values during submaximal exercise at 70% VO2max (0.88 ± 0.02 vs. 0.96 ± 0.04, p = 0.060). Contrary to our expectations, a short-term low-PRAL (alkaline promoting) diet resulted in lower RER values during maximal-intensity exercise. However, the low-PRAL diet also increased anaerobic exercise time to exhaustion and appears to have shifted submaximal exercise substrate utilization to favor lipid oxidation and spare carbohydrate, both of which would be considered favorable effects in the context of exercise performance. Key pointsShort-term (4-9 days) changes in

  15. Anosmia in Alkaline Battery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Adams, R. G.; Crabtree, Norman

    1961-01-01

    The sense of smell of 106 alkaline battery workmen exposed at their work to cadmium and nickel dust has been compared with a control group of 84 men matched for age. The battery workers reported significantly more anosmia than the controls (15% to zero) and did less well in the phenol smelling test (27·3% to 4·8%). Cadmium proteinuria was found in 17 of the battery workers, 11 of whom showed virtual anosmia. Figures of recent concentrations of cadmium and nickel in the atmosphere are given. The noses of 85 battery workers and 75 controls were examined. Signs of non-specific chronic irritation were more frequent in the battery workers but no significant relationship was established between this appearance and the presence of anosmia. It is concluded that the anosmia is due to exposure to cadmium or nickel dust or a mixture of the two. PMID:13681418

  16. Closed type alkaline storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hayama, H.

    1980-06-10

    The alkaline storage battery employs a metallic hat shaped terminal closure which has a piercing needle as well as a puncturable metallic diaphragm positioned below the piercing needle. The needle is fixed by caulking at its peripheral edge portion to a edge of the closure. A comparatively thick and hard metal plate is placed on the inner surface of the diaphragm and is applied to an open portion of a tubular metallic container which has a battery element. A peripheral edge portion of the closure, the diaphragm and the metallic plate are clamped in airtight relationship through a packing between the caulked end portion and an inner annular step portion of the metallic container of the battery. A lead wire extends from one polarity electrode of the battery element and is connected to a central portion of the metallic plate.

  17. [Endogenous respiration process analysis of heterotrophic biomass and autotrophic biomass based on respiration map ].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-hua; Bai, Xu-li; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yi; He, Chun-bo

    2014-09-01

    The endogenous process is an important metabolic part of the activated sludge, and the understanding of this process is still unclear. Characteristics of endogenous respiration for heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic nitrifiers were analyzed using respirogram. Results showed that both heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria entered the stage of endogenous respiration at almost the same time, but heterotrophic bacteria first entered the stage of dormancy i. e. , they were easier to recover a higher proportion of biomass during the dormancy stage, indicating that heterotrophic bacteria exhibited strong environmental adaptability. Autotrophic bacteria were, however, quite different. This finding confirmed that autotrophic bacteria were more vulnerable from the viewpoint of endogenous respiration. In addition, the study also found that the increase of endogenous respiration rate ratio reflected the decreased sludge activity. And the proportion of endogenous respiration was an important parameter to characterize the activity of activated sludge, which can be used as a quantitative index for the health status of activated sludge. The findings further deepened the understanding of endogenous respiration process and provided a theoretical basis for the operation and management of wastewater treatment plants.

  18. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  19. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  20. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  1. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  2. 42 CFR 84.190 - Chemical cartridge respirators: description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical cartridge respirators: description. 84.190... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.190 Chemical cartridge respirators: description. (a) Chemical...

  3. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303... from a respirable disease. (a)(1) If a deceased miner was employed for ten or more years in one or more coal mines and died from a respirable disease, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that his or...

  4. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303... Death from a respirable disease. (a)(1) If a deceased miner was employed for ten or more years in one or more coal mines and died from a respirable disease, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that his...

  5. 20 CFR 410.462 - Presumption relating to respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presumption relating to respirable disease... Pneumoconiosis § 410.462 Presumption relating to respirable disease. (a) Even though the existence of... was employed for 10 years or more in the Nation's coal mines and died from a respirable disease,...

  6. 20 CFR 410.462 - Presumption relating to respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Presumption relating to respirable disease... Pneumoconiosis § 410.462 Presumption relating to respirable disease. (a) Even though the existence of... was employed for 10 years or more in the Nation's coal mines and died from a respirable disease,...

  7. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303... Death from a respirable disease. (a)(1) If a deceased miner was employed for ten or more years in one or more coal mines and died from a respirable disease, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that his...

  8. 20 CFR 718.303 - Death from a respirable disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Death from a respirable disease. 718.303... Death from a respirable disease. (a)(1) If a deceased miner was employed for ten or more years in one or more coal mines and died from a respirable disease, there shall be a rebuttable presumption that his...

  9. What controls respiration rate in stored sugarbeet roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although respiration is estimated to be responsible for 60 to 80% of the sucrose lost during storage, the mechanisms by which sugarbeet roots regulate their respiration rate are unknown. In plants, respiration rate is regulated by (1) available respiratory capacity, (2) cellular energy status, (3) ...

  10. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements;...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance requirements... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1156 Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general...

  15. Thermal adaptation of heterotrophic soil respiration in laboratory microcosms.

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Bradford; Brian W. Watts; Christian A. Davies

    2010-01-01

    Respiration of heterotrophic microorganisms decomposing soil organic carbon releases carbon dioxide from soils to the atmosphere. In the short term, soil microbial respiration is strongly dependent on temperature. In the long term, the response of heterotrophic soil respiration to temperature is uncertain. However, following established evolutionary tradeoffs, mass-...

  16. Quantifying soil respiration at landscape scales. Chapter 11

    Treesearch

    John B. Bradford; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Soil CO2, efflux, or soil respiration, represents a substantial component of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Consequently, quantifying soil respiration over large areas and long time periods is an increasingly important goal. However, soil respiration rates vary dramatically in space and time in response to both environmental conditions...

  17. Anaerobic denitrification in fungi from the coastal marine sediments off Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Cathrine, Sumathi J; Raghukumar, Chandralata

    2009-01-01

    Denitrification is a microbial process during which nitrate or nitrite is reduced under anaerobic condition to gaseous nitrogen. The Arabian Sea contains one of the major pelagic denitrification zones and in addition to this, denitrification also takes places along the continental shelf. Prokaryotic microorganisms were considered to be the only players in this process. However recent studies have shown that higher microeukaryotes such as fungi can also adapt to anaerobic mode of respiration and reduce nitrate to harmful green house gases such as NO and N2O. In this study we examined the distribution and biomass of fungi in the sediments of the seasonal anoxic region off Goa from two stations. The sampling was carried out in five different periods from October 2005, when dissolved oxygen levels were near zero in bottom waters to March 2006. We isolated mycelial fungi, thraustochytrids and yeasts. Species of Aspergillus and thraustochytrids were dominant. Fungi were isolated under aerobic, as well as anaerobic conditions from different seasons. Four isolates were examined for their denitrification activity. Two cultures obtained from the anoxic sediments showed better growth under anaerobic condition than the other two cultures that were isolated from oxic sediments. Our preliminary results suggest that several species of fungi can grow under oxygen deficient conditions and participate in denitrification processes.

  18. Effects of Nasal or Oral Breathing on Anaerobic Power Output and Metabolic Responses

    PubMed Central

    RECINTO, CHRISTINE; EFTHEMEOU, THEODORE; BOFFELLI, P. TONY; NAVALTA, JAMES W.

    2017-01-01

    Nasal and oral exclusive breathing modes have benefits and drawbacks during submaximal exercise. It is unknown whether these responses would extend to anaerobic work performed at high intensity. Nine individuals (males N = 7, females N = 2) performed a standard Wingate Anaerobic cycle test on a cycle ergometer under nose (N) and mouth (M) only respiratory conditions, performed in a counterbalanced order. A 2 (condition: nose, mouth) × 6 (time: 0–5 sec, 5–10 sec, 10–15 sec, 15–20 sec, 20–25 sec, 25–30 sec) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data with significance accepted at the p<0.05 level. No differences between breathing mode were observed for any power output or performance measures associated with the Wingate Anaerobic cycle test. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was significantly higher in the oral respiration condition from 10 seconds to 25 seconds during the test (p<0.05). On the other hand, heart rate (HR) in the nasal condition was significantly greater during the final two time intervals (p<0.05). Nasal breathing was effective in reducing hyperventilation as RER remained below 1.0. However, elevated HR with nasal breathing indicates increased cardiovascular stress associated with this mode. As breathing mode does not affect power output or performance measures during completion of a high-intensity anaerobic test, preference of the participant should be the determining factor if a choice is available. PMID:28674596

  19. Effects of Nasal or Oral Breathing on Anaerobic Power Output and Metabolic Responses.

    PubMed

    Recinto, Christine; Efthemeou, Theodore; Boffelli, P Tony; Navalta, James W

    2017-01-01

    Nasal and oral exclusive breathing modes have benefits and drawbacks during submaximal exercise. It is unknown whether these responses would extend to anaerobic work performed at high intensity. Nine individuals (males N = 7, females N = 2) performed a standard Wingate Anaerobic cycle test on a cycle ergometer under nose (N) and mouth (M) only respiratory conditions, performed in a counterbalanced order. A 2 (condition: nose, mouth) × 6 (time: 0-5 sec, 5-10 sec, 10-15 sec, 15-20 sec, 20-25 sec, 25-30 sec) repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data with significance accepted at the p<0.05 level. No differences between breathing mode were observed for any power output or performance measures associated with the Wingate Anaerobic cycle test. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was significantly higher in the oral respiration condition from 10 seconds to 25 seconds during the test (p<0.05). On the other hand, heart rate (HR) in the nasal condition was significantly greater during the final two time intervals (p<0.05). Nasal breathing was effective in reducing hyperventilation as RER remained below 1.0. However, elevated HR with nasal breathing indicates increased cardiovascular stress associated with this mode. As breathing mode does not affect power output or performance measures during completion of a high-intensity anaerobic test, preference of the participant should be the determining factor if a choice is available.

  20. Effect of chlorate, molybdate, and shikimic acid on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in aerobic and anaerobic cultures.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Christy E; Beier, Ross C; Hume, Michael E; Horrocks, Shane M; Casey, Thomas A; Caton, Joel S; Nisbet, David J; Smith, David J; Krueger, Nathan A; Anderson, Robin C

    2010-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine factors that affect sensitivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to sodium chlorate (5mM). In our first experiment, cultures grown without chlorate grew more rapidly than those with chlorate. An extended lag before logarithmic growth was observed in anaerobic but not aerobic cultures containing chlorate. Chlorate inhibition of growth during aerobic culture began later than that observed in anaerobic cultures but persisted once inhibition was apparent. Conversely, anaerobic cultures appeared to adapt to chlorate after approximately 10h of incubation, exhibiting rapid compensatory growth. In anaerobic chlorate-containing cultures, 20% of total viable counts were resistant to chlorate by 6h and had propagated to 100% resistance (>10(9)CFU mL(-1)) by 24h. In the aerobic chlorate-containing cultures, 12.9% of colonies had detectable resistance to chlorate by 6h, but only 1% retained detectable resistance at 24h, likely because these cultures had opportunity to respire on oxygen and were thus not enriched via the selective pressure of chlorate. In another study, treatment with shikimic acid (0.34 mM), molybdate (1mM) or their combination had little effect on aerobic or anaerobic growth of Salmonella in the absence of added chlorate. As observed in our earlier study, chlorate resistance was not detected in any cultures without added chlorate. Chlorate resistant Salmonella were recovered at equivalent numbers regardless of treatment after 8h of aerobic or anaerobic culture with added chlorate; however, by 24h incubation chlorate sensitivity was completely restored to aerobic but not anaerobic cultures treated with shikimic acid or molybdate but not their combination. Results indicate that anaerobic adaptation of S. Typhimurium to sodium chlorate during pure culture is likely due to the selective propagation of low numbers of cells exhibiting spontaneous resistance to chlorate and this resistance is not reversible by

  1. Gene and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidensis during anaerobic growth with different electron acceptors.

    SciTech Connect

    Beliaev, A. S.; Thompson, D. K.; Khare, T.; Lim, H.; Brandt, C. C.; Li, G.; Murray, A. E.; Heidelberg, J. F.; Giometti, C. S.; Yates, J., III; Nealson, K. H.; Tiedje, J. M.; Zhou, J.; Biosciences Division; ORNL; Scripps Research Inst.; Michigan State Univ.; The Inst. for Genomic Research; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; California Inst. of Tech.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in mRNA and protein expression profiles of Shewanella oneidenesis MR-1 during switch from aerobic to fumarate-, Fe(III)-, or nitrate-reducing conditions were examined using DNA microarrays and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). In response to changes in growth conditions, 121 of the 691 arrayed genes displayed at least a two-fold difference in transcript abundance as determined by microarray analysis. Genes involved in aerobic respiration encoding cytochrome c and d oxidases and TCA cycle enzymes were repressed under anaerobic conditions. Genes induced during anaerobic respiration included those involved in cofactor biosynthesis and assembly (moaACE, ccmHF, nosD, cysG), substrate transport (cysUP, cysTWA, dcuB), and anaerobic energy metabolism (dmsAB, psrC, pshA, hyaABC, hydA). Transcription of genes encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase (napBHGA), cytochrome c{sub 552}, and prismane was elevated 8- to 56-fold in response to the presence of nitrate, while cymA, ifcA, and frdA were specifically induced three- to eightfold under fumarate-reducing conditions. The mRNA levels for two oxidoreductase-like genes of unknown function and several cell envelope genes involved in multidrug resistance increased two- to fivefold specifically under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Analysis of protein expression profiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions revealed 14 protein spots that showed significant differences in abundance on 2-D gels. Protein identification by mass spectrometry indicated that the expression of prismane, dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase, and alcaligin siderophore biosynthesis protein correlated with the microarray data.

  2. Anaerobic Mineralization of Toluene by Enriched Sediments with Quinones and Humus as Terminal Electron Acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Francisco J.; Dijksma, Wouter; Duong-Dac, Tuan; Ivanova, Anna; Lettinga, Gatze; Field, Jim A.

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic microbial oxidation of toluene to CO2 coupled to humus respiration was demonstrated by use of enriched anaerobic sediments from the Amsterdam petroleum harbor (APH) and the Rhine River. Both highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA) and the humic quinone moiety model compound anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) were utilized as terminal electron acceptors. After 2 weeks of incubation, 50 and 85% of added uniformly labeled [13C]toluene were recovered as 13CO2 in HPSHA- and AQDS-supplemented APH sediment enrichment cultures, respectively; negligible recovery occurred in unsupplemented cultures. The conversion of [13C]toluene agreed with the high level of recovery of electrons as reduced humus or as anthrahydroquinone-2,6-disulfonate. APH sediment was also able to use nitrate and amorphous manganese dioxide as terminal electron acceptors to support the anaerobic biodegradation of toluene. The addition of substoichiometric amounts of humic acids to bioassay reaction mixtures containing amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide as a terminal electron acceptor led to more than 65% conversion of toluene (1 mM) after 11 weeks of incubation, a result which paralleled the partial recovery of electron equivalents as acid-extractable Fe(II). Negligible conversion of toluene and reduction of Fe(III) occurred in these bioassay reaction mixtures when humic acids were omitted. The present study provides clear quantitative evidence for the mineralization of an aromatic hydrocarbon by humus-respiring microorganisms. The results indicate that humic substances may significantly contribute to the intrinsic bioremediation of anaerobic sites contaminated with priority pollutants by serving as terminal electron acceptors. PMID:11571145

  3. Aeration for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Li, Ling; Lockington, David

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the tidal effects on aeration conditions for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh. We extend the work of Ursino et al. (2004) by using a two-phase model for air and water flows in the marsh. Simulations have been conducted to examine directly the link between the airflow dynamics and the aeration condition in the marsh soil. The results show that the effects of entrapped air on water movement in the vadose zone are significant in certain circumstances. Single-phase models based on Richards' equation, which neglect such effects, may not be adequate for quantifying the aeration condition in tidal marsh. The optimal aeration condition, represented by the maximum of the integral magnitude of tidally advected air mass (TAAM) flux, is found to occur near the tidal creek for the four soil textures simulated. This may explain the observation that some salt marsh plant species grow better near tidal creeks than in the inner marsh areas. Our analyses, based on the two-phase model and predicted TAAM flux magnitude, provide further insight into the "positive feedback" mechanism proposed by Ursino et al. (2004). That is, pioneer plants may grow successfully near the creek where the root aeration condition is optimal. The roots of the pioneer plants can soften and loosen the rhizosphere soil, which increases the evapotranspiration rate, the soil porosity, and absolute permeability and weakens the capillary effects. These, in turn, improve further the root aeration conditions and may lead to colonization by plants less resistant to anaerobic conditions.

  4. Aeration for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Li, Ling; Lockington, David

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the tidal effects on aeration conditions for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh. We extend the work of Ursino et al. (2004) by using a two-phase model for air and water flows in the marsh. Simulations have been conducted to examine directly the link between the airflow dynamics and the aeration condition in the marsh soil. The results show that the effects of entrapped air on water movement in the vadose zone are significant in certain circumstances. Single-phase models based on Richards' equation, which neglect such effects, may not be adequate for quantifying the aeration condition in tidal marsh. The optimal aeration condition, represented by the maximum of the integral magnitude of tidally advected air mass (TAAM) flux, is found to occur near the tidal creek for the four soil textures simulated. This may explain the observation that some salt marsh plant species grow better near tidal creeks than in the inner marsh areas. Our analyses, based on the two-phase model and predicted TAAM flux magnitude, provide further insight into the ``positive feedback'' mechanism proposed by Ursino et al. (2004). That is, pioneer plants may grow successfully near the creek where the root aeration condition is optimal. The roots of the pioneer plants can soften and loosen the rhizosphere soil, which increases the evapotranspiration rate, the soil porosity, and absolute permeability and weakens the capillary effects. These, in turn, improve further the root aeration conditions and may lead to colonization by plants less resistant to anaerobic conditions.

  5. Cassava Stillage Treatment by Thermophilic Anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi

    2010-11-01

    This paper assesses the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in the treatment of cassava stillage under various organic loading rates (OLRs) without suspended solids (SS) separation. The reactor was seeded with mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge, and the OLR increased by increments to 13.80 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 5d) over 80 days. Total COD removal efficiency remained stable at 90%, with biogas production at 18 L/d (60% methane). Increase in the OLR to 19.30 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 3d), however, led to a decrease in TCOD removal efficiency to 79% due to accumulation of suspended solids and incomplete degradation after shortened retention time. Reactor performance subsequently increased after OLR reduction. Alkalinity, VFA and pH levels were not significantly affected by OLR variation, indicating that no additional alkaline or pH adjustment is required. More than half of the SS in the cassava stillage could be digested in the process when HRT was 5 days, which demonstrated the suitability of anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage without SS separation.

  6. Overcoming challenges to struvite recovery from anaerobically digested dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeier, Matthew P; Tao, Wendong

    2012-01-01

    Recovering struvite from dairy manure has consistently posed problems for researchers. This study separated solids from anaerobically digested dairy manure using a filtration system. Filtrate was rich in free magnesium (160 to 423 mg/L), ammonium (320 to 1800 mg N/L) and orthophosphate (93 to 332 mg P/L). High concentrations of free calcium (128 to 361 mg/L) and alkalinity (3309 to 6567 mg/L as CaCO3), however, may hinder struvite precipitation. Batch precipitation tests were conducted to identify and overcome factors that interfere with struvite formation. Precipitation tests at pH 9 identified calcium and ionic strength as most probable interferences. Calcium addition did not significantly change phosphorus removal efficiency, but decreased struvite purity because of formation of calcium phosphates when Ca:P activity ratio was greater than 0.5 to 1. Batch tests demonstrated effective calcium removal from anaerobically digested dairy manure through precipitation of calcium carbonate at pH 9 to 10 while retaining magnesium and orthophosphate, lessening hindrance to struvite formation.

  7. Characteristics and anaerobic treatability of municipal and industrial estate wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, I; Blázquez, R; Soto, M

    2007-09-01

    Centralised treatment of domestic sewage coming from A Coruña city (250000 inhabitants) and several medium and small size villages (up to 15000 inhabitants) together with industrial estate effluents was planned. The area population is about 380000 inhabitants and the overall effluent will reach about 600000 equivalent inhabitants. The characteristics of different streams will determine the treatment alternatives and pre-treatment requirements for individual streams. Domestic sewage from A Coruña showed medium to high organic content (741 mg l(-1) of COD), while domestic sewage from small villages (Lorbé, Oleiros) and industrial estates (Sabón, A Grela) showed a high variability in organic content, with COD concentration ranging from 100 to 4000 mg L(-1) or more. About 50-65% COD corresponded to suspended solids, although some industrial effluents showed lower values. Characterized industrial effluents had lower concentration of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and higher concentration of sulphate and alkalinity than domestic sewage. Anaerobic biodegradability was about 80% for domestic sewage, and ranged from 20 to 100% for industrial estate effluents. Furthermore, some industrial streams showed high microbial toxicity. The results indicate that anaerobic treatment of these effluents is of interest. However, specific pre-treatment for some individual streams or the adoption of minimisation and prevention measures in order to reach total or partial detoxification is suggested.

  8. Interrelationships among anaerobic digestion, sludge dewaterability, and particle characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to define the interrelationships among anaerobic digestion, sludge dewaterability, and particle characteristics. For this purpose, laboratory scale high-rate anaerobic digesters were designed and operated under various conditions. The reactors were operated under varying conditions of feed strength, feed composition (mixtures of primary and secondary sludge), detention time, and temperature. In each experimental set, one variable was fixed at several different levels while others were held at a single standard value. Digestion performance was monitored by frequent measures of influent and effluent total solids, volatile solids, COD, alkalinity, and volatile acids, and measurements of gas production and composition. Particle characteristics measured were of size distribution, density, and surface charge. Dewaterability was measured as specific resistance and Capillary Suction Time. Digestion generally improved dewaterability, but often in complicated ways. For example, the specific resistance was reduced 65% with a 7-day detention time, but increased detention time lessened the improvement. A small fraction of activated sludge (20% by weight of solids) in the digester influent led to a greater improvement (81% reduction) in dewaterability than no activated sludge (20% reduction), but digestion of 100% activated sludge led to worse dewaterability. Other variables had lesser effects on dewaterability. The particle size distribution results, when analyzed for the surface area of particles, explained these results well.

  9. Pediatric reference intervals for alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Zierk, Jakob; Arzideh, Farhad; Haeckel, Rainer; Cario, Holger; Frühwald, Michael C; Groß, Hans-Jürgen; Gscheidmeier, Thomas; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Krebs, Alexander; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Neumann, Michael; Ruf, Hans-Georg; Steigerwald, Udo; Streichert, Thomas; Rascher, Wolfgang; Metzler, Markus; Rauh, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation of alkaline phosphatase activity in children is challenging due to extensive changes with growth and puberty leading to distinct sex- and age-specific dynamics. Continuous percentile charts from birth to adulthood allow accurate consideration of these dynamics and seem reasonable for an analyte as closely linked to growth as alkaline phosphatase. However, the ethical and practical challenges unique to pediatric reference intervals have restricted the creation of such percentile charts, resulting in limitations when clinical decisions are based on alkaline phosphatase activity. We applied an indirect method to generate percentile charts for alkaline phosphatase activity using clinical laboratory data collected during the clinical care of patients. A total of 361,405 samples from 124,440 patients from six German tertiary care centers and one German laboratory service provider measured between January 2004 and June 2015 were analyzed. Measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity was performed on Roche Cobas analyzers using the IFCC's photometric method. We created percentile charts for alkaline phosphatase activity in girls and boys from birth to 18 years which can be used as reference intervals. Additionally, data tables of age- and sex-specific percentile values allow the incorporation of these results into laboratory information systems. The percentile charts provided enable the appropriate differential diagnosis of changes in alkaline phosphatase activity due to disease and changes due to physiological development. After local validation, integration of the provided percentile charts into result reporting facilitates precise assessment of alkaline phosphatase dynamics in pediatrics.

  10. Processing anaerobic sludge for extended storage as anaerobic digester inoculum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiajia; Zicari, Steven M; Cui, Zongjun; Zhang, Ruihong

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic sludge was processed to reduce the volume and moisture content in order to reduce costs for storing and transporting the sludge as microbial inoculum for anaerobic digester startup. The moisture content of the sludge was reduced from 98.7% to 82.0% via centrifugation and further to 71.5% via vacuum evaporation. The processed sludge was stored for 2 and 4 months and compared with the fresh sludge for the biogas and methane production using food waste and non-fat dry milk as substrates. It was found that fresh unprocessed sludge had the highest methane yield and the yields of both unprocessed and processed sludges decreased during storage by 1-34%, however processed sludges seemed to regain some activity after 4 months of storage as compared to samples stored for only 2 months. Maximum methane production rates obtained from modified Gompertz model application also increased between the 2-month and 4-month processed samples.

  11. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range.

  12. Evolution of alkaline phosphatases in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, D J; Rogers, C; Harris, H

    1982-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase [orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), EC 3.1.3.1] in placenta, intestine, liver, kidney, bone, and lung from a variety of primate species has been characterized by quantitative inhibition, thermostability, and immunological studies. Characteristic human placental-type alkaline phosphatase occurs in placentas of great apes (chimpanzee and orangutan) but not in placentas of other primates, including gibbon. It is also present in trace amounts in human lung but not in lung or other tissues of various Old and New World monkeys. However, a distinctive alkaline phosphatase resembling it occurs in substantial amounts in lungs from Old World monkeys but not New World monkeys. It appears that duplication of alkaline phosphatase genes and mutations of genetic elements controlling their tissue expression have occurred relatively recently in mammalian evolution. Images PMID:6950431

  13. A distinct seasonal pattern of the ratio of soil respiration to total ecosystem respiration in a spruce-dominated forest

    Treesearch

    E.A. Davidson; A.D. Richardson; K.E. Savage; D.Y. Hollinger

    2006-01-01

    Annual budgets and fitted temperature response curves for soil respiration and ecosystem respiration provide useful information for partitioning annual carbon budgets of ecosystems, but they may not adequately reveal seasonal variation in the ratios of these two fluxes. Soil respiration (Rs) typically contributes 30-80% of...

  14. A model of metabolic changes in respiration-deficient human cells.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, F Mathias

    2007-09-01

    Cells lacking aerobic metabolism because of damaged mtDNA accumulate in many postmitotic tissues in the course aging. Although being only a small fraction of cells, they might play a major role in oxidative stress affecting the whole body. However, it remains unclear how such cells, which are under normal circumstances dependent on aerobic metabolism, are able to survive for decades in vivo. Here a new model is presented that proposes a coexistence of anaerobic glycolysis and a partly reversed TCA cycle. Succinate plays a key role in the changed metabolic pathways because it has to be exported by the cell. This hypothesis supports the view that some respiration-deficient cells are able to survive permanently within the body and contribute to human aging.

  15. Rotenone induces cell death in primary dopaminergic culture by increasing ROS production and inhibiting mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Radad, Khaled; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter; Gille, Gabriele

    2006-09-01

    Although the definite etiology of Parkinson's disease is still unclear, increasing evidence has suggested an important role for environmental factors such as exposure to pesticides in increasing the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. In the present study, primary cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were applied to investigate the toxic effects and underlying mechanisms of rotenone-induced neuronal cell death relevant to Parkinson's disease. Results revealed that rotenone destroyed dopaminergic neurons in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Consistent with the cytotoxic effect of rotenone as evidenced by dopaminergic cell loss, it significantly increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium, the number of necrotic cells in the culture and the number of nuclei showing apoptotic features. Rotenone exerted toxicity by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing reactive oxygen species production and shifting respiration to a more anaerobic state.

  16. Changes in soil respiration components and their specific respiration along three successional forests in the subtropics

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Tianfeng; Liu, Juxiu; Wang, Gangsheng; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhou, Guoyi

    2016-01-16

    1.Understanding how soil respiration components change with forest succession is critical for modelling and predicting soil carbon (C) processes and its sequestration below-ground. The specific respiration (a ratio of respiration to biomass) is increasingly being used as an indicator of forest succession conceptually based on Odum's theory of ecosystem development. However, the hypothesis that specific soil respiration declines with forest succession remains largely untested. 2.We used a trenching method to partition soil respiration into heterotrophic respiration and autotrophic respiration (RH and RA) and then evaluated the specific RH and specific RA in three successional forests in subtropical China. 3.Our results showed a clear seasonality in the influence of forest succession on RH, with no significant differences among the three forests in the dry season but a higher value in the old-growth forest than the other two forests in the wet season. RA in the old-growth forest tended to be the highest among the three forests. Both the specific RH and specific RA decreased with the progressive maturity of three forests. 4.Lastly, our results highlight the importance of forest succession in determining the variation of RH in different seasons. With forest succession, soil microbes and plant roots become more efficient to conserve C resources, which would result in a greater proportion of C retained in soils.

  17. [Contribution of wheat rhizosphere respiration to soil respiration under elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application].

    PubMed

    Kou, Tai-ji; Xu, Xiao-feng; Zhu, Jian-guo; Xie, Zu-bin; Guo, Da-yong; Miao, Yan-fang

    2011-10-01

    With the support of free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) system and by using isotope 13C technique, and through planting wheat (Triticum aestivum L., C3 crop) on a soil having been planted with maize (Zea mays L., C4 crop) for many years, this paper studied the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on the delta 13C value of soil emitted CO2 and the wheat rhizosphere respiration. With the growth of wheat, the delta 13C value of soil emitted CO2 had a gradual decrease. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (200 micromol mol(-1)) decreased the delta 13C value of emitted CO2 at booting and heading stages significantly when the nitrogen application rate was 250 kg hm(-2) (HN), and at jointing and booting stages significantly when the nitrogen application rate was 150 kg hm(-2) (LN). Nevertheless, the elevated atmospheric CO2 promoted the proportions of wheat rhizosphere respiration to soil respiration at booting and heading stages significantly. From jointing stage to maturing stage, the proportions of wheat rhizosphere respiration to soil respiration were 24%-48% (HN) and 21%-48% (LN) under elevated atmospheric CO2, and 20%-36% (HN) and 19%-32% (LN) under ambient atmospheric CO2. Under both elevated and ambient atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the delta 13C value of emitted CO2 and the rhizosphere respiration had different responses to the increased nitrogen application rate, and there was a significant interactive effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen application rate on the wheat rhizosphere respiration at jointing stage.

  18. Multisystemic functions of alkaline phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Buchet, René; Millán, José Luis; Magne, David

    2013-01-01

    Human and mouse alkaline phosphatases (AP) are encoded by a multigene family expressed ubiquitously in multiple tissues. Gene knockout (KO) findings have helped define some of the precise exocytic functions of individual isozymes in bone, teeth, the central nervous system, and in the gut. For instance, deficiency in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in mice (Alpl (-/-) mice) and humans leads to hypophosphatasia (HPP), an inborn error of metabolism characterized by epileptic seizures in the most severe cases, caused by abnormal metabolism of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (the predominant form of vitamin B6) and by hypomineralization of the skeleton and teeth featuring rickets and early loss of teeth in children or osteomalacia and dental problems in adults caused by accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Enzyme replacement therapy with mineral-targeting TNAP prevented all the manifestations of HPP in mice, and clinical trials with this protein therapeutic are showing promising results in rescuing life-threatening HPP in infants. Conversely, TNAP induction in the vasculature during generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), type II diabetes, obesity, and aging can cause medial vascular calcification. TNAP inhibitors, discussed extensively in this book, are in development to prevent pathological arterial calcification. The brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an important role in fatty acid (FA) absorption, in protecting gut barrier function, and in determining the composition of the gut microbiota via its ability to dephosphorylate lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knockout mice (Akp3 (-/-)) deficient in duodenal-specific IAP (dIAP) become obese, and develop hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). These changes are accompanied by upregulation in the jejunal-ileal expression of the Akp6 IAP isozyme (global IAP, or gIAP) and concomitant upregulation of FAT/CD36, a phosphorylated fatty acid

  19. A MEMS turbine prototype for respiration harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goreke, U.; Habibiabad, S.; Azgin, K.; Beyaz, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The design, manufacturing, and performance characterization of a MEMS-scale turbine prototype is reported. The turbine is designed for integration into a respiration harvester that can convert normal human breathing into electrical power through electromagnetic induction. The device measures 10 mm in radius, and employs 12 blades located around the turbine periphery along with ball bearings around the center. Finite element simulations showed that an average torque of 3.07 μNm is induced at 12 lpm airflow rate, which lies in normal breathing levels. The turbine and a test package were manufactured using CNC milling on PMMA. Tests were performed at respiration flow rates between 5-25 lpm. The highest rotational speed was measured to be 9.84 krpm at 25 lpm, resulting in 8.96 mbar pressure drop across the device and 370 mW actuation power.

  20. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Or; Earles, J. Mason; Secchi, Francesca; Godfrey, Jessie; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0°C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq.) cm-3 yr-1 on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics. PMID:26629819