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Sample records for alkaline battery cells

  1. Performance of alkaline battery cells used in emergency locator transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, G. A.; Sokol, S.; Motley, W. R., III; Mcclelland, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of battery power supplies for emergency locator transmitters (ELT's) were investigated by testing alkaline zinc/manganese dioxide cells of the type typically used in ELT's. Cells from four manufacturers were tested. The cells were subjected to simulated environmental and load conditions representative of those required for survival and operation. Battery cell characteristics that may contribute to ELT malfunctions and limitations were evaluated. Experimental results from the battery cell study are discussed, and an evaluation of ELT performance while operating under a representative worst-case environmental condition is presented.

  2. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  3. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  4. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

  5. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  6. Ultrafine polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers. [separators for alkaline batteries and dfuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenevey, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    Mats were made from ultrafine polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers to provide an alternate to the use of asbestos as separators in fuel cells and alkaline batteries. To minimize distortion during mat drying, a process to provide a dry fibrid was developed. Two fibrid types were developed: one coarse, making mats for battery separators; the other fine, making low permeability matrices for fuel cells. Eventually, it was demonstrated that suitable mat fabrication techniques yielded fuel cell separators from the coarser alkaline battery fibrids. The stability of PBI mats to 45% KOH at 123 C can be increased by heat treatment at high temperatures. Weight loss data to 1000 hours exposure show the alkali resistance of the mats to be superior to that of asbestos.

  7. Secondary alkaline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  8. Closed type alkaline storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hayama, H.

    1980-06-10

    The alkaline storage battery employs a metallic hat shaped terminal closure which has a piercing needle as well as a puncturable metallic diaphragm positioned below the piercing needle. The needle is fixed by caulking at its peripheral edge portion to a edge of the closure. A comparatively thick and hard metal plate is placed on the inner surface of the diaphragm and is applied to an open portion of a tubular metallic container which has a battery element. A peripheral edge portion of the closure, the diaphragm and the metallic plate are clamped in airtight relationship through a packing between the caulked end portion and an inner annular step portion of the metallic container of the battery. A lead wire extends from one polarity electrode of the battery element and is connected to a central portion of the metallic plate.

  9. Separator for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. W.; Pfluger, H. L.

    1968-01-01

    Separator compositions have been tested as components of three-plate silver-zinc oxide cells in a standard cycling test. Six materials meet imposed requirements, giving cycling performance superior to cellophane.

  10. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    PubMed

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    There is no perfect disposable battery--one that will sit on the shelf for 20 years, then continually provide unlimited current, at a completely constant voltage until exhausted, without producing heat. There is no perfect rechargeable battery--one with all of the above characteristics and will also withstand an infinite overcharge while providing an equally infinite cycle life. There are only compromises. Every battery selection is a compromise between the ideally required characteristics, the advantages, and the limitations of each battery type. General selection of a battery type to power a medical device is largely outside the purview of the biomed. Initially, these are engineering decisions made at the time of medical equipment design and are intended to be followed in perpetuity. However, since newer cell types evolve and the manufacturer's literature is fixed at the time of printing, some intelligent substitutions may be made as long as the biomed understands the characteristics of both the recommended cell and the replacement cell. For example, when the manufacturer recommends alkaline, it is usually because of the almost constant voltage it produces under the devices' design load. Over time, other battery types may be developed that will meet the intent of the manufacturer, at a lower cost, providing longer operational life, at a lower environmental cost, or with a combination of these advantages. In the Obstetrical Doppler cited at the beginning of this article, the user had put in carbon-zinc cells, and the biomed had unknowingly replaced them with carbonzinc cells. If the alkaline cells recommended by the manufacturer had been used, there would have been the proper output voltage at the battery terminals when the [table: see text] cells were at their half-life. Instead, the device refused to operate since the battery voltage was below presumed design voltage. While battery-type substitutions may be easily and relatively successfully made in disposable

  11. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  12. Polyvinyl alcohol membranes as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Manzo, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinly alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with aldehyde reagents yields membranes that demonstrate properties that make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. Film properties can be controlled by the choice of cross-linker, cross-link density and the method of cross-linking. Three methods of cross-linking and their effects on film properties are discussed. Film properties can also be modified by using a copolymer of vinyl alcohol and acrylic acid as the base for the separator and cross-linking it similarly to the PVA. Fillers can be incorporated into the films to further modify film properties. Results of separator screening tests and cell tests for several variations of PBA films are discussed.

  13. Rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesh, K.; Weissenbacher, M.

    The rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc MnO 2/Zn) system, long established commercial as a primay battery, has reached a high level of performance as a secondary battery system. The operating principles are presented and the technological achievements are surveyed by referencing the recent publications and patent literature. A review is also given of the improvements obtained with newly formulated cathodes and anodes and specially designed batteries. Supported by modelling of the cathode and anode processes and by statistical evidence during cycling of parallel/series-connected modules, the envisioned performance of the next generation of these batteries is described. The possibility of extending the practical use of the improved rechargeable MnO 2/Zn system beyond the field of small electronics into the area of power tools, and even to kW-sized power sources, is demonstrated. Finally, the commercial development in comparison with other rechargeable battery systems is examined.

  14. Separator Materials Used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries Characterized and Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium (Ni/Cd) and nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) secondary alkaline batteries are vital to aerospace applications. Battery performance and cycle life are significantly affected by the type of separators used in those batteries. A team from NASA Lewis Research Center's Electrochemical Technology Branch developed standardized testing procedures to characterize and evaluate new and existing separator materials to improve performance and cycle life of secondary alkaline batteries. Battery separators must function as good electronic insulators and as efficient electrolyte reservoirs. At present, new types of organic and inorganic separator materials are being developed for Ni/Cd and Ni/H2 batteries. The separator material previously used in the NASA standard Ni/Cd was Pellon 2505, a 100-percent nylon-6 polymer that must be treated with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to bond the fibers. Because of stricter Environmental Protection Agency regulation of ZnCl2 emissions, the battery community has been searching for new separators to replace Pellon 2505. As of today, two candidate separator materials have been identified; however, neither of the two materials have performed as well as Pellon 2505. The separator test procedures that were devised at Lewis are being implemented to expedite the search for new battery separators. The new test procedures, which are being carried out in the Separator Laboratory at Lewis, have been designed to guarantee accurate evaluations of the properties that are critical for sustaining proper battery operation. These properties include physical and chemical stability, chemical purity, gas permeability, electrolyte retention and distribution, uniformity, porosity, and area resistivity. A manual containing a detailed description of 12 separator test procedures has been drafted and will be used by the battery community to evaluate candidate separator materials for specific applications. These standardized procedures will allow for consistent, uniform

  15. Imidazolium-based Block Copolymers as Solid-State Separators for Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Jacob Richard

    In this study, polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) diblock copolymers were explored as solid-state polymer separators as an anion exchange membrane (AEM) for alkaline fuel cells AFCs and as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for lithium-ion batteries. Polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymers are a distinct set of block copolymers that combine the properties of both ionic liquids (e.g., high conductivity, high electrochemical stability) and block copolymers (e.g., self-assembly into various nanostructures), which provides the opportunity to design highly conductive robust solid-state electrolytes that can be tuned for various applications including AFCs and lithium-ion batteries via simple anion exchange. A series of bromide conducting PIL diblock copolymers with an undecyl alkyl side chain between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium moiety were first synthesized at various compositions comprising of a PIL component and a non-ionic component. Synthesis was achieved by post-functionalization from its non-ionic precursor PIL diblock copolymer, which was synthesized via the reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique. This PIL diblock copolymer with long alkyl side chains resulted in flexible, transparent films with high mechanical strength and high bromide ion conductivity. The conductivity of the PIL diblock copolymer was three times higher than its analogous PIL homopolymer and an order of magnitude higher than a similar PIL diblock copolymer with shorter alkyl side chain length, which was due to the microphase separated morphology, more specifically, water/ion clusters within the PIL microdomains in the hydrated state. Due to the high conductivity and mechanical robustness of this novel PIL block copolymer, its application as both the ionomer and AEM in an AFC was investigated via anion exchange to hydroxide (OH-), where a maximum power density of 29.3 mW cm-1 (60 °C with H2/O2 at 25 psig (172 kPa) backpressure) was achieved. Rotating disk

  16. A universial gas absorber for sealed alkaline storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tsenter, B.I.; Laurenov, V.M.

    1986-02-01

    The authors describe a universal gas absorber for all types of sealed alkaline storage batteries. The absorber is illustrated and consists of matrix-type nickel-gas cells which are connected in series, have a common gas compartment, and are electrolytically insulated from each other. The gas electrode of the nickel gas cell is bifunctional; it functions in oxygen ionization and in hydrogen ionization. The solid-phase nickel-oxide electrode is a powder-metallurgical design. Absorbers of the present type are universal, both in the sense that they will absorb oxygen, hydrogen, or a mixture of these gases, and in the sense that they can be used for sealed alkaline storage batteries of any type.

  17. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  18. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol films as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1983-01-01

    Cross-linking methods have been investigated to determine their effect on the performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films as alkaline battery separators. The following types of cross-linked PVA films are discussed: (1) PVA-dialdehyde blends post-treated with an acid or acid periodate solution (two-step method) and (2) PVA-dialdehyde blends cross-linked during film formation (drying) by using a reagent with both aldehyde and acid functionality (one-step method). Laboratory samples of each cross-linked type of film were prepared and evaluated in standard separator screening tests. Then pilot-plant batches of films were prepared and compared to measure differences due to the cross-linking method. The pilot-plant materials were then tested in nickel oxide-zinc cells to compare the two methods with respect to performance characteristics and cycle life. Cell test results are compared with those from tests with Celgard.

  19. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol films as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cross-linking methods were investigated to determine their effect on the performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films as alkaline battery separators. The following types of cross-linked PVA films are discussed: (1) PVA-dialdehyde blends post-treated with an acid or acid periodate solution (two-step method) and (2) PVA-dialdehyde blends cross-linked during film formation (drying) by using a reagent with both aldehyde and acid functionality (one-step method). Laboratory samples of each cross-linked type of film were prepared and evaluated in standard separator screening tests. The pilot-plant batches of films were prepared and compared to measure differences due to the cross-linking method. The pilot-plant materials were then tested in nickel oxide - zinc cells to compare the two methods with respect to performance characteristics and cycle life. Cell test results are compared with those from tests with Celgard.

  20. Rechargeable alkaline zinc/ferricyanide hybrid redox battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, G. B.; Hollandsworth, R. P.; Littauer, E. L.

    It is noted that the zinc/ferricyanide battery system is intended for utility load leveling and solar photovoltaic/wind applications, offering such advantages as high cell voltage, near-ambient temperature operation, flowing alkaline electrolyte, low-cost reactant storage, low toxicity, potentially long cycle life, and low projected capital costs. The system is found to demonstrate excellent electrochemical performance. Cell voltages are 1.94 V on charge and 1.78 V on discharge at 35 mA/sq cm, and the peak power density is of 4.5 kW/sq m. Cell polarization losses are due almost entirely to IR within the separator material. At 40 C a mean energy efficiency of 84% is obtained after 950 4-hour cycles. An economic analysis suggests a battery selling price of $32/kWh, an installed price of $230/kW, and a footprint of 8.7 kWh per square foot as realistic goals for a 20 MW, 100 MWh system.

  1. Separator for alkaline batteries and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    The preparation of membranes suitable for use as separators in concentrated alkaline battery cells by selective solvolysis of copolymers of methacrylate esters with acrylate esters followed by addition of a base and to the resultant products is described. The method of making copolymers by first copolymerizing a methacrylate ester (or esters) with a more readily hydrolyzable ester, followed by a selective saponification whereby the methacrylate ester moieties remain essentially intact and the readily hydrolyzable ester moiety is suponified and to the partial or complete neutralization of the relatively brittle copolymer acid with a base to make membranes which are sufficiently flexible in the dry state so that they may be wrapped around electrodes without damage by handling is described.

  2. An improved bifunctional oxygen (air) electrode for reversible alkaline fuel cell systems and for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, K.; Steininger, K.-H.; Tomantschger, K.

    1988-10-01

    Electrodes with a nickel layer of dual pore structure on the electrolyte side and a PTFE-bonded carbon layer on the oxygen (air) side are discussed, with application to space energy storage. During the electrolyis stage, the oxygen fills the large pores of the porous Ni structure with gas. During the discharge cycle, the iron/air or zinc/air cell of the carbon layer operates as a regular oxygen electrode.

  3. Battery-package design provides for cell cooling and constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1968-01-01

    Lightweight battery-package provides for even cooling of individual alkaline cells, constraint against cell expansion, and convenient placement of cells. The battery package also provides for venting of the cells and includes instrumentation to measure cell temperature, pressure, and voltage.

  4. Coated magnetic particles in electrochemical systems: Synthesis, modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and paste electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unlu, Murat

    Magnetic field effects on electrochemical reactions have been studied and shown to influence kinetics and dynamics. Recently, our group has introduced a novel method to establish magnetic field effects by incorporating inert, magnetic microparticles onto the electrode structure. This modification improved several electrochemical systems including modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and fuel cells. This dissertation describes the applicability of magnetic microparticles and the understanding of magnetic field effects in modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and paste electrodes. Magnetic effects are studied on electrodes that are coated with an ion exchange polymer that embeds chemically inert, commercial, magnetic microparticles. The flux (electrolysis current) of redox probe to the magnetically modified system is compared to a similar non-magnetic electrode. Flux enhancements of 60% are achieved at magnetically modified electrode as compared to non-magnetic controls. In addition to modifying electrode surfaces, the incorporation of magnetic microparticles into the electrode material itself establishes a 20% increase in flux. Possible magnetic field effects are evaluated. Study of samarium cobalt modified electrolytic manganese dioxide, EMD electrodes further establish a magnetic effect on alkaline cathode performance. Magnetic modification improves alkaline battery performance in primary and secondary applications. The reaction mechanism is examined through voltammetric methods. This work also includes coating protocols to produce inert magnetic microparticles with high magnetic content. Magnetite powders are encapsulated in a polymer matrix by dispersion polymerization. Composite particles are examined in proton exchange membrane fuel cells to study carbon monoxide tolerance.

  5. Real-time materials evolution visualized within intact cycling alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaway, JW; Erdonmez, CK; Zhong, Z; Croft, M; Sviridov, LA; Sholklapper, TZ; Turney, DE; Banerjee, S; Steingart, DA

    2014-01-01

    The scientific community has focused on the problem of inexpensive, safe, and sustainable large-scale electrical energy storage, which is needed for a number of emerging societal reasons such as stabilizing intermittent renewables-based generation like solar and wind power. The materials used for large-scale storage will need to be low cost, earth-abundant, and safe at the desired scale. The Zn-MnO2 "alkaline" battery chemistry is associated with one-time use, despite being rechargeable. This is due to material irreversibilities that can be triggered in either the anode or cathode. However, as Zn and MnO2 have high energy density and low cost, they are economically attractive even at limited depth of discharge. As received, a standard bobbin-type alkaline cell costs roughly $20 per kW h. The U. S. Department of Energy ARPA-E $100 per kW h cost target for grid storage is thus close to the cost of alkaline consumer primary cells if re-engineered and/or cycled at 5-20% nominal capacity. Herein we use a deeply-penetrating in situ technique to observe ZnO precipitation near the separator in an alkaline cell anode cycled at 5% DOD, which is consistent with cell failures observed at high cycle life. Alkaline cells designed to avoid such causes of cell failure could serve as a low-cost baseload for large-scale storage.

  6. Battery cell for a primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, A.

    1984-12-11

    A battery cell for a primary battery, particularly a flat cell battery to be activated on being taken into use, e.g., when submerged into water. The battery cell comprises a positive current collector and a negative electrode. A separator layer which, being in contact with the negative electrode, is disposed between said negative electrode and the positive current collector. A depolarizing layer containing a depolarizing agent is disposed between the positive current collector and the separate layer. An intermediate layer of a porous, electrically insulating, and water-absorbing material is disposed next to the positive current collector and arranged in contact with the depolarizing agent.

  7. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  8. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkind, A. J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W. A.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve type silver zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO2 and several nickel electrodes for nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities. After the first discharge AgNiO2 can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)2 largely eliminate this.

  9. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  10. Aqueous Rechargeable Alkaline CoxNi2-xS2/TiO2 Battery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Ku, Zhiliang; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Lili; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-26

    An electrochemical energy storage system with high energy density, stringent safety, and reliability is highly desirable for next-generation energy storage devices. Here an aqueous rechargeable alkaline CoxNi2-xS2 // TiO2 battery system is designed by integrating two reversible electrode processes associated with OH(-) insertion/extraction in the cathode part and Li ion insertion/extraction in the anode part, respectively. The prototype CoxNi2-xS2 // TiO2 battery is able to deliver high energy/power densities of 83.7 Wh/kg at 609 W/kg (based on the total mass of active materials) and good cycling stabilities (capacity retention 75.2% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles). A maximum volumetric energy density of 21 Wh/l (based on the whole packaged cell) has been achieved, which is comparable to that of a thin-film battery and better than that of typical commercial supercapacitors, benefiting from the unique battery and hierarchical electrode design. This hybrid system would enrich the existing aqueous rechargeable LIB chemistry and be a promising battery technology for large-scale energy storage.

  11. Separator for alkaline electric batteries and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor); Hoyt, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Battery separator membranes of high electrolytic conductivity comprising a cellulose ether and a compatible metallic salt of water soluble aliphatic acids and their hydroxy derivatives are described. It was found that methyl cellulose can be modified by another class of materials, nonpolymeric in nature, to form battery separator membranes of low electrolytic resistance but which have the flexibility of membranes made of unmodified methyl cellulose, and which in many cases enhance flexibility over membranes made with unmodified methyl cellulose. Separator membranes for electrochemical cells comprising a cellulose ether and a modified selected from the group consisting of metallic salts of water soluble alphatic acids and their hydroxy derivatives and to electrochemical cells utilizing said membranes are described.

  12. Simultaneous recovery of zinc and manganese dioxide from household alkaline batteries through hydrometallurgical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Cleusa Cristina Bueno Martha; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

    This paper describes the leaching experiments and the electrowinning tests to recover Zn and Mn from spent household alkaline batteries. After the dismantling of the batteries, the black powder was analyzed and found to contain 21 wt.% Zn and 45%wt. Mn. Therefore, it was considered that recovery of these metals would be interesting due to their relatively large amounts in this kind of waste. Batch laboratory experiments were carried out to develop an acid leaching procedure and to determine appropriate leaching conditions to maximize zinc extraction and to study the leaching behavior of Mn. An experimental study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous recovery of zinc and particulate manganese dioxide using a laboratory cell. The results from these electrowinning experiments are also presented in this paper.

  13. The relationship between coefficient of restitution and state of charge of zinc alkaline primary LR6 batteries [Bouncing alkaline batteries: A basic solution

    DOE PAGES

    Bhadra, S.; Hertzberg, B. J.; Croft, M.; ...

    2015-03-13

    The coefficient of restitution of alkaline batteries had been shown to increase as a function of depth of discharge. In this work, using non-destructive mechanical testing, the change in coefficient of restitution is compared to in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction data to determine the cause of the macroscopic change in coefficient of restitution. The increase in coefficient of restitution correlates to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO within the anode of the cell, and that the coefficient of restitution saturates at a value of 0.63 ± .05 at 50% state if charge when the anode has densified intomore » porous ZnO solid. Of note is the sensitivity of coefficient of restitution to the amount of ZnO formation that rivals the sensitivity on in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction spectroscopy.« less

  14. The relationship between coefficient of restitution and state of charge of zinc alkaline primary LR6 batteries [Bouncing alkaline batteries: A basic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadra, S.; Hertzberg, B. J.; Croft, M.; Gallaway, J. W.; Van Tassell, B. J.; Chamoun, M.; Erdonmez, C.; Zhong, Z.; Steingart, D. A.

    2015-03-13

    The coefficient of restitution of alkaline batteries had been shown to increase as a function of depth of discharge. In this work, using non-destructive mechanical testing, the change in coefficient of restitution is compared to in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction data to determine the cause of the macroscopic change in coefficient of restitution. The increase in coefficient of restitution correlates to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO within the anode of the cell, and that the coefficient of restitution saturates at a value of 0.63 ± .05 at 50% state if charge when the anode has densified into porous ZnO solid. Of note is the sensitivity of coefficient of restitution to the amount of ZnO formation that rivals the sensitivity on in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction spectroscopy.

  15. Alkaline composite PEO-PVA-glass-fibre-mat polymer electrolyte for Zn-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Lin, Sheng-Jen

    An alkaline composite PEO-PVA-glass-fibre-mat polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity (10 -2 S cm -1) at room temperature has been prepared and applied to solid-state primary Zn-air batteries. The electrolyte shows excellent mechanical strength. The electrochemical characteristics of the batteries were experimentally investigated by means of ac impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic discharge. The results indicate that the PEO-PVA-glass-fibre-mat composite polymer electrolyte is a promising candidate for application in alkaline primary Zn-air batteries.

  16. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  17. Corrosion and anodic behaviour of zinc and its ternary alloys in alkaline battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Kannan, A. R.; Muralidharan, S.; Sarangapani, K. B.; Balaramachandran, V.; Kapali, V.

    Several attempts are being made to avoid the use of mercury-bearing zinc/zinc alloys as anodes in alkaline power sources. The work presented here suggests the possible use of some ternary alloys based on zinc of purity 99.9 to 99.95 wt.% as anodes in 10 M NaOH solution with sodium citrate, sodium stannate and calcium oxide as complexing agents and inhibitors. The corrosion of zinc and its alloys in 10 M NaOH solution is under cathodic control; in other alkaline electrolytes, it is under anodic control. Anode efficiency of up to 99.0% is achieved. The corrosion rates of zinc and its alloys are found to be comparable with those of mercury-bearing zinc in the chosen electrolytes. It is concluded that both dry cells and Zn-air batteries can be constructed with the above anodes and alkaline electrolytes. Thus, the presence of mercury, either in the anode or in the electrolyte, is avoided.

  18. Electrodeposition of preferentially oriented zinc for flow-assisted alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, D; Wei, X; Steingart, DA; Banerjee, S

    2014-06-15

    Preferred orientation of zinc deposits during charging is shown to significantly improve performance and cycle life in flow-assisted alkaline zinc batteries, which has not been demonstrated earlier. The preferred orientation of zinc deposits was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compact zinc is found to have (11 (2) over bar2) preferred orientation on brass, which contributes to similar to 60% of the texture. The effect of charging current and zincate concentration on morphology was investigated in a rotating hull cell and correlated with anodic efficiency. Compact zinc deposits are found to have a fine-grained, bright finish and the highest anodic efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) proves that compact zinc corresponds to the minimum in the half-cell resistance. Morphological control using compact zinc could be accomplished using innovations such as pulse charging or enhanced mass-transfer to improve anode performance without affecting the cathode. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  20. Test Procedures for Characterizing, Evaluating, and Managing Separator Materials used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guasp, Edwin; Manzo, Michelle A.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary alkaline batteries, such as nickel-cadmium and silver-zinc, are commonly used for aerospace applications. The uniform evaluation and comparison of separator properties for these systems is dependent upon the measurement techniques. This manual presents a series of standard test procedures that can be used to evaluate, compare, and select separator materials for use in alkaline batteries. Detailed test procedures evaluating the following characteristics are included in this manual: physical measurements of thickness and area weight, dimensional stability measurements, electrolyte retention, resistivity, permeability as measured via bubble pressure, surface evaluation via SEM, chemical stability, and tensile strength.

  1. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  2. A facile chemical route for recovery of high quality zinc oxide nanoparticles from spent alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Deep, Akash; Sharma, Amit L; Mohanta, Girish C; Kumar, Parveen; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Recycling of spent domestic batteries has gained a great environmental significance. In the present research, we propose a new and simple technique for the recovery of high-purity zinc oxide nanoparticles from the electrode waste of spent alkaline Zn-MnO2 batteries. The electrode material was collected by the manual dismantling and mixed with 5M HCl for reaction with a phosphine oxide reagent Cyanex 923® at 250°C for 30min. The desired ZnO nanoparticles were restored from the Zn-Cyanex 923 complex through an ethanolic precipitation step. The recovered particle product with about 5nm diameter exhibited fluorescent properties (emission peak at 400nm) when excited by UV radiation (excitation energy of 300nm). Thus, the proposed technique offered a simple and efficient route for recovering high purity ZnO nanoparticles from spent alkaline batteries.

  3. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Manuel F; Xará, Susana M; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1h at 1273K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  4. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Manuel F. Xara, Susana M.; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A.

    2009-01-15

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1 h at 1273 K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300 K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  5. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOEpatents

    Coco, Isabelle; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  6. Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

  7. Design Principles for Nickel/Hydrogen Cells and Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, Olga D.

    1987-01-01

    Individual-pressure-vessel (IPV) nickel/hydrogen cells and bipolar batteries developed for use as energy-storage subsystems for satelite applications. Design principles applied draw upon extensive background in separator technology, alkaline-fuel-cell technology and several alkaline-cell technology areas. Principals are rather straightforward applications of capillary-force formalisms, coupled with slowly developing data base resulting from careful post-test analyses. Based on preconceived assumptions relative to how devices work and how to be designed so they display longer cycle lives at deep discharge.

  8. The choice of low-temperature hydrogen fuel cells: Acidic - or alkaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, K.

    A comparison of the major types of hydrogen-oxygen (air) fuel cells is given. The criteria for the selection is the fuel availability, system performance, optimal cost and life expectancy in most suitable application areas. Special recommendations are given for designs of bipolar alkaline batteries for intermittent use in electric vehicles on the road, combining high conversion efficiency with long stand-by periods. Such batteries with liquid alkaline electrolytes will have to compete with matrix-type cells using improved acidic- or membrane-type cells. Hybrid systems will be discussed and their advantages from the economic point of view will be considered. In electric vehicles the combination with an advanced rechargeable battery system, like zinc-bromine, could be decisive for success. Unfortunately, there are not enough cost data available to compare the systems now.

  9. Direct Solar Charging of an Organic-Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode.

    PubMed

    Wedege, Kristina; Azevedo, João; Khataee, Amirreza; Bentien, Anders; Mendes, Adélio

    2016-06-13

    The intermittent nature of the sunlight and its increasing contribution to electricity generation is fostering the energy storage research. Direct solar charging of an auspicious type of redox flow battery could make solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. The first solar aqueous alkaline redox flow battery using low cost and environmentally safe materials is demonstrated. The electrolytes consist of the redox couples ferrocyanide and anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate in sodium hydroxide solution, yielding a standard cell potential of 0.74 V. Photovoltage enhancement strategies are demonstrated for the ferrocyanide-hematite junction by employing an annealing treatment and growing a layer of a conductive polyaniline polymer on the electrode surface, which decreases electron-hole recombination.

  10. Direct Solar Charging of an Organic–Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode

    PubMed Central

    Wedege, Kristina; Azevedo, João; Khataee, Amirreza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The intermittent nature of the sunlight and its increasing contribution to electricity generation is fostering the energy storage research. Direct solar charging of an auspicious type of redox flow battery could make solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. The first solar aqueous alkaline redox flow battery using low cost and environmentally safe materials is demonstrated. The electrolytes consist of the redox couples ferrocyanide and anthraquinone‐2,7‐disulphonate in sodium hydroxide solution, yielding a standard cell potential of 0.74 V. Photovoltage enhancement strategies are demonstrated for the ferrocyanide‐hematite junction by employing an annealing treatment and growing a layer of a conductive polyaniline polymer on the electrode surface, which decreases electron–hole recombination. PMID:27151516

  11. Intrinsic borohydride fuel cell/battery hybrid power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jian; Fang, Bin; Wang, Chunsheng; Currie, Kenneth

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of NaBH 4 on Zn, Zn-MH, and MH (metal-hydride) electrodes were investigated, and an intrinsic direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC)/battery hybrid power source using MH (or Zn-MH) as the anode and MnO 2 as the cathode was tested. Borohydride cannot be effectively oxidized on Zn electrodes at the Zn oxidation potential because of the poor electrocatalytic ability of Zn for borohydride oxidation and the high overpotential, even though borohydride has the same oxidation potential of Zn in an alkaline solution. The borohydride can be electrochemically oxidized on Ni and MH electrodes through a 4e reaction at a high overpotential. Simply adding borohydride into an alkaline electrolyte of a Zn/air or MH/air battery can greatly increase the capacity, while an intrinsic DBFC/MH(or Zn)-MnO 2 battery can deliver a higher peak power than regular DBFCs.

  12. Factors influence flexibility resistivity and zinc dendrite penetration rate of inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Developmental work resulted in a formulation which can improve the flexibility of the inorganic-organic-type separator for silver-zinc and nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The effects of various fillers and reactive organic additives on separator volume resistivity are described. The effects of various inert fillers on the zinc dendrite penetration rate of the separator are shown. Conclusions regarding the operating mechanism of the separator are presented.

  13. Design principles for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel hydrogen cells, and more recently, bipolar batteries have been built by a variety of organizations. The design principles that have been used by the technology group at the Lewis Research Center draw upon their extensive background in separator technology, alkaline fuel cell technology, and several alkaline cell technology areas. These design principles have been incorporated into both the more contemporary individual pressure vessel (IPV) designs that were pioneered by other groups, as well as the more recent bipolar battery designs using active cooling that are being developed at LeRC and their contractors. These principles are rather straightforward applications of capillary force formalisms, coupled with the slowly developing data base resulting from careful post test analyses. The objective of this overall effort is directed towards the low Earth orbit (LEO) application where the cycle life requirements are much more severe than the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) application. Nickel hydrogen cells have already been successfully flown in an increasing number of GEO missions.

  14. Electrochemical behaviour of addition agents impregnated in cadmium hydroxide electrodes for alkaline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaignan, G. Paruthimal; Umaprakatheeswaran, C.; Muralidharan, B.; Gopalan, A.; Vasudevan, T.

    The development of electrode additives for the cadmium electrode of the nickel/cadmium battery is aimed mainly at increasing the discharge capacity and minimizing self-discharge. The dissolution and passivation of porous cadmium electrodes containing hydroxide and the relative stability of oxides are of importance in understanding the reversible behaviour of the cadmium electrode. Under standard conditions, the equilibrium potential of Cd(OH) 2/Cd lies above the hydrogen-evolution reaction when the cell is not in use, and the active material of the cadmium electrode undergoes self-reductive dissolution (i.e., loss of active material) accompanied by oxygen evolution. The triangular potential sweep voltammetric technique is used to determine the reversibility of the cadmium electrode in alkaline solution. The role of additives such as Ni(NO 3) 2 (0.25-0.1 M) and FeSO 4 (0.1-0.4 M), TiO 2 (0.01-0.03 M) and Na 2S (0.01-0.03 M) in Cd(NO 3) 2 on the reversibility of the electrode are discussed. The effect of discharge rate on the cyclic efficiency is also investigated. Self-discharge currents are determined by potentiostatic polarization method.

  15. Development of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A two task program was initiated to develop advanced fuel cell components which could be assembled into an alkaline power section for the Space Station Prototype (SSP) fuel cell subsystem. The first task was to establish a preliminary SSP power section design to be representative of the 200 cell Space Station power section. The second task was to conduct tooling and fabrication trials and fabrication of selected cell stack components. A lightweight, reliable cell stack design suitable for the SSP regenerative fuel cell power plant was completed. The design meets NASA's preliminary requirements for future multikilowatt Space Station missions. Cell stack component fabrication and tooling trials demonstrated cell components of the SSP stack design of the 1.0 sq ft area can be manufactured using techniques and methods previously evaluated and developed.

  16. Development of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-03-01

    A two task program was initiated to develop advanced fuel cell components which could be assembled into an alkaline power section for the Space Station Prototype (SSP) fuel cell subsystem. The first task was to establish a preliminary SSP power section design to be representative of the 200 cell Space Station power section. The second task was to conduct tooling and fabrication trials and fabrication of selected cell stack components. A lightweight, reliable cell stack design suitable for the SSP regenerative fuel cell power plant was completed. The design meets NASA's preliminary requirements for future multikilowatt Space Station missions. Cell stack component fabrication and tooling trials demonstrated cell components of the SSP stack design of the 1.0 sq ft area can be manufactured using techniques and methods previously evaluated and developed.

  17. Alkaline battery containing a separator of a cross-linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol and unsaturated carboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C.; Philipp, W. H.; Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A battery separator for an alkaline battery is described. The separator comprises a cross linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol units and unsaturated carboxylic acid units. The cross linked copolymer is insoluble in water, has excellent zincate diffusion and oxygen gas barrier properties and a low electrical resistivity. Cross linking with a polyaldehyde cross linking agent is preferred.

  18. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  19. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  20. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  1. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  2. Batteries and fuel cells: Design, employment, chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euler, K.-J.

    The history of electrochemical current sources is considered along with primary cells, standard cells, high-energy primary cells, high-energy storage batteries, and fuel cells. Aspects of battery research and development are also discussed, taking into account general considerations related to technological development projects, the introduction of mathematical methods into battery research, resistance measurements, autoradiography and other radiochemical methods, color photography as an aid in research, electron microscopy, X-ray and electron diffraction, spin resonance methods, and electrical measurements involving powders. Attention is given to zinc/manganese dioxide cells, zinc/mercury cells, zinc/silver oxide primary cells, cells utilizing atmospheric oxygen, lead-acid batteries, nickel-iron and nickel-cadmium storage batteries, zinc/silver storage batteries, dry cells with organic depolarizers, dry cells with solid electrolyte, and storage batteries utilizing hydrogen.

  3. Thermodynamic model for an alkaline fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaert, Ivan; De Paepe, Michel; Mulder, Grietus

    Alkaline fuel cells are low temperature fuel cells for which stationary applications, e.g. cogeneration in buildings, are a promising market. In order to guarantee a long life, water and thermal management has to be done in a careful way. In order to better understand the water, alkali and thermal flows, a two-dimensional model for an Alkaline Fuel Cell is developed using a control volume approach. In each volume the electrochemical reactions together with the mass and energy balance are solved. The model is created in Aspen Custom Modeller, the development environment of Aspen Plus, where special attention is given to the physical flow of hydrogen, water and air in the system. In this way the developed component, the AFC-cell, can be built into stack configurations to understand its effect on the overall performance. The model is validated by experimental data from measured performance by VITO with their Cell Voltage Monitor at a test case, where the AFC-unit is used as a cogeneration unit.

  4. Degradation modes of alkaline fuel cells and their components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomantschger, Klaus; Findlay, Robert; Hanson, Michael; Kordesch, Karl; Srinivasan, Supramaniam

    The performance and life-limiting parameters of multilayer polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bonded carbon air cathodes and hydrogen anodes, developed at the Institute for Hydrogen Systems (IHS) for use in low temperature alkaline electrolyte fuel cells (AFC) and batteries, were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy spectroscopy (XES), electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), microcalorimetry and intrusion porosimetry techniques in conjunction with electrochemical testing methods were used to characterize electrode components, electrodes and alkaline fuel cells. The lifetime of air cathodes is mainly limited by carbon corrosion and structural degradation, while that of hydrogen anodes is frequently limited by electrocatalyst problems and structural degradation. The PTFE binder was also found to degrade in both the cathodes and the anodes. The internal resistance, which was found to generally increase in AFCs in particular between the cathode and the current collector, can be minimized by the proper choice of materials. Temperature cycling of AFCs may result in mechanical problems; however, these problems can be overcome by using AFC components with compatible thermal expansion coefficients.

  5. Process for the recycling of alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferella, Francesco; De Michelis, Ida; Vegliò, Francesco

    In this paper a recycling process for the recovery of zinc and manganese from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries is proposed. Laboratory tests are performed to obtain a purified pregnant solution from which metallic zinc (purity 99.6%) can be recovered by electrolysis; manganese is recovered as a mixture of oxides by roasting of solid residue coming from the leaching stage. Nearly 99% of zinc and 20% of manganese are extracted after 3 h, at 80 °C with 10% w/v pulp density and 1.5 M sulphuric acid concentration. The leach liquor is purified by a selective precipitation of iron, whereas metallic impurities, such as copper, nickel and cadmium are removed by cementation with zinc powder. The solid residue of leaching is roasted for 30 min at 900 °C, removing graphite completely and obtaining a mixture of Mn 3O 4 and Mn 2O 3 with 70% grade of Mn. After that a technical-economic assessment is carried out for a recycling plant with a feed capacity of 5000 t y -1 of only alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries. This analysis shows the economic feasibility of that plant, supposing a battery price surcharge of 0.5 € kg -1, with a return on investment of 34.5%, gross margin of 35.8% and around 3 years payback time.

  6. Life cycle assessment of three different management options for spent alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Xará, Susana; Almeida, Manuel Fonseca; Costa, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    The potential environmental impact of Landfilling, Incineration and Recycling of spent household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal was compared using LCA methodology and the Recipe Impact Assessment method. Major contributors and improvement opportunities for each system were identified and scenarios for 2012 and 2016 legislation targets were evaluated. For 13 out of the 18 impact categories, the Recycling system is the worst alternative, Incineration is the worst option for 4 and Landfill is the worst option only for one impact category. However if additionally in each system the recovery of materials and energy is taken into account there is a noticeable advantage of the Recycling system for all the impact categories. The environmental profiles for 2012 and 2016 scenarios (25% and 45% recycling rates, respectively) show the dominance of the Recycling system for most of the impact categories. Based on the results of this study, it is questioned whether there are environmental benefits of recycling abroad the household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal and, since the low environmental performance of the Recycling system is particularly due to the international transport of the batteries to the recycling plant, is foreseen that a recycling facility located in Portugal, could bring a positive contribution to the environmental impact of the legislation compliance.

  7. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  8. High voltage battery cell scanner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepisto, J. W.; Decker, D. K.; Graves, J.

    1983-01-01

    Battery cell voltage scanners have been previously used in low voltage spacecraft applications. In connection with future missions involving an employment of high-power high voltage power subsystems and/or autonomous power subsystem management for unattended operation, it will be necessary to utilize battery cell voltage scanners to provide battery cell voltage information for early detection of impending battery cell degradation/failures. In preparation for such missions, a novel battery cell voltage scanner design has been developed. The novel design makes use of low voltage circuit modules which can be applied to high voltage batteries in a building block fashion. A description is presented of the design concept and test results of the high voltage battery cell scanner, and its operation with an autonomously managed power subsystem is discussed.

  9. Development of a hydrometallurgical route for the recovery of zinc and manganese from spent alkaline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloso, Leonardo Roger Silva; Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo; Ferreira, Daniel Alvarenga; Magalhães, Fernando Silva; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    A hydrometallurgical route is proposed in this paper for the selective separation of zinc and manganese from spent alkaline batteries. The recycling route comprises the following steps: (1) batteries dismantling to separate the spent batteries dust from other components (iron scraps, plastic and paper), (2) grinding of the batteries dust to produce a black homogeneous powder, (3) leaching of the powder in two sequential steps, "neutral leaching with water" to separate potassium and produce a KOH solution, followed by an "acidic leaching with sulphuric acid" to remove zinc and manganese from the powder, and (4) selective precipitation of zinc and manganese using the KOH solution (pH around 11) produced in the neutral leaching step. For the acidic leaching step, two alternative routes have been investigated (selective leaching of zinc and total leaching) with regard to the following operational variables: temperature, time, sulphuric acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and solid/liquid ratio. The results obtained in this study have shown that the proposed route is technically simple, versatile and provides efficient separation of zinc and manganese.

  10. Multi-cell storage battery

    DOEpatents

    Brohm, Thomas; Bottcher, Friedhelm

    2000-01-01

    A multi-cell storage battery, in particular to a lithium storage battery, which contains a temperature control device and in which groups of one or more individual cells arranged alongside one another are separated from one another by a thermally insulating solid layer whose coefficient of thermal conductivity lies between 0.01 and 0.2 W/(m*K), the thermal resistance of the solid layer being greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell. The individual cell is connected, at least in a region free of insulating material, to a heat exchanger, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger in the direction toward the neighboring cell being selected to be greater by at least a factor .lambda. than the thermal resistance of the individual cell and, in addition, the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger toward the temperature control medium being selected to be smaller by at least a factor of about 10 than the thermal resistance of the individual cell, and .lambda. being the ratio of the energy content of the individual cell to the amount of energy that is needed to trigger a thermally induced cell failure at a defined upper operating temperature limit.

  11. Advanced-capability alkaline fuel cell powerplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    The alkaline fuel cell powerplant utilized in the Space Shuttle Orbiter has established an excellent performance and reliability record over the past decade. Recent AFC technology programs have demonstrated significant advances in cell durability and power density. These capabilities provide the basis for substantial improvement of the Orbiter powerplant, enabling new mission applications as well as enhancing performance in the Orbiter. Improved durability would extend the powerplant's time between overhaul fivefold, and permit longer-duration missions. The powerplant would also be a strong candidate for lunar/planetary surface power systems. Higher power capability would enable replacement of the Orbiter's auxiliary power units with electric motors, and benefits mass-critical applications such as the National AeroSpace Plane.

  12. The relationship between coefficient of restitution and state of charge of zinc alkaline primary LR6 batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadra, S; Hertzberg, BJ; Hsieh, AG; Croft, M; Gallaway, JW; Van Tassell, BJ; Chamoun, M; Erdonmez, C; Zhong, Z; Sholklapper, T; Steingart, DA

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient of restitution of alkaline batteries has been shown to increase as a function of depth of discharge. In this work, using non-destructive mechanical testing, the change in coefficient of restitution is compared to in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction data to determine the cause of the macroscopic change in coefficient of restitution. The increase in coefficient of restitution correlates to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO within the anode of the cell, and the coefficient of restitution levels off at a value of 0.66 +/- 0.02 at 50% state of charge when the anode has densified into porous ZnO solid. Of note is the sensitivity of coefficient of restitution to the amount of ZnO formation that rivals the sensitivity of in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction.

  13. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-09-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  14. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  15. Alkaline zinc battery having improved shelf-life, rechargeability, charge retention and capacity retention

    SciTech Connect

    Dantam, T.M.; Jones, R.A.

    1990-08-14

    This paper discusses an improvement in an alkaline zinc galvanic rechargeable cell comprising a zinc electrode having a copper-containing conductor embedded in a zinc-rich active material, a counterelectrode spaced from the zinc electrode, and a concentrated, aqueous alkaline electrolyte permeating the active material and bridging the space between the electrodes. The improvement comprises the electrolyte including sufficient benzotriazole to suppress dissolution of the copper from the conductor when the zinc electrode is substantially fully discharged and thereby extend the shelf-life and improve the rechargeability and charge retention of the cell following prolonged periods in such discharged state.

  16. Selective leaching of Zn from spent alkaline batteries using environmentally friendly approaches.

    PubMed

    Maryam Sadeghi, S; Vanpeteghem, Guillaumme; Neto, Isabel F F; Soares, Helena M V M

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using microwave or ultrasound to assist the efficient and selective leaching of Zn from spent alkaline batteries and compare the results with those obtained using the conventional method. Two different strategies were applied: acid leaching of a washed residue and alkaline leaching of the original residue. In both (acid and alkaline) approaches, the use of microwave- or ultrasound-assisted leaching increased the extraction of Zn compared with the best results obtained using conventional leaching [acid leaching (1.5mol/L H2SO4, 3h, 80°C), 90% of Zn extracted; alkaline leaching (6mol/L NaOH, 3h, 80°C), 42% of Zn extracted]. With acid leaching, 94% of the Zn was extracted using microwave-assisted leaching (1 cycle, 30s, 1mol/L H2SO4), and 92% of the Zn was extracted using ultrasound-assisted leaching (2min, 0.1p, 20% amplitude, 1mol/L H2SO4). Ultrasound-assisted leaching resulted in a more selective (Zn/Mn ratio of 5.1) Zn extraction than microwave-assisted leaching (Zn/Mn ratio of 3.5); both processes generated a concentrated Zn solution (⩾18.7g/L) with a purity (83.3% and 77.7%, respectively) that was suitable for electrowinning. With alkaline leaching, microwave- (1 cycle, 3 min, 4mol/L NaOH) and ultrasound-assisted (14min, 0.1p, 20% amplitude, 4mol/L NaOH) leaching extracted about 80% of the Zn and less than 0.01% of the Mn, which resulted in lesser concentrated Zn solutions (approximately 16.5g/L) but with high purity (>99.5%) that was suitable for the recovery of Zn by precipitation. The microwave- and ultrasound-assisted leaching strategies used in this work proved to be efficient and environmentally-friendly approaches for the extraction of Zn from spent alkaline residues since a concentrated Zn solution with adequate purity for subsequent Zn recovery was obtained using significantly decreased leaching times and concentrations of chemicals.

  17. Light Weight Design Nickel-Alkaline Cells Using Fiber Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, David F.; Willis, Bob; Britton, Doris; Saelens, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Using fiber electrode technology, currently produced by Bekaert Corporation (Bekaert), Electro Energy, Inc., (EEI) Mobile Energy Products Group (formerly, Eagle-Picher Technologies, LLC., Power Systems Department) in Colorado Springs, CO has demonstrated that it is feasible to manufacture flight weight nickel-hydrogen cells having about twice the specific energy (80 vs. 40 watt-hr/kg) as state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen cells that are flown on geosynchronous communications satellites. Although lithium-ion battery technology has made large in-roads to replace the nickel-alkaline technology (nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride), the technology offered here competes with lithium-ion weight and offers alternatives not present in the lithium-ion chemistry such as ability to undergo continuous overcharge, reversal on discharge and sustain rate capability sufficient to start automotive and aircraft engines at subzero temperatures. In development to date seven 50 ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen have been constructed, acceptance tested and briefly tested in a low earth orbit (LEO) cycle regime. The effort was jointly funded by Electro Energy, Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH. Five of the seven cells have been shipped to NASA GRC for further cycle testing. Two of the cells experienced failure due to internal short circuits during initial cycle testing at EEL Destructive Physical Analysis (DPA) of one of the cells has shown the failure mode to be due to inadequate hydrogen catalyst electrodes that were not capacity balanced with the higher energy density nickel oxide electrodes. In the investigators opinion, rebuild of the cells using proper electrode balance would result in cells that could sustain over 30,000 cycles at moderate depths-of-discharge in a LEO regime or endure over 20 years of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) cycling while realizing a two-fold increase in specific energy for the battery or a 1.1 kg weight savings per 50 ampere-hour cell. Additional

  18. Long life expectancy of alkaline fuel cells in hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kordesch, K.; Gsellmann, J.; Aronson, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    The alkaline Hydrogen-Air fuel cell system with circulating KOH-electrolyte and low-cost catalyzed carbon electrodes has a simple design and a good efficiency (high voltage). With new electrodes current densities of 200 to 300 mA/cm 2 are expected with air operation at 80 o C. The Austin A-40 City Car Hybrid vehicle which K. Kordesch operated on public roads for 3 years, demonstrated already in the early 1970s that the useful life of the alkaline system with circulating electrolyte can be increased by completely shutting down the fuel cell part of an AFC-lead-acid battery hybrid system. In this way, only the operating hours during driving time of the vehicle are counting and the electrode deterioration processes going on at open circuit (e.g. carbon oxidation, deep wetting of the electrode interface, parasitic current phenomena, etc.) are reduced. Like with a combustion engine, 3000--4000 actual operating hours are what are required for 200.000 km driving. The stacks, which use low-cost modular cell units, could be replaced after that. Another objective is to lower the fuel cell system cost on a mass production scale to the range of $ 100 to 150 per kW, which is then competitive with car engines, which cost only $ 50 to 75 per kW. No other fuel cell system could even approach such cost estimates. For reasons demanded by space requirements the historic development of AFC's shifted to matrix AFC systems. However, for terrestrial applications the use of circulation systems is more advantageous for thermal and water management. Jet pumps are usable for providing a load-dependent gas circulation. The exchangeability of the KOH makes it possible to operate on air with a less than complete removal of the CO{sub 2}. Cell reversal of series-connected cells, a frequent failure mode during shut-down and starting, is one of the main causes for the short life of electrodes in a high voltage stack. It can be prevented by a parallel, potential providing circuit.

  19. The fabrication of a bifunctional oxygen electrode without carbon components for alkaline secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephen W. T.; Thompson, Stephen J.; Li, Xiaohong; Gorman, Scott F.; Pletcher, Derek; Russell, Andrea E.; Walsh, Frank C.; Wills, Richard G. A.

    2014-08-01

    The fabrication of a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) without carbon components is described. It is therefore suitable for use as a bifunctional oxygen electrode in alkaline secondary batteries. The electrode is fabricated in two stages (a) the formation of a PTFE-bonded nickel powder layer on a nickel foam substrate and (b) the deposition of a NiCo2O4 spinel electrocatalyst layer by dip coating in a nitrate solution and thermal decomposition. The influence of modifications to the procedure on the performance of the GDEs in 8 M NaOH at 333 K is described. The GDEs can support current densities up to 100 mA cm-2 with state-of-the-art overpotentials for both oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction. Stable performance during >50 successive, 1 h oxygen reduction/evolution cycles at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 has been achieved.

  20. What are batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors?

    PubMed

    Winter, Martin; Brodd, Ralph J

    2004-10-01

    Electrochemical energy conversion devices are pervasive in our daily lives. Batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors belong to the same family of energy conversion devices. They are all based on the fundamentals of electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics. All three are needed to service the wide energy requirements of various devices and systems. Neither batteries, fuel cells nor electrochemical capacitors, by themselves, can serve all applications.

  1. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator includes a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte, (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group, and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrode. The mixture comprises at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 sq meters/gram, at last one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram. The volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder. The filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle.

  2. What Do Battery Testers Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagnon, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities to determine whether it is better to test dry cells with an ammeter than with a voltmeter and how best to test alkaline batteries. Discusses classification of disposable testers as instruments. Concludes that a laboratory voltmeter gives a good indication of the condition of an alkaline cell while carbon batteries are best…

  3. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Belardi, G.; Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F.; Piga, L.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at

  4. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  5. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-01-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  6. Primary battery design and safety guidelines handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E.; Trout, J. Barry

    1994-12-01

    This handbook provides engineers and safety personnel with guidelines for the safe design or selection and use of primary batteries in spaceflight programs. Types of primary batteries described are silver oxide zinc alkaline, carbon-zinc, zinc-air alkaline, manganese dioxide-zionc alkaline, mercuric oxide-zinc alkaline, and lithium anode cells. Along with typical applications, the discussions of the individual battery types include electrochemistry, construction, capacities and configurations, and appropriate safety measures. A chapter on general battery safety covers hazard sources and controls applicable to all battery types. Guidelines are given for qualification and acceptance testing that should precede space applications. Permissible failure levels for NASA applications are discussed.

  7. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, María V.; Falco, Lorena R.; Peluso, Miguel A.; Sambeth, Jorge E.; Thomas, Horacio J.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  8. Recovery of zinc and manganese from spent alkaline batteries by liquid-liquid extraction with Cyanex 272

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Aline L.; Veloso, Aline M. O.; Pereira, Daniel D.; Gontijo, Glayson S.; Salum, Adriane; Mansur, Marcelo B.

    A hydrometallurgical route based on the liquid-liquid extraction technique using Cyanex 272 as extractant is investigated for the selective separation of metal values, in particular, zinc and manganese from spent alkaline batteries. The recycling route consists of following steps: (1) cryogenic dismantling of the spent batteries, (2) pre-treatment of the internal material consisting of drying, grinding and screening steps in order to produce a dry homogeneous powder, (3) leaching of the powder with sulphuric acid and (4) metal separation by liquid-liquid extraction. Bench scale experiments have shown that zinc and manganese are easily separated (ΔpH 1/2≈2.0) using 20% (v/v) Cyanex 272 dissolved in Escaid 110 at 50 °C. Therefore, the proposed route can treat residues from both zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries because metal composition of these batteries is quite similar. The metal content of other batteries such as Ni-Cd and nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) has been also determined in order to include them in future investigations.

  9. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, F.H.; Reid, M.A.; Martin, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary design study of a Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. This high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. 11 refs.

  10. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    PubMed

    Belardi, G; Lavecchia, R; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357°C and 906°C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564°C the melting point of Mn(2)O(3). Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400°C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000°C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200°C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

  11. Design principles for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cells and, more recently, bipolar batteries have been built by a variety of organizations. The design principles that have been used by the technology group at the NASA Lewis Research Center draw upon their extensive background in separator technology, alkaline fuel cell technology, and several alkaline cell technology areas. These design principles have been incorporated into both the more contemporary individual pressure vessel (IPV) designs that were pioneered by other groups, as well as the more recent bipolar battery designs using active cooling that are being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center and under contract. These principles are rather straightforward applications of capillary force formalisms, coupled with the slowly developing data base resulting from careful post test analyses. The objective of this overall effort is directed towards the low-earth-orbit (LEO) application where the cycle life requirements are much more severe than the geosynchronous-orbit (GEO) application. A summary of the design principles employed is presented along with a discussion of the recommendations for component pore sizes and pore size distributions, as well as suggested materials of construction. These will be made based on our experience in these areas to show how these design principles have been translated into operating hardware.

  12. Design principles for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cells and, more recently, bipolar batteries have been built by a variety of organizations. The design principles that have been used by the technology group at the NASA Lewis Research Center draw upon their extensive background in separator technology, alkaline fuel cell technology, and several alkaline cell technology areas. These design principles have been incorporated into both the more contemporary individual pressure vessel (IPV) designs that were pioneered by other groups, as well as the more recent bipolar battery designs using active cooling that are being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center and under contract. These principles are rather straightforward applications of capillary force formalisms, coupled with the slowly developing data base resulting from careful post test analyses. The objective of this overall effort is directed towards the low-Earth-orbit (LEO) application where the cycle life requirements are much more severe than the geosynchronous-orbit (GEO) application. A summary of the design principles employed is presented along with a discussion of the recommendations for component pore sizes and pore size distributions, as well as suggested materials of construction. These will be made based on our experience in these areas to show how these design principles have been translated into operating hardware.

  13. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  14. Regulation of alkaline phosphatase expression in human choriocarcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, T A; Tin, A W; Sussman, H H

    1979-01-01

    The coincident expression of two structurally distinct isoenzymes of human alkaline phosphatase was demonstrated in two independently derived gestational choriocarcinoma cell lines. These proteins were shown to have enzymatic, antigenic, and physical-chemical properties resembling those of isoenzymes from term placenta and adult liver. The regulation of these isoenzymes has been studied during the exposure of both cell lines to 5-bromodeoxyuridine and dibutyryl cyclic AMP. The responses of the alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes to these agents have also been compared with the response of another protein phenotypic to placenta, the alpha subunit of chorionic gonadotropin. The results show that (i) the separate structural genes coding for placental and liver alkaline phosphatases are regulated in a noncoordinate fashion; (ii) both alkaline phosphatase genes respond independently of the alpha subunit; and (iii) the induction of the placental type isoenzyme occurs via at least two independent pathways. Images PMID:218197

  15. Laboratory-scale evaluation of secondary alkaline zinc batteries for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striebel, Kathryn A.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    Two types of secondary zinc cell have been evaluated in our laboratory to assess their suitability to power an electric van. Single cells were charged and discharged with constant-current cycles as well as with controlled-power discharge profiles, scaled to the predicted mass of a full-size battery. Both cells were able to meet the requirements for power discharge specified by the so-called Simplified Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS) early in life (the first 15 cycles). The Zn/air cell achieved an average of 72 SFUDS repetions (7.2 h) per discharge. The Zn/NiOOH cell achieved an average of 51 SFUDS repetitions (5.1 h) per discharge. The bifunctional air electrodes did not reach oxygen-evolution potentials during the 8-s regenerative breaking portions of the SFUDS cycle.

  16. Effect of Multiple Cation Electrolyte Mixtures on Rechargeable Zn?MnO2 Alkaline Battery

    DOE PAGES

    Hertzberg, Benjamin J.; Huang, An; Hsieh, Andrew; ...

    2016-05-23

    A Bi2O3 in β-MnO2 composite cathode material has been synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method and cycled in a mixed KOH–LiOH electrolyte with a range of concentrations. We show that, at a KOH:LiOH molar ratio of 1:3, both proton insertion and lithium insertion occur, allowing access to a higher fraction of the theoretical capacity of the MnO2 while preventing the formation of ZnMn2O4. This enables a capacity of 360 mAh/g for over 60 cycles, with cycling limited more by anode properties than traditional cathodic failure mechanisms. The structural changes occurring during cycling are characterized using electron microscopy and in situmore » synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) techniques. This mixed electrolyte shows exceptional cyclability and capacity and can be used as a drop-in replacement for current alkaline batteries, potentially drastically improving their cycle life and creating a wide range of new applications for this energy storage technology.« less

  17. Effect of Multiple Cation Electrolyte Mixtures on Rechargeable Zn?MnO2 Alkaline Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzberg, Benjamin J.; Huang, An; Hsieh, Andrew; Chamoun, Mylad; Davies, G.; Seo, Joon Kyo; Zhong, Zhong; Croft, Mark; Erdonmez, Can; Meng, Ying Shirley; Steingart, Dan

    2016-05-23

    A Bi2O3 in β-MnO2 composite cathode material has been synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method and cycled in a mixed KOH–LiOH electrolyte with a range of concentrations. We show that, at a KOH:LiOH molar ratio of 1:3, both proton insertion and lithium insertion occur, allowing access to a higher fraction of the theoretical capacity of the MnO2 while preventing the formation of ZnMn2O4. This enables a capacity of 360 mAh/g for over 60 cycles, with cycling limited more by anode properties than traditional cathodic failure mechanisms. The structural changes occurring during cycling are characterized using electron microscopy and in situ synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) techniques. This mixed electrolyte shows exceptional cyclability and capacity and can be used as a drop-in replacement for current alkaline batteries, potentially drastically improving their cycle life and creating a wide range of new applications for this energy storage technology.

  18. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Visco, S.J.; Liu, M.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1992-11-10

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145 C (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium trifluorate (PEO[sub 8]LiCF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS)[sub n], and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte. 2 figs.

  19. Cell for making secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Visco, Steven J.; Liu, Meilin; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides all solid-state lithium and sodium batteries operating in the approximate temperature range of ambient to 145.degree. C. (limited by melting points of electrodes/electrolyte), with demonstrated energy and power densities far in excess of state-of-the-art high-temperature battery systems. The preferred battery comprises a solid lithium or sodium electrode, a polymeric electrolyte such as polyethylene oxide doped with lithium triflate (PEO.sub.8 LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3), and a solid-state composite positive electrode containing a polymeric organosulfur electrode, (SRS).sub.n, and carbon black, dispersed in a polymeric electrolyte.

  20. NASA flight cell and battery issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, N. R.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents the important battery and cell problems, encompassing both test failures and accidents, which were encountered during the past year. Practical issues facing programs, which have to be considered in the development of a battery program strategy, are addressed. The problems of one program, the GRO (Gamma Ray Observatory), during the past year are focused on to illustrate the fundamental types of battery problems that occur. Problems encountered by other programs are briefly mentioned to complete the accounting. Two major categories of issues are defined, namely, whose which are quality and design related, i.e., problems having inherent manufacturing-process-related aspects with an impact on cell reliability, and these which are accident triggered or man induced, i.e., those operational issues having an impact on battery and cell reliability.

  1. An investigation of zincite from spent anodic portions of alkaline batteries: An industrial mineral approach for evaluating stock material for recycling potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Heather A.; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Krekeler, Mark P. S.

    The mineralogy of anodic portions of spent alkaline batteries from a leading brand (Duracell) that had been equilibrated in ambient air for approximately 4 months was investigated to determine if material generated from this low energy process may be suitable stock material for recycling. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified the bulk of the ambient air oxidized anodic material as zincite (ZnO). Scanning electron microscopy investigation indicates a variety of textures of zincite are present with euhedral hexagonal prisms being the most common crystal form. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis indicates that there are no minor amounts of Mn within the zincite. Transmission electron microscopy investigation indicates a variety of textures exist in the <2 μm size fraction including near euhedral prismatic crystals, crystals with step-fashion terminations and indentations, heavily corroded zincite and near amorphous aggregates of anastomozing zinc oxide. Impurities in the <2 μm size fraction include minor amounts of unidentified mixed sulfate materials and are interpreted as dominantly occurring as thin coatings on zincite particles. Discrete submicrometer-sized spherical and rhomboid particles of Zn-Mn oxides are also common impurities in the <2 μm size fraction but occurr at abundance of <1% by volume. This study provides new baseline information that can be used to develop large scale recycling of zincite from spent alkaline batteries. A promising applications of zincite are numerous, including the development of new solar cell materials. The spent alkaline battery waste stream may serve as promising resource for driving further development of this sector of the economy.

  2. Hierarchical Co@C Nanoflowers: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties as an Advanced Negative Material for Alkaline Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Zichao; Cao, Bingqiang; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-11-04

    Hierarchical Co@C nanoflowers have been facilely synthesized via a simple route based on a low-temperature solid-phase reaction. The obtained hierarchical Co@C nanoflowers, each constructed of a number of nanosheets, display a three-dimensional architecture with an average grain size of about 300 nm. The electrochemical properties of the Co@C nanoflowers as the negative material for Ni/Co cells have been systemically researched. In particular, Co@C material exhibits high discharge-specific capacity and good cycling stability. The discharge-specific capacity of our Co@C-3 electrode can reach 612.1 mA h g(-1), and the specific capacity of 415.3 mA h g(-1) is retained at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) after 120 cycles, indicating its great potential for high-performance Ni/Co batteries. Interestingly, the as-synthesized Co@C electrode also exhibits favorable rate capability. These desirable properties can be attributed to porous pathways, which allow fast transportation of ions and electrons and easy accessibility to the electrolyte. The dominant electrochemical mechanism of Co@C can be attributed to the reduction-oxidation reaction between metallic cobalt and cobalt hydroxide in alkaline solution.

  3. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    PubMed

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature.

  4. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Masao; Ogumi, Zempachi

    Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an OH-form anion exchange membrane and polyhydric alcohols were studied. A high open circuit voltage of ca. 800 mV was obtained for a cell using Pt-Ru/C (anode) and Pt/C (cathode) at 323 K, which was about 100-200 mV higher than that for a DMFC using Nafion ®. The maximum power densities were in the order of ethylene glycol > glycerol > methanol > erythritol > xylitol. Silver catalysts were used as a cathode catalyst to fabricate alkaline fuel cells, since silver catalyst is almost inactive in the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells using silver as a cathode catalyst gave excellent performance because higher concentrations of fuel could be supplied to the anode.

  5. Advanced technology for extended endurance alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Martin, R. A.

    Advanced components have been developed for alkaline fuel cells with a view to the satisfaction of NASA Space Station design requirements for extended endurance. The components include a platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode, a potassium titanate-bonded electrolyte matrix, a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate, a gold-plated nickel-perforated foil electrode substrate, a polyphenylene sulfide cell edge frame material, and a nonmagnesium cooler concept. When incorporated into the alkaline fuel cell unit, these components are expected to yield regenerative operation in a low earth orbit Space Station with a design life greater than 5 years.

  6. Advanced technology for extended endurance alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Martin, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced components have been developed for alkaline fuel cells with a view to the satisfaction of NASA Space Station design requirements for extended endurance. The components include a platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode, a potassium titanate-bonded electrolyte matrix, a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate, a gold-plated nickel-perforated foil electrode substrate, a polyphenylene sulfide cell edge frame material, and a nonmagnesium cooler concept. When incorporated into the alkaline fuel cell unit, these components are expected to yield regenerative operation in a low earth orbit Space Station with a design life greater than 5 years.

  7. Miniature fuel cells relieve gas pressure in sealed batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Miniature fuel cells within sealed silver zinc batteries consume evolved hydrogen and oxygen rapidly, preventing pressure rupturing. They do not significantly increase battery weight and they operate in all battery life phases. Complete gas pressure control requires two fuel cells during all phases of operation of silver zinc batteries.

  8. High power bipolar battery/cells with enhanced overcharge tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1998-04-07

    A cell or battery of cells having improved overcharge tolerance and increased power capability, and methods for the construction of such cells or batteries, via electrolyte modification, are described. 5 figs.

  9. Alkaline fuel cells for prime power and energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    Alkaline fuel cell technology and its application to future space missions requiring high power and energy storage are discussed. Energy densities exceeding 100 watthours per pound and power densities approaching 0.5 pounds per kilowatt are calculated for advanced systems. Materials research to allow reversible operation of cells for energy storage and higher temperature operation for peaking power is warranted.

  10. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies.

  11. Competitive systems - Ambient temperature rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell, R. M.

    Recent in designs of aqueous electrolyte secondary batteries are presented. Operation principles, performance characteristics, and applications of various types of lead/acid batteries, alkaline electrolyte batteries, flow batteries, and battery/fuel cell hybrids (such as metal/air and hydrogen/metal oxide systems) are discussed. Consideration is given to the relative importance of such battery parameters as deep discharge capability, freedom from maintenance, shelf life, and cost, depending upon the specific application.

  12. Space Shuttle Upgrades: Long Life Alkaline Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurdy, Kerri

    2004-01-01

    NASA has utilized the alkaline fuel cell technology to provide electrical power for manned launch vehicles such as Gemini, Apollo, and the Space Shuttle. The current Shuttle alkaline fuel cells are procured from UTC Fuel Cells, a United Technologies Company. The alkaline fuel cells are very reliable but the operating life is limited to 2600 hours due to voltage degradation of the individual cells. The main limiting factor in the life of the cells is corrosion of the cell's fiberglass/epoxy frame by the aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte. To reduce operating costs, the orbiter program office approved the Long Life Alkaline Fuel Cell (LLAFC) program as a shuttle upgrade in 1999 to increase the operating life of the fuel cell powerplant to 5000 hours. The LLAFC program incorporates improving the cell by extending the length of the corrosion path, which reduces the cell frame corrosion. UTCFC performed analysis to understand the fundamental mechanisms that drive the cell frame corrosion. The analysis indicated that the corrosion path started along the bond line between the cathode and the cell frame. Analysis also showed that the oxygen available at the cathode, the catalyst on the electrode, and the electrode substrate all supported or intensified the corrosion. The new cell design essentially doubled the corrosion path to mitigate the problem. A 10-cell stack was tested for 5000 hours during the development phase of this program to verify improved cell performance. A complete 96-cell stack was then tested for 5000 hours during the full manned-space qualification phase of this program. Additional upgrades to the powerplant under this program are: replacing the aluminum body in the pressure regulator with stainless steel to reduce corrosion, improving stack insulator plate with improved resistance to stress failure and improved temperature capability, and replacing separator plate elastomer seals with a more durable material and improved seal retention.

  13. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, María V; Falco, Lorena R; Peluso, Miguel A; Sambeth, Jorge E; Thomas, Horacio J

    2013-06-01

    Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO4 solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnOx synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn2O3 in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn(4+) cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn3O4. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200°C, while heptane requires more than 400°C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO2. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  15. Endurance test and evaluation of alkaline water electrolysis cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Utilization in the development of multi-kW low orbit power systems is discussed. The following technological developments of alkaline water electrolysis cells for space power application were demonstrated: (1) four 92.9 cm2 single water electrolysis cells, two using LST's advanced anodes and two using LST's super anodes; (2) four single cell endurance test stands for life testing of alkaline water electrolyte cells; (3) the solid performance of the advanced electrode and 355 K; (4) the breakthrough performance of the super electrode; (5) the four single cells for over 5,000 hours each significant cell deterioration or cell failure. It is concluded that the static feed water electrolysis concept is reliable and due to the inherent simplicity of the passive water feed mechanism coupled with the use of alkaline electrolyte has greater potential for regenerative fuel cell system applications than alternative electrolyzers. A rise in cell voltage occur after 2,000-3,000 hours which was attributed to deflection of the polysulfone end plates due to creepage of the thermoplastic. More end plate support was added, and the performance of the cells was restored to the initial performance level.

  16. Endurance test and evaluation of alkaline water electrolysis cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, K. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-11-01

    Utilization in the development of multi-kW low orbit power systems is discussed. The following technological developments of alkaline water electrolysis cells for space power application were demonstrated: (1) four 92.9 cm2 single water electrolysis cells, two using LST's advanced anodes and two using LST's super anodes; (2) four single cell endurance test stands for life testing of alkaline water electrolyte cells; (3) the solid performance of the advanced electrode and 355 K; (4) the breakthrough performance of the super electrode; (5) the four single cells for over 5,000 hours each significant cell deterioration or cell failure. It is concluded that the static feed water electrolysis concept is reliable and due to the inherent simplicity of the passive water feed mechanism coupled with the use of alkaline electrolyte has greater potential for regenerative fuel cell system applications than alternative electrolyzers. A rise in cell voltage occur after 2,000-3,000 hours which was attributed to deflection of the polysulfone end plates due to creepage of the thermoplastic. More end plate support was added, and the performance of the cells was restored to the initial performance level.

  17. Determination of the zincate diffusion coefficient and its application to alkaline battery problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.; Kautz, Harold E.

    1978-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient for the zincate ion at 24 C was found to be 9.9 X 10 to the minus 7th power squared cm per sec + or - 30 percent in 45 percent potassium hydroxide and 1.4 x 10 to the minus 7 squared cm per sec + or - 25 percent in 40 percent sodium hydroxide. Comparison of these values with literature values at different potassium hydroxide concentrations show that the Stokes-Einstein equation is obeyed. The diffusion coefficient is characteristic of the zincate ion (not the cation) and independent of its concentration. Calculations with the measured value of the diffusion coefficient show that the zinc concentration in an alkaline zincate half cell becomes uniform throughout in tens of hours by diffusion alone. Diffusion equations are derived which are applicable to finite size chambers. Details and discussion of the experimental method are also given.

  18. Alkaline stability of quaternary ammonium cations for alkaline fuel cell membranes and ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Marino, M G; Kreuer, K D

    2015-02-01

    The alkaline stability of 26 different quaternary ammonium groups (QA) is investigated for temperatures up to 160 °C and NaOH concentrations up to 10 mol L(-1) with the aim to provide a basis for the selection of functional groups for hydroxide exchange membranes in alkaline fuel cells and of ionic-liquid cations stable in basic conditions. Most QAs exhibit unexpectedly high alkaline stability with the exception of aromatic cations. β-Protons are found to be far less susceptible to nucleophilic attack than previously suggested, whereas the presence of benzyl groups, nearby hetero-atoms, or other electron-withdrawing species promote degradation reactions significantly. Cyclic QAs proved to be exceptionally stable, with the piperidine-based 6-azonia-spiro[5.5]undecane featuring the highest half-life at the chosen conditions. Absolute and relative stabilities presented herein stand in contrast to literature data, the differences being ascribed to solvent effects on degradation.

  19. SMS/GOES cell and battery data analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armantrout, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The nickel-cadmium battery design developed for the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) provided background and guidelines for future development, manufacture, and application of spacecraft batteries. SMS/GOES battery design, development, qualification testing, acceptance testing, and life testing/mission performance characteristics were evaluated for correlation with battery cell manufacturing process variables.

  20. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

  1. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; McCatty, S. A.

    1991-09-01

    The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

  2. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

  3. Performance of AA5052 alloy anode in alkaline ethylene glycol electrolyte with dicarboxylic acids additives for aluminium-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, DaPeng; Zhang, DaQuan; Lee, KangYong; Gao, LiXin

    2015-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acid compounds, i.e. succinic acid (SUA), adipic acid (ADA) and sebacic acid (SEA), are used as electrolyte additives in the alkaline ethylene glycol solution for AA5052 aluminium-air batteries. It shows that the addition of dicarboxylic acids lowers the hydrogen gas evolution rate of commercial AA5052 aluminium alloy anode. AA5052 aluminium alloy has wide potential window for electrochemical activity and better discharge performance in alkaline ethylene glycol solution containing dicarboxylic acid additives. ADA has the best inhibition effect for the self-corrosion of AA5052 anode among the three dicarboxylic acid additives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) reveals that dicarboxylic acids and aluminium ions can form coordination complexes. Quantum chemical calculations shows that ADA has a smaller energy gap (ΔE, the energy difference between the lowest unoccupied orbital and the highest occupied orbital), indicating that ADA has the strongest interaction with aluminium ions.

  4. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 20 Wh for a lithium ion cell or 100 Wh for a lithium ion battery. After December 31, 2015, each lithium ion battery subject to this provision must be marked with the Watt-hour rating on the outside case... cell and 25 g for a lithium metal battery and 60 Wh for a lithium ion cell or 300 Wh for a lithium......

  5. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  6. Multiple cell booster battery switch assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Mejia, S.

    1986-04-08

    A switch assembly is described for a multiple power cell battery unit, which have positive and negative terminals on each cell. The assembly consists of (a) a base connected to the battery unit and including a terminal connector for each battery terminal which is physically and electrically connected therewith, (b) a top plate which is relatively movable with respect to the base and on which a plurality of conducting bus members which have contact elements are mounted, (c) the terminal connectors having electrical contacts for engaging the contact element of the conducting bus member, (d) each contact element member being positioned with respect to and adapted to engage with the electrical contacts of one of the terminal connectors when the top plate is in one position, and to be disengaged therefrom when the top plate is in a second position, (e) each conducting bus member being electrically interconnected with at least one other conducting bus member so that when their respective contact elements are in engagement with the electrical contact members of the terminal connector with which it is associated, the two battery cell terminals are electrically interconnected with each other.

  7. Stress-life interrelationships associated with alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Martin, Ronald E.; Stedman, James K.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented concerning the interrelationships between applied stress and the expected service life of alkaline fuel cells. Only the physical, chemical, and electrochemical phenomena that take place within the fuel cell stack portion of an overall fuel cell system will be discussed. A brief review will be given covering the significant improvements in performance and life over the past two decades as well as summarizing the more recent advances in understanding which can be used to predict the performance and life characteristics of fuel cell systems that have yet to be built.

  8. Intermittent use of a low-cost alkaline fuel cell-hybrid system for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Voss, Susanne; Hacker, Victor; Aronson, Robert R.; Fabjan, Christoph; Hejze, Thomas; Daniel-Ivad, Josef

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) hybrids with the capability to shut down completely between uses (by draining the circulating KOH electrolyte) can expect an operating life of about 4000 h, which is equivalent to 200,000 km of driving, They should be able to compete on cost with heat engines (US50 to US100 per kW). An early model is the hydrogen/air fuel cell lead-acid hybrid car, built by K. Kordesch in the 1970s. Improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz, make success probable. In cooperation with Electric Auto (EAC), an ammonia cracker is also in development. A RAM™ battery-AFC hybrid combination has been optimized.

  9. Molten salt electrolyte battery cell with overcharge tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte battery having an increased overcharge tolerance employs a negative electrode with two lithium alloy phases of different electrochemical potential, one of which allows self-discharge rates which permits battery cell equalization.

  10. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R.; Marcec, Matthew J.; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists (Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea) and fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes. PMID:28174578

  11. Extracellular Alkalinization as a Defense Response in Potato Cells.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Natalia; Fritch, Karen R; Marcec, Matthew J; Tripathi, Diwaker; Smertenko, Andrei; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative and robust bioassay to assess plant defense response is important for studies of disease resistance and also for the early identification of disease during pre- or non-symptomatic phases. An increase in extracellular pH is known to be an early defense response in plants. In this study, we demonstrate extracellular alkalinization as a defense response in potatoes. Using potato suspension cell cultures, we observed an alkalinization response against various pathogen- and plant-derived elicitors in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also assessed the defense response against a variety of potato pathogens, such as protists (Phytophthora infestans and Spongospora subterranea) and fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Colletotrichum coccodes). Our results show that extracellular pH increases within 30 min in proportion to the number of pathogen spores added. Consistently with the alkalinization effect, the higher transcription level of several defense-related genes and production of reactive oxygen species was observed. Our results demonstrate that the alkalinization response is an effective marker to study early stages of defense response in potatoes.

  12. Battery Cell By-Pass Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evers, Jeffrey (Inventor); Gelger, Ronald V. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a circuit and method of limiting the charging current voltage from a power supply net work applied to an individual cell of a plurality of cells making up a battery being charged in series. It is particularly designed for use with batteries that can be damaged by overcharging, such as Lithium-ion type batteries. In detail. the method includes the following steps: 1) sensing the actual voltage level of the individual cell; 2) comparing the actual voltage level of the individual cell with a reference value and providing an error signal representative thereof; and 3) by-passing the charging current around individual cell necessary to keep the individual cell voltage level generally equal a specific voltage level while continuing to charge the remaining cells. Preferably this is accomplished by by-passing the charging current around the individual cell if said actual voltage level is above the specific voltage level and allowing the charging current to the individual cell if the actual voltage level is equal or less than the specific voltage level. In the step of bypassing the charging current, the by-passed current is transferred at a proper voltage level to the power supply. The by-pass circuit a voltage comparison circuit is used to compare the actual voltage level of the individual cell with a reference value and to provide an error signal representative thereof. A third circuit, designed to be responsive to the error signal, is provided for maintaining the individual cell voltage level generally equal to the specific voltage level. Circuitry is provided in the third circuit for bypassing charging current around the individual cell if the actual voltage level is above the specific voltage level and transfers the excess charging current to the power supply net work. The circuitry also allows charging of the individual cell if the actual voltage level is equal or less than the specific voltage level.

  13. Endurance Test and Evaluation of Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, Andrew J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Chang, B. J.; Larkins, Jim T.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to assess the state of alkaline water electrolysis cell technology and its potential as part of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) of a multikilowatt orbiting powerplant. The program evaluates the endurance capabilities of alkaline electrolyte water electrolysis cells under various operating conditions, including constant condition testing, cyclic testing and high pressure testing. The RFCS demanded the scale-up of existing cell hardware from 0.1 sq ft active electrode area to 1.0 sq ft active electrode area. A single water electrolysis cell and two six-cell modules of 1.0 sq ft active electrode area were designed and fabricated. The two six-cell 1.0 sq ft modules incorporate 1.0 sq ft utilized cores, which allow for minimization of module assembly complexity and increased tolerance to pressure differential. A water electrolysis subsystem was designed and fabricated to allow testing of the six-cell modules. After completing checkout, shakedown, design verification and parametric testing, a module was incorporated into the Regenerative Fuel Cell System Breadboard (RFCSB) for testing at Life Systems, Inc., and at NASA JSC.

  14. Battery Cell Voltage Sensing and Balancing Using Addressable Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the use of saturating transformers in a matrix arrangement to address individual cells in a high voltage battery. This arrangement is able to monitor and charge individual cells while limiting the complexity of circuitry in the battery. The arrangement has inherent galvanic isolation, low cell leakage currents, and allows a single bad cell in a battery of several hundred cells to be easily spotted.

  15. Assessment and reuse of secondary batteries cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, E. L.; Kindlein, W.; Souza, S.; Malfatti, C. F.

    The popularity of portable electronic devices and the ever-growing production of the same have led to an increase in the use of rechargeable batteries. These are often discarded even before the end of their useful life. This, in turn, leads to great waste in material and natural resources and to contamination of the environment. The objective of this study was thus to develop a methodology to assess and reuse NiMH battery cells that have been disposed of before the end of their life cycle, when they can still be used. For such, the capacity of these cells, which were still in good operating conditions when the batteries were discarded, was assessed, and the percentage was estimated. The results reveal that at the end of the assessment process, a considerable number of these cells still had reuse potential, with approximately 37% of all discarded and tested cells being approved for reuse. The methodology introduced in this study showed it is possible to establish an environmentally correct alternative to reduce the amount of this sort of electronic trash.

  16. Batteries and fuel cells working group report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, J. . Office of Advanced Transportation Materials); Landgrebe, A. . Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Systems); Lemons, R.; Wilson, M. ); MacAurther, D. (CH

    1991-01-01

    Electrochemical energy systems are dominated by interfacial phenomena. Catalysis, corrosion, electrical and ionic contact, and wetting behavior are critical to the performance of fuel cells and batteries. Accordingly, development of processing techniques to control these surface properties is important to successful commercialization of advanced batteries and fuel cells. Many of the surface processing issues are specific to a particular electrochemical system. Therefore, the working group focused on systems that are of specific interest to DOE/Conservation and Renewable Energy. These systems addressed were: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells, Direct Methanol Oxidation (DMO) Fuel Cells, and Lithium/Polymer Batteries. The approach used by the working group for each of these systems was to follow the current path through the system and to identify the principal interfaces. The function of each interface was specified together with its desired properties. The degree to which surface properties limit performance in present systems was rated. Finally, the surface processing needs associated with the performance limiting interfaces were identified. This report summarizes this information.

  17. Batteries and fuel cells working group report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, J.; Landgrebe, A.; Lemons, R.; Wilson, M.; MacAurther, D.; Savenell, R.; Swathirajan, S.; Wilson, D.

    1991-12-31

    Electrochemical energy systems are dominated by interfacial phenomena. Catalysis, corrosion, electrical and ionic contact, and wetting behavior are critical to the performance of fuel cells and batteries. Accordingly, development of processing techniques to control these surface properties is important to successful commercialization of advanced batteries and fuel cells. Many of the surface processing issues are specific to a particular electrochemical system. Therefore, the working group focused on systems that are of specific interest to DOE/Conservation and Renewable Energy. These systems addressed were: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells, Direct Methanol Oxidation (DMO) Fuel Cells, and Lithium/Polymer Batteries. The approach used by the working group for each of these systems was to follow the current path through the system and to identify the principal interfaces. The function of each interface was specified together with its desired properties. The degree to which surface properties limit performance in present systems was rated. Finally, the surface processing needs associated with the performance limiting interfaces were identified. This report summarizes this information.

  18. Electrochemical storage cell or battery

    SciTech Connect

    Mennicke, S.; Liebermann, K.; Reiss, K.

    1983-11-08

    Electrochemical storage cell is disclosed, based on alkali metal and chalcogen as reactants with an anode space and a cathode space separated by an alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte wall and bounded by a cell wall of light metal such as aluminum. A strongly adhering metal coating is applied to the area of the light metal wall in contact with one of the reactants. The metal coating chemically reacts to form a sulfide without materially affecting conductivity of the cell wall of light metal and without material increase in the internal resistance of the storage cell.

  19. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Yoong-Kee; Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  20. Negative electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John T.; Fransson, Linda M.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2005-02-15

    A negative electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell. The electrode has an intermetallic compound as its basic structural unit with the formula M.sub.2 M' in which M and M' are selected from two or more metal elements including Si, and the M.sub.2 M' structure is a Cu.sub.2 Sb-type structure. Preferably M is Cu, Mn and/or Li, and M' is Sb. Also disclosed is a non-aqueous electrochemical cell having a negative electrode of the type described, an electrolyte and a positive electrode. A plurality of cells may be arranged to form a battery.

  1. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a preliminary design study of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. The high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. In addition to providing energy storage, the system can provide hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. During the daylight portion of the orbit the electrolysis module uses power provided by the solar array to generate H2 and O2 from the product water produced by the fuel cell module. The fuel cell module supplies electrical power during the dark period of the orbit.

  2. An Automated Classification Technique for Detecting Defects in Battery Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Battery cell defect classification is primarily done manually by a human conducting a visual inspection to determine if the battery cell is acceptable for a particular use or device. Human visual inspection is a time consuming task when compared to an inspection process conducted by a machine vision system. Human inspection is also subject to human error and fatigue over time. We present a machine vision technique that can be used to automatically identify defective sections of battery cells via a morphological feature-based classifier using an adaptive two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation technique. The initial area of interest is automatically classified as either an anode or cathode cell view as well as classified as an acceptable or a defective battery cell. Each battery cell is labeled and cataloged for comparison and analysis. The result is the implementation of an automated machine vision technique that provides a highly repeatable and reproducible method of identifying and quantifying defects in battery cells.

  3. Evaluation parameters for the alkaline fuel cell oxygen electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Srinivasan, V.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were made of Pt- and Au-catalyzed porous electrodes, designed for the cathode of the alkaline H2/O2 fuel cell, employing cyclic voltammetry and the floating half-cell method. The purpose was to obtain parameters from the cyclic voltammograms which could predict performance in the fuel cell. It was found that a satisfactory relationship between these two types of measurement could not be established; however, useful observations were made of relative performance of several types of carbon used as supports for noble metal catalysts and of some Au catalysts. The best half-cell performance with H2/O2 in a 35 percent KOH electrolyte at 80 C was given by unsupported fine particle Au on Teflon; this electrode is used in the Orbiter fuel cell.

  4. Lithium-Ion Small Cell Battery Shorting Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Chris; Curzon, David; Blackmore, Paul; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2006-01-01

    Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) provides adequate sustained hard short protection for AEA batteries with up to 8 cells in series. PTC cannot protect against sustained hard short in AEA batteries with 10 cells or more in series. Protective fused connector is a proven way to protect larger batteries from hard short damage: a) Hard short not credible in unmanned missions; b) However, recommended during ground handling; c) Inexpensive item. Preliminary diode protection scheme has passed manned space safety requirements for high voltage batteries. SCM confirmed fused connector did not affect battery health, however, this affect of hard short on the its long calendar and cycle life performance needs to be verified.

  5. Caustic esophageal injury by impaction of cell batteries.

    PubMed

    García Fernández, Francisco José; León Montañés, Rafael; Bozada Garcia, Juan Manuel

    2016-12-01

    The ingestion of cell batteries can cause serious complications (fistula, perforation or stenosis) at the esophageal level. The damage starts soon after ingestion (approximately 2 hours) and is directly related to the amount of time the battery is lodged in said location, the amount of electrical charge remaining in the battery, and the size of the battery itself. Injury is produced by the combination of electrochemical and chemical mechanisms and pressure necrosis. The ingestion of multiple cells and a size > = 20 mm are related with more severe and clinically significant outcomes. A female patient, 39 years old, with a history of previous suicide attempts, was admitted to the Emergency Room with chest pain and dysphagia after voluntary ingestion of 2 cell batteries. Two cell batteries are easily detected in a routine chest X-ray, presenting a characteristic double-ring shadow, or peripheral halo. Urgent oral endoscopy was performed 10 hours after ingestion, showing a greenish-gray lumpy magma-like consistency due to leakage of battery contents. The 2 batteries were sequentially removed with alligator-jaw forceps. After flushing and aspiration of the chemical material, a broad and circumferential injury with denudation of the mucosa and two deep ulcerations with necrosis were observed where the batteries had been. The batteries' seals were eroded, releasing chemical contents. Despite the severity of the injuries, the patient progressed favorably and there was no esophageal perforation. Esophageal impaction of cell batteries should always be considered an endoscopic urgency.

  6. Validating cell/battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, D.

    1983-01-01

    Using the accelerating rate calorimeter, the hazards associated with exothermic reactions occurring in Li/SO2 cells under the conditions of discharge, forced overdischarge, resistive overdischarge, and forced overdischarge at low tempratures are quantitatively defined in terms of: rate of pressure generation, overall pressure rise, rate of temperature, and overall heat generation. Consistent with the findings of other investigators, it is believed that the major reactions contributing to Li/SO2 cell exothermicity are: the lithium/acetonitrile reaction, the thermal decomposition of lithium dithionite, and the lithium/sulfur reaction.

  7. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  8. Cell overcharge testing inside sodium metal halide battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frutschy, Kris; Chatwin, Troy; Bull, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Testing was conducted to measure electrical performance and safety of the General Electric Durathon™ E620 battery module (600 V class 20 kWh) during cell overcharge. Data gathered from this test was consistent with SAE Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing specification J2464 [1]. After cell overcharge failure and 24 A current flow for additional 60 minutes, battery was then discharged at 7.5 KW average power to 12% state of charge (SOC) and recharged back to 100% SOC. This overcharging test was performed on two cells. No hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas was detected during front cell (B1) test, and small amount (6.2 ppm peak) was measured outside the battery after center cell (F13) overcharge. An additional overcharge test was performed per UL Standard 1973 - Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) Applications and Stationary Applications[2]. With the battery at 11% SOC and 280 °C float temperature, an individual cell near the front (D1) was deliberately imbalanced by charging it to 62% SOC. The battery was then recharged to 100% SOC. In all three tests, the battery cell pack was stable and individual cell failure did not propagate to other cells. Battery discharge performance, charge performance, and electrical isolation were normal after all three tests.

  9. Alkaline buffers release EDRF from bovine cultured aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, J. A.; de Nucci, G.; Warner, T. D.; Vane, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. Release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and prostacyclin (PGI2) from bovine cultured aortic endothelial cells (EC) was measured by bioassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. 2. Bradykinin (BK, 3-30 pmol), adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 2-6 nmol) or the sodium ionophore monensin (40-100 nmol) injected through a column of EC released EDRF. L-Arginine free base (FB; 10-20 mumol) or D-arginine FB (10-20 mumol) injected through the column of EC released similar amounts of EDRF and also caused an increase in pH of the Krebs solution perfusing the EC from 7.5-8.0 to 8.6-9.5. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) an alkaline buffer which caused the same changes in the pH of the Krebs solution also induced the same release of EDRF. The hydrochloride salts of L- or D-arginine did not cause either release of EDRF when injected through the column of EC or increases in the pH of the Krebs solution. 3. Inhibitors of either diacylglycerol lipase (RHC 80267) or kinase (R59022) inhibited the release of EDRF induced by BK or ADP but potentiated the release induced by L-arginine FB, monensin (40-100 nmol) or alkaline buffer (Na2CO3). R59022 and RHC 80267 infused through the EC increased the basal release of EDRF. 4. When calcium chloride was omitted from the Krebs solution the release of EDRF induced by alkaline buffer (Na2CO3; pH 8.6-9.5) or L-arginine FB (10-20 mumol) was selectively inhibited when compared to that induced by BK (3-30 pmol) or ADP (2-6 nmol). This inhibition was reversed when calcium (2.5 mM) was restored. 5. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA; 30 microM) inhibited release of EDRF induced by BK (10-30 pmol) or alkaline buffers (Na2CO3 or D-arginine FB; pH 8.6-9.5). This inhibition was partially reversed by L- but not D-arginine FB or HCl (30-100 microM). 6. Prostacyclin was released when BK (10 pmol), ADP (2 nmol) or arachidonic acid (30 nmol) were injected through the column of EC. However, monensin (40 nmol) or alkaline buffers (pH 8.6-9.5) did not release

  10. Sealed-cell nickel-cadmium battery applications manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.; Rusta, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    The design, procurement, testing, and application of aerospace quality, hermetically sealed nickel-cadmium cells and batteries are presented. Cell technology, cell and battery development, and spacecraft applications are emphasized. Long term performance is discussed in terms of the effect of initial design, process, and application variables. Design guidelines and practices are given.

  11. Corrosion testing of candidates for the alkaline fuel cell cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joseph; Fielder, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Current/voltage data was obtained for specially made corrosion electrodes of some oxides and of gold materials for the purpose of developing a screening test of catalysts and supports for use at the cathode of the alkaline fuel cell. The data consists of measurements of current at fixed potentials and cyclic voltammograms. These data will have to be correlated with longtime performance data in order to fully evaluate this approach to corrosion screening. Corrosion test screening of candidates for the oxygen reduction electrode of the alkaline fuel cell was applied to two substances, the pyrochlore Pb2Ru2O6.5 and the spinel NiCo2O4. The substrate gold screen and a sample of the IFC Orbiter Pt-Au performance electrode were included as blanks. The pyrochlore data indicate relative stability, although nothing yet can be said about long term stability. The spinel was plainly unstable. For this type of testing to be validated, comparisons will have to be made with long term performance tests.

  12. Bipolar battery with array of sealed cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Smaga, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery as a dipolar battery is disclosed with an array of stacked cells with the anode and cathode electrode materials in each cell sealed in a confining structure and separated from one another except across separator material interposed therebetween. The separator material is contained in a module having separate perforated metallic sheets that sandwich opposite sides of the separator material for the cell and an annular insulating spacer that surrounds the separator material beyond the perforations and is also sandwiched between and sealed to the sheets. The peripheral edges of the sheets project outwardly beyond the spacer, traverse the side edges of the adjacent electrode material to form cup-like electrode holders, and are fused to the adjacent current collector or end face members of the array. Electrolyte is infused into the electrolyte cavity through the perforations of one of the metallic sheets with the perforations also functioning to allow ionic conductance across the separator material between the adjacent electrodes. A gas-tight housing provides an enclosure of the array.

  13. Block copolymers for alkaline fuel cell membrane materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan

    Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) using anion exchange membranes (AEMs) as electrolyte have recently received considerable attention. AFCs offer some advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells, including the potential of non-noble metal (e.g. nickel, silver) catalyst on the cathode, which can dramatically lower the fuel cell cost. The main drawback of traditional AFCs is the use of liquid electrolyte (e.g. aqueous potassium hydroxide), which can result in the formation of carbonate precipitates by reaction with carbon dioxide. AEMs with tethered cations can overcome the precipitates formed in traditional AFCs. Our current research focuses on developing different polymer systems (blend, block, grafted, and crosslinked polymers) in order to understand alkaline fuel cell membrane in many aspects and design optimized anion exchange membranes with better alkaline stability, mechanical integrity and ionic conductivity. A number of distinct materials have been produced and characterized. A polymer blend system comprised of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride)-b-polystyrene (PVBC-b-PS) diblock copolymer, prepared by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), with poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) or brominated PPO was studied for conversion into a blend membrane for AEM. The formation of a miscible blend matrix improved mechanical properties while maintaining high ionic conductivity through formation of phase separated ionic domains. Using anionic polymerization, a polyethylene based block copolymer was designed where the polyethylene-based block copolymer formed bicontinuous morphological structures to enhance the hydroxide conductivity (up to 94 mS/cm at 80 °C) while excellent mechanical properties (strain up to 205%) of the polyethylene block copolymer membrane was observed. A polymer system was designed and characterized with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) as a hydrophilic polymer grafted through substitution of pendent benzyl chloride groups of a PVBC

  14. Life capability of the silver electrode in alkaline electrochemical cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of silver electrode degradation rates were made by comparing the recently measured capacities with the reported early life capacities. Chemical analyses were carried out to determine the extent of silver loss from the electrode and its distribution throughout the cell components. The results established that the silver electrode is very stable when stored at reduced temperatures in the range of 0 to -51 C, in which it exhibits a permanent degradation in capacity of 0.5%/year. The results also indicated that the silver electrode is not quite as stable when operated and stored at room temperature, where it exhibits permanent degradation in the range of 3% to 14%/year. These results were employed in predicting the life capability of the proposed new Ag-H2 cell and also in assessing the merits of employing silver electrodes in long-life probe batteries.

  15. A Lemon Cell Battery for High-Power Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muske, Kenneth R.; Nigh, Christopher W.; Weinstein, Randy D.

    2007-01-01

    The use of lemon cell battery to run an electric DC motor is demonstrated for chemistry students. This demonstration aids the students in understanding principles behind the design and construction of the lemon cell battery and principles governing the electric DC motor and other basic principles.

  16. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1991-02-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

  17. A review of radiation-grafted polymer electrolyte membranes for alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianchi; Shao, Rong; Chen, Song; He, Xuemei; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-10-01

    The past two decades have witnessed many efforts to develop radiation-grafted alkaline membranes for alkaline PEM fuel cell applications, as such membranes have certain advantages over other kinds of alkaline membranes, including well-controlled composition, functionality, and other promising properties. To facilitate research and development in this area, the present paper reviews radiation-grafted alkaline membranes. We examine their synthesis/fabrication/characterization, membrane material selection, and theoretical approaches for fundamental understanding. We also present detailed examinations of their application in fuel cell in terms of the working principles of the radiation grafting process, the fabrication of MEAs using radiation-grafted membranes, the membranes' corresponding performance in alkaline PEM fuel cells, as well as performance optimization. The paper also summarizes the challenges and mitigation strategies for radiation-grafted alkaline membranes and their application in PEM fuel cells, presenting an overall picture of the technology as it presently stands.

  18. Neutron Imaging of Lithium Concentration in Battery Pouch Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    battery pouch cell is constructed based on the material densities and dimensions. This model is aug- mented with simulation of the neutron...the electrolyte solution limit the performance and longevity of the battery [2], [3]. The electrode material can be modeled as a distribution of...based and scalable battery models of the spatiotemporal varia- tions in lithium concentration throughout the electrode and electrolyte . Although

  19. Nickel-cadmium Battery Cell Reversal from Resistive Network Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    During the individual cell short-down procedures often used for storing or reconditioning nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries, it is possible for significant reversal of the lowest capacity cells to occur. The reversal is caused by the finite resistance of the common current-carrying leads in the resistive network that is generally used during short-down. A model is developed to evaluate the extent of such a reversal in any specific battery, and the model is verified by means of data from the short-down of a f-cell, 3.5-Ah battery. Computer simulations of short-down on a variety of battery configurations indicate the desirability of controlling capacity imbalances arising from cell configuration and battery management, limiting variability in the short-down resistors, minimizing lead resistances, and optimizing lead configurations.

  20. A Lemon Cell Battery for High-Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muske, Kenneth R.; Nigh, Christopher W.; Weinstein, Randy D.

    2007-04-01

    This article discusses the development of a lemon cell battery for high-power applications. The target application is the power source of a dc electric motor for a model car constructed by first-year engineering students as part of their introductory course design project and competition. The battery is composed of a series of lemon juice cells made from UV vis cuvets that use a magnesium anode and copper cathode. Dilution of the lemon juice to reduce the rate of corrosion of the magnesium anode and the addition of table salt to reduce the internal resistance of the cell are examined. Although our specific interest is the use of this lemon cell battery to run an electric dc motor, high-power applications such as radios, portable cassette or CD players, and other battery-powered toys are equally appropriate for demonstration and laboratory purposes using this battery.

  1. Cadmium in blood and urine related to present and past exposure. A study of workers in an alkaline battery factory.

    PubMed

    Hassler, E; Lind, B; Piscator, M

    1983-11-01

    Blood and urinary cadmium concentrations together with cadmium in air concentrations from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in an alkaline battery factory were determined at regular intervals for 11 consecutive weeks. Nine of the workers examined were smokers and nine non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ in age or years of employment. Cadmium in air concentrations varied, but no definite trend was observed. The concentrations of cadmium in the blood and urine were found to be stable. Exposure to airborne cadmium was identical for smokers and non-smokers but average cadmium concentrations in the blood and urine of smokers were approximately twice as high as those in non-smokers. For the whole group, urinary cadmium was significantly correlated with years of employment, but no correlation was found between blood cadmium concentrations and exposure. For non-smokers, the correlation between cadmium in blood and years of employment was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). This finding indicated that blood concentrations of cadmium reflect body burden in non-smokers at current low exposure levels.

  2. Effect of the length and surface area on electrochemical performance of cobalt oxide nanowires for alkaline secondary battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaofeng; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-12-01

    One-dimensional porous Co3O4 nanowires with different length have been successfully synthesized by thermal decomposition of Co-NA polymer precursors at various hydrothermal reaction times. The positive effects of longer nanowires and larger surface area on electrochemical performance of Co3O4 samples were investigated systematically. All the as-prepared Co3O4 samples display excellent discharge capacities and cycle stability on account of large surface area and porous structure, indicating great potential application of porous Co3O4 nanowires for alkaline rechargeable batteries. The Co3O4-24 h sample with the longest length shows the most outstanding electrochemical performance, and displays the maximum discharge capacity of 450.1 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 90.4% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. Electrochemical reactions between Co and Co(OH)2 occurring on the Co3O4 electrodes are investigated by XRD, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge measurements.

  3. The Effect of Variable End of Charge Battery Management on Small-Cell Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Simmons, Nick; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    ABSL Space Products is the world leading supplier of Lithium-ion batteries for space applications and has pioneered the use of small capacity COTS cells within large arrays. This small-cell approach has provided many benefits to space application designers through increased flexibility and reliability over more traditional battery designs. The ABSL 18650HC cell has been used in most ABSL space battery applications to date and has a recommended End Of Charge Voltage (EOCV) of 4.2V per cell. For all space applications using the ABSL 18650HC so far, this EOCV has been used at all stages of battery life from ground checkout to in orbit operations. ABSL and NASA have identified that, by using a lower EOCV for the same equivalent Depth Of Discharge (DOD), battery capacity fade could be reduced. The intention of this paper is to compare battery performance for systems with fixed and variable EOCV. In particular, the effect of employing the blanket value of 4.2V per cell versus utilizing a lower EOCV at Beginning Of Life (BOL) before gradually increasing it (as the effects of capacity fade drive the End Of Discharge Voltage closer to the acceptable system level minimum) is analyzed. Data is compared from ABSL in-house and NASA GRC tests that have been run under fixed and variable EOCV conditions. Differences in capacity fade are discussed and projections are made as to potential life extension capability by utilizing a variable EOCV strategy.

  4. Alkaline sodium borohydride gel as a hydrogen source for PEMFC or an energy carrier for NaBH 4-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B. H.; Li, Z. P.; Chen, L. L.

    In this preliminary study, we tried to use sodium polyacrylate as the super absorbent polymer to form alkaline NaBH 4 gel and explored its possibilities for borohydride hydrolysis and borohydride electro-oxidation. It was found that the absorption capacity of sodium polyacrylate decreased with increasing NaBH 4 concentration. The formed gel was rather stable in the sealed vessel but tended to slowly decompose in open air. Hydrogen generation from the gel was carried out using CoCl 2 catalyst precursor solutions. Hydrogen generation rate from the alkaline NaBH 4 gel was found to be higher and impurities in hydrogen were less than that from the alkaline NaBH 4 solution. The NaBH 4 gel also successfully powered a NaBH 4-air battery.

  5. Teach Battery Technology with Class-Built Wet Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    With some simple metal samples and common household liquids, teachers can build wet cell batteries and use them to teach students about batteries and how they work. In this article, the author offers information that is derived from some simple experiments he conducted in his basement workshop and can easily be applied in the classroom or lab. He…

  6. Gallium nitrate inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating mesenchymal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Boskey, A L; Ziecheck, W; Guidon, P; Doty, S B

    1993-02-01

    The effect of gallium nitrate on alkaline phosphatase activity in a differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell culture was monitored in order to gain insight into the observation that rachitic rats treated with gallium nitrate failed to show the expected increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Cultures maintained in media containing 15 microM gallium nitrate showed drastically decreased alkaline phosphatase activities in the absence of significant alterations in total protein synthesis and DNA content. However, addition of 15 microM gallium nitrate to cultures 18 h before assay for alkaline phosphatase activity had little effect. At the light microscopic and electron microscopic level, gallium-treated cultures differed morphologically from gallium-free cultures: with gallium present, there were fewer hypertrophic chondrocytes and cartilage nodules were flatter and further apart. Because of altered morphology, staining with an antibody against chick cartilage alkaline phosphatase appeared less extensive; however, all nodules stained equivalently relative to gallium-free controls. Histochemical staining for alkaline phosphatase activity was negative in gallium-treated cultures, demonstrating that the alkaline phosphatase protein present was not active. The defective alkaline phosphatase activity in cultures maintained in the presence of gallium was also evidenced when cultures were supplemented with the alkaline phosphatase substrate, beta-glycerophosphate (beta GP). The data presented suggest that gallium inhibits alkaline phosphatase activity in this culture system and that gallium causes alterations in the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into hypertrophic chondrocytes.

  7. Process of treating cellulosic membrane and alkaline with membrane separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    The improvement of water-soluble cellulose ether membranes for use as separators in concentrated alkaline battery cells is discussed. The process of contacting membranes with an aqueous alkali solution of concentration less than that of the alkali solution to be used in the battery but above that at which the membrane is soluble is described.

  8. Fabric-based alkaline direct formate microfluidic fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Domalaon, Kryls; Tang, Catherine; Mendez, Alex; Bernal, Franky; Purohit, Krutarth; Pham, Linda; Haan, John; Gomez, Frank A

    2017-01-12

    Fabric-based microfluidic fuel cells (MFCs) serve as a novel, cost-efficient alternative to traditional FCs and batteries, since fluids naturally travel across fabric via capillary action, eliminating the need for an external pump and lowering production and operation costs. Building on previous research with Y-shaped paper-based MFCs, fabric-based MFCs mitigate fragility and durability issues caused by long periods of fuel immersion. In this study, we describe a microfluidic fabric-based direct formate fuel cell, with 5 M potassium formate and 30% hydrogen peroxide as the anode fuel and cathode oxidant, respectively. Using a two-strip, stacked design, the optimized parameters include the type of encasement, the barrier, and the fabric type. Surface contact of the fabric and laminate sheet expedited flow and respective chemical reactions. The maximum current (22.83 mA/cm(2) ) and power (4.40 mW/cm(2) ) densities achieved with a 65% cotton/35% polyester blend material are a respective 8.7% and 32% higher than previous studies with Y-shaped paper-based MFCs. In series configuration, the MFCs generate sufficient energy to power a handheld calculator, a thermometer, and a spectrum of light-emitting diodes.

  9. Hypervelocity Impact Testing of Nickel Hydrogen Battery Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frate, David T.; Nahra, Henry K.

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells have been used on several satellites and are planned for use on the International Space Station. In January 1992, the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) conducted hypervelocity impact testing on Ni/H2 cells to characterize their failure modes. The cell's outer construction was a 24 mil-thick Inconel 718 pressure vessel. A sheet of 1.27 cm thick honeycomb was placed in front of the battery cells during testing to simulate the on-orbit box enclosure. Testing was conducted at the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). The hypervelocity gun used was a 7.6 mm (0.30 caliber) two-stage light gas gun. Test were performed at speeds of 3, 6, and 7 km/sec using aluminum 2017 spherical particles of either 4.8 or 6.4 mm diameter as the projectile. The battery cells were electrically charged to about 75 percent of capacity, then back-filled with hydrogen gas to 900 psi simulating the full charge condition. High speed film at 10,000 frames/sec was taken of the impacts. Impacts in the dome area (top) and the electrode area (middle) of the battery cells were investigated. Five tests on battery cells were performed. The results revealed that in all of the test conditions investigated, the battery cells simply vented their hydrogen gas and some electrolyte, but did not burst or generate any large debris fragments.

  10. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  11. DNA polymorphism of alkaline phosphatase isozyme genes: Linkage disequilibria between placental and germ-cell alkaline phosphotase alleles

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, G.; Beckman, L.; Sikstroem, C. ); Millan, J.L. )

    1992-11-01

    The use of human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) cDNA as a probe allows the detection and identification of restriction DNA fragments derived from three homologous genes, i.e., intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP), germ-cell AP (GCAP), and PLAP. In previous RFLP studies the authors have reported linkage disequilibria between an RsaI and two PstI (a and b) polymorphic restriction sites and electrophoretic types of PLAP. In this report they present evidence that, in spite of the strong correlation with PLAP types, PstI(b) is an RFLP of GCAP. The data indicate close linkage between the PLAP and GCAP loci. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Battery system and method for sensing and balancing the charge state of battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A battery system utilizes a plurality of transformers interconnected with the battery cells. The transformers each have at least one transformer core operable for magnetization in at least a first magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a first direction and a second magnetic state with a magnetic flux in a second direction. The transformer cores retain the first magnetic state and the second magnetic state without current flow through said plurality of transformers. Circuitry is utilized for switching a selected transformer core between the first and second magnetic states to sense voltage and/or balance particular cells or particular banks of cells.

  13. A Survey of the Use of Ceramics in Battery and Fuel Cell Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    Batteries Which Operate at Near Ambient Temperature 8 Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Batteries 8 Lithium -Vanadium Pentoxide... Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Bat teries Lithium - thionyl chloride cells and batteries have become available in reasonable quantities during the...Continued) Page Lithium -Metal Sulfide Batteries 27 Lithium -Metal Chloride Batteries 30 Lithium

  14. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  15. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. E.

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  16. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  17. Battery selection for space experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1992-10-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells while a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage and with different types of loads. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will be discussed.

  18. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.E.

    1983-08-01

    United Technologies Corporation has been conducting a development program sponsored by Lewis Research Center of NASA directed toward advancing the state of the art of the alkaline fuel cell. The goal of the program is the development of an extended endurance, high-performance, high-efficiency fuel cell for use in a multi-hundred kilowatt regenerative fuel cell. This technology advancement program has identified a low-weight design and cell components with increased performance and extended endurance. Longterm endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode in an alkaline fuel cell. In addition under the program, a full-size alkaline fuel cell module has completed 5,000 hours of a planned 20,000-hour test to a cyclical load profile. The continuous load profile consists of 60 minutes at open circuit followed by 30 minutes at 200 ASF which simulates the operation of a Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System in low earth orbit.

  19. An improved alkaline direct formate paper microfluidic fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Vicente; Domalaon, Kryls; Tang, Catherine; Sotez, Samantha; Mendez, Alex; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Purohit, Krutarth; Pham, Linda; Haan, John; Gomez, Frank A

    2016-02-01

    Paper-based microfluidic fuel cells (MFCs) are a potential replacement for traditional FCs and batteries due to their low cost, portability, and simplicity to operate. In MFCs, separate solutions of fuel and oxidant migrate through paper due to capillary action and laminar flow and, upon contact with each other and catalyst, produce electricity. In the present work, we describe an improved microfluidic paper-based direct formate FC (DFFC) employing formate and hydrogen peroxide as the anode fuel and cathode oxidant, respectively. The dimensions of the lateral column, current collectors, and cathode were optimized. A maximum power density of 2.53 mW/cm(2) was achieved with a DFFC of surface area 3.0 cm(2) , steel mesh as current collector, 5% carbon to paint mass ratio for cathode electrode and, 30% hydrogen peroxide. The longevity of the MFC's detailed herein is greater than eight hours with continuous flow of streams. In a series configuration, the MFCs generate sufficient energy to power light-emitting diodes and a handheld calculator.

  20. A flexible alkaline rechargeable Ni/Fe battery based on graphene foam/carbon nanotubes hybrid film.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jilei; Chen, Minghua; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Jian; Yan, Jiaxu; Huang, Yizhong; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2014-12-10

    The development of portable and wearable electronics has promoted increasing demand for high-performance power sources with high energy/power density, low cost, lightweight, as well as ultrathin and flexible features. Here, a new type of flexible Ni/Fe cell is designed and fabricated by employing Ni(OH)2 nanosheets and porous Fe2O3 nanorods grown on lightweight graphene foam (GF)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid films as electrodes. The assembled f-Ni/Fe cells are able to deliver high energy/power densities (100.7 Wh/kg at 287 W/kg and 70.9 Wh/kg at 1.4 kW/kg, based on the total mass of active materials) and outstanding cycling stabilities (retention 89.1% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles). Benefiting from the use of ultralight and thin GF/CNTs hybrid films as current collectors, our f-Ni/Fe cell can exhibit a volumetric energy density of 16.6 Wh/l (based on the total volume of full cell), which is comparable to that of thin film battery and better than that of typical commercial supercapacitors. Moreover, the f-Ni/Fe cells can retain the electrochemical performance with repeated bendings. These features endow our f-Ni/Fe cells a highly promising candidate for next generation flexible energy storage systems.

  1. Control of volume resistivity in inorganic-organic separators. [for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    Control of resistivity in NASA inorganic-organic separators is achieved by incorporating small percentages of high surface area, fine-particle silica with other ingredients in the separator coating. The volume resistivity appears to be predictable from coating composition, that is, from the surface area of filler particles in the coating. The approach has been applied to two polymer-'plasticizer'-filler coating systems, where the filler content of each is below the generally acknowledged critical pigment volume concentration of the coating. Application of these coating systems to 0.0254 cm thick (10 mil) fuel-cell grade asbestos sheet produces inexpensive, flexible, microporous separators that perform at least as well as the original inorganic-organic concept, the Astropower separator.

  2. Rechargeability and economic aspects of alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells for electrical storage and load leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Ingale, ND; Gallaway, JW; Nyce, M; Couzis, A; Banerjee, S

    2015-02-15

    Batteries based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathodes are good candidates for grid-scale electrical energy storage, as MnO2 is low-cost, relatively energy dense, safe, water-compatible, and non-toxic. Alkaline Zn-MnO2 cells, if cycled at reduced depth of discharge (DOD), have been found to achieve substantial cycle life with battery costs projected to be in the range of $100 to 150 per kWh (delivered). Commercialization of rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries has in the past been hampered due to poor cycle life. In view of this, the work reported here focuses on the long-term rechargeability of prismatic MnO2 cathodes at reduced DOD when exposed to the effects of Zn anodes and with no additives or specialty materials. Over 3000 cycles is shown to be obtainable at 10% DOD with energy efficiency >80%. The causes of capacity fade during long-term cycling are also investigated and appear to be mainly due to the formation of irreversible manganese oxides in the cathode. Analysis of the data indicates that capacity loss is rapid in the first 250 cycles, followed by a regime of stability that can last for thousands of cycles. A model has been developed that captures the behavior of the cells investigated using measured state of charge (SOC) data as input. An approximate economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the economic viability of Zn-MnO2 batteries based on the experiments reported here. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2 litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen.

  4. Current distribution within parallel-connected battery cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Martin J.; Hofmann, Markus H.; Steinhardt, Marco; Schuster, Simon F.; Jossen, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    Parallel connections can be found in many battery applications. Therefore, it is of high interest to understand how the current distributes within parallel battery cells. However, the number of publications on this topic is comparably low. Furthermore, the measurement set-ups are often not clearly defined in existing publications and it is likely that additional impedances distorted the measured current distributions. In this work, the principles of current distributions within parallel-connected battery cells are investigated theoretically, with an equivalent electric circuit model, and by measurements. A measurement set-up is developed that does not significantly influence the measurements, as proven by impedance spectroscopy. On this basis, two parameter scenarios are analyzed: the ΔR scenario stands for battery cells with differing impedances but similar capacities and the ΔC scenario for differing capacities and similar impedances. Out of 172 brand-new lithium-ion battery cells, pairs are built to practically represent the ΔR and ΔC scenarios. If a charging pulse is applied to the ΔR scenario, currents initially divide according to the current divider but equalize in constant current phases. The current divider has no effect on ΔC pairs but, as a rule of thumb for long-term loads, currents divide according to the battery cell capacities.

  5. Flow-Assisted Alkaline Battery: Low-Cost Grid-Scale Electrical Storage using a Flow-Assisted Rechargeable Zinc-Manganese Dioxide Battery

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-15

    GRIDS Project: Traditional consumer-grade disposable batteries are made of Zinc and Manganese, 2 inexpensive, abundant, and non-toxic metals. But these disposable batteries can only be used once. If they are recharged, the Zinc in the battery develops filaments called dendrites that grow haphazardly and disrupt battery performance, while the Manganese quickly loses its ability to store energy. CUNY Energy Institute is working to tame dendrite formation and to enhance the lifetime of Manganese in order to create a long-lasting, fully rechargeable battery for grid-scale energy storage. CUNY Energy Institute is also working to reduce dendrite formation by pumping fluid through the battery, enabling researchers to fix the dendrites as they’re forming. The team has already tested its Zinc battery through 3,000 recharge cycles (and counting). CUNY Energy Institute aims to demonstrate a better cycle life than lithium-ion batteries, which can be up to 20 times more expensive than Zinc-based batteries.

  6. Probing Battery Chemistry with Liquid Cell Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren L.

    2015-11-25

    We demonstrate the ability to apply electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to follow the chemistry and oxidation states of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 battery electrodes within a battery solvent. The use and importance of in situ electrochemical cells coupled with a scanning/transmission electron microscope (S/TEM) has expanded and been applied to follow changes in battery chemistry during electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, we discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity and provide a framework to apply this important analytical method to future in situ electrochemical studies.

  7. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  8. PEM Fuel Cell System Replacement for BA-559O Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    H Power Corp. developed a fuel cell system to demonstrate that fuel cells can be effectively designed for missions requiring a high degree of...equivalent in size to that of a BA-5590 battery. The system comprised an air-cooled fuel cell stack, a metal-hydride-based fuel storage section, and a

  9. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; ...

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less

  10. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  11. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  12. Inexpensive cross-linked polymeric separators made from water-soluble polymers. [for secondary alkaline nickel-zinc and silver-zinc cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L.-C.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), cross-linked chemically with aldehyde reagents, produces membranes which demonstrate oxidation resistance, dimensional stability, low ionic resistivity (less than 0.8 Ohms sq cm), low zincate diffusivity (less than 1 x 10 to the -7th mols/sq cm per min), and low zinc dendrite penetration rate (greater than 350 min) which make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. They are intrinsically low in cost, and environmental health and safety problems associated with commercial production appear minimal. Preparation, property measurements, and cell test results in Ni/Zn and Ag/Zn cells are described and discussed.

  13. Quantifying Cell-to-Cell Variations in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, S.; White, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have conventionally been manufactured in small capacities but large volumes for consumer electronics applications. More recently, the industry has seen a surge in the individual cell capacities, as well as the number of cells used to build modules and packs. Reducing cell-to-cell and lot-to-lot variations has been identified as one of the major means to reduce the rejection rate when building the packs as well as to improve pack durability. The tight quality control measures have been passed on from the pack manufactures to the companies building the individual cells and in turn to the components. This paper identifies a quantitative procedure utilizing impedance spectroscopy, a commonly used tool, to determine the effects of material variability on the cell performance, to compare the relative importance of uncertainties in the component properties, and to suggest a rational procedure to set quality control specifications for the various components of a cell, that will reduce cell-to-cell variability, while preventing undue requirements on uniformity that often result in excessive cost of manufacturing but have a limited impact on the cells performance.

  14. Biochemical Localization of Alkaline Phosphatase in the Cell Wall of a Marine Pseudomonad

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Linda M. M.; MacLeod, Robert A

    1974-01-01

    The various layers of the cell envelope of marine pseudomonad B-16 (ATCC 19855) have been separated from the cells and assayed directly for alkaline phosphatase activity under conditions established previously to be optimum for maintenance of the activity of the enzyme. Under conditions known to lead to the release of the contents of the periplasmic space from the cells, over 90% of the alkaline phosphatase was released into the medium. Neither the loosely bound outer layer nor the outer double-track layer (cell wall membrane) showed significant activity. A small amount of the alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells remained associated with the mureinoplasts when the outer layers of the cell wall were removed. Upon treatment of the mureinoplasts with lysozyme, some alkaline phosphatase was released into the medium and some remained with the protoplasts formed. Cells washed and suspended in 0.5 M NaCl were lysed by treatment with 2% toluene, and 95% of the alkaline phosphatase in the cells was released into the medium. Cells washed and suspended in complete salts solution (0.3 M NaCl, 0.05 M MgSO4, and 0.01 M KCl) or 0.05 M MgSO4 appeared intact after treatment with toluene but lost 50 and 10%, respectively, of their alkaline phosphatase. The results suggest that the presence of Mg2+ in the cell wall is necessary to prevent disruption of the cells by toluene and may also be required to prevent the release of alkaline phosphatase by toluene when disruption of the cells by toluene does not take place. PMID:4811547

  15. Recent progress in alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells are one of the most promising power sources for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a sustainable fuel and the key materials that constitute the fuel cell are relatively inexpensive. This review article summarizes and discusses the past investigations on the development of alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells, including the physical and chemical processes through the fuel cell structure, the electrocatalytic oxidation and electrocatalysts of ethylene glycol, the singe-cell performance, and innovative system designs.

  16. Designing advanced alkaline polymer electrolytes for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Chen, Chen; Zhuang, Lin; Lu, Juntao

    2012-03-20

    Although the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is a superior power source for electric vehicles, the high cost of this technology has served as the primary barrier to the large-scale commercialization. Over the last decade, researchers have pursued lower-cost next-generation materials for fuel cells, and alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) have emerged as an enabling material for platinum-free fuel cells. To fulfill the requirements of fuel cell applications, the APE must be as conductive and stable as its acidic counterpart, such as Nafion. This benchmark has proved challenging for APEs because the conductivity of OH(-) is intrinsically lower than that of H(+), and the stability of the cationic functional group in APEs, typically quaternary ammonia (-NR(3)(+)), is usually lower than that of the sulfonic functional group (-SO(3)(-)) in acidic polymer electrolytes. To improve the ionic conductivity, APEs are often designed to be of high ion-exchange capacity (IEC). This modification has caused unfavorable changes in the materials: these high IEC APEs absorb excessive amounts of water, leading to significant swelling and a decline in mechanical strength of the membrane. Cross-linking the polymer chains does not completely solve the problem because stable ionomer solutions would not be available for PEFC assembly. In this Account, we report our recent progress in the development of advanced APEs, which are highly resistant to swelling and show conductivities comparable with Nafion at typical temperatures for fuel-cell operation. We have proposed two strategies for improving the performance of APEs: self-cross-linking and self-aggregating designs. The self-cross-linking design builds on conventional cross-linking methods and works for APEs with high IEC. The self-aggregating design improves the effective mobility of OH(-) and boosts the ionic conductivity of APEs with low IEC. For APEs with high IEC, cross-linking is necessary to restrict the swelling of the

  17. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  18. Separator for alkaline electric cells and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfluger, H. L.; Hoyt, H. E. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Modified cellulose ether films having an increased electrolytic conductivity and a useable flexibility and in certain instances an increased flexibility are presented. Battery separator membranes comprising a cellulose ether and a minor proportion of a compatible water soluble base selected from the group consisting of alkali metal and ammonium hydroxides, aliphatic amines, and aliphatic hydroxyamines are used.

  19. Hydroxide Self-Feeding High-Temperature Alkaline Direct Formate Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinshi; Sun, Xianda; Feng, Ying

    2017-03-11

    Conventionally, both the thermal degradation of the anion-exchange membrane and the requirement of additional hydroxide for fuel oxidation reaction hinder the development of the high-temperature alkaline direct liquid fuel cells. The present work addresses these two issues by reporting a polybenzimidazole-membrane-based direct formate fuel cell (DFFC). Theoretically, the cell voltage of the high-temperature alkaline DFFC can be as high as 1.45 V at 90 °C. It has been demonstrated that a proof-of-concept alkaline DFFC without adding additional hydroxide yields a peak power density of 20.9 mW cm(-2) , an order of magnitude higher than both alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells and alkaline direct methanol fuel cells, mainly because the hydrolysis of formate provides enough OH(-) ions for formate oxidation reaction. It was also found that this hydroxide self-feeding high-temperature alkaline DFFC shows a stable 100 min constant-current discharge at 90 °C, proving the conceptual feasibility.

  20. Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Reid, Concha M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  1. Battery and Fuel Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's return to the moon will require advanced battery, fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems. This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EY A) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  2. Cell balancing considerations for lithium-ion battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, W.F.

    1997-12-01

    Charge algorithms for Li-Ion batteries require that charging current stop once a maximum voltage threshold is reached. Each battery in a Li-Ion pack must be individually monitored for this condition, so charging of the entire pack ceases as soon as one cell reaches this voltage limitation. Cell balancing algorithms seek to remove charge from the offending cell to equalize voltage and enable additional charging of the pack. This paper considers the technical merits of this approach and the issues associated with its implementation.

  3. Overview of NASA battery technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebling, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Highlights of NASA's technology program in batteries for space applications are presented. Program elements include: (1) advanced ambient temperature alkaline secondaries, which are primarily nickel-cadmium cells in batteries; (2) a toroidal nickel cadmium secondaries with multi-kilowatt-hour storage capacity primarily for lower orbital applications; (3) ambient temperature lithium batteries, both primary and secondaries, primarily silver hydrogen and high-capacity nickel hydrogen.

  4. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  5. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Zhan; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and themore » electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.« less

  6. Reclaiming the spent alkaline zinc manganese dioxide batteries collected from the manufacturers to prepare valuable electrolytic zinc and LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ya; Cui, Yan; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Huang, Shanna; Hu, Keshui; Xiao, Xin; Nan, Junmin

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The spent Zn–Mn batteries collected from manufacturers is the target waste. • A facile reclaiming process is presented. • The zinc is reclaimed to valuable electrolytic zinc by electrodepositing method. • The manganese elements are to produce valuable LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} battery material. • The reclamation process features environmental friendliness and saving resource. - Abstract: A process for reclaiming the materials in spent alkaline zinc manganese dioxide (Zn–Mn) batteries collected from the manufacturers to prepare valuable electrolytic zinc and LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} materials is presented. After dismantling battery cans, the iron cans, covers, electric rods, organic separator, label, sealing materials, and electrolyte are separated through the washing, magnetic separation, filtrating, and sieving operations. Then, the powder residues react with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (2 mol L{sup −1}) solution to dissolve zinc under a liquid/solid ratio of 3:1 at room temperature, and subsequently, the electrolytic Zn with purity of ⩾99.8% is recovered in an electrolytic cell with a cathode efficiency of ⩾85% under the conditions of 37–40 °C and 300 A m{sup −2}. The most of MnO{sub 2} and a small quantity of electrolytic MnO{sub 2} are recovered from the filtration residue and the electrodeposit on the anode of electrolytic cell, respectively. The recovered manganese oxides are used to synthesize LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} material of lithium-ion battery. The as-synthesized LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} discharges 118.3 mAh g{sup −1} capacity and 4.7 V voltage plateau, which is comparable to the sample synthesized using commercial electrolytic MnO{sub 2}. This process can recover the substances in the spent Zn–Mn batteries and innocuously treat the wastewaters, indicating that it is environmentally acceptable and applicable.

  7. Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith

    DOEpatents

    Olson, J.B.

    1999-02-16

    An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition are disclosed. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinyl sulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness. 2 figs.

  8. Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith

    DOEpatents

    Olson, John B.

    1999-12-07

    An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinylsulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness.

  9. Battery paste compositions and electrochemical cells for use therewith

    DOEpatents

    Olson, John B.

    1999-02-16

    An improved battery paste composition and a lead-acid electrochemical cell which incorporates the composition. The cell includes a positive current collector and a negative current collector which are each coated with a paste containing one or more lead-containing compositions and a paste vehicle to form a positive plate and a negative plate. An absorbent electrolyte-containing separator member may also be positioned between the positive and negative plates. The paste on the positive current collector, the negative current collector, or both further includes a special additive consisting of polyvinylsulfonic acid or salts thereof which provides many benefits including improved battery cycle life, increased charge capacity, and enhanced overall stability. The additive also makes the pastes smoother and more adhesive, thereby improving the paste application process. The paste compositions of interest may be used in conventional flat-plate cells or in spirally wound batteries with equal effectiveness.

  10. Sealed bipolar multi-cell battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A low maintenance battery comprises a sealed casing (102) having a cavity (204) receiving a stack (108) of monopolar and bipolar plates (110, 112) interspersed with mats (122) of fiberglass felt immobilizing electrolyte and forming a gas path for diffusion of oxygen to the negative electrode (112). The casing contains a single, resealable vent (202). During charging, oxygen generated at the positive plate (110) diffuses through the mat (122) and decomposes at the negative plate (112). The negative plate (112) has a larger capacity than the positive plate (110) to prevent evolution of hydrogen. Voltage potential is increased or decreased by placing one or more bipolar plates (120) in series relation between alternating positive and negative monopolar plates that are connected in parallel to respective positive and negative battery terminals (104, 106). The monoplates (110, 112) are connected in parallel to respective positive and negative battery terminals (104, 106) by way of bus plates (114, 116, 130, 132). The resealable vent permits operation by way of the oxygen cycle which prevents loss of electrolyte. The vent prevents invasion of oxygen from the ambient to discharge negative plates.

  11. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  12. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cell and battery designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Zimmerman, A. H.

    1995-04-01

    In the early 1980's the NASA Lewis group addressed the topic of designing nickel hydrogen cells for LEO applications. As published in 1984, the design addressed the topics of gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. This design effort followed principles set forth in an earlier Lewis paper that addressed the topic of pore size engineering. At about that same time, the beneficial effect on cycle life of lower electrolyte concentrations was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a Lewis funded study. A succession of life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially verified all of this earlier work. During these past two decades, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research efforts carried out at several laboratories. At The Aerospace Corporation, Dr. Zimmerman has been developing a sophisticated model of an operating nickel hydrogen cell which will be used to model certain mechanisms that have contributed to premature failures in nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. During the course of trying to understand and model abnormal nickel hydrogen cell behaviors, we have noted that not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently batteries. Several of these phenomenon have been well known in the area of alkaline fuel cells, but only recently have they been examined as they might impact alkaline cell designs. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium devices, Once these phenomenon are understood conceptually, the impact of potassium content on a potential cell design can be evaluated with the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the

  13. Matching the characteristics of batteries with solar cell modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, C. F.; Kapur, V. K.; Pyle, B.; Rumburg, J.; Manfredi, A.

    The typical photovoltaic (PV) power system consists currently of one or a few PV modules. Each module contains from 32 to 40 cells. The modules are connected to one or more six-cell (12 V) lead-acid batteries through a voltage regulator or charge controller. Input conditions for design optimization are discussed, taking into account the basic system, the standard solar day and typical variations, and the dependence of PV module performance on insolation and temperature. Problems regarding the matching of the module voltage to battery characteristics are considered, and a description is provided of the results obtained with a module which was designed to satisfy certain requirements. The investigation shows that it is possible to design a photovoltaic generator to match appropriate characteristics of the battery, taking into account the possibility to maintain self-regulation in practical field operations.

  14. A new type of auxiliary electrode for alkaline zinc cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowronski, J. M.; Reksc, Wl.; Jurewicz, K.

    1988-07-01

    Auxiliary electrodes having a low hydrogen overpotential were prepared by electrodepositing active nickel onto chemically-metallized polypropylene fiber. They effectively overcame the problem of zinc anode shape change in alkaline electrolyte by dissolving residual zinc, which remained on the anode plates due to passivation and exhaustion of cathode capacity. Residual discharge with such an auxiliary electrode restores the balance of charge efficiencies. Polypropylene-nickel auxiliary electrodes with a very long lifespan can be made in various shapes and sizes. Their polarization curves and the effect they have on the zinc anode discharge process are both illustrated.

  15. Lithium Battery Safety/Cell-to-Cell Failure Project FY14 Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-06

    temperature monitoring using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), novel surrogate cell design mimicking real battery anisotropic thermal...EIS-based Non-Invasive Internal Temperature Determination ....................................... 17 3.4 Multi-Cell Model Development and Analysis...an abrupt call to understand lithium-ion battery safety following several recent and high profile energetic failure events [1-4]. While lithium-ion

  16. Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-09

    GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than today’s flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRC’s flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

  17. NASA Alternative Orion Small Cell Battery Design Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Chuck

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Orion Crew Module Reference Design was produced to address large scale thermal runaway (TR) hazard with specific safety controls for the Orion Spacecraft. The design presented provides the description of a full scale battery design reference for implementation as a drop in replacement to meet all spacecraft energy requirements with compatible 120 Vdc electrical and mechanical interface using small cell technology (18650) packaging. The 32V SuperBrick incorporates unique support features and an electrical bus bar arrangement that allows cells negative can insertion into heat sink that is compressively coupled to the battery enclosure to promote good thermal management. The housing design also provides an internal flame suppression "filter tray" and positive venting path internal to the enclosure to allow hot effluent ejecta to escape in the event of single cell TR. Virtual cells (14P Banks) that are supported to provide cell spacing with interstitial materials to prevent side can failures that can produce cell to cell TR propagation. These features were successfully test in four separate TR run with the full scale DTA1 test article in February 2016. Successfully Completed Test Objectives - Four separate TR test runs with Full-Scale DTA1 housing with Two SuperBricks, Two SuperBrick Emulators All Tests resulted in "clean" gas with less than 6 C rise at Battery vent All Tests resulted in less than 2 C temperature rise on cold-plate outlet All Tests resulted in less than 6 psi pressure rise in the battery housing Test Run 1 -One neighbor cell TR, highest remaining neighbor 139 C. Ejecta shorted to bus caused prolonged additional heating, One shorted cell did experience TR after 12 minutes, remaining cells had adequate thermal margin Test Run 2 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 112 C; Test Run 3 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 96 C; Test Run 4 - No cell to cell propagation, highest neighbor cell 101 C; Primary TR testing

  18. Alkaline phosphatase activity in salivary gland cells of Rhodnius neglectus and R. prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, A P M; Alevi, K C C; Anhê, A C B; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-07-29

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in salivary gland cells of the Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, and R. prolixus Stal, 1859, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (etiological agent of Chagas disease) and T. rangeli Tejera, 1920 (pathogenic to insect). The Gomori technique was used to demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity. Alkaline phosphatase activity was observed throughout the entire gland, with an increased activity in the posterior region of the principal gland. In particular, phosphatase activity was found in the nucleolar corpuscles, suggesting a relationship with the rRNA transcription and ribosomal biogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase was also detected in the nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix, suggesting an association with the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins and the mechanisms of cell cycle and DNA replication, respectively. This study highlights the importance of alkaline phosphatase in the salivary gland of R. prolixus and R. neglectus and emphasizes its importance in secretory activity. Secretory activity is directly involved in hematophagy and, consequently, in development during metamorphosis. The observed presence of alkaline phosphatase suggests its involvement in the production of saliva allowing feeding of these insects that are important vectors of Chagas disease.

  19. Reliability Through Life of Internal Protection Devices in Small-Cell ABSL Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Ng, Ka Lok; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Rao, gopal

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a reliability analysis of small cell protection batteries. The contents include: 1) The s-p Topology; 2) Cell Level Protection Devices; 3) Battery Level Fault Protection; 4) Large Cell Comparison; and 5) Battery Level Testing and Results.

  20. Thermal modeling of a Ni-H2 battery cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Si-Ok; Dewitt, K. J.; Keith, T. G.

    1991-01-01

    The nickel-hydrogen secondary battery has many desirable features which make it attractive for satellite power systems. It can provide a significant improvement over the energy density of present spacecraft nickel-cadnium batteries, combined with longer life, tolerance to overcharge and possibility of state-of-charge indication. However, to realize these advantages, accurate thermal modeling of nickel-hydrogen cells is required in order to properly design the battery pack so that it operates within a specified temperature range during the operation. Maintenance of a low operating temperature and a uniform temperature profile within the cell will yield better reliability, improved cycle life and better charge/discharge efficiencies. This research has the objective of developing and testing a thermal model which can be used to characterize battery operation. Primarily, temperature distribution with the heat generation rates as a function of position and time will be evaluated for a Ni-H2 cell in the three operating modes: (1) charge cycle, (2) discharge cycle, and (3) overcharge condition, if applicable. Variables to be examined include charging current, discharge rates, state of charge, pressure and temperature. Once the thermal model has been developed, this resulting model will predict the actual operating temperature and temperature gradient for the specific cell geometry to be used.

  1. COTS Li-Ion Cells in High Voltage Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis; Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Cowles, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Testing at NASA JSC and COMDEV shows that Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Li Ion cells can not be used in high voltage batteries safely without considering the voltage stresses that may be put on the protective devices in them during failure modes.

  2. Resource recovery of scrap silicon solar battery cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Hung, Chi-En; Tsai, Shang-Lin; Popuri, Srinivasa R; Liao, Ching-Hua

    2013-05-01

    In order to minimize pollution problems and to conserve limited natural resources, a hydrometallurgical procedure was developed in this study to recover the valuable resources of silicon (Si), silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) from scrap silicon solar battery cells. In this study, several methods of leaching, crystallization, precipitation, electrolysis and replacement were employed to investigate the recovery efficiency of Ag and Al from defective monocrystalline silicon solar battery cells. The defective solar battery cells were ground into powder followed by composition analysis with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The target metals Ag and Al weight percentage were found to be 1.67 and 7.68 respectively. A leaching process was adopted with nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium hydroxide as leaching reagent to recover Ag and Al from a ground solar battery cell. Aluminum was leached 100% with 18N H2SO4 at 70°C and Ag was leached 100% with 6N HNO3. Pure Si of 100% was achieved from the leaching solution after the recovery of Ag and Al, and was analyzed by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy. Aluminum was recovered by crystallization process and silver was recovered by precipitation, electrolysis and replacement processes. These processes were applied successfully in the recovery of valuable metal Ag of 98-100%.

  3. Battery and cell testing at NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitt, Tom; Jackson, Lorna

    1992-01-01

    An overview covering the ten cell/battery tests ongoing at MSFC are presented. The presentation is not intended to give specific test results on any test. The purpose and related program that applies to each test is acknowledged. Except for the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES), all are energy-stored and retrieval devices at low earth orbit (LEO) cycles.

  4. l-Glutamate-Dependent Medium Alkalinization by Asparagus Mesophyll Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Steve L.; Ciccarelli, Bruce W.; Chung, Induk; Shelp, Barry; Bown, Alan W.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanically isolated Asparagus sprengeri Regel mesophyll cells cause alkalinization of the suspension medium on the addition of l-glutamate or its analog l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine. Using a radiolabeled pH probe, it was found that both compounds caused internal acidification whereas l-aspartate did not. Fusicoccin stimulated H+ efflux from the cells by 111% and the uptake of l-[U-14C]glutamate by 55%. Manometric experiments demonstrated that, unlike l-methionine-d,l-sulfoximine, l-glutamate stimulated CO2 evolution from nonilluminated cells. Simultaneous measurements of medium alkalinization and 14CO2 evolution upon the addition of labeled l-glutamate showed that alkalinization was immediate and reached a maximum value after 45 minutes whereas 14CO2 evolution exhibited a lag before its appearance and continued in a linear manner for at least 100 minutes. Rates of alkalinization and uptake of l-[U-14C]glutamate were higher in the light while rates of 14CO2 evolution were higher in the dark. The major labeled product of glutamate decarboxylation, γ-aminobutyric acid, was found in the cells and the suspension medium. Its addition to the cell suspension did not result in medium alkalinization and evidence indicates that it is lost from the cell to the medium. The data suggest that the origin of medium alkalinization is co-transport not metabolism, and that the loss of labeled CO2 and γ-aminobutyric acid from the cell result in an overestimation of the stoichiometry of the H+/l-glutamate uptake process. Images Fig. 5 PMID:16666418

  5. MGS 2-Cell CPV NiH2 Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, Sal

    1999-01-01

    The Nickel Hydrogen batteries used aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is described. The mission itself is briefly described. This is followed by a description of the full electric power subsystem, and the design of the MGS 20 AH cell design. Graphic presentations show characteristics of the battery's performance. In summary, even though the charge control seems to be well, the method used is not recommended, due to an unexpected increase in pressure observed in flight. The operations have been modified to further minimize overcharge, and the pressure increase is not expected to impact the mission.

  6. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-04-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  7. Battery selection for Space Shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, David R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will delineate the criteria required for the selection of batteries as a power source for space experiments. Four basic types of batteries will be explored, lead acid, silver zinc, alkaline manganese, and nickel cadmium. A detailed description of the lead acid and silver zinc cells and a brief exploration of the alkaline manganese and nickel cadmium will be given. The factors involved in battery selection such as packaging, energy density, discharge voltage regulation, and cost will be thoroughly examined. The pros and cons of each battery type will be explored. Actual laboratory test data acquired for the lead acid and silver zinc cell will be discussed. This data will include discharging under various temperature conditions, after three months of storage, and with different types of loads. The lifetime and number of charge/discharge cycles will also be discussed. A description of the required maintenance for each type of battery will be investigated.

  8. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-03-01

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g-1 at a current density of 50 mA g-1 after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: More experimental details and characterization. See DOI: 10

  9. Poly(imide)/Organically-Modified Montmorillonite Nanocomposite as a Potential Membrane for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Battirola, Liliane C.; Gasparotto, Luiz H. S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara P.; Tremiliosi-Filho, Germano

    2012-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the potentiality of a poly(imide) (PI)/organically-modified montmorillonite (O-MMT) nanocomposite membrane for the use in alkaline fuel cells. Both X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed a good dispersion of O-MMT into the PI matrix and preservation of the O-MMT layered structure. When compared to the pure PI, the addition of O-MMT improved thermal stability and markedly increased the capability of absorbing electrolyte and ionic conductivity of the composite. The results show that the PI/O-MMT nanocomposite is a promising candidate for alkaline fuel cell applications. PMID:24958290

  10. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  11. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  12. Synergistic effects of carboxymethyl cellulose and ZnO as alkaline electrolyte additives for aluminium anodes with a view towards Al-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Daquan; Gao, Lixin; Lin, Tong

    2016-12-01

    The synergistic effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been investigated as alkaline electrolyte additives for the AA5052 aluminium alloy anode in aluminium-air battery by the hydrogen evolution test, the electrochemical measurements and the surface analysis method. The combination of CMC and ZnO effectively retards the self-corrosion of AA5052 alloy in 4 M NaOH solution. A complex film is formed via the interaction between CMC and Zn2+ ions on the alloy surface. The carboxyl groups adsorbed on the surface of aluminium make the protective film more stable. The cathodic reaction process is mainly suppressed significantly. AA5052 alloy electrode has a good discharge performance in the applied electrolyte containing the composite CMC/ZnO additives.

  13. High temperature battery cell comprising stress free hollow fiber bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, J. N.; Revak, T. T.; Rossini, F. J.

    1985-04-16

    Thermal stressing of hollow fibers constituting the electrolyte-separator in a high temperature battery cell, and of certain other elements thereof, is avoided by suspending the assembly comprising the anolyte tank, the tube-sheet, the hollow fibers and a cathodic current collector-distributor within the casing and employing a limp connection between the collector-distributor and the cathode terminal of the cell.

  14. Life cycle testing of sodium/sulfur satellite battery cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flake, Richard A.

    Test results on sodium sulfur cells developed presently by the Air Force for NaS rechargeable batteries for baseload power applications are summarized. Cycle life data are presented on fourteen cells, some of which have accumulated more than 1900 days on test and/or more than 6000 cycles. Results demonstrated cycle life times to be sufficient for use on satellites in high-altitude orbits.

  15. Laser direct write of planar alkaline microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. B.; Kim, H.; Piqué, A.

    We are developing a laser engineering approach to fabricate and optimize alkaline microbatteries in planar geometries. The laser direct-write technique enables multicapability for adding, removing and processing material and provides the ability to pattern complicated structures needed for fabricating complete microbattery assemblies. In this paper, we demonstrate the production of planar zinc-silver oxide alkaline cells under ambient conditions. The microbattery cells exhibit 1.55-V open-circuit potentials, as expected for the battery chemistry, and show a flat discharge behavior under constant-current loads. High capacities of over 450 μAhcm-2 are obtained for 5-mm2 microbatteries.

  16. Culture of osteogenic cells from human alveolar bone: a useful source of alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Simão, Ana Maria S; Beloti, Marcio M; Rosa, Adalberto L; de Oliveira, Paulo T; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Pizauro, João M; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase from osteoblastic-like cells of human alveolar bone. Cells were obtained by enzymatic digestion and maintained in primary culture in osteogenic medium until subconfluence. First passage cells were cultured in the same medium and at 7, 14, and 21 days, total protein content, collagen content, and alkaline phosphatase activity were evaluated. Bone-like nodule formation was evaluated at 21 days. Cells in primary culture at day 14 were washed with Tris-HCl buffer, and used to extract the membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase. Cells expressed osteoblastic phenotype. The apparent optimum pH for PNPP hydrolysis by the enzyme was pH 10.0. This enzyme also hydrolyzes ATP, ADP, fructose-1-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, pyrophosphate and beta-glycerophosphate. PNPPase activity was reduced by typical inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase. SDS-PAGE of membrane fraction showed a single band with activity of approximately 120 kDa that could be solubilized by phospholipase C or Polidocanol.

  17. Transport phenomena in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in ethanol directly into electricity, are one of the most promising energy-conversion devices for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a carbon-neutral, sustainable fuel and the electrocatalytic and membrane materials that constitute the cell are relatively inexpensive. As a result, the alkaline DEFC technology has undergone a rapid progress over the last decade. This article provides a comprehensive review of transport phenomena of various species in this fuel cell system. The past investigations into how the design and structural parameters of membrane electrode assemblies and the operating parameters affect the fuel cell performance are discussed. In addition, future perspectives and challenges with regard to transport phenomena in this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  18. Utilization of automotive shredder residues in a thermal process for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, N M; Belardi, G; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is the recovery by thermal treatment of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, on the basis of the different phase change temperatures of the two metal-bearing phases. ASR (Automotive Shredder Residue), containing 68% of carbon, was added to the mixture to act as a reductant to metallic Zn of the zinc-bearing phases. The mixture was subsequently heated in different atmospheres (air, CO2 and N2) and at different temperatures (900°C, 1000°C and 1200°C) and stoichiometric excess of ASR (300%, 600% and 900%). Characterization of the mixture and of the residues of thermal treatment was carried out by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA, SEM and XRD. The results show that recovery of 99% of zinc (grade 97%) is achieved at 1000°C in N2 with a stoichiometric excess of car-fluff of 900%. This product could be suitable for production of new batteries after refining by hydrometallurgical way. Recovery of Mn around 98% in the residue of the treatment is achieved at any temperature and atmosphere tested with a grade of 57% at 900% excess of car-fluff. This residue is enriched in manganese oxide and could be used in the production of iron-manganese alloys.

  19. Overdischarge protection in high-temperature cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo

    1990-01-01

    Overdischarge indication and protection is provided in a lithium alloy - metal sulfide, secondary electrochemical cell and batteries of such cells through use of a low lithium activity phase that ordinarily is not matched with positive electrode material. Low lithium activity phases such as Li.sub.0.1 Al.sub.0.9 and LiAlSi in correspondence with positive electrode material cause a downward gradient in cell voltage as an indication of overdischarge prior to damage to the cell. Moreover, the low lithium activity phase contributes lithium into the electrolyte and provides a lithium shuttling current as overdischarge protection after all of the positive electrode material is discharged.

  20. Investigation on the heavy metal content of zinc-carbon and alkaline manganese dry cells

    SciTech Connect

    Recknagel, Sebastian Richter, Andrea; Richter, Silke

    2009-03-15

    The objective of this work was to test the compliance of commercially available batteries with the German Battery Ordinance, a project of the German government that was initiated by the Federal Environment Agency. Different types of commercially available dry cells were analysed for their cadmium, lead and mercury contents. The dry cells underwent mechanical pre-treatment, separation of the different components and microwave-assisted digestion before determination of the heavy metals. Mercury is sometimes added to prevent the generation of gaseous hydrogen from the electrochemical process. Lead could be present since it is sometimes used as an alloying element of zinc. Cadmium has no technical importance and is an undesirable impurity. None of the batteries contained higher heavy metal mass fractions than the permissible limits.

  1. The effect of cell design and test criteria on the series/parallel performance of nickel cadmium cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Webb, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Three batteries were operated in parallel from a common bus during charge and discharge. SMM utilized NASA Standard 20AH cells and batteries, and LANDSAT-D NASA 50AH cells and batteries of a similar design. Each battery consisted of 22 series connected cells providing the nominal 28V bus. The three batteries were charged in parallel using the voltage limit/current taper mode wherein the voltage limit was temperature compensated. Discharge occurred on the demand of the spacecraft instruments and electronics. Both flights were planned for three to five year missions. The series/parallel configuration of cells and batteries for the 3-5 yr mission required a well controlled product with built-in reliability and uniformity. Examples of how component, cell and battery selection methods affect the uniformity of the series/parallel operation of the batteries both in testing and in flight are given.

  2. Copper nitride nanocubes: size-controlled synthesis and application as cathode catalyst in alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibin; Chen, Wei

    2011-10-05

    Copper nitride nanocubes are synthesized in a facile one-phase process. The crystal size could be tuned easily by using different primary amines as capping agents. Such Pt-free nanocrystals exhibit electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and appear to be promising cathodic electrocatalysts in alkaline fuel cells.

  3. Nanofiber Composite Membranes for Alkaline Fuel Cells: Generation of Compositional, Morphological, and Functional Property Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    properties of nanofiber composite anion-exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells. A new membrane fabrication strategy, utilizing polymer fiber...electrospinning, will be employed to make hydroxide-conducting membranes with an entirely new morphology, where one electrospun polymer provides pathways...for ion conductivity and the second electrospun polymer restricts ionomer swelling and imparts mechanical strength to the membrane. The functional

  4. Dynamics of cell degradation. [nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1978-01-01

    The use of chemical and physical data as a supplement to linear regression models in the prediction of cell failure is discussed. Principal factors to be considered are the positive thickness and weight, and the negative thickness. A model for cell degradation and failure in accelerated life test cells is presented and predictions based on a teardown analysis are included.

  5. Non-gassing nickel-cadmium battery electrodes and cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.; Gordy, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of a negative limited nongassing nickel-cadmium battery was demonstrated by constructing and testing practical size experimental cells of approximately 25 Ah capacity. These batteries operated in a gas-free manner and had measured energy densities of 10-11 Wh/lb. Thirty cells were constructed for extensive testing. Some small cells were tested for over 200 cycles at 100% depth. For example, a small cell with an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a silver screen still had 55% of its theoretical capacity (initial efficiency was 85%). There was no evidence of deterioration of gassing properties with cycling of the nickel electrodes. The charge temperature was observed to be the most critical variable governing nickel electrode gassing. This variable was shown to be age dependent. Four types of cadmium electrodes were tested: an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a cadmium or silver substrate, a porous sintered silver substrate based electrode, and a Teflon bonded pressed cadmium electrode. The electrodeposited cadmium mass on a silver screen was found to be the best all-around electrode from a performance point of view and from the point of view of manufacturing them in a size required for a 25 Ah size battery.

  6. Computer simulation of thermal modelling of alkaline hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, A.; Hauff, S.; Bolwin, K.

    1991-11-01

    An essential problem connected with the operation of regenerative fuel cell systems in space is the rejection of waste heat, produced mainly during discharging the regenerative fuel cell. The intention of this investigation was to gain a better understanding of the heat generation and heat rejection mechanism in alkaline fuel cells by performing detailed thermal modeling of a single cell stack. In particular, spatial temperature profiles within the fuel cell stack and the start-up behavior of the cells were predicted. Furthermore a model simulation of an emergency situation due to a partial failure of the coolant circuit was performed and theoretically temperature versus time curves were given for restarting the cooling.

  7. Quantification of carbon dioxide poisoning in air breathing alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, A.; Sambhy, V.; Urquidi Macdonald, M.; Sen, A.

    Carbon dioxide intolerance has impeded the development of alkaline fuel cells as an alternate source of power supply. The CO 2, in a fuel cell system, could come from the anode side (if "dirty" H 2 is used as fuel), from the cathode side (if air instead of pure O 2 is used as an oxidant) or from inside the electrolyte (if methanol is used as a fuel). In this work, an novel analytical approach is proposed to study and quantify the carbon dioxide poisoning problem. Accelerated tests were carried out in an alkaline fuel cell using methanol as a fuel with different electrical loads and varying the concentration of carbon dioxide in a mixture CO 2/O 2 used as oxidant. Two characteristic quantities, t max and R max, were specified which were shown to comprehensively define the nature and extent of carbon dioxide poisoning in alkaline fuel cells. The poisoning phenomenon was successfully quantified by determining the dependence of these characteristic quantities on the operating parameters, viz. atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and applied electrical load. Such quantification enabled the prediction of the output of a fuel cell operating in a carbon dioxide enriched atmosphere. In addition, static and dynamic analyses of electrolytes were carried out to determine the dependence of cell current on the electrolyte composition in a fuel cell undergoing poisoning. It was observed that there is a critical concentration of KOH in the electrolyte only below which the effect of carbon dioxide poisoning is reflected on the cell performance. Potentiostatic polarization tests confirmed that the underlying reason for the decreased cell performance because of carbon dioxide poisoning is the sluggish kinetics of methanol oxidation in the presence of potassium carbonate in the electrolyte. Moreover, the decreased conductivity of the electrolyte resulting from hydroxide to carbonate conversion was also shown to increase the ohmic loses in an alkaline fuel cell leading to lower

  8. Redistribution of wastewater alkalinity with a microbial fuel cell to support nitrification of reject water.

    PubMed

    Modin, Oskar; Fukushi, Kensuke; Rabaey, Korneel; Rozendal, René A; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2011-04-01

    In wastewater treatment plants, the reject water from the sludge treatment processes typically contains high ammonium concentrations, which constitute a significant internal nitrogen load in the plant. Often, a separate nitrification reactor is used to treat the reject water before it is fed back into the plant. The nitrification reaction consumes alkalinity, which has to be replenished by dosing e.g. NaOH or Ca(OH)(2). In this study, we investigated the use of a two-compartment microbial fuel cell (MFC) to redistribute alkalinity from influent wastewater to support nitrification of reject water. In an MFC, alkalinity is consumed in the anode compartment and produced in the cathode compartment. We use this phenomenon and the fact that the influent wastewater flow is many times larger than the reject water flow to transfer alkalinity from the influent wastewater to the reject water. In a laboratory-scale system, ammonium oxidation of synthetic reject water passed through the cathode chamber of an MFC, increased from 73.8 ± 8.9 mgN/L under open-circuit conditions to 160.1 ± 4.8 mgN/L when a current of 1.96 ± 0.37 mA (15.1 mA/L total MFC liquid volume) was flowing through the MFC. These results demonstrated the positive effect of an MFC on ammonium oxidation of alkalinity-limited reject water.

  9. In vitro osteogenesis assays: influence of the primary cell source on alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization.

    PubMed

    Hoemann, C D; El-Gabalawy, H; McKee, M D

    2009-06-01

    In trabecular bone fracture repair in vivo, osteogenesis occurs through endochondral ossification under hypoxic conditions, or through woven bone deposition in the vicinity of blood vessels. In vitro osteogenesis assays are routinely used to test osteoblastic responses to drugs, hormones, and biomaterials for bone and cartilage repair applications. These cell culture models recapitulate events that occur in woven bone synthesis, and are carried out using primary osteoblasts, osteoblast precursors such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs), or various osteoblast cell lines. With time in culture, cell differentiation is typically assessed by examining levels of alkaline phosphatase activity (an early osteoblast marker) and by evaluating the assembly of a collagen (type I)-containing fibrillar extracellular matrix that mineralizes. In this review, we have made a comparative analysis of published osteogenic assays using calvarial cells, calvaria-derived cell lines, and bone marrow stromal cells. In all of these cell types, alkaline phosphatase activity shows similar progression over time using a variety of osteogenic and mineralizing media conditions; however, levels of alkaline phosphatase activity are not proportional to observed mineralization levels.

  10. A study of the direct dimethyl ether fuel cell using alkaline anolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kan; Lao, Shao Jiang; Qin, Hai Ying; Liu, Bin Hong; Li, Zhou Peng

    The electrooxidation behavior of dimethyl ether (DME) dissolved in acidic, neutral or alkaline anolyte has been studied. The cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal that DME in alkaline anolyte demonstrates higher electrooxidation reactivity than that in acidic or neutral anolyte. With increasing the NaOH concentration in the anolyte, the electrooxidation reactivity of DME can be further improved. Direct dimethyl ether fuel cells (DDFCs) are assembled by using Nafion membrane as the electrolyte, Pt/C as the cathode catalyst, and Pt-Ru/C as the anode catalyst. It is found that the use of alkaline anolyte can significantly improve the performance of DDFCs. A maximum power density of 60 mW cm -2 has been achieved when operating the DDFC at 80 °C under ambient pressure.

  11. Implementation of a real option in a sustainable supply chain: an empirical study of alkaline battery recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Gastaldi, Massimo; Lenny Koh, S. C.

    2014-06-01

    Green supply chain management (GSCM) has emerged as a key approach for enterprises seeking to become environmentally sustainable. This paper aims to evaluate and describe the advantages of a GSCM approach by analysing practices and performance consequences in the battery recycling sector. It seeks to integrate works in supply chain management (SCM), environmental management, performance management and real option (RO) theory into one framework. In particular, life cycle assessment (LCA) is applied to evaluate the environmental impact of a battery recycling plant project, and life cycle costing (LCC) is applied to evaluate its economic impact. Firms, also understanding the relevance of GSCM, have often avoided applying the green principles because of the elevated costs that such management involved. Such costs could also seem superior to the potential advantages since standard performance measurement systems are internally and business focused; for these reasons, we consider all the possible value deriving also by uncertainty associated to a green project using the RO theory. This work is one of the few and pioneering efforts to investigate GSCM practices in the battery recycling sector.

  12. Inhibition of human natural killer cell activity by Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease and elastase.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, B K; Kharazmi, A

    1987-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease (AP) and elastase (Ela) on human natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitro. AP and Ela were found to inhibit NK cell function. Addition of alpha interferon and interleukin-2 did not abolish this inhibition of NK cell activity. Adhesion of effector to target cells was studied in a single-cell agarose assay of monocyte-depleted NK-cell-enriched cell populations. AP and Ela were shown to inhibit effector/target cell conjugate formation. Furthermore, AP and Ela inhibited the binding of the monoclonal antibody Leu-11, which reacts with the Fc receptor of NK cells. The inhibition of NK cell binding to the target cell by P. aeruginosa proteases is most likely due to proteolytic cleavage of the surface receptors involved in the binding of the effector cell to the target cell. PMID:3030937

  13. Thermal Imaging of Aerospace Battery Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shue, Jack; Ramirez, Julian B.; Sullivan, David; Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    2006-01-01

    Surface Thermal Profiles of Eagle Picher rabbit-ear 50Ah NiH2 and of Saft 40 Ah Li-ion cylindrical cells have been studied using ThermCAM S60 FLIR Systems. Popping Phenomenon in NiH2 cell is demonstrated Temperature gradient in NiH2 is slightly higher than normally considered, for example. Middle of stack to top or bottom is about 12.9 C compared to <7 C (may be due to passive cooling). Less than 1 C thermal gradient on the Li-Ion cell vessel surface. Significantly lower heat generation in Li-Ion cell compared to NiH2 cell. -May be due to a favorable charge method used for Li-Ion cell.

  14. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; ...

    2015-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  15. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

  16. Modeling the effect of membrane conductivity on the performance of alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raya, Isaac P.; Ellis, Michael W.; Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel; Elizalde-Blancas, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    The present work proposes and demonstrates a methodology to capture the effect of operating conditions on ionic conductivity of membranes immersed in alkaline media. Based on reported experimental results for an anion exchange membrane (A-201 by Tokuyama) and a cation exchange membrane (Nafion 211), two novel expressions are developed for the ionic conductivity by incorporating the effects of solution concentration and temperature. The expression for the cationic conductivity is applied in a cell-level model to predict the performance of an alkaline direct borohydride fuel cell; it is found that the membrane ionic conductivity significantly affects the cell performance and capturing its functionality is essential to accurately predict the fuel cell performance.

  17. Enhanced cell adhesion on bioinert ceramics mediated by the osteogenic cell membrane enzyme alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Alieh; Shirzadi, Bahareh; Azizi, Zahra; Maedler, Kathrin; Volkmann, Eike; Hildebrand, Nils; Maas, Michael; Treccani, Laura; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2016-12-01

    Functional bone and dental implant materials are required to guide cell response, offering cues that provide specific instructions to cells at the implant/tissue interface while maintaining full biocompatibility as well as the desired structural requirements and functions. In this work we investigate the influence of covalently immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in bone mineralization, on the first contact and initial cell adhesion. To this end, ALP is covalently immobilized by carbodiimide-mediated chemoligation on two highly bioinert ceramics, alpha-alumina (Al2O3) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) that are well-established for load-bearing applications. The physicochemical surface properties are evaluated by profilometry, zeta potential and water contact angle measurements. The initial cell adhesion of human osteoblasts (HOBs), human osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) and mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) was investigated. Cell adhesion was assessed at serum free condition via quantification of percentage of adherent cells, adhesion area and staining of the focal adhesion protein vinculin. Our findings show that after ALP immobilization, the Al2O3 and Y-TZP surfaces gained a negative charge and their hydrophilicity was increased. In the presence of surface-immobilized ALP, a higher cell adhesion, more pronounced cell spreading and a higher number of focal contact points were found. Thereby, this work gives evidence that surface functionalization with ALP can be utilized to modify inert materials for biological conversion and faster bone regeneration on inert and potentially load-bearing implant materials.

  18. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-08-02

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  19. Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules: scalable preparation and high-performance applications in fuel cells and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chuangang; Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Zhipan; Cao, Minhua; Qu, Liangti

    2013-04-07

    Highly nitrogen-doped carbon capsules (hN-CCs) have been successfully prepared by using inexpensive melamine and glyoxal as precursors via solvothermal reaction and carbonization. With a great promise for large scale production, the hN-CCs, having large surface area and high-level nitrogen content (N/C atomic ration of ca. 13%), possess superior crossover resistance, selective activity and catalytic stability towards oxygen reduction reaction for fuel cells in alkaline medium. As a new anode material in lithium-ion battery, hN-CCs also exhibit excellent cycle performance and high rate capacity with a reversible capacity of as high as 1046 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 50 mA g(-1) after 50 cycles. These features make the hN-CCs developed in this study promising as suitable substitutes for the expensive noble metal catalysts in the next generation alkaline fuel cells, and as advanced electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Nickel hydrogen battery cell storage matrix test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.; Dodson, Gary W.

    1993-01-01

    Test were conducted to evaluate post storage performance of nickel hydrogen cells with various design variables, the most significant being nickel precharge versus hydrogen precharge. Test procedures and results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  1. Cationic Polymers Developed for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-20

    cell (AEMFC) adopts cationic group-functionalized polymers as the solid electrolyte instead of liquid potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide used in...hydroxide or sodium hydroxide used in the traditional AFC, avoiding leakage problems, bicarbonate and carbonate salt induced electrode degradation...the solid electrolyte instead of liquid potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide used in the traditional AFC, avoiding leakage problems, bicarbonate

  2. Membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase from ectopic mineralization and rat bone marrow cell culture.

    PubMed

    Simão, Ana Maria S; Beloti, Márcio M; Cezarino, Rodrigo M; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz; Pizauro, João M; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2007-04-01

    Cells from rat bone marrow exhibit the proliferation-differentiation sequence of osteoblasts, form mineralized extracellular matrix in vitro and release alkaline phosphatase into the medium. Membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase was obtained by method that is easy to reproduce, simpler and fast when compared with the method used to obtain the enzyme from rat osseous plate. The membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase from cultures of rat bone marrow cells has a MW(r) of about 120 kDa and specific PNPP activity of 1200 U/mg. The ecto-enzyme is anchored to the plasma membrane by the GPI anchor and can be released by PIPLC (selective treatment) or polidocanol (0.2 mg/mL protein and 1% (w/v) detergent). The apparent optimum pH for PNPP hydrolysis by the enzyme was pH 10. This fraction hydrolyzes ATP (240 U/mg), ADP (350 U/mg), glucose 1-phosphate (1100 U/mg), glucose 6-phosphate (340 U/mg), fructose 6-phosphate (460 U/mg), pyrophosphate (330 U/mg) and beta-glycerophosphate (600 U/mg). Cooperative effects were observed for the hydrolysis of PPi and beta-glycerophosphate. PNPPase activity was inhibited by 0.1 mM vanadate (46%), 0.1 mM ZnCl2 (68%), 1 mM levamisole (66%), 1 mM arsenate (44%), 10 mM phosphate (21%) and 1 mM theophylline (72%). We report the biochemical characterization of membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase obtained from rat bone marrow cells cultures, using a method that is simple, rapid and easy to reproduce. Its properties are compared with those of rat osseous plate enzyme and revealed that the alkaline phosphatase obtained has some kinetics and structural behaviors with higher levels of enzymatic activity, facilitating the comprehension of the mineralization process and its function.

  3. Electricity generation from macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera hydrolysates using an alkaline fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Susu; Liu, Xianhua; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Pingping

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a method for the direct power generation using macroalgae Enteromorpha prolifera. The process conditions for the saccharification of macroalgae were optimized and a type of alkaline fuel cell contained no precious metal catalysts was developed. Under optimum conditions (170°C and 2% hydrochloric acid for 45min), dilute acid hydrolysis of the homogenized plants yielded 272.25g reducing sugar/kg dry algal biomass. The maximum power density reached 3.81W/m(2) under the condition of 3M KOH and 18.15g/L reducing sugar in hydrolysate, higher than any other reported algae-fed fuel cells. This study represents the first report on direct electricity generation from macroalgae using alkaline fuel cells, suggesting that there is great potential for the production of renewable energy using marine biomass.

  4. Porous matrix structures for alkaline electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vine, R. W.; Narsavage, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    A number of advancements have been realized by a continuing research program to develop higher chemically stable porous matrix structures with high bubble pressure (crossover resistance) for use as separators in potassium hydroxide electrolyte fuel cells. More uniform, higher-bubble-pressure asbestos matrices were produced by reconstituting Johns-Manville asbestos paper; Fybex potassium titanate which was found compatible with 42% KOH at 250 F for up to 3000 hr; good agreement was found between bubble pressures predicted by an analytical study and those measured with filtered structures; Teflon-bonded Fybex matrices with bubble pressures greater than 30 psi were obtained by filtering a water slurry of the mixture directly onto fuel cell electrodes; and PBI fibers have satisfactory compatibility with 42% KOH at 250 F.

  5. Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Johnson; Christopher S. , Thackeray; Michael M. , Vaughey; John T. , Kahaian; Arthur J. , Kim; Jeom-Soo

    2008-04-15

    Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

  6. Direct use of alcohols and sodium borohydride as fuel in an alkaline fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, A.; Basu, S.

    The performance of an alkaline fuel cell (AFC) was studied at different electrolyte concentrations and temperatures for the direct feeding of methanol, ethanol and sodium borohydride as fuels. Potassium hydroxide is used as the electrolyte in the alkaline fuel cell. The anode was prepared by using Pt black, carbon paper and Nafion dispersion. Nickel mesh was used as the current collector. A standard cathode made of manganese dioxide/carbon paper/Ni-mesh/Teflon dispersion (Electro-Chem-Technic, UK) was used for testing the fuel cell performance. The experimental results showed that the current density increases with increase in KOH concentration. Maximum current densities of 300, 270 and 360 A m -2 were obtained for methanol, ethanol and sodium borohydride as fuel respectively with 3 M KOH electrolyte at 25 °C. The cell performance decreases with further increase in the KOH concentration. The current density of the alkaline fuel cell increases with increase in temperature for all the three fuels. The increase in current density with temperature is not as high as expected for sodium borohydride. These results are explained based on an electrochemical phenomenon and different associated losses.

  7. Highly Stable, Anion Conductive, Comb-Shaped Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, NW; Leng, YJ; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2013-07-10

    To produce an anion-conductive and durable polymer electrolyte for alkaline fuel cell applications, a series of quaternized poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide)s containing long alkyl side chains pendant to the nitrogen-centered cation were synthesized using a Menshutkin reaction to form comb-shaped structures. The pendant alkyl chains were responsible for the development of highly conductive ionic domains, as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The comb-shaped polymers having one alkyl side chain showed higher hydroxide conductivities than those with benzyltrimethyl ammonium moieties or structures with more than one alkyl side chain per cationic site. The highest conductivity was observed for comb-shaped polymers with benzyldimethylhexadecyl ammonium cations. The chemical stabilities of the comb-shaped membranes were evaluated under severe, accelerated-aging conditions, and degradation was observed by measuring IEC and ion conductivity changes during aging. The comb-shaped membranes retained their high ion conductivity in 1 M NaOH at 80 degrees C for 2000 h. These cationic polymers were employed as ionomers in catalyst layers for alkaline fuel cells. The results indicated that the C-16 alkyl side chain ionomer had a slightly better initial performance, despite its low IEC value, but very poor durability in the fuel cell. In contrast, 90% of the initial performance was retained for the alkaline fuel cell with electrodes containing the C-6 side chain after 60 h of fuel cell operation.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, E.

    2012-05-01

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure HO due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80°C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

  9. Ag/C nanoparticles as an cathode catalyst for a zinc-air battery with a flowing alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jia-Jun; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tian-Yun

    The cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded by the four-electron pathway mechanism on larger Ag particles (174 nm), and that the ORR proceeded by the four-electron pathway and the two-electron pathway mechanisms on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm), simultaneously. The kinetics towards ORR was measured at a rotating disk electrode (RDE) with Ag/C electrode. The number of exchanged electrons for the ORR was found to be close to four on larger Ag particles (174 nm) and close to three on finer Ag particles (4.1 nm). The zinc-air battery with Ag/C catalysts (25.9 nm) was fabricated and examined.

  10. Corrosion testing of candidates for the alkaline fuel cell cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joseph; Fielder, William L.

    1989-01-01

    It is desirable to employ a corrosion screening test for catalyst or support candidates for the fuel cell cathode before entering upon optimization of the candidate or of the catalytic electrode. To this end, corrosion test electrodes, intended for complete immersion and maximum wetting, have been made with 30 to 40 vol. pct Teflon; with perovskites this is about 10 to 15 pct. The candidates were synthesized by methods intended for single-phase product without special emphasis on high surface area, although the substances tested were no coarser than 2 m squared/g. A typical loading was 25 mg/cm sq of the pure substance, usually on gold screen, a few mm squared of which were left bare for contacting. Contact to the gold lead wire was made by welding with a micro-torch or a spot-welder. Corrosion testing consisted of obtaining current-voltage data under flowing inert gas in the potential region for reduction of O2. The electrode was immersed in 30 pct KOH. Observations were made at 20 C and 80 C, and the results compared with data from gold standards. Results with some perovskites, pyrochlores, spinels, and interstitial compounds will be discussed.

  11. Assembly of a Cost-Effective Anode Using Palladium Nanoparticles for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology allows the synthesis of nanoscale catalysts, which offer an efficient alternative for fuel cell applications. In this laboratory experiment, the student selects a cost-effective anode for fuel cells by comparing three different working electrodes. These are commercially available palladium (Pd) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, and a carbon paste (CP) electrode that is prepared by the students in the laboratory. The GC and CP were modified with palladium nanoparticles (PdNP) suspensions. The electrodes efficiencies were studied for ethanol oxidation in alkaline solution using cyclic voltammetry techniques. The ethanol oxidation currents obtained were used to determine the current density using the geometric and surface area of each electrode. Finally, students were able to choose the best electrode and relate catalytic activity to surface area for ethanol oxidation in alkaline solution by completing a critical analysis of the cyclic voltammetry results. With this activity, fundamental electrochemical concepts were reinforced. PMID:25691801

  12. Assembly of a Cost-Effective Anode Using Palladium Nanoparticles for Alkaline Fuel Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Feliciano-Ramos, Ileana; Casañas-Montes, Barbara; García-Maldonado, María M; Menéndez, Christian L; Mayol, Ana R; Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M; Cabrera, Carlos R

    2015-02-10

    Nanotechnology allows the synthesis of nanoscale catalysts, which offer an efficient alternative for fuel cell applications. In this laboratory experiment, the student selects a cost-effective anode for fuel cells by comparing three different working electrodes. These are commercially available palladium (Pd) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, and a carbon paste (CP) electrode that is prepared by the students in the laboratory. The GC and CP were modified with palladium nanoparticles (PdNP) suspensions. The electrodes efficiencies were studied for ethanol oxidation in alkaline solution using cyclic voltammetry techniques. The ethanol oxidation currents obtained were used to determine the current density using the geometric and surface area of each electrode. Finally, students were able to choose the best electrode and relate catalytic activity to surface area for ethanol oxidation in alkaline solution by completing a critical analysis of the cyclic voltammetry results. With this activity, fundamental electrochemical concepts were reinforced.

  13. Accelerated test program for sealed nickel-cadmium spacecraft batteries/cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, L. A.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility was examined of inducing an accelerated test on sealed Nickel-Cadmium batteries or cells as a tool for spacecraft projects and battery users to determine: (1) the prediction of life capability; (2) a method of evaluating the effect of design and component changes in cells; and (3) a means of reducing time and cost of cell testing.

  14. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  15. Control of placental alkaline phosphatase gene expression in HeLa cells: induction of synthesis by prednisolone and sodium butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, J.Y.; Takahashi, S.

    1987-06-16

    HeLa S/sub 3/ cells produce an alkaline phosphatase indistinguishable from the enzyme from human term placenta. The phosphatase activity in these cells was induced by both prednisolone and sodium butyrate. Both agents stimulated de novo synthesis of the enzyme. The increase in phosphatase activity paralleled the increase in immunoactivity and biosynthesis of placental alkaline phosphatase. The fully processed phosphatase monomer in control, prednisolone-treated or butyrate-treated cells was a 64.5 K polypeptide, measured by both incorporation of L-(/sup 35/S)methionine into enzyme protein and active-site labeling. The 64.5K polypeptide was formed by the incorporation of additional N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties to a precursor polypeptide of 61.5K. However, this biosynthetic pathway was identified only in butyrate-treated cells. In prednisolone-treated cells, the processing of 61.5K to 64.5K monomer was accelerated, and the presence of the 61.5 precursor could only be detected by either neuraminidase or monensin treatment. Phosphatase mRNA which comigrated with the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA of 2.7 kilobases was induced in the presence of either prednisolone or butyrate. Alkaline phosphatase mRNA is untreated HeLa S/sub 3/ cells migrated slightly faster than the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Butyrate also induced a second still faster migrating alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Both prednisolone and butyrate increased the steady-state levels of placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. The data indicate that the increase in phosphatase mRNA by prednisolone and butyrate resulted in the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity and biosynthesis in HeLa S/sub 3/ cells. Furthermore, both agents induced the expression of different alkaline phosphatase gene transcripts without altering its protein product.

  16. Overdischarge protection in high-temperature cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.

    1990-06-19

    Overdischarge indication and protection is provided in a lithium alloy metal sulfide, secondary electrochemical cell and batteries of such cells through use of a low lithium activity phase that ordinarily is not matched with positive electrode material. Low lithium activity phases such as Li[sub 0.1]Al[sub 0.9] and LiAlSi in correspondence with positive electrode material cause a downward gradient in cell voltage as an indication of overdischarge prior to damage to the cell. Moreover, the low lithium activity phase contributes lithium into the electrolyte and provides a lithium shuttling current as overdischarge protection after all of the positive electrode material is discharged. 8 figs.

  17. Prismatic cell lithium-ion battery using lithium manganese oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, G.M.; Hellen, R.M.; Reddy, T.B.

    1997-12-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have demonstrated the ability to fulfill the energy storage needs of many new technologies. The most significant drawbacks of currently available technologies, such as LiCoO{sub 2} based Li-ion cells, is their high cost and significant environmental hazards. Li-ion cells which use a lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel based cathode material should be much less costly and safer than LiCoO{sub 2} based cells. Performance data from prismatic design cells which use a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} based cathode material is presented and shown to meet many military performance criteria. The most significant drawback of this technology, at the present time, is the short cycle life.

  18. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen spacecraft cell and battery design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine; Wright, Doug; Repplinger, Ron

    1995-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) NiH2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth orbital satellites and have accumulated more than 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard NiH2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV NiH2 technology flight heritage and database. The advanced cell design offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell configuration and a reduced parts count. The internal electrode stack is a prismatic flat-plate arrangement. The flat individual cell pressure vessel provides a maximum direct thermal path for removing heat from the electrode stack. The cell geometry also minimizes multiple-cell battery packaging constraints by using an established end-plateltie-rod battery design. A major design advantage is that the battery support structure is efficiently required to restrain only the force applied to a portion of the end cell. As the cells are stacked in series to achieve the desired system voltage, this increment of the total battery weight becomes small. The geometry of the DPV cell promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and places all cell terminals along the length of the battery. The resulting ability to minimize intercell wiring offers additional design simplicity and significant weight savings. The DPV battery design offers significant cost and weight savings advantages while providing minimal design risks. Cell and battery level design issues will be addressed including mechanical, electrical and thermal design aspects. A design performance analysis will be presented at both

  19. Controllable synthesis of cobalt oxide nanoflakes on three-dimensional porous cobalt networks as high-performance cathode for alkaline hybrid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Minghua; Xia, Xinhui; Zhang, Jiawei; Qi, Meili; Yin, Jinghua; Chen, Qingguo

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Construct self-supported porous Co networks. • Porous Co/CoO composite films show high capacity and good cycling life. • Porous conductive metal network is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Herein we report porous three-dimensional cobalt networks supported CoO nanoflakes by the combination of successive electro-deposition methods. The electrodeposited Co networks have average large pores of ∼5 μm and all the branches are composed of interconnected nanoparticles. CoO nanoflakes with thickness of ∼15 nm are uniformly coated on the Co networks forming self-supported Co/CoO composite films. The as-prepared Co/CoO composite films possess combined properties of porous structure and strong mechanical stability. As cathode for alkaline hybrid batteries, the Co/CoO composite films exhibit good electrochemical performances with high capacity of 83.5 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} and stable high-rate cycling life (65 mAh g{sup −1} at 10 A g{sup −1} after 15,000 cycles). The hierarchical porous architecture provides positive roles in the enhancement of electrochemical properties, including fast electronic transportation path, short diffusion of ions and high contact area between the active material and the electrolyte.

  20. Effect of magnesium on the aluminothermic reduction rate of zinc oxide obtained from spent alkaline battery anodes for the preparation of Al-Zn-Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Rocio; Flores, Alfredo; Torres, Jesus

    2016-04-01

    The aluminothermic reduction of zinc oxide (ZnO) from alkaline battery anodes using molten Al may be a good option for the elaboration of secondary 7000-series alloys. This process is affected by the initial content of Mg within molten Al, which decreases the surface tension of the molten metal and conversely increases the wettability of ZnO particles. The effect of initial Mg concentration on the aluminothermic reduction rate of ZnO was analyzed at the following values: 0.90wt%, 1.20wt%, 4.00t%, 4.25wt%, and 4.40wt%. The ZnO particles were incorporated by mechanical agitation using a graphite paddle inside a bath of molten Al maintained at a constant temperature of 1123 K and at a constant agitation speed of 250 r/min, the treatment time was 240 min and the ZnO particle size was 450-500 mesh. The results show an increase in Zn concentration in the prepared alloys up to 5.43wt% for the highest initial concentration of Mg. The reaction products obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and the efficiency of the reaction was measured on the basis of the different concentrations of Mg studied.

  1. Cell-balancing currents in parallel strings of a battery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubarry, Matthieu; Devie, Arnaud; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-07-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are attractive for vehicle electrification or grid modernization applications. In these applications, battery packs are required to have multiple-cell configurations and battery management system to operate properly and safely. Here, a useful equivalent circuit model was developed to simulate the spontaneous transient balancing currents among parallel strings in a battery system. The simulation results were validated with experimental data to illustrate the accuracy and validity of the model predictions. Understanding the transient behavior of such cell and string balancing in a parallel circuit configuration is very important to assess the impacts of current fluctuation and cell variability on a battery system's performance, regarding durability, reliability, safety, abuse tolerance and failure prevention, including possible short circuit or open circuit conditions. Additional features and advantages, including the ability to assessing impacts on the performance of the string assemblies from string swapping or cell/module replacement in the strings, could be realized to aid battery management, maintenance and repair.

  2. Lithium-ion cell-to-cell variation during battery electric vehicle operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Simon F.; Brand, Martin J.; Berg, Philipp; Gleissenberger, Markus; Jossen, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    484 new and 1908 aged lithium-ion cells out of two identical battery electric vehicles (i.e. 954 cells each) were characterized by capacity and impedance measurements to yield a broad set of data for distribution fit analysis. Results prove alteration from normal to Weibull distribution for the parameters of lithium-ion cells with the progress of aging. Cells with abnormal characteristics in the aged state mostly exhibit lower capacities as compared to the distribution mode which is typical for the left-skewed Weibull shape. In addition, the strength of variation and the amount of outliers both are generally increased with the aging progress. Obtained results are compared to vehicles' operational data to provide recommendations with the aim to minimize the increasing parameter spread. However, neither temperature gradients in the battery pack nor an insufficient balancing procedure were determined. As the appearance of cells with suspicious parameters could not be assigned to local weak spots of the battery pack, a random and inevitable type of origin is assumed. Hence, the battery management system must ensure to detect outliers in a reliable manner and to balance resulting drifts of cells' states of charge to guarantee a safe battery storage operation.

  3. The Effect of Variable End of Charge Battery Management on Small-Cell Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubauer, Jeremy S.; Bennetti, Andrea; Pearson, Chris; Simmons, Nick; Reid, Concha; Manzo, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Batteries are critical components for spacecraft, supplying power to all electrical systems during solar eclipse. These components must be lightweight due to launch vehicle limitations and the desire to fly heavier, more capable payloads, and must show excellent capacity retention with age to support the ever growing durations of space missions. ABSL's heritage Lithium Ion cell, the ABSL 18650HC, is an excellent low mass solution to this problem that has been proven capable of supporting long mission durations. The NASA Glenn Research Center recently proposed and initiated a test to study the effects of reduced end of charge voltage on aging of the ABSL 18650HC and other Lithium Ion cells. This paper presents the testing details, a method to analyze and compare capacity fade between the different cases, and a preliminary analysis of the to-date performance of ABSL s cells. This initial analysis indicates that employing reduced end of charge techniques could double the life capabilities of the ABSL 18650HC cell. Accordingly, continued investigation is recommended, particularly at higher depths of discharge to better assess the method s potential mass savings for short duration missions.

  4. Energy Storage: Batteries and Fuel Cells for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Baumann, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires safe, human-rated, energy storage technologies with high energy density, high specific energy and the ability to perform in a variety of unique environments. The Exploration Technology Development Program is currently supporting the development of battery and fuel cell systems that address these critical technology areas. Specific technology efforts that advance these systems and optimize their operation in various space environments are addressed in this overview of the Energy Storage Technology Development Project. These technologies will support a new generation of more affordable, more reliable, and more effective space systems.

  5. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Aguiar, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  6. Novel in situ cell for Raman diagnostics of lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Gross, T; Giebeler, L; Hess, C

    2013-07-01

    A novel in situ cell for Raman diagnostics of working lithium-ion batteries is described. The design closely mimics that of standard battery testing cells and therefore allows to obtain Raman spectra under representative electrochemical conditions. Both cathode and anode materials can be studied. First results on the intercalation of a Li1-xCoO2 cathode material demonstrate the potential of the experimental approach for structural studies and underline the importance of studying lithium-ion batteries at work.

  7. Method and device for filling the cells of a battery with electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    McManis, G.E.; Fletcher, A.N.; Bliss, D.E.

    1986-05-13

    A method is described of filling the cells of a battery with an electrolyte contained in a remote reservoir having partitioned dual chambers comprising application of heat to the reservoir. The reservoir and the battery are interconnected by a conduit having a frangible seal therein such that transference of electrolyte is occasioned by the heat induced contraction of the reservoir, rupturing of the seal under fluid pressure and flow of electrolyte from the reservoir into the battery cells.

  8. Automatic online buffer capacity (alkalinity) measurement of wastewater using an electrochemical cell.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Charles, Wipa; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2016-10-01

    The use of an automatic online electrochemical cell (EC) for measuring the buffer capacity of wastewater is presented. pH titration curves of different solutions (NaHCO3, Na2HPO4, real municipal wastewater, and anaerobic digester liquid) were obtained by conventional chemical titration and compared to the online EC measurements. The results show that the pH titration curves from the EC were comparable to that of the conventional chemical titration. The results show a linear relationship between the response of the online EC detection system and the titrimetric partial alkalinity and total alkalinity of all tested samples. This suggests that an EC can be used as a simple online titration device for monitoring the buffer capacity of different industrial processes including wastewater treatment and anaerobic digestion processes.

  9. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J M

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  10. Alkaline phosphatase determines polyphosphate-induced mineralization in a cell-type independent manner.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yoshikazu; Tsuda, Hiromasa; Akiyama, Yuko; Honda, Masaki; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Suzuki, Naoto; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2016-11-01

    Polyphosphate [Poly(P)] has positive effects on osteoblast mineralization; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In addition, it is unknown whether Poly(P) promotes mineralization in soft tissues. We investigated this by using various cells. Poly(P) concentrations of 1 and 0.5 mg/mL yielded high levels of mineralization in ROS17/2.8 osteoblast cells. Similarly, Poly(P) induced mineralization in cell types expressing alkaline phosphatase (ALP), namely, ATDC5 and MC3T3-E1, but not in CHO, C3H10T1/2, C2C12, and 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, forced expression of ALP caused Poly(P)-induced mineralization in CHO cells. These results suggest that ALP determines Poly(P)-induced mineralization in a cell-type independent manner.

  11. Alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells completely free from noble metal catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shanfu; Pan, Jing; Huang, Aibin; Zhuang, Lin; Lu, Juntao

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, fuel cell technology has been undergoing revolutionary developments, with fundamental progress being the replacement of electrolyte solutions with polymer electrolytes, making the device more compact in size and higher in power density. Nowadays, acidic polymer electrolytes, typically Nafion, are widely used. Despite great success, fuel cells based on acidic polyelectrolyte still depend heavily on noble metal catalysts, predominantly platinum (Pt), thus increasing the cost and hampering the widespread application of fuel cells. Here, we report a type of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) employing a hydroxide ion-conductive polymer, quaternary ammonium polysulphone, as alkaline electrolyte and nonprecious metals, chromium-decorated nickel and silver, as the catalyst for the negative and positive electrodes, respectively. In addition to the development of a high-performance alkaline polymer electrolyte particularly suitable for fuel cells, key progress has been achieved in catalyst tailoring: The surface electronic structure of nickel has been tuned to suppress selectively the surface oxidative passivation with retained activity toward hydrogen oxidation. This report of a H2–O2 PEFC completely free from noble metal catalysts in both the positive and negative electrodes represents an important advancement in the research and development of fuel cells.

  12. Hydroponics gel as a new electrolyte gelling agent for alkaline zinc-air cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, R.; Basirun, W. J.; Yahaya, A. H.; Arof, A. K.

    The viability of hydroponics gel as a new alkaline electrolyte gelling agent is investigated. Zinc-air cells are fabricated employing 12 wt.% KOH electrolyte immobilised with hydroponics gel. The cells are discharged at constant currents of 5, 50 and 100 mA. XRD and SEM analysis of the anode plates after discharge show that the failure mode is due to the formation of zinc oxide insulating layers and not due to any side reactions between the gel and the plate or the electrolyte.

  13. Transient removal of alkaline zones after excitation of Chara cells is associated with inactivation of high conductance in the plasmalemma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The action potential (AP) of excitable plant cells is a multifunctional physiological signal. Its generation in characean algae suppresses the pH banding for 15–30 min and enhances the heterogeneity of spatial distribution of photosynthetic activity. This suppression is largely due to the cessation of H+ influx (OH− efflux) in the alkaline cell regions. Measurements of local pH and membrane conductance in individual space-clamped alkaline zones (small cell areas bathed in an isolated pool of external medium) showed that the AP generation is followed by the transient disappearance of alkaline zone in parallel with a large decrease in membrane conductance. These changes, specific to alkaline zones, were only observed under continuous illumination following a relaxation period of at least 15 min after previous excitation. The excitation of dark-adapted cells produced no conductance changes in the post-excitation period. The results indicate that the origin of alkaline zones in characean cells is not due to operation of electroneutral H+/HCO3− symport or OH−/HCO3− antiport. It is concluded that the membrane excitation is associated with inactivation of plasmalemma high conductance in the alkaline cell regions. PMID:19820298

  14. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium....

  15. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium....

  16. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium....

  17. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium....

  18. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium....

  19. NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch Battery and Fuel Cell Development Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation covers an overview of NASA Glenn s history and heritage in the development of electrochemical systems for aerospace applications. Current developments related to batteries and fuel cells are addressed. Specific areas of focus are Li-ion batteries and Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel cells systems and their development for future Exploration missions.

  20. Can Cell to Cell Thermal Runaway Propagation be Prevented in a Li-ion Battery Module?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Lopez, Carlos; Orieukwu, Josephat

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cell spacing decreased adjacent cell damage center dotElectrically connected adjacent cells drained more than physically adjacent cells center dotRadiant barrier prevents propagation when fully installed between BP cells center dotBP cells vent rapidly and expel contents at 100% SOC -Slower vent with flame/smoke at 50% -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 160 degC center dotLG cells vent but do not expel contents -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 200 degC center dotSKC LFP modules did not propagate; fuses on negative terminal of cell may provide a benefit in reducing cell to cell damage propagation. New requirement in NASA-Battery Safety Requirements document: JSC 20793 Rev C 5.1.5.1 Requirements - Thermal Runaway Propagation a. For battery designs greater than a 80-Wh energy employing high specific energy cells (greater than 80 watt-hours/kg, for example, lithium-ion chemistries) with catastrophic failure modes, the battery shall be evaluated to ascertain the severity of a worst-case single-cell thermal runaway event and the propensity of the design to demonstrate cell-to-cell propagation in the intended application and environment. NASA has traditionally addressed the threat of thermal runaway incidents in its battery deployments through comprehensive prevention protocols. This prevention-centered approach has included extensive screening for manufacturing defects, as well as robust battery management controls that prevent abuse-induced runaway even in the face of multiple system failures. This focused strategy has made the likelihood of occurrence of such an event highly improbable. b. The evaluation shall include all necessary analysis and test to quantify the severity (consequence) of the event in the intended application and environment as well as to identify design modifications to the battery or the system that could appreciably reduce that severity. In addition to prevention protocols, programs developing battery designs with

  1. A self-humidifying acidic-alkaline bipolar membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Sikan; Xu, Xin; Lu, Shanfu; Sui, Pang-Chieh; Djilali, Ned; Xiang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    To maintain membrane hydration and operate effectively, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) require elaborate water management, which significantly increases the complexity and cost of the fuel cell system. Here we propose a novel and entirely different approach to membrane hydration by exploiting the concept of bipolar membranes. Bipolar membrane (BPM) fuel cells utilize a composite membrane consisting of an acidic polymer electrolyte membrane on the anode side and an alkaline electrolyte membrane on the cathode side. We present a novel membrane electrode assembly (MEA) fabrication method and demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that BPM fuel cells can (a) self-humidify to ensure high ionic conductivity; and (b) allow use of non-platinum catalysts due to inherently faster oxygen reduction kinetics on an alkaline cathode. Our Pt-based BPM fuel cell achieves a two orders of magnitude gain in power density of 327 mW cm-2 at 323 K under dry gas feed, the highest power output achieved under anhydrous operation conditions. A theoretical analysis and in situ measurements are presented to characterize the unique interfacial water generation and transport behavior that make self-humidification possible during operation. Further optimization of these features and advances in fabricating bipolar MEAs would open the way for a new generation of self-humidifying and water-management-free PEMFCs.

  2. Tunable High Performance Cross-Linked Alkaline Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Nicholas J.; Kostalik, IV, Henry A.; Clark, Timothy J.; Mutolo, Paul F.; Abruña, Héctor D.; Coates, Geoffrey W.

    2010-02-23

    Fuel cells are energy conversion devices that show great potential in numerous applications ranging from automobiles to portable electronics. However, further development of fuel cell components is necessary for them to become commercially viable. One component critical to their performance is the polymer electrolyte membrane, which is an ion conductive medium separating the two electrodes. While proton conducting membranes are well established (e.g., Nafion), hydroxide conducting membranes (alkaline anion exchange membranes, AAEMs) have been relatively unexplored by comparison. Operating under alkaline conditions offers significant efficiency benefits, especially for the oxygen reduction reaction; therefore, effective AAEMs could significantly advance fuel cell technologies. Here we demonstrate the use of ring-opening metathesis polymerization to generate new cross-linked membrane materials exhibiting high hydroxide ion conductivity and good mechanical properties. Cross-linking allows for increased ion incorporation, which, in turn supports high conductivities. This facile synthetic approach enables the preparation of cross-linked materials with the potential to meet the demands of hydrogen-powered fuel cells as well as direct methanol fuel cells.

  3. High power density alkaline fuel cell technology for MMW space burst power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, J. Lawrence, Jr.; Trocciola, John C.; Wertheim, Ronald J.

    The use of advanced alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems to provide 10's to 100's of MWe of sprint (burst) power for 100's of seconds per orbit of SDI weapons platform was studied. Recharge power is supplied by a multimegawatt space based nuclear power system. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage systems offer the potential for significant platform mass reduction by reducing the size and mass of the nuclear power source required. This is because the reactor can be sized for the smaller average power level for the energy storage system, rather than the sprint power level. The regenerative fuel cell is a particularly attractive energy storage device because the fuel cell is essentially a static power conversion device, which results in excellent platform stability for weapon pointing and tracking. Based upon the detailed point design and conceptual layout, the alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system is an attractive choice for integration with a nuclear thermionic system for providing multimegawatt burst power and multi orbit capability.

  4. Performance features of 22-cell, 19Ah single pressure vessel nickel hydrogen battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1996-01-01

    Two 22-cells 19Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) Single Pressure Vessel (SPV) Qual batteries, one each from EPI/Joplin and EPI/Butler, were designed and procured. The two batteries differ in the cell encapsulation technology, stack preload, and activation procedure. Both the Butler and Joplin batteries met the specified requirements when subjected to qualification testing and completed 2100 and 1300 LEO cycles respectively, with nominal performance. This paper discusses advantages, design features, testing procedures, and results of the two single pressure vessel Ni-H2 batteries.

  5. High-Efficiency Artificial Photosynthesis Using a Novel Alkaline Membrane Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri; Haines, Brennan; Blosiu, Julian; Marzwell, Neville

    2009-01-01

    A new cell designed to mimic the photosynthetic processes of plants to convert carbon dioxide into carbonaceous products and oxygen at high efficiency, has an improved configuration using a polymer membrane electrolyte and an alkaline medium. This increases efficiency of the artificial photosynthetic process, achieves high conversion rates, permits the use of inexpensive catalysts, and widens the range of products generated by this type of process. The alkaline membrane electrolyte allows for the continuous generation of sodium formate without the need for any additional separation system. The electrolyte type, pH, electrocatalyst type, and cell voltage were found to have a strong effect on the efficiency of conversion of carbon dioxide to formate. Indium electrodes were found to have higher conversion efficiency compared to lead. Bicarbonate electrolyte offers higher conversion efficiency and higher rates than water solutions saturated with carbon dioxide. pH values between 8 and 9 lead to the maximum values of efficiency. The operating cell voltage of 2.5 V, or higher, ensures conversion of the carbon dioxide to formate, although the hydrogen evolution reaction begins to compete strongly with the formate production reaction at higher cell voltages. Formate is produced at indium and lead electrodes at a conversion efficiency of 48 mg of CO2/kilojoule of energy input. This efficiency is about eight times that of natural photosynthesis in green plants. The electrochemical method of artificial photosynthesis is a promising approach for the conversion, separation and sequestration of carbon dioxide for confined environments as in space habitats, and also for carbon dioxide management in the terrestrial context. The heart of the reactor is a membrane cell fabricated from an alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane and catalyst- coated electrodes. This cell is assembled and held in compression in gold-plated hardware. The cathode side of the cell is supplied with carbon

  6. Advanced Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel-Hydrogen Spacecraft Cell and Battery Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Dwaine K.; Wright, R. Doug; Repplinger, Ron S.

    1996-01-01

    The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. Individual pressure vessel (IPV) Ni-H2 batteries are currently flying on more than 70 Earth-orbiting satellites and have accumulated more that 140,000,000 cell-hours in actual spacecraft operation. The limitations of standard Ni-H2 IPV flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher specific energy and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV Ni-H2 technology flight heritage and database. A design performance analysis is presented at both the cell and battery level. The DPV is capable of delivering up to 76 Watthours per kilogram (Wh/kg) at the cell level and 70 Wh/kg at the full battery level. This represents a 40 percent increase in specific energy at the cell level and a 60 percent increase in specific energy at the battery level compared to current IPV Ni-H2 technology.

  7. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  8. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium–air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  9. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  10. Demonstration of Experimental Infrastructure for Studying Cell-to-Cell Failure Propagation in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-11

    Love, C. T.; Swider-Lyons, K. “Impedance diagnostic for overcharged lithium -ion batteries.” Electrochem. Solid -State Lett. 15 (2012) A53-A56. [21...Failure Propagation in Lithium -ion Batteries September 11, 2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Christopher r. Field Mark h...for Studying Cell-to-Cell Failure Propagation in Lithium -ion Batteries Christopher R. Field, Mark H. Hammond, Steven G. Tuttle, Bradley A. Williams

  11. Alkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, YJ; Wang, LZ; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2015-01-10

    Improving cell performance and durability through both new materials and membrane electrode processing optimization is needed for the commercialization of alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) technologies. In this work, we adopted an in-situ cross-linking strategy of an anion-conducting block copolymer to prepare durable ionomers for use in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Our goal was to use new ionomers and binders with an aim at improving long-term stability of AMFCs, especially at high operation temperatures. At 80 degrees C, AMFCs with in-situ cross-linked ionomers showed promising stability with an operating life time of more than 350 hours at 100 mA/cm(2). We found that the optimized electrode fabrication process and operating conditions can significantly improve the durability performance of AMFCs. For example, a suitable electrode binder in addition to the ion-conducting ionomer can greatly enhance the durability performance of AMFCs. Operating fuel cells under a cathode over-humification condition can also enhance the long-term stability of AMFCs. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of nucleotide pyrophosphatase/alkaline phosphodiesterase I activity associated with the mouse plasma cell differentiation antigen PC-1.

    PubMed Central

    Rebbe, N F; Tong, B D; Finley, E M; Hickman, S

    1991-01-01

    The protein responsible for both nucleotide pyrophosphatase (EC 3.6.1.9) and alkaline phosphodiesterase I (EC 3.1.4.1) activities was purified from MOPC 315 plasmacytoma cells. A single SDS/PAGE-purified 115-kDa protein band was used to produce a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. This antibody preparation precipitated alkaline phosphodiesterase I activity, indicating that the SDS/PAGE-purified protein was nucleotide pyrophosphatase/alkaline phosphodiesterase I. When used for Western blot analysis, the antiserum detected a 115-kDa protein as well as a 220-kDa protein band. Multiple overlapping cDNA clones were isolated from a cDNA expression library screened with this anti-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/alkaline phosphodiesterase I antiserum. Sequence analysis indicated that the isolated cDNA clones encoded PC-1, a murine plasma cell differentiation antigen. To confirm the suspected enzymatic identity of PC-1, a recombinant PC-1 fusion protein was expressed in bacteria, purified, and used to produce another rabbit polyclonal antiserum. This antiserum likewise immunoprecipitated alkaline phosphodiesterase I activity and recognized the 115-kDa and 220-kDa proteins in Western blot analyses of cell extracts. Furthermore, expression of nucleotide pyrophosphatase/alkaline phosphodiesterase I corresponded directly with mRNA and protein levels of PC-1 in cells known to express different levels of nucleotide pyrophosphatase/alkaline phosphodiesterase I activity. Finally, steroid induction of enzymatic activity was mirrored by levels of PC-1 mRNA and protein expression. Together, these data indicate that the plasma cell differentiation antigen PC-1 is a membrane-bound enzyme, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/alkaline phosphodiesterase I. Images PMID:1647027

  13. Expression of a human placental alkaline phosphatase gene in transfected cells: Use as a reporter for studies of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Henthorn, P.; Zervos, P.; Raducha, M.; Harris, H.; Kadesch, T.

    1988-09-01

    The human placental alkaline phosphatase gene has been cloned and reintroduced into mammalian cells. When a plasmid carrying the gene under control of the simian virus 40 early promoter (pSV2Apap) is transfected into a variety of different cell types, placental alkaline phosphatase activity can readily be detected by using whole cell suspensions or cell lysates. Alkaline phosphatase activity can also be visualized directly in individual transfected cells by histochemical staining. The gene is appropriate for use as a reporter in studies of gene regulation since its expression is dependent on the presence of exogenous transcription control elements. The overall assay to detect the expression of the gene is quantitative, very rapid, and inexpensive. Cotransfections of cells with pSV2Apap and a related plasmid carrying the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (pSV2Acat) indicate that transcription of these two genes is detected with roughly the same sensitivity.

  14. Cellulose nanocrystal-based composite electrolyte with superior dimensional stability for alkaline fuel cell membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Yuan; Artmentrout, Aaron A.; Li, Juchuan; ...

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-based composite films were prepared as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and silica gel hybrid was used to bind the CNCs to form a robust composite film. The mass ratio (i.e., 1 : 1, 1 : 2) of PVA and silica gel was tuned to control the hydrophobicity of the resulting films. Composite films with a range of CNC content (i.e., 20 to 60%) were prepared to demonstrate the impact of CNC on the performance of these materials as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Different from previously reported cross-linked polymermore » films, CNC-based composite films with 40% hydrophobic binder (i.e., PVA : silica gel=1 : 2) exhibited simultaneous low water swelling (e.g., ~5%) and high water uptake (e.g., ~80%) due to the hydrophilicity and extraordinary dimensional stability of CNC. It also showed a conductivity of 0.044 and 0.065 S/cm at 20 and 60 oC, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the film with 60% CNC and 40% binder is characterized by the lowest hydroxide conductivity-normalized swelling ratio. Decreased CNC content (i.e., 40 and 20%) resulted in comparable hydroxide conductivity but a greater swelling ratio. These results demonstrate the advantage of CNC as a key component for a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells over conventional polymers, suggesting the great potential of CNCs in improving the dimensional stability while maintaining the conductivity of existing anion exchange membranes.« less

  15. Towards high conductivity in anion-exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Nanwen; Guiver, Michael D; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2013-08-01

    Quaternized poly(2,6-dimethylphenylene oxide) materials (PPOs) containing clicked 1,2,3-triazoles were first prepared through Cu(I) -catalyzed "click chemistry" to improve the anion transport in anion-exchange membranes (AEMs). Clicked 1,2,3-triazoles incorporated into AEMs provided more sites to form efficient and continuous hydrogen-bond networks between the water/hydroxide and the triazole for anion transport. Higher water uptake was observed for these triazole membranes. Thus, the membranes showed an impressive enhancement of the hydroxide diffusion coefficient and, therefore, the anion conductivities. The recorded hydroxide conductivity was 27.8-62 mS cm(-1) at 20 °C in water, which was several times higher than that of a typical PPO-based AEM (TMA-20) derived from trimethylamine (5 mS cm(-1) ). Even at reduced relative humidity, the clicked membrane showed superior conductivity to a trimethylamine-based membrane. Moreover, similar alkaline stabilities at 80 °C in 1 M NaOH were observed for the clicked and non-clicked membranes. The performance of a H2 /O2 single cell assembled with a clicked AEM was much improved compared to that of a non-clicked TMA-20 membrane. The peak power density achieved for an alkaline fuel cell with the synthesized membrane 1a(20) was 188.7 mW cm(-2) at 50 °C. These results indicated that clicked AEM could be a viable strategy for improving the performance of alkaline fuel cells.

  16. Cellulose nanocrystal-based composite electrolyte with superior dimensional stability for alkaline fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yuan; Artmentrout, Aaron A.; Li, Juchuan; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Nanda, Jagjit; Ozcan, Soydan

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-based composite films were prepared as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and silica gel hybrid was used to bind the CNCs to form a robust composite film. The mass ratio (i.e., 1 : 1, 1 : 2) of PVA and silica gel was tuned to control the hydrophobicity of the resulting films. Composite films with a range of CNC content (i.e., 20 to 60%) were prepared to demonstrate the impact of CNC on the performance of these materials as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Different from previously reported cross-linked polymer films, CNC-based composite films with 40% hydrophobic binder (i.e., PVA : silica gel=1 : 2) exhibited simultaneous low water swelling (e.g., ~5%) and high water uptake (e.g., ~80%) due to the hydrophilicity and extraordinary dimensional stability of CNC. It also showed a conductivity of 0.044 and 0.065 S/cm at 20 and 60 oC, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the film with 60% CNC and 40% binder is characterized by the lowest hydroxide conductivity-normalized swelling ratio. Decreased CNC content (i.e., 40 and 20%) resulted in comparable hydroxide conductivity but a greater swelling ratio. These results demonstrate the advantage of CNC as a key component for a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells over conventional polymers, suggesting the great potential of CNCs in improving the dimensional stability while maintaining the conductivity of existing anion exchange membranes.

  17. Electroanalytical Evaluation of Lithium Ion Batteries and Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Daniel Jacob

    Efficient solar energy conversion and electrical energy storage have been studied widely for decades. However, as materials development and process engineering for these devices have advanced through the years, some of the traditional characterization techniques have gradually fallen short of providing quantitative information that is necessary for further significant advancements in these fields. In this work a modern electroanalytical framework for characterization of silicon solar cells and lithium ion batteries is presented. Electroanalytical characterization of lithium ion battery electrodes is achieved through a strategic combination of the D.C. techniques of slow scan cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, Ragone Analysis with the A.C. technique of impedance spectroscopy (IS) coupled with complex nonlinear least squares (CNLS) analysis of impedance spectra. Primarily this investigation focuses on characterization of intercalating composite electrodes where the active material is either lithium manganese oxide (cathode,LiMn2O4) or lithium titanate (anode, Li4Ti5O12). Aspects of high power limitations are studied in detail to elucidate physical parameters that control electrode performance under rapid charge/discharge conditions. Electroanalytical evaluation of the p-n junction silicon solar cell with a back surface field (BSF) is accomplished through the use of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and IS combined with CNLS analysis. Although LSV has been previously used for characterization of silicon solar cells the use of impedance techniques is relatively new. Temperature and voltage dependence of the series resistance (Rs), diode quality factor (m), minority carrier lifetime and BSF electrical parameters obtained through IS are examined. The temperature dependence of results obtained from LSV such as the open circuit potential (Voc), short circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency are also explored. Finally, a parative

  18. Hydrophilic Electrode For An Alkaline Electrochemical Cell, And Method Of Manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Senyarich, Stephane; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel

    2000-03-07

    A negative electrode for an alkaline electrochemical cell. The electrode comprises an active material and a hydrophilic agent constituted by small cylindrical rods of polyolefin provided with hydrophilic groups. The mean length of the rods is less than 50 microns and the mean diameter thereof is less than 20 microns. A method of manufacturing a negative electrode in which hydrophilic rods are made by fragmenting long polyolefin fibers having a mean diameter of less than 20 microns by oxidizing them, with the rods being mixed with the active material and the mixture being applied to a current conductor.

  19. Gly429 is the major determinant of uncompetitive inhibition of human germ cell alkaline phosphatase by L-leucine.

    PubMed Central

    Hummer, C; Millán, J L

    1991-01-01

    The catalytic activity of human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) and germ cell alkaline phosphatase (GCAP) can be inhibited, through an uncompetitive mechanism, by L-Phe. GCAP is also selectively inhibited by L-Leu. Site-directed mutagenesis of five of the 12 residues which are different in PLAP and GCAP revealed that Gly429 is the primary determinant of GCAP inhibition by L-Leu, and Ser84 and Leu297 play a modulatory role in the inhibition. PMID:2001256

  20. Characterization of human foetal intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Comparison with the isoenzymes from the adult intestine and human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, C M; Enns, C A; Sussman, H H

    1983-01-01

    The molecular structure of human foetal intestinal alkaline phosphatase was defined by high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and amino acid inhibition studies. Comparison was made with the adult form of intestinal alkaline phosphatase, as well as with alkaline phosphatases isolated from cultured foetal amnion cells (FL) and a human tumour cell line (KB). Two non-identical subunits were isolated from the foetal intestinal isoenzyme, one having same molecular weight and isoelectric point as placental alkaline phosphatase, and the other corresponding to a glycosylated subunit of the adult intestinal enzyme. The FL-cell and KB-cell alkaline phosphatases were also found to contain two subunits similar to those of the foetal intestinal isoenzyme. Characterization of neuraminidase digests of the non-placental subunit showed it to be indistinguishable from the subunits of the adult intestinal isoenzyme. This implies that no new phosphatase structural gene is involved in the transition from the expression of foetal to adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase, but that the molecular changes involve suppression of the placental subunit and loss of neuraminic acid from the non-placental subunit. Enzyme-inhibition studies demonstrated an intermediate response to the inhibitors tested for the foetal intestinal, FL-cell and KB-cell isoenzymes when compared with the placental, adult intestinal and liver forms. This result is consistent with the mixed-subunit structure observed for the former set of isoenzymes. In summary, this study has defined the molecular subunit structure of the foetal intestinal form of alkaline phosphatase and has demonstrated its expression in a human tumour cell line. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6882358

  1. A Comparison of Two Panasonic Lithium-Ion Batteries and Cells for the IBM Thinkpad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Cook, Joseph S.; Davies, Francis J.; Collins, Jacob; Bragg, Bobby J.

    2003-01-01

    The IBM Thinkpad 760XD has been used in the Orbiter and International Space Station since 2000. The Thinkpad is powered by a Panasonic Li-ion battery that has a voltage of 10.8 V and 3.0 Ah capacity. This Thinkpad is now being replaced by the IBM Thinkpad A31P which has a Panasonic Li-ion battery that has a voltage of 10.8 V and 4.0 Ah capacity. Both batteries have protective circuit boards. The Panasonic battery for the Thinkpad 760XD had 12 Panasonic 17500 cells of 0.75 Ah capacity in a 4P3S cOnfiguration. The new Panasonic battery has 6 Panasonic 18650 cells of 2.0 Ah capacity in a 2P3S configuration. The batteries and cells for both models have been evaluated for performance and safety. A comparison of the cells under similar test conditions will be presented. The performance of the cells has been evaluated under different rates of charge and discharge and different temperatures. The cells have been tested under abuse conditions and the safety features in the cells evaluated. The protective circuit board in the battery was also tested under conditions of overcharge, overdischarge, short circuit and unbalanced cell configurations. The results of the studies will be presented in this paper.

  2. Binary and ternary palladium based electrocatalysts for alkaline direct glycerol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleão; da Silva, Dionisio Furtunato; e Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade; Spinacé, Estevam Vitório; Neto, Almir Oliveira; dos Santos, Mauro Coelho

    2015-10-01

    Pd/C, PdAu/C 50:50, PdSn/C 50:50, PdAuSn/C 50:40:10 and PdAuSn/C 50:10:40 electrocatalysts are prepared using an electron beam irradiation reduction method and tested for glycerol electro-oxidation in alkaline medium. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) are used to characterize the resulting materials. The activity for glycerol electro-oxidation is tested in alkaline medium at room temperature using Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry (CA) and in a single alkaline direct glycerol fuel cell (ADGFC) at temperature range of 60-90 °C. EDX analysis demonstrate that Pd:Au:Sn atomic ratios are very similar to the nominal ones. X-ray diffractograms of PdAuSn/C electrocatalysts evidence the presence of Pd (fcc), Au (fcc) and SnO2 phases. TEM analysis demonstrates a good dispersion of the nanoparticles on the carbon support with some agglomerates. Cyclic Voltammetry experiments suggest that PdAuSn/C electrocatalysts demonstrate better results. In single fuel cell tests, at 85 °C, using 2.0 mol L-1 glycerol in 2.0 mol L-1 KOH solutions, the electrocatalyst PdAuSn/C 50:40:10 demonstrate highest power density (51 mW cm-2) and the 120 h durability tests demonstrate a 210 μV h-1 degradation rate.

  3. Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

  4. Symposium on Batteries and Fuel Cells for Stationary and Electric Vehicle Applications, Honolulu, HI, May 16-21, 1993, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgrebe, Albert R.; Takehara, Zen-Ichiro

    The present conference discusses the development status of vehicular batteries in Japan, the effects of the solvent for electropolymerization of aniline on the charge/discharge characteristics of polyaniline, the charge/discharge mechanism of the amorphous FeOOH, including aniline as a cathode for a rechargeable Li battery, the effect of mesocarbon microbead structure on the electrochemistry of Li secondary batteries' negative electrode, and novel aluminum batteries. Also discussed are a room-temperature molten salt electrolyte for the Na/iron chloride battery, portable cells for redox batteries, the development status of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicles, mechanically refuelable zinc/air vehicular cells, polymer electrolyte fuel cells for transportation applications, proton exchange membrane fuel cells using gas-fed methanol, and a phosphotic acid fuel cell/battery.

  5. Cell-level battery charge/discharge protection system. [electronic control techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, R. L.; Imamura, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes three design approaches to individual cell monitoring and control for sealed secondary battery cells. One technique involves a modular strap-on single cell protector which contains all the electronics required for monitoring cell voltage, responding to external commands, and forming a bypass circuit for the cell. A second technique, the multiplexed cell protector, uses common circuitry to monitor and control each cell in a battery pack. The third technique, the computerized cell protector, by replacing the hard-wired logic of the multiplexed cell protector with a microprocessor, achieves greatest control flexibility and inherent computational capability with a minimum parts count implementation.

  6. Imidazolium-Based Polymeric Materials as Alkaline Anion-Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Reddy, Prakash V.; Nair, Nanditha

    2012-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes that conduct hydroxide ions have potential use in fuel cells. A variety of polystyrene-based quaternary ammonium hydroxides have been reported as anion exchange fuel cell membranes. However, the hydrolytic stability and conductivity of the commercially available membranes are not adequate to meet the requirements of fuel cell applications. When compared with commercially available membranes, polystyrene-imidazolium alkaline membrane electrolytes are more stable and more highly conducting. At the time of this reporting, this has been the first such usage for imidazolium-based polymeric materials for fuel cells. Imidazolium salts are known to be electrochemically stable over wide potential ranges. By controlling the relative ratio of imidazolium groups in polystyrene-imidazolium salts, their physiochemical properties could be modulated. Alkaline anion exchange membranes based on polystyrene-imidazolium hydroxide materials have been developed. The first step was to synthesize the poly(styrene-co-(1-((4-vinyl)methyl)-3- methylimidazolium) chloride through a free-radical polymerization. Casting of this material followed by in situ treatment of the membranes with sodium hydroxide solutions provided the corresponding hydroxide salts. Various ratios of the monomers 4-chloromoethylvinylbenzine (CMVB) and vinylbenzine (VB) provided various compositions of the polymer. The preferred material, due to the relative ease of casting the film, and its relatively low hygroscopic nature, was a 2:1 ratio of CMVB to VB. Testing confirmed that at room temperature, the new membranes outperformed commercially available membranes by a large margin. With fuel cells now in use at NASA and in transportation, and with defense potential, any improvement to fuel cell efficiency is a significant development.

  7. Probing the chemistry of nickel/metal hydride battery cells using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaac, Bryan J.

    1994-01-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a valuable tool for investigating the chemical and physical processes occurring at electrode surfaces. It offers information about electron transfer at interfaces, kinetics of reactions, and diffusion characteristics of the bulk phase between the electrodes. For battery cells, this technique offers another advantage in that it can be done without taking the battery apart. This non-destructive analysis technique can thus be used to gain a better understanding of the processes occurring within a battery cell. This also raises the possibility of improvements in battery design and identification or prediction of battery characteristics useful in industry and aerospace applications. EIS as a technique is powerful and capable of yielding significant information about the cell, but it also requires that the many parameters under investigation can be resolved. This implies an understanding of the processes occurring in a battery cell. Many battery types were surveyed in this work, but the main emphasis was on nickel/metal hydride batteries.

  8. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Haryadi, Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E.

    2015-12-29

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm{sup −1} and 3300 cm{sup −1} respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10{sup −2} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  9. Electrochemical kinetic and mass transfer model for direct ethanol alkaline fuel cell (DEAFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, S.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Hasran, U. A.; Masdar, M. S.; Daud, W. R. W.

    2016-07-01

    A mathematical model is developed for a liquid-feed DEAFC incorporating an alkaline anion-exchange membrane. The one-dimensional mass transport of chemical species is modelled using isothermal, single-phase and steady-state assumptions. The anode and cathode electrochemical reactions use the Tafel kinetics approach, with two limiting cases, for the reaction order. The model fully accounts for the mixed potential effects of ethanol oxidation at the cathode due to ethanol crossover via an alkaline anion-exchange membrane. In contrast to a polymer electrolyte membrane model, the current model considers the flux of ethanol at the membrane as the difference between diffusive and electroosmotic effects. The model is used to investigate the effects of the ethanol and alkali inlet feed concentrations at the anode. The model predicts that the cell performance is almost identical for different ethanol concentrations at a low current density. Moreover, the model results show that feeding the DEAFC with 5 M NaOH and 3 M ethanol at specific operating conditions yields a better performance at a higher current density. Furthermore, the model indicates that crossover effects on the DEAFC performance are significant. The cell performance decrease from its theoretical value when a parasitic current is enabled in the model.

  10. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryadi, Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E.

    2015-12-01

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm-1 and 3300 cm-1 respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10-2 S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  11. A Low Temperature Li-Ion Battery for Mars Landers Based on COTS Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, Rachel; Thwaite, Carl; Vijendran, Sanjay; Schautz, Max

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the work undertaken to develop a secondary Li-ion battery for use in European space exploration missions from Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) cells. The battery was required to operate at temperatures below -20°C and survive a freeze/thaw cycle.Initially, datasheets from Li-ion cell manufacturers were assessed against the project battery requirements. Four cells were down-selected for further testing. Using information from these cell selection tests, an initial battery sizing was completed. Modules from the two cell types that provided the lowest mass solution, were cycled under a realistic Mars surface mission power profile at low temperature. Very low temperature survivability tests were also performed.Testing revealed that COTS cells could successfully be used in this challenging environment.

  12. Prediction Methods and Data Fusion for Prognostics of Primary and Secondary Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-05

    where lead-acid, nickel- cadmium , lithium, and alkaline batteries are being run to failure. During a test, battery impedance data is collected along...and widely used methods in laboratory practice is AC Voltammetry . This technique can provide information on the electrochemical dynamics of the...impedance of the cell can determine. Figure 2 represents the measured impedance of a nickel- cadmium battery that has been partially discharged. 167 Real

  13. The effects of retinoic acid on alkaline phosphatase activity and tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene expression in human periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    San Miguel, S M; Goseki-Sone, M; Sugiyama, E; Watanabe, H; Yanagishita, M; Ishikawa, I

    1998-10-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cells is classified as a tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) by its enzymatic and immunological properties. Since retinoic acid (RA) has been shown as a potent inducer of TNSALP expression in various osteoblastic and fibroblastic cells, we investigated the effects of RA on the level of ALP activity and expression of TNSALP mRNAs in HPDL cells. Cultured cells were treated with desired RA concentrations (0, 10(-7), 10(-6), 10(-5) M) in medium containing 1% bovine serum albumin without serum. ALP activity was determined by the rate of hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and was also assayed in the presence of specific inhibitors. In order to identify the TNSALP mRNA type expressed by HPDL, a set of oligonucleotide primers corresponding to 2 types of human TNSALP mRNA (i.e. bone-type and liver-type) were designed, and mRNA isolated from HPDL was amplified by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After treatment with RA (10(-6) M) for 4 d, there was a significant increase in the ALP activity of HPDL cells. The use of inhibitors and thermal inactivation experiments showed that the increased ALP activity had properties of the TNSALP type. RT-PCR analysis revealed that bone-type mRNA was highly stimulated in HPDL cells by RA treatment, but the expression of liver-type mRNA was not detected. These results indicated that the upregulation of ALP activity in HPDL cells by RA was due to the increased transcription of bone-type mRNA of the TNSALP gene.

  14. Fuzzy control based engine sizing optimization for a fuel cell/battery hybrid mini-bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjin; Sohn, Young-Jun; Lee, Won-Yong; Kim, Chang-Soo

    The fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle has been focused for the alternative engine of the existing internal-combustion engine due to the following advantages of the fuel cell and the battery. Firstly, the fuel cell is highly efficient and eco-friendly. Secondly, the battery has the fast response for the changeable power demand. However, the competitive efficiency of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle is necessary to successfully alternate the conventional vehicles with the fuel cell hybrid vehicle. The most relevant factor which affects the overall efficiency of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle is the relative engine sizing between the fuel cell and the battery. Therefore the design method to optimize the engine sizing of the fuel cell hybrid vehicle has been proposed. The target system is the fuel cell/battery hybrid mini-bus and its power distribution is controlled based on the fuzzy logic. The optimal engine sizes are determined based on the simulator developed in this paper. The simulator includes the several models for the fuel cell, the battery, and the major balance of plants. After the engine sizing, the system efficiency and the stability of the power distribution are verified based on the well-known driving schedule. Consequently, the optimally designed mini-bus shows good performance.

  15. Lithium thionyl chloride cells and batteries Technical predictions versus 1994 realities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniewicz, R. J.

    Lithium thionyl chloride D-cells, when discharged at moderate rates of 50 W/kg, provide an impressive energy density of > 350 Wh/kg; however, multiple cell batteries present serious challenges for thermal management when subjected to discharge to 0 V and overdischarge into voltage reversal at the 50 W/kg rate. This paper describes the important influence electrochemical cell balance and design has upon decreasing the heat generation within batteries.

  16. Performance of Li-Ion Cells Under Battery Voltage Charge Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A study consisting of electrochemical characterization and Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) cycling of Li-Ion cells from three vendors was initiated in 1999 to determine the cycling performance and to infuse the new technology in the future NASA missions. The 8-cell batteries included in this evaluation are prismatic cells manufactured by Mine Safety Appliances Company (MSA), cylindrical cells manufactured by SAFT and prismatic cells manufactured by Yardney Technical Products, Inc. (YTP). The three batteries were cycle tested in the LEO regime at 40% depth of discharge, and under a charge control technique that consists of battery voltage clamp with a current taper. The initial testing was conducted at 20 C; however, the batteries were cycled also intermittently at low temperatures. YTP 20 Ah cells consisted of mixed-oxide (Co and Ni) positive, graphitic carbon negative, LIPF6 salt mixed with organic carbonate solvents. The battery voltage clamp was 32 V. The low temperature cycling tests started after 4575 cycles at 20 C. The cells were not capable of cycling. at low temperature since the charge acceptance at battery level was poor. There was a cell in the battery that showed too high an end-of-charge (EOC) voltage thereby limiting the ability to charge the rest of the cells in the battery. The battery has completed 6714 cycles. SAFT 12 Ah cells consisted of mixed-oxide (Co and NO positive, graphitic carbon negative, LiPF6 salt mixed with organic carbonate solvents. The battery voltage clamp was for 30.8 V. The low temperature cycling tests started after 4594 cycles at 20 C. A cell that showed low end of discharge (EOD) and EOC voltages and three other cells that showed higher EOC voltages limited the charge acceptance at the selected voltage limit during charge. The cells were capable of cycling at 10 C and 0 C but the charge voltage limit had to be increased to 34.3 V (4.3 V per cell). The low temperature cycling may have induced poor chargeability since the voltage had to

  17. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  18. Wavelet-Transform-Based Power Management of Hybrid Vehicles with Multiple On-board Energy Sources Including Fuel Cell, Battery and Ultracapacitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-12

    parameters are shown in Table II, which are based on experimental data from a 18650 lithium battery Page 13 of 20 cell. The nominal voltage of this battery...To obtain the sufficient current outputting ability, we place forty 18650 lithium battery cells in parallel. Additionally the nominal capacity of an... 18650 lithium battery cell is 1.4Ah, and the reference current for battery modeling is set to 1.4A. So the nominal power of the battery stack is

  19. Assembly and electrochemical properties of novel alkaline rechargeable Ni/Bi battery using Ni(OH)2 and (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 microspheres as electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinfeng; Wang, Jinqing; Li, Zhangpeng; Niu, Lengyuan; Hong, Wei; Yang, Shengrong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Ni(OH)2 and (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 microspheres are synthesized by solvothermal method. Then, a novel alkaline rechargeable Ni/Bi battery is assembled for the first time using the synthesized Ni(OH)2 and (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 as the positive electrode and negative electrode materials, respectively. As a result, the assembled Ni/Bi battery delivers a high specific capacity of 113 mAh g-1 at a discharge rate of 0.2C based on the total mass of the electrode materials, as well as a high energy density of 92 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 27.3 W kg-1.

  20. Comparative costs of flexible package cells and rigid cells for lithium-ionhybrid electric vehicle batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P. A.; Jansen, A. N.

    2006-11-28

    We conducted a design study to compare the manufacturing costs at a level of 100,000 hybrid vehicle batteries per year for flexible package (Flex) cells and for rigid aluminum container (Rigid) cells. Initially, the Rigid cells were considered to have welded closures and to be deep-drawn containers of about the same shape as the Flex cells. As the study progressed, the method of fabricating and sealing the Rigid cells was expanded to include lower cost options including double seaming and other mechanically fastened closures with polymer sealants. Both types of batteries were designed with positive electrodes containing Li(Ni{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3})O{sub 2} and graphite negative electrodes. The use of a different combination of lithium-ion electrodes would have little effect on the difference in costs for the two types of cells. We found that 20-Ah cells could be designed with excellent performance and heat rejection capabilities for either type of cell. Many parts in the design of the Flex cells are identical or nearly identical to those of the Rigid Cell, so for these features there would be no difference in the cost of manufacturing the two types of batteries. We judged the performance, size and weight of the batteries to be sufficiently similar that the batteries would have the same value for their application. Some of the design features of the Flex cells were markedly different than those of the deep-drawn and welded Rigid cells and would result in significant cost savings. Fabrication and processing steps for which the Flex cells appear to have a cost advantage over these Rigid cells are (1) container fabrication and sealing, (2) terminal fabrication and sealing, and (3) intercell connections. The costs of providing cooling channels adjacent to the cells and for module and battery hardware appear to favor Rigid cell batteries slightly. Overall, Flex cell batteries appear to have an advantage of about $1.20-$3.70 per cell for a 25-kW Battery of 20

  1. Mathematical model of water transport in Bacon and alkaline matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Easter, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Based on general mass continuity and diffusive transport equations, a mathematical model was developed that simulates the transport of water in Bacon and alkaline-matrix fuel cells. The derived model was validated by using it to analytically reproduce various Bacon and matrix-cell experimental water transport transients.

  2. Use of lithium batteries in biomedical devices. Technical report No. 8, July 1988-June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, B.B.

    1989-06-15

    Lithium batteries have played an important role in the development of useful implantable biomedical devices. The cardiac pacemaker is the most well known of these devices and high-energy, long-life reliable lithium primary cells have effectively replaced all of the alkaline cells previously used in these electronic systems. The recent development of higher-power devices such as drug pumps and cardiac defibrillators require the use of batteries with higher energy and power capabilities. High rate rechargeable batteries that can be configured as flat prismatic cells would be especially useful in some of these new applications. Lithium polymer electrolyte-batteries may find a useful role in these new areas.

  3. Wnt5a attenuates Wnt3a-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in dental follicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakisaka, Yukihiko; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Nemoto, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    Wnt signaling regulates multiple cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathways. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling can promote the differentiation of dental follicle cells, putative progenitor cells for cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament cells, toward a cementoblast/osteoblast phenotype during root formation, but little is known about the biological significance of noncanonical Wnt signaling in this process. We identified the expression of Wnt5a, a representative noncanonical Wnt ligand, in tooth root lining cells (i.e. precementoblasts/cementoblasts) and dental follicle cells during mouse tooth root development, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Silencing expression of the Wnt5a gene in a dental follicle cell line resulted in enhancement of the Wnt3a (a representative canonical Wnt ligand)-mediated increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. Conversely, treatment with recombinant Wnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression, suggesting that Wnt5a signaling functions as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. Wnt5a did not affect the nuclear translocation of β-catenin as well as β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of T-cell factor (Tcf) triggered by Wnt3a, suggesting that Wnt5a inhibits the downstream part of the β-catenin-Tcf pathway. These findings suggest the existence of a feedback mechanism between canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling during the differentiation of dental follicle cells. - Highlights: • Dental follicle cells express Wnt5a during tooth root development. • Silencing of Wnt5a enhances Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. • Conversely, treatment with rWnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression. • Wnt5a functions as a negative regulator of Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression.

  4. Platinum- and membrane-free swiss-roll mixed-reactant alkaline fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Aziznia, Amin; Oloman, Colin W; Gyenge, Előd L

    2013-05-01

    Eliminating the expensive and failure-prone proton exchange membrane (PEM) together with the platinum-based anode and cathode catalysts would significantly reduce the high capital and operating costs of low-temperature (<373 K) fuel cells. We recently introduced the Swiss-roll mixed-reactant fuel cell (SR-MRFC) concept for borohydride-oxygen alkaline fuel cells. We now present advances in anode electrocatalysis for borohydride electrooxidation through the development of osmium nanoparticulate catalysts supported on porous monolithic carbon fiber materials (referred to as an osmium 3D anode). The borohydride-oxygen SR-MRFC operates at 323 K and near atmospheric pressure, generating a peak power density of 1880 W m(-2) in a single-cell configuration by using an osmium-based anode (with an osmium loading of 0.32 mg cm(-2)) and a manganese dioxide gas-diffusion cathode. To the best of our knowledge, 1880 W m(-2) is the highest power density ever reported for a mixed-reactant fuel cell operating under similar conditions. Furthermore, the performance matches the highest reported power densities for conventional dual chamber PEM direct borohydride fuel cells.

  5. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  6. Electrochemical characterization of Fe-air rechargeable oxide battery in planar solid oxide cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Qingping; Berger, Cornelius M.; Menzler, Norbert H.; Bram, Martin; Blum, Ludger

    2016-12-01

    Iron-air rechargeable oxide batteries (ROB) comprising solid oxide cells (SOC) as energy converters and Fe/metal-oxide redox couples were characterized using planar SOC stacks. The charge and discharge of the battery correspond to the operations in the electrolysis and fuel cell modes, respectively, but with a stagnant atmosphere consisting of hydrogen and steam. A novel method was employed to establish the stagnant atmosphere for battery testing during normal SOC operation without complicated modification to the test bench and stack/battery concept. Manipulation of the gas compositions during battery operation was not necessary, but the influence of the leakage current from the testing system had to be considered. Batteries incorporating Fe2O3/8YSZ, Fe2O3/CaO and Fe2O3/ZrO2 storage materials were characterized at 800 °C. A maximum charge capacity of 30.4 Ah per layer (with an 80 cm2 active cell area) with ∼0.5 mol Fe was reached with a current of 12 A. The charge capacity lost 11% after ∼130 ROB cycles due to the increased agglomeration of active materials and formation of a dense oxide layer on the surface. The round trip efficiencies of the tested batteries were ≤84% due to the large internal resistance. With state-of-the-art cells, the round trip efficiency can be further improved.

  7. A mathematical model of the maximum power density attainable in an alkaline hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Michael C.; White, Ralph E.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical model of a hydrogen/oxygen alkaline fuel cell is presented that can be used to predict the polarization behavior under various power loads. The major limitations to achieving high power densities are indicated and methods to increase the maximum attainable power density are suggested. The alkaline fuel cell model describes the phenomena occurring in the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of the anode, separator, and cathode regions based on porous electrode theory applied to three phases. Fundamental equations of chemical engineering that describe conservation of mass and charge, species transport, and kinetic phenomena are used to develop the model by treating all phases as a homogeneous continuum.

  8. Engineering and Abuse Testing of Panasonic Lithium-Ion Battery and Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Bragg, Bobby J.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the performance testing of Lithium Ion batteries and cells under different conditions of charge and discharge. The tests show that the 0.5 C rate of charge and discharge might be the ideal condition for long term cycling. It reviews the issues of overcharge and overdischarge of the cells. The cells and the battery have adequate protection under both conditions to prevent any catastrophic occurrences. Temperatures above 150 C are required to vent the cells or cause a thermal runaway, Since this situation is non-credible in the cabin of the Space Shuffle or ISS this should not pose a problem. The presentation includes graphs and charts showing the charge and discharge capacities of the battery and also the current and voltage profiles. A view of a circuit board which contains the controlling mechanism for the battery is also shown.

  9. Electronic integration of fuel cell and battery system in novel hybrid vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Peter; Jostins, John; Hilmansen, Stuart; Kendall, Kevin

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to integrate a lithium ion battery pack, together with its management system, into a hydrogen fuel cell drive train contained in a lightweight city car. Electronic units were designed to link the drive train components using conventional circuitry. These were built, tested and shown to perform according to the design. These circuits allowed start-up of battery management system, motor controller, fuel cell warm-up and torque monitoring. After assembling the fuel cell and battery in the vehicle, full system tests were performed. Analysis of results from vehicle demonstrations showed operation was satisfactory. The conclusion was that the electronic integration was successful, but the design needed optimisation and fine tuning. Eight vehicles were then fitted with the electronically integrated fuel cell-battery power pack. Trials were then started to test the integration more fully, with a duration of 12 months from 2011 to 2012 in the CABLED project.

  10. Advanced developments in NiH{sub 2} dependent pressure vessel (DPV) cell and battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, D.B.; Fox, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    The Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) design is being developed by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. (EPI) as an advanced battery for military and commercial, aerospace and terrestrial applications. The DPV cell design offers high specific energy and energy density as well as reduced cost, while retaining the established Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) technology flight heritage and database. This advanced DPV design also offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell and battery configuration and a reduced parts count. The DPV battery design promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and weight efficiency, and delivers cost and weight savings with minimal design risks.

  11. New Developments in Nickel-Hydrogen Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Cell and Battery Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Dwight B.; Fox, Chris L.; Miller, Lee E.

    1997-01-01

    THe Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) design is being developed as an advanced battery for military and commercial, aerospace and terrestrial applications. The DPV cell design offers high specific energy and energy density as well as reduced cost, while retaining the established Individual Pressure Vessel (IPV) technology flight heritage and database. This advanced DPV design also offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell and battery configuration and a reduced part count. The DPV battery design promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and weight efficiency, and delivers cost and weight savings with minimal design risk.

  12. Differential expression of alkaline phosphatase gene in proliferating primary lymphocytes and malignant lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Latheef, S A A; Devanabanda, Mallaiah; Sankati, Swetha; Madduri, Ramanadham

    2016-02-01

    Alkaline Phosphatase (APase) activity has been shown to be enhanced specifically in mitogen stimulated B lymphocytes committed to proliferation, but not in T lymphocytes. APase gene expression was analyzed in proliferating murine and human primary lymphocytes and human malignant cell lines using reverse transcriptase and real time PCR. In mitogen stimulated murine splenic lymphocytes, enhancement of APase activity correlated well with an increase in APase gene expression. However, in mitogen stimulated murine T lymphocytes and human PBL despite a vigorous proliferative response, no increase in APase enzyme activity or gene expression was observed. A constitutive expression of APase activity concomitant with APase gene expression was observed inhuman myeloma cell line, U266 B1. However, neither enzyme activity nor gene expression of APase were observed in human T cell lymphoma, SUPT-1. The results suggest a differential expression of APase activity and its gene in proliferating primary lymphocytes of mice and humans. The specific expression of APase activity and its gene only in human myeloma cells, but not in proliferating primary B cells can be exploited as a sensitive disease marker.

  13. Bone cell responses to the composite of Ricinus communis polyurethane and alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Marcio Mateus; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco; Tagliani, Marcela Martini; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of osteoblastic cells to the composite of Ricinus communis polyurethane (RCP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) incubated in synthetic body fluid (SBF). RCP pure (RCPp) and RCP blended with ALP 6 mg/mL polymer (RCP+ALP) were incubated in SBF for 17 days. Four groups of RCP were tested: RCPp, RCP+ALP, and RCPp and RCP+ALP incubated in SBF (RCPp/SBF and RCP+ALP/SBF). Stem cells from rat bone marrow were cultured in conditions that allowed osteoblastic differentiation on RCP discs and were evaluated: cell adhesion, culture growth, cell viability, total protein content, ALP activity, and bone-like nodule formation. Data were compared by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test. The group RCP+ALP was highly cytotoxic and, therefore, was not considered here. Cell adhesion (p = 0.14), culture growth (p = 0.39), viability (p = 0.46) and total protein content (p = 0.12) were not affected by either RCP composition or incubation in SBF. ALP activity was affected (p = 0.0001) as follows: RCPp < RCPp/SBF < RCP+ALP/SBF. Bone-like nodule formation was not observed on all evaluated groups. The composite RCP+ALP prior to SBF incubation is cytotoxic and must not be considered as biomaterial, but the incorporation of ALP to the RCP followed by SBF incubation could be a useful alternative to improve the biological properties of the RCP.

  14. Electrocatalysis for dioxygen reduction by a μ-oxo decavanadium complex in alkaline medium and its application to a cathode catalyst in air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, Eniya Listiani; Oyaizu, Kenichi; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Tsuchida, Eishun

    The redox behavior of a decavanadium complex [(VO) 10(μ 2-O) 9(μ 3-O) 3(C 5H 7O 2) 6] ( 1) was studied using cyclic voltammetry under acidic and basic conditions. The reduction potential of V(V) was found at less positive potentials for higher pH electrolyte solutions. The oxygen reduction at complex 1 immobilized on a modified electrode was examined using cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode techniques in the 1 M KOH solutions. On the basis of measurements using a rotating disk electrode (RDE), the complex 1 was found to be highly active for the direct four-electron reduction of dioxygen at -0.2 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE). The complex 1 as a reduction catalyst of O 2 with a high selectivity was demonstrated using rotating ring-disk voltammograms in alkaline solutions. The application of complex 1 as an oxygen reduction catalyst at the cathode of zinc-air cell was also examined. The zinc-air cell with the modified electrode showed a stable discharge potential at approximately 1 V with discharge capacity of 80 mAh g -1 which was about five times larger than that obtained with the commonly used manganese dioxide catalyst.

  15. Modular Approach for Continuous Cell-Level Balancing to Improve Performance of Large Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muneed ur Rehman, M.; Evzelman, M.; Hathaway, K.; Zane, R.; Plett, G. L.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Maksimovic, D.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage systems require battery cell balancing circuits to avoid divergence of cell state of charge (SOC). A modular approach based on distributed continuous cell-level control is presented that extends the balancing function to higher level pack performance objectives such as improving power capability and increasing pack lifetime. This is achieved by adding DC-DC converters in parallel with cells and using state estimation and control to autonomously bias individual cell SOC and SOC range, forcing healthier cells to be cycled deeper than weaker cells. The result is a pack with improved degradation characteristics and extended lifetime. The modular architecture and control concepts are developed and hardware results are demonstrated for a 91.2-Wh battery pack consisting of four series Li-ion battery cells and four dual active bridge (DAB) bypass DC-DC converters.

  16. Assessment of the status of fuel cell/battery vehicle power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, W.J.D.; Foster, R.W.

    1980-02-01

    An assessment of the status of the integrated fuel cell/battery power system concept for electric vehicle propulsion is reported. The fuel cell, operating on hydrogen or methanol (indirectly), acts as a very high capacity energy battery for vehicle sustaining operation, while a special power battery provides over-capacity transient power on demand, being recharged by the fuel cell, e.g., during cruising. A focused literature search and a set of industrial and Government contacts were carried out to establish views, outlooks, and general status concerning the concept. It is evident that, although vehicle battery R and D is being actively pursued, little of today's fuel cell work is directed to transportation usage. Only very limited attention has been, and is being, given to the fuel cell/battery power system concept itself. However, judging largely from computer-simulated driving cycle results, the concept can provide needed range capabilities and general operating flexibility to electric vehicles. New transportation applications, conventionally viewed as beyond the capability of electric vehicles, may thereby be practical, e.g., rail, trucks. In view of these potential and important benefits, and the absence of any comprehensive research, development, and demonstration activities which are supportive of the fuel cell/battery system concept, the initiation of an appropriate effort is recommended by the Assessment Team. This general recommendation is supported by applicable findings, observations, and conclusions.

  17. Alkaline single-cell gel (comet) assay and genotoxicity monitoring using two species of tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Ralph, S; Petras, M; Pandrangi, R; Vrzoc, M

    1996-01-01

    Small bodies of water (e.g., creeks, ponds, and drainage ditches) have received very little attention in genotoxicity studies, yet these areas are important because they are often the first to be affected by industrial effluents, sewage contaminants, accidental spills, internal combustion engine emissions, landfill runoffs, and pesticide uses. To address this deficiency, we examined erythrocytes in two species of tadpoles, Rana clamitans and Bufo americanus, using the alkaline single-cell gel (SCG) ("comet") assay. This approach involves detection, under alkaline conditions, of cell DNA fragments, which on electrophoresis migrate from the nuclear core, resulting in a "comet-with-tail" formation. Exposure of R. clamitans todpoles to a range of concentrations of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) produced a linear increase in DNA length to DNA core width ratios. This is consistent with findings in a number of other species. Time-dose experiments using MMS suggest that the peak level of DNA damage in R. clamitans todpoles occurred 42 hr after exposure. B. americanus tadpoles exposed to 6.25 mg/l of MMS for 12 hours had a significant increase in DNA damage over that seen in the controls. Freshly caught R. clamitans tadpoles from Highgate and B. americanus tadpoles from Duart, both on the north shore of Lake Erie, gave ratios of 2.78 and 2.07, respectively. This region of Ontario is a prime agricultural area and pesticide use is extensive. Tadpoles from Highgate and Duart, maintained in the laboratory for 4 months and 6 weeks, respectively, gave ratios of 1.29 and 1.44. The results of the SCG procedure in tadpoles indicate that this assay is extremely sensitive and suitable for detecting genotoxicity in the environment.

  18. Development and operation of a hybrid acid-alkaline advanced water electrolysis cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschke, O.; Zwanziger, M.

    A hybrid acid-alkaline water electrolysis cell has been developed for hydrogen production. The cell is based on the use of an acidic solution at the cathode and a basic solution at the anode to reduce the minimum theoretical voltage for water decomposition from the thermoneutral potential of 1.47 V to close to 1.4 V at 25 C and 1 atm. The pH differential is maintained by the removal of OH ions from the cathode section and water removal from the anode section, which can be driven by heat energy. A practical cell has been built using a solid polymer electrolyte in which, however, the cathodic compartment is not acidic but neutral. Tests with a platinum black cathode catalyst and a platinum-iridium anode catalyst have resulted in steady-state water hydrolysis at an applied voltage of 0.9 V, and a V-I diagram with a considerably lower slope than that of a conventional cell has been obtained at 90 C.

  19. Rechargeable Zn-air batteries: Progress in electrolyte development and cell configuration advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Ivey, D. G.; Xie, Z.; Qu, W.

    2015-06-01

    Zn-air batteries, which are cost-effective and have high energy density, are promising energy storage devices for renewable energy and power sources for electric transportation. Nevertheless, limited charge and discharge cycles and low round-trip efficiency have long been barriers preventing the large-scale deployment of Zn-air batteries in the marketplace. Technology advancements for each battery component and the whole battery/cell assembly are being pursued, with some key milestones reached during the past 20 years. As an example, commercial Zn-air battery products with long lifetimes and high energy efficiencies are being considered for grid-scale energy storage and for automotive markets. In this review, we present our perspectives on improvements in Zn-air battery technology through the exploration and utilization of different electrolyte systems. Recent studies ranging from aqueous electrolytes to nonaqueous electrolytes, including solid polymer electrolytes and ionic liquids, as well as hybrid electrolyte systems adopted in Zn-air batteries have been evaluated. Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of each electrolyte, as well as the fundamental electrochemistry of Zn and air electrodes in different electrolytes, are the focus of this paper. Further consideration is given to detailed Zn-air battery configurations that have been studied and applied in commercial or nearing commercial products, with the purpose of exposing state-of-the-art technology innovations and providing insights into future advancements.

  20. Conceptual design of a sodium sulfur cell for US electric-van batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Binden, P.J.

    1993-05-01

    A conceptual design of an advanced sodium/sulfur cell for US electric-van applications has been completed. The important design factors included specific physical and electrical requirements, service life, manufacturability, thermal management, and safety. The capacity of this cell is approximately the same as that for the ``PB`` cell being developed by Silent Power Limited (10 Ah). The new cell offers a 50% improvement in energy capacity and nearly a 100% improvement in peak power over the existing PB cells. A battery constructed with such cells would significantly exceed the USABC`s mid-term performance specifications. In addition, a similar cell and battery design effort was completed for an advanced passenger car application. A battery using the van cell would have nearly 3 times the energy compared to lead-acid batteries, yet weigh 40% less; a present-day battery using a cell specifically designed for this car would provide 50% more energy in a package 60% smaller and 50% lighter.

  1. In situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy of electrochemical cells: batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Frédéric; Leskes, Michal; Grey, Clare P

    2013-09-17

    Electrochemical cells, in the form of batteries (or supercapacitors) and fuel cells, are efficient devices for energy storage and conversion. These devices show considerable promise for use in portable and static devices to power electronics and various modes of transport and to produce and store electricity both locally and on the grid. For example, high power and energy density lithium-ion batteries are being developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles where they improve the efficiency of fuel use and help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To gain insight into the chemical reactions involving the multiple components (electrodes, electrolytes, interfaces) in the electrochemical cells and to determine how cells operate and how they fail, researchers ideally should employ techniques that allow real-time characterization of the behavior of the cells under operating conditions. This Account reviews the recent use of in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a technique that probes local structure and dynamics, to study these devices. In situ NMR studies of lithium-ion batteries are performed on the entire battery, by using a coin cell design, a flat sealed plastic bag, or a cylindrical cell. The battery is placed inside the NMR coil, leads are connected to a potentiostat, and the NMR spectra are recorded as a function of state of charge. (7)Li is used for many of these experiments because of its high sensitivity, straightforward spectral interpretation, and relevance to these devices. For example, (7)Li spectroscopy was used to detect intermediates formed during electrochemical cycling such as LixC and LiySiz species in batteries with carbon and silicon anodes, respectively. It was also used to observe and quantify the formation and growth of metallic lithium microstructures, which can cause short circuits and battery failure. This approach can be utilized to identify conditions that promote dendrite formation and whether different electrolytes and additives can help

  2. The Long-Term Performance of Small-Cell Batteries Without Cell-Balancing Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, C.; Thwaite, C.; Curzon, D.; Rao, G.

    2006-01-01

    Tests approx.8 yrs ago showed Sony HC do not imbalance. AEA developed a theory (ESPC 2002): a) Self-discharge (SD) decreases with state-of-charge (SOC); b) Cells diverge to a state of dynamic equilibrium; c) Equilibrium spread depends on cell SD uniformity. Balancing model verified against test data. Short-term measures of SD difficult in Sony cells and very small values, depends on technique. Long-term evidence supports lower SD at low SD. Battery testing best proof of performance, typically mission specific tests.

  3. Electrolyte Management Considerations in Modern Nickel Hydrogen and Nickel Cadmium Cell and Battery Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium cells. Sample calculations of the concentration or volume changes that can take place within operating cells are presented. With the aid of an accurate model of an operating cell or battery, the impact of changes of potassium ion content within a potential cell design can be estimated. All three of these areas are directly related to the volume tolerance and pore size engineering aspects of the components used in the cell or battery design.

  4. Human prostatic acid phosphatase directly stimulates collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase content of isolated bone cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibe, M.; Rosier, R.N.; Puzas, J.E. )

    1991-10-01

    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (hPAP) directly enhances the differentiated characteristics of isolated bone cells in vitro. This enzyme, when added to cell cultures for 24 h in vitro stimulates collagen synthesis and the production of alkaline phosphatase. The effects are dose dependent, with statistically significant effects occurring from 0.1-100 nM hPAP. Concentrations higher than 100 nM do not evoke greater effects. The maximal effect of hPAP occurs between 12 and 24 h of exposure. The cells stimulated to the greatest degree are osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts. Fibroblasts isolated from the same tissue show a lesser sensitivity to hPAP. hPAP has no detectable effect on cell proliferation, as measured by radiolabeled thymidine incorporation or total DNA synthesis. None of the observations reported in this work can be attributed to contaminating proteins in the hPAP preparation. hPAP was radiolabeled with 125I and was used for affinity binding and cross-linking studies. Scatchard analysis of specific binding indicated the presence of 1.0 X 10(5) high affinity binding sites/cell, with a Kd of 6.5 nM. Cross-linking studies demonstrated the presence of one 320-kDa binding complex. The pH profile and kinetic determinations of Km and maximum velocity for hPAP were similar to those previously reported, except for the finding of positive cooperativity of the substrate with the enzyme under the conditions of our assay. We believe that the direct stimulation of bone-forming cells by hPAP may contribute to the sclerotic nature of skeletal bone around sites of neoplastic prostatic metastases and that the effect of the enzyme is probably mediated by a plasma membrane receptor.

  5. Fibrous zinc anodes for high power batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Gregory

    This paper introduces newly developed solid zinc anodes using fibrous material for high power applications in alkaline and large size zinc-air battery systems. The improved performance of the anodes in these two battery systems is demonstrated. The possibilities for control of electrode porosity and for anode/battery design using fibrous materials are discussed in light of experimental data. Because of its mechanical integrity and connectivity, the fibrous solid anode has good electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and design flexibility for controlling mass distribution, porosity and effective surface area. Experimental data indicated that alkaline cells made of such anodes can have a larger capacity at high discharging currents than commercially available cells. It showed even greater improvement over commercial cells with a non-conventional cell design. Large capacity anodes for a zinc-air battery have also been made and have shown excellent material utilization at various discharge rates. The zinc-air battery was used to power an electric bicycle and demonstrated good results.

  6. Advanced Modular "All in One" Battery System with Intelligent Autonomous Cell Balancing Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, X.; Pasquier, E.; Defer, M.; Koch, M.; Knorr, W.

    2008-09-01

    A new generation of energy storage systems based on Li-ion technology emerged at the end of the last century.To perform the first tests in safe conditions, Saft designed a simple electronic.Today, all Li-ion batteries for autonomous applications such as drones, launchers, missiles, torpedoes and "human" applications such as cellular, laptop, hybrid vehicle and nearly sub-marines need a Battery Management System.The minimum in terms of functions is the overcharge and over-discharge protections.For a battery made of 2 cells connected in series or more, a balancing system is added to maintain the available energy during all the life of the battery. For stringent/demanding applications, the state of charge and state of health are calculated by one or more computers.It is now time to take benefit of the past 10 years of Saft's experience in the domain to re-evaluate the constraints of Li-ion batteries and provide customers with improved products by optimizing the battery management.Benefits of electronic for satellite applications:• Full control over battery.• Confidence whatever the possible change of conditions in environment.• The battery system can resist long exposure to gradient conditions with mitigated and stabilized impact on performances.• The balancing function allow to use all the energy of all the cells: optimize of installed energy (compact design, mass saving). It started out with the basic fact that electrochemists are not intended to be space rated electronic experts and vice versa, even if Saft has a good heritage in the electronic battery management system. Consequently, considering heritage and expertise in their respective core businesses, Saft and ASP teamed up.It became necessary to provide an "all in one" modular energy storage system with intelligent autonomous cell balancing management.

  7. Comparison of rechargeable lithium and nickel/cadmium battery cells for implantable circulatory support devices.

    PubMed

    MacLean, G K; Aiken, P A; Adams, W A; Mussivand, T

    1994-04-01

    Size and weight constraints are critical areas in the design of implantable medical devices. For this reason, a study of different rechargeable lithium and nickel/cadmium (Ni/Cd) battery cell types was undertaken to determine which cell type, when assembled into a multicell battery pack, would provide the smallest and lightest power source for implantation. The discharge rate and cycle life characteristics of 2 different rectangular prismatic Ni/Cd cells and 5 different rechargeable lithium cells were determined at 37 degrees C by charge/discharge cycling, the cells using a constant discharge load of 0.87 A. Using the observed discharge rate and cycle life characteristics of the cells, along with the desired performance criteria of 30 min operating time at the end of a 1-year implant period, the projected weight and volume of the various 12-V battery packs were determined. These results showed that one of the rectangular prismatic Ni/Cd cells would yield the smallest (53 ml) and lightest (189 g) 12-V battery pack that met the performance criteria specified. The results also indicate that, for applications requiring long implant times, cycle life can be more important in the selection of cells for a small, lightweight battery pack than specific energy or energy density.

  8. Modelling and experimental evaluation of parallel connected lithium ion cells for an electric vehicle battery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruen, Thomas; Marco, James

    2016-04-01

    Variations in cell properties are unavoidable and can be caused by manufacturing tolerances and usage conditions. As a result of this, cells connected in series may have different voltages and states of charge that limit the energy and power capability of the complete battery pack. Methods of removing this energy imbalance have been extensively reported within literature. However, there has been little discussion around the effect that such variation has when cells are connected electrically in parallel. This work aims to explore the impact of connecting cells, with varied properties, in parallel and the issues regarding energy imbalance and battery management that may arise. This has been achieved through analysing experimental data and a validated model. The main results from this study highlight that significant differences in current flow can occur between cells within a parallel stack that will affect how the cells age and the temperature distribution within the battery assembly.

  9. Studies of a granular aluminum anode in an alkaline fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovich, Neil A.; Govind, Rakesh

    A granular aluminum anode was investigated for use in an alkaline aluminum/hydrogen peroxide fuel cell. The fuel cell utilizes granules of aluminum (8-12 mm in diameter) as an anode, potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an anolyte and hydrogen peroxide as a catholyte. Granular anodes have a significantly higher surface area than planar surfaces, thereby resulting in higher utilization of the anode material. Polarization experiments were performed as well as closed circuit power production experiments. KOH concentrations were varied in the experiments. Polarization experiments achieved a current density of 10.02 mA/cm 2 using 2 M KOH and granular aluminum with a surface area of 205.6 cm 2. Power production experiments sustained a current density of 0.05 mA/cm 2 using 1.5 M KOH and granular aluminum with a surface area of 59.8 cm 2. Results indicate that granular metal anodes have potential for use in high energy density fuel cells.

  10. Computational modeling of alkaline air-breathing microfluidic fuel cells with an array of cylinder anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ding-Ding; Zhang, Biao; Zhu, Xun; Sui, Pang-Chieh; Djilali, Ned; Liao, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    A three-dimensional computational model is developed for an alkaline air-breathing microfluidic fuel cell (AMFC) with an array of cylinder anodes. The model is validated against experimental data from an in-house prototype AMFC. The distributions of fluid velocity, fuel concentration and current density of the fuel cell are analyzed in detail. The effect of reactant flow rate on the cell performance and electrode potentials is also studied. The model results suggest that fuel crossover is minimized by the fast electrolyte flow in the vicinity of the cathode. The current production of each anode is uneven and is well correlated with internal ohmic resistance. Fuel transfer limitation occurs at low flow rates (<100 μL min-1) but diminishes at high flow rates. The model results also indicate that cathode potential reversal takes place at combined low flow rate and high current density conditions, mainly due to the improved overpotential downstream where fuel starvation occurs. The anode reaction current distribution is found to be relatively uniform, which is a result of a compensating mechanism that improves the current production of the bottom anodes downstream.

  11. A rapid, quantitative assay for measuring alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblastic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sabokbar, A; Millett, P J; Myer, B; Rushton, N

    1994-10-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is the most widely recognized biochemical marker for osteoblast activity. Although its precise function is poorly understood, it is believed to play a role in skeletal mineralization. The aim of this study was to develop an assay suitable for measuring the activity of this enzyme in microtiter plate format. Using the well-characterized osteoblast-like cell line Saos-2, this paper describes an optimized biochemical assay suitable for measuring ALP activity in tissue culture samples. We have determined that a p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate concentration of 9 mM provides highest enzyme activities. We have found that cell concentration, and hence enzyme concentration, affects both the kinetics and precision of the assay. We also tested several methods of enzyme solubilization and found that freeze-thawing the membrane fractions twice at -70 degrees C/37 degrees C or freeze-thawing once with sonication yielded highest enzyme activities. The activity of the enzyme decreased by 10% after 7 days storage. This assay provides a sensitive and reproducible method that is ideally suited for measuring ALP activity in isolated osteoblastic cells, although sample preparation and storage can influence results.

  12. Improvement in the solid-state alkaline fuel cell performance through efficient water management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiba, Yuhei; Hiura, Junya; Suzuki, Yuto; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2017-03-01

    In solid-state alkaline fuel cells (SAFCs), water is generated at the anode and is reacted at the cathode; as such, flooding occurs much more easily at the anode than it does in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Anode flooding is a reason for the low performance of SAFCs, and so it is important that this flooding phenomenon is mitigated. In this study, we control water transport to suppress anode flooding. We do this through two approaches: changing the thickness of the anion exchange membrane (AEM) and changing the anode flow rate. Among two AEMs with two different thicknesses (27 μm and 6 μm) prepared, thinner AEM shows improved fuel cell performance. Increasing the anode flow rate also improved the performance of SAFCs. To find out what caused this, the water transport inside the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was analyzed. The flooding region was estimated using calculated relative humidity at anode outlet. On the basis of our experimental and calculation approaches, flooding can be suppressed by using thin AEMs and increasing the anode flow rate.

  13. Human Placental Alkaline Phosphatase as a Tracking Marker for Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balmayor, Elizabeth Rosado; Flicker, Magdalena; Käser, Tobias; Saalmüller, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Currently, adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are being evaluated for a wide variety of therapeutic approaches. It has been suggested that MSCs possess regenerative properties when implanted or injected into damaged tissue. However, the efficacy of MSCs in several of the proposed treatments is still controversial. To further explore the therapeutic potential of these cells, it is necessary to trace the fate of individual donor or manipulated cells in the host organism. Recent studies from our lab showed that human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPLAP) is a marker with great potential for cell tracking. However, a potential concern related to this marker is its enzymatic activity, which might alter cell behavior and differentiation by hydrolyzing substrates in the extracellular space and thereby changing the cellular microenvironment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) derived from hPLAP-transgenic inbred F344 rats (hPLAP-tg) in comparison to wild type (wt) BMSCs. Here, we show that BMSCs from wt and hPLAP-tg donors are indistinguishable in terms of cell morphology, viability, adhesion, immune phenotype, and proliferation as well as in their differentiation capacity over six passages. The expression of the hPLAP marker enzyme was not impaired by extensive in vitro cultivation, osteogenic, adipogenic, or chondrogenic differentiation, or seeding onto two- or three-dimensional biomaterials. Thus, our study underscores the utility of genetically labeled BMSCs isolated from hPLAP-tg donors for long-term tracking of the fate of transplanted MSCs in regenerative therapies. PMID:24083090

  14. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  15. Expansion of Lithium Ion Pouch Cell Batteries: Observations from Neutron Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-21

    low C-rates the measured battery thickness was a function of State of Charge (SOC) and independent of a small external clamping force. A 0.3...Lee et al. in [4] measured the dimensional changes in lithium cobalt oxide pouch cells during cycling using a specialized dilatometer setup. They...and rates on electrode expansion was investigated. At low C-rates the measured battery thickness was a function of State of Charge (SOC) and independent

  16. Genome wide expression profile in human HTR-8/Svneo trophoblastic cells in response to overexpression of placental alkaline phosphatase gene.

    PubMed

    Bellazi, L; Mornet, E; Meurice, G; Pata-Merci, N; De Mazancourt, P; Dieudonné, M-N

    2011-10-01

    During pregnancy, placental growth allows the adaptation of the feto-maternal unit to fetal requirements. Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) is a phosphomonoesterase produced increasingly until term by the placenta and also ectopically in some tumors. To precise the role of this enzyme in the placenta, we analyzed the genome wide expression profile of HTR-8/Svneo trophoblastic cells after overexpression of the alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPP). We showed that ALPP overexpression mainly altered expression of genes implicated in cellular growth and proliferation. These results were confirmed by the study of cellular effects in HTR-8/Svneo cells overexpressing ALPP and in HTR-8/Svneo cells in which ALPP expression was suppressed by siRNA. We showed that PLAP exerts a positive effect on DNA replication and acts as a proliferative factor in trophoblastic cells.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of alkaline polyvinyl alcohol and poly(epichlorohydrin) blend polymer electrolytes and performance in electrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Lin, Sheng-Jen; Hsu, Sung-Ting

    Alkaline SPE was obtained from a blend of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH), PVA-PECH, by a solution-cast technique. The PVA host polymer is blended with PECH polymer to provide a polymer electrolyte with improved chemical and mechanical properties. The ionic conductivity of the PVA-PECH polymer electrolytes is between 10 -2 and 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature when the blend ratio is varied from 1:0.2 to 1:1. The PVA-PECH polymer was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, stress-strain test, cyclic voltammetry, and a.c. impedance spectroscopy. It is found that the polymer electrolytes exhibit good mechanical strength and excellent chemical stability. The electrochemical performance of solid-state Zn-air batteries with various types of the blended polymer electrolyte films is examined by a galvanostatic discharge method.

  18. The evolution of the performance of alkaline fuel cells with circulating electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouérec, P.; Poletto, L.; Denizot, J.; Sanchez-Cortezon, E.; Miners, J. H.

    The most recent information is presented concerning the development of the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) with circulating aqueous electrolyte technology at Eident Energy (EE). The latest version of this commercially sold sub-stack or "module" results in improved performance (400-430 to 590 W at 4 V and 51% total efficiency ( η) versus LHV, i.e. from 100 to 137 mA cm -2 at 0.67 V per cell) and durability (2500 h expected with 10% decrease in power when operating at constant nominal current). The catalyst content in the module is also reduced from 1.2 to 0.5-0.6 mg cm -2. These improvements were achieved via an optimisation the porosity of the electrodes in order to obtain greater air diffusion inside the electrode. The authors also present the results of experiments that determine the origin of the performance loss of the AFC module over time. In contrast to much of the literature, the results do not support the irreversible corrosion of materials due to the oxygen reduction reaction. Indeed, over the investigated working period (i.e. ca. 1500-2000 h), the degradation of the performance was attributed to a slow and constant physical flooding due to imperfections in the wet proofing coating. Based on these facts, strategies are proposed to slow, avoid and even reverse to this flooding.

  19. Highly active nitrogen-doped nanocarbon electrocatalysts for alkaline direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruusenberg, Ivar; Ratso, Sander; Vikkisk, Merilin; Kanninen, Petri; Kallio, Tanja; Kannan, Arunachala M.; Tammeveski, Kaido

    2015-05-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells are assembled and evaluated using Fumatech FAA3 alkaline anion exchange membrane. Two novel metal-free cathode catalysts are synthesised, investigated and compared with the commercial Pt-based catalyst. In this work nitrogen-doped few-layer graphene/multi-walled carbon nanotube (N-FLG/MWCNT) composite and nitrogen-doped MWCNT (N-MWCNT) catalyst are prepared by pyrolysing the mixture of dicyandiamide (DCDA) and carbon nanomaterials at 800 °C. The resulting cathode catalyst material shows a remarkable electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.1 M KOH solution employing the rotating disk electrode (RDE) method. Fuel cell tests are performed by using 1 M methanol as anode and pure oxygen gas cathode feed. The maximum power density obtained with the N-FLG/MWCNT material (0.72 mW cm-2) is similar to that of the Pt/C catalyst (0.72 mW cm-2), whereas the N-MWCNT material shows higher peak power density (0.92 mW cm-2) than the commercial Pt/C catalyst.

  20. β₂ adrenergic receptor activation suppresses bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takayuki; Ezura, Yoichi; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Moriya, Shuichi; Shirakawa, Jumpei; Notomi, Takuya; Arayal, Smriti; Kawasaki, Makiri; Izu, Yayoi; Harada, Kiyoshi; Noda, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    β adrenergic stimulation suppresses bone formation in vivo while its actions in osteoblastic differentiation are still incompletely understood. We therefore examined the effects of β2 adrenergic stimulation on osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells focusing on BMP-induced alkaline phosphatase expression. Morphologically, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced increase in the numbers of alkaline phosphatase-positive small foci in the cultures of MC3T3-E1 cells. Biochemically, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase in a dose-dependent manner. Isoproterenol suppression of alkaline phosphatase activity is observed even when the cells are treated with high concentrations of BMP. With respect to cell density, isoproterenol treatment tends to suppress BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase expression more in osteoblasts cultured at higher cell density. In terms of treatment protocol, continuous isoproterenol treatment is compared to cyclic treatment. Continuous isoproterenol treatment is more suppressive against BMP-induced increase in alkaline phosphatase expression than cyclic regimen. At molecular level, isoproterenol treatment suppresses BMP-induced enhancement of alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression. Regarding the mode of isoproterenol action, isoproterenol suppresses BMP-induced BRE-luciferase activity. These data indicate that isoproterenol regulates BMP-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in osteoblast-like MC3T3E1 cells.

  1. Battery separators.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhengming John

    2004-10-01

    The ideal battery separator would be infinitesimally thin, offer no resistance to ionic transport in electrolytes, provide infinite resistance to electronic conductivity for isolation of electrodes, be highly tortuous to prevent dendritic growths, and be inert to chemical reactions. Unfortunately, in the real world the ideal case does not exist. Real world separators are electronically insulating membranes whose ionic resistivity is brought to the desired range by manipulating the membranes thickness and porosity. It is clear that no single separator satisfies all the needs of battery designers, and compromises have to be made. It is ultimately the application that decides which separator is most suitable. We hope that this paper will be a useful tool and will help the battery manufacturers in selecting the most appropriate separators for their batteries and respective applications. The information provided is purely technical and does not include other very important parameters, such as cost of production, availability, and long-term stability. There has been a continued demand for thinner battery separators to increase battery power and capacity. This has been especially true for lithiumion batteries used in portable electronics. However, it is very important to ensure the continued safety of batteries, and this is where the role of the separator is greatest. Thus, it is essential to optimize all the components of battery to improve the performance while maintaining the safety of these cells. Separator manufacturers should work along with the battery manufacturers to create the next generation of batteries with increased reliability and performance, but always keeping safety in mind. This paper has attempted to present a comprehensive review of literature on separators used in various batteries. It is evident that a wide variety of separators are available and that they are critical components in batteries. In many cases, the separator is one of the major factors

  2. Goblet cells and intestinal Alkaline phosphatase expression (IAP) during the development of the rat small intestine.

    PubMed

    Gomes, José Rosa; Ayub, Laís Costa; Dos Reis, Camila Audrey; Machado, Miriam Joice; da Silva, Jéssica; Omar, Nádia Fayez; de Miranda Soares, Maria Albertina

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the temporal and spacial distribution of the mucins produced by goblet cells and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) expression during the development of the small intestine of the rat. Intestines were removed from rats on the 15th, 17th and 18th days of intratuterine life (i.u.) and on the 3rd, 10th, 17th and 25th days after birth (a.b.). Intestines were processed for routine histological procedures and sections were submitted to histochemistry using PAS to stain neutral glycoproteins and Alcian blue for acidic glycoproteins, as well as immunohistochemistry to detect IAP. In rats, glycoprotein production was seen to begin in the intestinal epithelium cell at around the 17th day of i.u. life; however, this production was not accompanied by morphological indications of the presence of goblet cells. By the 18th i.u. day, the villus epithelium was undergoing differentiation and the first goblet cells could be identified from this time. At around the 10th day a.b., both compartments of the small intestine were detected; i.e. the villi and the crypts. At this timepoint, goblet cells were present in the villi, and also in the upper regions of the crypts. On the 3rd, 10th 17th and 25th days a.b., the presence of the goblet cells increased and presented regional differences in the sections evaluated. IAP was not detected during i.u. life, but was weakly detected in the cells of the villi from the 3rd day a.b., along the entire extension of the villi. On the 10th day, IAP was detected at the tip of the villi, while on the 25th day, it was detected along the extension of the villi, but with a weaker intensity. In conclusion, a temporal and spacial distribution of goblet cells and IAP activity occurs during the development of the small intestine, suggesting a possible regulatory control in accordance with the suckling and weaning phases of food intake in the rat's life.

  3. Cell Design for Electrochemical Characterizations of Metal-Ion Batteries in Organic and Aqueous Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Bani Hashemi, Amir; La Mantia, Fabio

    2016-08-16

    Understanding the gas evolution in batteries, caused by decomposition of the electrolyte, is of fundamental importance for improving the long-time performances and cycle life of the battery systems. In general, this phenomenon causes simultaneously an irreversible energy and charge loss, as well as an increase of the internal resistance. Here, we introduce a new cell design capable of performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential electrochemical mass spectroscopy (DEMS) with high resolution. Detailed aspects of the cell fabrication and the different components of the cell are extensively explained. Impedance measurements were validated by using symmetric electrodes. The possibility of performing long-term DEMS measurements was tested on graphite electrodes in Ethylene Carbonate/Dimethyl Carbonate (1:1), 1 M LiPF6 as an electrolyte. Finally, the cell was used to detect hydrogen evolution on the zinc negative electrode of a zinc-ion battery based on copper hexacyanoferrate.

  4. Dynamic behaviour of Li batteries in hydrogen fuel cell power trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneri, O.; Migliardini, F.; Capasso, C.; Corbo, P.

    A Li ion polymer battery pack for road vehicles (48 V, 20 Ah) was tested by charging/discharging tests at different current values, in order to evaluate its performance in comparison with a conventional Pb acid battery pack. The comparative analysis was also performed integrating the two storage systems in a hydrogen fuel cell power train for moped applications. The propulsion system comprised a fuel cell generator based on a 2.5 kW polymeric electrolyte membrane (PEM) stack, fuelled with compressed hydrogen, an electric drive of 1.8 kW as nominal power, of the same typology of that installed on commercial electric scooters (brushless electric machine and controlled bidirectional inverter). The power train was characterized making use of a test bench able to simulate the vehicle behaviour and road characteristics on driving cycles with different acceleration/deceleration rates and lengths. The power flows between fuel cell system, electric energy storage system and electric drive during the different cycles were analyzed, evidencing the effect of high battery currents on the vehicle driving range. The use of Li batteries in the fuel cell power train, adopting a range extender configuration, determined a hydrogen consumption lower than the correspondent Pb battery/fuel cell hybrid vehicle, with a major flexibility in the power management.

  5. Overcharge Protection And Cell Voltage Monitoring For Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, George; Salim, Abbas

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a new Battery Interface and Electronics (BIE) assembly used to monitor battery and cell voltages, as well as provide overvoltage (overcharge) protection for Lithium Ion batteries with up to 8-cells in series. The BIE performs accurate measurement of the individual cell voltages, the total battery voltage, and the individual cell temperatures. In addition, the BIE provides an independent over-charge protection (OCP) circuit that terminates the charging process by isolating the battery from the charging source in the event that the voltage of any cell exceeds a preset limit of +4.500V. The OCP circuit utilizes dual redundancy, and is immune to single-point failures in the sense that no single-point failure can cause the battery to become isolated inadvertently. A typical application of the BIE in a spacecraft electrical power subsystem is shown in Figure 1. The BIE circuits have been designed with Chip On Board (COB) technology. Using this technology, integrated circuit die, Field Effect Transistors (FETs) and diodes are mounted and wired directly on a multi-layer printed wiring board (PWB). For those applications where long term reliability can be achieved without hermeticity, COB technology provides many benefits such as size and weight reduction while lowering production costs. The BIE was designed, fabricated and tested to meet the specifications provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) for use with Lithium-Ion batteries in the Commercial Orbital Transportation System (COTS). COTS will be used to deliver cargo to the International Space Station at low earth orbit (LEO). Aeroflex has completed the electrical and mechanical design of the BIE and fabricated and tested the Engineering Model (EM), as well as the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM). Flight units have also been fabricated, tested and delivered to OSC.

  6. Battery and Fuel Cell Development Goals for the Lunar Surface and Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a return to the moon and requires advances in energy storage technology for its planned lunar lander and lunar outpost. This presentation describes NASA s overall mission goals and technical goals for batteries and fuel cells to support the mission. Goals are given for secondary batteries for the lander s ascent stage and suits for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface, and for fuel cells for the lander s descent stage and regenerative fuel cells for outpost power. An overall approach to meeting these goals is also presented.

  7. Comprehensive thermal modeling of a power-split hybrid powertrain using battery cell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayyas, Abdel Raouf; Omar, Mohammed; Pisu, Pierluigi; Al-Ahmer, Ali; Mayyas, Ahmad; Montes, Carlos; Dongri, Shan

    2011-08-01

    This manuscript discusses the development of a 3D thermal model for a power-split hybrid powertrain, including its battery modules and power electronics. The 3D model utilizes a finite differencing (FD) heat transfer algorithm, complemented with experimental boundary conditions. The experimental setup is configured to acquire the battery current, voltage, and its inner and surface temperatures in discrete and in full-field scans. The power-split hybrid configuration is tested using a standard and artificial driving cycles. A battery resistance model is then used to couple the experimental boundary conditions with the finite differencing code, which employed a cell-based internal heat generation model to describe the pack chemical reaction mechanism. This study presents a complete analysis based on battery current and voltage in relation to vehicle speed. The proposed model also predicts the powertrain spatial and temporal temperature profiles in agreement with the vehicle actual conditions as indicated by the On-Board Diagnosis (OBD) module.

  8. A membraneless alkaline direct liquid fuel cell (DLFC) platform developed with a catalyst-selective strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xingwen; Pascual, Emilio J.; Wauson, Joshua C.; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-11-01

    With a logical management of the catalyst selectivity, we present a scalable, membraneless alkaline direct liquid fuel cell (DLFC) platform. The uniqueness of this innovation is that the inexpensive (non-platinum) cathode catalysts, based on strongly coupled transition-metal-oxide nanocrystals and nano-structured carbon materials (e. g., NiCo2O4 nano-particles on a nitrogen-doped graphene and MnNiCoO4 nano-particles on a nitrogen-doped multi-wall carbon nanotube), exhibit high activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) but without activity for the anode fuel oxidation reaction (FOR). Therefore, operation of the DLFCs allows the anode fuel to freely enter the cathode. This strategy avoids the reliance on expensive or difficult-to-develop cation- or anion-exchange membranes and circumvents the scalability concerns of the conventional membraneless DLFCs that are operated under a laminar-flow principle. With proper catalyst selectivity, a variety of organic liquids can be used as anode fuels. The high power density delivered by the membraneless DLFCs with inexpensive components and safe fuels can enable the development of not only small-scale portable power sources but also large-scale energy generation systems for transportation and stationary storage.

  9. Influence of Hydration Level on Polymer and Water Dynamics in Alkaline Anion Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Jacob; Kim, Jenny; Tyagi, Madhu; Soles, Christopher; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Coughlin, Bryan

    2015-03-01

    Triblock copolymers based on poly(chloromethylstyrene)-b-poly(ethylene)-b-poly(chloromethylstyrene) can be quaternized to different extents to yield anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells. In the absence of moisture, these membranes demonstrate bilayer lamellar morphology. Upon high levels of hydration, however, in-situ small angle neutron scattering reveals the emergence of higher-order diffraction peaks. This phenomena has previously been observed in analogous diblock copolymer-based membranes and has been attributed to the induction of a multilayer lamellar morphology in which selective striping of water occurs in the center of the ion-rich domain. By conducting humidity-resolved quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements using deuterated water, we are able to isolate differences in the pico- to nanosecond timescale dynamics of the hydrogenated membrane upon hydration. QENS measurements in the presence of a hydrogenated water source subsequently permit deconvolution and isolation of the translational and rotational dynamics of water as a function of relative humidity, revealing spatial and temporal changes in polymer and water motion at high levels of hydration.

  10. Evaluation of electricity production from alkaline pretreated sludge using two-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Benyi; Yang, Fang; Liu, Junxin

    2013-06-15

    Electricity production from alkaline pretreated sludge was evaluated using a two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC). The electricity production was found to be stable over a long period of time (approximately 17 d) with voltage outputs and power densities of 0.47-0.52 V and 46.80-55.88 mW/m(2), respectively. The anode resistance was the main internal resistance (73.2%) of MFC in the stable stage. Most soluble organic matters (proteins and carbohydrates) in the anode chamber were first degraded and converted into volatile fatty acids (0-15 d), which were then degraded and converted into electricity and methane (15-29 d). The insoluble organics were solubilized thereby decreasing the sludge concentration and reducing the sludge mass. Methane was produced in the anode chamber owing to the growth of methanogens, which did not obviously affect the electricity production. The change in humic-like substances displayed a positive correlation with the electricity production of the MFC. Microbial analysis showed that methanogens and electricity-producing bacteria co-existed mostly on the surface as well as inside the anode. Decreasing the anode resistance and increasing the anode utilization could enhance the electricity production.

  11. Model-based analysis of water management in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinzierl, C.; Krewer, U.

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical modelling is used to analyse water management in Alkaline Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (ADMFCs) with an anion exchange membrane as electrolyte. Cathodic water supply is identified as one of the main challenges and investigated at different operation conditions. Two extreme case scenarios are modelled to study the feasible conditions for sufficient water supply. Scenario 1 reveals that water supply by cathodic inlet is insufficient and, thus, water transport through membrane is essential for ADMFC operation. The second scenario is used to analyse requirements on water transport through the membrane for different operation conditions. These requirements are influenced by current density, evaporation rate, methanol cross-over and electro-osmotic drag of water. Simulations indicate that water supply is mainly challenging for high current densities and demands on high water diffusion are intensified by water drag. Thus, current density might be limited by water transport through membrane. The presented results help to identify important effects and processes in ADMFCs with a polymer electrolyte membrane and to understand these processes. Furthermore, the requirements identified by modelling show the importance of considering water transport through membrane besides conductivity and methanol cross-over especially for designing new membrane materials.

  12. Functional mesoporous materials for energy applications: solar cells, fuel cells, and batteries.

    PubMed

    Ye, Youngjin; Jo, Changshin; Jeong, Inyoung; Lee, Jinwoo

    2013-06-07

    This feature article presents recent progress made in the synthesis of functional ordered mesoporous materials and their application as high performance electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), fuel cells, and Li-ion batteries. Ordered mesoporous materials have been mainly synthesized using two representative synthetic methods: the soft template and hard template methods. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a new method called CASH was suggested. The CASH method combines the advantages of the soft and hard template methods by employing a diblock copolymer, PI-b-PEO, which contains a hydrophilic block and an sp(2)-hybridized-carbon-containing hydrophobic block as a structure-directing agent. After discussing general techniques used in the synthesis of mesoporous materials, this article presents recent applications of mesoporous materials as electrodes in DSCs and QDSCs, fuel cells, and Li-ion batteries. The role of material properties and mesostructures in device performance is discussed in each case. The developed soft and hard template methods, along with the CASH method, allow control of the pore size, wall composition, and pore structure, providing insight into material design and optimization for better electrode performances in these types of energy conversion devices. This paper concludes with an outlook on future research directions to enable breakthroughs and overcome current limitations in this field.

  13. Sodium Sulfur Battery Cell Experiment (NaSBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, J. Christopher

    1997-01-01

    The Ford Motor Company published papers describing new types of secondary battery comprised of: solid, sodium ion conducting electrolyte; liquid metal electrode; redox electrode; operating temperature between 300 and 400 deg. C; specific energy of 150 Wh/kg; and a nominal voltage of 2.0 V.

  14. Investigation of novel electrolyte systems for advanced metal/air batteries and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui

    It is a worldwide challenge to develop advanced green power sources for modern portable devices, transportation and stationary power generation. Metal/air batteries and fuel cells clearly stand out in view of their high specific energy, high energy efficiency and environment-friendliness. Advanced metal/air batteries based on metal ion conductors and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operated at elevated temperatures (>120°C) can circumvent the limitations of current technologies and bring considerable advantages. The key is to develop suitable electrolytes to enable these new technologies. In this thesis research, investigation of novel electrolytes systems for advanced metal/air batteries and PEM fuel cells is conducted. Novel polymer gel electrolyte systems, [metal salt/ionic liquid/polymer] and [metal salt/liquid polyether/polymer] are prepared. Such systems contain no volatile solvents, conduct metal ions (Li+ or Zn 2+) with high ionic conductivity, possess wide electrochemical stability windows, and exhibit wide operating temperature ranges. They promise to enable non-aqueous, all-solid-state, thin-film Li/air batteries and Zn/air batteries. They are advantageous for application in other battery systems as well, such as rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. In the case of proton exchange membranes, polymer gel electrolyte systems [acid/ionic liquid/polymer] are prepared. Especially, H3PO4/PMIH2PO 4/PBI is demonstrated as prospective proton exchange membranes for PEM fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Comprehensive electrochemical characterization, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and spectroscopy analysis (NMR and FTIR) are carried out to investigate these novel electrolyte systems and their ion transport mechanisms. The design and synthesis of novel ionic liquids and electrolyte systems based on them for advantageous application in various electrochemical power sources are highlighted in this work.

  15. High temperature battery cell comprising stress-free hollow fiber bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, J.N.; Revak, T.T.; Rossini, F.J.

    1982-06-01

    Thermal stressing of hollow fibers constituting the electrolyteseparator in a high temperature battery cell, and of certain other elements thereof, is avoided by suspending the assembly comprising the anolyte tank, the tubesheet, the hollow fibers and a cathodic current collector-distributing means, within the casing and employing a limp connection between the latter means and the cathode terminal of the cell.

  16. Multi-mission Ni-H2 battery cells for the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Lee; Brill, Jack; Dodson, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A sufficient production, test and operational database is now available to permit design technology optimization for the next decade. The evolved battery cell design features standardized technology intended to support multiple type missions (e.g., both GEO and LEO). Design analysis and validation test cells demonstrate that improved performance plus attractive specific-energy characteristics will be achieved.

  17. Semi-Solid Flowable Battery Electrodes: Semi-Solid Flow Cells for Automotive and Grid-Level Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEEST Project: Scientists at 24M are crossing a Li-Ion battery with a fuel cell to develop a semi-solid flow battery. This system relies on some of the same basic chemistry as a standard Li-Ion battery, but in a flow battery the energy storage material is held in external tanks, so storage capacity is not limited by the size of the battery itself. The design makes it easier to add storage capacity by simply increasing the size of the tanks and adding more paste. In addition, 24M's design also is able to extract more energy from the semi-solid paste than conventional Li-Ion batteries. This creates a cost-effective, energy-dense battery that can improve the driving range of EVs or be used to store energy on the electric grid.

  18. Performance Testing of Yardney Li-Ion Cells and Batteries in Support of Future NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Puglia, F. J.; Santee, S.; Gitzendanner, R.

    2009-01-01

    NASA requires lightweight rechargeable batteries for future missions to Mars and the outer planets that are capable of operating over a wide range of temperatures, with high specific energy and energy densities. Due to the attractive performance characteristics, Li-ion batteries have been identified as the battery chemistry of choice for a number of future applications. For example, JPL is planning to launch another unmanned rover mission to the planet Mars. This mission, referred to as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), will involve the use of a rover that is much larger than the previously developed Spirit and Opportunity Rovers for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, that are currently still in operation on the surface of the planet after more than five years. Part of the reason that the MER rovers have operated so successfully, far exceeding the required mission duration of 90 sols, is that they possess robust Li-ion batteries, manufactured by Yardney Technical Products, which have demonstrated excellent life characteristics. Given the excellent performance characteristics displayed, similar Li-ion batteries have been projected to successfully meet the mission requirements of the up-coming MSL mission. In addition to future missions to Mars, Li-ion technology is attractive for a number of other future NASA applications which require high specific energy, rechargeable batteries. To ascertain the viability of using Li-ion batteries for these applications, a number of performance validation tests have been performed on both Yardney cells and batteries of various sizes. These tests include mission simulation tests, charge and discharge rate characterization testing, cycle life testing under various conditions, and storage testing.

  19. Development of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem. Final program summary report, 10 April 1986-31 March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    A two task program was initiated to develop advanced fuel cell components which could be assembled into an alkaline power section for the Space Station Prototype (SSP) fuel cell subsystem. The first task was to establish a preliminary SSP power section design to be representative of the 200 cell Space Station power section. The second task was to conduct tooling and fabrication trials and fabrication of selected cell stack components. A lightweight, reliable cell stack design suitable for the SSP regenerative fuel cell power plant was completed. The design meets NASA's preliminary requirements for future multikilowatt Space Station missions. Cell stack component fabrication and tooling trials demonstrated cell components of the SSP stack design of the 1.0 sq ft area can be manufactured using techniques and methods previously evaluated and developed.

  20. Generating power from cellulose in an alkaline fuel cell enhanced by methyl viologen as an electron-transfer catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Miaoqing; Liu, Xianhua; Feng, Mengnan; Zhang, Pingping; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we developed a single-compartment direct cellulose alkaline fuel cell by using nickel foam as the anode and methyl viologen as an electron transfer catalyst. The maximum power density of the fuel cell at optimal conditions is 450 mW m-2. High-performance liquid chromatography detected short-chain aliphatic carboxylic acids in the oxidation products. Using common reed and red algae as fuels, the fuel cell achieved maximum power densities of 295 mW m-2 and 154 mW m-2, respectively.

  1. Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell performance using alkali-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol/functionalized carbon nano-tube solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Yi; Lin, Jia-Shiun; Pan, Wen-Han; Shih, Chao-Ming; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/functionalized carbon nano-tubes (m-CNTs) composite in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC). The m-CNTs are functionalized with PVA using the ozone mediation method, and the PVA composite containing the modified CNTs is prepared. Adding m-CNT into the PVA matrix enhances the alkaline uptake and the ionic conductivity of the KOH-doped electrolyte. Meanwhile, the m-CNT-containing membrane exhibited a lower swelling ratio and suppressed ethanol permeability compared to the pristine PVA film. The optimal condition for the ADEFC is determined to be under operation at an anode feed of 3 M ethanol in a 5 M KOH solution (at a flow rate of 5 cm3 min-1) with a cathode feed of moisturized oxygen (with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min-1) and the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte. We achieved a peak power density value of 65 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is the highest among the ADEFC literature data and several times higher than the proton-exchange direct ethanol fuel cells using sulfonated membrane electrolytes. Therefore, the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte is a suitable solid electrolyte for ADEFCs and has potential for commercialization in alkaline fuel cell applications.

  2. Cathodes for lithium-air battery cells with acid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Yangchuan; Huang, Kan; Li, Yunfeng

    2016-07-19

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides a layered metal-air cathode for a metal-air battery. Generally, the layered metal-air cathode comprises an active catalyst layer, a transition layer bonded to the active catalyst layer, and a backing layer bonded to the transition layer such that the transition layer is disposed between the active catalyst layer and the backing layer.

  3. power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

  4. Development of electrolysis-cell separator for 125/sup 0/C operation. Advanced alkaline electrolysis cell development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J N

    1983-03-01

    This report contains the findings of a seven-month contracted effort. The major technical task involved a 125/sup 0/C operating temperature test of the 20 v/o polybenzimidazole (PBI) - 80 v/o potassium titanate (K/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/) separator in combination with the nickel-molybdenum cathode electrocatalyst system dubbed the C-AN cathode using the ARIES test system which was developed previously. The test of the PBI-K/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/ separator was only partially successful. The anticipated 1.85 (75/sup 0/C) and 1.75 volt per cell (100/sup 0/C) input requirement at 550 ma/cm/sup 2/ were surpassed slightly. The test module operated stably for about 550 hr. Although there were some mechanical difficulties with the ARIES test unit, testing at 125/sup 0/C proceeded from 745 hr on test until the test was terminated at 2318 operating hours to allow diagnostic disassembly. The input voltage degraded to a value of 1.82 volt per cell at 125/sup 0/C which is unacceptable. Diagnostic disassembly showed the PBI portion of the separator was no longer present. PBI had been shown to be stable in 123/sup 0/C, 45 w/o KOH solutions in a 1000-hr test. The attack is suggested to be attributable to a peroxide or perchlorate type oxidizer which would be unique to the electrolysis mode and probably not present in alkaline fuel cell applications. Recommendations for further testing include an evaluation of the chemical compatibility of PBI with alkaline/oxidizer solutions and endurance testing the C-AN cathode with new improved anode structures at 125/sup 0/C using asbestos separators in combination with a silicate saturated KOH electrolyte. Demonstration of the stability of this 1.65 volt per cell (90% voltage efficiency) technology at 500 ma/cm/sup 2/ will document an inexpensive and intelligent hydrogen production process which will satisfy the needs of the United States in the 1990s.

  5. Development of long life lightweight nickel-cadmium cells and batteries. [used in space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritterman, P. F.; Bogner, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a high-specific energy Ni-Cd cell for a lightweight battery. After preliminary cycling tests on laboratory and commercial cells, a cell was produced that features electrochemically impregnated positive and negative electrodes, a single terminal, and increased amount of electrolyte. This cell weighed an average of 948 g and had a measured specific energy of over 50 Wh/kg at a C/2 discharge to 1.0 V. The epoxy graphite case capable of withstanding internal pressures in excess of 300 psig represents a 35% weight reduction from a lightweight 0.30 mm Ni-Cd case. A pack of these cells was cycled at 70% maximum depth of discharge beyond 10 simulated geosynchronous orbit-eclipse seasons, and high end-of-charge voltages were obtained. A prototype battery consisting of 14 such cells was fabricated and has a measured specific energy of 46 Wh/kg.

  6. Performance of Li-Ion Cells Under Battery Voltage Charge Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2002-01-01

    Li-ion cells manufactured by YTP, SAFT, and MSA have completed 6714, 6226, and 3441 cycles, respectively. An increase in the charge voltage limit was required in all cases to maintain the discharge voltage. SAFT and MSA cells were capable of cycling at -10 C and 0 C with an increase in the charge voltage limit, whereas Yardney cells could not be cycled. Reconditioning improved the discharge voltage of SAFT and MSA cells; it is important to note that the effect has been temporary as in Ni-H and Ni-Cd batteries. It was demonstrated that the charge operation with VT clamp at battery rather than at cell level is feasible. Continuation of testing depends on the health of the cells and on the funding situation.

  7. Electrolyte management considerations in modern nickel/hydrogen and nickel/cadmium cell and battery designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    In the early 1980s, the battery group at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) reviewed the design issues associated with nickel/hydrogen cells for low-earth orbit applications. In 1984, these issues included gas management, liquid management, plate expansion, and the recombination of oxygen during overcharge. The design effort by that group followed principles set forth in an earlier LeRC paper that introduced the topic of pore size engineering. Also in 1984, the beneficial effect of lower electrolyte concentrations on cycle life was verified by Hughes Aircraft as part of a LeRC-funded study. Subsequent life cycle tests of these concepts have been carried out that essentially have verified all of this earlier work. During the past decade, some of the mysteries involved in the active material of the nickel electrode have been resolved by careful research done at several laboratories. While attention has been paid to understanding and modeling abnormal nickel/hydrogen cell behaviors, not enough attention has been paid to the potassium ion content in these cells, and more recently, in batteries. Examining the potassium ion content of different portions of the cell or battery is a convenient way of following the conductivity, mass transport properties, and electrolyte volume in each of the cell or battery portions under consideration. Several of the consequences of solvent and solute changes within fuel cells have been well known for some time. However, only recently have these consequences been applied to nickel/hydrogen and nickel/cadmium cell designs. As a result of these studies, several unusual cell performance signatures can now be satisfactorily explained in terms of movement of the solvent and solute components in the electrolyte. This paper will review three general areas where the potassium ion content can impact the performance and life of nickel/hydrogen and nickel/cadmium cells. Sample calculations of the concentration or volume changes that can take

  8. Physical and chemical analysis of lithium-ion battery cell-to-cell failure events inside custom fire chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinner, Neil S.; Field, Christopher R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Williams, Bradley A.; Myers, Kristina M.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Tuttle, Steven G.

    2015-04-01

    A 5-cubic meter decompression chamber was re-purposed as a fire test chamber to conduct failure and abuse experiments on lithium-ion batteries. Various modifications were performed to enable remote control and monitoring of chamber functions, along with collection of data from instrumentation during tests including high speed and infrared cameras, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, real-time gas analyzers, and compact reconfigurable input and output devices. Single- and multi-cell packages of LiCoO2 chemistry 18650 lithium-ion batteries were constructed and data was obtained and analyzed for abuse and failure tests. Surrogate 18650 cells were designed and fabricated for multi-cell packages that mimicked the thermal behavior of real cells without using any active components, enabling internal temperature monitoring of cells adjacent to the active cell undergoing failure. Heat propagation and video recordings before, during, and after energetic failure events revealed a high degree of heterogeneity; some batteries exhibited short burst of sparks while others experienced a longer, sustained flame during failure. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, dimethyl carbonate, and ethylene carbonate were detected via gas analysis, and the presence of these species was consistent throughout all failure events. These results highlight the inherent danger in large format lithium-ion battery packs with regards to cell-to-cell failure, and illustrate the need for effective safety features.

  9. Life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles. The purpose of the work is to support the Division in making sound economic comparisons between conventional and fuel cell/battery powered buses, passenger vans, and cars for strategic analysis of programmatic R&D goals. The LCC analysis can indicate whether paying a relatively high initial capital cost for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying a lower initial cost for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it does not always result in technology penetration in the marketplace. The LCC analysis model developed under this contract facilitates consideration of all perspectives. Over 100 studies have been acquired and analyzed for their applicability. Drawing on prior work by JPL and Los Alamos National Laboratory as primary sources, specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to fuel cell/battery and intemal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles were selected for development of an LCC analysis model. The completed LCC model is structured around twelve integrated modules. Comparative analysis is made between conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles and fuel cell/battery vehicles using either phosphoric acid fuel cells or proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In all, seven base vehicle configuration cases with a total of 21 vehicle class/powertrain/fuel combinations are analyzed. The LCC model represents a significant advance in comparative economic analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered vehicle technologies embodying several unique features which were not included in prior models.

  10. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10to20mA/cm2. The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150mA/cm2, respectively.

  11. Combinatorial electrochemical cell array for high throughput screening of micro-fuel-cells and metal/air batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rongzhong

    2007-07-01

    An electrochemical cell array was designed that contains a common air electrode and 16 microanodes for high throughput screening of both fuel cells (based on polymer electrolyte membrane) and metal/air batteries (based on liquid electrolyte). Electrode materials can easily be coated on the anodes of the electrochemical cell array and screened by switching a graphite probe from one cell to the others. The electrochemical cell array was used to study direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), including high throughput screening of electrode catalysts and determination of optimum operating conditions. For screening of DMFCs, there is about 6% relative standard deviation (percentage of standard deviation versus mean value) for discharge current from 10 to 20 mAcm(2). The electrochemical cell array was also used to study tin/air batteries. The effect of Cu content in the anode electrode on the discharge performance of the tin/air battery was investigated. The relative standard deviations for screening of metal/air battery (based on zinc/air) are 2.4%, 3.6%, and 5.1% for discharge current at 50, 100, and 150 mAcm(2), respectively.

  12. Hazards, Safety and Design Considerations for Commercial Lithium-ion Cells and Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the features of the Lithium-ion batteries, particularly in reference to the hazards and safety of the battery. Some of the characteristics of the Lithium-ion cell are: Highest Energy Density of Rechargeable Battery Chemistries, No metallic lithium, Leading edge technology, Contains flammable electrolyte, Charge cut-off voltage is critical (overcharge can result in fire), Open circuit voltage higher than metallic lithium anode types with similar organic electrolytes. Intercalation is a process that places small ions in crystal lattice. Small ions (such as lithium, sodium, and the other alkali metals) can fit in the interstitial spaces in a graphite lattice. These metallic ions can go farther and force the graphitic planes apart to fit two, three, or more layers of metallic ions between the carbon sheets. Other features of the battery/cell are: The graphite is conductive, Very high energy density compared to NiMH or NiCd, Corrosion of aluminum occurs very quickly in the presence of air and electrolyte due to the formation of HF from LiPF6 and HF is highly corrosive. Slides showing the Intercalation/Deintercalation and the chemical reactions are shown along with the typical charge/discharge for a cylindrical cell. There are several graphs that review the hazards of the cells.

  13. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srini; Young, Rosa; Fierro, Christian; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  14. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-24

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g(-1)carbon at 20 μA cm(-2). Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g(-1)carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1)carbon at 20 μA cm(-2) and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  15. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g‑1carbon at 20 μA cm‑2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g‑1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g‑1carbon at 20 μA cm‑2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  16. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12, LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li2CO3. Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2. Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g−1carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g−1carbon at 20 μA cm−2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage. PMID:28117359

  17. Passive hybridization of a photovoltaic module with lithium-ion battery cells: A model-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Stella; Weißhar, Björn; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2017-04-01

    Standard photovoltaic battery systems based on AC or DC architectures require power electronics and controllers, including inverters, MPP tracker, and battery charger. Here we investigate an alternative system design based on the parallel connection of a photovoltaic module with battery cells without any intermediate voltage conversion. This approach, for which we use the term passive hybridization, is based on matching the solar cell's and battery cell's respective current/voltage behavior. A battery with flat discharge characteristics can allow to pin the solar cell to its maximum power point (MPP) independently of the external power consumption. At the same time, upon battery full charge, voltage increase will drive the solar cell towards zero current and therefore self-prevent battery overcharge. We present a modeling and simulation analysis of passively hybridizing a 5 kWp PV system with a 5 kWh LFP/graphite lithium-ion battery. Dynamic simulations with 1-min time resolution are carried out for three exemplary summer and winter days using historic weather data and a synthetic single-family household consumer profile. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system. The passive hybrid allows for high self-sufficiencies of 84.6% in summer and 25.3% in winter, which are only slightly lower than those of a standard system.

  18. 270V Battery Using COTS NiCd Cells For Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Davies,Frank; Hummer, Leigh; Strangways, Brad

    2002-01-01

    A high power (>35 kW at 215V), low capacity (5.2 Ah), and compact (45L) NiCd battery was developed for the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV), which is an experimental version of the lifeboat for the International Space Station (ISS). A simple design and innovative approach using a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) NiCd cell design enabled the design, qualification, and production of 4 flight units of this highly reliable and safe spacecraft battery to be achieved rapidly (2 years) and cheaply ($13M).

  19. Making a Lightweight Battery Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.; Post, R. E.; Soltis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Plaque formed in porous plastic by electroless plating. Lightweight plaque prepared by electroless plating of porous plastic contains embedded wire or expanded metal grid. Plastic may or may not be filled with soluble pore former. If it contains soluble pore former, treated to remove soluble pore former and increase porosity. Porous plastic then clamped into rig that allows plating solutions to flow through plastic. Lightweight nickel plaque used as electrode substrate for alkaline batteries, chiefly Ni and Cd electrodes, and for use as electrolyte-reservoir plates for fuel cells.

  20. Chemical recycling of cell phone Li-ion batteries: Application in environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Mariana C Abreu; Garcia, Eric M; Taroco, Hosane A; Gorgulho, Honória F; Melo, Júlio O F; Silva, Rafael R A; Souza, Amauri G

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, the recycling and use of spent Li-ion battery cathode tape as a catalyst in the degradation of an organic dye. In our proposal, two major environmental problems can be solved: the secure disposal of cell phone batteries and the treatment of effluents with potentially toxic organic dyes. The spent Li-ion battery cathode investigated in this paper corresponds to 29% of the mass of Li-ion batteries and is made up of 83% LiCoO2, 14.5% C and less than 2.5% Al, Al2O3 and Co3O4. The use of spent Li-ion battery cathode tape increased the degradation velocity constant of methylene blue in the absence of light by about 200 times in relation to pure H2O2. This increase can be explained by a reduction in the activation energy from 83 kJ mol(-1) to 26 kJ mol(-1). The mechanism of degradation promoted by LiCoO2 is probably related to the generation of superoxide radical (O2(-)). The rupture of the aromatic rings of methylene blue was analyzed by ESI-MS.

  1. Aloe-emodin induces in vitro G2/M arrest and alkaline phosphatase activation in human oral cancer KB cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bingxiu; Guo, Junming; Liu, Donghai; Zhang, Shun

    2007-10-01

    Aloe-emodin is a natural anthraquinone compound from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. In this study, KB cells were treated with 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 microM aloe-emodin for 1 to 5 days. The results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with aloe-emodin at 10 to 40 microM resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in KB cells increased upon treatment with aloe-emodin when compared to controls. This is one of the first studies to focus on the expression of ALP in human oral carcinomas cells treated with aloe-emodin. These results indicate that aloe-emodin has anti-cancer effect on oral cancer, which may lead to its use in chemotherapy and chemopreventment of oral cancer.

  2. Molecular mechanism of uncompetitive inhibition of human placental and germ-cell alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Hoylaerts, M F; Manes, T; Millán, J L

    1992-01-01

    Placental (PLAP) and germ-cell (GCAP) alkaline phosphatases are inhibited uncompetitively by L-Leu and L-Phe. Whereas L-Phe inhibits PLAP and GCAP to the same extent, L-Leu inhibits GCAP 17-fold more strongly than it does PLAP. This difference has been attributed [Hummer & Millán (1991) Biochem. J 274, 91-95] to a Glu----Gly substitution at position 429 in GCAP. The D-Phe and D-Leu enantiomorphs are also inhibitory through an uncompetitive mechanism but with greatly decreased efficiencies. Replacement of the active-site residue Arg-166 by Ala-166 changes the inhibition mechanism of the resulting PLAP mutant to a more complex mixed-type inhibition, with decreased affinities for L-Leu and L-Phe. The uncompetitive mechanism is restored on the simultaneous introduction of Gly-429 in the Ala-166 mutant, but the inhibitions of [Ala166,Gly429]PLAP and even [Lys166,Gly429]PLAP by L-Leu and L-Phe are considerably decreased compared with that of [Gly429]PLAP. These findings point to the importance of Arg-166 during inhibition. Active-site binding of L-Leu requires the presence of covalently bound phosphate in the active-site pocket, and the inhibition of PLAP by L-Leu is pH-sensitive, gradually disappearing when the pH is decreased from 10.5 to 7.5. Our data are compatible with the following molecular model for the uncompetitive inhibition of PLAP and GCAP by L-Phe and L-Leu: after binding of a phosphorylated substrate to the active site, the guanidinium group of Arg-166 (normally involved in positioning phosphate) is redirected to the carboxy group of L-Leu (or L-Phe), thus stabilizing the inhibitor in the active site. Therefore leucinamide and leucinol are weaker inhibitors of [Gly429]PLAP than is L-Leu. During this Arg-166-regulated event, the amino acid side group is positioned in the loop containing Glu-429 or Gly-429, leading to further stabilization. Replacement of Glu-429 by Gly-429 eliminates steric constraints experienced by the bulky L-Leu side group during its

  3. Materials for electrochemical energy storage and conversion -- Batteries, capacitors and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.H.; Vyas, B.; Takamura, Tsutomu; Huff, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    The papers contained in this volume were presented at Symposium W: Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion -- Batteries, Capacitors and Fuel Cells, that was held during the 1995 MRS Spring Meeting in San Francisco, California, April 17--20, 1995. The symposium was organized as a forum for uniting materials scientists with electrochemists and battery engineers, with the hope of increasing communication and understanding of electrochemical aspects of materials. It is believed that the development of high-performance power sources for applications ranging from portable electronics to electric and hybrid vehicles is intimately linked with availability of advanced materials. Designing batteries and capacitors with higher specific energy and power will require a deeper understanding of materials properties and performance. Fuel cells, which offer the potential for clean, efficient conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy, are hampered by high cost and performance problems, both of which could be resolved by new materials and processing techniques. Sessions were organized on oxides, hydrides, polymers and carbons as they relate to fuel cells, batteries and electrochemical double-layer capacitors. Moreover, reviews of the current status of materials performance and needs were presented in each of the application areas. Forty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  5. Effect of short-term alkaline intervention on the performance of buffer-free single-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Ren, Yueping; Li, Xiufen; Wang, Xinhua

    2017-06-01

    Anolyte acidification is a drawback restricting the electricity generation performance of the buffer-free microbial fuel cells (MFC). In this paper, a small amount of alkali-treated anion exchange resin (AER) was placed in front of the anode in the KCl mediated single-chamber MFC to slowly release hydroxyl ions (OH(-)) and neutralize the H(+) ions that are generated by the anodic reaction in two running cycles. This short-term alkaline intervention to the KCl anolyte has promoted the proliferation of electroactive Geobacter sp. and enhanced the self-buffering capacity of the KCl-AER-MFC. The pH of the KCl anolyte in the KCl-AER-MFC increased and became more stable in each running cycle compared with that of the KCl-MFC after the short-term alkaline intervention. The maximum power density (Pmax) of the KCl-AER-MFC increased from 307.5mW·m(-2) to 542.8mW·m(-2), slightly lower than that of the PBS-MFC (640.7mW·m(-2)). The coulombic efficiency (CE) of the KCl-AER-MFC increased from 54.1% to 61.2% which is already very close to that of the PBS-MFC (61.9%). The results in this paper indicate that short-term alkaline intervention to the anolyte is an effective strategy to further promote the performance of buffer-free MFCs.

  6. A facile synthesis of highly stable multiblock poly(arylene ether)s based alkaline membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasti, Amaranadh; Shahi, Vinod K.

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we are disclosing simple route for the preparation of alkaline membranes (AMs) based on aminated multiblock poly(arylene ether)s (AMPEs) synthesized by nucleophilic substitution-poly condensation followed by quaternization and alkalization reactions. In this procedure, four quaternary ammonium groups are successfully introduced without use of carcinogenic reagents such as chloromethylmethyl ether (CMME). Hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase separation is responsible for their high hydroxide conductivity (∼150 mS cm-1 at 80 °C) due to development of interconnected ion transport pathway. AMs are exhibiting good alkaline stability due to the presence of two vicinal quaternary ammonium groups and avoid degradation such as Sommelet-Hauser rearrangement and Hofmann elimination. Vicinal quaternary ammonium groups also resist nucleophilic (OH-) attack and suppress the Stevens rearrangement as well as SN2 substitution reaction due to stearic hindrance. Optimized AM (AMPE-M20N15 (55% DCM)) exhibits about 0.95 V open circuit voltage (OCV) and 48.8 mW cm-2 power density at 65 °C in alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) operation. These results suggest promising begin for the preparation of stable and conductive AMs for ADMFC applications and useful for developing hydroxide conductive materials.

  7. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

  8. A battery cell for in situ NMR measurements of liquid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Wiemers-Meyer, Simon; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-02-15

    This work describes the development of an in situ battery cell to monitor liquid electrolytes by means of NMR spectroscopy. The suitability of this approach is confirmed by NMR measurements and electrochemical analysis. The cell allows for undistorted high resolution NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, constant current cycling data, C-rate sequences and impedance measurements indicates a long cycle life as well as reasonable specific capacities and Ohmic resistances.

  9. Reaction-Based Off-On Near-infrared Fluorescent Probe for Imaging Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Living Cells and Mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi; Zhang, Ling; Man, Ka Ho; Peltier, Raoul; Chen, Ganchao; Zhang, Huatang; Zhou, Liyi; Wang, Feng; Ho, Derek; Yao, Shao Q; Hu, Yi; Sun, Hongyan

    2017-03-01

    Alkaline phosphatases are a group of enzymes that play important roles in regulating diverse cellular functions and disease pathogenesis. Hence, developing fluorescent probes for in vivo detection of alkaline phosphatase activity is highly desirable for studying the dynamic phosphorylation in living organisms. Here, we developed the very first reaction-based near-infrared (NIR) probe (DHXP) for sensitive detection of alkaline phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our studies demonstrated that the probe displayed an up to 66-fold fluorescence increment upon incubation with alkaline phosphatases, and the detection limit of our probe was determined to be 0.07 U/L, which is lower than that of most of alkaline phosphatase probes reported in literature. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the probe can be applied to detecting alkaline phosphatase activity in cells and mice. In addition, our probe possesses excellent biocompatibility and rapid cell-internalization ability. In light of these prominent properties, we envision that DHXP will add useful tools for investigating alkaline phosphatase activity in biomedical research.

  10. Retrieval of air temperatures from crowd-sourced battery temperatures of cell phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate air temperature observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. The number of available temperature observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive temperature information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring air temperatures employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring air temperatures employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide temperature maps.

  11. Thin-film silicon for flexible metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Garamoun, Ahmed; Schubert, Markus B; Werner, Jürgen H

    2014-12-01

    Due to its high energy density, theoretical studies propose silicon as a promising candidate material for metal-air batteries. Herein, for the first time, experimental results detail the use of n-type doped amorphous silicon and silicon carbide as fuel in Si-air batteries. Thin-film silicon is particularly interesting for flexible and rolled batteries with high specific energies. Our Si-air batteries exhibit a specific capacity of 269 Ah kg(-1) and an average cell voltage of 0.85 V at a discharge current density of 7.9 μA cm(-2) , corresponding to a specific energy of 229 Wh kg(-1) . Favorably in terms of safety, low concentrated alkaline solution serves as electrolyte. Discharging of the Si-air cells continues as long as there is silicon available for oxidation.

  12. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-07-30

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  13. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane. PMID:24958295

  14. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  15. Zebra batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

  16. Failure statistics for commercial lithium ion batteries: A study of 24 pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Stephen J.; Harris, David J.; Li, Chen

    2017-02-01

    There are relatively few publications that assess capacity decline in enough commercial cells to quantify cell-to-cell variation, but those that do show a surprisingly wide variability. Capacity curves cross each other often, a challenge for efforts to measure the state of health and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of individual cells. We analyze capacity fade statistics for 24 commercial pouch cells, providing an estimate for the time to 5% failure. Our data indicate that RUL predictions based on remaining capacity or internal resistance are accurate only once the cells have already sorted themselves into ;better; and ;worse; ones. Analysis of our failure data, using maximum likelihood techniques, provide uniformly good fits for a variety of definitions of failure with normal and with 2- and 3-parameter Weibull probability density functions, but we argue against using a 3-parameter Weibull function for our data. pdf fitting parameters appear to converge after about 15 failures, although business objectives should ultimately determine whether data from a given number of batteries provides sufficient confidence to end lifecycle testing. Increased efforts to make batteries with more consistent lifetimes should lead to improvements in battery cost and safety.

  17. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jin Sung

    Inkjet printing of electrode using copper nanoparticle ink is presented. Electrode was printed on a flexible glass epoxy composite substrate using drop on demand piezoelectric dispenser and was sintered at 200°C in N 2 gas condition. The printed electrodes were made with various widths and thicknesses. Surface morphology of electrode was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Reliable dimensions for printed electronics were found from this study. Single-crystalline silicon solar cells were tested under four-point bending to find the feasibility of directly integrating them onto a carbon fiber/epoxy composite laminate. These solar cells were not able to withstand 0.2% strain. On the other hand, thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells were subjected to flexural fatigue loadings. The current density-voltage curves were analyzed at different cycles, and there was no noticeable degradation on its performance up to 100 cycles. A multifunctional composite laminate which can harvest and store solar energy was fabricated using printed electrodes. The integrated printed circuit board (PCB) was co-cured with a carbon/epoxy composite laminate by the vacuum bag molding process in an autoclave; an amorphous silicon solar cell and a thin-film solid state lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery were adhesively joined and electrically connected to a thin flexible PCB; and then the passive components such as resistors and diodes were electrically connected to the printed circuit board by silver pasting. Since a thin-film solid state Li-ion battery was not able to withstand tensile strain above 0.4%, thin Li-ion polymer batteries were tested under various mechanical loadings and environmental conditions to find the feasibility of using the polymer batteries for our multifunctional purpose. It was found that the Li-ion polymer batteries were stable under pressure and tensile loading without any noticeable degradation on its charge and discharge

  18. Electroactive materials for rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huiming; Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali

    2015-04-21

    An as-prepared cathode for a secondary battery, the cathode including an alkaline source material including an alkali metal oxide, an alkali metal sulfide, an alkali metal salt, or a combination of any two or more thereof.

  19. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  20. Nicotine inhibits collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity, but stimulates DNA synthesis in osteoblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramp, W.K.; Lenz, L.G.; Galvin, R.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco is associated with various oral lesions including periodontal damage and alveolar bone loss. This study was performed to test the effects of nicotine on bone-forming cells at concentrations that occur in the saliva of smokeless tobacco users. Confluent cultures of osteoblast-like cells isolated from chick embryo calvariae were incubated for 2 days with nicotine added to the culture medium (25-600 micrograms/ml). Nicotine inhibited alkaline phosphatase in the cell layer and released to the medium, whereas glycolysis (as indexed by lactate production) was unaffected or slightly elevated. The effects on medium and cell layer alkaline phosphatase were concentration dependent with maximal inhibition occurring at 600 micrograms nicotine/ml. Nicotine essentially did not affect the noncollagenous protein content of the cell layer, but did inhibit collagen synthesis (hydroxylation of ({sup 3}H)proline and collagenase-digestible protein) at 100, 300, and 600 micrograms/ml. Release of ({sup 3}H)hydroxyproline to the medium was also decreased in a dose-dependent manner, as was the collagenase-digestible protein for both the medium and cell layer. In contrast, DNA synthesis (incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine) was more than doubled by the alkaloid, whereas total DNA content was slightly inhibited at 600 micrograms/ml, suggesting stimulated cell turnover. Morphologic changes occurred in nicotine-treated cells including rounding up, detachment, and the occurrence of numerous large vacuoles. These results suggest that steps to reduce the salivary concentration of nicotine in smokeless tobacco users might diminish damaging effects of this product on alveolar bone.

  1. Application of regenerative fuel cells for space energy storage - A comparison to battery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolwin, K.

    1992-12-01

    A major advantage of regenerative fuel cells compared with battery systems arises from the decoupling of their rated power and their capacity, which determines the storage system. The mass of battery systems is related to the energy stored, whereas the masses of regenerative fuel cells systems are mainly determined by their rated power. On the other hand, average power and total energy are not independent variables, since they are correlated by the period of discharge of the electrochemical cells. Thus a comparison of the different approaches to storage can be given, by evaluating system masses as a function of power requirement and period of discharge. Since space power applications are considered, the charging and discharging periods can be expressed in terms of orbit altitudes.

  2. Primary lithium batteries, some consumer considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bro, P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether larger size lithium batteries would be commercially marketable, the performance of several D size lithium batteries was compared with that of an equivalent alkaline manganese battery, and the relative costs of the different systems were compared. It is concluded that opportunities exist in the consumer market for the larger sizes of the low rate and moderate rate lithium batteries, and that the high rate lithium batteries need further improvements before they can be recommended for consumer applications.

  3. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  4. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  5. Maltol complexes of vanadium (IV) and (V) regulate in vitro alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast-like cell growth.

    PubMed

    Barrio, D A; Braziunas, M D; Etcheverry, S B; Cortizo, A M

    1997-06-01

    Vanadium compounds have been found to possess insulin- and growth factor-mimetic effects. In consequence, these derivatives are potentially useful as effective oral therapeutic agents in diabetic patients. However, their use has been limited by various toxic side-effects and by the low solubility of different derivatives. Recently, vanadium complex with maltol, a sugar used as a common food additive, have been synthesised and investigated in animals, showing possible insulin-mimetic effects with low toxic side-effects. In the present study we have investigated the effect of bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV) (BMOV) and bis(maltolato)dioxovanadium (V) (BMV) on bone cells in culture as well as their direct effect on alkaline phosphatase in vitro. A comparison was also made with the action of vanadate and vanadyl cation. Vanadium compounds regulated cell proliferation in a biphasic manner with similar potencies. Osteoblast differentiation, assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity, was found to be dose-dependent, with the inhibitory effect being stronger for vanadate and BMOV than for vanadyl and BMV. All vanadium compounds directly inhibited bovine intestinal ALP with a similar potency. Thus, maltol vanadium derivatives behave in a similar way to vanadate and vanadyl in osteoblast-like UMR 106 cells in culture.

  6. Zeta potential of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and Ca adsorption at the cell surface: possible implications for cell protection from CaCO3 precipitation in alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Bundeleva, Irina A; Shirokova, Liudmila S; Bénézeth, Pascale; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Kompantseva, Elena I; Balor, Stephanie

    2011-08-01

    Electrophoretic mobility measurements and surface adsorption of Ca on living, inactivated, and heat-killed haloalkaliphilic Rhodovulum steppense, A-20s, and halophilic Rhodovulum sp., S-17-65 anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (APB) cell surfaces were performed to determine the degree to which these bacteria metabolically control their surface potential equilibria. Zeta potential of both species was measured as a function of pH and ionic strength, calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. For both live APB in 0.1M NaCl, the zeta potential is close to zero at pH from 2.5 to 3 and decreases to -30 to -40 mV at pH of 5-8. In alkaline solutions, there is an unusual increase of zeta potential with a maximum value of -10 to -20 mV at a pH of 9-10.5. This increase of zeta potential in alkaline solutions is reduced by the presence of NaHCO(3) (up to 10 mM) and only slightly affected by the addition of equivalent amount of Ca. At the same time, for inactivated (exposure to NaN(3), a metabolic inhibitor) and heat-killed bacteria cells, the zeta potential was found to be stable (-30 to -60 mV, depending upon the ionic strength) between pH 5 and 11 without any increase in alkaline solutions. Adsorption of Ca ions on A-20s cells surface was more significant than that on S-17-65 cells and started at more acidic pHs, consistent with zeta potential measurements in the presence of 0.001-0.01 mol/L CaCl(2). Overall, these results indicate that APB can metabolically control their surface potential to electrostatically attract nutrients at alkaline pH, while rejecting/avoiding Ca ions to prevent CaCO(3) precipitation in the vicinity of cell surface and thus, cell incrustation.

  7. Conceptual designs for utility load-leveling battery with Li/FeS cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zivi, S. M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B. L.; Sudar, S.

    1980-07-01

    In 1978, a conceptual design of a 100 MW-h load-leveling battery system having Li alloy/FeS cells was developed as a result of a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. In this conceptual design, the submodule, which was the basic replaceable unit for the system, had a capacity of 240 kW-h and consisted of ninety-six 2.5 kW-h cells. However, a study by Rockwell indicated that the cost for battery hardware, $60 to 80/kW-h (cells and converters not included), was too high. Most of this cost was contributed by the submodule structure and the charge equalization scheme, which was the same as that developed for electric-vehicle batteries. In 1979, subsequent efforts were concentrated on lowering these hardware costs and resulted in the development of three modified designs, which are presented in this report. The first, developed at ANL, consisted of a 30 kW-h cell/submodule and the electric-vehicle equalization scheme. The hardware cost for this modified design was quite low, about $25/kW-h; however, this design was eventually rejected owing to the apparent impracticality of such a large cell. The two other modified designs had more conservative cell designs. One of them, developed at ANL, consisted of a 120 kW-h submodule consisting of one hundred 1.2 kW-h cells; the other, developed at Rockwell, consisted of a 1020 kW-h submodule consisting of four hundred and eight 2.5 kW-h cells. For both of these designs, an alternative method of equalization, in which fixed resistance shunts are used on each cell, was proposed; this equalization method adds little equipment cost to the system and only sacrifices about 4% of the coulombic and energy efficiencies. The cost of battery hardware for these two designs was estimated to be acceptable, about $22 to 60/kW-h. Some questions remain on the assumed capabilities of the cells and the feasibility of the battery hardware.

  8. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Battery Replacement Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-29

    studies on performance degradation of Catalysts and Nafion™ Membrane Functional Groups in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells, IN PREP (06 2013) TOTAL: 1 Books... 18 Single Cell: Progress...31 Laser Activated Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry (LAMIMS) .................................... 37 Future Work (internally

  9. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery

    PubMed Central

    Aglzim, El-Hassane; Rouane, Amar; El-Moznine, Reddad

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentation developed in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell or battery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. This instrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electronic cards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout of the impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambient temperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc…, were taken with several sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and the influence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a very narrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation under Pspice® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility of obtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results on a 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedance measurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper). The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5V) and with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A). The Nyquist diagram resulting from the experimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internal impedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the values obtained (both theoretical and practical) enables us to validate our electronic measurement instrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  10. A novel thermal swelling model for a rechargeable lithium-ion battery cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2016-01-01

    The thermal swelling of rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. The thermal swelling shows significant dependency on the state of charge and the charge rate. The thermal swelling follows a quadratic form at low temperatures, and shows linear characteristics with respect to temperature at high temperatures in free-swelling conditions. Moreover, the equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion is much larger than that of each electrode and host materials, suggesting that the separator and the complex shape of the cell play a critical role in thermal expansion. Based on the experimental characterization, a novel thermal swelling model is proposed. The model introduces an equivalent coefficient of thermal expansion for the cell and also considers the temperature distribution throughout the battery by using heat transfer theory. The comparison between the proposed model and experiments demonstrates that the model accurately predicts thermal swelling at a variety of charge/discharge rates during operation and relaxation periods. The model is relatively simple yet very accurate. Hence, it can be useful for battery management applied to prolong the cycle life of cells and packs.

  11. Seismic-fragility tests of new and accelerated-aged Class 1E battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the potential survivability of a battery given a seismic event. Prior reports in this series discussed the seismic-fragility tests and results for three specific naturally-aged cell types: 12-year old NCX-2250, 10-year old LCU-13, and 10-year old FHC-19. This report focuses on the complementary approach, namely, the seismic-fragility response of accelerated-aged batteries. Of particular interest is the degree to which such approaches accurately reproduce the actual failure modes and thresholds. In these tests the significant aging effects observed, in terms of seismic survivability, were: embrittlement of cell cases, positive bus material and positive plate grids; and excessive sulphation of positive plate active material causing hardening and expansion of positive plates. The IEEE Standard 535 accelerated aging method successfully reproduced seismically significant aging effects in new cells but accelerated grid embrittlement an estimated five years beyond the conditional age of other components.

  12. EXAFS: New tool for study of battery and fuel cell materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbreen, James; Ogrady, William E.; Pandya, Kaumudi I.

    1987-01-01

    Extended X ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) is a powerful technique for probing the local atomic structure of battery and fuel cell materials. The major advantages of EXAFS are that both the probe and the signal are X rays and the technique is element selective and applicable to all states of matter. This permits in situ studies of electrodes and determination of the structure of single components in composite electrodes, or even complete cells. EXAFS specifically probes short range order and yields coordination numbers, bond distances, and chemical identity of nearest neighbors. Thus, it is ideal for structural studies of ions in solution and the poorly crystallized materials that are often the active materials or catalysts in batteries and fuel cells. Studies on typical battery and fuel cell components are used to describe the technique and the capability of EXAFS as a structural tool in these applications. Typical experimental and data analysis procedures are outlined. The advantages and limitations of the technique are also briefly discussed.

  13. Nondestructive evaluation techniques for nickel-cadmium aerospace battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haak, R.; Tench, D.

    1982-01-01

    The ac impedance characteristics of Ni-Cd cells as an in-situ, nondestructive means of determining cell lifetime, particularly with respect to the probability of premature failure were evaluated. Emphasis was on evaluating Ni-Cd cell impedance over a wide frequency range (10,000 to 0.0004 Hz) as the cells were subjected to charge/discharge cycle testing. The results indicate that cell degradation is reflected in the low frequency (Warburg) impedance characteristics associated with diffusion processes. The Warburg slope (W) was found to steadily increase as a function of cell aging for completely discharged cells. In addition, based on data for two cells, a high or rapidly increasing value for W signals imminent cell failure by one mechanism. Degradation by another mechanism is apparently reflected in a fall-off (roll-over) of W at lower frequencies. As a secondary result, the frequency dependence of the absolute cell impedance at low frequencies (5 - 500 mHz) was found to be a good indication of the cell state-of-charge.

  14. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal (ECT) Models for Battery Crush

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Vehicle crashes can lead to crushing of the battery, damaging lithium ion battery cells and causing local shorts, heat generation, and thermal runaway. Simulating all the physics and geometries at the same time is challenging and takes a lot of effort; thus, simplifications are needed. We developed a material model for simultaneously modeling the mechanical-electrochemical-thermal behavior, which predicted the electrical short, voltage drop, and thermal runaway behaviors followed by a mechanical abuse-induced short. The effect of short resistance on the battery cell performance was studied.

  15. Preliminary study of genotoxicity evaluation of orthodontic miniscrews on mucosa oral cells by the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cameán, Ana; Puerto, María; Jos, Ángeles; Azqueta, Amaya; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Solano, Enrique; Cameán, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Miniscrew implants are widely used nowadays in orthodontic treatments due to their good results in clinical practice. However, data regarding the biocompatibility of commercially available orthodontic miniscrews and temporary devices are very scarce, and their role as genotoxicity inducers has been not previously evaluated with the alkaline comet assay. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA damage in buccal cells of patients subjected to orthodontic treatments. The alkaline comet assay has been applied in oral mucosa cells from patients treated with conventional orthodontic treatment in comparison to patients treated additionally with miniscrews, non-treated volunteers (control) and smoking volunteers (positive control). The application of orthodontic appliances and miniscrews induced significant and similar (2-fold) increases of %DNA in tail in comparison to control group. Females experienced a significant increase in %DNA in all the treatments in comparison to the control group, whereas males showed significant damage only with the combined orthodontic and miniscrew treatment. In conclusion, conventional orthodontic appliances induced genotoxicity, and the incorporation of miniscrews assayed did not imply any additional increase of DNA damage.

  16. Palladium and palladium-tin supported on multi wall carbon nanotubes or carbon for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldes, Adriana Napoleão; Furtunato da Silva, Dionisio; Martins da Silva, Júlio César; Antonio de Sá, Osvaldo; Spinacé, Estevam Vitório; Neto, Almir Oliveira; Coelho dos Santos, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Pd and PdSn (Pd:Sn atomic ratios of 90:10), supported on Multi Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) or Carbon (C), are prepared by an electron beam irradiation reduction method. The obtained materials are characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron Microscopy (TEM) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The activity for ethanol electro-oxidation is tested in alkaline medium, at room temperature, using Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry (CA) and in a single alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC), in the temperature range of 60-90 °C. CV analysis finds that Pd/MWCNT and PdSn/MWCNT presents onset potentials changing to negative values and high current values, compared to Pd/C and PdSn/C electrocatalysts. ATR-FTIR analysis, performed during the CV, identifies acetate and acetaldehyde as principal products formed during the ethanol electro-oxidation, with low conversion to CO2. In single fuel cell tests, at 85 °C, using 2.0 mol L-1 ethanol in 2.0 mol L-1 KOH solutions, the electrocatalysts supported on MWCNT, also, show higher power densities, compared to the materials supported on carbon: PdSn/MWCNT, presents the best result (36 mW cm-2). The results show that the use of MWCNT, instead of carbon, as support, plus the addition of small amounts of Sn to Pd, improves the electrocatalytic activity for Ethanol Oxidation Reaction (EOR).

  17. Silicon and Carbon Nanocomposite Spheres with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance for Full Cell Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Favors, Zachary; Li, Changling; Liu, Chueh; Ye, Rachel; Fu, Chengyin; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Guo, Juchen; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2017-03-01

    Herein, facile synthesis of monodisperse silicon and carbon nanocomposite spheres (MSNSs) is achieved via a simple and scalable surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction with subsequent chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Li-ion batteries (LIBs) were fabricated to test the utility of MSNSs as an anode material. LIB anodes based on MSNSs demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 3207 mAh g‑1, superior rate performance, and excellent cycling stability. Furthermore, the performance of full cell LIBs was evaluated by using MSNS anode and a LiCoO2 cathode with practical electrode loadings. The MSNS/LiCoO2 full cell demonstrates high gravimetric energy density in the order of 850 Wh L‑1 with excellent cycling stability. This work shows a proof of concept of the use of monodisperse Si and C nanocomposite spheres toward practical lithium-ion battery applications.

  18. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jenn-Jiang; Hu, Jia-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery's state of charge (SOC). This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system's SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility. PMID:26236771

  19. Silicon and Carbon Nanocomposite Spheres with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance for Full Cell Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Favors, Zachary; Li, Changling; Liu, Chueh; Ye, Rachel; Fu, Chengyin; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Guo, Juchen; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2017-01-01

    Herein, facile synthesis of monodisperse silicon and carbon nanocomposite spheres (MSNSs) is achieved via a simple and scalable surface-protected magnesiothermic reduction with subsequent chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Li-ion batteries (LIBs) were fabricated to test the utility of MSNSs as an anode material. LIB anodes based on MSNSs demonstrate a high reversible capacity of 3207 mAh g−1, superior rate performance, and excellent cycling stability. Furthermore, the performance of full cell LIBs was evaluated by using MSNS anode and a LiCoO2 cathode with practical electrode loadings. The MSNS/LiCoO2 full cell demonstrates high gravimetric energy density in the order of 850 Wh L−1 with excellent cycling stability. This work shows a proof of concept of the use of monodisperse Si and C nanocomposite spheres toward practical lithium-ion battery applications. PMID:28322285

  20. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jenn-Jiang; Hu, Jia-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery's state of charge (SOC). This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system's SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility.

  1. Development of Li-Metal Battery Cell Chemistries at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lvovich, Vadim F.

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-Art lithium-ion battery technology is limited by specific energy and thus not sufficiently advanced to support the energy storage necessary for aerospace needs, such as all-electric aircraft and many deep space NASA exploration missions. In response to this technological gap, our research team at NASA Glenn Research Center has been active in formulating concepts and developing testing hardware and components for Li-metal battery cell chemistries. Lithium metal anodes combined with advanced cathode materials could provide up to five times the specific energy versus state-of-the-art lithium-ion cells (1000 Whkg versus 200 Whkg). Although Lithium metal anodes offer very high theoretical capacity, they have not been shown to successfully operate reversibly.

  2. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  3. A novel power conversion circuit for cost-effective battery-fuel cell hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dae-Kyu; Lee, Byoung-Kuk; Choi, Se-Wan; Won, Chung-Yuen; Yoo, Dong-Wook

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel power conversion circuit for cost-effective battery-fuel cell hybrid systems. First of all, the various reduced parts power conversion systems (PCS) are overviewed and an advanced dc-dc boost converter and a bidirectional dc-dc converter are proposed. Theoretical explanation and informative simulation and experimental results are provided, along with the evaluation of the developed topologies in performance points of view.

  4. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  5. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  6. Cost and performance prospects for composite bipolar plates in fuel cells and redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, Christine; Hickmann, Thorsten; dos Santos, Antonio R.; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Carbon-polymer-composite bipolar plates (BPP) are suitable for fuel cell and flow battery applications. The advantages of both components are combined in a product with high electrical conductivity and good processability in convenient polymer forming processes. In a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of materials and production processes cost factors are quantified. For the first time a technical cost model for BPP is set up with tight integration of material characterization measurements.

  7. In situ X-ray absorption fine structure studies of a manganese dioxide electrode in a rechargeable MnO{sub 2}/Zn alkaline battery environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Y.; Hu, Y.; Bae, I.T.; Miller, B.; Scherson, D.A.; Antonio, M.R.

    1996-12-31

    Electronic and structural aspects of a MnO{sub 2} electrode in a rechargeable MnO{sub 2}/Zn battery environment have been investigated by in situ Mn K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The relative amplitudes of the three major Fourier transform shells of the EXAFS (extended XAFS) function of the rechargeable MnO{sub 2} electrode in the undischarged state were found to be similar to those found for ramsdellite, a MnO{sub 2} polymorph with substantial corner-sharing linkages among the basic MnO{sub 6} octahedral units. The analyses of the background-subtracted pre-edge peaks and absorption edge regions for the nominally 1-e{sup {minus}} discharged electrode were consistent with Mn{sup 3+} as being the predominant constituent species, rather than a mixture of Mn{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 2+} sites. Furthermore, careful inspection of both the XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS indicated that the full recharge of MnO, which had been previously discharged either by a 1- or 2-equivalent corner-sharing linkages compared to the original undischarged MnO{sub 2}.

  8. Enhancement of cell viability and alkaline polygalacturonate lyase production by sorbitol co-feeding with methanol in Pichia pastoris fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihao; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dongxu; Li, Jianghua; Hua, Zhaozhe; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-02-01

    Alkaline polygalacturonate lyase (PGL) production by Pichia pastoris GS115 was used as a model to study the mechanism and strategy for enhancing heterologous protein production. In order to enhance cell viability and volumetric recombinant protein productivity, sorbitol, which had been confirmed to be a non-repressive carbon source, was added together with methanol during the induction phase. The resultant PGL activity was up to 1593 U mL(-1), which was enhanced 1.85-fold compared to the control (863 U mL(-1)) cultured with sorbitol added at a constant rate of 3.6 g h(-1)L(-1) after an induction period of 100 h. Further results revealed that an appropriate sorbitol co-feeding strategy not only decreased the cell mortality to 8.8% (the control is about 23.1%) in the end of fermentation, but also reduced the proteolytic degradation of PGL.

  9. Cell design for lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosed lithium alloy/iron sulfide cell design provides loop-like positive and negative sheet metal current collectors electrically insulated from one another by separator means, the positive collector being located outwardly of the negative collector. The collectors are initially secured within an open-ended cell housing, which allows for collector pretesting for electrical shorts prior to adding any electrode materials and/or electrolyte to the cell. Separate chambers are defined outwardly of the positive collector and inwardly of the negative collector open respectively in opposite directions toward the open ends of the cell housing; and positive and negative electrode materials can be extruded into these respective chambers via the opposite open housing ends. The chambers and cell housing ends can then be sealed closed. A cross wall structurally reinforces the cell housing and also thereby defines two cavities, and paired positive and negative collectors are disposed in each cavity and electrically connected in parallel. The cell design provides for a high specific energy output and improved operating life in that any charge-discharge cycle swelling of the positive electrode material will be inwardly against only the positive collector to minimize shorts caused by the collectors shifting relative to one another.

  10. Improved cell design for lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1984-03-30

    The disclosed lithium alloy/iron sulfide cell design provides loop-like positive and negative sheet metal current collectors electrically insulated from one another by separator means, the positive collector being located outwardly of the negative collector. The collectors are initially secured within an open-ended cell housing, which allows for collector pretesting for electrical shorts prior to adding any electrode materials and/or electrolyte to the cell. Separate chambers are defined outwardly of the positive collector and inwardly of the negative collector open respectively in opposite directions toward the open ends of the cell housing; and positive and negative electrode materials can be extruded into these respective chambers via the opposite open housing ends. The chambers and cell housing ends can then be sealed closed. A cross wall structurally reinforces the cell housing and also thereby defines two cavities, and paired positive and negative collectors are disposed in each cavity and electrically connected in parallel. The cell design provides for a high specific energy output and improved operating life in that any charge-discharge cycle swelling of the positive electrode material will be inwardly against only the positive collector to minimize shorts caused by the collectors shifting relative to one another.

  11. Test Series 2: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Exide FHC-19 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D. A.; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1985-03-01

    The seismic-fragility of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and their thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the ''end-of-life'' of a battery if subjected to a seismic event. This report, the second in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium Exide FHC-19 cells from the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station operated by the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of six electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations.

  12. Bio-batteries and bio-fuel cells: leveraging on electronic charge transfer proteins.

    PubMed

    Kannan, A M; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Filipek, S; Li, P; Audette, G F; Munukutla, L

    2009-03-01

    Bio-fuel cells are alternative energy devises based on bio-electrocatalysis of natural substrates by enzymes or microorganisms. Here we review bio-fuel cells and bio-batteries based on the recent literature. In general, the bio-fuel cells are classified based on the type of electron transfer; mediated electron transfer and direct electron transfer or electronic charge transfer (ECT). The ECT of the bio-fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications are considered. The technical challenges of the bio-fuel cells, like bioelectrocatalysis, immobilization of bioelectrocatalysts, protein denaturation etc. are highlighted and future research directions are discussed leveraging on the use of electron charge transfer proteins. In addition, the packaging aspects of the bio-fuel cells are also analyzed and the found that relatively little work has been done in the engineering development of bio-fuel cells.

  13. Pore size engineering applied to starved electrochemical cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, K. M.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    To maximize performance in starved, multiplate cells, the cell design should rely on techniques which widen the volume tolerance characteristics. These involve engineering capillary pressure differences between the components of an electrochemical cell and using these forces to promote redistribution of electrolyte to the desired optimum values. This can be implemented in practice by prescribing pore size distributions for porous back-up plates, reservoirs, and electrodes. In addition, electrolyte volume management can be controlled by incorporating different pore size distributions into the separator. In a nickel/hydrogen cell, the separator must contain pores similar in size to the small pores of both the nickel and hydrogen electrodes in order to maintain an optimum conductive path for the electrolyte. The pore size distributions of all components should overlap in such a way as to prevent drying of the separator and/or flooding of the hydrogen electrode.

  14. A new approach to the internal thermal management of cylindrical battery cells for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worwood, Daniel; Kellner, Quirin; Wojtala, Malgorzata; Widanage, W. D.; McGlen, Ryan; Greenwood, David; Marco, James

    2017-04-01

    Conventional cooling approaches that target either a singular tab or outer surface of common format cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells suffer from a high cell thermal resistance. Under an aggressive duty cycle, this resistance can result in the formation of large in-cell temperature gradients and high hot spot temperatures, which are known to accelerate ageing and further reduce performance. In this paper, a novel approach to internal thermal management of cylindrical battery cells to lower the thermal resistance for heat transport through the inside of the cell is investigated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analysed for two common cylindrical formats when subject to highly aggressive electrical loading conditions representative of a high performance electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A mathematical model that captures the dominant thermal properties of the cylindrical cell is created and validated using experimental data. Results from the extensive simulation study indicate that the internal cooling strategy can reduce the cell thermal resistance by up to 67.8 ± 1.4% relative to single tab cooling, and can emulate the performance of a more complex pack-level double tab cooling approach whilst targeting cooling at a single tab.

  15. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    1985-03-01

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150 °C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. he lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0 °C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60 °C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  16. Overcharge tolerant high-temperature cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    In a lithium-alloy/metal sulfide high temperature electrochemical cell, cell damage caused by overcharging is avoided by providing excess lithium in a high-lithium solubility phase alloy in the negative electrode and a specified ratio maximum of the capacity of a matrix metal of the negative electrode in the working phase to the capacity of a transition metal of the positive electrode. In charging the cell, or a plurality of such cells in series and/or parallel, chemical transfer of elemental lithium from the negative electrode through the electrolyte to the positive electrode provides sufficient lithium to support an increased self-charge current to avoid anodic dissolution of the positive electrode components above a critical potential. The lithium is subsequently electrochemically transferred back to the negative electrode in an electrochemical/chemical cycle which maintains high self-discharge currents on the order of 3-15 mA/cm.sup.2 in the cell to prevent overcharging.

  17. Test Results of a Ten Cell Bipolar Nickel-hydrogen Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    A study was initiated to design and evaluate a new design concept for nickel-hydrogen cells. This concept involved constructing a battery in a bipolar stack with cells consisting of a one plate for each nickel and hydrogen electrode. Preliminary designs at the system level of this concept promised improvements in both volumetric and gravimetric energy densities, thermal management, life extension, costs, and peak power capability over more conventional designs. Test results were most encouraging. This preprototype battery, built with less than ideal components and hardware, exceeded expectations. A total of 2000 LEO cycles at 80 percent depth of discharge were accrued. A cycle life goal of 30,000 cycles appears achievable with minor design changes. These improvements include advanced technology nickel electrodes, insulated bipolar plates and specifically designed frames to minimize shunt currents. The discharge rate capability of this design exceeds 25C. At the 10C discharge rate, 80% of the battery capacity can be withdrawn in six minutes. This data shows that the bipolar design is well suited for those applications requiring high peak power pulses.

  18. Lithium/sulfur dioxide cell and battery safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, G.; Anderson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.

  19. Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

    2009-05-01

    The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

  20. An intuitive and efficient method for cell voltage prediction of lithium and sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Saubanère, M; Ben Yahia, M; Lebègue, S; Doublet, M-L

    2014-11-24

    The voltage delivered by rechargeable Lithium- and Sodium-ion batteries is a key parameter to qualify the device as promising for future applications. Here we report a new formulation of the cell voltage in terms of chemically intuitive quantities that can be rapidly and quantitatively evaluated from the alkaliated crystal structure with no need of first-principles calculations. The model, which is here validated on a wide series of existing cathode materials, provides new insights into the physical and chemical features of a crystal structure that influence the material potential. In particular, we show that disordered materials with cationic intermixing must exhibit higher potentials than their ordered homologues. The present method is utilizable by any solid-state chemist, is fully predictive and allows rapid assessement of material potentials, thus opening new directions for the challenging project of material design in rechargeable batteries.

  1. Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells and Redox Flow Batteries: A Selected Review

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Cheng, Yingwen; Duan, Wentao; Wang, Wei; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2015-12-04

    PEM fuel cells and redox flow batteries are two very similar technologies which share common component materials and device design. Electrocatalysts are the key components in these two devices. In this Review, we discuss recent progress of electrocatalytic materials for these two technologies with a focus on our research activities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the past years. This includes (1) nondestructive functionalization of graphitic carbon as Pt support to improve its electrocatalytic performance, (2) triple-junction of metal–carbon–metal oxides to promote Pt performance, (3) nitrogen-doped carbon and metal-doped carbon (i.e., metal oxides) to improve redox reactions in flow batteries. A perspective on future research and the synergy between the two technologies are also discussed.

  2. Alkaline RFC Space Station prototype - 'Next step Space Station'. [Regenerative Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackler, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell, a candidate technology for the Space Station's energy storage system, is described. An advanced development program was initiated to design, manufacture, and integrate a regenerative fuel cell Space Station prototype (RFC SSP). The RFC SSP incorporates long-life fuel cell technology, increased cell area for the fuel cells, and high voltage cell stacks for both units. The RFC SSP's potential for integration with the Space Station's life support and propulsion systems is discussed.

  3. Gels as battery separators for soluble electrode cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Gahn, R. F. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Gels are formed from silica powders and hydrochloric acid. The gels are then impregnated into a polymeric foam and the resultant sheet material is then used in applications where the transport of chloride ions is desired. Specifically disclosed is the utilization of the sheet in electrically rechargeable redox flow cells which find application in bulk power storage systems.

  4. Battery and fuel cell electrodes containing stainless steel charging additive

    DOEpatents

    Zuckerbrod, David; Gibney, Ann

    1984-01-01

    An electrode for use in electrochemical energy cells is made, comprising a hydrophilic layer and a hydrophobic layer, where the hydrophilic layer comprises a hydrophilic composite which includes: (i) carbon particles; (ii) stainless steel particles; (iii) a nonwetting agent; and (iv) a catalyst, where at least one current collector contacts said composite.

  5. Impact of cation-π interactions on the cell voltage of carbon nanotube-based Li batteries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shaohua; Shi, Guosheng; Fang, Haiping

    2016-01-21

    Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based Li batteries have attracted wide attention because of their high capacity, high cyclability and high energy density and are believed to be one of the most promising electrochemical energy storage systems. In CNT-based Li batteries, the main interaction between the Li(+) ions and the CNT is the cation-π interaction. However, up to now, it is still not clear how this interaction affects the storage characteristics of CNT-based Li batteries. Here, using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we report a highly favorable impact of cation-π interactions on the cell voltage of CNT-based Li batteries. Considering both Li(+)-π interaction and Li-π interaction, we show that cell voltage enhances with the increase of the CNT diameter. In addition, when the Li(+) ion adsorbs on the external wall, the cell voltage is larger than that when it adsorbs on the internal wall. This suggests that CNTs with a large diameter and a low array density are more advantageous to enhance storage performance of CNT-based Li batteries. Compared with Li(+) ions on the (4,4) CNT internal wall, the cell voltage of Li(+) on the (10,10) CNT external wall is 0.55 V higher, which indicates an improvement of about 38%. These results will be helpful for the design of more efficient CNT-based Li batteries.

  6. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na(+) conduction at 300 K in Na β,β''-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li(+) as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni. These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred

  7. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    A breakthrough in low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The effect of KOH concentration on cycle life was studied. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min charge (2 x normal rate). The depth of discharge (DOD) was 80 percent. The cell temperature was maintained at 23 C. The next step is to validate these results using flight hardware and a real time LEO test. NASA Lewis has a contract with the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana, to validate the boiler plate test results. Six 48 A-hr Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells) and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The cells were cycled for over 8000 cycles in the continuing test. There were no failures for the cells containing 26 percent KOH. There was two failures, however, for the cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  8. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel hydrogen battery cells is reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The effect of KOH concentration on cycle life was studied. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min charge (2 x normal rate). The depth of discharge (DOD) was 80 percent. The cell temperature was maintained at 23 C. The next step is to validate these results using flight hardware and real time LEO test. NASA Lewis has a contract with the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana to validate the boiler plate test results. Six 48 A-hr Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells) and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The cells were cycled for over 8000 cycles in the continuing test. There were no failures for the cells containing 26 percent KOH. There were two failures, however, for the cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  9. A Study of Cell-to-Cell Interactions and Degradation in Parallel Strings: Implications for the Battery Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Fernández, C.; Bruen, T.; Widanage, W. D.; Gama-Valdez, M. A.; Marco, J.

    2016-10-01

    Vehicle battery systems are usually designed with a high number of cells connected in parallel to meet the stringent requirements of power and energy. The self-balancing characteristic of parallel cells allows a battery management system (BMS) to approximate the cells as one equivalent cell with a single state of health (SoH) value, estimated either as capacity fade (SoHE) or resistance increase (SoHP). A single SoH value is however not applicable if the initial SoH of each cell is different, which can occur when cell properties change due to inconsistent manufacturing processes or in-homogeneous operating environments. As such this work quantifies the convergence of SoHE and SoHP due to initial differences in cell SoH and examines the convergence factors. Four 3 Ah 18650 cells connected in parallel at 25 °C are aged by charging and discharging for 500 cycles. For an initial SoHE difference of 40% and SoHP difference of 45%, SoHE converge to 10% and SoHP to 30% by the end of the experiment. From this, a strong linear correlation between ΔSoHE and ΔSoHP is also observed. The results therefore imply that a BMS should consider a calibration strategy to accurately estimate the SoH of parallel cells until convergence is reached.

  10. Lithium-ion battery cell-level control using constrained model predictive control and equivalent circuit models

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, MA; Trimboli, MS

    2015-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel application of model predictive control (MPC) to cell-level charging of a lithium-ion battery utilizing an equivalent circuit model of battery dynamics. The approach employs a modified form of the MPC algorithm that caters for direct feed-though signals in order to model near-instantaneous battery ohmic resistance. The implementation utilizes a 2nd-order equivalent circuit discrete-time state-space model based on actual cell parameters; the control methodology is used to compute a fast charging profile that respects input, output, and state constraints. Results show that MPC is well-suited to the dynamics of the battery control problem and further suggest significant performance improvements might be achieved by extending the result to electrochemical models. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Panax notoginseng stimulates alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, and mineralization in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhe; Cheng, Yizhao; Yuan, Puwei; Dang, Xiaoqian; Guo, Xiong; Wang, Weizhuo

    2015-10-01

    Total Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) has been extensively used to treat a variety of diseases, such as bone fractures, soft tissue injuries, etc. In this study, mouse calvaria-original osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in various concentrations of PNS (0.005-5 mg/mL) during the period (1, 5, 14, and 23 d). At the endpoint, the osteogenic capacity of MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, the deposited calcium, and the expression of osteogenic-related markers, including bone collagen type 1 (Col1) and osteocalcin (OCN). Compared with all groups in each period, the most pronounced effect was observed at the concentration range between 0.05 and 0.5 mg/mL (P < 0.05) and the cell proliferation with PNS treatment was found during the whole osteogenic period. Moreover, cellular ALP activity with PNS was increased during 7, 14, and 21 d and cell mineralization with PNS was enhanced in 14 and 21 d. Furthermore, the differentiation markers Col1 and OCN increased in the PNS-treated cells. Our work suggests that PNS may stimulate the osteogenesis process which contains osteoblastic proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization by increasing cellular ALP activity, extracellular matrix mineralization, and osteoblast-associated molecules in the osteoblasts.

  12. Multiscale Simulation of Electrochemical_/ Phenomena: Fuel Cells and Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voth, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    Results will be presented from multiscale simulations of two important systems from renewable energy technology, fuel cell proton membranes and electrochemical cells. In the first case, the solvation and transport of hydrated protons in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) such as Nafion^TM will be described using a novel multi-state reactive molecular dynamics (MD) approach. The multi-state MD methodology allows for the treatment of explicit (Grotthuss) proton shuttling and charge defect delocalization which, in turn, can strongly influence the properties of the hydrated protons in various aqueous and complex environments. The role of PEM hydration level and morphology on these properties will be further described. A new multiscale computational methodology for describing the mesoscopic features of the proton transport will also be described, which can be coupled to the results from the molecular-scale simulations. On the second topic, a computationally efficient method will be presented for the treatment of electrostatic interactions between polarizable metallic electrodes held at a constant potential and separated by an electrolyte. The method combines a fluctuating uniform electrode charge with explicit image charges to account for the polarization of the electrode by the electrolyte, and a constant uniform charge added to the fluctuating uniform electrode charge to account for the constant potential condition. The method is used to calculate electron transport rates using electron transfer theory; these rates are incorporated in a multiscale approach to model oxidation/reduction reactions in an electrochemical cell efficiently.

  13. Test Series 4: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Exide EMP-13 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the fourth in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of a 27-year old lead-antimony Exide EMP-13 cells from the recently decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; and multicell (five-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of nine electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the nine cells failed during the actual seismic tests when a range of ZPAs up to 1.5 g was imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests of five of the cells showed, however, that none of the cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. In fact, none of the 5 cells could deliver more than a 33% capacity. Two of the seismically tested cells and one untested, low capacity cell were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The inspection showed the cells to be in poor condition. The negative plates in the vicinity of the bus connections were extremely weak, the positive buses were corroded and brittle, negative and positive active material utilization was extremely uneven, and corrosion products littered the cells.

  14. Toward a lithium-"air" battery: the effect of CO2 on the chemistry of a lithium-oxygen cell.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Lim, Hee-Dae; Park, Kyu-Young; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hong, Jihyun; Goddard, William A; Kim, Hyungjun; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-07-03

    Lithium-oxygen chemistry offers the highest energy density for a rechargeable system as a "lithium-air battery". Most studies of lithium-air batteries have focused on demonstrating battery operations in pure oxygen conditions; such a battery should technically be described as a "lithium-dioxygen battery". Consequently, the next step for the lithium-"air" battery is to understand how the reaction chemistry is affected by the constituents of ambient air. Among the components of air, CO2 is of particular interest because of its high solubility in organic solvents and it can react actively with O2(-•), which is the key intermediate species in Li-O2 battery reactions. In this work, we investigated the reaction mechanisms in the Li-O2/CO2 cell under various electrolyte conditions using quantum mechanical simulations combined with experimental verification. Our most important finding is that the subtle balance among various reaction pathways influencing the potential energy surfaces can be modified by the electrolyte solvation effect. Thus, a low dielectric electrolyte tends to primarily form Li2O2, while a high dielectric electrolyte is effective in electrochemically activating CO2, yielding only Li2CO3. Most surprisingly, we further discovered that a high dielectric medium such as DMSO can result in the reversible reaction of Li2CO3 over multiple cycles. We believe that the current mechanistic understanding of the chemistry of CO2 in a Li-air cell and the interplay of CO2 with electrolyte solvation will provide an important guideline for developing Li-air batteries. Furthermore, the possibility for a rechargeable Li-O2/CO2 battery based on Li2CO3 may have merits in enhancing cyclability by minimizing side reactions.

  15. Maximum equivalent power output and performance optimization analysis of an alkaline fuel cell/heat-driven cycle hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuqin; Chen, Jincan

    A generic model of the hybrid system consisting of an alkaline fuel cell (AFC) and a heat-driven cycle, which may work as either a refrigerator or a heat pump, is originally established. On the basis of the models of AFCs and three-heat-reservoir cycles, the equivalent power output and efficiency of the hybrid system are obtained. The performance characteristic curves of the hybrid system are represented through numerical calculation. The maximum equivalent power output and efficiency of the hybrid system are determined. Problems concerning the optimal operation of the hybrid system are discussed. The effects of the main irreversible losses on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated in detail. It is important to note that the waste heat produced in the AFC can be readily used in such a hybrid cycle.

  16. Deformation and failure mechanisms of 18650 battery cells under axial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Juner; Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    An important deformation mode during ground impacts of battery packs made of cylindrical battery cells is axial compression. This type of loading subjects the cell to a complex deformation pattern and failure mechanism. The design of endcaps plays an important role in such deformations. To explore the sequence of deformation and the underlying failure mechanisms, a combined experimental/numerical study was carried out. Tests were conducted on 18650 cells, and the deformation of each component was carefully investigated and documented. There are four different stages in the force-displacement curve, corresponding with deformation of various components in the endcap assembly. A short circuit happens at a displacement of 4 mm. To clarify these observations, a detailed Finite Element model was set up, covering the geometry and the mechanical property of almost all the components of the cell. Using the simulation results, the sequence of the axial compression was revealed, which was subsequently validated by Micro CT scans as well as analytical solutions. Based on the precise analysis of the mechanical behavior, the cause of the short circuit during axial loading was clarified. Two failure mechanisms in the separator at the top section of the cell explain the possible causes of short circuit.

  17. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  18. Recovery of Metal Values from Spent Zinc-Carbon Dry Cell Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Majharul Haque; Gulshan, Fahmida; Kurny, A. S. W.

    2013-04-01

    Spent zinc-carbon dry cell batteries were characterized in the process of recovery of metal values. Zinc, manganese and steel were the major metallic materials constituting 63 % of the weight of spent batteries. Different components of the spent batteries were separately processed to extract the metallic values. A maximum of 92 % of total amount of zinc contained in the anodes could be extracted with a purity of over 99.0 % from the anodes by heating at 600 °C for 10 min in presence of 12 % NH4Cl flux. Spent electrolyte paste containing manganese and zinc as major metallic elements, was leached in sulfuric acid solution in presence of hydrogen peroxide as a reducing agent. The optimum condition for leaching was found to be concentration of sulfuric acid: 2.5 M, concentration of hydrogen peroxide: 10 %, temperature: 60 °C, stirring speed: 600 rpm and solid/liquid ratio 1:12. A maximum of 88 % manganese contained in the paste could be dissolved within 27 min of leaching under the optimized conditions. Dissolution of zinc under the same conditions was 97 %. A maximum of 69.89 % of manganese and 83.29 % of zinc contained in the leach liquor could be precipitated in the form of manganese carbonate and zinc oxalate.

  19. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  20. A Study on Advanced Lithium-Based Battery Cell Chemistries to Enhance Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Bennett, William R.

    2010-01-01

    NASAs Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Energy Storage Project conducted an advanced lithium-based battery chemistry feasibility study to determine the best advanced chemistry to develop for the Altair Lunar Lander and the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) advanced Lunar surface spacesuit. These customers require safe, reliable batteries with extremely high specific energy as compared to state-of-the-art. The specific energy goals for the development project are 220 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) delivered at the battery-level at 0 degrees Celsius ( C) at a C/10 discharge rate. Continuous discharge rates between C/5 and C/2, operation between 0 and 30 C and 200 cycles are targeted. Electrode materials that were considered include layered metal oxides, spinel oxides, and olivine-type cathode materials, and lithium metal, lithium alloy, and silicon-based composite anode materials. Advanced cell chemistry options were evaluated with respect to multiple quantitative and qualitative attributes while considering their projected performance at the end of the available development timeframe. Following a rigorous ranking process, a chemistry that combines a lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide Li(LiNMC)O2 cathode with a silicon-based composite anode was selected as the technology that can potentially offer the best combination of safety, specific energy, energy density, and likelihood of success.