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Sample records for alkaline cuo oxidation

  1. Oxide Nanotube Analogues: CuO Nanobarrels

    SciTech Connect

    H. H. Farrell; R. D. Parra

    2011-11-01

    The principle 'form follows function' which dominated much of twentieth century architechture and industrial design has its parallel on the nanolevel in the concept of 'function follows form'. This has been realized in many technologically valuable ways on this level via nanoparticles such as nanotubes and quantum dots, for example. Now, a new material, copper oxide (CuO) nanobarrels, offers still another opportunity to exploit unusual form to obtain new functionality. Recently, CuO 'rings' on the order of 100 nm diameter have been observed experimentally by El-Azab and Liang (2003). In a separate effort, we have used first principles density functional calculations to investigate smaller, single walled CuO structures that appear to be nanotubes or nanobarrels with a square unit mesh rather than the hexagonal mesh of carbon nanotubes. These structures are unique and novel, and almost certainly will yield fascinating results when studied experimentally.

  2. Tailoring oxides of copper-Cu2O and CuO nanoparticles and evaluation of organic dyes degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghav, Ragini; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Srivastava, Sudha

    2016-04-01

    We report a simple one-pot colloidal synthesis strategy tailoring cuprous or cupric nano-oxides in pure state. NaOH provided alkaline conditions (pH 12.5 -13) for nano-oxides formation, while its concentration regulated the oxidation state of the nano-oxides. The morphological, structural and optical properties of synthesized Cu2O and CuO nanoparticles were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Dye degradation capability of CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles was evaluated using four organic dyes - Malachite green, Methylene blue, Methyl orange and Methyl red. The results demonstrate effective degradation of all four dyes employing with almost comparable activity both Cu2O and CuO nanoparticles.

  3. Subchronic and chronic developmental effects of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles on Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Nations, Shawna; Long, Monique; Wages, Mike; Maul, Jonathan D; Theodorakis, Christopher W; Cobb, George P

    2015-09-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles, such as copper oxide (CuO), are mass produced for use in a variety of products like coatings and ceramics. Acute exposure to CuO nanoparticles has caused toxicity to many aquatic organisms, yet there is no information on the effect of prolonged CuO nanomaterial exposures. This study examined effects of chronic exposure to CuO nanoparticles on Xenopus laevis growth and development. Experiments included a 14 d subchronic exposure and a 47 d chronic exposure throughout metamorphosis. The subchronic exposure caused mortality in all tested CuO concentrations, and significant growth effects occurred after exposure to 2.5 mg L(-1) CuO. Chronic exposure to 0.3 mg L(-1) CuO elicited significant mortality and affected the rate of metamorphosis. Exposure to lower concentrations of CuO stimulated metamorphosis and growth, indicating that low dose exposure can have hormetic effects. PMID:25950410

  4. [Analysis of alkaline CuO degradation products of acid detergent fiber from tobacco leaves by using liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Hao, Weiqiang; Wang, Leijun; Wu, Shun; Yue, Bangyi; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Peipei

    2015-07-01

    The acid detergent fiber (ADF) from tobacco leaves was obtained by treating the sample with petroleum ether-ethanol (6:4, v/v), 30 g/L sodium dodecylsulfate and 0.5 mol/L sulphuric acid containing 20 g/L hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide successively. The ADF was degraded by the alkaline CuO oxidation procedure. In this work, six samples of ADF degradation products from tobacco leaves were prepared. The samples were analyzed by using gradient liquid chromatography (LC) where an Ultimate XB C18 column was used as stationary phase, with a mixture of methanol and water as mobile phase, at a column temperature of 35 °C and a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Dual wavelengths of 280 nm and 320 nm were chosen for the detection. It was found that there were four characteristic peaks for the ADF degradation products. By taking these peaks as research object, the optimum time for the degradation was found to be 5 h and the sample solution could be kept stable within 7 days. The established method may provide a new approach for the studies of the differences between lignin composition in different tobacco leaves and the relationship between lignin content and the smoking quality of tobacco leaves. PMID:26672209

  5. Isolation of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles resistant Pseudomonas strains from soil and investigation on possible mechanism for resistance.

    PubMed

    Soltani Nezhad, Shahla; Rabbani Khorasgani, Mohammad; Emtiazi, Giti; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Shakeri, Shahryar

    2014-03-01

    The present study deals with isolation and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles resistant Pseudomonas strains that were isolated from the soil collected from mining and refining sites of Sarcheshmeh copper mine in the Kerman Province of Iran. The three isolates were selected based on high level of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) resistance. The isolates were authentically identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens CuO-1, Pseudomonas fluorescens CuO-2 and Pseudomonas sp. CuO-3 by morphological, biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequencing analysis. The growth pattern of these isolates with all the studied CuO NPs concentrations was similar to that of control (without CuO NPs) indicating that CuO NPs would not affect the growth of isolated strains. A reduction in the amount of exopolysaccharides was observed after CuO NPs-P. fluorescens CuO-1 culture supernatant interaction. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) peaks for the exopolysaccharides extracted from the bacterial culture supernatant and the interacted CuO NPs were almost similar. The exopolysaccharide capping of the CuO NPs was confirmed by FT-IR and X-ray diffraction analysis. The study of bacterial exopolysaccharides capped CuO NPs with E. coli PTCC 1338 and S. aureus PTCC 1113 showed less toxicity compared to uncoated CuO NPs. Our study suggests that the capping of nanoparticles by bacterially produced exopolysaccharides serve as the probable mechanism of tolerance. PMID:24146307

  6. Cupric Oxide (CuO) Oxidation Detects Pyrogenic Carbon in Burnt Organic Matter and Soils.

    PubMed

    Hatten, Jeff; Goñi, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire greatly impacts the composition and quantity of organic carbon stocks within watersheds. Most methods used to measure the contributions of fire altered organic carbon-i.e. pyrogenic organic carbon (Py-OC) in natural samples are designed to quantify specific fractions such as black carbon or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the CuO oxidation procedure yields a variety of products derived from a variety of precursors, including both unaltered and thermally altered sources. Here, we test whether or not the benzene carboxylic acid and hydroxy benzoic acid (BCA) products obtained by CuO oxidation provide a robust indicator of Py-OC and compare them to non-Py-OC biomarkers of lignin. O and A horizons from microcosms were burned in the laboratory at varying levels of fire severity and subsequently incubated for 6 months. All soils were analyzed for total OC and N and were analyzed by CuO oxidation. All BCAs appeared to be preserved or created to some degree during burning while lignin phenols appeared to be altered or destroyed to varying extents dependent on fire severity. We found two specific CuO oxidation products, o-hydroxybenzoic acid (oBd) and 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC2) that responded strongly to burn severity and withstood degradation during post-burning microbial incubations. Interestingly, we found that benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids (BDC and BTC, respectively) were much more reactive than vanillyl phenols during the incubation as a possible result of physical protection of vanillyl phenols in the interior of char particles or CuO oxidation derived BCAs originating from biologically available classes of Py-OC. We found that the ability of these compounds to predict relative Py-OC content in burned samples improved when normalized by their respective BCA class (i.e. benzene monocarboxylic acids (BA) and BTC, respectively) and when BTC was normalized to total lignin yields (BTC:Lig). The major trends in BCAs imparted by burning

  7. Cupric Oxide (CuO) Oxidation Detects Pyrogenic Carbon in Burnt Organic Matter and Soils

    PubMed Central

    Hatten, Jeff; Goñi, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire greatly impacts the composition and quantity of organic carbon stocks within watersheds. Most methods used to measure the contributions of fire altered organic carbon–i.e. pyrogenic organic carbon (Py-OC) in natural samples are designed to quantify specific fractions such as black carbon or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the CuO oxidation procedure yields a variety of products derived from a variety of precursors, including both unaltered and thermally altered sources. Here, we test whether or not the benzene carboxylic acid and hydroxy benzoic acid (BCA) products obtained by CuO oxidation provide a robust indicator of Py-OC and compare them to non-Py-OC biomarkers of lignin. O and A horizons from microcosms were burned in the laboratory at varying levels of fire severity and subsequently incubated for 6 months. All soils were analyzed for total OC and N and were analyzed by CuO oxidation. All BCAs appeared to be preserved or created to some degree during burning while lignin phenols appeared to be altered or destroyed to varying extents dependent on fire severity. We found two specific CuO oxidation products, o-hydroxybenzoic acid (oBd) and 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC2) that responded strongly to burn severity and withstood degradation during post-burning microbial incubations. Interestingly, we found that benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids (BDC and BTC, respectively) were much more reactive than vanillyl phenols during the incubation as a possible result of physical protection of vanillyl phenols in the interior of char particles or CuO oxidation derived BCAs originating from biologically available classes of Py-OC. We found that the ability of these compounds to predict relative Py-OC content in burned samples improved when normalized by their respective BCA class (i.e. benzene monocarboxylic acids (BA) and BTC, respectively) and when BTC was normalized to total lignin yields (BTC:Lig). The major trends in BCAs imparted by burning

  8. Cupric Oxide (CuO) Oxidation Detects Pyrogenic Carbon in Burnt Organic Matter and Soils.

    PubMed

    Hatten, Jeff; Goñi, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire greatly impacts the composition and quantity of organic carbon stocks within watersheds. Most methods used to measure the contributions of fire altered organic carbon-i.e. pyrogenic organic carbon (Py-OC) in natural samples are designed to quantify specific fractions such as black carbon or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the CuO oxidation procedure yields a variety of products derived from a variety of precursors, including both unaltered and thermally altered sources. Here, we test whether or not the benzene carboxylic acid and hydroxy benzoic acid (BCA) products obtained by CuO oxidation provide a robust indicator of Py-OC and compare them to non-Py-OC biomarkers of lignin. O and A horizons from microcosms were burned in the laboratory at varying levels of fire severity and subsequently incubated for 6 months. All soils were analyzed for total OC and N and were analyzed by CuO oxidation. All BCAs appeared to be preserved or created to some degree during burning while lignin phenols appeared to be altered or destroyed to varying extents dependent on fire severity. We found two specific CuO oxidation products, o-hydroxybenzoic acid (oBd) and 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (BTC2) that responded strongly to burn severity and withstood degradation during post-burning microbial incubations. Interestingly, we found that benzene di- and tricarboxylic acids (BDC and BTC, respectively) were much more reactive than vanillyl phenols during the incubation as a possible result of physical protection of vanillyl phenols in the interior of char particles or CuO oxidation derived BCAs originating from biologically available classes of Py-OC. We found that the ability of these compounds to predict relative Py-OC content in burned samples improved when normalized by their respective BCA class (i.e. benzene monocarboxylic acids (BA) and BTC, respectively) and when BTC was normalized to total lignin yields (BTC:Lig). The major trends in BCAs imparted by burning

  9. Resistive switching mechanism in delafossite-transition metal oxide (CuInO2-CuO) bilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varandani, Deepak; Singh, Bharti; Mehta, Bodh R.; Singh, Mandeep; Singh, Vidya Nand; Gupta, Dasees

    2010-05-01

    This study reports reversible and unipolar resistive switching in oxide bilayer structure due to the conversion of rectifying CuInO2-CuO semiconductor heterojunction to metal-semiconductor CuInO2-Cu Ohmic contact. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and conducting atomic force microscopy studies establish that switching occurs due to formation of conducting Cu filaments in CuO layer with CuInO2 layer remaining unaffected. The bilayer structure, with CuO layer acting as the switching element and CuInO2 layer as the resistance controlling element, exhibits improved switching parameters in comparison to single CuO layer.

  10. [CuO](+) and [CuOH](2+) complexes: intermediates in oxidation catalysis?

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Nicole; Tolman, William B

    2015-07-21

    Characterization of monocopper intermediates in enzymes and other catalysts that attack strong C-H bonds is important for unraveling oxidation catalysis mechanisms and, ultimately, designing new, more efficient catalytic systems. Because initially formed 1:1 Cu/O2 adducts resulting from reactions of Cu(I) sites with O2 react relatively sluggishly with substrates with strong C-H bonds, it has been suggested that reductive O-O bond scission might occur instead to yield more reactive [CuO](+) or protonated [CuOH](2+) cores. Experimental and theoretical studies of [CuO](+) species in the gas phase have provided key insights into the possible reactivity of these species, but detailed information is lacking for discrete complexes with the [CuO](+) or [CuOH](2+) core in solution or the solid state. We describe herein our recent efforts to address this issue through several disparate approaches. In one strategy based on precedent from studies of enzymes and synthetic compounds with iron-α-ketocarboxylate motifs, reactions of O2 with Cu(I)-α-ketocarboxylate complexes were explored, with the aim of identifying reaction pathways that would implicate the intermediacy of a [CuO](+) species. A second approach focused on the reaction of N-oxides with Cu(I) complexes, with the goal being to elicit O-N bond heterolysis to yield [CuO](+) complexes. For both strategies, the course of the reactions depended on the nature of the supporting bidentate N-donor ligand, and indirect evidence in support of the sought-after [CuO](+) intermediates was obtained in some instances. In the final approach discussed herein, strongly electron donating and sterically encumbered pyridine-dicarboxamide ligands (L) enabled the synthesis of [LCu(II)OH](-) complexes, which upon one-electron oxidation formed complexes with the [CuOH](2+) core that were characterized in solution. Rapid hydrogen atom abstraction (HAT) from dihydroanthracene (DHA) was observed, yielding LCu(II)OH2. The O-H bond dissociation

  11. Deactivation analyses of CeO2/CuO catalysts in the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shanghong; Liu, Kewei; Zhang, Lu; Qin, Bin; Chen, Tianjia; Yin, Yueling; Su, Haiquan

    2014-09-01

    The hydrothermal in combination with impregnation methods are used to prepare the CeO2/CuO-X catalysts with spherical structure. The catalysts are characterized via SEM, XRD, H2-TPR, HRTEM, XPS and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. The study shows that the microspheres of CuO consist of the sheet-like CuO and the way of arrangement results in the formation of shell structure. There is a core in the middle of shell structure, which is composed of the nano-sized CuO particles. CeO2 particles are supported on the surface of the CuO microspheres or embedded in the pores of sheet-like CuO. It is found that there is another reason for the decrease of CO conversion above 155 °C except H2 competitive oxidation. It is from the change of the CeO2/CuO catalyst during CO-PROX reaction including the reduction of CuO and the separation of metallic copper from the surface of catalyst.

  12. CuO cauliflowers for supercapacitor application: Novel potentiodynamic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Dubal, Deepak P.; Gund, Girish S.; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.; Holze, Rudolf

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic experimental setup used for the potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition for the synthesis of CuO cauliflower onto stainless steel substrate. Highlights: ► Synthesis of CuO using potentiodynamic mode of electrodeposition. ► Uniformly spread cauliflower-like nanostructure. ► CuO cauliflowers provide high specific capacitance with good stability. ► CuO cauliflowers show high power and energy density values. -- Abstract: In present investigation, synthesis and characterization of novel cauliflower-like copper oxide (CuO) and its electrochemical properties have been performed. The utilized CuO cauliflowers were prepared by potentiodyanamic mode from an aqueous alkaline bath. X-ray diffraction pattern confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO cauliflowers. Scanning electron micrograph analysis reveals that CuO cauliflowers are uniformly spread all over the substrate surface with the surface area of 49 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} with bimodal pore size distribution. Electrochemical analysis shows that CuO cauliflower exhibits high specific capacitance of 179 Fg{sup −1} in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte with 81% capacity retention after 2000 cycles. The Ragone plot discovers better power and energy densities of cauliflowers-like CuO sample. Present investigation illustrates that the potentiodynamic approach for the direct growth of cauliflower-like CuO is simple and cost-effective and can be applied for synthesis of other metal oxides, polymers etc.

  13. Hydrothermally synthesized Copper Oxide (CuO) superstructures for ammonia sensing.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneshwari, S; Gopalakrishnan, N

    2016-10-15

    According to environmental protection agencies (EPA), the emission threshold of NH3 in air is 1000kg/yr which is now about 20Tg/yr. Hence, there is a rapid increase in need of NH3 sensors to timely detect and control NH3 emissions. Metal oxide nanostructures such as CuO with special features are potential candidates for NH3 sensing. In the present study, morphology controlled 3-dimensional CuO superstructures were synthesized by surfactant-free hydrothermal method for NH3 detection. In addition to conventional hydrothermal method where water as solvent, a modified approach using a mixture of water and ethylene glycol (EG) was used as solvent to control the growth process. Hierarchical superstructures namely, snowflake-like, flower-like, hollow-sphere-like and urchin-like feature with particle dimensions ranging from 0.3 to 1μm were obtained by varying water/EG ratio and reaction temperature. The synthesized nanostructures exhibited morphology dependent luminescence and gas sensing properties. The surface area and pore distribution determined by BET surface analysis also largely influenced by the presence of EG in the reaction system. The average pore diameter enhanced from 6nm to 14nm by the addition of 10ml EG as solvent. The room temperature ammonia sensing behavior of all samples was studied using an indigenous gas sensing set-up. It was found that hollow-sphere like CuO nanostructures showed a maximum sensitivity of 150% towards 600ppm ammonia with a response and recovery time of 6min. The hydrothermal synthesis strategy reported here has the advantage of producing shape controlled hierarchical materials are highly suitable for various technological applications.

  14. Experimental and theoretical study of the oxidation of ventilation air methane over Fe2O3 and CuO.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yonggang; Sun, Chenghua; Su, Shi

    2015-07-01

    Coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM) is an important contributor to methane emissions from the energy sector. Although various technologies are under development, treatment of the VAM with an efficient and cost-effective approach has been an ongoing challenge due to massive flow rates of the ventilation air and low and variable methane concentrations. Recently a new concept based on the principle of chemical looping combustion (CLC) has been proposed for VAM abatement (Appl. Energy, 2014, 113, 1916), in which oxidation of low-concentration CH4 balanced by N2 with Fe2O3 or CuO as the oxygen carrier was studied. Here, we thoroughly examined the feasibility of CLC of VAM based on experimental study and theoretical calculations. Reduction of Fe2O3 and CuO and evolution of gas products during CH4 oxidation were investigated using TGA-MS under two reaction atmospheres: 1 vol% CH4 balanced by N2 and the simulated VAM containing 1 vol% CH4, 20 vol% O2, 0.4 vol% CO2 and balance N2. It was found that the CLC of VAM is fundamentally infeasible because the reduced phase of Fe2O3 and CuO cannot be formed for chemical looping when reacting with the simulated VAM containing abundant oxygen. Theoretical calculations revealed that Fe2O3 and CuO remain stable without the transition to the reduced phase as the generated oxygen vacancy on the surface of metal oxides during CH4 oxidation can recover quickly with O2 adsorption and dissociation. Calculations confirmed that both Fe2O3 and CuO play a role of surface catalyst in VAM oxidation. More importantly, it was found that the low-coordinated metal atoms and oxygen vacancies can stabilize CHx radicals to promote the dissociation of CH4, which is generally the rate-determining step for CH4 oxidation. Such findings are useful for new development and understanding of high-performance and low-cost metal oxide catalysts for CH4 oxidation. PMID:26028316

  15. Observation of superconductivity ( Tc = 50 K) in a new tetragonal alkaline-earth cuprate Sr 0.8Ba 1.2CuO 3+δ, synthesised at ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, J. P.; Slater, P. R.; Edwards, P. P.; Greaves, C.; Slaski, M.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Amelinckx, S.

    1996-02-01

    The ambient-pressure synthesis of a new tetragonal alkaline-earth superconducting cuprate, Sr 0.8Ba 1.2CuO 3+δ, from a cupro-oxycarbonate is reported. Magnetic-susceptibility measurements show the presence of a superconducting transition ˜50 K in a post-annealed sample. The crystal structure, refined from time-of-flight powder neutron-diffraction data was found to have an oxygen-deficient La 2CuO 4-type tetragonal T structure ( a = 3.8988(3) Å and c = 12.815(3) Å) with oxygen vacancies located within the CuO 2 planes. Ordering of these oxygen vacancies is responsible for the observation of a superlattice in both neutron- and electron-diffraction measurements. An interpretation of the electron-diffraction patterns suggests that the superlattice in Sr 0.8Ba 1.2CuO 3+δ and also in the isostructural superconductor Sr 2CuO 3+δ are of an identical nature.

  16. Facile and Mild Strategy to Construct Mesoporous CeO2-CuO Nanorods with Enhanced Catalytic Activity toward CO Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guozhu; Xu, Qihui; Yang, Ying; Li, Cuncheng; Huang, Taizhong; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Shuxiang; Ma, Dongling; Li, Xu

    2015-10-28

    CeO2-CuO nanorods with mesoporous structure were synthesized by a facile and mild strategy, which involves an interfacial reaction between Ce2(SO4)3 precursor and NaOH ethanol solution at room temperature to obtain mesoporous CeO2 nanorods, followed by a solvothermal treatment of as-prepared CeO2 and Cu(CH3COO)2. Upon solvothermal treatment, CuO species is highly dispersed onto the CeO2 nanorod surface to form CeO2-CuO composites, which still maintain the mesoporous feature. A preliminary CO catalytic oxidation study demonstrated that the CeO2-CuO samples exhibited strikingly high catalytic activity, and a high CO conversion rate was observed without obvious loss in activity even after thermal treatment at a high temperature of 500 °C. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and hydrogen temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) analysis revealed that there is a strong interaction between CeO2 and CuO. Moreover, it was found that the introduction of CuO species into CeO2 generates oxygen vacancies, which is highly likely to be responsible for high catalytic activity toward CO oxidation of the mesoporous CeO2-CuO nanorods.

  17. Molecular imprinting method for fabricating novel glucose sensor: polyvinyl acetate electrode reinforced by MnO2/CuO loaded on graphene oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Farid, Mohammad Masoudi; Goudini, Leila; Piri, Farideh; Zamani, Abbasali; Saadati, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    An enzyme free glucose sensor was prepared by a molecular imprinting method (MIP). The procedure was developed by in situ preparation of a new polyvinyl acetate (PVA) electrode reinforced by MnO2/CuO loaded on graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles (PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO). The nanocomposite was modified in the presence of glucose and then imprinted. A carbone paste method with voltammetry was used in the fabrication of the sensor from prepared MIP nanocomposite. PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO electrode was characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electrocatalytic activity of the electrode toward glucose oxidation was then investigated by cyclic voltammetry in alkaline medium. The results show that the response of PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO MIP is much higher than PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO non-imprinted electrode toward glucose oxidation. The detection limit was 53μM, and the sensor responses are linear for concentrations from 0.5 to 4.4mM. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day determination were less than 6.0%. The relative recoveries for different samples were 96%.

  18. Molecular imprinting method for fabricating novel glucose sensor: polyvinyl acetate electrode reinforced by MnO2/CuO loaded on graphene oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Farid, Mohammad Masoudi; Goudini, Leila; Piri, Farideh; Zamani, Abbasali; Saadati, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    An enzyme free glucose sensor was prepared by a molecular imprinting method (MIP). The procedure was developed by in situ preparation of a new polyvinyl acetate (PVA) electrode reinforced by MnO2/CuO loaded on graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles (PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO). The nanocomposite was modified in the presence of glucose and then imprinted. A carbone paste method with voltammetry was used in the fabrication of the sensor from prepared MIP nanocomposite. PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO electrode was characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Electrocatalytic activity of the electrode toward glucose oxidation was then investigated by cyclic voltammetry in alkaline medium. The results show that the response of PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO MIP is much higher than PVA/MnO2@GO/CuO non-imprinted electrode toward glucose oxidation. The detection limit was 53μM, and the sensor responses are linear for concentrations from 0.5 to 4.4mM. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day determination were less than 6.0%. The relative recoveries for different samples were 96%. PMID:26471527

  19. Scalable Binder-Free Supersonic Cold Spraying of Nanotextured Cupric Oxide (CuO) Films as Efficient Photocathodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Min-Woo; An, Seongpil; Jo, Hong Seok; Nervi, Carlo; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Swihart, Mark T; Yoon, Sam S

    2016-06-22

    We demonstrate production of nanotextured p-type cupric oxide (CuO) films via a low-cost scalable supersonic cold spray method in open air conditions. Simply sweeping the spray nozzle across a substrate produced a large-scale CuO film. When used as hydrogen evolution photocathodes, these films produced photocurrent densities (PCD) of up to 3.1 mA/cm(2) under AM1.5 illumination, without the use of a cocatalyst or any additional heterojunction layers. Cu2O particles were supersonically sprayed onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated soda lime glass (SLG) substrate, without any solvent or binder. Annealing in air converted the Cu2O films to CuO, with a corresponding decrease in the bandgap and increase in the fraction of the solar spectrum absorbed. Annealing at 600 °C maximized the PCD. Increasing the supersonic gas velocity from ∼450 to ∼700 m/s produced denser films with greater surface roughness, in turn producing higher PCD. The nanoscale texture of the films, which resembles the skin of a dinosaur, enhanced their performance, leading to one of the highest PCD values in the literature. We characterized the films by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy to elucidate the origins of their outstanding performance. This supersonic cold spraying deposition has the potential to be used on a commercial scale for low cost mass production.

  20. Hetero-metal cation control of CuO nanostructures and their high catalytic performance for CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongwen; Zhang, Liqiang; Wu, Kewei; Yu, Qing; Chen, Ru; Yang, Hangsheng; Peng, Xinsheng; Ye, Zhizhen

    2012-11-01

    A controllable synthesis of various morphologies of CuO nanostructures with tuning by hetero-metal cations has been developed in aqueous solution at room temperature. The morphologies of CuO can be engineered from nanosheets to nanoparticles with different length ratios of the long axis to the short axis. The formation of many metal-ion complexes plays an important role in slowing the release rate of OH- and affects the reaction kinetics further. We found that the effect of hetero-metal cations on the final morphology of the CuO nanostructures was the same as that of the cooling temperature. A series of temperature-controlled experiments demonstrated this. Furthermore, among all the synthesized CuO nanostructures, the fascinating colloidal mesoporous CuO quasi-monocrystalline nanosheets prepared at 25 °C with a thickness of ca. 10 nm and large specific surface area of 80.32 m2 g-1 is investigated intensively. These CuO nanosheets demonstrate a superior catalytic activity for CO oxidation, with features of high CO conversion efficiency (47.77 mmolCO g-1CuO h-1 at 200 °C), which is close to that reported for previously investigated supported-CuO catalysts, and a low apparent activation energy Ea (53.3 kJ mol-1).A controllable synthesis of various morphologies of CuO nanostructures with tuning by hetero-metal cations has been developed in aqueous solution at room temperature. The morphologies of CuO can be engineered from nanosheets to nanoparticles with different length ratios of the long axis to the short axis. The formation of many metal-ion complexes plays an important role in slowing the release rate of OH- and affects the reaction kinetics further. We found that the effect of hetero-metal cations on the final morphology of the CuO nanostructures was the same as that of the cooling temperature. A series of temperature-controlled experiments demonstrated this. Furthermore, among all the synthesized CuO nanostructures, the fascinating colloidal mesoporous CuO

  1. Alkaline oxide conversion coatings for aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    Three related conversion coating methods are described that are based on film formation which occurs when aluminum alloys are exposed to alkaline Li salt solutions. Representative examples of the processing methods, resulting coating structure, composition and morphology are presented. The corrosion resistance of these coatings to aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated as a function of total processing time using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This evaluation shows that excellent corrosion resistance can be uniformly achieved using no more than 20 minutes of process time for 6061-T6. Using current methods a minimum of 80 minutes of process time is required to get marginally acceptable corrosion resistance for 2024-T3. Longer processing times are required to achieve uniformly good corrosion resistance.

  2. Enhanced adhesion and field emission of CuO nanowires synthesized by simply modified thermal oxidation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C. M.; Wang, Y. B.; Yao, R. H.; Ning, H. L.; Qiu, W. Q.; Liu, Z. W.

    2016-09-01

    Metal oxide nanowires (NWs) can be easily grown by the thermal oxidation method, but the low adhesion between the NWs and the substrate restricts their practical applications in functional devices. In this work, the conventional hotplate technique is simply modified by introducing one or two stainless steel plates to supply a more stable oxidation environment, which is found to be beneficial to the growth and adhesion of CuO NWs on the Cu substrate. In detail, the Cu foils were heated on the hotplate directly, on one plate over the hotplate, and between two plates over the hotplate at 400 °C in ambient condition. It is found that the NWs obtained between two plates exhibit large length and diameter with moderate density. The sufficient activated oxygen, stable temperature, and proper temperature gradient configuration caused by the two plates accelerate the formation of CuO NWs, and result in the longest NWs with enhanced adhesion. The grain-boundary diffusion and Kirkendall effect are proposed to explain the mechanism of NWs growth and the formation of cracks. The NWs obtained between two plates also showed the best field emission properties, with lowest turn-on field (5.31 V μm-1) and threshold field (9.8 V μm-1). Excellent field emission properties and enhanced NW-substrate adhesion indicate that these NW arrays could be potentially used as the cathode of field emission displays.

  3. Enhanced adhesion and field emission of CuO nanowires synthesized by simply modified thermal oxidation technique.

    PubMed

    Tang, C M; Wang, Y B; Yao, R H; Ning, H L; Qiu, W Q; Liu, Z W

    2016-09-30

    Metal oxide nanowires (NWs) can be easily grown by the thermal oxidation method, but the low adhesion between the NWs and the substrate restricts their practical applications in functional devices. In this work, the conventional hotplate technique is simply modified by introducing one or two stainless steel plates to supply a more stable oxidation environment, which is found to be beneficial to the growth and adhesion of CuO NWs on the Cu substrate. In detail, the Cu foils were heated on the hotplate directly, on one plate over the hotplate, and between two plates over the hotplate at 400 °C in ambient condition. It is found that the NWs obtained between two plates exhibit large length and diameter with moderate density. The sufficient activated oxygen, stable temperature, and proper temperature gradient configuration caused by the two plates accelerate the formation of CuO NWs, and result in the longest NWs with enhanced adhesion. The grain-boundary diffusion and Kirkendall effect are proposed to explain the mechanism of NWs growth and the formation of cracks. The NWs obtained between two plates also showed the best field emission properties, with lowest turn-on field (5.31 V μm(-1)) and threshold field (9.8 V μm(-1)). Excellent field emission properties and enhanced NW-substrate adhesion indicate that these NW arrays could be potentially used as the cathode of field emission displays. PMID:27560484

  4. Enhanced adhesion and field emission of CuO nanowires synthesized by simply modified thermal oxidation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, C. M.; Wang, Y. B.; Yao, R. H.; Ning, H. L.; Qiu, W. Q.; Liu, Z. W.

    2016-09-01

    Metal oxide nanowires (NWs) can be easily grown by the thermal oxidation method, but the low adhesion between the NWs and the substrate restricts their practical applications in functional devices. In this work, the conventional hotplate technique is simply modified by introducing one or two stainless steel plates to supply a more stable oxidation environment, which is found to be beneficial to the growth and adhesion of CuO NWs on the Cu substrate. In detail, the Cu foils were heated on the hotplate directly, on one plate over the hotplate, and between two plates over the hotplate at 400 °C in ambient condition. It is found that the NWs obtained between two plates exhibit large length and diameter with moderate density. The sufficient activated oxygen, stable temperature, and proper temperature gradient configuration caused by the two plates accelerate the formation of CuO NWs, and result in the longest NWs with enhanced adhesion. The grain-boundary diffusion and Kirkendall effect are proposed to explain the mechanism of NWs growth and the formation of cracks. The NWs obtained between two plates also showed the best field emission properties, with lowest turn-on field (5.31 V μm‑1) and threshold field (9.8 V μm‑1). Excellent field emission properties and enhanced NW-substrate adhesion indicate that these NW arrays could be potentially used as the cathode of field emission displays.

  5. Enhanced adhesion and field emission of CuO nanowires synthesized by simply modified thermal oxidation technique.

    PubMed

    Tang, C M; Wang, Y B; Yao, R H; Ning, H L; Qiu, W Q; Liu, Z W

    2016-09-30

    Metal oxide nanowires (NWs) can be easily grown by the thermal oxidation method, but the low adhesion between the NWs and the substrate restricts their practical applications in functional devices. In this work, the conventional hotplate technique is simply modified by introducing one or two stainless steel plates to supply a more stable oxidation environment, which is found to be beneficial to the growth and adhesion of CuO NWs on the Cu substrate. In detail, the Cu foils were heated on the hotplate directly, on one plate over the hotplate, and between two plates over the hotplate at 400 °C in ambient condition. It is found that the NWs obtained between two plates exhibit large length and diameter with moderate density. The sufficient activated oxygen, stable temperature, and proper temperature gradient configuration caused by the two plates accelerate the formation of CuO NWs, and result in the longest NWs with enhanced adhesion. The grain-boundary diffusion and Kirkendall effect are proposed to explain the mechanism of NWs growth and the formation of cracks. The NWs obtained between two plates also showed the best field emission properties, with lowest turn-on field (5.31 V μm(-1)) and threshold field (9.8 V μm(-1)). Excellent field emission properties and enhanced NW-substrate adhesion indicate that these NW arrays could be potentially used as the cathode of field emission displays.

  6. Scalable Binder-Free Supersonic Cold Spraying of Nanotextured Cupric Oxide (CuO) Films as Efficient Photocathodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Min-Woo; An, Seongpil; Jo, Hong Seok; Nervi, Carlo; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Swihart, Mark T; Yoon, Sam S

    2016-06-22

    We demonstrate production of nanotextured p-type cupric oxide (CuO) films via a low-cost scalable supersonic cold spray method in open air conditions. Simply sweeping the spray nozzle across a substrate produced a large-scale CuO film. When used as hydrogen evolution photocathodes, these films produced photocurrent densities (PCD) of up to 3.1 mA/cm(2) under AM1.5 illumination, without the use of a cocatalyst or any additional heterojunction layers. Cu2O particles were supersonically sprayed onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated soda lime glass (SLG) substrate, without any solvent or binder. Annealing in air converted the Cu2O films to CuO, with a corresponding decrease in the bandgap and increase in the fraction of the solar spectrum absorbed. Annealing at 600 °C maximized the PCD. Increasing the supersonic gas velocity from ∼450 to ∼700 m/s produced denser films with greater surface roughness, in turn producing higher PCD. The nanoscale texture of the films, which resembles the skin of a dinosaur, enhanced their performance, leading to one of the highest PCD values in the literature. We characterized the films by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy to elucidate the origins of their outstanding performance. This supersonic cold spraying deposition has the potential to be used on a commercial scale for low cost mass production. PMID:27232695

  7. Mixed alkali effect on the spectroscopic properties of alkali-alkaline earth oxide borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, G.; Ramesh, B.; Shareefuddin, Md.; Chary, M. N.; Sayanna, R.

    2016-05-01

    The mixed alkali and alkaline earth oxide borate glass with the composition xK2O - (25-x) Li2O-12.5BaO-12.5MgO-50B2O3 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25mol %) and doped with 1mol% CuO were prepared by the melt quenching technique. From the optical absorption spectra the optical band gap, electronic polarizability(α02-), interaction parameter (A), theoretical and experimental optical basicity (Λ) values were evaluated. From the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectral data the number of spins (N) and susceptibility (χ) were evaluated. The values of (α02-), and (Λ) increases with increasing of K2O content and electronic polarizability and interaction parameter show opposite behaviuor which may be due to the creation of non-bridging oxygens and expansion of borate network. The reciprocal of susceptibility (1/χ) and spin concentration (N) as a function of K2O content, varied nonlinearly which may be due to creation of non-bridging oxygens in the present glass system. This may be attributed to mixed alkali effect (MAE).

  8. Voltammetric studies on the palladium oxides in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Moo Cheol Jeong; In Hyeong Yeo . Dept. of Chemistry); Chong Hong Pyun . Solid State Chemistry Lab.)

    1993-07-01

    The formation and stripping of palladium oxides on a palladium electrode in a 0.1M LiOH solution was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Cyclic polarization methods were used to form palladium oxides on the surface of the palladium electrode. Three different types of palladium oxides were found to be formed in alkaline solutions. A higher oxidation state of palladium oxide (PdO[sub 3]) can be formed (induced) on the surface of the electrode even at low anodic potential limit, 0.6 V (vs. SCE). Strong evidence that PdO[sub 3] can only be formed in a specific potential range is presented. From the voltammograms obtained after a long cyclic polarization time, the peak in the range of [minus]0.47 to [minus]0.60 V could be attributed to the reduction of dehydrated PdO.

  9. Semiconducting composite oxide Y2CuO4-5CuO thin films for investigation of photoelectrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sohail; Mansoor, Muhammad Adil; Mazhar, Muhammad; Söhnel, Tilo; Khaledi, Hamid; Basirun, Wan Jefrey; Arifin, Zainudin; Abubakar, Shahzad; Muhammad, Bakhtiar

    2014-06-14

    An octa-nuclear heterobimetallic complex [Y2Cu6Cl0.7(dmae)6(OAc)7.3(OH)4(H2O)2]·3H2O·0.3CH3C6H5 (dmae = dimethylaminoethanoate; OAc = acetato) was synthesized, characterized by melting point analysis, elemental analysis, FT-IR, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and implemented at 600 °C under an oxygen atmosphere for the deposition of Y2CuO4-5CuO composite thin films by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). The chemical composition and surface morphology of the deposited thin film have been determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis that suggest the formation of impurity-free crystallite mixtures of the Y2CuO4-5CuO composite, with well-defined evenly distributed particles in the size range of 19-24 nm. An optical band gap energy of 1.82 eV was estimated by UV-visible spectrophotometry. PEC studies show that under illumination with a 150 W halogen lamp and at a potential of 0.8 V, a photocurrent density of 9.85 μA cm(-2) was obtained. PMID:24756425

  10. Indium oxide (In2O3) nanoparticles induce progressive lung injury distinct from lung injuries by copper oxide (CuO) and nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jiyoung; Kim, Jeongeun; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Cho, Wan-Seob

    2016-04-01

    Indium is an essential element in the manufacture of liquid crystal displays and other electronic devices, and several forms of indium compounds have been developed, including nanopowders, films, nanowires, and indium metal complexes. Although there are several reports on lung injury caused by indium-containing compounds, the toxicity of nanoscale indium oxide (In2O3) particles has not been reported. Here, we compared lung injury induced by a single exposure to In2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) to that caused by benchmark high-toxicity nickel oxide (NiO) and copper oxide (CuO) NPs. In2O3 NPs at doses of 7.5, 30, and 90 cm(2)/rat (50, 200, and 600 µg/rat) were administered to 6-week-old female Wistar rats via pharyngeal aspiration, and lung inflammation was evaluated 1, 3, 14, and 28 days after treatment. Neutrophilic inflammation was observed on day 1 and worsened until day 28, and severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) was observed on post-aspiration days 14 and 28. In contrast, pharyngeal aspiration of NiO NPs showed severe neutrophilic inflammation on day 1 and lymphocytic inflammation with PAP on day 28. Pharyngeal aspiration of CuO NPs showed severe neutrophilic inflammation on day 1, but symptoms were completely resolved after 14 days and no PAP was observed. The dose of In2O3 NPs that produced progressive neutrophilic inflammation and PAP was much less than the doses of other toxic particles that produced this effect, including crystalline silica and NiO NPs. These results suggest that occupational exposure to In2O3 NPs can cause severe lung injury.

  11. Oxidation of ammonia and methane in an alkaline, saline lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joye, S.B.; Connell, T.L.; Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.; Jellison, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The oxidation of ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) was investigated in an alkaline saline lake, Mono Lake, California (U.S.A.). Ammonia oxidation was examined in April and July 1995 by comparing dark 14CO2 fixation rates in the presence or absence of methyl fluoride (MeF), an inhibitor of NH3 oxidation. Ammonia oxidizer-mediated dark 14CO2 fixation rates were similar in surface (5-7 m) and oxycline (11-15 m) waters, ranging between 70-340 and 89-186 nM d-1, respectively, or 1-7% of primary production by phytoplankton. Ammonia oxidation rates ranged between 580-2,830 nM d-1 in surface waters and 732-1,548 nM d-1 in oxycline waters. Methane oxidation was examined using a 14CH4 tracer technique in July 1994, April 1995, and July 1995. Methane oxidation rates were consistently higher in July, and rates in oxycline and anaerobic bottom waters (0.5-37 and 7-48 nM d-1, respectively) were 10-fold higher than those in aerobic surface waters (0.04-3.8 nM d-1). The majority of CH4 oxidation, in terms of integrated activity, occurred within anoxic bottom waters. Water column oxidation reduced the potential lake-atmosphere CH4 flux by a factor of two to three. Measured oxidation rates and water column concentrations were used to estimate the biological turnover times of NH3 and CH4. The NH3 pool turns over rapidly, on time scales of 0.8 d in surface waters and 10 d within the oxycline, while CH4 is cycled on 103-d time scales in surface waters and 102-d time scales within oxycline and bottom waters. Our data suggest an important role for NH3 oxidation in alkaline, saline lakes since the process converts volatile NH3 to soluble NO2-, thereby reducing loss via lake-atmosphere exchange and maintaining nitrogen in a form that is readily available to phytoplankton.

  12. 3D hierarchical walnut-like CuO nanostructures: Preparation, characterization and their efficient catalytic activity for CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Weitang; Zhang, Yujuan; Duan, Tao; Zhu, Wenkun; Yi, Zao; Cui, Xudong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, 3D hierarchical walnut-shaped, 2D nanosheet and 3D microspheres single phase CuO nanostructures are functioning as catalysts and supporting materials, differing from the conventional ways. The novel nanostructures were synthesized via hydrothermal method under a stainless steel autoclave. The as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR). The walnut-shaped structures with high O/Cu atomic ratio (1.22) exhibit high oxygen adsorption capacity and greatly enhanced catalytic activity. These results will be enrich the techniques for tuning the morphologies of metal oxide micro/nanostructures and open a new field in catalytic applications.

  13. Structural and dielectric properties of Mn doped copper oxide (CuO) nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Shakeel; Ahmed, Hilal; Nongjai, Razia

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and Mn doped CuO nanocrystalline powder samples were prepared through standard solid state reaction method. The crystal structures of the CuO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Dielectric measurements were performed on samples as a function of frequency at room temperate to determine the dielectric behavior of the samples. XRD data exhibited the presence of monoclinic crystal structure similar to the parent compound in all samples, suggesting that doped Mn ions sit at the regular lattice sites. The average crystallite size, calculated using Scherrer formula from XRD data, is found within the range of 23-27 nm. The dielectric constant (ɛ'), imaginary part of dielectric constant (ɛ") and loss tangent (tanδ) were studied as a function of frequency and composition at room temperature. The dependence of dielectric constant (ɛ') on frequency suggests a conduction mechanism in terms of hopping. This behavior can be explained on the basis of space charge polarization according to Maxwell and Wagner's two-layer model.

  14. Structure and Bonding of Tungsten Oxide Clusters on Nanostructured Cu-O Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Margareta; Surnev, Svetlozar; Ramsey, Michael; Barcaro, Giovanni; Sementa, Luca; Negreiros, Fabio R.; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Netzer, Falko P.

    2011-12-01

    (WO3)3 gas-phase clusters generated via vacuum sublimation are deposited under UHV and low temperature (5 K) conditions on a Cu(110) 'stripe' phase consisting of alternating Cu-O (2x1) and clean Cu regions. STM imaging shows that the clusters adsorb as intact units on both substrates, and the suggested adsorption geometries are confirmed by density-functional (DF) simulations. On the clean surface the overall distortion is minor and we are able to image the nodal structure of an individual molecular orbital in the STM at low bias, whereas on the Cu-O surface both the clusters and the substrate are significantly distorted, due to the strong oxygen affinity of W atoms. On both surfaces cluster and Cu electronic states are appreciably mixed, and electron charge is donated by the surface to the cluster. The experimentally STS-determined DOS signature of the adsorption complex consists in two peaks across the Fermi energy and is well reproduced by the DF calculations.

  15. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar

    DOE PAGES

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J.; Fountain, Mackenzie; Ralph, John; Hodge, David B.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-02-09

    Background: Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Results: Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10more » h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar. In conclusion: This study demonstrated that the fed

  16. Dissolution of Uranium Oxides Under Alkaline Oxidizing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven C.; Peper, Shane M.; Douglas, Matthew; Ziegelgruber, Kate L.; Finn, Erin C.

    2009-11-01

    Bench scale experiments were conducted to determine the dissolution characteristics of uranium oxide powders (UO2, U3O8, and UO3) in aqueous peroxide-carbonate solutions. Experimental parameters included H2O2 concentration, carbonate counter cation (NH4+, Na+, K+, and Rb+), and pH. Results indicate the dissolution rate of UO2 in 1 M (NH4)2CO3 increases linearly with peroxide concentration ranging from 0.05 – 2 M. The three uranium oxide powders exhibited different dissolution patterns however, UO3 exhibited prompt complete dissolution. Carbonate counter cation affected the dissolution kinetics. There is minimal impact of solution pH, over the range 8.8 to 10.6, on initial dissolution rate.

  17. CuO nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, optical properties and interaction with amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Trass, A.; ElShamy, H.; El-Mehasseb, I.; El-Kemary, M.

    2012-01-01

    Cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles with an average size of 6 nm have been successfully prepared by an alcothermal method. The prepared CuO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. A strong sharp emission under UV excitation is reported from the prepared CuO nanoparticles. The results show that the CuO nanoparticles have high dispersion and narrow size distribution. The fluorescence emission spectra display an intense sharp emission at 365 nm and weak broad intensity emission at 470 nm. Picosecond fluorescence measurements of the nanoparticles suggest bi-exponential function giving time constants of τ1 (330 ps, 94.21%) and τ2 (4.69 ns, 5.79%). In neutral and alkaline solutions, Zeta potential values of CuO nanoparticles are negative, due to the adsorption of COO- group via the coordination of bidentate. At low pH the zeta potential value is positive due to the increased potential of H+ ions in solution. Comparative UV-visible absorption experiments with the model amino acid compounds of positive and negative charges as arginine and aspartic acid, respectively confirmed the negative surface of CuO nanoparticles. The results should be extremely useful for understanding the mode of the interaction with biological systems. This binding process also affects the particle's behavior inside the body.

  18. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düzenli, Derya; Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter; Onal, Isik

    2015-11-01

    This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu2O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu2O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu+ species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.

  19. Thermoelectric Properties of Barium Plumbate Doped by Alkaline Earth Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Andreza; Bhatta, Rudra; Pegg, Ian; Dutta, Biprodas

    Ceramic oxides are now being considered as a new class of thermoelectric materials because of their high stability at elevated temperatures. Such materials are especially suitable for use as prospective thermoelectric power generators because high temperatures are encountered in such operations. The present investigation uses barium plumbate (BaPbO3) as the starting material, the thermoelectric properties of which have been altered by judicious cation substitutions. BaPbO3 is known to exhibit metallic properties which may turn semiconducting as a result of compositional changes without precipitating a separate phase and/or altering the basic perovskite crystal structure. Perovskite structures are noted for their large interstitial spaces which can accommodate a large variety of ``impurity'' ions. As BaPbO3 has high electrical conductivity, σ = 2.43x105Ω-1 m-1 at room temperature, its thermopower, S, is relatively low, 23 μV/K, as expected. With a thermal conductivity, k, of 4.83Wm-1K-1, the figure of merit (ZT =S2 σ Tk-1) of BaPbO3 is only 0.01 at T = 300K. The objective of this investigation is to study the variation of thermoelectric properties of BaPbO3 as Ba and Pb ions are systematically substituted by alkaline earth ions.

  20. Active sites over CuO/CeO2 and inverse CeO2/CuO catalysts for preferential CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shanghong; Wang, Yan; Ding, Suping; Sattler, Jesper J. H. B.; Borodina, Elena; Zhang, Lu; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Su, Haiquan

    2014-06-01

    A series of CuO/CeO2 and inverse CeO2/CuO catalysts are prepared by the surfactant-templated method and characterized via XRD, HRTEM, H2-TPR, SEM, XPS, in situ XRD, in situ UV-Vis and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. It is found that there are two kinds of surface sites in the CuO-CeO2 system, including CuO surface sites for CO chemisorption and CeO2 surface sites with oxygen vacancies for oxygen sorption. The active sites for CO oxidation are located on the contact interface of two-kind surface sites and the lattice oxygen can make a significant contribution to the CO-PROX reaction. The resistance to H2O and CO2 is related to BET surface area, the crystallite sizes of CuO and the reduction behavior of catalysts. The Ce4Cu4 and Ce4Cu1 catalysts exhibit the best resistance against H2O and CO2.

  1. Characterization and Oxidation of Chromium(III) by Sodium Hypochlorite in Alkaline Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Huijian; Rao, Linfeng; Zhang, Zhicheng; Rai, Dhanpat

    2006-07-01

    Chromium exists in nuclear waste sludges and is a problematic element in the vitrification process of high-level nuclear wastes. It is therefore necessary to treat the waste sludges to remove chromium prior to vitrification, by caustic leaching or oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI). The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oligomerization of Cr(III) on its oxidation by hypochlorite in alkaline solutions. Monomeric, dimeric and trimeric Cr(III) species in solution were separated by ion exchange. The kinetics of the oxidation of the separated species by hypochlorite in alkaline solutions was studied by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, and compared with the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide previously studied. Results indicate that hypochlorite can oxidize Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in alkaline solutions, but the rate of oxidation by hypochlorite is slower than that by hydrogen peroxide at the same alkalinity and concentrations of oxidants. The rate of oxidation of Cr(III) by both oxidants decreases as the concentration of sodium hydroxide is increased, but the oxidation by hypochlorite seems less affected by the degree of oligomerization of Cr(III) than that by peroxide. Compared with the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide where the major reaction pathway has an inverse order with respect to CNaOH, the oxidation by hypochlorite has a significant reaction pathway independent of [OH?].

  2. A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

    2013-07-01

    Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days.

  3. A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

    2013-07-01

    Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days. PMID:23711947

  4. Quantum efficiency and bandgap analysis for combinatorial photovoltaics: sorting activity of Cu-O compounds in all-oxide device libraries.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Assaf Y; Bouhadana, Yaniv; Barad, Hannah-Noa; Kupfer, Benjamin; Rosh-Hodesh, Eli; Aviv, Hagit; Tischler, Yaakov R; Rühle, Sven; Zaban, Arie

    2014-02-10

    All-oxide-based photovoltaics (PVs) encompass the potential for extremely low cost solar cells, provided they can obtain an order of magnitude improvement in their power conversion efficiencies. To achieve this goal, we perform a combinatorial materials study of metal oxide based light absorbers, charge transporters, junctions between them, and PV devices. Here we report the development of a combinatorial internal quantum efficiency (IQE) method. IQE measures the efficiency associated with the charge separation and collection processes, and thus is a proxy for PV activity of materials once placed into devices, discarding optical properties that cause uncontrolled light harvesting. The IQE is supported by high-throughput techniques for bandgap fitting, composition analysis, and thickness mapping, which are also crucial parameters for the combinatorial investigation cycle of photovoltaics. As a model system we use a library of 169 solar cells with a varying thickness of sprayed titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the window layer, and covarying thickness and composition of binary compounds of copper oxides (Cu-O) as the light absorber, fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). The analysis on the combinatorial devices shows the correlation between compositions and bandgap, and their effect on PV activity within several device configurations. The analysis suggests that the presence of Cu4O3 plays a significant role in the PV activity of binary Cu-O compounds.

  5. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  6. Promotion by tetrachloromethane of the oxidative coupling of methane on silica-supported alkaline earth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.; Moffat, J.B. )

    1990-02-01

    The introduction of a small quantity of tetrachloromethane (TEM) into the feed stream has been shown to remarkably enhance the oxidative coupling of methane over alkaline earth oxides supported on silica. That this enhancement, in terms of both selectivity and yield to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, occurs over a wide range of catalyst loading, feed composition, reaction temperature, and contact time has been illustrated using BaO/SiO{sub 2} as the catalyst. It has been demonstrated that over this catalyst, the coupling and nonselective oxidation processes occur predominantly independently of each other. The high ratio of C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/C{sub 2}H{sub 6} observed in the products is accounted for by the rapid homogeneous oxidative dehydrogenation of C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, a process which is evidently further enhanced by the presence of TCM. It is suggested that TCM promotes the coupling reaction by facilitating the hydrogen abstraction step from methane. Continuous cofeeding of the additive is required to maintain high selectivity and yield of C{sub 2} hydrocarbons in the products.

  7. An ionic model of the crystal chemistry in the superconducting copper oxides of stoichiometry (RE) 2CuO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringley, Joseph F.; Trail, Steven S.; Scott, Bruce A.

    1990-06-01

    The mixed rare earth systems La 2- xRE xCuO 4 (RE = NdY) have been investigated in an effort to understand the crystal chemistry and phase stability of the related K 2NiF 4 ( T)-, Nd 2CuO 4 ( T')-, and hybrid T∗-type structures. The crystal chemistry of these (RE) 2CuO 4 phases is then discussed on the basis of a simple ionic model. A definitive correlation between the size of the RE cation and structure is found, and the stability limits of the T, T', and T∗ phases are defined in terms of a perovskite-like tolerance factor ( t). The T structure is found to exist for 0.87 ≤ t ≤ 0.99, while the T' structure occurs for 0.83 ≤ t ≤ 0.86. The smallest rare earths, or t ≤ 0.83, do not form stable (RE) 2CuO 4 compounds. The T∗ structure occurs in a very narrow region adjacent to the boundary of the {T}/{T'} stability field and is seen as resulting from a thermodynamic competition between the T and T' structures, due to a tendency toward {T}/{T'}- site ordering. Metastable T∗ phases are observed for the larger rare earths Nd, Eu, and Gd, but the structure becomes quite stable for RE = Tb, Dy. Where both T' and T∗ are of comparable thermodynamic stability, high oxygen activity is found to stabilize T∗, whereas low oxygen activity favors T'. The role of RE coordination preferences and the influence of the REO framework upon the structure and properties of these materials are discussed.

  8. Imaging the photodissociation dynamics of neutral metal clusters: copper dimer, Cu2, and copper oxide, CuO.

    PubMed

    Parry, Imogen S; Hermes, Alexander C; Kartouzian, Aras; Mackenzie, Stuart R

    2014-01-14

    The spectroscopy and UV photodissociation dynamics of Cu2 and CuO have been studied using a combination of one- and two-colour excitation and velocity map imaging. Resonant excitation of Cu2 via the J ← X (1)Σg(+) transition leads to significant fragmentation which is interpreted in terms of a combination of direct dissociation of Cu2(+ 2)Π produced in the resonant two-photon ionization process and dissociation of excited Cu2 states above the ionization threshold. By fitting of the kinetic energy release spectra obtained from the velocity map images, we determine a value for the dissociation energy of the cation of D0 (Cu2(+), X (2)Σg(+)) of 1.713 ± 0.025 eV, which, when combined with known ionization energies, yields D0 (Cu2, X (1)Σg(+)) = 1.886 ± 0.026 eV. In other experiments, resonant two colour (1 + 1') excitation of CuO via a range of excited states (C, D, F, H), yields unusually simple VMI images indicating fragmentation into a single dissociation channel which has been identified as Cu* (2)D3/2 + O* (1)D. Taken together, this data gives a CuO bond dissociation energy of 3.041 ± 0.030 eV. Finally, the production of Cu2(+) with kinetic energy = 705 ± 75 cm(-1) is tentatively interpreted as photolysis of Cu3 yielding Cu* + Cu2 X (1)Σg(+) from which a dissociation energy of Cu3 of 0.605 ± 0.030 eV is deduced. PMID:24072103

  9. Development of New Electrochemical Synthesis of Oxides: Electrolytic Deposition of La2CuO4 Thick Layer on Zirconia Surface in Molten Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tetsurō; Natsuhara, Masuhiro; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Itoh, Mitsuru

    1991-08-01

    A new method for electrochemical synthesis of oxides in molten salt was developed. The following galvanic cell was assembled and electrolysis was carried out at 973 K between the electrodes LaB6 vs Pt/O2 and between Cu vs Pt/O2 simultaneously. Pt, LaB6 |80%KCl-14%NaCl-(6-x)%LaCl3-x%CuCl2|ZrO2(Y2O3)|O2, Pt Pt, Cu Formation of almost-single-phased La2CuO4 on the ZrO2(Y2O3) surface was confirmed when the ratio of electric currents passed through electrodes LaB6 vs Pt/O2 and Cu vs Pt/O2 was controlled to 3:1.1 and the molten salt composition was fixed at 80%KCl-14%NaCl-6%LaCl3.

  10. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-23

    Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

  11. Relaxor ferroelectric-like high effective permittivity in leaky dielectrics/oxide semiconductors induced by electrode effects: A case study of CuO ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Feteira, Antonio; Sinclair, Derek C.

    2009-06-01

    The electrical behavior of copper oxide (CuO) ceramics sintered at 920 °C has been characterized by a combination of fixed, radio frequency (rf) capacitance measurements, and impedance spectroscopy (IS). Fixed rf capacitance measurements on ceramics with sputtered Au electrodes revealed a temperature- and frequency-dependent high effective permittivity of ˜104 in the temperature range of 150-320 K. The response is similar to that observed for relaxor-ferroelectrics, however, the magnitude of the effect can be suppressed by thermal annealing of the ceramics with Au electrodes in air at 300 °C or by changing the work function of the electrode material by using In-Ga as opposed to Au. IS data analysis revealed the ceramics to be electrically heterogeneous semiconductors with a room temperature dc resistivity <104 Ω cm, consisting of semiconducting grains with relative permittivity, ɛr, <10 and slightly more resistive grain boundaries with "effective" permittivity, ɛeff, of ˜110. Samples with Au electrodes exhibited an additional low frequency response with ɛeff˜104. dc bias experiments showed the capacitance behavior of this additional response to obey the Mott-Schottky law and thus confirm it to be a non-Ohmic electrode contact. We conclude, therefore, that an electrode rather than a grain boundary effect is the primary source for the high effective permittivity in CuO ceramics, although the latter is also present and does give additional effective permittivity. This work demonstrates how an extrinsic effect associated with non-Ohmic electrode contacts can; (i) dominate the rf capacitance spectra of leaky dielectrics/oxide semiconductors over a wide temperature and frequency range; and, (ii) manifest a dielectric response more typically associated with relaxor-ferroelectrics.

  12. The Nature of Surface Oxides on Corrosion-Resistant Nickel Alloy Covered by Alkaline Water

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A nickel alloy with high chrome and molybdenum content was found to form a highly resistive and passive oxide layer. The donor density and mobility of ions in the oxide layer has been determined as a function of the electrical potential when alkaline water layers are on the alloy surface in order to account for the relative inertness of the nickel alloy in corrosive environments. PMID:20672134

  13. Nickel hydroxide deposited indium tin oxide electrodes as electrocatalysts for direct oxidation of carbohydrates in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Farzana, S.; Berchmans, Sheela

    In this work, the direct electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates using nickel hydroxide modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes in alkaline medium is demonstrated; suggesting the feasibility of using carbohydrates as a novel fuel in alkaline fuel cells applications. The chosen monosaccharides are namely glucose and fructose; disaccharides such as sucrose and lactose; and sugar acid like ascorbic acid for this study. ITO electrodes are chemically modified using a hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline phase template electrodeposition of nickel. Structural morphology, growth, orientation and electrochemical behaviour of Ni deposits are characterized using SEM, XRD, XPS and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. Further electrochemical potential cycling process in alkaline medium is employed to convert these Ni deposits into corresponding nickel hydroxide modified electrodes. These electrodes are used as novel platform to perform the electrocatalytic oxidation of various carbohydrates in alkaline medium. It was found that bare and Ni coated ITO electrodes are inactive towards carbohydrates oxidation. The heterogeneous rate constant values are determined and calculated to be two orders of magnitude higher in the case of template method when compared to non-template technique. The observed effect is attributed to the synergistic effect of higher surface area of these deposits and catalytic ability of Ni(II)/Ni(III) redox couple.

  14. Desulphurization of coal via low temperature atmospheric alkaline oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaicheng; Yang, Ji; Jia, Jinping; Wang, Yaling

    2008-03-01

    Different from other options which usually required strict conditions, a method combining atmospheric oxidization and chemical cleaning with alkali solutions was employed to desulphur coals at temperature around 90 degrees C. The data show that 66% organic sulphur, 44% sulphide sulphur, and 15% pyrite sulphur were lost when the coal was treated in 0.25M NaOH at 90 degrees C, while the solution being aerated at the flow rate of 0.136m3h(-1). The rate increased to 73% for organic sulphur, 83% for sulphide sulphur and 84% for pyrite sulphur when the previous coal was further treated in acidic solution containing HCl at pH 1 for another hour. The mechanism of desulphurization was explored using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared. It was found out that the bond of -CS was broken by atmospheric oxygen in basic environment, leading to the lost of organic sulphur in coal. Scanning electron microscope data show that the physical structure of the coal was not adversely affected by the treatment and thermogravimetric analysis results prove that the pyrolysis behavior remained unchanged, indicating that the burning process of the coal would not be adversely affected. Unlike other oxidizing methods, this technique does not lower the heating value of the coal which was manifested by relevant data.

  15. Surface energetics of alkaline-earth metal oxides: Trends in stability and adsorption of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajdich, Michal; Nørskov, Jens K.; Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    We present a systematic theoretical investigation of the surface properties, stability, and reactivity of rocksalt type alkaline-earth metal oxides including MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO. The accuracy of commonly used exchange-correlation density functionals (LDA, PBE, RPBE, PBEsol, BEEF-vdW, and hybrid HSE) and random-phase approximation (RPA) is evaluated and compared to existing experimental values. Calculated surface energies of the four most stable surface facets under vacuum conditions, the (100) surface, the metal and oxygen terminated octopolar (111), and the (110) surfaces, exhibit a monotonic increase in stability from MgO to BaO. On the MgO(100) surface, adsorption of CO, NO, and CH4 is characterized by physisorption while H2O chemisorbs, which is in agreement with experimental findings. We further use the on-top metal adsorption of CO and NO molecules to map out the surface energetics of each alkaline-earth metal oxide surface. The considered functionals all qualitatively predict similar adsorption energy trends. The ordering between the adsorption energies on different surface facets can be attributed to differences in the local geometrical surface structure and the electronic structure of the metal constituent of the alkaline-earth metal oxide. The striking observation that CO adsorption strength is weaker than NO adsorption on the (100) terraces as the period of the alkaline-earth metal in the oxide increases is analyzed in detail in terms of charge redistribution within the σ and π channels of adsorbates. Finally, we also present oxygen adsorption and oxygen vacancy formation energies in these oxide systems.

  16. Effect of organics and alkalinity on the sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sedky H A; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The environmental risk assessment of toxic chemicals in stream water requires the use of a low cost standardized toxicity bioassay. Here, a biosensor for detection of toxic chemicals in stream water was studied using sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in continuous mode. The biosensor depends on the ability of SOB to oxidize sulfur particles under aerobic conditions to produce sulfuric acid. The reaction results in an increase in electrical conductivity (EC) and a decrease in pH. The biosensor is based on the inhibition of SOB in the presence of toxic chemicals by measuring changes in EC and pH. We found that the SOB biosensor can detect Cr(6+)at a low concentration (50 ppb) which is lower than many whole-cell biosensors. The effect of organic material in real stream water on SOB activity was studied. Due to the presence of mixotrophic SOB, we found that the presence of organic matter increases SOB activity which decreases the biosensor start up period. Low alkalinity (22 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)) increased effluent EC and decreased effluent pH which is optimal for biosensor operation. While at high alkalinity (820 mg L(-1) CaCO(3), the activity of SOB little decreased. We found that system can detect 50 ppb of Cr(6+) at low alkalinity (22 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)) in few hours while, complete inhibition was observed after 35 h of operation at high alkalinity (820 mg L(-1) CaCO(3)). PMID:22840537

  17. Cation effects in the oxidative coupling of methane on silica-supported binary alkali and alkaline earths

    SciTech Connect

    Voyatzis, R.; Moffat, J.B. )

    1993-07-01

    The oxidative coupling of methane has been investigated with a series of silica-supported binary oxide catalysts containing alkali or alkaline earths or combinations of the former and latter. The conversion of methane and the stability of the silica-supported binary alkali metal oxides were found to increase with decreasing cation mobility, while the selectivities and conversions observed with the binary alkaline earths increase with cation size. The selectivities and conversions of binary alkali/alkaline earths appear to depend upon the size of the alkali and alkaline earth cations, respectively. With small quantities of TCM (CCl[sub 4]) added continuously to the feedstream, catalysts containing small alkali and large alkaline earth cations produced the largest selectivities and conversions. 23 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts. Results Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80°C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (~20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and β-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation. Conclusions This work demonstrates that this two

  19. Anodically Electrodeposited Iridium Oxide Films (AEIROF) from Alkaline Solutions for Electrochromic Display Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Kazusuke

    1989-04-01

    Anodically electrodeposited iridium oxide films from alkaline solutions were investigated for application to electrochromic devices. Micro-crystalline (diameter: 15Å) films obtained by the electrolysis of aqueous alkaline solutions containing iridium chloride, oxalic acid and potassium carbonate showed good electrochromic reaction reversibility. The coloration efficiency of the films was about one third that of typical evaporated tungsten oxide films, and the response rate measured by the amount of injected charge was about double. The cycle lives of the cells, composed of electrodeposited films, 1M H3PO4-NaOH (pH{=}3˜ 5), and an activated carbon cloth, were more than 8× 106 with a 0.6 V, 1 Hz continuous square wave.

  20. A facile chemical route for recovery of high quality zinc oxide nanoparticles from spent alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Deep, Akash; Sharma, Amit L; Mohanta, Girish C; Kumar, Parveen; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Recycling of spent domestic batteries has gained a great environmental significance. In the present research, we propose a new and simple technique for the recovery of high-purity zinc oxide nanoparticles from the electrode waste of spent alkaline Zn-MnO2 batteries. The electrode material was collected by the manual dismantling and mixed with 5M HCl for reaction with a phosphine oxide reagent Cyanex 923® at 250°C for 30min. The desired ZnO nanoparticles were restored from the Zn-Cyanex 923 complex through an ethanolic precipitation step. The recovered particle product with about 5nm diameter exhibited fluorescent properties (emission peak at 400nm) when excited by UV radiation (excitation energy of 300nm). Thus, the proposed technique offered a simple and efficient route for recovering high purity ZnO nanoparticles from spent alkaline batteries. PMID:26851168

  1. A facile chemical route for recovery of high quality zinc oxide nanoparticles from spent alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Deep, Akash; Sharma, Amit L; Mohanta, Girish C; Kumar, Parveen; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Recycling of spent domestic batteries has gained a great environmental significance. In the present research, we propose a new and simple technique for the recovery of high-purity zinc oxide nanoparticles from the electrode waste of spent alkaline Zn-MnO2 batteries. The electrode material was collected by the manual dismantling and mixed with 5M HCl for reaction with a phosphine oxide reagent Cyanex 923® at 250°C for 30min. The desired ZnO nanoparticles were restored from the Zn-Cyanex 923 complex through an ethanolic precipitation step. The recovered particle product with about 5nm diameter exhibited fluorescent properties (emission peak at 400nm) when excited by UV radiation (excitation energy of 300nm). Thus, the proposed technique offered a simple and efficient route for recovering high purity ZnO nanoparticles from spent alkaline batteries.

  2. Occurrence and activity of iron and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms in alkaline coal strip mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.J.; McFeters, G.A.; Temple, K.L.

    1980-03-01

    Spoils samples collected from a coal strip mine in southeastern Montana were examined for populations and activities of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Spoils examined were of three types: (1) acidic pyrite-rich waste coal, (2) oxidation halo material, and (3) alkaline, which was the most widespread type. Bacterial numbers, sulfur oxidation, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake activity declined to low levels in the summer when spoils were dry. Even in wetter spring months pyritic spoils contained relatively low numbers of acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, probably indicative of water stress since the same spoils incubated with excess water or dilute mineral salts showed considerably greater bacterial numbers and activity. Certain wells in coal and spoils aquifers contained substantial populations of iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria. However, these wells were always of alkaline or neutral pH indicating that bacterial pyrite oxidation occurred in localized areas where groundwaters contacted either replaced spoils or coal which contained either pyrite or other metal sulfides. Bacterial activity may contribute to trace metal and sulfate leaching which occur in the area.

  3. Occurrence and activity of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms in alkaline coal strip mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.J.; McFeters, G.A.; Temple, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Spoils samples collected from a coal strip mine in southeastern Montana were examined for populations and activities of iron-and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. Spoils examined were of three types: (a) acidic pyrite-rich waste coal; (b) oxidation halo material; and (c) alkaline material, which was the most widespread type. Bacterial numbers, sulphur oxidation and /SUP/1/SUP/4CO/SUB/2 uptake activity declined to low levels in the summer when spoils were dry. Even in wetter spring months pyritic spoils contained relatively low numbers of acidophilic iron- and sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, probably indicative of water stress since the same spoils incubated with excess water or dilute mineral salts showed considerably greater bacterial numbers and activity. Certain wells in coal and spoils aquifers contained substantial populations of iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria. However, these wells were always of alkaline or neutral pH, indicating that bacterial pyrite oxidation occurred where groundwaters contacted either replaced spoils of coal that contained pyrite or other metal sulphides. Bacterial activity may contribute to trace metal and sulphate leaching in the area. (27 refs.)

  4. Occurrence and activity of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms in alkaline coal strip mine spoils.

    PubMed

    Olson, G J; McFeters, G A; Temple, K L

    1981-03-01

    Spoils samples collected from a coal strip mine in southeastern Montana were examined for populations and activities of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Spoils examined were of three types: (a) acidic pyrite-rich waste coal, (b) oxidation halo material, and (c) alkaline material, which was the most widespread type. Bacterial numbers, sulfur oxidation, and(14)CO2 uptake activity declined to low levels in the summer when spoils were dry. Even in wetter spring months pyritic spoils contained relatively low numbers of acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, probably indicative of water stress since the same spoils incubated with excess water or dilute mineral salts showed considerably greater bacterial numbers and activity. Certain wells in coal and spoils aquifers contained substantial populations of iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria. However, these wells were always of alkaline or neutral pH, indicating that bacterial pyrite oxidation occurred where groundwaters contacted either replaced spoils or coal that contained pyrite or other metal sulfides. Bacterial activity may contribute to trace metal and sulfate leaching in the area.

  5. Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide as a novel oxygen storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Qiang; Yin, Shu; Yoshida, Mizuki; Wu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Bin; Miura, Akira; Takei, Takahiro; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Sato, Tsugio

    2015-09-15

    Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) hollow nanospheres with a diameter of 50 nm have been synthesized successfully via a facial solvothermal route in a very simple system composed of only ethanol, acetic acid, SnCl{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O and A(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·xH{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). The synthesized undoped SnO{sub 2} and A-doped SnO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres were characterized by the oxygen storage capacity (OSC), X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) technique. The OSC values of all samples were measured using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. The incorporation of alkaline earth metal ion into tin oxide greatly enhanced the thermal stability and OSC. Especially, Ba-doped SnO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres calcined at 1000 °C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 61 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 457 μmol-O g{sup −1} and good thermal stability. Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide has the potential to be a novel oxygen storage material.

  6. Reactive oxygen species accelerate degradation of anion exchange membranes based on polyphenylene oxide in alkaline environments.

    PubMed

    Parrondo, Javier; Wang, Zhongyang; Jung, Min-Suk J; Ramani, Vijay

    2016-07-20

    Anion exchange membranes (AEM) based on polyphenylene oxide (PPO) suffered quaternary-ammonium-cation-site degradation in alkaline environments. Surprisingly, the degradation rate was considerably faster in the presence of molecular oxygen. We postulated that the AEM cation-site catalyzes the reduction of dioxygen by hydroxide ions to yield the superoxide anion radical and the highly reactive hydroxyl free radical. We substantiated our hypothesis by using a phosphorous-containing spin trap (5-diisopropoxy-phosphoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide) to detect the adducts for both free radicals in situ using (31)P-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:27381009

  7. Recent progress in electrochemical oxidation of saccharides at gold and copper electrodes in alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Torto, Nelson

    2009-09-01

    This article reviews the progress made in the past 10 years, on electrochemical oxidation of saccharides in alkaline media for gold and copper electrodes. The mechanism and processes associated with the electrochemical oxidation of saccharides at native and surface coated electrodes continues to be of great interest. Despite the effort and various mechanisms proposed, still the need for an electrochemically active material that understands the complexity associated with saccharides continues to increase as their detection poses a challenge for bioanalytical chemistry and liquid chromatography.

  8. CuO nanoparticles incorporated in hierarchical MFI zeolite as highly active electrocatalyst for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Dong, Junping; Tian, Taolei; Ren, Linxiao; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Jiaqiang; Cheng, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical MFI zeolite, with typical micro/meso bimodal pore structures, was prepared by desilication method. CuO nanoparticles (NPs) were incorporated into the hierarchical MFI zeolite by impregnation method. CuO/hierarchical zeolite composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption. It is shown that the CuO nanoparticles are mostly dispersed in the mesopores with remaining of the crystallinity and morphology of the host zeolite. CuO nanoparticles located in hierarchical zeolite exhibit the excellent electrocatalytic performances to oxidation of glucose in alkaline media. The electrocatalytic activity enhances with increasing the loading content of CuO from 5% to 15%. The composites were fabricated for nonenzyme glucose sensing. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor shows a wide linear range from 5×10(-7) to 1.84×10(-2) M with a low detection limit of 3.7×10(-7) M. The sensor also exhibits good repeatability, long-term stability as well as high selectivity against interfering species. PMID:25499226

  9. CuO nanoparticles incorporated in hierarchical MFI zeolite as highly active electrocatalyst for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Dong, Junping; Tian, Taolei; Ren, Linxiao; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Jiaqiang; Cheng, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical MFI zeolite, with typical micro/meso bimodal pore structures, was prepared by desilication method. CuO nanoparticles (NPs) were incorporated into the hierarchical MFI zeolite by impregnation method. CuO/hierarchical zeolite composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption. It is shown that the CuO nanoparticles are mostly dispersed in the mesopores with remaining of the crystallinity and morphology of the host zeolite. CuO nanoparticles located in hierarchical zeolite exhibit the excellent electrocatalytic performances to oxidation of glucose in alkaline media. The electrocatalytic activity enhances with increasing the loading content of CuO from 5% to 15%. The composites were fabricated for nonenzyme glucose sensing. Under the optimal conditions, the sensor shows a wide linear range from 5×10(-7) to 1.84×10(-2) M with a low detection limit of 3.7×10(-7) M. The sensor also exhibits good repeatability, long-term stability as well as high selectivity against interfering species.

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine and its derivatives on the surface of metal electrodes in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asazawa, Koichiro; Yamada, Koji; Tanaka, Hirohisa; Taniguchi, Masatoshi; Oguro, Keisuke

    Electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine and its derivatives on the surface of various metal electrodes in alkaline media was investigated. A comparison of various polycrystalline metal electrodes (Ni, Co, Fe, Cu, Ag, Au, and Pt) showed that Co and Ni electrodes have a lower onset potential for hydrazine oxidation than the Pt electrode. The onset oxidation potential of APA (aminopolyacrylamide), a hydrazine derivative (-0.127 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE), was similar to that of hydrazine hydrate (-0.178 V vs. RHE) in the case of the Co electrode. APA oxidation was possible because of hydrazine desorption that was caused by APA hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction was brought about by a heat treatment. This result suggests that the hydrazine hydrolysis reaction of hydrazine derivatives makes it possible to store hydrazine hydrate safely.

  11. Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography of lignin-derived phenols from alkaline cupric oxide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingzhe; Lidén, Gunnar; Sandahl, Margareta; Turner, Charlotta

    2016-08-01

    Traditional chromatographic methods for the analysis of lignin-derived phenolic compounds in environmental samples are generally time consuming. In this work, an ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method with a diode array detector for the analysis of major lignin-derived phenolic compounds produced by alkaline cupric oxide oxidation was developed. In an analysis of a collection of 11 representative monomeric lignin phenolic compounds, all compounds were clearly separated within 6 min with excellent peak shapes, with a limit of detection of 0.5-2.5 μM, a limit of quantification of 2.5-5.0 μM, and a dynamic range of 5.0-2.0 mM (R(2) > 0.997). The new ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method was also applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignin-derived phenolic compounds obtained upon alkaline cupric oxide oxidation of a commercial humic acid. Ten out of the previous eleven model compounds could be quantified in the oxidized humic acid sample. The high separation power and short analysis time obtained demonstrate for the first time that supercritical fluid chromatography is a fast and reliable technique for the analysis of lignin-derived phenols in complex environmental samples. PMID:27452148

  12. Ab initio calculations on the positive ions of the alkaline-earth oxides, fluorides, and hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, H.; Langhoff, S. R.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical dissociation energies are presented for the alkaline-earth fluoride, hydroxide, and oxide positive ions that are considered to be accurate to 0.1-0.2 eV. The r(e) for the positive ions are found to be consistently shorter than the corresponding neutrals by 0.07 + or -0.02 A. The bonding in the ground states is demonstrated to be of predominantly M + 2 X - character. The a 3 Pi and A 1 Pi are found to lie considerably above the X 1 Sigma + ground states of the alkaline-earth fluoride and hydroxide positive ions. The overall agreement of the theoretical ionization potentials with the available experimental appearance potentials is satisfactory; these values should represent the most accurate and consistent set available.

  13. Theoretical study of the diatomic alkali and alkaline-earth oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, S. R.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Partridge, H.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical dissociation energies for the ground states of the alkali and alkaline earth oxides are presented that are believed to be accurate to 0.1 eV. The 2 Pi - 2 Sigma + separations for the alkali oxides are found to be more sensitive to basis set than to electron correlation. Predicted 2 Pi ground states for LiO and NaO and 2 Sigma + ground states for RbO and CsO are found to be in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work. For KO, a 2 Sigma + state is found at both the numerical Hartree-Fock (NHF) level and at the singles plus doubles configuration interaction level using a Slater basis set that is within 0.02 eV of the NHF limit. It is found that an accurate balanced treatment of the two states requires correlating the electrons on both the metal and oxide ion.

  14. Anodic oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on platinum electrode in alkaline medium

    SciTech Connect

    Pakalapati, S.N.R.; Popov, B.N.; White, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) forms strong metal complexes and is often used to remove scale from heat-transfer equipment and to decontaminate equipment exposed to radioactive material. However, the resultant waste in the form of EDTA-metal complex is hard to treat due to the high stability of such complexes. The anodic oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was studied in alkaline medium on a smooth platinum electrode. Bulk electrolysis indicated that stable organic intermediates (formaldehyde and glyoxal) are formed during the oxidation of EDTA and that complete oxidation to CO{sub 2} can be achieved. The proposed pathway suggests that the acetate groups in EDTA are initially oxidized, generating formaldehyde and ethylenediamine. The rest potential of EDTA (0.066 to 0.164 V vs. Hg/HgO) was observed to be higher than for other organic species. In alkaline medium, very little EDTA oxidation was found to occur on bare platinum. Limiting-current behavior due to PtO formation was observed immediately positive of the rest potential. Tafel behavior (Tafel slope 120 mV/dec) was observed in the potential region positive of the cessation of the bulk of oxide film formation and negative of the onset of O{sub 2} evolution. The reaction order of EDTA was determined to be {approximately}0.5, and that of OH{sup {minus}} was close to zero. The reaction mechanism consistent with the experimental data involves Temkin-type adsorption and a first-electron-transfer rate-determining step.

  15. Bifunctional Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Evolution in Alkaline Media.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shiva; Kellogg, William; Xu, Hui; Liu, Xien; Cho, Jaephil; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen electrocatalysis, namely of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), governs the performance of numerous electrochemical energy systems such as reversible fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and water electrolyzers. However, the sluggish kinetics of these two reactions and their dependency on expensive noble metal catalysts (e.g, Pt or Ir) prohibit the sustainable commercialization of these highly innovative and in-demand technologies. Bifunctional perovskite oxides have emerged as a new class of highly efficient non-precious metal catalysts (NPMC) for oxygen electrocatalysis in alkaline media. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art understanding of bifunctional properties of perovskites with regards to their OER/ORR activity in alkaline media and review the associated reaction mechanisms on the oxides surface and the related activity descriptors developed in the recent literature. We also summarize the present strategies to modify their electronic structure and to further improve their performance for the ORR/OER through highlighting the new concepts relating to the role of surface redox chemistry and oxygen deficiency of perovskite oxides for the ORR/OER activity. In addition, we provide a brief account of recently developed advanced perovskite-nanocarbon hybrid bifunctional catalysts with much improved performances. PMID:26247625

  16. Bifunctional Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Evolution in Alkaline Media.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shiva; Kellogg, William; Xu, Hui; Liu, Xien; Cho, Jaephil; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen electrocatalysis, namely of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), governs the performance of numerous electrochemical energy systems such as reversible fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and water electrolyzers. However, the sluggish kinetics of these two reactions and their dependency on expensive noble metal catalysts (e.g, Pt or Ir) prohibit the sustainable commercialization of these highly innovative and in-demand technologies. Bifunctional perovskite oxides have emerged as a new class of highly efficient non-precious metal catalysts (NPMC) for oxygen electrocatalysis in alkaline media. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art understanding of bifunctional properties of perovskites with regards to their OER/ORR activity in alkaline media and review the associated reaction mechanisms on the oxides surface and the related activity descriptors developed in the recent literature. We also summarize the present strategies to modify their electronic structure and to further improve their performance for the ORR/OER through highlighting the new concepts relating to the role of surface redox chemistry and oxygen deficiency of perovskite oxides for the ORR/OER activity. In addition, we provide a brief account of recently developed advanced perovskite-nanocarbon hybrid bifunctional catalysts with much improved performances.

  17. Wide-band-gap, alkaline-earth-oxide semiconductor and devices utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Marvin M.; Chen, Yok; Kernohan, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel and comparatively inexpensive semiconductor devices utilizing semiconducting alkaline-earth-oxide crystals doped with alkali metal. The semiconducting crystals are produced by a simple and relatively inexpensive process. As a specific example, a high-purity lithium-doped MgO crystal is grown by conventional techniques. The crystal then is heated in an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form many [Li].degree. defects therein, and the resulting defect-rich hot crystal is promptly quenched to render the defects stable at room temperature and temperatures well above the same. Quenching can be effected conveniently by contacting the hot crystal with room-temperature air.

  18. Effect of alginate on the aggregation kinetics of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs): bridging interaction and hetero-aggregation induced by Ca(2.).

    PubMed

    Miao, Lingzhan; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Wang, Peifang; Ao, Yanhui; Li, Yi; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi

    2016-06-01

    The stability of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) is expected to play a key role in the environmental risk assessment of nanotoxicity in aquatic systems. In this study, the effect of alginate (model polysaccharides) on the stability of CuO NPs in various environmentally relevant ionic strength conditions was investigated by using time-resolved dynamic light scattering. Significant aggregation of CuO NPs was observed in the presence of both monovalent and divalent cations. The critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) were 54.5 and 2.9 mM for NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2, respectively. The presence of alginate slowed nano-CuO aggregation rates over the entire NaNO3 concentration range due to the combined electrostatic and steric effect. High concentrations of Ca(2+) (>6 mM) resulted in stronger adsorption of alginate onto CuO NPs; however, enhanced aggregation of CuO NPs occurred simultaneously under the same conditions. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that the bridging interaction of alginate with Ca(2+) might be an important mechanism for the enhanced aggregation. Furthermore, significant coagulation of the alginate molecules was observed in solutions of high Ca(2+) concentrations, indicating a hetero-aggregation mechanism between the alginate-covered CuO NPs and the unabsorbed alginate. These results suggested a different aggregation mechanism of NPs might co-exist in aqueous systems enriched with natural organic matter, which should be taken into consideration in future studies. Graphical abstract Hetero-aggregation mechanism of CuO nanoparticles and alginate under high concentration of Ca(2.) PMID:26931664

  19. Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1996-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

  20. Mechanistic study of nickel based catalysts for oxygen evolution and methanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dayi; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2015-06-01

    Nickel based catalysts have been studied as catalysts for either organic compound (especially methanol) oxidation or oxygen evolution reactions in alkaline medium for decades, but methanol oxidation and oxygen evolution reactions occur at a similar potential range and pH with nickel based catalysts. In contrast to previous studies, we studied these two reactions simultaneously under various pH and methanol concentrations with electrodes containing a series of NiOOH surface concentrations. We found that nickel based catalysts are more suitable to be used as oxygen evolution catalysts than methanol oxidation catalysts based on the observation that: The rate-determining step of methanol oxidation involves NiOOH, OH- and methanol while high methanol to OH- ratio could poison the NiOOH sites. Since NiOOH is involved in the rate-determining step, methanol oxidation suffers from high overpotential and oxygen evolution is favored over methanol oxidation in the presence of an equivalent amount (0.1 M) of alkali and methanol.

  1. Quantitation of oxidative stress gene expression in MCF-7 human cell lines treated with water-dispersible CuO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Choi, Yong-Keun; Kim, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kwang Jin

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of water-dispersible CuO nanoparticles by quantifying the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes (glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Monodisperse CuO nanoparticles of 14 nm in size were used. Cytotoxicity of CuO nanoparticles was evaluated under in vitro condition at different concentrations (10, 50, and 100 μg/ml) and incubation times (12, 24, and 48 h) with human cancer cell lines (breast cancer epithelial cells). The genetic level cytotoxic screening produced consistent results showing that GST and catalase ROS gene expression was maximized in 24 h incubation at 100 μg/ml concentration of CuO nanoparticles. However, the cytotoxicity of water-dispersible CuO nanoparticle was not significant compared with control experiments, demonstrating its high potential in the application of nanomedicines for a diagnostic and therapeutic tool.

  2. Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Y.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.

    1998-08-01

    The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.

  3. Effect of hydrothermal reaction time and alkaline conditions on the electrochemical properties of reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermisoglou, E. C.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Romanos, G.; Giannouri, M.; Boukos, N.; Lei, C.; Lekakou, C.; Trapalis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO) were prepared by hydrothermal treatment of aqueous dispersions of graphite oxide (GtO) applied for short (4 h) and prolonged reaction times (19-24 h). The effect of process duration as well as the alkaline conditions (pH ∼10) by addition of K2CO3 on the quality characteristics of the produced rGO materials was investigated. Both reduction and exfoliation occurred during this process as it was evidenced by FTIR and XRD data. SEM, TEM and HRTEM microscopy displayed highly exfoliated rGO materials. XPS verified that the re-establishment of the conjugated graphene network is more extensive for prolonged times of hydrothermal processing in accordance to Raman spectroscopy measurements. The sample produced under alkaline conditions bore fewer defects and almost 5 times higher BET surface area (∼181 m2/g) than the sample with no pH adjustment (∼34 m2/g) for the same hydrothermal reaction time (19 h), attributed to the developed microporosity. The specific capacitance of this material estimated by electrochemical impedance using three-electrode cell and KCl aqueous solution as an electrolyte was ∼400-500 F/g. When EDLC capacitors were fabricated from rGO materials the electrochemical testing in organic electrolyte i.e. TEABF4 in PC, revealed that the shortest hydrothermal reaction time (4 h) was more efficient resulting in capacitance around 60 F/g.

  4. Formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline medium in the presence of palladium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Musić, Svetozar

    2009-04-01

    The effect of the presence of palladium ions in a highly alkaline precipitation system on the formation of iron oxides was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Acicular α-FeOOH particles precipitated in a highly alkaline medium with the addition of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) were used as reference material. The initial addition of palladium ions to that precipitation system had a significant effect on the formation of iron oxide phases and their properties. In the presence of palladium ions, the initially formed α-FeOOH has been transformed to α-Fe 2O 3 crystals in the form of hexagonal bipyramids via a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism with a simultaneous formation of metallic palladium nanoparticles. These palladium nanoparticles acted as a catalyst for the reductive dissolution of α-Fe 2O 3 particles and the formation of Fe 3O 4 crystals in the form of octahedrons. Increase in the initial concentration of palladium ions in the precipitation system accelerated the transformation process α-FeOOH → α-Fe 2O 3 → Fe 3O 4 and influenced changes in the shape of α-Fe 2O 3 and Fe 3O 4 particles.

  5. Theoretical study of support effect of Au catalyst for glucose oxidation of alkaline fuel cell anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Hamatake, Yumi; Kazuno, Hiroki; Kishida, Takayuki; Koyama, Michihisa

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically analyzed the glucose oxidation reaction mechanism and reaction activity of Au catalyst supported by carbon (graphite(0 0 0 1), (1 0 1 bar 0), and (1 1 2 bar 0)) and oxide (ZrO2(1 1 1) and SnO2(1 1 0)) in alkaline solution environment by using density functional theory method. We observed large stabilization of Au catalyst on support materials due to the electron transfer in the case of graphite(1 1 2 bar 0) and SnO2(1 1 0) systems. The catalytic activity for glucose oxidation reaction over Au supported by graphite(1 0 1 bar 0) and (1 1 2 bar 0) is calculated to be low in comparison with those of unsupported system. We found that SnO2(1 1 0) supported Au catalyst shows high activity toward the glucose oxidation. One of the main factors for the observed high catalytic activity is charge transfer from Au catalyst to support materials. When the atomic charge of Au catalyst becomes positive by the support effect, the activity of glucose oxidation reaction on Au catalyst is improved.

  6. Synergetic effect of alkaline earth metal oxides and iron oxides on the degradation of hexachlorobenzene and its degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Guijin; Liu, Yexuan; Huang, Linyan; Shi, Yali; Zhang, Aiqian; Zhang, Lixia; Liu, Wenbin; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was carried out over physical mixtures of a series of alkaline earth metal oxides (MO: M=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and iron oxides with different crystal types (Fe(x)O(y):Fe(2)O(3) or Fe(3)O(4)) at 300°C. These physical mixtures all showed a synergetic effect toward the degradation of HCB. A range of degradation products were identified by various methods, including tri- to penta-chlorobenzenes by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), tri- to penta-chlorophenols, tetrachlorocatechol (TCC) and tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) by GC-MS after derivatization, and formic and acetic acids by ion chromatography. Two degradation pathways, hydrodechlorination and oxidative degradation, appear to occur competitively. However, more sequential chlorinated benzene and phenol congeners were formed over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4) than over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) under the same conditions. The oxidative reaction dominated over mixed MO/Fe(2)O(3) and was promoted as the major reaction by the synergetic effect, while both the oxidative and hydrodechlorination reactions were important over mixed MO/Fe(3)O(4), and both pathways are remarkably promoted by the synergetic effect. The enhanced hydrodechlorination may be attributed to free electrons generated by the transformation of Fe(3)O(4) into Fe(2)O(3), and hydrogen provided by water adsorbed on the MO.

  7. Thermal conductivity enhancement in thermal grease containing different CuO structures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Zhao, Junchang; Wang, Mingzhu; Hu, Yiheng; Chen, Lifei; Xie, Huaqing

    2015-01-01

    Different cupric oxide (CuO) structures have attracted intensive interest because of their promising applications in various fields. In this study, three kinds of CuO structures, namely, CuO microdisks, CuO nanoblocks, and CuO microspheres, are synthesized by solution-based synthetic methods. The morphologies and crystal structures of these CuO structures are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer, respectively. They are used as thermal conductive fillers to prepare silicone-based thermal greases, giving rise to great enhancement in thermal conductivity. Compared with pure silicone base, the thermal conductivities of thermal greases with CuO microdisks, CuO nanoblocks, and CuO microspheres are 0.283, 0256, and 0.239 W/mK, respectively, at filler loading of 9 vol.%, which increases 139%, 116%, and 99%, respectively. These thermal greases present a slight descendent tendency in thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. These experimental data are compared with Nan's model prediction, indicating that the shape factor has a great influence on thermal conductivity improvement of thermal greases with different CuO structures. Meanwhile, due to large aspect ratio of CuO microdisks, they can form thermal networks more effectively than the other two structures, resulting in higher thermal conductivity enhancement.

  8. Electrochemical Investigation of Oxygen Intercalation into La 2CuO 4+ δPhases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnone, E.; Cerisola, G.; Ferretti, M.; Barbucci, A.

    1999-04-01

    In this work the electrochemical intercalation of oxygen in La2CuO4phases has been studied. Oxygen intercalation has been performed at different anodic potentials for fixed time in alkaline solution (1 M NaOH) at room temperature. The electrochemistry of the phenomena taking place at the oxide-solution interface has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), controlled-potential coulometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The homogeneity of processed samples and the lattice parameters prior to and after oxygen intercalation have been verified by X-ray powder diffraction. SEM has been used to relate surface modification to the potential applied after electrochemical oxygen intercalation. The recent theories and knowledge of mechanisms of oxygen intercalation into the oxide lattice have been related to the experimental results. Oxygen intercalation seems to occur at potentials slightly lower than that of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and proceeds on a parallel pathway to O2evolution at more anodic potentials.

  9. Modification of human placental alkaline phosphatase by periodate-oxidized 1,N6-ethenoadenosine monophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, G G; Shiao, M S; Lee, K R; Wu, J J

    1990-01-01

    Oxidation of 1,N6-ethenoadenosine monophosphate (epsilon AMP) with periodate cleaved the cis-diol of the ribose ring and resulted in the formation of a dialdehyde derivative (epsilon AMP-dial). At room temperature epsilon AMP-dial was unstable and underwent beta-elimination to give 4',5'-anhydro-1,N6-ethenoadenosine dialdehyde acetal (A epsilon Ado-dial). These nucleotide analogues were found to inactivate human placental alkaline phosphatase in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. epsilon AMP-dial was shown to be an affinity label for the enzyme on the basis of the following criteria. (a) Kinetics of the enzyme activity loss over a wide range of epsilon AMP-dial concentration showed a saturating phenomenon. Removal of the phosphate group made the reagent (A epsilon Ado-dial) become a general chemical modifying reagent. (b) The artificial substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate gave substantial protection of the enzyme against inactivation. (c) epsilon AMP-dial was a substrate and a partial mixed-type inhibitor for the enzyme. Results of the inhibition and protection studies indicated that the reagent and substrate could combine with the enzyme simultaneously. Besides the phosphate-binding domain, an induced hydrophobic region is proposed for the substrate-binding site for human placental alkaline phosphatase. PMID:2176472

  10. Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide as adsorbent for cadmium ions removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Du, Hongyan; Yuan, Shaowei; He, Wanxia; Yan, Pengju; Liu, Zhanhong

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide (aGO) was prepared through alkaline hydrothermal treatment and used as adsorbent to remove Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions for the first time. The characterization results of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra indicate that aGO was successfully synthesized. The batch adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption kinetics could be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and the isotherms equilibrium data were well fitted with the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(II) on aGO was 156 mg/g at pH 5 and T=293 K. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters indicated that the adsorption process was a spontaneous and endothermic reaction. The mainly adsorption mechanism speculated from FT-IR results may be attributed to the electrostatic attraction between Cd2+ and negatively charged groups (-CO-) of aGO and cation-π interaction between Cd2+ and the graphene planes. The findings of this study demonstrate the potential utility of the nanomaterial aGO as an effective adsorbent for Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:26038925

  11. Oxidation of L-phenylalanine by diperiodatoargentate(III) in aqueous alkaline medium. A Mechanistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamani, S. D.; Veeresh, T. M.; Nandibewoor, S. T.

    2009-12-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) by diperiodatoargentate(III) (DPA) in alkaline medium at a constant ionic strength of 0.25 mol/dm-3 has been studied spectrophotometrically. The reaction between DPA and L-phenylalanine in alkaline medium exhibits 1: 1 stoichiometry (L-phenylalanine: DPA). The reaction shows first order in [DPA] and has less than unit order dependence each in both [L-Phe] and [Alkali] and retarding effect of [IO{4/-}] under the reaction conditions. The active species of DPA is understood to be as monoperiodatoargentate(III) (MPA). The reaction is shown to proceed via a MPA-L-Phe complex, which decomposes in a rate-determining step to give intermediates followed by a fast step to give the products. The products were identified by spot and spectroscopic studies. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of the mechanisms were calculated. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were computed and discussed. The thermodynamic quantities were also determined for the reaction.

  12. Palladium/nickel bifunctional electrocatalyst for hydrogen oxidation reaction in alkaline membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesker, Maria; Page, Miles; Shviro, Meital; Paska, Yair; Gershinsky, Gregory; Dekel, Dario R.; Zitoun, David

    2016-02-01

    Investigation of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) in alkaline media has been pursued in the past few years side by side with the development of alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs), also called anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEM-FCs). In this communication, we present the synthesis, electrochemistry and AMFC test of a platinum-free HOR catalyst. The anode catalyst is prepared by growing palladium nanoparticles onto nanoparticles of an oxophilic metal (nickel), resulting in nano-dispersed, interconnected crystalline phases of Ni and Pd. When used in the anode of a hydrogen/air AMFC, such Pd/Ni catalyst exhibits high HOR activity, resulting in record high performance for a platinum-free AMFC (0.4 A cm-2 at 0.6 V vs RHE). The enhancement of HOR catalytic activity vs. that observed at Pd (or Ni) alone is revealed directly in rotating disc electrode tests of this Pd/Ni catalyst that shows a significant negative shift (200 mV) of the onset potential for the HOR current vs. the case of Pd.

  13. Selective oxidation of methanol to hydrogen over gold catalysts promoted by alkaline-earth-metal and lanthanum oxides.

    PubMed

    Hereijgers, Bart P C; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2009-01-01

    A series of alumina-supported gold catalysts was investigated for the CO-free production of hydrogen by partial oxidation of methanol. The addition of alkaline-earth metal oxide promoters resulted in a significant improvement of the catalytic performance. The methanol conversion was ca. 85 % with all studied catalyst materials, however, the selectivity for hydrogen increased from 15 % to 51 % when going from the unpromoted to a BaO-promoted catalyst. The formation of the undesired byproducts CO, methane, and dimethyl ether was considerably reduced as well. The observed trend in catalyst performance follows the trend in increasing basicity of the studied promoter elements, indicating a chemical effect of the promoter material. Superior catalytic performance, in terms of H(2) and CO selectivity, was obtained with a Au/La(2)O(3) catalyst. At 300 degrees C the hydrogen selectivity reached 80 % with only 2 % CO formation, and the catalyst displayed a stable performance over at least 24 h on-stream. Furthermore, the formation of CO was found to be independent of the oxygen concentration in the feed. The commercial lanthanum oxide used in this study had a low specific surface area, which led to the formation of relative large gold particles. Therefore, the catalytic activity could be enhanced by decreasing the gold particle size through deposition on lanthanum oxide supported on high-surface-area alumina.

  14. Wild soybean roots depend on specific transcription factors and oxidation reduction related genesin response to alkaline stress.

    PubMed

    DuanMu, Huizi; Wang, Yang; Bai, Xi; Cheng, Shufei; Deyholos, Michael K; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Li, Dan; Zhu, Dan; Li, Ran; Yu, Yang; Cao, Lei; Chen, Chao; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-11-01

    Soil alkalinity is an important environmental problem limiting agricultural productivity. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) shows strong alkaline stress tolerance, so it is an ideal plant candidate for studying the molecular mechanisms of alkaline tolerance and identifying alkaline stress-responsive genes. However, limited information is available about G. soja responses to alkaline stress on a genomic scale. Therefore, in the present study, we used RNA sequencing to compare transcript profiles of G. soja root responses to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) at six time points, and a total of 68,138,478 pairs of clean reads were obtained using the Illumina GAIIX. Expression patterns of 46,404 G. soja genes were profiled in all six samples based on RNA-seq data using Cufflinks software. Then, t12 transcription factors from MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP, C2H2, HB, and TIFY families and 12 oxidation reduction related genes were chosen and verified to be induced in response to alkaline stress by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The GO functional annotation analysis showed that besides "transcriptional regulation" and "oxidation reduction," these genes were involved in a variety of processes, such as "binding" and "response to stress." This is the first comprehensive transcriptome profiling analysis of wild soybean root under alkaline stress by RNA sequencing. Our results highlight changes in the gene expression patterns and identify a set of genes induced by NaHCO3 stress. These findings provide a base for the global analyses of G. soja alkaline stress tolerance mechanisms.

  15. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-14

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizes the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells.

  16. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-01

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizes the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells. PMID:26762466

  17. Synthesis and electrocatalytic activity of Au/Pt bimetallic nanodendrites for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinyi; Wang, Dawei; Liu, Dong; Huang, Jianshe; You, Tianyan

    2012-02-01

    Gold/Platinum (Au/Pt) bimetallic nanodendrites were successfully synthesized through seeded growth method using preformed Au nanodendrites as seeds and ascorbic acid as reductant. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of a series of Au/Pt nanodendrites modified electrodes in 1M KOH solution containing 1M ethanol showed that the electrocatalyst with a molar ratio (Au:Pt) of 3 exhibited the highest peak current density and the lowest onset potential. The peak current density of ethanol electro-oxidation on the Au(3)Pt(1) nanodendrites modified glassy carbon electrode (Au(3)Pt(1) electrode) is about 16, 12.5, and 4.5 times higher than those on the polycrystalline Pt electrode, polycrystalline Au electrode, and Au nanodendrites modified glassy carbon electrode (Au dendrites electrode), respectively. The oxidation peak potential of ethanol electro-oxidation on the Au(3)Pt(1) electrode is about 299 and 276 mV lower than those on the polycrystalline Au electrode and Au dendrites electrode, respectively. These results demonstrated that the Au/Pt bimetallic nanodendrites may find potential application in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFCs).

  18. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A.; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-01

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizes the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells. PMID:26762466

  19. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    DOE PAGES

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A.; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-14

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizesmore » the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Here, owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells.« less

  20. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A.; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-01

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizes the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells.

  1. Changes in methane oxidation activity and methanotrophic community composition in saline alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Silva, Nancy; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J

    2014-05-01

    The soil of the former Lake Texcoco is a saline alkaline environment where anthropogenic drainage in some areas has reduced salt content and pH. Potential methane (CH4) consumption rates were measured in three soils of the former Lake Texcoco with different electrolytic conductivity (EC) and pH, i.e. Tex-S1 a >18 years drained soil (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 8.5), Tex-S2 drained for ~10 years (EC 9.0 dS m(-1), pH 10.3) and the undrained Tex-S3 (EC 84.8 dS m(-1), pH 10.3). An arable soil from Alcholoya (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 6.7), located nearby Lake Texcoco was used as control. Methane oxidation in the soil Tex-S1 (lowest EC and pH) was similar to that in the arable soil from Alcholoya (32.5 and 34.7 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively). Meanwhile, in soils Tex-S2 and Tex-S3, the potential CH4 oxidation rates were only 15.0 and 12.8 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively. Differences in CH4 oxidation were also related to changes in the methane-oxidizing communities in these soils. Sequence analysis of pmoA gene showed that soils differed in the identity and number of methanotrophic phylotypes. The Alcholoya soil and Tex-S1 contained phylotypes grouped within the upland soil cluster gamma and the Jasper Ridge, California JR-2 clade. In soil Tex-S3, a phylotype related to Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum was detected. PMID:24638260

  2. Changes in methane oxidation activity and methanotrophic community composition in saline alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Silva, Nancy; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J

    2014-05-01

    The soil of the former Lake Texcoco is a saline alkaline environment where anthropogenic drainage in some areas has reduced salt content and pH. Potential methane (CH4) consumption rates were measured in three soils of the former Lake Texcoco with different electrolytic conductivity (EC) and pH, i.e. Tex-S1 a >18 years drained soil (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 8.5), Tex-S2 drained for ~10 years (EC 9.0 dS m(-1), pH 10.3) and the undrained Tex-S3 (EC 84.8 dS m(-1), pH 10.3). An arable soil from Alcholoya (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 6.7), located nearby Lake Texcoco was used as control. Methane oxidation in the soil Tex-S1 (lowest EC and pH) was similar to that in the arable soil from Alcholoya (32.5 and 34.7 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively). Meanwhile, in soils Tex-S2 and Tex-S3, the potential CH4 oxidation rates were only 15.0 and 12.8 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively. Differences in CH4 oxidation were also related to changes in the methane-oxidizing communities in these soils. Sequence analysis of pmoA gene showed that soils differed in the identity and number of methanotrophic phylotypes. The Alcholoya soil and Tex-S1 contained phylotypes grouped within the upland soil cluster gamma and the Jasper Ridge, California JR-2 clade. In soil Tex-S3, a phylotype related to Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum was detected.

  3. Cu(Cu0.44Cr4.56)Ge2O12: a close-packed oxide with CuO4 tetrahedra.

    PubMed

    Redhammer, Günther J; Roth, Georg; Amthauer, Georg

    2007-04-01

    The structure of copper(I,II) pentachromium(III) germanate, Cu(Cu(0.44)Cr(4.56))Ge(2)O(12), contains one Cu position (m2m), one Ge position (m) and three Cr positions (2/m, m and 2). The close-packed structure is described in terms of slabs of edge-sharing Cr(3+)O(6) octahedra and isolated CuO(4) and GeO(4) tetrahedra. These slabs are aligned parallel to the bc plane and are separated from each other by GeO(4) tetrahedra along a. The tetrahedral coordination observed for the Cu(+)/Cu(2+) ions represents an unusual feature of the structure. The Cr-O and Cu-O bond lengths are compared with literature data.

  4. Kinetics of oxidation of odorous sulfur compounds in aqueous alkaline solution with H2O2.

    PubMed

    Feliers, C; Patria, L; Morvan, J; Laplanche, A

    2001-10-01

    Sulfur species oxidation is a crucial issue wastewater treatment. The production of sulfur compounds like H2S,CH3SH, C2H5SH, disulfides and dimethyle sulfide generates odorous nuisances for the neighborhood. The oxidation of these species by H2O2 in alkaline solution has been investigated. The results showed that thiols CH3SH and C2H5SH react with H202 only in their dissociated form RS- with rate constants respectively k = 8.81 +/- 0.48 M-1s-1 and 8.37 +/- 0.63 M-1.s-1. Mercaptans oxidation produces 100 % of dimethyldisulfide or diethyldisulfide. The oxidation of disulfides shows a difference of reactivity between H2O2 and HO2- towards sulfur species. Increasing the pH accelerates significantly the reactions in the case of CH3SSCH3. The oxidation rate can be described as: r = k[RSSR][H2O2][RSSR][H2O2] + k[RSSR][HO2-] [RSSR][HO2-] with k[RSSR][H2O2] = 1.2 x 10(-4) +/- 0.2 x 10(-4) M-1s-1 and k[RSSR][HO2-] = 3.4 x 10(-4) +/- 0.6 x 10(-4) M-1.s-1 for CH3SSCH3. Dimethyl sulfide presents a reactivity different from disulfides. The oxidation rate can also be described as: r = k[CH3SCH3][H2O21][CH3SCH3][H2O2] + k[CH3SCH3][HO-] [CH3SCH3][HO2-], however, oxidation rate decreases with pH increase. k[CH3SCH3][H2O2] = 12.8 x 10(-3) +/- 0.96 x 10(-3) M-1.s-1 and k[CH3SCH3][HO2-] = 4 x 10(-3) +/- 0.3 x 10(-3) M-1.s-1.

  5. Sulfur species leached from pyrite during oxidative desulfurization of coal in alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.D.; Wheelock, T.D.; Markuszewski, R.

    1983-01-01

    The results indicate that thiosulfate, sulfite, and sulfate are the principal soluble sulfur species produced when coal-derived pyrite leached with a hot alkaline solution containing dissolved oxygen. The distribution of soluble sulfur species in the leachate was found to depend on leaching temperature, oxygen partial pressure, leachant composition, and time of contact. At lower temperatures and oxygen partial pressures and with a short time of contact between the leaching solution and pyrite, the leachate sulfur species were dominated by thiosulfate. However, the leachate also contained significant amounts of sulfite and sulfate. When the temperature, oxygen partial pressure, or time of contact were increased, the proportions of thiosulfate and sulfite decreased and the proportion of sulfate increased. It was observed also that reacted pyrite particles catalyzed the oxidation of thiosulfate to sulfite and sulfate. Consequently when pyrite was oxidized in a stirred reactor for 1 h at elevated temperature and oxygen partial pressure, most of the dissolved sulfur appeared as sulfate and very little as thiosulfate or sulfite. 10 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  6. Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide for supercapacitor applications: An effective green alternative for chemically reduced graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Mariano, Ruperto G.; Nijem, Nour; Chabal, Yves; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J.

    2012-10-01

    Graphene is a promising electrode material for energy storage applications. The most successful method for preparing graphene from graphite involves the oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) and reduction back to graphene. Even though different chemical and thermal methods have been developed to reduce GO to graphene, the use of less toxic materials to generate graphene still remains a challenge. In this study we developed a facile one-pot synthesis of deoxygenated graphene (hGO) via alkaline hydrothermal process, which exhibits similar properties to the graphene obtained via hydrazine reduction (i.e. the same degree of deoxygenation found in hydrazine reduced GO). Moreover, the hGO formed freestanding, binder-free paper electrodes for supercapacitors. Coin cell type (CR2032) symmetric supercapacitors were assembled using the hGO electrodes. Electrochemical characterization of hGO was carried out using lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and ethylmethylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) electrolytes. The results for the hGO electrodes were compared with the hydrazine reduced GO (rGO) electrode. The hGO electrode exhibits a energy density of 20 W h kg-1 and 50 W h kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI respectively, while delivering a maximum power density of 11 kW kg-1 and 14.7 kW kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI, respectively.

  7. Palladium and Tin Alloyed Catalysts for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction in an Alkaline Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Su D.; Du W.; Mackenzie K.E.; Milano D.F.; Deskins N.A.; Teng X.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we present a study of a series of carbon-supported Pd-Sn binary alloyed catalysts prepared through a modified Polyol method as anode electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cell reactions in an alkaline medium. Transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy were used to characterize the Pd-Sn/C catalysts, where homogeneous Pd-Sn alloys were determined to be present with the surface Sn being partially oxidized. Among various Pd-Sn catalysts, Pd{sub 86}Sn{sub 14}/C catalysts showed much enhanced current densities in cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements, compared to commercial Pd/C (Johnson Matthey). The overall rate law of ethanol oxidation reaction for both Pd{sub 86}Sn{sub 14}/C and commercial Pd/C were also determined, which clearly showed that Pd{sub 86}Sn{sub 14}/C was more favorable in high ethanol concentration and/or high pH environment. Density functional theory calculations also confirmed Pd-Sn alloy structures would result in lower reaction energies for the dehydrogenation of ethanol, compared to the pure Pd crystal.

  8. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, María V.; Falco, Lorena R.; Peluso, Miguel A.; Sambeth, Jorge E.; Thomas, Horacio J.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  9. Carbon nanotube/raspberry hollow Pd nanosphere hybrids for methanol, ethanol, and formic acid electro-oxidation in alkaline media.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhelin; Zhao, Bo; Guo, Cunlan; Sun, Yujing; Shi, Yan; Yang, Haibin; Li, Zhuang

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, raspberry hollow Pd nanospheres (HPNs)-decorated carbon nanotube (CNT) was developed for electro-oxidation of methanol, ethanol, and formic acid in alkaline media. The electrocatalyst was fabricated simply by attaching HPNs onto the surface of CNT which had been functionalized by polymer wrapping. The as-prepared HPN-CNTs (CHPNs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The increasing interest and intensive research on fuel cell inspire us to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of the prepared nanostructures. Besides that, previous reports about alkaline other than acidic media could supply a more active environment guide us to examine the electrocatalytic properties in alkaline electrolyte. It is found that this novel hybrid electrocatalyst exhibits excellent electrocatalytic properties and can be further applied in fuel cells, catalysts, and sensors.

  10. Sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic and mixotrophic denitrification processes for drinking water treatment: elimination of excess sulfate production and alkalinity requirement.

    PubMed

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Dursun, Nesrin

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated the elimination of alkalinity need and excess sulfate generation of sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification process by stimulating simultaneous autotrophic and heterotrophic (mixotrophic) denitrification process in a column bioreactor by methanol supplementation. Also, denitrification performances of sulfur-based autotrophic and mixotrophic processes were compared. In autotrophic process, acidity produced by denitrifying sulfur-oxidizing bacteria was neutralized by the external NaHCO(3) supplementation. After stimulating mixotrophic denitrification process, the alkalinity need of the autotrophic process was satisfied by the alkalinity produced by heterotrophic denitrifiers. Decreasing and lastly eliminating the external alkalinity supplementation did not adversely affect the process performance. Complete denitrification of 75 mg L(-1) NO(3)-N under mixotrophic conditions at 4 h hydraulic retention time was achieved without external alkalinity supplementation and with effluent sulfate concentration lower than the drinking water guideline value of 250 mg L(-1). The denitrification rate of mixotrophic process (0.45 g NO(3)-N L(-1) d(-1)) was higher than that of autotrophic one (0.3 g NO(3)-N L(-1) d(-1)). Batch studies showed that the sulfur-based autotrophic nitrate reduction rate increased with increasing initial nitrate concentration and transient accumulation of nitrite was observed.

  11. Platinum and Palladium Overlayers Dramatically Enhance the Activity of Ruthenium Nanotubes for Alkaline Hydrogen Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    St. John, Samuel; Atkinson, Robert W.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Papandrew, Alexander B.

    2015-10-18

    Templated vapor synthesis and thermal annealing were used to synthesize unsupported metallic Ru nanotubes with Pt or Pd overlayers. By controlling the elemental composition and thickness of these overlayers, we obtain nanostructures with very high alkaline hydrogen oxidation activity. For nanotubes with a nominal atomic composition of Ru0.90Pt0.10 display a surface-specific activity (2.4 mA/cm2) that is 35 times greater than that of pure Ru nanotubes at a 50 mV overpotential and 2.5 times greater than that of pure Pt nanotubes (0.98 mA/cm2). The surface-segregated structure also confers dramatically increased Pt utilization efficiency. We find a platinum-mass-specific activity of 1240 A/gPt for the optimized nanotube versus 280 A/gPt for carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles and 109 A/gPt for monometallic Pt nanotubes. Here, we attribute the enhancement of both area- and platinum-mass-specific activity to the atomic-scale homeomorphism of the nanotube form factor with adlayer-modified polycrystals. Subsurface ligand and bifunctional effects previously observed on segregated, adlayer-modified polycrystals are translated to nanoscale catalysts.

  12. Platinum and Palladium Overlayers Dramatically Enhance the Activity of Ruthenium Nanotubes for Alkaline Hydrogen Oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    St. John, Samuel; Atkinson, Robert W.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Papandrew, Alexander B.

    2015-10-18

    Templated vapor synthesis and thermal annealing were used to synthesize unsupported metallic Ru nanotubes with Pt or Pd overlayers. By controlling the elemental composition and thickness of these overlayers, we obtain nanostructures with very high alkaline hydrogen oxidation activity. For nanotubes with a nominal atomic composition of Ru0.90Pt0.10 display a surface-specific activity (2.4 mA/cm2) that is 35 times greater than that of pure Ru nanotubes at a 50 mV overpotential and 2.5 times greater than that of pure Pt nanotubes (0.98 mA/cm2). The surface-segregated structure also confers dramatically increased Pt utilization efficiency. We find a platinum-mass-specific activity of 1240 A/gPtmore » for the optimized nanotube versus 280 A/gPt for carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles and 109 A/gPt for monometallic Pt nanotubes. Here, we attribute the enhancement of both area- and platinum-mass-specific activity to the atomic-scale homeomorphism of the nanotube form factor with adlayer-modified polycrystals. Subsurface ligand and bifunctional effects previously observed on segregated, adlayer-modified polycrystals are translated to nanoscale catalysts.« less

  13. Optical properties of alkaline-earth metal oxides from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadsetani, M.; Beiranvand, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study reports the results of an ab initio electronic and optical calculation of alkaline-earth metal oxides (MgO, CaO, SrO and BaO) in the NaCl crystal structure using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density functional theory. The exchange-correlation potential is treated by the generalized gradient approximation within the Perdew et al scheme. Moreover, the Engel-Vosko GGA formalism is applied so as to optimize the corresponding potential for band structure calculations. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function ɛ( ω), the optical absorption coefficient I( ω), the reflectivity R( ω) and the energy loss function are calculated by random phase approximation (RPA). The calculated results show a qualitative agreement with the available experimental results in the sense that we can recognize some peaks qualitatively, those due to single particle transitions. Furthermore the interband transitions responsible for the structures in the spectra are specified. It is shown that the oxygen 2 p states and metal d states play the major role in optical transitions as initial and final states respectively. The effect of the spin-orbit coupling on the optical properties is also investigated and found to be quite small, especially in the low energy region. The dielectric constants are calculated and compared with the available theoretical and experimental results.

  14. Oil oxidation in corn flour from grains processed with alkaline cooking by use of peroxide value, UV and FTIR.

    PubMed

    Yahuaca-Juárez, B; Martínez-Flores, H E; Huerta-Ruelas, J A; Pless, R C; Vázquez-Landaverde, P A; Tello Santillán, R

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of alkaline cooking on the oxidative stability of oil in corn flour. A central composite design was used to study the combined effect of lime concentration (%) and steep time (h) on peroxide value (PV); specific extinction coefficients at 232 and 270 nm (K232 and K270); and FTIR absorbance at 3009 cm(-1), 3444 cm(-1), and 3530 cm(-1) in oils from corn flour obtained by alkaline cooking. The results indicate that lime concentration and steep time affected the PV, K232, and K270. A decrease of 2.56 % was observed in the IR absorption bands, corresponding to the polyunsaturated fatty acids. The FTIR spectra also showed absorption bands related to the secondary oil oxidation products.

  15. Hollow raspberry-like PdAg alloy nanospheres: High electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Hu, Yongli; Liu, Mingrui; Zheng, Yixiong

    2015-03-01

    Palladium-silver (PdAg) alloy nanospheres with unique structure were prepared using a one-pot procedure based on the galvanic replacement reaction. Their electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media was evaluated. The morphology and crystal structure of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical characterization techniques, including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements were used to analyze the electrochemical performance of the PdAg alloy nanospheres. The SEM and TEM images showed that the PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit a hierarchical nanostructure with hollow interiors and porous walls. Compared to the commercial Pd/C catalyst, the as-prepared PdAg alloy nanospheres exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media, showing its potential as a new non-Pt electro-catalyst for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs).

  16. Stoichiometric C6-oxidation of hyaluronic acid by oxoammonium salt TEMPO⁺Cl⁻ in an aqueous alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Ponedel'kina, Irina Yu; Khaibrakhmanova, Elvira A; Tyumkina, Tatyana V; Romadova, Irina V; Odinokov, Victor N

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the selective oxidation of hyaluronic acid (HA) by stoichiometric quantity of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxoammonium chloride (TEMPO(+)) in aqueous alkaline medium. High efficiency of the HA oxidation and quantitative yield of carboxy-HA per starting TEMPO(+), as well as unusual behavior of the oxidation system generating an oxygen upon alkali-induced oxoammonium chloride decomposition are demonstrated. The scheme for HA oxidation involving both TEMPO(+) and oxygen produced upon the TEMPO(+)Cl(-) decomposition and/or air oxygen is proposed. For comparison, the data on stoichiometric oxidation of such substrates as dermatan sulfate, water-soluble potato starch, methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranoside and ethanol are presented.

  17. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, María V; Falco, Lorena R; Peluso, Miguel A; Sambeth, Jorge E; Thomas, Horacio J

    2013-06-01

    Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO4 solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnOx synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn2O3 in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn(4+) cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn3O4. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200°C, while heptane requires more than 400°C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO2. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  18. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, María V; Falco, Lorena R; Peluso, Miguel A; Sambeth, Jorge E; Thomas, Horacio J

    2013-06-01

    Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO4 solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnOx synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn2O3 in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn(4+) cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn3O4. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200°C, while heptane requires more than 400°C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO2. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs. PMID:23562448

  19. Electrocatalytic Activity of Transition Metal Oxide-Carbon Composites for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Batteries and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malkhandi, S; Trinh, P; Manohar, AK; Jayachandrababu, KC; Kindler, A; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-06-07

    Conductive transition metal oxides (perovskites, spinels and pyrochlores) are attractive as catalysts for the air electrode in alkaline rechargeable metal-air batteries and fuel cells. We have found that conductive carbon materials when added to transition metal oxides such as calcium-doped lanthanum cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt oxide and calcium-doped lanthanum manganese cobalt oxide increase the electrocatalytic activity of the oxide for oxygen reduction by a factor of five to ten. We have studied rotating ring-disk electrodes coated with (a) various mass ratios of carbon and transition metal oxide, (b) different types of carbon additives and (c) different types of transition metal oxides. Our experiments and analysis establish that in such composite catalysts, carbon is the primary electro- catalyst for the two-electron electro-reduction of oxygen to hydroperoxide while the transition metal oxide decomposes the hydroperoxide to generate additional oxygen that enhances the observed current resulting in an apparent four-electron process. These findings are significant in that they change the way we interpret previous reports in the scientific literature on the electrocatalytic activity of various transition metal oxide- carbon composites for oxygen reduction, especially where carbon is assumed to be an additive that just enhances the electronic conductivity of the oxide catalyst. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrochemical performance of CuO nanocrystal film fabricated by room temperature sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.K.; Xia, H.; Lai, M.O.; Lu, L.

    2011-03-15

    Graphical abstract: High capacity of CuO thin film electrode for all-solid-state thin film batteries. Research highlights: {yields} Nanostructured CuO thin film is prepared by in situ sputtering. {yields} Excellent electrochemical performance with a very high capacity is achieved. {yields} Due to nanostructured grains, the in situ formed CuO possesses good cyclability. -- Abstract: To develop high performance anode materials for thin film batteries, copper oxide (CuO) film is fabricated at room temperature by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Morphological characterization shows that the CuO film consists of compacted CuO columnar grains of 20 nm in diameter and 200 nm in thickness. The measurement of lithium storage capacity and cyclability of the CuO film show that the first charge capacity of the film is 585 mAh g{sup -1} with an efficiency of 68.3% at a current density of 200 mA g{sup -1}. After the 50th cycle, the capacity retention remains as high as 97.4%. The nanostructured CuO film also shows a good rate capability even being cycled at 3000 mA g{sup -1} (5 C), demonstrating that the CuO film can be a promising material as an anode for high performance thin film batteries, especially for thin film battery with amorphous electrolyte.

  1. Substrate inhibition: Oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline media, substrate inhibition was observed with both substrates, i.e., a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. The substrate inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complex between the substrate and periodate. The reactions were found to be first order in case of periodate and a positive fractional order with hydroxide ions. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for the oxidation of sorbitol and mannitol by potassium periodate in alkali media.

  2. SELDI-TOF MS-based discovery of a biomarker in Cucumis sativus seeds exposed to CuO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young-Sun; Park, Eun-Sil; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2014-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) can inhibit plant seed germination and root elongation via the release of metal ions. In the present study, two acute phytotoxicity tests, seed germination and root elongation tests, were conducted on cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus) treated with bulk copper oxide (CuO) and CuO NPs. Two concentrations of bulk CuO and CuO NPs, 200 and 600ppm, were used to test the inhibition rate of root germination; both concentrations of bulk CuO weakly inhibited seed germination, whereas CuO NPs significantly inhibited germination, showing a low germination rate of 23.3% at 600ppm. Root elongation tests demonstrated that CuO NPs were much stronger inhibitors than bulk CuO. SELDI-TOF MS analysis showed that 34 proteins were differentially expressed in cucumber seeds after exposure to CuO NPs, with the expression patterns of at least 9 proteins highly differing from those in seeds treated with bulk CuO and in control plants. Therefore, these 9 proteins were used to identify CuO NP-specific biomarkers in cucumber plants exposed to CuO NPs. A 5977-m/z protein was the most distinguishable biomarker for determining phytotoxicity by CuO NPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the SELDI-TOF MS results showed variability in the modes of inhibitory action on cucumber seeds and roots. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the phytotoxic effect of metal oxide NPs on plants is not caused by the same mode of action as other toxins.

  3. In Vivo Alkaline Comet Assay and Enzyme-modified Alkaline Comet Assay for Measuring DNA Strand Breaks and Oxidative DNA Damage in Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei; Bishop, Michelle E; Lyn-Cook, Lascelles E; Davis, Kelly J; Manjanatha, Mugimane G

    2016-05-04

    Unrepaired DNA damage can lead to genetic instability, which in turn may enhance cancer development. Therefore, identifying potential DNA damaging agents is important for protecting public health. The in vivo alkaline comet assay, which detects DNA damage as strand breaks, is especially relevant for assessing the genotoxic hazards of xenobiotics, as its responses reflect the in vivo absorption, tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of chemicals, as well as DNA repair process. Compared to other in vivo DNA damage assays, the assay is rapid, sensitive, visual and inexpensive, and, by converting oxidative DNA damage into strand breaks using specific repair enzymes, the assay can measure oxidative DNA damage in an efficient and relatively artifact-free manner. Measurement of DNA damage with the comet assay can be performed using both acute and subchronic toxicology study designs, and by integrating the comet assay with other toxicological assessments, the assay addresses animal welfare requirements by making maximum use of animal resources. Another major advantage of the assays is that they only require a small amount of cells, and the cells do not have to be derived from proliferating cell populations. The assays also can be performed with a variety of human samples obtained from clinically or occupationally exposed individuals.

  4. Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P.

    1993-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na{sup +} + H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} {r_reversible} NaZnPO{sub 4}(s) + H{sub 2}O or 2 ZnO(s) + H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}(aq) {r_reversible} Zn{sub 2}(OH)PO{sub 4}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO{sub 4} possesses an orthorhombic unit cell having lattice parameters a = 8.710 {+-} 0.013, b = 15.175 {+-} 0.010, and c = 8.027 {+-} 0.004 {angstrom}. The thermodynamic equilibria for these reactions were defined in the system ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. Based on observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard entropy (S{degrees}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{degrees}) for NaZnPO{sub 4} were calculated to be 169.0 J/mol-K and {minus}1510.6 kJ/mol, respectively; similar values for Zn{sub 2}(OH)PO{sub 4} (tarbuttite) were 235.9 J/mol-K and {minus}1604.6 kJ/mol. Additions of sodium sulfite and sulfate did not alter the above reactions.

  5. Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P. )

    1994-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na[sup +] + H[sub 2]PO[sub 4]- [l reversible] NaZnPO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O or 2ZnO(s) + H[sub 3]PO[sub 4](aq) [l reversible] Zn[sub 2](OH)PO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO[sub 4] possesses an orthorhombic unit cell having lattice parameters a = 8.710 [+-] 0.013, b = 15.175 [+-] 0.010, c = 8.027 [+-] 0.004 [angstrom]. The thermodynamic equilibria for these reactions were defined in the system ZnO-Na[sub 2]O-P[sub 2]O[sub 5]-H[sub 2]O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard entropy (S[degrees]) and free energy of formation ([delta]G[sub f][degrees]) for NaZnPO[sub 4] were calculated to be 169.0 J/(mol K) and -1510.6 kJ/mol, respectively; similar values for Zn[sub 2](OH)PO[sub 4] (tarbuttite) were 235.9 J/(mol K) and -1604.6 kJ/mol. Additions of sodium sulfite and sulfate did not alter the above reactions. 26 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: CuO Nanosheets Synthesized by Hydrothermal Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhi-Ang; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Jun; Zhuo, Ren-Fu; Yan, De; Zhang, Fei; Yan, Peng-Xun

    2009-08-01

    CuO nanosheets are synthesized by oxidation of commercial Cu substrates through the hydrothermal process at 150°C. The as-synthesized nanosheets are characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For comparison, Cu substrates are also oxidized without NaOH added in precursor solution. The results show that the morphology of CuO could be controlled by NaOH, which demonstrates that NaOH can serve as a cosolvent and modifier in the reaction system. The possible mechanism of the growth of CuO nanosheets is also discussed.

  7. Correlated barrier hopping of CuO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshy, Jiji; Soosen, Samuel. M.; Chandran, Anoop; George, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The ac conduction mechanism in copper oxide nanoparticles with 8 nm size, synthesized by a precipitation method was studied by analyzing ac conductivity in the frequency range of 50 Hz-1 MHz and in the temperature range of 373-573 K. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed for the structural and morphological characterization of CuO nanoparticles. The experimental and theoretical investigations suggested that the ac conduction mechanism in CuO nanoparticles can be successfully explained by a correlated barrier hopping model, which provided reasonable values for the maximum barrier height and characteristic relaxation time. It was also found that bipolaron hopping become prominent up to a particular temperature and beyond that single polaron hopping predominates. Physical parameters such as hopping distance and density of defect states were also calculated. Photoluminescence studies confirm the presence of a surface defect in CuO nanoparticles.

  8. Structural and optical studies of CuO nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, Prakash Gaur, Anurag Kumar, Ashavani

    2014-04-24

    In the present study, copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures have been synthesized at 140 °C for different aging periods, 1, 24, 48 and 96 hrs by hydrothermal method to investigate their effects on structural and optical properties. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) pattern indicates the pure phase formation of CuO and the particle size, calculated from XRD data, has been found to be increasing from 21 to 36 nm for the samples synthesized at different aging periods. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis also shows that the average diameter and length of these rectangular nano flakes increases with increasing the aging periods. Moreover Raman spectrums also confirm the phase formation of CuO. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 2.92 to 2.69 eV with increase in aging periods, 1 to 96 hrs, respectively.

  9. Novel route to synthesize CuO nanoplatelets

    SciTech Connect

    Zarate, R.A. Hevia, F.; Fuentes, S.; Fuenzalida, V.M.; Zuniga, A.

    2007-04-15

    A new synthesis route to obtain high-purity cupric oxide, CuO, using the hydrothermal reaction of copper sulfide and a NaOH solution in an oxygen atmosphere has been developed. The synthesized products showed nanoplatelet-like morphologies with rectangular cross-sections and dimensions at the nanometric scale. Variations in the oxygen partial pressure and synthesis temperature produced changes in size and shape, being found that the proliferation of nanoplatelet structures occurred at 200 deg. C and 30 bar. - Graphical abstract: Transmission electron microscopy image of a CuO nanoplatelet. The inset is an electron diffraction pattern of this twined CuO nanoplatelet exhibiting a monoclinic crystal structure.

  10. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Kirby, Jason K; Beak, Douglas G; Stacey, Samuel P; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the same

  11. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Kirby, Jason K; Beak, Douglas G; Stacey, Samuel P; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the same

  12. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Kirby, Jason K.; Beak, Douglas G.; Stacey, Samuel P.; McLaughlin, Mike J.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ–XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ–XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the

  13. Design of ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides with potential good p-type conductivity

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Mao -Hua; Singh, David J.; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Yuwei; Xu, Qiaoling; Ma, Yanming; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-04-19

    Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Here, we present via first-principles global optimization structure searches a material design study for a hitherto unexplored Sn(II)-based system, ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides in the stoichiometry of MSn2O3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). We identify two stable compounds of SrSn2O3 and BaSn2O3, which can bemore » stabilized by Sn-rich conditions in phase stability diagrams. Their structures follow the Zintl behaviour and consist of basic structural motifs of SnO3 tetrahedra. Unexpectedly they show distinct electronic properties with band gaps ranging from 1.90 (BaSn2O3) to 3.15 (SrSn2O3) eV, and hole effective masses ranging from 0.87 (BaSn2O3) to above 6.0 (SrSn2O3) m0. Further exploration of metastable phases indicates a wide tunability of electronic properties controlled by the details of the bonding between the basic structural motifs. Lastly, this suggests further exploration of alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides for potential applications requiring good p-type conductivity such as transparent conductors and photovoltaic absorbers.« less

  14. Electrocatalytic activity and operational stability of electrodeposited Pd-Co films towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Lok-kun; Zafferoni, Claudio; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Innocenti, Massimo; Vizza, Francesco; Zangari, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) are usually run with Pd anodic catalysts, but their performance can be improved by utilizing alloys of Pd and Co. The oxyphilic Co serves to supply ample -OH to the ethanol oxidation reaction, accelerating the rate limiting step at low overpotential under alkaline conditions. Pd-Co films with compositions between 20 and 80 at% Co can be prepared by electrodeposition from a NH3 complexing electrolyte. Cyclic voltammetry studies show that the ethanol oxidation peak exhibits increasing current density with increasing Co content, reaching a maximum at 77% Co. In contrast, potentiostatic measurements under conditions closer to fuel cell operating conditions show that a 50 at% Co alloy has the highest performance. Importantly, the Co-Pd film is also found to undergo phase and morphological transformations during ethanol oxidation, resulting in a change from a compact film to high surface area flake-like structures containing Co3O4 and CoOOH; such a transformation instead is not observed when operating at a constant potential of 0.7 VRHE.

  15. Preheated ignition and work function studies on alkaline earth metal oxides coated tungsten electrodes of fluorescent lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Reinhard; Dar, Farrukh; Hilscher, Achim; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes measurements on the alkaline earth (Ba, Sr, Ca) oxide layers utilized as emitting material in fluorescent lamp electrodes. In a first approach we compared the emission capabilities of the different materials (BaO, SrO and CaO coatings on tungsten filaments) by their ability to facilitate the start of a lamp. In a second investigation the work function was measured quantitatively by means of a Kelvin probe. Basically, the results of both measurements coincide. The impact of sample geometry on measurement results of a Kelvin probe applied for work function measurements of lamp electrodes are discussed in detail.

  16. CuO nanowire/microflower/nanowire modified Cu electrode with enhanced electrochemical performance for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Changli; Yamahara, Hiroyasu; Lee, Yaerim; Tabata, Hitoshi; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques

    2015-07-31

    CuO nanowire/microflower structure on Cu foil is synthesized by annealing a Cu(OH)2 nanowire/CuO microflower structure at 250 °C in air. The nanowire/microflower structure with its large surface area leads to an efficient catalysis and charge transfer in glucose detection, achieving a high sensitivity of 1943 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), a wide linear range up to 4 mM and a low detection limit of 4 μM for amperometric glucose sensing in alkaline solution. With a second consecutive growth of CuO nanowires on the microflowers, the sensitivity of the obtained CuO nanowire/microflower/nanowire structure further increases to 2424 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), benefiting from an increased number of electrochemically active sites. The enhanced electrocatalytic performance of the CuO nanowire/microflower/nanowire electrode compared to the CuO nanowire/microflower electrode, CuO nanowire electrode and CuxO film electrode provides evidence for the significant role of available surface area for electrocatalysis. The rational combination of CuO nanowire and microflower nanostructures into a nanowire supporting microflower branching nanowires structure makes it a promising composite nanostructure for use in CuO based electrochemical sensors with promising analytical properties. PMID:26159235

  17. CuO nanowire/microflower/nanowire modified Cu electrode with enhanced electrochemical performance for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Changli; Yamahara, Hiroyasu; Lee, Yaerim; Tabata, Hitoshi; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques

    2015-07-31

    CuO nanowire/microflower structure on Cu foil is synthesized by annealing a Cu(OH)2 nanowire/CuO microflower structure at 250 °C in air. The nanowire/microflower structure with its large surface area leads to an efficient catalysis and charge transfer in glucose detection, achieving a high sensitivity of 1943 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), a wide linear range up to 4 mM and a low detection limit of 4 μM for amperometric glucose sensing in alkaline solution. With a second consecutive growth of CuO nanowires on the microflowers, the sensitivity of the obtained CuO nanowire/microflower/nanowire structure further increases to 2424 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), benefiting from an increased number of electrochemically active sites. The enhanced electrocatalytic performance of the CuO nanowire/microflower/nanowire electrode compared to the CuO nanowire/microflower electrode, CuO nanowire electrode and CuxO film electrode provides evidence for the significant role of available surface area for electrocatalysis. The rational combination of CuO nanowire and microflower nanostructures into a nanowire supporting microflower branching nanowires structure makes it a promising composite nanostructure for use in CuO based electrochemical sensors with promising analytical properties.

  18. CuO nanowire/microflower/nanowire modified Cu electrode with enhanced electrochemical performance for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changli; Yamahara, Hiroyasu; Lee, Yaerim; Tabata, Hitoshi; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques

    2015-07-01

    CuO nanowire/microflower structure on Cu foil is synthesized by annealing a Cu(OH)2 nanowire/CuO microflower structure at 250 °C in air. The nanowire/microflower structure with its large surface area leads to an efficient catalysis and charge transfer in glucose detection, achieving a high sensitivity of 1943 μA mM-1 cm-2, a wide linear range up to 4 mM and a low detection limit of 4 μM for amperometric glucose sensing in alkaline solution. With a second consecutive growth of CuO nanowires on the microflowers, the sensitivity of the obtained CuO nanowire/microflower/nanowire structure further increases to 2424 μA mM-1 cm-2, benefiting from an increased number of electrochemically active sites. The enhanced electrocatalytic performance of the CuO nanowire/microflower/nanowire electrode compared to the CuO nanowire/microflower electrode, CuO nanowire electrode and CuxO film electrode provides evidence for the significant role of available surface area for electrocatalysis. The rational combination of CuO nanowire and microflower nanostructures into a nanowire supporting microflower branching nanowires structure makes it a promising composite nanostructure for use in CuO based electrochemical sensors with promising analytical properties.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of interaction between CuO nanoparticles and bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Esfandfar, Paniz; Falahati, Mojtaba; Saboury, AliAkbar

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the great interests in manufacturing and application of metal oxide nanoparticles in commercial and industrial products have led to focus on the potential impact of these particles on biomacromolecules. In the present study, the interaction of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by spectroscopic techniques. The zeta potential value for BSA and CuO nanoparticles with average diameter of around 50 nm at concentration of 10 μM in the deionized (DI) water were -5.8 and -22.5 mV, respectively. Circular dichroism studies did not show any changes in the content of secondary structure of the protein after CuO nanoparticles interaction. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by CuO nanoparticles was the result of the formed complex of CuO nanoparticles - BSA. Binding constants and other thermodynamic parameters were determined at three different temperatures. The hydrogen bond interactions are the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize the CuO nanoparticle - BSA complex. This study provides important insight into the interaction of CuO nanoparticles with proteins, which may be of importance for further application of these nanoparticles in biomedical applications. PMID:26555383

  20. ALT1, a Snf2 family chromatin remodeling ATPase, negatively regulates alkaline tolerance through enhanced defense against oxidative stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Wang, Ruci; Wang, Juan; Hua, Kai; Wang, Yueming; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yao, Shanguo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline salt stress adversely affects rice growth, productivity and grain quality. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. We characterized here an alkaline tolerant mutant, alt1 in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that alt1 harbors a mutation in a chromatin remodeling ATPase gene. ALT1-RNAi transgenic plants under different genetic background mimicked the alt1 phenotype, exhibiting tolerance to alkaline stress in a transcript dosage-dependent manner. The predicted ALT1 protein belonged to the Ris1 subgroup of the Snf2 family and was localized in the nucleus, and transcription of ALT1 was transiently suppressed after alkaline treatment. Although the absorption of several metal ions maintained well in the mutant under alkaline stress, expression level of the genes involved in metal ions homeostasis was not altered in the alt1 mutant. Classification of differentially expressed abiotic stress related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis, found that the majority (50/78) were involved in ROS production, ROS scavenging, and DNA repair. This finding was further confirmed by that alt1 exhibited lower levels of H2O2 under alkaline stress and tolerance to methyl viologen treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that ALT1 negatively functions in alkaline tolerance mainly through the defense against oxidative damage, and provide a potential two-step strategy for improving the tolerance of rice plants to alkaline stress. PMID:25473841

  1. In situ generated highly active copper oxide catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction at low overpotential in alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Cui, Shengsheng; Qian, Manman; Sun, Zijun; Du, Pingwu

    2016-04-25

    Developing efficient water oxidation catalysts made up of earth-abundant elements has attracted much attention as a step toward for future clean energy production. Herein we report a simple one-step method to generate a low cost copper oxide catalyst film in situ from a copper(ii) ethylenediamine complex. The resulting catalyst has excellent activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline solutions. A catalytic current density of 1.0 mA cm(-2) and 10 mA cm(-2) for the catalyst film requires the overpotentials of only ∼370 mV and ∼475 mV in 1.0 M KOH, respectively. This catalytic performance shows that the new catalyst is one of the best Cu-based heterogeneous OER catalysts to date. PMID:27020763

  2. Effect of stabilizers on the synthesis of palladium-nickel nanoparticles supported on carbon for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huijuan; Wang, Hui; Li, Hao; Ji, Shan; Davids, Moegamat Wafeeq; Wang, Rongfang

    2014-08-01

    PdNi/C electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium are fabricated using four stabilizers, i.e., glycine (G), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium citrate (SC), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with the same reducing process and reaction parameters. X-ray diffraction characterization shows PdNi nanoparticles for all PdNi/C electrocatalysts possess face-centered cubic structure with different alloying degree. TEM results show that PdNi/C-G and PdNi/C-SC have uniform dispersion with ellipse morphology, while particle agglomeration occurs on PdNi/C-EDTA and PdNi/C-SDS. Electrocatalytic activities of these PdNi/C electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation are measured by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The electrocatalytic activities of PdNi/C change with the different lattice contraction. PdNi/C-SC electrocatalyst exhibits the best activity among the four electrocatalysts, which is ascribed to an appropriate lattice contraction.

  3. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Tendency for oxidation of annelid hemoglobin at alkaline pH and dissociated states probed by redox titration.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Jose Ailton Conceicao; Landini, Gustavo Fraga; Santos, Jose Luis Rocha; Norberto, Douglas Ricardo; Bonafe, Carlos Francisco Sampaio

    2005-08-01

    The redox titration of extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (Annelidea) was investigated in different pH conditions and after dissociation induced by pressure. Oxidation increased with increasing pH, as shown by the reduced amount of ferricyanide necessary for the oxidation of hemoglobin. This behavior was the opposite of that of vertebrate hemoglobins. The potential of half oxidation (E1/2) changed from -65.3 to +146.8 mV when the pH increased from 4.50 to 8.75. The functional properties indicated a reduction in the log P50 from 1.28 to 0.28 in this pH range. The dissociation at alkaline pH or induced by high pressure, confirmed by HPLC gel filtration, suggested that disassembly of the hemoglobin could be involved in the increased potential for oxidation. These results suggest that the high stability and prolonged lifetime common to invertebrate hemoglobins is related to their low tendency to oxidize at acidic pH, in contrast to vertebrate hemoglobins. PMID:15982915

  5. Tendency for oxidation of annelid hemoglobin at alkaline pH and dissociated states probed by redox titration.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Jose Ailton Conceicao; Landini, Gustavo Fraga; Santos, Jose Luis Rocha; Norberto, Douglas Ricardo; Bonafe, Carlos Francisco Sampaio

    2005-08-01

    The redox titration of extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (Annelidea) was investigated in different pH conditions and after dissociation induced by pressure. Oxidation increased with increasing pH, as shown by the reduced amount of ferricyanide necessary for the oxidation of hemoglobin. This behavior was the opposite of that of vertebrate hemoglobins. The potential of half oxidation (E1/2) changed from -65.3 to +146.8 mV when the pH increased from 4.50 to 8.75. The functional properties indicated a reduction in the log P50 from 1.28 to 0.28 in this pH range. The dissociation at alkaline pH or induced by high pressure, confirmed by HPLC gel filtration, suggested that disassembly of the hemoglobin could be involved in the increased potential for oxidation. These results suggest that the high stability and prolonged lifetime common to invertebrate hemoglobins is related to their low tendency to oxidize at acidic pH, in contrast to vertebrate hemoglobins.

  6. Short-term effects on antioxidant enzymes and long-term genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of CuO nanoparticles compared to bulk CuO and ionic copper in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pamela; Katsumiti, Alberto; Nieto, Jose A; Bori, Jaume; Jimeno-Romero, Alba; Reip, Paul; Arostegui, Inmaculada; Orbea, Amaia; Cajaraville, Miren P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study short-term effects on antioxidant enzyme activities and long-term genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) in comparison to bulk CuO and ionic copper in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis after 21 days exposure to 10 μg Cu L(-1). Then, mussels were kept for up to 122 days in clean water. Cu accumulation depended on the form of the metal and on the exposure time. CuO NPs were localized in lysosomes of digestive cells, as confirmed by TEM and X ray microanalysis. CuO NPs, bulk CuO and ionic copper produced different effects on antioxidant enzyme activities in digestive glands, overall increasing antioxidant activities. CuO NPs significantly induced catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Fewer effects were observed in gills. Micronuclei frequency increased significantly in mussels exposed to CuO NPs and one organism treated with CuO NPs showed disseminated neoplasia. However, transcription levels of cancer-related genes did not vary significantly. Thus, short-term exposure to CuO NPs provoked oxidative stress and genotoxicity, but further studies are needed to determine whether these early events can lead to cancer development in mussels.

  7. Structural and thermal properties of nanocrystalline CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Gupta, V. K.; Gautam, Y. K.; Dave, V.; Chandra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown immense application of metal oxides like CuO, MgO, CaO, Al2O3, etc. in different areas which includes chemical warfare agents, medical drugs, magnetic storage media and solar energy transformation. Among the metal oxides, CuO nanoparticles are of special interest because of their excellent gas sensing and catalytic properties. In this paper we report structural and thermal properties of CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron DC sputtering. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD result reveals that as DC power increased from 30W to 80W, size of the CuO nanoparticles increased. The same results have been verified through TEM analysis. Thermal properties of these particles were studied using thermogravimetry.

  8. Facile synthesis of CuO nanosheets via the controlled delamination of layered copper hydroxide acetate.

    PubMed

    Demel, Jan; Zhigunov, Alexander; Jirka, Ivan; Klementová, Mariana; Lang, Kamil

    2015-08-15

    CuO nanosheets were prepared by the controlled delamination of layered copper hydroxide acetate followed by the in situ solvothermal transformation of hydroxide to oxide. The reaction was performed in 1-butanol in order to prevent recrystallization or nanoparticle aggregation. Analyses by small angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy revealed that the CuO nanosheets are approximately 1 nm thin, corresponding to three to four stacked CuO6 octahedral layers. The average lateral size is approximately 5 nm. The nanosheets form stable dispersions in 1-butanol that are suitable for the fabrication of transparent and homogeneous CuO thin films by spin-coating or inkjet printing techniques. The present synthesis is a rare example of the top down strategy leading to the nanometric two-dimensional nanosheets of non-layered oxide materials. PMID:25942095

  9. Structural and thermal properties of nanocrystalline CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M.; Gupta, V. K.; Gautam, Y. K.; Dave, V.; Chandra, R.

    2014-01-28

    Recent research has shown immense application of metal oxides like CuO, MgO, CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc. in different areas which includes chemical warfare agents, medical drugs, magnetic storage media and solar energy transformation. Among the metal oxides, CuO nanoparticles are of special interest because of their excellent gas sensing and catalytic properties. In this paper we report structural and thermal properties of CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron DC sputtering. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD result reveals that as DC power increased from 30W to 80W, size of the CuO nanoparticles increased. The same results have been verified through TEM analysis. Thermal properties of these particles were studied using thermogravimetry.

  10. Enhanced reactive oxygen species overexpression by CuO nanoparticles in poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Mei-Lang; Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chu, Tian-Huei; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Bi-Wen; Hsieh, Shuchen

    2015-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 μg ml-1 and 85 μg ml-1, respectively. Cellular fluorescence intensity using DCFH-DA staining analysis revealed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of up to 242% in SK-Hep-1 cells, compared with 86% in HepG2 cells. HPLC analysis demonstrated that a CuO NP treatment caused cellular GSH depletion of 58% and a GSH/GSSG ratio decrease to ~0.1 in SK-Hep-1 cells. The oxidative stress caused by enhanced superoxide anion production was observed in both HepG2 (146%) and SK-Hep-1 (192%) cells. The Griess assay verified that CuO NPs induced NO production (170%) in SK-Hep-1 cells. Comet assay and western blot further demonstrated that CuO NPs induced severe DNA strand breakage (70%) in SK-Hep-1 cells and caused DNA damage via increased γ-H2AX levels. These results suggest that well-differentiated HepG2 cells possess a robust antioxidant defense system against CuO NP-induced ROS stress and exhibit more tolerance to oxidative stress. Conversely, poorly differentiated SK-Hep-1 cells exhibited a deregulated antioxidant defense system that allowed accumulation of CuO NP-induced ROS and resulted in severe cytotoxicity.Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are known to exhibit toxic effects on a variety of cell types and organs. To determine the oxidative impact of CuO NPs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, well-differentiated (HepG2) and poorly differentiated (SK-Hep-1) cells were exposed to CuO NPs. Cell viability assay showed that the median inhibition concentration (IC50) for SK-Hep-1 and HepG2 cells was 25 μg ml-1 and 85 μg ml-1, respectively

  11. Phase instability at the maximum Tc in oxide superconductors: Phase separation in La sub 2 CuO sub 4+x , Nd sub 2 minus x Ce sub x CuO sub 4 , and La sub 2 minus x Sr sub x CuO sub 4

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, J.D.; Lightfoot, P.; Pei, Shiyou; Richards, D.R.; Hinks, D.G. ); Dabrowski, B. Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL )

    1990-11-01

    Observation of similar behavior in three different superconducting oxides suggests that the maximum {Tc} is limited by phase instability. These conclusions are based on previously published neutron powder diffraction data for La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+x} and Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4} and new data for La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} which show a phase separated region for compositions adjacent to that which produces the highest {Tc}. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linqiang; Gao, Bingying; Deng, Ning; Liu, Lu; Cui, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during the thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2) was investigated. The amounts of Cr(III) oxidized at various temperatures and heating times were determined, and the Cr-containing species in the residues were characterized. During the transformation of chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3 at 300 °C approximately 5% of the Cr(III) was oxidized to form intermediate compounds containing Cr(VI) (i.e., CrO3), but these intermediates were reduced to Cr2O3 when the temperature was above 400 °C. Alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly promoted the oxidation of Cr(III) during the thermal drying process. Two pathways were involved in the influences the alkali and alkaline earth metals had on the formation of Cr(VI). In pathway I, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to act as electron transfer agents and to interfere with the dehydration process, causing more intermediate Cr(VI)-containing compounds (which were identified as being CrO3 and Cr5O12) to be formed. The reduction of intermediate compounds to Cr2O3 was also found to be hindered in pathway I. In pathway II, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to contribute to the oxidation of Cr(III) to form chromates. The results showed that the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly increases the degree to which Cr(III) is oxidized during the thermal drying of chromium-containing sludge.

  13. Low-temperature remediation of NO catalyzed by interleaved CuO nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Auxilia, Francis Malar; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Mandal, Saikat; Tanabe, Toyokazu; Saravanan, Govindachetty; Ramesh, Gubbala V; Umezawa, Naoto; Hara, Toru; Xu, Ya; Hishita, Shunichi; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Dakshanamoorthy, Arivuoli; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Abe, Hideki

    2014-07-01

    A copper(II)-oxide-based exhaust catalyst exhibits better activity than Pt- and Rh-nanoparticle catalysts in NO remediation at 175 °C. Following theoretical design, the CuO catalyst is rationally prepared; CuO nanoplates bearing a maximized amount of the active {001} facet are arranged in interleaved layers. A field test using a commercial gasoline engine demonstrates the ability of the catalyst to remove NO from the exhaust of small vehicles. PMID:24782389

  14. The electronic structure of tetragonal CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Simon; Moreschini, Luca; Innocenti, Davide; Chang, Young Jun; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Grioni, Marco

    2012-02-01

    The cupric oxide CuO exhibits an insulating ground state with a correlation-induced charge-transfer gap and antiferromagnetism. It is, in principle, the most straightforward parent compound of the doped cuprates, and therefore has been theoretically studied as a model material for high temperature superconductivity. Bulk CuO crystallizes in a low-symmetry monoclinic form, in contrast to the rocksalt structure typical of late 3d transition metal monoxides. It was recently synthesized by epitaxial growth on SrTiO3 substrates in a higher symmetry tetragonal structure with elongated c-axis (Siemons et al. PRB 79, 2009). Extrapolating the behavior of other 3d transition metal monoxides, this phase of CuO is predicted to have a much higher Neel temperature than its bulk counterpart. At beamline 7 of the Advanced Light Source, we have grown tetragonal CuO thin films by pulsed laser deposition and investigated their electronic structure by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). These measurements represent the first mapping of the band structure of this new material, not available in bulk phase, and will serve as a reference point for future doping experiments.

  15. Solubility Behavior and Phase Stability of Transition Metal Oxides in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Ziemniak

    2000-05-18

    The solubility behavior of transition metal oxides in high temperature water is interpreted by recognizing three types of chemical reaction equilibria: metal oxide hydration/dehydration, metal oxide dissolution and metal ion hydroxocomplex formation. The equilibria are quantified using thermodynamic concepts and the thermochemical properties of the metal oxides/ions representative of the most common constituents of construction metal alloys, i.e., element shaving atomic numbers between Z = 22 (Ti) and Z = 30 (Zn), are summarized on the basis of metal oxide solubility studies conducted in the laboratory. Particular attention is devoted to the uncharged metal ion hydrocomplex, M{sup Z}(OH){sub Z}(aq), since its thermochemical properties define minimum solubilities of the metal oxide at a given temperature. Experimentally-extracted values of standard partial molal entropy (S{sup 0}) for the transition metal ion neutral hydroxocomplex are shown to be influenced by ligand field stabilization energies and complex symmetry.

  16. Order of Activity of Nitrogen, Iron Oxide, and FeNx Complexes towards Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Medium.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yansong; Zhang, Bingsen; Wang, Da-Wei; Su, Dang Sheng

    2015-12-01

    In alkaline medium, it seems that both metal-free and iron-containing carbon-based catalysts, such as nitrogen-doped nanocarbon materials, FeOx -doped carbon, and Fe/N/C catalysts, are active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, the order of activity of these different active compositions has not been clearly determined. Herein, we synthesized nitrogen-doped carbon black (NCB), Fe3 O4 /CB, Fe3 O4 /NCB, and FeN4 /CB. Through the systematic study of the ORR catalytic activity of these four catalysts in alkaline solution, we confirmed the difference in the catalytic activity and catalytic mechanism for nitrogen, iron oxides, and Fe-N complexes, respectively. In metal-free NCB, nitrogen can improve the ORR catalytic activity with a four-electron pathway. Fe3 O4 /CB catalyst did not exhibit improved activity over that of NCB owing to the poor conductivity and spinel structure of Fe3 O4 . However, FeN4 coordination compounds as the active sites showed excellent ORR catalytic activity.

  17. Sodic alkaline stress mitigation by interaction of nitric oxide and polyamines involves antioxidants and physiological strategies in Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Gong, Biao; Li, Xiu; Bloszies, Sean; Wen, Dan; Sun, Shasha; Wei, Min; Li, Yan; Yang, Fengjuan; Shi, Qinghua; Wang, Xiufeng

    2014-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines (PAs) are two kinds of important signal in mediating plant tolerance to abiotic stress. In this study, we observed that both NO and PAs decreased alkaline stress in tomato plants, which may be a result of their role in regulating nutrient balance and reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Further investigation indicated that NO and PAs induced accumulation of each other. Furthermore, the function of PAs could be removed by a NO scavenger, cPTIO. On the other hand, application of MGBG, a PA synthesis inhibitor, did little to abolish the function of NO. To further elucidate the mechanism by which NO and PAs alleviate alkaline stress, the expression of several genes associated with abiotic stress was analyzed by qRT-PCR. NO and PAs significantly upregulated ion transporters such as the plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (SlSOS1), vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (SlNHX1 and SlNHX2), and Na(+) transporter and signal components including ROS, MAPK, and Ca(2+) signal pathways, as well as several transcription factors. All of these play important roles in plant adaptation to stress conditions.

  18. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    PubMed

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature.

  19. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    PubMed

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature. PMID:26547409

  20. Spectroscopic and electron microscopic investigation of iron oxides formed in a highly alkaline medium in the presence of rhodium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Musić, Svetozar

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the presence of rhodium ions on the formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline precipitation system was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), 57Fe Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Acicular α-FeOOH particles precipitated in a highly alkaline medium with the addition of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) were used as reference material. Characterization of α-FeOOH samples formed in the presence of rhodium ions showed a somewhat smaller mean crystallite size, increased unit-cell dimensions, a reduced average hyperfine magnetic field and a slight shift in the position of IR absorption bands in comparison with the reference α-FeOOH sample. By additional heating of the precipitation system, α-FeOOH precipitated in the presence of rhodium ions transformed to α-Fe 2O 3 crystals in the form of hexagonal bipyramids via a dissolution-recrystallization process. Metallic rhodium nanoparticles were formed simultaneously by the reduction of Rh 3+ ions in the presence of the products of TMAH thermal decomposition (trimethylamine and methanol). These rhodium nanoparticles acted as a catalyst for the reductive dissolution of α-Fe 2O 3 particles and the formation of Fe 3O 4 crystals in the form of octahedrons.

  1. Frontier Orbital Engineering of Metal-Organic Frameworks with Extended Inorganic Connectivity: Porous Alkaline-Earth Oxides.

    PubMed

    Hendon, Christopher H; Walsh, Aron; Dincă, Mircea

    2016-08-01

    The development of conductive metal-organic frameworks is challenging owing to poor electronic communication between metal clusters and the organic ligands that bridge them. One route to overcoming this bottleneck is to extend the inorganic dimensionality, while using the organic components to provide chemical functionality. Using density functional theory methods, we demonstrate how the properties of the alkaline-earth oxides SrO and BaO are transformed upon formation of porous solids with organic oxygen sources (acetate and trifluoroacetate). The electron affinity is significantly enhanced in the hybrid materials, while the ionization potential can be tuned over a large range with the polarity of the organic moiety. Furthermore, because of their high-vacuum fraction, these materials have dielectric properties suitable for low-κ applications.

  2. Carbon supported Pd-Ni-P nanoalloy as an efficient catalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye; Shi, Fei-Fei; Yang, Yao-Yue; Cai, Wen-Bin

    2013-12-01

    Carbon-supported well-dispersed Pd-Ni-P ternary catalyst targeted for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline media is synthesized in a simple aqueous bath containing Pd(II) and Ni(II) salts with sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent and the source for P and sodium citrate as the complexing agent. XRD analysis on the as-prepared Pd-Ni-P/C reveals that Ni shrinks while P expands the Pd lattice structure, and XPS measurement suggests different electronic effects of the two alloying elements on Pd. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry indicate that the Pd-Ni-P/C presents a remarkably higher electrocatalytic activity than the state-of-the-art Pd/C, Pd-P/C and Pd-Ni/C catalysts. This may be ascribed to the unique electronic, geometric and bifunctional effects involved in this ternary nanoalloy.

  3. A comparative physicochemical, morphological and magnetic study of silane-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by alkaline coprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Mireles, Laura-Karina; Sacher, Edward; Yahia, L'Hocine; Laurent, Sophie; Stanicki, Dimitri

    2016-06-01

    The characterization of synthetic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) surfaces prior to functionalization is an essential step in the prediction of their successful functionalization, and in uncovering issues that may influence their selection as magnetically targeted drug delivery vehicles (prodrugs). Here, three differently functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4) SPIONs are considered. All were identically prepared by the alkaline coprecipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) salts. We use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microscopy, time-of-flight SIMS, FTIR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements to characterize their chemical, morphological and magnetic properties, in order to aid in determining how their surfaces differ from those prepared by Fe(CO)5 decomposition, which we have already studied, and in assessing their potential use as drug delivery carriers.

  4. The influence of platinum(IV) ions on the formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Musić, Svetozar

    2011-05-01

    The effect of the presence of platinum(IV) ions, in the form of Pt(OH)62- at a high pH, on the formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline precipitation system was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), 57Fe Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Monodispersed lath-like α-FeOOH (goethite) particles precipitated by hydrothermal treatment in a highly alkaline medium with the addition of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) were used as reference material. In the presence of 1 or 5 mol% of platinum ions in the precipitation system the lath-like α-FeOOH particles were formed as a single phase after a short hydrothermal treatment (2 h). No significant change in the size and shape of these particles in comparison to the reference sample was observed. After 6 h of autoclaving the formation of platinum nanoparticles at the surface of α-FeOOH particles via reduction by TMAH and/or its decomposition products became visible. These nanoparticles acted as a catalyst for the reduction of Fe(III) ions into Fe(II) and gradual transformation of α-FeOOH into a mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) oxide (Fe 3O 4, magnetite) by the dissolution-recrystallization mechanism. The presence of a higher concentration of platinum ions accelerates the process of α-FeOOH → Fe 3O 4 transformation with the appearance of α-Fe 2O 3 (hematite) particles as an intermediate product.

  5. X-ray Diffraction Studies of the Structure and Thermochemistry of Alkaline-Earth Oxide-Coated Thermionic Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karikari, E. K.; Bassey, E.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    1998-01-01

    NASA LeRC has a broad, active cathode technology development program in which both experimental and theoretical studies are being employed to further development of thermionic cathodes for use as electron sources in vacuum devices for communications and other space applications. One important type of thermionic cathode under development is the alkaline-earth oxide-coated (BaO, SrO, CaO) cathode. Significant improvements in the emission characteristics of this cathode have been obtained through modification of the chemical composition and morphology of the oxide coating, with the best result thus far coming from the addition of In2O3 and Sc2O3. Whereas the In2O3 produces a finer, more uniform particle structure, the exact chemical state and role of the Sc2O3 in the emission enhancement is unknown. The purpose of this cooperative agreement is to combine the studies of the surface chemistry and electron emission at NASA LeRC of chemically modified oxide coatings with a study of the thermochemistry and crystal structure using X-ray diffraction equipment and expertise at Clark Atlanta University (CAU). The study at CAU is intended to provide the description and understanding of the structure and thermochemistry needed for further improvement and optimization of the modified coatings. A description of the experimental procedure, preliminary X-ray diffraction test results, together with the design of an ultrahigh vacuum chamber necessary for high temperature thermochemistry studies will be presented.

  6. Ultrasmall PdmMn1-mOx binary alloyed nanoparticles on graphene catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Park, Dongchul; Jeon, Seungwon

    2016-03-01

    A rare combination of graphene (G)-supported palladium and manganese in mixed-oxides binary alloyed catalysts (BACs) have been synthesized with the addition of Pd and Mn metals in various ratios (G/PdmMn1-mOx) through a facile wet-chemical method and employed as an efficient anode catalyst for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline fuel cells. The as prepared G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been characterized by several instrumental techniques; the transmission electron microscopy images show that the ultrafine alloyed nanoparticles (NPs) are excellently monodispersed onto the G. The Pd and Mn in G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been alloyed homogeneously, and Mn presents in mixed-oxidized form that resulted by X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performances, kinetics and stability of these catalysts toward EOR have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry in 1 M KOH electrolyte. Among all G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs, the G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox catalyst has shown much superior mass activity and incredible stability than that of pure Pd catalysts (G/Pd1Mn0Ox, Pd/C and Pt/C). The well dispersion, ultrafine size of NPs and higher degree of alloying are the key factor for enhanced and stable EOR electrocatalysis on G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox.

  7. Novel alkaline-reduced cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposites for non-enzymatic amperometric glucose sensor application.

    PubMed

    Yazid, Siti Nur Akmar Mohd; Isa, Illyas Md; Hashim, Norhayati

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of a highly sensitive and selective glucose sensor based on cuprous oxide/graphene nanocomposites-modified glassy carbon electrode (Cu2O/graphene/GCE). The Cu2O/graphene nanocomposites were synthesized based on a simple and straightforward chemical reduction process in alkaline aqueous solution using sodium carbonate as reductant. The size and shape of Cu2O nanoparticles on graphene sheets can be controlled by changing the amount of graphene oxide added during reaction. The electrochemical properties of Cu2O/graphene/GCE in 0.1M phosphate buffer solution were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the pH, concentration of supporting electrolyte, and scan rate had very crucial effect on the sensitivity of prepared sensor towards glucose oxidation. At an applied potential of +0.50V, the Cu2O/graphene/GCE presented a high sensitivity of 1330.05μAmM(-1)cm(-2) and fast response (within 3s). The amperometric non-enzymatic glucose sensor developed had a linear relationship from 0.01mM to 3.0mM glucose and detection limit of 0.36μM. In the presence of ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine, chloride and citrate ion and other carbohydrates, the interferences were negligible. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for the determination of glucose concentration in real human blood samples. PMID:27524043

  8. Multi-laminated copper nanoparticles deposited on conductive substrates for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol in alkaline electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lun-Peng; Guo, Peng; Wang, Yan; Ding, Shi-Qi; He, Jian-Bo

    2014-09-01

    A simple electrodeposition approach to grow multi-laminated copper particles on two conductive substrates is presented. Morphological and structural characterization was performed using SEM and XRD. The copper crystallites are preferentially oriented with {111} planes parallel to the substrate surfaces, providing an optimum interface for methanol oxidation. There are a large number of edges, corners, and atomic steps around individual multi-laminated nanostructured particles. The excellent electrocatalytic activity of the particles to methanol oxidation in alkaline solutions is demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry. The presence of the conductive poly(2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole) interlayer between the Cu particles and the carbon paste substrate results in larger specific surface areas of the particles and smaller charge-transfer resistances of methanol oxidation reaction in the lower potential range. Such an anisotropic laminated structure of non-noble metal nanomaterials deserves further investigation for finding a suitable alternative to noble metal-based anodic catalysts in fuel cells.

  9. CuO Nanoparticle Interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana: Toxicity, Parent-Progeny Transfer, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Xu, Lina; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Xiangke; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-06-01

    CuO nanoparticles (NPs) (20, 50 mg L(-1)) inhibited seedling growth of different Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Col-0, Bay-0, and Ws-2), as well as the germination of their pollens and harvested seeds. For most of growth parameters (e.g., biomass, relative growth rate, root morphology change), Col-0 was the more sensitive ecotype to CuO NPs compared to Bay-0 and Ws-2. Equivalent Cu(2+) ions and CuO bulk particles had no effect on Arabidopsis growth. After CuO NPs (50 mg L(-1)) exposure, Cu was detected in the roots, leaves, flowers and harvested seeds of Arabidopsis, and its contents were significantly higher than that in CuO bulk particles (50 mg L(-1)) and Cu(2+) ions (0.15 mg L(-1)) treatments. Based on X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis (XANES), Cu in the harvested seeds was confirmed as being mainly in the form of CuO (88.8%), which is the first observation on the presence of CuO NPs in the plant progeny. Moreover, after CuO NPs exposure, two differentially expressed genes (C-1 and C-3) that regulated root growth and reactive oxygen species generation were identified, which correlated well with the physiological root inhibition and oxidative stress data. This current study provides direct evidence for the negative effects of CuO NPs on Arabidopsis, including accumulation and parent-progeny transfer of the particles, which may have significant implications with regard to the risk of NPs to food safety and security. PMID:27226046

  10. CuO Nanoparticle Interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana: Toxicity, Parent-Progeny Transfer, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Xu, Lina; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Xiangke; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-06-01

    CuO nanoparticles (NPs) (20, 50 mg L(-1)) inhibited seedling growth of different Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Col-0, Bay-0, and Ws-2), as well as the germination of their pollens and harvested seeds. For most of growth parameters (e.g., biomass, relative growth rate, root morphology change), Col-0 was the more sensitive ecotype to CuO NPs compared to Bay-0 and Ws-2. Equivalent Cu(2+) ions and CuO bulk particles had no effect on Arabidopsis growth. After CuO NPs (50 mg L(-1)) exposure, Cu was detected in the roots, leaves, flowers and harvested seeds of Arabidopsis, and its contents were significantly higher than that in CuO bulk particles (50 mg L(-1)) and Cu(2+) ions (0.15 mg L(-1)) treatments. Based on X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis (XANES), Cu in the harvested seeds was confirmed as being mainly in the form of CuO (88.8%), which is the first observation on the presence of CuO NPs in the plant progeny. Moreover, after CuO NPs exposure, two differentially expressed genes (C-1 and C-3) that regulated root growth and reactive oxygen species generation were identified, which correlated well with the physiological root inhibition and oxidative stress data. This current study provides direct evidence for the negative effects of CuO NPs on Arabidopsis, including accumulation and parent-progeny transfer of the particles, which may have significant implications with regard to the risk of NPs to food safety and security.

  11. Evaluation of metal oxide and carbonate nanoparticle stability in soybean oil: Implications for controlled release of alkalinity during subsurface remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsburg, C. A.; Leach, O. I.; Sebik, J.; Muller, K.

    2011-12-01

    Traditional methods for adjusting groundwater pH rely on injection of aqueous solutes and therefore, amendment distribution is reliant upon aqueous phase flow and transport. This reliance can limit mixing and sustention of amendments within the treatment zone. Oil-in-water emulsions offer an alternative for amendment delivery - one that has potential to enhance control of the distribution and release of buffering agents within the subsurface. Focus here is placed on using metal oxide and carbonate nanoparticles to release alkalinity from soybean oil, a common dispersed phase within emulsions designed to support remediation activities. Batch reactor systems were employed to examine the influence of dispersed phase composition on particle stability and solubility. The stability of uncoated MgO and CaCO3 particles in unmodified soybean oil was explored in a series of sedimentation studies conducted at solid loadings of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2% mass. Three nominal sizes of MgO particles were examined (20, 50, and 100 nm) and one CaCO3 particle size (60 nm). Results from sedimentation studies conducted over four hours suggest that the viscosity of the soybean oil imparts a kinetic stability, for all sizes of the uncoated MgO and CaCO3 nanoparticles, which is sufficient time for particle encapsulation within oil-in-water emulsions. Based upon these results, the sedimentation of the 50 nm and 100 nm MgO, and 60 nm CaCO3 particles was assessed over longer durations (≥72 hr). Results from these stability tests suggest that the 50 nm and 100 nm MgO particles have greater kinetic stability than the 60 nm CaCO3. Batch studies were also used to assess the influence of n-butanol, a co-solvent hypothesized to aid in controlling the rate of alkalinity release, on phase behavior and metal (Mg2+ and Ca2+) solubility. Phase behavior studies suggest that n-butanol has a limited region of miscibility within the soybean oil-water system. Use of n-butanol and water within this region of

  12. Selective Production of Formic Acid by Hydrothermal Alkaline Oxidation of Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J.; Li, G.; Enomoto, H.; Jin, F.

    2007-03-01

    Formic acid is a familiar product in hydrothermal oxidation of carbohydrates and is an important organic compound. In this study, the production of formic acid from the hydrothermal oxidation of glucose with and without the addition of alkali was investigated with temperature varying from 250 to 300°C, reaction time varying from 30 s to 240 s, and oxygen supply varying from 60 % to 140 %. Results showed that the highest yield of formic acid was only about 24 % in hydrothermal oxidation of glucose without the addition of alkali. It is very interest that the oxidation of glucose with the addition of alkali showed a high selective and effective for the production of formic acid. An excellent formic acid yield of about 74 % was achieved, which occurred at 250°C for 60 s with 120 % oxygen supply and the KOH concentration of 1.25 M.

  13. Magnetism in zigzag and armchair CuO nanotubes: Ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Samir; Dandeliya, Sushmita; Chaurasiya, Rajneesh; Srivastava, Anurag; Kaphle, Gopi Chandra

    2016-05-01

    The structural stability, electronic band structure and magnetic properties of zigzag (4≤n≤12) and armchair (3≤n≤8) copper oxide nanotubes have been analyzed by employing a standard Density Functional Theory based ab-intio approach using spin polarized generalized gradient approximation with revised Perdew Burke Ernzerhoff type parameterization. The binding energy of both zigzag as well as armchair CuO nanotubes increases with increasing diameter. Whereas, calculated total magnetic moment decreases with increasing diameter. Among the considered chiralities, (5, 5) armchair (diameter 9.08 Å) and (9, 0) zigzag (diameter 9.47 Å) CuO nanotubes show highest degree of spin polarization, however total magnetic moment is found to be highest for (4, 0) zigzag and (3, 3) armchair CuO nanotubes. The computed electronic properties of considered CuO Nanotube, confirms the metallic nature of these nanotubes.

  14. Cutin-derived CuO reaction products from purified cuticles and tree leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.

    1990-11-01

    Long chain (C 16-C 18) hydroxy fatty acids are obtained among the nonlignin-derived reaction products from the CuO oxidation of a variety of geochemical samples. In order to investigate the origin of these acids, the CuO reaction products of isolated cuticles and whole leaves were investigated. The reaction products from the CuO oxidation of purified apple ( Malus pumila) cuticle include 16-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid, 10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid, 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadec-12-enoic acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid as major components. The distribution of these cutin-derived CuO reaction products is similar to the monomer compositions deduced from traditional methods of cutin analysis. Oxidation of whole English Holly ( Ilex aquifolium) leaves yields cutin-derived acidic reaction products (in addition to lignin-derived phenols) similar to those obtained from oxidation of the corresponding isolated cuticles, indicating that CuO oxidation of bulk plant tissue is a viable procedure of cutin analysis in geochemical applications.

  15. Ethanol oxidation on Pt single-crystal electrodes: surface-structure effects in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Busó-Rogero, Carlos; Herrero, Enrique; Feliu, Juan M

    2014-07-21

    Ethanol oxidation in 0.1 M NaOH on single-crystal electrodes has been studied using electrochemical and FTIR techniques. The results show that the activity order is the opposite of that found in acidic solutions. The Pt(111) electrode displays the highest currents and also the highest onset potential of all the electrodes. The onset potential for the oxidation of ethanol is linked to the adsorption of OH on the electrode surface. However, small (or even negligible) amounts of CO(ads) and carbonate are detected by FTIR, which implies that cleavage of the C-C bond is not favored in this medium. The activity of the electrodes diminishes quickly upon cycling. The diminution of the activity is proportional to the measured currents and is linked to the formation and polymerization of acetaldehyde, which adsorbs onto the electrode surface and prevents further oxidation. PMID:24782218

  16. Chlorination of iodide-containing waters in the presence of CuO: formation of periodate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Salhi, Elisabeth; Croué, Jean-Philippe; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-11-18

    It has been shown previously that the disproportionation of halogen-containing oxidants (e.g., HOCl, HOBr, and ClO2) is enhanced by a CuO-catalyzed process. In this study, the transformation of iodine during chlorination in the presence of CuO was investigated. There is no significant enhancement of the disproportionation of hypoiodous acid (HOI) in the presence of CuO. The formation rate of iodate (IO3(-)) in the CuO-HOCl-I(-) system significantly increased when compared to homogeneous solutions, which was ascribed to the activation of HOCl by CuO enhancing its reactivity toward HOI. In this reaction system, iodate formation rates increase with increasing CuO (0-0.5 g L(-1)) and bromide (0-2 μM) doses and with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6). Iodate does not adsorb to the CuO surfaces used in this study. Nevertheless, iodate concentrations decreased after a maximum was reached in the CuO-HOCl-I(-)(-Br(-)) systems. Similarly, the iodate concentrations decrease as a function of time in the CuO-HOCl-IO3(-) or CuO-HOBr-IO3(-) system, and the rates increase with decreasing pH (9.6-6.6) due to the enhanced reactivity of HOCl or HOBr in the presence of CuO. It could be demonstrated that iodate is oxidized to periodate by a CuO-activated hypohalous acid, which is adsorbed on the CuO surface. No periodate could be measured in filtered solutions because it was mainly adsorbed to CuO. The adsorbed periodate was identified by scanning electron microscopy plus energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  17. Solid-phase electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide films in alkaline solution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) film was evaporated onto graphite and used as an electrode to produce electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) films by electrochemical reduction in 6 M KOH solution through voltammetric cycling. Fourier transformed infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ERGO. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization of ERGO and GO films in ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple with 0.1 M KCl supporting electrolyte gave results that are in accordance with previous reports. Based on the EIS results, ERGO shows higher capacitance and lower charge transfer resistance compared to GO. PMID:24059434

  18. Multi-functional CuO nanowire/TiO2 nanotube arrays photoelectrode synthesis, characterization, photocatalysis and SERS applications.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Pengtao; Li, Weili; Du, Pengwei; Cao, Kesheng; Cai, Qingyun

    2016-11-01

    Vertically aligned single crystalline CuO nanowire arrays (NWs) grown directly on TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) supporting by Ti foil have been successfully fabricated using facile thermal oxidation of Cu nanocrystals in static air. CuO NWs growth behavior dependent on parent Cu nanocrystals sizes has been well investigated. Mass transport channel of Cu ions in horizontal and vertical for supporting CuO NWs diameter and length changes has been confirmed through a novel step-by-step surface diffusion process. CuO NWs, nano-mushrooms and nanosheets can be easily obtained by varying growth conditions. After photocatalytic synthesis of snow-like Ag nanocrystals upon CuO NWs/TiO2 NTAs, the hybrid photoelectrode exhibits superior catalytic property and detection sensitivity, which can clean themselves by photocatalytic degradation of RhB molecules adsorbed to the substrate under irradiation using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection, a recycling can been achieved.

  19. Phase Stability of Chromium(III) Oxide Hydroxide in Alkaline Sodium Phosphate Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Ziemniak; E.P. Opalka

    2003-07-08

    Grimaldiite ({alpha}-CrOOH) is shown to transform to a sodium-chromium(III)-hydroxyphosphate compound (SCHP) in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via CrOOH(s) + 4Na{sup +} + 2HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = Na{sub 4}Cr(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that SCHP possesses an orthorhombic lattice having the same space group symmetry (Ibam, No.72) as sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate. A structurally-consistent designation for SCHP is Na{sub 3}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} NaOH; the molar volume of SCHP is estimated to be 1552 cm{sup 3}. The thermodynamic equilibrium for the above reaction was defined in the system Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.0 and 2.4. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard molar entropy (S{sup o}), heat capacity (C{sub p}{sup o}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{sup o}) for SCHP were calculated to be 690 J/(mol-K), 622 J/(mol-K) and -3509.97 kJ/mol, respectively.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of pure Cu and CuO nano particles by solution combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Sarika P.; Patil, Shital P.; Puri, V. R.; Jadhav, L. D.

    2013-06-01

    The Cu and CuO nano particles were prepared by using solution combustion technique with copper nitrate as an oxidizer and citric acid as the fuel. The solution combustion synthesis (SCS) method provides the advanced ceramics, nano-composites and catalyst materials and also produces homogeneous, crystalline and un-agglomerated multi-component oxides. The pure CuO nano particles were prepared for rich oxidant to fuel ratio. As prepared powder were further calcined at 600 °C for 2 hrs. The powder was characterized by different techniques such as XRD, TG-DTA, and SEM etc.

  1. Three-dimensional nanoporous gold-cobalt oxide electrode for high-performance electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhihao; He, Yanghua; Ke, Xi; Gan, Lin; Zhao, Jie; Cui, Guofeng; Wu, Gang

    2015-10-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal method combined with a post-annealing treatment, cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanosheet arrays are grown on three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous gold (NPG) film supported on Ni foam substrates, in which NPG is fabricated by chemically dealloying electrodeposited Au-Sn alloy films. The morphology and structure of the Co3O4@NPG/Ni foam hybrids are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical activity of the Co3O4@NPG/Ni foam electrode toward hydrogen peroxide electroreduction in alkaline medium is studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and chronoamperometry (CA). The results demonstrate that the Co3O4@NPG/Ni foam electrode possesses exceptionally high catalytic activity and excellent stability for the peroxide electroreduction, resulting mainly from the unique electrode architecture. The combined 3D hierarchical porous structures of NPG/Ni foam with the open and porous structures of Co3O4 nanosheet arrays facilitate the mass transport and charge transfer. Therefore, the metal oxides supported on 3D hierarchical porous NPG/Ni foam framework may hold great promise to be effective electrodes for electrocatalytic reduction of peroxide and other electrochemical reactions.

  2. The Influence of Fe Substitution in Lanthanum Calcium Cobalt Oxide on the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media

    DOE PAGES

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Dhital, Chetan; Huq, Ashfia; Li, Ling; Bridges, Craig A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans; Narayanan, S. R.; Quesnel, David J.; Tryk, Donald A.; Manivannan, A.

    2016-07-30

    The effect due to systematic substitution of cobalt by iron in La0.6Ca0.4Co1-xFexO3 towards the oxygen evolution reaction(OER) in alkaline media has been investigated. We synthesized these compounds by a facile glycine-nitrate synthesis and the phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Neutron Diffraction elemental analysis. The apparent OER activity was evaluated by quasi steady state current measurements in alkaline media using a traditional three-electrode cell. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows iron substitution causes an increase in the surface concentration of various cobalt oxidation states. Tafel slope in the vicinity of 60 mV/decade and electrochemical reaction order towards OH- near unitymore » were achieved for the unsubstituted La0.6Ca0.4CoO3. Moreover, a decrease in the Tafel slope to 49 mV/decade was observed when iron is substituted in high amounts in the perovskite structure. The area specific current density showed dependence on the Fe fraction, however the relationship of specific current density with Fe fraction is not linear. High Fe substitutions, La0.6Ca0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 and La0.6Ca0.4Co0.1Fe0.9O3 showed higher area specific activity towards OER than La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 or La0.6Ca0.4FeO3. Finally, we believe iron inclusion in the cobalt sites of the perovskite helps decrease the electron transfer barrier and facilitates the formation of cobalt-hydroxide at the surface. Possible OER mechanisms based on the observed kinetic parameters will be discussed.« less

  3. Preparation of nickel nanowire arrays electrode for urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fen; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-03-01

    Fully metallic nickel nanowire arrays (NWAs) electrode is prepared by electrodepositing nickel within the pores and over-plating on the surface of polycarbonate template (PCT) with subsequent dissolution of the template in dichloromethane. The as-prepared electrode is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Urea electro-oxidation reaction in KOH solution on the nickel NWAs electrode is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The results show that the nickel NWAs electrode achieves an onset oxidation potential of 0.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and a peak current density of 160 mA cm-2 in 5 mol L-1 KOH and 0.33 mol L-1 urea accompanied with considerable stability.

  4. Oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Dongqiang; Wu, Zhaofeng; Wang, Zhihe; Yang, Shaoguang

    2016-04-01

    Using anodic aluminum oxide membranes as the nanoreactors and controller, oriented nanowire arrays of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Mn-doped CuO have been successfully fabricated using Mn(NO3)2 · 4H2O and Cu(NO3)2 · 3H2O as the starting materials. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the as-prepared oriented nanowire arrays are of high purity. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope studies showed the nanowires are oriented, continuous and uniform with a diameter and length of about 170 nm and several tens of micrometers, respectively, and thus of a high aspect ratio. Low-temperature magnetic measurements showed the ferromagnetic property of the oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays with the critical temperature at around 80 K, which will endow them with great potential applications in spintronics in the future.

  5. Investigation of the Alkaline Electrochemical Interface and Development of Composite Metal/Metal-Oxides for Hydrogen and Oxygen Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Michael

    Understanding the fundamentals of electrochemical interfaces will undoubtedly reveal a path forward towards a society based on clean and renewable energy. In particular, it has been proposed that hydrogen can play a major role as an energy carrier of the future. To fully utilize the clean energy potential of a hydrogen economy, it is vital to produce hydrogen via water electrolysis, thus avoiding co-production of CO2 inherent to reformate hydrogen. While significant research efforts elsewhere are focused on photo-chemical hydrogen production from water, the inherent low efficiency of this method would require a massive land-use footprint to achieve sufficient hydrogen production rates to integrate hydrogen into energy markets. Thus, this research has primarily focused on the water splitting reactions on base-metal catalysts in the alkaline environment. Development of high-performance base-metal catalysts will help move alkaline water electrolysis to the forefront of hydrogen production methods, and when paired with solar and wind energy production, represents a clean and renewable energy economy. In addition to the water electrolysis reactions, research was conducted to understand the de-activation of reversible hydrogen electrodes in the corrosive environment of the hydrogen-bromine redox flow battery. Redox flow batteries represent a promising energy storage option to overcome the intermittency challenge of wind and solar energy production methods. Optimization of modular and scalable energy storage technology will allow higher penetration of renewable wind and solar energy into the grid. In Chapter 1, an overview of renewable energy production methods and energy storage options is presented. In addition, the fundamentals of electrochemical analysis and physical characterization of the catalysts are discussed. Chapter 2 reports the development of a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unprecedented mass-activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline

  6. Solubility of uranium (IV) oxide in alkaline aqueous solutions to 300/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Tremaine, P.R.; Chen, J.D.; Wallace, G.J.; Boivin, W.A.

    1981-03-01

    The solubility of carefully characterized UO/sub 2/ in pOH 1.5 and pOH 2.5 aqueous solutions has been determined from 25 to 300/sup 0/C using a flow apparatus. Data were analyzed in terms of reversible reaction, UO/sub 2/ + 2H/sub 2/O + OH/sup -/ ..-->.. U(OH)/sub 5//sup -/, where log K = -5.86 + 32/T. The extreme sensitivity of both the UO/sub 2/ surface and aqueous U(IV) to oxidation is discussed.

  7. Fabrication of CuO nanosheets modified Cu electrode and its excellent electrocatalytic performance towards glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Liangliang; Liu, Bitao

    2013-10-01

    Glucose (Glu) detection is of great importance in the fields of biological, environmental, and clinical analyses. In this study, CuO nanosheets (NSs) electrode prepared by a one-step synthesis route was applied to construct nonenzymatic glucose biosensor. The as-prepared CuO NSs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrocatalytic oxidation of the CuO NSs electrode towards glucose was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry. For the amperometric glucose detection, the low detection limit of 0.8 μM (S/N = 3) with linear range from 0.8 μM to 2200 μM can be obtained using the CuO NSs electrode. Under the applied potential of 0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the CuO NSs electrode exhibits a high sensitivity of 2792.64 μA mM-1 cm-2. It is believed that CuO NSs electrode is a promising material for the development of nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose sensors.

  8. One - Step synthesis of nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide with NiCo nanoparticles for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media.

    PubMed

    Kakaei, Karim; Marzang, Kamaran

    2016-01-15

    Development of anode catalysts and catalyst supporting carbonaceous material containing non-precious metal have attracted tremendous attention in the field of direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). Herein, we report the synthesis and electrochemical properties of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (NRGO) supported Co, Ni and NiCo nanocomposites. The metal NRGO nanocomposites, in which metal nanoparticles are embedded in the highly porous nitrogen-doped graphene matrix, have been synthesized by simply and one-pot method at a mild temperature using GO, urea choline chloride and urea as reducing and doping agent. The fabricated NiCo/NRGO exhibit remarkable electrocatalytic activity (with Tafel slope of 159.1mVdec(-1)) and high stability for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The superior performance of the alloy based NRGO is attributed to high surface area, well uniform distribution of high-density nitrogen, metal active sites and synergistic effect.

  9. Sublethal Effects of CuO Nanoparticles on Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Are Modulated by Environmental Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Aamir; Kennedy, Ian M.; Kültz, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of manufactured nanoparticles (NP) in different applications has triggered the need to understand their putative ecotoxicological effects in the environment. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NP) are toxic, and induce oxidative stress and other pathophysiological conditions. The unique properties of NP can change depending on the characteristics of the media they are suspended in, altering the impact on their toxicity to aquatic organisms in different environments. Here, Mozambique tilapia (O. mossambicus) were exposed to flame synthesized CuO NP (0.5 and 5 mg·L−1) in two environmental contexts: (a) constant freshwater (FW) and (b) stepwise increase in environmental salinity (SW). Sublethal effects of CuO NP were monitored and used to dermine exposure endpoints. Fish exposed to 5 mg·L−1 CuO in SW showed an opercular ventilation rate increase, whereas fish exposed to 5 mg·L−1 in FW showed a milder response. Different effects of CuO NP on antioxidant enzyme activities, accumulation of transcripts for metal-responsive genes, GSH∶GSSG ratio, and Cu content in fish gill and liver also demonstrate that additive osmotic stress modulates CuO NP toxicity. We conclude that the toxicity of CuO NP depends on the particular environmental context and that salinity is an important factor for modulating NP toxicity in fish. PMID:24520417

  10. Characterization of solid reaction products from wet oxidation of pyrite in coal using alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, R.T.; Markuszewski, R.; Wheelock, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Oxidation of pyrite alone and pyrite embedded in coal by leaching with hot solutions of sodium carbonate containing dissolved oxygen under pressure produces hematite, the major solid reaction product. The hematite is deposited as a concentric rim surrounding the core of unreacted pyrite. The thickness of the rim is greater for products obtained after longer leaching time or under conditions of higher oxygen partial pressure. The product is identified as hematite by X-ray diffraction analysis. Data from scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis show that under these conditions of desulfurization, phase transformations occur (from pyrite to hematite). In addition, great differences in porosity of the two zones (core and rim) are observed. The nature and extent of these transformations are discussed in terms of the desulfurization potential of pyrite in coal. (10 refs.)

  11. Development of Alkaline Oxidative Dissolution Methods for Chromium (III) Compounds Present in Hanford Site Tank Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    NN Krot; VP Shilov; AM Fedoseev; NA Budantseva; MV Nikonov; AB Yusov; AYu Garnov; IA Charushnikova; VP Perminov; LN Astafurova; TS Lapitskaya; VI Makarenkov

    1999-07-02

    The high-level radioactive waste sludge in the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site contains various chromium(III)solid phases. Dissolution and removal of chromium from tank waste sludges is desirable prior to high-level waste vitrification because increased volume is required to incorporate the residual chromium. Unfortunately, dissolution of chromium from the sludge to form Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} through treatment with heated NaOH solution (also used to dissolve aluminum phases and metathesize phosphates to sodium salts) generally has been unsuccessful in tests with both simulated and genuine Hanford waste sludges. Oxidative dissolution of the Cr(III) compounds to form soluble chromate has been proposed as an alternative chromium solid phase dissolution method and results of limited prior testing have been reported.

  12. Ni/Pd-Decorated Carbon NFs as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Methanol Oxidation in Alkaline Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Ibrahim M. A.; Khalil, Khalil Abdelrazek; Mousa, Hamouda M.; Barakat, Nasser A. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Ni/Pd-decorated carbon nanofibers (NFs) were fabricated as an electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation. These NFs were synthesized based on carbonization of poly(vinyl alcohol), which has high carbon content compared to many polymers used to prepare carbon NFs. Typically, calcination of an electrospun mat composed of nickel acetate, palladium acetate, and poly(vinyl alcohol) can produce Ni/Pd-doped carbon NFs. The introduced NFs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, line TEM energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray powder diffraction. These physicochemical characterizations are acceptable tools to investigate the crystallinity and chemistry of the fabricated Ni/Pd-carbon NFs. Accordingly, the prepared NFs were tested to enhance the economic and catalytic behavior of methanol electrooxidation. Experimentally, the obtained onset potential was small compared to many reported materials; 0.32 V (versus Ag/AgCl as a reference electrode). At the same time, the current density changed from 5.08 mA/cm2 in free methanol at 0.6 V to 12.68 mA/cm2 in 0.1 mol/L methanol, which can be attributed to the MeOH oxidation. Compared to nanoparticles, the NFs have a distinct effect on the electrocatalytic performance of material due to the effect of the one-dimensional structure, which facilitates the electron transfer. Overall, the presented work opens a new way for non-precious one-dimensional nanostructured catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell technology.

  13. Enhanced Catalytic Activities of NiPt Truncated Octahedral Nanoparticles toward Ethylene Glycol Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tianyu; Liu, Jialong; Wang, Shouguo; Wang, Chao; Sun, Young; Gu, Lin; Wang, Rongming

    2016-05-01

    The high cost and poor durability of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) are great limits for the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) from being scaled-up for commercial applications. Pt-based bimetallic NPs together with a uniform distribution can effectively reduce the usage of expensive Pt while increasing poison resistance of intermediates. In this work, a simple one-pot method was used to successfully synthesize ultrafine (about 7.5 nm) uniform NiPt truncated octahedral nanoparticles (TONPs) in dimethylformamid (DMF) without any seeds or templates. The as-prepared NiPt TONPs with Pt-rich surfaces exhibit greatly improved catalytic activities together with good tolerance and better stability for ethylene glycol oxidation reaction (EGOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in comparison with NiPt NPs and commercial Pt/C catalysts in alkaline electrolyte. For example, the value of mass and specific activities for EGOR are 23.2 and 17.6 times higher comparing with those of commercial Pt/C, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the dramatic enhancement is mainly attributed to Pt-rich surface, larger specific surface area, together with coupling between Ni and Pt atoms. This developed method provides a promising pathway for simple preparation of highly efficient electrocatalysts for PEMFCs in the near future. PMID:27093304

  14. Nd1.8Ce0.2CuO4+δ:Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ as a composite cathode for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandale, A. P.; Bhoga, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The (100 - x)Nd1.8Ce0.2CuO4+δ:(x)Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ (x = 00, 10, 20 and 30 vol.%) composite systems are obtained by impregnating a stoichiometric solution of cerium and gadolinium nitrates followed by sintering at 900 °C for 4 h. Impregnating the Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ not only inhibits the growth of the host Nd1.8Ce0.2CuO4+δ grains during sintering but also enlarges the oxygen reduction reaction zone by introducing a nanosized phase that is ionically conductive, which significantly decreases the electrode polarization resistance of the composite cathode. A minimum polarization resistance value of 0.23 ± 0.02 Ω cm2 is obtained at 700 °C for a (80)Nd1.8Ce0.2CuO4+δ:(20)Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ composite cathode, and this value is attributed to the optimal dispersion into the porous Nd1.8Ce0.2CuO4+δ matrix. The impedance spectra are modeled using an electrical equivalent model that consists of a mid-frequency ZR1 -CPE circuit (parallel combination of R1 and constant phase element (CPE)) and a low-frequency Gerischer impedance. The Gerischer impedance decreases significantly when Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ infiltrates the Nd1.8Ce0.2CuO4+δ matrix. The oxygen partial pressure-dependent polarization study suggests a medium-frequency response, which is due to charge transfer step; however, the low-frequency response corresponds to the non-charge transfer oxygen adsorption-desorption and the diffusion process during the overall oxygen reduction reaction process.

  15. Comparative evaluation of acute and chronic toxicities of CuO nanoparticles and bulk using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, Ana Letícia de O F; Melegari, Silvia Pedroso; Ouriques, Luciane Cristina; Matias, William Gerson

    2014-08-15

    Copper oxide (CuO) has various applications, as highlighted by the incorporation of this compound as a biocide of antifouling paints for coating ships and offshore oil platforms. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the aquatic toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) through acute and chronic toxicity tests with the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia magna and an acute toxicity test with the bioluminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Acute toxicity results for D. magna in tests with CuO NPs (EC50, 48 h=22 mg L(-1)) were ten times higher than those for tests with CuO MPs (EC50, 48 h=223.6 mg L(-1)). In both periods of exposure of V. fischeri, the CuO NPs (EC50, 15m 248±56.39 - equivalent to 12.40%; EC50, 30 m 257.6±30.8 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 12.88%) were more toxic than the CuO MPs (EC50, 15m 2404.6±277.4 - equivalent to 60.10%; EC50, 30 m 1472.9±244.7 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 36.82%). In chronic toxicity tests, both forms of CuO showed significant effects (p<0.05) on the growth and reproduction parameters of the D. magna relative to the control. Additionally, morphological changes, such as lack of apical spine development and malformed carapaces in D. magna, were observed for organisms after the chronic test. The toxicity results demonstrate that CuO NPs have a higher level of toxicity than CuO MPs, emphasizing the need for comparative toxicological studies to correctly classify these two forms of CuO with identical CAS registration numbers. PMID:24907615

  16. Isolation of a Sulfur-oxidizing Bacterium That can Grow under Alkaline pH, from Corroded Concrete.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Negishi, A; Oshima, Y; Nogami, Y; Kamimura, K; Sugio, T

    1998-01-01

    To study the early stages of concrete corrosion by bacteria, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium strain RO-1, which grows in an alkaline thiosulfate medium (pH 10.0) was isolated from corroded concreate and characterized. Strain RO-1 was a Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium (0.5-0.6×0.9-1.5 μm). The mean G+C content of the DNA of strain RO-1 was 65.0 mol%. Optimum pH and temperature for growth were 8.0. and 30-37°C, respectively. When grown in thiosulfate medium with pH 10.0, growth rate of the strain was 48% of that observed at the optimum pH for growth. Strain RO-1 used sulfide, thiosulfate, and glucose, but not elemental sulfur or tetrathionate, as a sole energy source. Strain RO-1 grew under anaerobic conditions in pepton-NO3 (-) medium containing sodium nitrate as an electron acceptor, and had enzyme activities that oxidized sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite, and glucose, but not tetrathionate. The bacterium had an activity to assimilate (14)CO2 into the cells when thiosulfate was used as an energy source. These results suggest that strain RO-1 is Thiobacillus versutus. Strain RO-1 exuded Ca(2+) from concrete blocks added to thiosulfate medium with pH 9.0 and the pH of the medium decreased from 9.0 to 5.5 after 22 days of cultivation. In contrast, Thiobacillus thiooxidans strain NB1-3 could not exude Ca(2+) in the same thiosulfate medium, suggesting that strain RO-1, but not T. thiooxidans NB1-3, is involved in the early stage of concrete corrosion because concrete structures just after construction contain calcium hydroxide and have a pH of 12-13. PMID:27388643

  17. Isolation of a Sulfur-oxidizing Bacterium That can Grow under Alkaline pH, from Corroded Concrete.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Negishi, A; Oshima, Y; Nogami, Y; Kamimura, K; Sugio, T

    1998-01-01

    To study the early stages of concrete corrosion by bacteria, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium strain RO-1, which grows in an alkaline thiosulfate medium (pH 10.0) was isolated from corroded concreate and characterized. Strain RO-1 was a Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium (0.5-0.6×0.9-1.5 μm). The mean G+C content of the DNA of strain RO-1 was 65.0 mol%. Optimum pH and temperature for growth were 8.0. and 30-37°C, respectively. When grown in thiosulfate medium with pH 10.0, growth rate of the strain was 48% of that observed at the optimum pH for growth. Strain RO-1 used sulfide, thiosulfate, and glucose, but not elemental sulfur or tetrathionate, as a sole energy source. Strain RO-1 grew under anaerobic conditions in pepton-NO3 (-) medium containing sodium nitrate as an electron acceptor, and had enzyme activities that oxidized sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite, and glucose, but not tetrathionate. The bacterium had an activity to assimilate (14)CO2 into the cells when thiosulfate was used as an energy source. These results suggest that strain RO-1 is Thiobacillus versutus. Strain RO-1 exuded Ca(2+) from concrete blocks added to thiosulfate medium with pH 9.0 and the pH of the medium decreased from 9.0 to 5.5 after 22 days of cultivation. In contrast, Thiobacillus thiooxidans strain NB1-3 could not exude Ca(2+) in the same thiosulfate medium, suggesting that strain RO-1, but not T. thiooxidans NB1-3, is involved in the early stage of concrete corrosion because concrete structures just after construction contain calcium hydroxide and have a pH of 12-13.

  18. Ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of sulfanilic acid by diperiodatocuprate(III) in aqueous alkaline medium. A kinetic and mechanistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munavalli, D. S.; Patil, R. K.; Chimatadar, S. A.; Nandibewoor, S. T.

    2009-12-01

    The kinetics of ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of sulfanilic acid by diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC) in alkaline medium at a constant ionic strength of (0.50 mol dm-3) has been studied spectrophoto-metrically. The reaction between sulfanilic acid and DPC in alkaline medium exhibits 1: 4 stoichiometry (sulfanilic acid: DPC). The reaction is first order with respect to [DPC] and [RuIII] and has less than unit order both in [sulfanilic acid] and [alkali]. The active species of catalyst and oxidant have been identified. Intervention of free radicals was observed in the reaction. The main products were identified by spot test and IR. Probable mechanism is proposed and discussed. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of the mechanism are calculated. The activation parameters with respect to the slow step of the mechanism are computed and discussed. Thermodynamic quantities are also determined.

  19. Enrichment of Thermophilic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea from an Alkaline Hot Spring in the Great Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Huang, Z.; Jiang, H.; Wiegel, J.; Li, W.; Dong, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the major advances in the nitrogen cycle is the recent discovery of ammonia oxidation by archaea. While culture-independent studies have revealed occurrence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nearly every surface niche on earth, most of these microorganisms have resisted isolation and so far only a few species have been identified. The Great Basin contains numerous hot springs, which are characterized by moderately high temperature (40-65 degree C) and circumneutral or alkaline pH. Unique thermophilic archaea have been identified based on molecular DNA and lipid biomarkers; some of which may be ammonia oxidizers. This study aims to isolate some of these archaea from a California hot spring that has pH around 9.0 and temperature around 42 degree C. Mat material was collected from the spring and transported on ice to the laboratory. A synthetic medium (SCM-5) was inoculated with the mat material and the culture was incubated under varying temperature (35-65 degree C) and pH (7.0-10.0) conditions using antibiotics to suppress bacterial growth. Growth of the culture was monitored by microscopy, decrease in ammonium and increase in nitrite, and increases in Crenarchaeota and AOA abundances over time. Clone libraries were constructed to compare archaeal community structures before and after the enrichment experiment. Temperature and pH profiles indicated that the culture grew optimally at pH 9.0 and temperature 45 degree C, which are consistent with the geochemical conditions of the natural environment. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the final OTU was distantly related to all known hyperthermophilic archaea. Analysis of the amoA genes showed two OTUs in the final culture; one of them was closely related to Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis. However, the enrichment culture always contained bacteria and attempts to separate them from archaea have failed. This highlights the difficulty in bringing AOA into pure culture and suggests that some of the AOA may

  20. Structure reactivity and thermodynamic analysis on the oxidation of ampicillin drug by copper(III) complex in aqueous alkaline medium (stopped-flow technique)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetti, Nagaraj P.; Hegde, Rajesh N.; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T.

    2009-07-01

    Oxidation of penicillin derivative, ampicillin (AMP) by diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC) in alkaline medium at a constant ionic strength of 0.01-mol dm -3 was studied spectrophotometrically. The reaction between DPC and ampicillin in alkaline medium exhibits 1:4 stoichiometry (ampicillin:DPC). Intervention of free radicals was observed in the reaction. Based on the observed orders and experimental evidences, a mechanism involving the protonated form of DPC as the reactive oxidant species has been proposed. The oxidation reaction in alkaline medium has been shown to proceed via a DPC-AMP complex, which decomposes slowly in a rate determining step to yield phenyl glycine (PG) and free radical species of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), followed by other fast steps to give the products. The two major products were characterized by IR, NMR, LC-MS and Spot test. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of the mechanism were calculated. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were computed and discussed and thermodynamic quantities were also determined.

  1. NOx uptake on alkaline earth oxides (BaO, MgO, CaO and SrO) supported on γ-Al2O3

    SciTech Connect

    Verrier, Christelle LM; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2008-07-15

    NOx uptake experiments were performed on a series of alkaline earth oxide (AEO) (MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO) on γ-alumina materials. Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) conducted on He flow revealed the presence of two kinds of nitrate species: i.e. bulk and surface nitrates. The ratio of these two types of nitrate species strongly depends on the nature of the alkaline earth oxide. The amount of bulk nitrate species increases with the basicity of the alkaline earth oxide. This conclusion was supported by the results of infrared and 15N solid state NMR studies of NO2 adsorption. Due to the low melting point of the precursor used for the preparation of MgO/Al2O3 material (Mg(NO3)2), a significant amount of Mg was lost during sample activation (high temperature annealing) resulting in a material with properties were very similar to that of the γ-Al2O3 support. The effect of water on the NOx species formed in the exposure of the AEO-s to NO2 was also investigated. In agreement with our previous findings for the BaO/γ-Al2O3 system, an increase of the bulk nitrate species and the simultaneous decrease of the surface nitrate phase were observed for all of these materials.

  2. Oxidative study of gabapentin by alkaline hexacyanoferrate(III) in room temperature in presence of catalytic amount of Ru(III) a mechanistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Timy P.; Angadi, Mahantesh A.; Salunke, Manjalee S.; Tuwar, Suresh M.

    2008-12-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of gabapentin by hexacyanoferrate(III) in aqueous alkaline medium at a constant ionic strength of 0.5 mol dm -3 was studied spectrophotometrically. The reaction is of first order in [HCF(III)] and of less than unit order in [alkali]. The reaction rate is independent upon [gabapentin]. Effects of added products, ionic strength and dielectric constant of the reaction medium have been investigated. Oxidative product of gabapentin was identified. A suitable mechanism has been proposed. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of mechanism are calculated. The activation parameters of the mechanism are computed and discussed .

  3. Chamomile flower extract-directed CuO nanoparticle formation for its antioxidant and DNA cleavage properties.

    PubMed

    Duman, Fatih; Ocsoy, Ismail; Kup, Fatma Ozturk

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) using a medicinal plant (Matricaria chamomilla) flower extract as both reducing and capping agent and investigate their antioxidant activity and interaction with plasmid DNA (pBR322).The CuO NPs were characterized using Uv-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), DLS (dynamic light scattering), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray) spectroscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy). The CuO NPs exhibited nearly mono-distributed and spherical shapes with diameters of 140 nm size. UV-Vis absorption spectrum of CuO NPs gave a broad peak around 285 and 320 nm. The existence of functional groups on the surface of CuO NPs was characterized with FT-IR analysis. XRD pattern showed that the NPs are in the form of a face-centered cubic crystal. Zeta potential value was measured as -20 mV due to the presence of negatively charged functional groups in plant extract. Additionally, we demonstrated concentration-dependent antioxidant activity of CuO NPs and their interaction with plasmid DNA. We assumed that the CuO NPs both cleave and break DNA double helix structure. PMID:26706538

  4. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline CuO powders with the different surfactants and complexing agent mediated precipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, V.; Gajendiran, J.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • CuO nanostructures by surfactants mediated method. • Structural and optical properties of CuO nanostructures changes under the effect of surface modifier. • Citric acid assisted is the best, in terms of size, morphology and optical properties than that of CTAB, SDS and PEG-400. - Abstract: Nanostructures of copper oxide (CuO) was synthesized into crystallite sized ranging from 20 to 50 nm in the presence of different surfactants, and complex agent such as cityl tri methyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium do decyl sulfate (SDS), poly ethylene glycol (PEG-400) and citric acid via a precipitation route. Variations in several parameters and their effects on the structural and optical properties of CuO nanostructures (crystallite size, morphology and band gap) were investigated by XRD, FTIR, SEM and UV analysis. The UV–visible absorption spectra of the different surfactants and complexing agent assisted CuO nanostructures indicates that the estimated optical band gap energy value (1.94–1.98 eV) is higher than that of the bulk CuO value (1.4 eV), which is attributed to the quantum confinement effect. The formation mechanism of different surfactants and complexing agent assisted CuO nanostructures is also proposed.

  5. Synthesis of HgBa 2CuO 4+δ under controlled mercury and oxygen pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyoshin, V. A.; Mikhailova, D. A.; Antipov, E. V.

    1996-02-01

    A three-temperature synthesis technique to obtain pure HgBa 2CuO 4+δ under controlled mercury and oxygen partial pressures was developed. Mixtures of Co 3O 4/CoO (or CuO/Cu 2O) oxides and HgBa 2CuO 4+δ/Ba 2CuO 3+ x heated at different temperatures were used to adjust P(O 2) and P(Hg), respectively. At equilibrium conditions for the reaction: HgBa 2CuO 4+ δ ↔ Ba 2CuO 3+ x + Hg(g) + (1 + δ - x)/2 O 2, 0.09 < P(O 2) < 0.62 bar and 1009 < T < 1153 K, the mercury partial pressure was found to vary from 1.7 to 6.5 bar. With these conditions, the lower boundary of HgBa 2CuO 4+δ formation as a function of P(Hg), P(O 2) and T was determined as: log P(Hg) + 6040/ T + 0.266 log P(O 2) > 5.959. It was also found, that slow cooling down to 600°C under fixed oxygen pressure is required to prepare pure HgBa 2CuO 4+δ.

  6. Characterization and adsorption performance of Pb(II) on CuO nanorods synthesized by the hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Arfaoui, Lobna; Kouass, Salah; Dhaouadi, Hassouna; Jebali, Raouf; Touati, Fathi

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The nanorods of CuO were synthesized by a hydrothermal route without any surfactant. • X-ray diffraction showed monoclinic structure with space group C{sub 2/c}. • The nanorods show relatively high adsorption capacity for the removal of Pb(II). • The adsorption kinetics could be fitted well by the pseudo-second-order model. • The equilibrium data can be fitted well using the Langmuir isotherm model - Abstract: Copper oxide (CuO) nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The detailed structural, compositional and optical characterization of this material was also evaluated with XRD, FT-IR, EDS, and UV–vis spectroscopy, which confirmed that the obtained nanorods are well-crystallized CuO and possess good optical properties. SEM and TEM studies revealed that the as-synthesized CuO nanorods are uniform with an average diameter of 17 nm. The adsorption activity of the CuO nanostructures was studied. The adsorption results showed that the CuO nanorods are an effective and efficient adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions. The influence of various operational parameters such as the pH of the solution, the contact time and the initial concentrations were also studied and the results were discussed. The estimated maximum lead ion adsorption capacity of the CuO nanorods was found to be 188.67 mg g{sup −1} at an optimum pH of 6.

  7. Ab Initio Quantum Mechanical Study of the Structure and Stability of the Alkaline Earth Metal Oxides and Peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Königstein, Markus; Catlow, C. Richard A.

    1998-10-01

    We report a detailed computationally study of the stability of the alkaline earth metal peroxidesMO2(M=Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg, Be) with respect to decomposition into the corresponding oxidesMOand molecular oxygen using Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (DFT) techniques. A comparison between calculated and experimental binding energies indicates that the DFT method is most suitable for a correct description of the peroxide bond. The DFT reaction energies for the peroxide decompositionMO2→MO+{1}/{2}O2show that only BaO2and SrO2are thermodynamically stable compounds, while CaO2(in the calcium carbide structure), MgO2, and BeO2(in the pyrite structure) are energetically unstable with reaction energies of -24.7, -26.8, and -128.7kJ/mol, respectively, and are therefore unlikely to exist as pure compounds. The published calcium carbide structure for CaO2is probably incorrect, at least for pure calcium peroxide, since apart from the thermodynamical instability the compound is more stable in the pyrite structure by 25.5 kJ/mol. Our analysis suggests that the water and/or hydrogen peroxide content of experimentally prepared MgO2samples is necessary for the stabilization of the structure, while BeO2is clearly unstable under ambient conditions. We studied also the effect of the zero point energies and the entropies on the decomposition free energies and, for this purpose, performed atomistic lattice simulations based on interatomic potentials, which we derived from ourab initiodata; the results indicate a negligible effect of the zero point energies, while the entropy terms favor the decomposition reaction by ca. 20 kJ/mol at 298.15 K.

  8. An oxidant and organic solvent tolerant alkaline lipase by P. aeruginosa mutant: Downstream processing and biochemical characterization

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Deepali; Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Darmwal, Nandan Singh

    2013-01-01

    An extracellular alkaline lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant has been purified to homogeneity using acetone precipitation followed by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and resulted in 27-fold purification with 19.6% final recovery. SDS-PAGE study suggested that the purified lipase has an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the purified lipase were 45°C and 8.0, respectively. The enzyme showed considerable stability in pH range of 7.0–11.0 and temperature range 35–55 °C. The metal ions Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ tend to increase the enzyme activity, whereas, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions resulted in discreet decrease in the activity. Divalent cations Ca+2 and Mg+2 seemed to protect the enzyme against thermal denaturation at high temperatures and in presence of Ca+2 (5 mM) the optimum temperature shifted from 45°C to 55°C. The purified lipase displayed significant stability in the presence of several hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic solvents (25%, v/v) up to 168 h. The pure enzyme preparation exhibited significant stability and compatibility with oxidizing agents and commercial detergents as it retained 40–70% of its original activities. The values of Km and Vmax for p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP) under optimal conditions were determined to be 2.0 mg.mL−1 and 5000 μg.mL−1.min−1, respectively. PMID:24688527

  9. Morphology and gas sensing characteristics of density-controlled CuO nanostructures obtained by varying the oxygen partial pressure during growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongjin; Jin, Changhyun; Noh, Youngwook; Park, Seokhyun; Choi, Sun-Woo

    2016-07-01

    By exerting different O2 partial pressures (0, 20, 40, and 60 sccm) onto copper substrates, we discovered that the growth parameter, namely, the O2 flow rate, affects the degree of nucleation, diameter, length, and crystalline quality of CuO nanowires (NWs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to analyze the evolution of the morphological and the microstructural changes in the CuO nanostructures. The formation of a Cu2O interlayer between the Cu and the CuO layers could be adjusted by controlling more precisely the O2 flow rate. In addition, the reducing (H2S) and the oxidizing (O2, NO2, and SO2) gas sensing performances of these O2-assisted CuO NWs were compared with those of CuO NWs grown in static air. The response to the reducing H2S of the sensors based on CuO NWs grown using O2 at 40 sccm showed a higher electrical change and faster response and recovery times than the sensors based on CuO NWs grown using lower O2 flow rates, including the ones grown in static air and/or used for sensing oxidizing gases (O2, NO2, and SO2) did. On the basis of their growth and their gas-sensing applications, the possible mechanisms characteristic of the density-controlled CuO NWs grown using various O2 partial pressures are discussed.

  10. Spectral characterization of mechanically synthesized MoO3-CuO nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundeep, Dola; Gopala Krishna, A.; Ravikumar, R. V. S. S. N.; Vijaya Kumar, T.; Daniel Ephraim, S.; Pavan, Y. L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, MoO3-CuO metal oxide composite nanopowders are prepared by simple mechanochemical assisted synthesis technique with the stoichiometric weight ratios of MoO3 and CuO as 2.3:1 and 3.3:1, respectively. The structural and spectroscopic properties of the as-synthesised samples are characterised by XRD, SEM with EDS, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and TGA/DTA. X-ray diffraction pattern demonstrates the peaks correspond to orthorhombic phase of α-MoO3 and monoclinic phase of β-CuO. The average crystalline sizes of the 2.3:1 and 3.3:1 samples were found to be 16 and 24 nm, respectively, which are supported by Williamson-Hall (W-H) calculations. The correlations between the milling rotational speeds with morphological characteristics are revealed by the SEM images. The fundamental modes of Mo=O and Cu-O were analysed by FT-IR. Raman analysis has provided the qualitative information about the structure of the mixed oxide composite. Thermogravimetry analysis and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) of MoO3-CuO have revealed that the dual phase mixed oxide composite is stable up to 709 °C with a negligible weight loss. Based on the above, it can be inferred that the synthesised mixed lubricous oxide nanocomposite could be used as a solid lubricant at elevated temperatures.

  11. Polymethacrylic acid as a new precursor of CuO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Nasser Mohammed; Zoromba, Mohamed Shafick

    2012-11-01

    Polymethacrylic acid and its copper complexes have been synthesized and characterized. These complexes have been used as precursors to produce CuO nanoparticles by thermal decomposition in air. The stages of decompositions and the calcination temperature of the precursors have been determined from thermal analyses (TGA). The obtained CuO nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD showed a monoclinic structure with particle size 8-20 nm for the synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are catalytically active in decomposing hydrogen peroxide and a mechanism of decomposition has been suggested.

  12. Magnetoresistive study of the antiferromagnetic-weak ferromagnetic transition in single-crystal La2CuO4+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belevtsev, B. I.; Dalakova, N. V.; Savitsky, V. N.; Panfilov, A. S.; Braude, I. S.; Bondarenko, A. V.

    2004-05-01

    Resistive measurements were made to study the magnetic field-induced antiferromagnetic (AF)—weak ferromagnetic (WF) transition in the La2CuO4 single crystal. The magnetic field (dc or pulsed) was applied normally to the CuO2 layers. The transition manifested itself in a drastic decrease of the resistance in critical fields of 5-7 T. The study is the first to display the effect of the AF-WF transition on the conductivity of the La2CuO4 single crystal in the direction parallel to the CuO2 layers. The results provide support for the three-dimensional nature of the hopping conduction of this layered oxide.

  13. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of tetragonal CuO: evidence for intralayer coupling between cupratelike sublattices.

    PubMed

    Moser, S; Moreschini, L; Yang, H-Y; Innocenti, D; Fuchs, F; Hansen, N H; Chang, Y J; Kim, K S; Walter, A L; Bostwick, A; Rotenberg, E; Mila, F; Grioni, M

    2014-10-31

    We investigate by angle-resolved photoemission the electronic structure of in situ grown tetragonal CuO, a synthetic quasi-two-dimensional edge-sharing cuprate. We show that, in spite of the very different nature of the copper oxide layers, with twice as many Cu in the CuO layers of tetragonal CuO as compared to the CuO(2) layers of the high-T(c) cuprates, the low-energy electronic excitations are surprisingly similar, with a Zhang-Rice singlet dispersing on weakly coupled cupratelike sublattices. This system should thus be considered as a member of the high-T(c) cuprate family, with, however, interesting differences due to the intralayer coupling between the cupratelike sublattices. PMID:25396389

  14. Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy of Tetragonal CuO: Evidence for Intralayer Coupling Between Cupratelike Sublattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, S.; Moreschini, L.; Yang, H.-Y.; Innocenti, D.; Fuchs, F.; Hansen, N. H.; Chang, Y. J.; Kim, K. S.; Walter, A. L.; Bostwick, A.; Rotenberg, E.; Mila, F.; Grioni, M.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate by angle-resolved photoemission the electronic structure of in situ grown tetragonal CuO, a synthetic quasi-two-dimensional edge-sharing cuprate. We show that, in spite of the very different nature of the copper oxide layers, with twice as many Cu in the CuO layers of tetragonal CuO as compared to the CuO2 layers of the high-Tc cuprates, the low-energy electronic excitations are surprisingly similar, with a Zhang-Rice singlet dispersing on weakly coupled cupratelike sublattices. This system should thus be considered as a member of the high-Tc cuprate family, with, however, interesting differences due to the intralayer coupling between the cupratelike sublattices.

  15. CuO nanostructures: optical properties and morphology control by pyridinium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Sabbaghan, Maryam; Shahvelayati, Ashraf Sadat; Madankar, Kamelia

    2015-01-25

    Copper oxide nanostructures have been synthesized by a simple reflux method in aqueous medium of pyridinium based ionic liquids. The structural and optical properties of CuO nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and UV-visible. The morphologies of the nanostructures can be controlled by changing the amount of NaOH and ionic liquids. The results show that the use identical pyridinium based ionic liquids in ratio of 4:1 NaOH/Cu(OAc)2⋅H2O yield minor differences in morphology of CuO nanostructures. Different morphologies of CuO nanostructures were obtained by changing the ratio NaOH/Cu(OAc)2⋅H2O to 2:1. Ionic liquids play an important role on optical properties of CuO nanostructures. The results of optical measurements of the CuO nanostructures illustrate that band gaps are estimated to be 1.67-1.85 eV. PL patterns studies show that the ionic liquids can be effect on PL patterns of the samples. The reasons of these phenomena are discussed.

  16. Quantifying bonding strength of CuO nanotubes with substrate using the nano-scratch technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Krishna; Manoj Kumar, R.; Lahiri, Debrupa; Lahiri, Indranil

    2015-07-01

    CuO is a narrow bandgap semiconductor demonstrating applications in/as catalysts, gas sensors, adsorbents, and superconductors, and as electrodes of photocells, super-capacitors, and lithium-ion batteries. One-dimensional (1D) CuO nanostructures are of particular interest in most of these device applications, owing to their huge surface area. Strong bonding between nanomaterials and substrate is essential for extended device life. Hence, knowledge about the strength of the nanomaterial-substrate bond is highly desired. In this research work, CuO nanotubes were synthesized directly on a Cu substrate, and its adhesion strength was quantified using the nano-scratch-based technique. The adhesion energy of CuO nanotubes (for 7 h of reaction period) on the Cu substrate was measured to be 82 Jm-2. The bonding strength can be correlated with the structure of the material. Results of this research will be valuable in analyzing and improving the lifetime of CuO nanotube-based devices, and the technique could be further extended to other 1D transition metal oxide nanostructures.

  17. Zhang-Rice singlet hopping on bipartite tetragonal CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreschini, L.; Moser, S.; Yang, H.-Y.; Innocenti, D.; Fuchs, F.; Hansen, N. H.; Chang, Y. J.; Kim, K. S.; Bostwick, A.; Rotenberg, E.; Mila, F.; Grioni, M.

    2014-03-01

    In the superconducting cuprates, corner sharing CuO4 plaquettes host the formation and propagation of the Zhang-Rice singlet. Adding a further Cu atom to the center of such plaquettes results in a rare edge sharing geometry. The cupric oxide CuO indeed crystallizes in a lower-symmetry monoclinic form. At beamline 7.0.1 of the Advanced Light Source, we have grown tetragonal CuO thin films by pulsed laser deposition. By in situ angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), we show that the first ionization state is a singlet propagating on two nearly independent corner sharing sublattices, and we resolve an inter-plaquette coupling of the order of 100 meV.

  18. High-performance nanothermite composites based on aloe-vera-directed CuO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinay Kumar; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2013-12-26

    In this work, we demonstrate the development of high-performance nanothermite composites derived from super-reactive CuO nanorods oxidizers fabricated by simple biogenic routes using Aloe vera plant extracts. Nanorods of various length scales have been realized via simple sonoemulsion and solid-state biosynthesis routes using Aloe vera gel as a green surfactant promoting the directional growth of CuO nanorods in both solid and emulsion phase. The biosynthesized CuO nanorods (oxidizers)/fuel (nanoaluminum) composites ignited vigorously with abundant gas generation, developing high heat of reaction of 1.66 kJ g(-1) and very high pressurization rate of around 1.09 MPa μs(-1) and peak pressure of 65.4 MPa when blasted inside a constant volume pressure cell with a charge density of 0.2 g cm(-3). The pressurization rates so obtained are four times higher with twice the peak pressure in comparison to such nanothermites formulated via other available state of the art wet-chemical techniques, which reflects the catalytic role of Aloe vera surface functional groups (A. vera-sfg) enhancing the reactivity of CuO oxidizers with excess gas release rate during exothermic reaction with nanoaluminum. Through this work, Aloe vera gel has for the first time been identified as a novel biotemplate for green synthesis of nanorod structures of metal oxides, and we have also studied the utility of A. vera-sfg in the creation of super-reactive CuO oxidizers producing excellent heat of reaction and dynamic pressure characteristics as demanded in propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics.

  19. FeS anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as advanced anode material with superior high-rate performance for alkaline secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Guo, Litan; Li, Fei; Wang, Qin; Li, Jing; Li, Quanmin; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi

    2016-09-01

    A new nanocomposite formulation of the iron-based anode for alkaline secondary batteries is proposed. For the first time, FeS nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets are synthesized via a facile, environmentally friendly direct-precipitation approach. In this nanocomposite, FeS nanoparticles are anchored uniformly and tightly on the surface of RGO nanosheets. As an alkaline battery anode, the FeS@RGO electrode delivers a superior high-rate charge/discharge capability and outstanding cycling stability, even at a condition without any conductive additives and a high electrode loading of ∼40 mg cm-2. At high charge/discharge rates of 5C, 10C and 20C (6000 mA g-1), the FeS@RGO electrode presents a specific capacity of ∼288, 258 and 220 mAh g-1, respectively. Moreover, the FeS@RGO electrode exhibits an admirable long cycling stability with a superior capacity retention of 87.6% for 300 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 2C. The excellent electrochemical properties of the FeS@RGO electrode can be stemmed from the high specific surface area, peculiar electric conductivity and robust sheet-anchored structure of the FeS@RGO nanocomposite. By virtue of its superior fast charge/discharge properties, the FeS@RGO nanocomposite is suitable as an advanced anode material for high-performance alkaline secondary batteries.

  20. Spectroscopic studies of copper doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastry, S. Sreehari; Rao, B. Rupa Venkateswara

    2014-02-01

    In this paper spectroscopic investigation of Cu2+ doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses was done through the spectroscopic techniques like X-ray diffraction, Ultra Violet (UV) absorption Spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR - X band), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. Alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses containing 0.1% copper oxide (CuO) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic studies indicated that there is a greater possibility for the copper ions to exist in Cu2+ state in these glasses. The optical absorption spectra indicated that the absorption peak of Cu2+ is a function of composition. The maxima absorption peak was reported at 862 nm for strontium lead zinc phosphate glass. Bonding parameters were calculated for the optical and EPR data. All these spectral results indicated clearly that there are certain structural changes in the present glass system with different alkaline earth contents. The IR and Raman spectra noticed the breaking of the P-O-P bonds and creating more number of new P-O-Cu bonds.

  1. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of CuO nanoparticles by a freshwater invertebrate after waterborne and dietborne exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Misra, Superb K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The incidental ingestion of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) can be an important route of uptake for aquatic organisms. Yet, knowledge of dietary bioavailability and toxicity of NPs is scarce. Here we used isotopically modified copper oxide (65CuO) NPs to characterize the processes governing their bioaccumulation in a freshwater snail after waterborne and dietborne exposures. Lymnaea stagnalis efficiently accumulated 65Cu after aqueous and dietary exposures to 65CuO NPs. Cu assimilation efficiency and feeding rates averaged 83% and 0.61 g g–1 d–1 at low exposure concentrations (–1), and declined by nearly 50% above this concentration. We estimated that 80–90% of the bioaccumulated 65Cu concentration in L. stagnalis originated from the 65CuO NPs, suggesting that dissolution had a negligible influence on Cu uptake from the NPs under our experimental conditions. The physiological loss of 65Cu incorporated into tissues after exposures to 65CuO NPs was rapid over the first days of depuration and not detectable thereafter. As a result, large Cu body concentrations are expected in L. stagnalis after exposure to CuO NPs. To the degree that there is a link between bioaccumulation and toxicity, dietborne exposures to CuO NPs are likely to elicit adverse effects more readily than waterborne exposures.

  2. Shape-controlled synthesis of Sn-doped CuO nanoparticles for catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Vomáčka, Petr; Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Kormunda, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The uniform Sn-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple solution method at a low temperature. The prepared samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron microscopy techniques (HRSEM, HRTEM, SAED, STEM and EDS elemental mapping), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV/Vis spectroscopy, nitrogen physisorption (BET) and by evaluation of the catalytic activity on the degradation of Rhodamine B. The tin doping had a considerable influence on the morphology of CuO. The gradual narrowing of the particles morphology in the crystallographic [010] direction was observed with increasing the dopant concentration. The plate-like, rectangularsquare and rod-like CuO nanoparticles were obtained. The mechanism of a crystal growth of CuO associated with doping is proposed. The tin doping also affected the structural and optical properties of CuO. Increasing the amount of a dopant led to a red-shift of a band gap from 1.33 to 1.18eV. The incorporation of tin into the structure of copper oxide was confirmed by XRD and distribution of tin mapped by EDS analysis. The good catalytic properties of the as-prepared doped material were demonstrated by the enhanced catalytic removal of Rhodamine B in the presence of H2O2. The undoped CuO nanosheets reached only 24% efficiency in the removal of Rhodamine B within two hours. The best result exhibited CuO_050Sn sample containing 4at.% of tin and the degradation of Rhodamine B reached 99% within the same time. We have demonstrated a simple, scalable process for the preparation of catalytically very active Sn-doped CuO nanoparticles with varying properties. PMID:27450889

  3. One-dimensional CuO nanowire: synthesis, electrical, and optoelectronic devices application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we presented a surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT)-assisted approach to the synthesis of one-dimensional copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) for nanodevices applications. The as-prepared CuO NWs have diameter and the length of 50 ~ 200 nm and 5 ~ 20 μm, respectively, with a preferential growth orientation along [1 1¯ 0] direction. Interestingly, nanofield-effect transistor (nanoFET) based on individual CuO NW exhibited typical p-type electrical conduction, with a hole mobility of 0.129 cm2V-1 s-1 and hole concentration of 1.34 × 1018 cm-3, respectively. According to first-principle calculations, such a p-type electrical conduction behavior was related to the oxygen vacancies in CuO NWs. What is more, the CuO NW device was sensitive to visible light illumination with peak sensitivity at 600 nm. The responsitivity, conductive gain, and detectivity are estimated to be 2.0 × 102 A W-1, 3.95 × 102 and 6.38 × 1011 cm Hz1/2 W-1, respectively, which are better than the devices composed of other materials. Further study showed that nanophotodetectors assembled on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate can work under different bending conditions with good reproducibility. The totality of the above results suggests that the present CuO NWs are potential building blocks for assembling high-performance optoelectronic devices. PMID:25489288

  4. One-dimensional CuO nanowire: synthesis, electrical, and optoelectronic devices application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lin-Bao; Wang, Xian-He; Xie, Chao; Li, Zhong-Jun; Lu, Rui; Yang, Xiao-Bao; Lu, Jian

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we presented a surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT)-assisted approach to the synthesis of one-dimensional copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) for nanodevices applications. The as-prepared CuO NWs have diameter and the length of 50 ~ 200 nm and 5 ~ 20 μm, respectively, with a preferential growth orientation along [1 [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] 0] direction. Interestingly, nanofield-effect transistor (nanoFET) based on individual CuO NW exhibited typical p-type electrical conduction, with a hole mobility of 0.129 cm2V-1 s-1 and hole concentration of 1.34 × 1018 cm-3, respectively. According to first-principle calculations, such a p-type electrical conduction behavior was related to the oxygen vacancies in CuO NWs. What is more, the CuO NW device was sensitive to visible light illumination with peak sensitivity at 600 nm. The responsitivity, conductive gain, and detectivity are estimated to be 2.0 × 102 A W-1, 3.95 × 102 and 6.38 × 1011 cm Hz1/2 W-1, respectively, which are better than the devices composed of other materials. Further study showed that nanophotodetectors assembled on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate can work under different bending conditions with good reproducibility. The totality of the above results suggests that the present CuO NWs are potential building blocks for assembling high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  5. Structure-Guided Systems-Level Engineering of Oxidation-Prone Methionine Residues in Catalytic Domain of an Alkaline α-Amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica for Significant Improvement of Both Oxidative Stability and Catalytic Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    High oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency are required for the alkaline α-amylases to keep the enzymatic performance under the harsh conditions in detergent industries. In this work, we attempted to significantly improve both the oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency of an alkaline α-amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica by engineering the five oxidation-prone methionine residues around the catalytic domain via a systematic approach. Specifically, based on the tertiary structure analysis, five methionines (Met 145, Met 214, Met 229, Met 247 and Met 317) were individually substituted with oxidation-resistant threonine, isoleucine and alaline, respectively. Among the created 15 mutants, 7 mutants M145A, M145I, M214A, M229A, M229T, M247T and M317I showed significantly enhanced oxidative stability or catalytic efficiency. In previous work, we found that the replacement of M247 with leucine could significantly improve the oxidative stability. Thus, these 8 positive mutants (M145A, M145I, M214A, M229A, M229T, M247T, M247L and M317I) were used to conduct the second round of combinational mutations. Among the constructed 85 mutants (25 two-point mutants, 36 three-point mutants, 16 four-point mutants and 8 five-point mutants), the mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I showed a 5.4-fold increase in oxidative stability and a 3.0-fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Interestingly, the specific activity, alkaline stability and thermal stability of this mutant were also increased. The increase of salt bridge and hydrogen bonds around the catalytic domain contributed to the significantly improved catalytic efficiency and stability, as revealed by the three-dimensional structure model of wild-type alkaline α-amylase and its mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I. With the significantly improved oxidative stability and catalytic efficiency, the mutant M145I-214A-229T-247T-317I has a great potential as a detergent additive, and this structure-guided systems engineering

  6. Enhanced methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions on palladium-decorated FeCo@Fe/C core-shell nanocatalysts in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Fashedemi, Omobosede O; Ozoemena, Kenneth I

    2013-12-28

    Palladium based nano-alloys are well known for their unique electrocatalytic properties. In this work, a palladium-decorated FeCo@Fe/C core-shell nanocatalyst has been prepared by a new method called microwave-induced top-down nanostructuring and decoration (MITNAD). This simple, yet efficient technique, resulted in the generation of sub-10 nm sized FeCo@Fe@Pd nanocatalysts (mainly 3-5 nm) from a micron-sized (0.21-1.5 μm) FeCo@Fe/C. The electrocatalytic activities of the core-shell nanocatalysts were explored for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium. A negative shift of 300 mV in the onset potential for MOR was observed, with a current thrice that of the Pd/C catalysts. A very low resistance to electron transfer (Rct) was observed while the ratio of forward-to-backward oxidation current (If/Ib) was doubled. The overpotential of ORR was significantly reduced with a positive shift of about 250 mV and twice the reduction current density was observed in comparison with Pd/C nanocatalysts with the same mass loading. The kinetic parameters (in terms of the Tafel slope (b) = -59.7 mV dec(-1) (Temkin isotherm) and high exchange current density (jo) = 1.26 × 10(-2) mA cm(-2)) provide insights into the favorable electrocatalytic performance of the catalysts in ORR in alkaline media. Importantly, the core-shell nanocatalyst exhibited excellent resistance to possible methanol cross-over during ORR, which shows excellent promise for application in direct alkaline alcohol fuel cells (DAAFCs).

  7. Salts affect the interaction of ZnO or CuO nanoparticles with wheat.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jacob; Hansen, Trevor; McLean, Joan E; McManus, Paul; Das, Siddhartha; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J; Dimkpa, Christian O

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) that release metals with potential phytotoxicity could pose problems in agriculture. The authors of the present study used growth in a model growth matrix, sand, to examine the influence of 5 mmol/kg of Na, K, or Ca (added as Cl salts) and root exudates on transformation and changes to the bioactivity of copper(II) oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs on wheat. These salt levels are found in saline agricultural soils. After 14 d of seedling growth, particles with crystallinity typical of CuO or ZnO remained in the aqueous fraction from the sand; particles had negative surface charges that differed with NP type and salt, but salt did not alter particle agglomeration. Reduction in shoot and root elongation and lateral root induction by ZnO NPs were mitigated by all salts. However, whereas Na and K promoted Zn loading into shoots, Ca reduced loading, suggesting that competition with Zn ions for uptake occurred. With CuO NPs, plant growth and loading was modified equally by all salts, consistent with major interaction with the plant with CuO rather than Cu ions. Thus, for both NPs, loading into plant tissues was not solely dependent on ion solubility. These findings indicated that salts in agricultural soils could modify the phytotoxicity of NPs.

  8. Effects of the surface mobility on the oxidation of adsorbed CO on platinum electrodes in alkaline media. The role of the adlayer and surface defects.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Enrique; Chen, Qing-Song; Hernández, Javier; Sun, Shi-Gang; Feliu, Juan M

    2011-10-01

    The oxidation of adsorbed CO on Pt single crystal electrodes has been studied in alkaline media. The surfaces used in this study were the Pt(111) electrode and vicinal stepped and kinked surfaces with (111) terraces. The kinked surfaces have either (110) steps broken by (100) kinks or (100) steps broken by (110) kinks and different kink densities. The voltammetric profiles for the CO stripping on those electrodes show peaks corresponding to the oxidation of CO on the (111) terraces, on the (100) steps/kinks and on the (110) steps/kinks at very distinctive potentials. Additionally, the stripping voltammograms always present a prewave. The analysis of the results with the different stepped and kinked surfaces indicates that the presence of the prewave is not associated with defects or kinks in the electrode surface. Also, the clear separation of the CO stripping process in different peak contributions indicates that the mobility of CO on the surface is very low. Using partial CO stripping experiments and studies at different pH, it has been proposed that the low mobility is a consequence of the negative absolute potential at which the adlayers are formed in alkaline media. Also, the surface diffusion coefficient for CO in these media has been estimated from the dependence of the stripping charge of the peaks with the scan rate of the voltammetry. PMID:21863178

  9. Kinetics and mechanism of the Ir(III)-catalyzed oxidation of xylose and maltose by potassium iodate in aqueous alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Shalini; Srivastava, Jaya; Singh, Reena

    2007-06-11

    For the first time, the Ir(III) catalysis of the iodate oxidation of xylose and maltose in aqueous alkaline medium has been investigated. The reactions exhibit first-order kinetics with respect to lower [IO(3)(-)] and [OH(-)] and show zero-order kinetics at their higher concentrations. Unity order at low concentrations of maltose becomes zero order at its higher concentrations, whereas zero-order kinetics with respect to [xylose] was observed throughout its variation. The reaction rate is found to be directly proportional to [Ir(III)] in the oxidation of both reducing sugars. Negligible effect of [Cl(-)] and nil effect of ionic strength (mu) on the rate of oxidation have also been noted. The species, [IrCl(3)(H(2)O)(2)OH](-) was ascertained as the reactive species of Ir(III) chloride for both the redox systems. Various activation parameters have been calculated. Formic acid and arabinonic acid for maltose and formic acid and threonic acid for xylose were identified as the main oxidation products of the reactions. Mechanisms consistent with the observed kinetic data and spectral evidence have been proposed for the oxidation of xylose and maltose.

  10. Charge transport in single CuO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Junnan; Yin, Bo; Wu, Fei; Myung, Yoon; Banerjee, Parag

    2014-11-03

    Charge transport in single crystal, p-type cupric oxide (CuO) nanowire (NW) was studied through temperature based (120 K–400 K) current-voltage measurements. CuO NW with a diameter of 85 nm was attached to Au electrodes 2.25 μm apart, using dielectrophoresis. At low electrical field (<0.89 × 10{sup 3 }V/cm), an ohmic conduction is observed with an activation energy of 272 meV. The injected electrons fill traps with an average energy, E{sub T} = 26.6 meV and trap density, N{sub T} = 3.4 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −3}. After the traps are saturated, space charge limited current mechanism becomes dominant. For 120 K ≤ T ≤ 210 K phonon scattering limits mobility. For T ≥ 220 K, a thermally activated mobility is observed and is attributed to small polaron hopping with an activation energy of 44 meV. This mechanism yields a hole mobility of 0.0015 cm{sup 2}/V s and an effective hole concentration of 4 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3} at 250 K.

  11. Charge transport in single CuO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junnan; Yin, Bo; Wu, Fei; Myung, Yoon; Banerjee, Parag

    2014-11-01

    Charge transport in single crystal, p-type cupric oxide (CuO) nanowire (NW) was studied through temperature based (120 K-400 K) current-voltage measurements. CuO NW with a diameter of 85 nm was attached to Au electrodes 2.25 μm apart, using dielectrophoresis. At low electrical field (<0.89 × 103 V/cm), an ohmic conduction is observed with an activation energy of 272 meV. The injected electrons fill traps with an average energy, ET = 26.6 meV and trap density, NT = 3.4 × 1015 cm-3. After the traps are saturated, space charge limited current mechanism becomes dominant. For 120 K ≤ T ≤ 210 K phonon scattering limits mobility. For T ≥ 220 K, a thermally activated mobility is observed and is attributed to small polaron hopping with an activation energy of 44 meV. This mechanism yields a hole mobility of 0.0015 cm2/V s and an effective hole concentration of 4 × 1018 cm-3 at 250 K.

  12. Integration of ZnO and CuO nanowires into a thermoelectric module

    PubMed Central

    Dalola, Simone; Faglia, Guido; Comini, Elisabetta; Ferroni, Matteo; Soldano, Caterina; Ferrari, Vittorio; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Zinc oxide (ZnO, n-type) and copper oxide (CuO, p-type) nanowires have been synthesized and preliminarily investigated as innovative materials for the fabrication of a proof-of-concept thermoelectric device. The Seebeck coefficients, electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power factors (TPF) of both semiconductor materials have been determined independently using a custom experimental set-up, leading to results in agreement with available literature with potential improvement. Combining bundles of ZnO and CuO nanowires in a series of five thermocouples on alumina leads to a macroscopic prototype of a planar thermoelectric generator (TEG) unit. This demonstrates the possibility of further integration of metal oxide nanostructures into efficient thermoelectric devices. PMID:24991531

  13. Integration of ZnO and CuO nanowires into a thermoelectric module.

    PubMed

    Zappa, Dario; Dalola, Simone; Faglia, Guido; Comini, Elisabetta; Ferroni, Matteo; Soldano, Caterina; Ferrari, Vittorio; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO, n-type) and copper oxide (CuO, p-type) nanowires have been synthesized and preliminarily investigated as innovative materials for the fabrication of a proof-of-concept thermoelectric device. The Seebeck coefficients, electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power factors (TPF) of both semiconductor materials have been determined independently using a custom experimental set-up, leading to results in agreement with available literature with potential improvement. Combining bundles of ZnO and CuO nanowires in a series of five thermocouples on alumina leads to a macroscopic prototype of a planar thermoelectric generator (TEG) unit. This demonstrates the possibility of further integration of metal oxide nanostructures into efficient thermoelectric devices.

  14. Oxidative Stress as Estimated by Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Levels Amplifies the Alkaline Phosphatase-Dependent Risk for Mortality in ESKD Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mattace-Raso, Francesco; van Saase, Jan L. C. M.; Postorino, Maurizio; Tripepi, Giovanni Luigi; Mallamaci, Francesca; PROGREDIRE Study Group

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (Alk-Phos) is a powerful predictor of death in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and oxidative stress is a strong inducer of Alk-Phos in various tissues. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress, as estimated by a robust marker of systemic oxidative stress like γ-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase (GGT) levels, may interact with Alk-Phos in the high risk of death in a cohort of 993 ESKD patients maintained on chronic dialysis. In fully adjusted analyses the HR for mortality associated with Alk-Phos (50 IU/L increase) was progressively higher across GGT quintiles, being minimal in patients in the first quintile (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.77–1.03) and highest in the GGT fifth quintile (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03–1.2) (P for the effect modification = 0.02). These findings were fully confirmed in sensitivity analyses excluding patients with preexisting liver disease, excessive alcohol intake, or altered liver disease biomarkers. GGT amplifies the risk of death associated with high Alk-Phos levels in ESKD patients. This observation is compatible with the hypothesis that oxidative stress is a strong modifier of the adverse biological effects of high Alk-Phos in this population. PMID:27525053

  15. Enhancement of oxygen surface exchange kinetics of SrTiO(3) by alkaline earth metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Argirusis, Christos; Wagner, Stefan; Menesklou, Wolfgang; Warnke, Carsten; Damjanovic, Tanja; Borchardt, Günter; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2005-10-21

    The oxygen incorporation reaction in undoped SrTiO(3) was investigated by electrical measurements (pressure modulation technique) in the temperature range from 650-920 degrees C and by means of tracer exchange experiments in the temperature range from 458-600 degrees C. The surface of the undoped SrTiO(3) single crystals was modified by alkaline earth metal compounds leading to a tremendous enhancement of the effective surface exchange rate for oxygen incorporation as compared to the uncoated surface.

  16. Role of chemical composition in the enhanced catalytic activity of Pt-based alloyed ultrathin nanowires for the hydrogen oxidation reaction under alkaline conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Megan E. Scofield; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Zhou, Yuchen; Yue, Shiyu; Wang, Lei; Su, Dong; Tong, Xiao; Vukmirovic, Miomir B.; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2016-05-19

    With the increased interest in the development of hydrogen fuel cells as a plausible alternative to internal combustion engines, recent work has focused on creating alkaline fuel cells (AFC), which employ an alkaline environment. Working in alkaline as opposed to acidic media yields a number of tangible benefits, including (i) the ability to use cheaper and plentiful precious-metal-free catalysts, due to their increased stability, (ii) a reduction in the amount of degradation and corrosion of Pt-based catalysts, and (iii) a longer operational lifetime for the overall fuel cell configuration. However, in the absence of Pt, no catalyst has achieved activitiesmore » similar to those of Pt. Herein, we have synthesized a number of crystalline ultrathin PtM alloy nanowires (NWs) (M = Fe, Co, Ru, Cu, Au) in order to replace a portion of the costly Pt metal without compromising on activity while simultaneously adding in metals known to exhibit favorable synergistic ligand and strain effects with respect to the host lattice. In fact, our experiments confirm theoretical insights about a clear and correlative dependence between measured activity and chemical composition. We have conclusively demonstrated that our as-synthesized alloy NW catalysts yield improved hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) activities as compared with a commercial Pt standard as well as with our as-synthesized Pt NWs. The Pt7Ru3 NW system, in particular, quantitatively achieved an exchange current density of 0.493 mA/cm2, which is higher than the corresponding data for Pt NWs alone. In addition, the HOR activities follow the same expected trend as their calculated hydrogen binding energy (HBE) values, thereby confirming the critical importance and correlation of HBE with the observed activities.« less

  17. Effect of Extracellular Polymeric Substances on CuO Nanoparticle Dissolution and Colloidal Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeleye, A. S.; Keller, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are high molecular weight polymers produced by microorganisms growing in natural as well as artificial environments. EPS may interact with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in aquatic systems via electrostatic and/or hydrophobic associations, therefore, influencing the fate and transport of ENMs. In this study the effect of soluble EPS isolated from Isochrysis galbana, a marine phytoplankton, on the dissolution kinetics and colloidal stability of CuO nanoparticles was investigated. EPS was characterized by measuring hydrodynamic diameter, total organic carbon, carbohydrate, and protein concentrations. CuO nanoparticles were more stable in the presence of EPS in aqueous media as indicated by hydrodynamic size and average count rate measurements. The effect of pH and ionic strength on dissolution was also studied. [Cu2+] and [Cu]total detected after a week were 5.70 mg L-1 and 7.08 mg L-1 respectively when 10 mg L-1 CuO nanoparticles was kept in 10 mM NaCl at pH 4. In the presence of 5 mg-C EPS L-1, [Cu2+] and [Cu]total were slightly lower at 5.0 mg L-1 and 5.53 mg L-1 respectively. Although observed [Cu2+] and [Cu]total were significantly lower at neutral and alkaline pH conditions, a similar pattern was observed.

  18. [Use of coulometric titration for elucidating the mechanism of the oxidation of 6-APA alkaline breakdown products by halogens].

    PubMed

    Kharlamov, V T; Inkin, A A; Ermolina, G E

    1975-02-01

    Penaldinic acid and penicillamine were formed on alkali decomposition (1 N NaOH) of 6-APA for 20 minutes at room temperature, penicillamine being completely oxidized to disulphide by the air oxygen. Coulometric titration of the alkali decomposition products showed that generated chlorine in 0.5 N HCl solution or bromine in a week acid solution of KBr oxidized them with participation of 7 electrones. Generated iodine did not practically oxidize the 6-APA decomposition products during the coulometric titration.

  19. Effect of triethanolamine:ethylenediamine ratios on CuO nanoparticles prepared by ultrasound irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ayob, M. T. M.; Ahmad, A. F.; Mohd, H. M. K.; Rahman, I. Abdul; Radiman, S.

    2014-09-03

    Coral-spherical-shaped of copper oxide nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized with different ratios of triethanolamine:ethylenediamine surfactant under ultrasonic condition. By controlling the amplitude of the ultrasonic radiation and concentration of metal salt precursors and surfactant, the formation of CuO nanospheres was obtained. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrum confirmed that Cu and O are the only elementary components present with a ratio of approximately 1:1. Furthermore, X-ray powder diffraction spectra for all the examined ratios of CuO showed well crystalline structures. UV-Vis spectroscopy was utilized to estimate the band gap energies of the CuO nanoparticles produced, which were found to be in the range of 2.74 eV to 2.95 eV. The field emission scanning electron micrographs of these nanospheres showed that their dimensions were in the range of 5-30 nm. These results indicate that the triethanolamine:ethylenediamine ratio plays an important role in the formation of different sized CuO nanoparticles, displaying a decrement in particle size with the increment in amount of triethanolamine ratios. This might be the key to synthesizing nanoparticles with specific sizes for various applications.

  20. Electrochemical and physical properties of electroplated CuO thin films.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, V; Mahalingam, T

    2013-01-01

    Cupric oxide thin films have been prepared on ITO glass substrates from an aqueous electrolytic bath containing CuSO4 and tartaric acid. Growth mechanism has been analyzed using cyclic voltammetry. The role of pH on the structural, morphological, compositional, electrical and optical properties of CuO films is investigated. The structural studies revealed that the deposited films are polycrystalline in nature with a cubic structure. The preferential orientation of CuO thin films is found to be along (111) plane. X-ray line profile analysis has been carried out to determine the microstructural parameters of CuO thin films. The pyramid shaped grains are observed from SEM and AFM images. The optical band gap energy and electrical activation energy is found to be 1.45 and 0.37 eV, respectively. Also, the optical constants of CuO thin films such as refractive index (n), complex dielectric constant (epsilon) extinction coefficient (k) and optical conductivity (sigma) are evaluated.

  1. Archetypal sandwich-structured CuO for high performance non-enzymatic sensing of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meher, Sumanta Kumar; Rao, G. Ranga

    2013-02-01

    In the quest to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of novel structured metal oxides for electrochemical non-enzymatic sensing of glucose, we report here a green synthesis of unique sandwich-structured CuO on a large scale under microwave mediated homogeneous precipitation conditions. The physicochemical studies carried out by XRD and BET methods show that the monoclinic CuO formed via thermal decomposition of Cu2(OH)2CO3 possesses monomodal channel-type pores with largely improved surface area (~43 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.163 cm3 g-1). The fascinating surface morphology and pore structure of CuO is formulated due to homogeneous crystallization and microwave induced self assembly during synthesis. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies show diffusion controlled glucose oxidation at ~0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with extremely high sensitivity of 5342.8 μA mM-1 cm-2 and respective detection limit and response time of ~1 μM and ~0.7 s, under a wide dynamic concentration range of glucose. The chronoamperometry measurements demonstrate that the sensitivity of CuO to glucose is unaffected by the absence of dissolved oxygen and presence of poisoning chloride ions in the reaction medium, which essentially implies high poison resistance activity of the sandwich-structured CuO. The sandwich-structured CuO also shows insignificant interference/significant selectivity to glucose, even in the presence of high concentrations of other sugars as well as reducing species. In addition, the sandwich-structured CuO shows excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation of ~2.4% over ten identically fabricated electrodes) and outstanding long term stability (only ~1.3% loss in sensitivity over a period of one month) during non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The unique microstructure and suitable channel-type pore architecture provide structural stability and maximum accessible electroactive surface for unimpeded mobility of glucose as well as the

  2. Electrical properties of single CuO nanowires for device fabrication: Diodes and field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Florica, Camelia; Costas, Andreea; Boni, Andra Georgia; Negrea, Raluca; Preda, Nicoleta E-mail: encu@infim.ro; Pintilie, Lucian; Enculescu, Ionut E-mail: encu@infim.ro; Ion, Lucian

    2015-06-01

    High aspect ratio CuO nanowires are synthesized by a simple and scalable method, thermal oxidation in air. The structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the semiconducting nanowires were studied. Au-Ti/CuO nanowire and Pt/CuO nanowire electrical contacts were investigated. A dominant Schottky mechanism was evidenced in the Au-Ti/CuO nanowire junction and an ohmic behavior was observed for the Pt/CuO nanowire junction. The Pt/CuO nanowire/Pt structure allows the measurements of the intrinsic transport properties of the single CuO nanowires. It was found that an activation mechanism describes the behavior at higher temperatures, while a nearest neighbor hopping transport mechanism is characteristic at low temperatures. This was also confirmed by four-probe resistivity measurements on the single CuO nanowires. By changing the metal/semiconductor interface, devices such as Schottky diodes and field effect transistors based on single CuO p-type nanowire semiconductor channel are obtained. These devices are suitable for being used in various electronic circuits where their size related properties can be exploited.

  3. Novel porous CuO microrods: synthesis, characterization, and their photocatalysis property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiarui; Fu, Guijun; Shi, Chengcheng; Wang, Xinyue; Zhai, Muheng; Gu, Cuiping

    2014-09-01

    Porous copper oxide microrods have been synthesized via calcining copper glycinate monohydrate microrod precursor which was prepared in mild conditions without any template or additive. Several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) N2 adsorption-desorption analyses, were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the products. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses show that the precursor consists of a large quantity of uniform rod-like micro/nanostructures with typical lengths in the range of 25-40 μm and diameters in the range of 0.1-0.35 μm. The microrod-like precursors transformed into porous microrod products after calcination at 450 °C in flow air for 2 h. The BET surface area of the porous CuO microrods was calculated to be 8.5 m² g-1. In addition, the obtained porous CuO microrods were used as catalysts to photodegrade rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange, methylene blue, eosin B, and p-nitrophenol. Compared with commercial CuO powders, the as-prepared porous CuO microrods exhibit superior properties on photocatalytic decomposition of RhB due to their porous hierarchical structures.

  4. High performance nano-Ni/Graphite electrode for electro-oxidation in direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Ahmed B.; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S.; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2016-09-01

    Ni/Graphite electrocatalysts (Ni/G) are successfully prepared through electrodeposition of Ni from acidic (pH = 0.8) and feebly acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous Ni (II) baths. The efficiencies of such electrodes are investigated as anodes for direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells through their ethanol electrooxidation cyclic voltammetric (CV) response in alkaline medium. A direct proportionality between the amount of the electrodeposited Ni and its CV response is found. The amounts of the deposited Ni from the two baths are recorded using the Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (eQCM). The Ni/G electrodes prepared from the feebly acidic bath show a higher electrocatalytic response than those prepared from the acidic bath. Surface morphology of the Ni particles electrodeposited from feebly acidic bath appears in a nano-scale dimension. Various electrochemical experiments are conducted to confirm that the Ni/G ethanol electrooxidation CV response greatly depends on the pH rather than nickel ion concentration of the deposition bath. The eQCM technique is used to detect the crystalline phases of nickel as α-Ni(OH)2/γ-NiOOH and β-Ni(OH)2/β-NiOOH and their in-situ inter-transformations during the potentiodynamic polarization.

  5. CO2-free power generation on an iron group nanoalloy catalyst via selective oxidation of ethylene glycol to oxalic acid in alkaline media.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sadakiyo, Masaaki; Ooi, Mei Lee; Kitano, Sho; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Kato, Kenichi; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamauchi, Miho

    2014-07-08

    An Fe group ternary nanoalloy (NA) catalyst enabled selective electrocatalysis towards CO2-free power generation from highly deliverable ethylene glycol (EG). A solid-solution-type FeCoNi NA catalyst supported on carbon was prepared by a two-step reduction method. High-resolution electron microscopy techniques identified atomic-level mixing of constituent elements in the nanoalloy. We examined the distribution of oxidised species, including CO2, produced on the FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst in the EG electrooxidation under alkaline conditions. The FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst exhibited the highest selectivities toward the formation of C2 products and to oxalic acid, i.e., 99 and 60%, respectively, at 0.4 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), without CO2 generation. We successfully generated power by a direct EG alkaline fuel cell employing the FeCoNi nanoalloy catalyst and a solid-oxide electrolyte with oxygen reduction ability, i.e., a completely precious-metal-free system.

  6. Monitoring, field experiments, and geochemical modeling of Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in a stream dominated by net-alkaline coal-mine drainage, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Watershed-scale monitoring, field aeration experiments, and geochemical equilibrium and kinetic modeling were conducted to evaluate interdependent changes in pH, dissolved CO2, O2, and Fe(II) concentrations that typically take place downstream of net-alkaline, circumneutral coal-mine drainage (CMD) outfalls and during aerobic treatment of such CMD. The kinetic modeling approach, using PHREEQC, accurately simulates observed variations in pH, Fe(II) oxidation, alkalinity consumption, and associated dissolved gas concentrations during transport downstream of the CMD outfalls (natural attenuation) and during 6-h batch aeration tests on the CMD using bubble diffusers (enhanced attenuation). The batch aeration experiments demonstrated that aeration promoted CO2 outgassing, thereby increasing pH and the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was accurately estimated by the abiotic homogeneous oxidation rate law −d[Fe(II)]/dt = k1·[O2]·[H+]−2·[Fe(II)] that indicates an increase in pH by 1 unit at pH 5–8 and at constant dissolved O2 (DO) concentration results in a 100-fold increase in the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. Adjusting for sample temperature, a narrow range of values for the apparent homogeneous Fe(II) oxidation rate constant (k1′) of 0.5–1.7 times the reference value of k1 = 3 × 10−12 mol/L/min (for pH 5–8 and 20 °C), reported by Stumm and Morgan (1996), was indicated by the calibrated models for the 5-km stream reach below the CMD outfalls and the aerated CMD. The rates of CO2 outgassing and O2ingassing in the model were estimated with first-order asymptotic functions, whereby the driving force is the gradient of the dissolved gas concentration relative to equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere. Although the progressive increase in DO concentration to saturation could be accurately modeled as a kinetic function for the conditions evaluated, the simulation of DO as an instantaneous equilibrium process did not affect the

  7. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of Pd-Pt/carbon nanotubes nanocomposites for enhanced electro-oxidation of ethanol and methanol in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guohai; Zhou, Yazhou; Pan, Horng-Bin; Zhu, Chengzhou; Fu, Shaofang; Wai, Chien M; Du, Dan; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-01-01

    Herein, a facile ultrasonic-assisted strategy was proposed to fabricate the Pd-Pt alloy/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Pd-Pt/CNTs) nanocomposites. A good number of Pd-Pt alloy nanoparticles with an average of 3.4 ± 0.5 nm were supported on sidewalls of CNTs with uniform distribution. The composition of the Pd-Pt/CNTs nanocomposites could also be easily controlled, which provided a possible approach for the preparation of other architectures with anticipated properties. The Pd-Pt/CNTs nanocomposites were extensively studied by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied for the ethanol and methanol electro-oxidation reaction in alkaline medium. The electrochemical results indicated that the nanocomposites had better electrocatalytic activities and stabilities, showing promising applications for fuel cells.

  8. Nanotextured CuO: sensing and light harvesting platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balčytis, A.; Seniutinas, G.; Juodkazyte, J.; Cowie, B. C. C.; Lapierre, F.; Juodkazis, S.

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and cost effective fabrication of nano-textured surfaces of CuO and Cu2O by chemical bath process was used to fabricated large surface areas with cross sections in centimeters. Through chemical etching and oxidation induced nano-texturation Cu foils are rendered black and their surface area is increased by two orders of magnitude. Magnetronic Au sputtering was used to coat the nano-textured CuxO features with nano-granular metal films which were found to be conformal for the range of 5-50 nm layer thicknesses. The Au coated substrates of CuxO were tested for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performance and showed one of the best sensitivity enhancements when compared with other nano-textured surfaces. Application potential of the black-Cu2O for SERS sensing and for solar cell applications is discussed.

  9. Size controlled CuO nanoparticles for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waser, Oliver; Hess, Michael; Güntner, Andreas; Novák, Petr; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-11-01

    Monocrystalline copper(II) oxide nanoparticles were made by scalable flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Their primary particle diameter was closely controlled from 6 to 50 nm by varying the FSP conditions. Their electrochemical performance as Li-ion battery materials was tested in composite electrodes vs. Li-metal. Near theoretical specific charges were obtained for intermediate CuO sizes of 20 and 50 nm (dBET). In contrast, larger, commercially available CuO (dBET = 670 nm) exhibited significantly lower practical specific charge due to incomplete oxidation in the delithiation cycle as indicated by the remaining Cu and Cu2O by XRD and XANES analysis.

  10. A comparative investigation of metal-support interactions on the catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoi, Denis R. M.; Villullas, Hebe M.; Zhu, Fu-Chun; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Sun, Shi-Gang; Guo, Junsong; Sun, Lili; Chen, Rongrong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of interactions of Pt nanoparticles with hybrid supports on reactivity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline solution are investigated. Studies involve catalysts with identical Pt nanoparticles on six hybrid supports containing carbon powder and transition metal oxides (TiO2, ZrO2, SnO2, CeO2, MoO3 and WO3). In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results evidence that metal-support interactions produce changes in the Pt 5d band vacancy, which appears to determine the catalytic activity. The highest and lowest activities are observed for Pt nanoparticles on hybrid supports containing TiO2 and CeO2, respectively. Further studies are presented for these two catalysts. In situ FTIR reflection spectroscopy measurements, taken using both multi-stepped FTIR spectroscopy (MS-FTIR) and single potential alteration FTIR spectroscopy (SPA-FTIR), evidence that the main product of ethanol oxidation is acetate, although signals attributed to carbonate and CO2 indicate some differences in CO2 production. Fuel cell performances of these catalysts, tested in a 4.5 cm2 single cell at different temperatures (40-90 °C) show good agreement with data obtained by electrochemical techniques. Results of this comprehensive study point out the possibility of compensating a reduction of noble metal load with an increase in activity promoted by interactions between metallic nanoparticles and a support.

  11. Synthesis of cobalt oxide-reduced graphene nanocomposite and its enhanced electrochemical properties as negative material for alkaline secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaofeng; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-12-01

    A potential negative electrode material Co3O4@rGO is synthesized via a facile reflux condensation route. The electrochemical performances of Co3O4@rGO composite for alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries have been systemically investigated for the first time. The reduced-graphene can remarkably enhance the electrochemical activity of Co3O4 materials, leading to a notable improvement of discharge capacity, cycle stability and rate capability. Interestingly, the maximum discharge capacity of Co3O4@rGO-20 (additive amount of GO is 20 mg) electrode can reach 511.4 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 89.1% after 100 cycles at a discharge current of 100 mA g-1. A properly electrochemical reaction mechanism of Co3O4@rGO electrode is also constructed in detail.

  12. Structure-Based Engineering of Methionine Residues in the Catalytic Cores of Alkaline Amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica for Improved Oxidative Stability

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiquan; Wang, Mingxing; Li, Jianghua; Wang, Nam Sun; Du, Guocheng

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to improve the oxidative stability of alkaline amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica through structure-based site-directed mutagenesis. Based on an analysis of the tertiary structure, five methionines (Met 145, Met 214, Met 229, Met 247, and Met 317) were selected as the mutation sites and individually replaced with leucine. In the presence of 500 mM H2O2 at 35°C for 5 h, the wild-type enzyme and the M145L, M214L, M229L, M247L, and M317L mutants retained 10%, 28%, 46%, 28%, 72%, and 43% of the original activity, respectively. Concomitantly, the alkaline stability, thermal stability, and catalytic efficiency of the M247L mutant were also improved. The pH stability of the mutants (M145L, M214L, M229L, and M317L) remained unchanged compared to that of the wild-type enzyme, while the stable pH range of the M247L mutant was extended from pH 7.0 to 11.0 for the wild type to pH 6.0 to 12.0 for the mutant. The wild-type enzyme lost its activity after incubation at 50°C for 2 h, and the M145L, M214L, M229L, and M317L mutants retained less than 14% of the activity, whereas the M247L mutant retained 34% of the activity under the same conditions. Compared to the wild-type enzyme, the kcat values of the M145L, M214L, M229L, and M317L mutants decreased, while that of the M247L mutant increased slightly from 5.0 × 104 to 5.6 × 104 min−1. The mechanism responsible for the increased oxidative stability, alkaline stability, thermal stability, and catalytic efficiency of the M247L mutant was further analyzed with a structure model. The combinational mutants were also constructed, and their biochemical properties were characterized. The resistance of the wild-type enzyme and the mutants to surfactants and detergents was also investigated. Our results indicate that the M247L mutant has great potential in the detergent and textile industries. PMID:22865059

  13. Archetypal sandwich-structured CuO for high performance non-enzymatic sensing of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meher, Sumanta Kumar; Rao, G. Ranga

    2013-02-01

    In the quest to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of novel structured metal oxides for electrochemical non-enzymatic sensing of glucose, we report here a green synthesis of unique sandwich-structured CuO on a large scale under microwave mediated homogeneous precipitation conditions. The physicochemical studies carried out by XRD and BET methods show that the monoclinic CuO formed via thermal decomposition of Cu2(OH)2CO3 possesses monomodal channel-type pores with largely improved surface area (~43 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.163 cm3 g-1). The fascinating surface morphology and pore structure of CuO is formulated due to homogeneous crystallization and microwave induced self assembly during synthesis. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies show diffusion controlled glucose oxidation at ~0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with extremely high sensitivity of 5342.8 μA mM-1 cm-2 and respective detection limit and response time of ~1 μM and ~0.7 s, under a wide dynamic concentration range of glucose. The chronoamperometry measurements demonstrate that the sensitivity of CuO to glucose is unaffected by the absence of dissolved oxygen and presence of poisoning chloride ions in the reaction medium, which essentially implies high poison resistance activity of the sandwich-structured CuO. The sandwich-structured CuO also shows insignificant interference/significant selectivity to glucose, even in the presence of high concentrations of other sugars as well as reducing species. In addition, the sandwich-structured CuO shows excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation of ~2.4% over ten identically fabricated electrodes) and outstanding long term stability (only ~1.3% loss in sensitivity over a period of one month) during non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The unique microstructure and suitable channel-type pore architecture provide structural stability and maximum accessible electroactive surface for unimpeded mobility of glucose as well as the

  14. Multi-functional CuO nanowire/TiO2 nanotube arrays photoelectrode synthesis, characterization, photocatalysis and SERS applications.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Pengtao; Li, Weili; Du, Pengwei; Cao, Kesheng; Cai, Qingyun

    2016-11-01

    Vertically aligned single crystalline CuO nanowire arrays (NWs) grown directly on TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) supporting by Ti foil have been successfully fabricated using facile thermal oxidation of Cu nanocrystals in static air. CuO NWs growth behavior dependent on parent Cu nanocrystals sizes has been well investigated. Mass transport channel of Cu ions in horizontal and vertical for supporting CuO NWs diameter and length changes has been confirmed through a novel step-by-step surface diffusion process. CuO NWs, nano-mushrooms and nanosheets can be easily obtained by varying growth conditions. After photocatalytic synthesis of snow-like Ag nanocrystals upon CuO NWs/TiO2 NTAs, the hybrid photoelectrode exhibits superior catalytic property and detection sensitivity, which can clean themselves by photocatalytic degradation of RhB molecules adsorbed to the substrate under irradiation using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection, a recycling can been achieved. PMID:27591648

  15. Effect of catalysts on the synthesis of CuO nanoparticles: Structural and optical properties by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usha, V.; Kalyanaraman, S.; Thangavel, R.; Vettumperumal, R.

    2015-10-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using two different catalysts NaOH and KOH by a low cost sol-gel method. The prepared nanoparticles were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX), photoluminescence (PL), UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques. XRD spectrum confirmed the monoclinic structure of CuO nanoparticles and showed its polycrystalline nature without any impurity. PL spectra of CuO nanoparticles were recorded with different excitation sources (325 nm & 355 nm) and near band edge and defects related emission peaks were observed. A strong fundamental absorption and high absorption coefficients were observed from UV-Vis spectra, based on which the optical parameters like refractive index, extinction coefficient, Urbach energy and optical conductivity were calculated and discussed in detail. Vibrational modes of CuO nanoparticles were observed from the FTIR spectra.

  16. Facile synthesis, growth mechanism and reversible superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic properties of non-flaking CuO nanowires grown from porous copper substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao bao; Xu, Daguo; Hung, Tak Fu; Zhang, Kaili

    2013-02-15

    Reversible superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces based on porous substrates covered with CuO nanowires are developed in this study. A facile thermal oxidation method is used to synthesize non-flaking bicrystalline CuO nanowires on porous copper substrates in static air. The effects of thermal oxidation temperature and duration are systemically studied. The growth mechanism of the obtained non-flaking CuO nanowires is presented and the compression stress is believed to be the key driving force. The wettability of the CuO nanowires after chemical modification with trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane is systemically investigated. The porous substrates covered with CuO nanowires exhibit excellent superhydrophobic performance with almost no water adhesion and no apparent drag resistance, and a maximum static water contact angle of 162 ± 2° is observed. Moreover, a rapid reversibly switchable wettability between superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states is realized by the alternation of air-plasma treatment and surface fluorination. The porous substrates covered with CuO nanowires will find promising applications in surface and corrosion protection, liquid transportation, oil-water separation, and self-cleaning surfaces.

  17. Facile synthesis, growth mechanism and reversible superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic properties of non-flaking CuO nanowires grown from porous copper substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiao bao; Xu, Daguo; Hung, Tak Fu; Zhang, Kaili

    2013-02-01

    Reversible superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces based on porous substrates covered with CuO nanowires are developed in this study. A facile thermal oxidation method is used to synthesize non-flaking bicrystalline CuO nanowires on porous copper substrates in static air. The effects of thermal oxidation temperature and duration are systemically studied. The growth mechanism of the obtained non-flaking CuO nanowires is presented and the compression stress is believed to be the key driving force. The wettability of the CuO nanowires after chemical modification with trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane is systemically investigated. The porous substrates covered with CuO nanowires exhibit excellent superhydrophobic performance with almost no water adhesion and no apparent drag resistance, and a maximum static water contact angle of 162 ± 2° is observed. Moreover, a rapid reversibly switchable wettability between superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic states is realized by the alternation of air-plasma treatment and surface fluorination. The porous substrates covered with CuO nanowires will find promising applications in surface and corrosion protection, liquid transportation, oil-water separation, and self-cleaning surfaces.

  18. Strong-Coupled Cobalt Borate Nanosheets/Graphene Hybrid as Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation Under Both Alkaline and Neutral Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pengzuo; Xu, Kun; Zhou, Tianpei; Tong, Yun; Wu, Junchi; Cheng, Han; Lu, Xiuli; Ding, Hui; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2016-02-12

    Developing highly active catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of paramount importance for designing various renewable energy storage and conversion devices. Herein, we report the synthesis of a category of Co-Pi analogue, namely cobalt-based borate (Co-Bi ) ultrathin nanosheets/graphene hybrid by a room-temperature synthesis approach. Benefiting from the high surface active sites exposure yield, enhanced electron transfer capacity, and strong synergetic coupled effect, this Co-Bi NS/G hybrid shows high catalytic activity with current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at overpotential of 290 mV and Tafel slope of 53 mV dec(-1) in alkaline medium. Moreover, Co-Bi NS/G electrocatalysts also exhibit promising performance under neutral conditions, with a low onset potential of 235 mV and high current density of 14.4 mA cm(-2) at 1.8 V, which is the best OER performance among well-developed Co-based OER electrocatalysts to date. Our finding paves a way to develop highly active OER electrocatalysts. PMID:26757358

  19. Effect of the length and surface area on electrochemical performance of cobalt oxide nanowires for alkaline secondary battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaofeng; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-12-01

    One-dimensional porous Co3O4 nanowires with different length have been successfully synthesized by thermal decomposition of Co-NA polymer precursors at various hydrothermal reaction times. The positive effects of longer nanowires and larger surface area on electrochemical performance of Co3O4 samples were investigated systematically. All the as-prepared Co3O4 samples display excellent discharge capacities and cycle stability on account of large surface area and porous structure, indicating great potential application of porous Co3O4 nanowires for alkaline rechargeable batteries. The Co3O4-24 h sample with the longest length shows the most outstanding electrochemical performance, and displays the maximum discharge capacity of 450.1 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 90.4% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. Electrochemical reactions between Co and Co(OH)2 occurring on the Co3O4 electrodes are investigated by XRD, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge measurements.

  20. Oxygen evolution reaction characteristics of synthetic nickel-cobalt-oxide electrodes for alkaline anion-exchange membrane water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Tae Woo; Park, ChanSu; Kim, Yang Do; Lee, Dooyong; Park, Sungkyun; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Sung Mook; Choi, Chul Young

    2015-11-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysis system can produce high-purity hydrogen gases in a highly efficient manner. However, the level of hydrogen gas production is still small. In addition, noble-metal catalysts for the reaction in acidic environments, as well as an additional drying step to remove water contained in the hydrogen, are required. Therefore, water electrolysis system with high efficiency and lower cost, an alkaline anion-exchange membrane system that can produce high-purity hydrogen without a noble-metal catalyst, is needed. Nano-size NiCo2O4 powders were prepared by using a sol-gel method to achieve an efficient and economical water electrolysis system. When the powder was calcined at 450 °C, the crystallinity and the cyclic voltammogram measurement showed the best values. In addition, the 15-wt.% polytetrafluoroethylene mixed NiCo2O4 powders exhibited the largest cyclic voltammetry active area and the highest oxygen evolution reaction activity with the appropriate stability.

  1. Histopathological effects following short-term coexposure of Cyprinus carpio to nanoparticles of TiO2 and CuO.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Borhan; Maleki, Afshin; Davari, Behroz; Johari, Seyed Ali; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Shahsavari, Siros

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the coexposure of nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and copper oxide (CuO) on the alterations of the gill, intestine, kidney, and liver tissues of carps (Cyprinus carpio). In this study, carps (length 23 ± 1.5 cm; weight 13 ± 1.3 g) were divided into six groups of 15 each and exposed to 2.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) of CuO nanoparticles (NPs), 10.0 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NPs, and 2.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) of CuO NPs + 10.0 mg L(-1) of TiO2 NP mixture. Fish were sampled for histopathological studies after hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results indicated that the more kinds of histopathology anomalies observed with CuO NP and TiO2 NP mixture were broadly of the same type as CuO NPs and TiO2 NPs alone, but the severity or incidence of injuries of gill, intestine, liver, and kidney of carps in the mixture of CuO NPs + TiO2 NPs was higher than that of each NP alone. Moreover, behavioral changes in carps exposed to CuO NP and TiO2 NP mixture such as hyperactivity, loss of balance, and convulsions were higher than those to CuO NPs and TiO2 NPs alone. In conclusion, the presence of TiO2 NPs enhanced the effects of NPs of copper oxide in terms of histopathological changes in carps. PMID:27650436

  2. CuO nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human K562 cancer cell line via mitochondrial pathway, through reactive oxygen species and P53

    PubMed Central

    Shafagh, Maryam; Rahmani, Fatemeh; Delirezh, Norouz

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): This study focused on determining cytotoxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562 cell line in a cell-specific manner and its possible mechanism of cell death. We investigated the cytotoxicity of CuO NPs against K562 cell line (cancerous cell) and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (normal cell). Materials and Methods: The toxicity was evaluated using cell viability, oxidative stress and apoptosis detection. In addition, the expression levels of P53, Caspase 3, Bcl-2, and Bax genes in K562 cells were studied by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Results: CuO NPs exerted distinct effects on cell viability via selective killing of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner while not impacting normal cells in MTT assay. The dose-dependent cytotoxicity of CuO NPs against K562 cells was shown through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The CuO NPs induced apoptosis was confirmed through acridine orange and propidium iodide double staining. Tumor suppressor gene P53 was up regulated due to CuO NPs exposure, and increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio suggested mitochondria-mediated pathway is involved in CuO NPs induced apoptosis. We also observed that Caspase 3 gene expression remained unchanged up to 24 hr exposure. Conclusion: These molecular alterations provide an insight into CuO NPs-caused inhibition of growth, generation of ROS, and apoptotic death of K562 cells. PMID:26730334

  3. Graphene oxide electrocatalyst on MnO2 air cathode as an efficient electron pump for enhanced oxygen reduction in alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basirun, Wan Jeffrey; Sookhakian, Mehran; Baradaran, Saeid; Endut, Zulkarnain; Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Ebadi, Mehdi; Yousefi, Ramin; Ghadimi, Hanieh; Ahmed, Sohail

    2015-03-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was deposited on the surface of a MnO2 air cathode by thermal evaporation at 50°C from a GO colloidal suspension. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of GO on the MnO2 air cathode (GO-MnO2). Voltammetry and chrono-amperometry showed increased currents for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 6 M KOH solution for GO-MnO2 compared to the MnO2 cathode. The GO-MnO2 was used as an air cathode in an alkaline tin-air cell and produced a maximum power density of 13 mW cm-2, in contrast to MnO2, which produced a maximum power density of 9.2 mW cm-2. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results suggest that the chemical step for the ORR is the rate determining step, as proposed earlier by different researchers. It is suggested that the presence of GO and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) on the MnO2 surface are responsible for the increased rate of this step, whereby GO and ERGO accelerate the process of electron donation to the MnO2 and to adsorbed oxygen atoms.

  4. Graphene oxide electrocatalyst on MnO₂ air cathode as an efficient electron pump for enhanced oxygen reduction in alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Basirun, Wan Jeffrey; Sookhakian, Mehran; Baradaran, Saeid; Endut, Zulkarnain; Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Ebadi, Mehdi; Yousefi, Ramin; Ghadimi, Hanieh; Ahmed, Sohail

    2015-03-13

    Graphene oxide (GO) was deposited on the surface of a MnO2 air cathode by thermal evaporation at 50°C from a GO colloidal suspension. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of GO on the MnO2 air cathode (GO-MnO2). Voltammetry and chrono-amperometry showed increased currents for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 6 M KOH solution for GO-MnO2 compared to the MnO2 cathode. The GO-MnO2 was used as an air cathode in an alkaline tin-air cell and produced a maximum power density of 13 mW cm(-2), in contrast to MnO2, which produced a maximum power density of 9.2 mW cm(-2). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results suggest that the chemical step for the ORR is the rate determining step, as proposed earlier by different researchers. It is suggested that the presence of GO and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) on the MnO2 surface are responsible for the increased rate of this step, whereby GO and ERGO accelerate the process of electron donation to the MnO2 and to adsorbed oxygen atoms.

  5. Graphene oxide electrocatalyst on MnO2 air cathode as an efficient electron pump for enhanced oxygen reduction in alkaline solution

    PubMed Central

    Basirun, Wan Jeffrey; Sookhakian, Mehran; Baradaran, Saeid; Endut, Zulkarnain; Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Ebadi, Mehdi; Yousefi, Ramin; Ghadimi, Hanieh; Ahmed, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was deposited on the surface of a MnO2 air cathode by thermal evaporation at 50°C from a GO colloidal suspension. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of GO on the MnO2 air cathode (GO-MnO2). Voltammetry and chrono-amperometry showed increased currents for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 6 M KOH solution for GO-MnO2 compared to the MnO2 cathode. The GO-MnO2 was used as an air cathode in an alkaline tin-air cell and produced a maximum power density of 13 mW cm−2, in contrast to MnO2, which produced a maximum power density of 9.2 mW cm−2. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results suggest that the chemical step for the ORR is the rate determining step, as proposed earlier by different researchers. It is suggested that the presence of GO and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) on the MnO2 surface are responsible for the increased rate of this step, whereby GO and ERGO accelerate the process of electron donation to the MnO2 and to adsorbed oxygen atoms. PMID:25765731

  6. Synthesis of silver/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide through a one-step thermal solid-state reaction for oxygen reduction in an alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Li Ting; Loh, Kee Shyuan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Wong, Wai Yin

    2016-08-01

    One of the obstacles to the commercialisation of fuel cells is the high cost of noble metals, such as platinum, that are used as electrocatalysts. Silver-incorporated nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag/N-rGO) has been synthesised through the simple annealing of metal salts with graphene oxide and melamine. The presence of silver and nitrogen atoms in Ag/N-rGO was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Both the XPS and EDS results showed a higher Ag loading on the N-rGO surface compared with the rGO surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed a wide size distribution of Ag particles loaded on the N-rGO surface. Electrochemical results indicate that N-rGO is a better support for Ag than rGO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) results indicate that Ag/N-rGO is a potential ORR catalyst candidate in alkaline as it exhibited an onset potential of -0.15 V vs. Ag/AgCl and a limiting diffusion current density of -4.38 mA cm-2 with four electron pathways. In addition, Ag/N-rGO also showed better methanol tolerance than Pt/C.

  7. Synthesis of silver/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide through a one-step thermal solid-state reaction for oxygen reduction in an alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Li Ting; Loh, Kee Shyuan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Wong, Wai Yin

    2016-08-01

    One of the obstacles to the commercialisation of fuel cells is the high cost of noble metals, such as platinum, that are used as electrocatalysts. Silver-incorporated nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag/N-rGO) has been synthesised through the simple annealing of metal salts with graphene oxide and melamine. The presence of silver and nitrogen atoms in Ag/N-rGO was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Both the XPS and EDS results showed a higher Ag loading on the N-rGO surface compared with the rGO surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed a wide size distribution of Ag particles loaded on the N-rGO surface. Electrochemical results indicate that N-rGO is a better support for Ag than rGO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) results indicate that Ag/N-rGO is a potential ORR catalyst candidate in alkaline as it exhibited an onset potential of -0.15 V vs. Ag/AgCl and a limiting diffusion current density of -4.38 mA cm-2 with four electron pathways. In addition, Ag/N-rGO also showed better methanol tolerance than Pt/C.

  8. Highly active carbon supported ternary PdSnPtx (x=0.1-0.7) catalysts for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline and acid media.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Fuchun; He, Yongwei; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Zhonghua; Ma, Zizai; Li, Ruixue

    2016-04-15

    A series of trimetallic PdSnPtx (x=0.1-0.7)/C catalysts with varied Pt content have been synthesized by co-reduction method using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. These catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The electrochemical results show that, after adding a minor amount of Pt dopant, the resultant PdSnPtx/C demonstrated more superior catalytic performance toward ethanol oxidation as compared with that of mono-/bi-metallic Pd/C or PdSn/C in alkaline solution and the PdSnPt0.2/C with optimal molar ratio reached the best. In acid solution, the PdSnPt0.2/C also depicted a superior catalytic activity relative to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The possible enhanced synergistic effect between Pd, Sn/Sn(O) and Pt in an alloyed state should be responsible for the as-revealed superior ethanol electro-oxidation performance based upon the beneficial electronic effect and bi-functional mechanism. It implies the trimetallic PdSnPt0.2/C with a low Pt content has a promising prospect as anodic electrocatalyst in fields of alkali- and acid-type direct ethanol fuel cells. PMID:26851453

  9. CuO nanosheets-enhanced flow-injection chemiluminescence system for determination of vancomycin in water, pharmaceutical and human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, A. R.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Iranifam, M.; Fathinia, M.; Hanifehpour, Y.; Joo, S. W.

    2014-03-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive CuO nanosheets (NSs) amplified flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system, luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets, was developed for determination of the vancomycin hydrochloride for the first time. It was found that vancomycin could efficiently inhibit the CL intensity of luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets system in alkaline medium. Under the optimum conditions, the inhibited CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of vancomycin over the ranges of 0.5-18.0 and 18.0-40.0 mg L-1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.1 mg L-1. The precision was calculated by analyzing samples containing 5.0 mg L-1 vancomycin (n = 11) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.8%. Also, a high injection throughput of 120 sample h-1 was obtained. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized by a sonochemical method. Also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed to characterize the CuO nanosheets. The method was successfully employed to determine vancomycin hydrochloride in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum.

  10. Catalytic evaluation of promoted CeO2-ZrO2 by transition, alkali, and alkaline-earth metal oxides for diesel soot oxidation.

    PubMed

    Alinezhadchamazketi, Ali; Khodadadi, Abas Ali; Mortazavi, Yadollah; Nemati, Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Series of mixed metal oxides were synthesized by gel-combustion method and their catalytic activities for soot oxidation were investigated. The catalysts were M-Ce-Zr (M = Mn, Cu, Fe, K, Ba, Sr), and xK-20Mn-Ce-Zr (x = 0, 5, 10, 20), they were characterized by XRD, SEM, TPR and BET surface area techniques. The results of soot temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) in an O2 oxidizing atmosphere indicate that K-Ce-Zr has the highest catalytic activity for soot oxidation under loose contact condition, due to enhancement of the soot and catalyst contacts. On the other hand, under a tight contact condition, Mn-Ce-Zr and Cu-Ce-Zr nano-composites have high activities for soot oxidation and lower the soot TPO peak temperatures by about 280 and 270 degrees C, respectively, as compared to non-catalytic soot oxidation. Furthermore, the addition of up to 10 wt.% potassium oxides into Mn-Ce-Zr increases its catalytic activity and further reduces the soot TPO peak temperature by about 40 degrees C under loose contact condition.

  11. The synthesis of higher oxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals in an electric discharge: Theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, A. T.; Sadhukhan, P.

    1974-01-01

    Potassium hydroxide was subjected to the products of an electrical discharge sustained in oxygen and produced both potassium peroxide and superoxide. The conversion to higher oxides was shown to strongly depend upon the particle size of KOH, the position of KOH in the discharge zone, and the operating conditions of the discharge. Similar experiments were performed with hydroxides of lithium and calcium which do not form superoxides, but are converted to peroxides. The yields of peroxides were shown to strongly depend upon the operating conditions of the discharge. The absence of superoxides and the presence of peroxides of lithium and calcium was explained from the consideration of relative thermodynamic stability of the oxides of lithium and calcium. Thermogravimetric analysis was shown to provide a more accurate means for determining the amount of KO2 than previous methods.

  12. Sodium N-Chlorobenzenesulfonamide as a Selective Oxidant for Hexosamines in Alkaline Medium: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.; Raghavendra, Manikanahally P.; Mahadevappa, Dandinasivara S.; Channegowda, Doddegowda

    1998-02-01

    Oxidation of D-mannosamine (1), D-glucosamine (2), and D-galctosamine (3) by sodium N-chlorobenzenesulfonamide or chloramine-B (CAB) at 313 K is followed by a shortening of carbon chain and obeys the rate law, rate = k[CAB][sugar][HO(-)](x)(), where x is less than unity. The products are arabinonic acid, ribonic acid, and erythronic acid for 1 and 2 with smaller amounts of glyceric and hexonic acids, while lyxonic and threonic acids are predominant in the oxidation of 3 with smaller amounts of glyceric and hexonic acids. Proton inventory studies made in a H(2)O-D(2)O mixture point toward a single transition state. In the proposed mechanism the alkoxy anion (S(-)) of the hexosamine formed in a base-catalyzed reaction at C-1 carbon is subjected to an electrophilic rate-limiting attack by Cl(+) of the oxidant. The hexonic acid formed is decarboxylated with loss of ammonia to form the respective pentose, which is further converted into the corresponding pentonic acid. The breaking of the bond between C-1 and C-2 carbons in pentose yields tetronic acids. The thermodynamic parameters for sugar alkoxy anion formation and activation parameters for the rate-limiting step have been evaluated.

  13. A method for making an alkaline battery electrode plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chida, K.; Ezaki, T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for making an alkaline battery electrode plate where the desired active substances are filled into a nickel foam substrate. In this substrate an electrolytic oxidation reduction occurs in an alkaline solution containing lithium hydroxide.

  14. Ketjenblack carbon supported amorphous manganese oxides nanowires as highly efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Park, Gi Su; Lee, Ho Il; Kim, Sun Tai; Cao, Ruiguo; Liu, Meilin; Cho, Jaephil

    2011-12-14

    A composite air electrode consisting of Ketjenblack carbon (KB) supported amorphous manganese oxide (MnOx) nanowires, synthesized via a polyol method, is highly efficient for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in a Zn-air battery. The low-cost and highly conductive KB in this composite electrode overcomes the limitations due to low electrical conductivity of MnOx while acting as a supporting matrix for the catalyst. The large surface area of the amorphous MnOx nanowires, together with other microscopic features (e.g., high density of surface defects), potentially offers more active sites for oxygen adsorption, thus significantly enhancing ORR activity. In particular, a Zn-air battery based on this composite air electrode exhibits a peak power density of ∼190 mW/cm2, which is far superior to those based on a commercial air cathode with Mn3O4 catalysts. PMID:22050041

  15. Nanocrystal Engineering of Sputter-Grown CuO Photocathode for Visible-Light-Driven Electrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Siavash Moakhar, Roozbeh; Chua, Chin Sheng; Tan, Hui Ru; Wong, Ten It; Chi, Dongzhi; Dalapati, Goutam Kumar

    2016-01-20

    Cupric oxide (CuO) thin film was sputtered onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate and incorporated into a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell as a photocathode. Through in situ nanocrystal engineering, sputtered CuO film shows an improvement in its stability and photocurrent generation capability. For the same CuO film thickness (150 nm), films deposited at a sputtering power of 300 W exhibit a photocurrent of ∼0.92 mAcm(-2) (0 V vs RHE), which is significantly higher than those deposited at 30 W (∼0.58 mAcm(-2)). By increasing the film thickness to 500 nm, the photocurrent is further enhanced to 2.5 mAcm(-2), which represents a photocurrent conversion efficiency of 3.1%. Systematic characterization using Raman, XRD, and HR-TEM reveals that the high sputtering power results in an improvement in CuO film crystallinity, which enhances its charge transport property and, hence, its photocurrent generation capabilities. PMID:26694248

  16. Acute effects of Fe₂O₃, TiO₂, ZnO and CuO nanomaterials on Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Nations, Shawna; Wages, Mike; Cañas, Jaclyn E; Maul, Jonathan; Theodorakis, Chris; Cobb, George P

    2011-05-01

    Metal oxide nanomaterials have exhibited toxicity to a variety of aquatic organisms, especially microbes and invertebrates. To date, few studies have evaluated the toxicity of metal oxide nanomaterials on aquatic vertebrates. Therefore, this study examined effects of ZnO, TiO(2), Fe(2)O(3), and CuO nanomaterials (20-100 nm) on amphibians utilizing the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay Xenopus (FETAX) protocol, a 96 h exposure with daily solution exchanges. Nanomaterials were dispersed in reconstituted moderately hard test medium. These exposures did not increase mortality in static renewal exposures containing up to 1,000 mg L(-1) for TiO(2), Fe(2)O(3), CuO, and ZnO, but did induce developmental abnormalities. Gastrointestinal, spinal, and other abnormalities were observed in CuO and ZnO nanomaterial exposures at concentrations as low as 3.16 mg L(-1) (ZnO). An EC(50) of 10.3 mg L(-1) ZnO was observed for total malformations. The minimum concentration to inhibit growth of tadpoles exposed to CuO or ZnO nanomaterials was 10 mg L(-1). The results indicate that select nanomaterials can negatively affect amphibians during development. Evaluation of nanomaterial exposure on vertebrate organisms are imperative to responsible production and introduction of nanomaterials in everyday products to ensure human and environmental safety. PMID:21345480

  17. Facile self-assembly synthesis of PdPt bimetallic nanotubes with good performance for ethanol oxidation in an alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongyuan; Zhou, Haihui; Sun, Feifei; Fu, Chaopeng; Zeng, Fanyan; Li, Tianqi; Kuang, Yafei

    2013-10-01

    PdPt bimetallic nanotubes were prepared by the self-assembly of Pt and Pd on Te nanowires at room temperature. The morphologies of the as-prepared PdPt nanotubes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and the results display a large amount of PdPt bimetallic nanotubes with a diameter of 10-20 nm and a length of several micrometers. The composition and structure of the nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy spectrum analysis, and the results display uniform compositional distributions of both elements (Pd and Pt). The mechanism of the formation of the nanotube structure was supposed. The electrocatalytic performance of PdPt nanotubes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Electrochemical results show that the as-prepared PdPt nanotube catalysts have not only high activity but also good stability for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.

  18. Size-controllable synthesis of trimetallic RhPdPt island-shaped nanoalloys with enhanced electrocatalytic performance for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Bing; He, Pei-Lei; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Xun

    2015-03-01

    Size-controllable, high-yield, island-shaped RhPdPt trimetallic nanocrystals with sub-2.0 nm islands have been successfully synthesized through a facile aqueous solution approach. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) line scanning and elemental mapping analysis showed the as-synthesized RhPdPt nanocrystals are alloy structures. These island-shaped RhPdPt trimetallic nanoalloys showed a composition-dependent electrocatalytic performance for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium. Due to the special structure and intermetallic synergies, the Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys exhibited an enhanced catalytic activity and durability relative to island-shaped Pd50Pt50 bimetallic nanoalloys and commercial Pt black. The peak current density for Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys was 1.81 and 1.38 times that for commercial Pt black and Pd50Pt50 nanoalloys, respectively. In addition, the peak potential on Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys decreased 42 mV relative to commercial Pt black and Pd50Pt50 nanoalloys.

  19. CO2 capture properties of alkaline earth metal oxides and hydroxides: A combined density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yuhua; Sorescu, Dan C.

    2010-08-01

    By combining density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, the thermodynamic properties of CO2 absorption/desorption reactions with alkaline earth metal oxides MO and hydroxides M(OH)2 (where M=Be,Mg,Ca,Sr,Ba) are analyzed. The heats of reaction and the chemical potential changes of these solids upon CO2 capture reactions have been calculated and used to evaluate the energy costs. Relative to CaO, a widely used system in practical applications, MgO and Mg(OH)2 systems were found to be better candidates for CO2 sorbent applications due to their lower operating temperatures (600-700 K). In the presence of H2O, MgCO3 can be regenerated into Mg(OH)2 at low temperatures or into MgO at high temperatures. This transition temperature depends not only on the CO2 pressure but also on the H2O pressure. Based on our calculated results and by comparing with available experimental data, we propose a general computational search methodology which can be used as a general scheme for screening a large number of solids for use as CO2 sorbents.

  20. N-doped carbon@Ni-Al2O3 nanosheet array@graphene oxide composite as an electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Qiu, Tian; Chen, Xu; Lu, Yanluo; Yang, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    An NiAl-layered double-hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) nanosheet array is grown on a graphene oxide (GO) substrate (NiAl-LDH@GO) by the hydrothermal method. The NiAl-LDH@GO is used as the precursor to synthetize an N-doped carbon@Ni-Al2O3 nanosheet array@GO composite (N-C@Ni-Al2O3@GO) by coating with dopamine followed by calcination. The N-C@Ni-Al2O3@GO is used as a non-noble metal electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline medium, and exhibits high electrocatalytic activity with low onset overpotential (-75 mV). The improved electrocatalytic performance of N-C@Ni-Al2O3@GO arises from its intrinsic features. First, it has a high specific surface area with the Ni nanoparticles in the composite dispersed well and the sizes of Ni nanoparticles are small, which lead to the exposure of more active sites for electrocatalysis. Second, there is a synergistic effect between the Ni nanoparticles and the N-C coating layer, which is beneficial to reduce the activation energy of the Volmer step and improve the electrocatalytic activity. Third, the N-C coating layer and the XC-72 additive can form an electrically conductive network, which serves as a bridge for the transfer of electrons from the electrode to the Ni nanoparticles.

  1. Effect of magnesium on the aluminothermic reduction rate of zinc oxide obtained from spent alkaline battery anodes for the preparation of Al-Zn-Mg alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Rocio; Flores, Alfredo; Torres, Jesus

    2016-04-01

    The aluminothermic reduction of zinc oxide (ZnO) from alkaline battery anodes using molten Al may be a good option for the elaboration of secondary 7000-series alloys. This process is affected by the initial content of Mg within molten Al, which decreases the surface tension of the molten metal and conversely increases the wettability of ZnO particles. The effect of initial Mg concentration on the aluminothermic reduction rate of ZnO was analyzed at the following values: 0.90wt%, 1.20wt%, 4.00t%, 4.25wt%, and 4.40wt%. The ZnO particles were incorporated by mechanical agitation using a graphite paddle inside a bath of molten Al maintained at a constant temperature of 1123 K and at a constant agitation speed of 250 r/min, the treatment time was 240 min and the ZnO particle size was 450-500 mesh. The results show an increase in Zn concentration in the prepared alloys up to 5.43wt% for the highest initial concentration of Mg. The reaction products obtained were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and the efficiency of the reaction was measured on the basis of the different concentrations of Mg studied.

  2. Carbon quantum dots directly generated from electrochemical oxidation of graphite electrodes in alkaline alcohols and the applications for specific ferric ion detection and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengli; Xu, Yuanhong; Niu, Fushuang; Gooding, J Justin; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-04-25

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are attracting tremendous interest owing to their low toxicity, water dispersibility, biocompatibility, optical properties and wide applicability. Herein, CQDs with an average diameter of (4.0 ± 0.2) nm and high crystallinity were produced simply from the electrochemical oxidation of a graphite electrode in alkaline alcohols. The as-formed CQDs dispersion was colourless but the dispersion gradually changed to bright yellow when stored in ambient conditions. Based on UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), this colour change appeared to be due to oxygenation of surface species over time. Furthermore, the CQDs were used in specific and sensitive detection of ferric ion (Fe(3+)) with broad linear ranges of 10-200 μM with a low limit of detection of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3). The application of the CQDs for Fe(3+) detection in tap water was demonstrated and the possible mechanism was also discussed. Finally, based on their good characteristics of low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, the CQDs were successfully applied to cell imaging. PMID:26878217

  3. Computer modeling of the local structure, mixing properties, and stability of solid solutions of alkaline-earth metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Urusov, V. S. Petrova, T. G. Eremin, N. N.

    2008-11-15

    A technique for the computer modeling of disordered binary oxide solid solutions MO-M'O in a wide composition range has been developed. The method of atomistic pair potentials was used for 4 x 4 x 4 supercells. The parameters of the potentials are optimized using the structural and elastic properties of pure components MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO. The temperature dependences of the heat capacity and entropy are calculated for pure components. The excess mixing properties (enthalpy, volume, bulk modulus, vibrational entropy) are found for different compositions of Mg{sub x}Ca{sub (1-x)}O, Ca{sub x}Sr{sub (1-x)}O, and Sr{sub x}Ba{sub (1-x)}O solid solutions. Temperature and composition dependences of the excess Gibbs energy were constructed, which made it possible to approximately estimate the critical decomposition temperatures and limits of component miscibility. Statistical analysis of lattice distortions in the first and second coordination spheres reveals a detailed picture of the solid-solution local structure.

  4. Computer modeling of the local structure, mixing properties, and stability of solid solutions of alkaline-earth metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urusov, V. S.; Petrova, T. G.; Eremin, N. N.

    2008-11-01

    A technique for the computer modeling of disordered binary oxide solid solutions MO- M'O in a wide composition range has been developed. The method of atomistic pair potentials was used for 4 × 4 × 4 supercells. The parameters of the potentials are optimized using the structural and elastic properties of pure components MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO. The temperature dependences of the heat capacity and entropy are calculated for pure components. The excess mixing properties (enthalpy, volume, bulk modulus, vibrational entropy) are found for different compositions of Mg x Ca(1 - x)O, Ca x Sr(1 - x)O, and Sr x Ba(1 - x)O solid solutions. Temperature and composition dependences of the excess Gibbs energy were constructed, which made it possible to approximately estimate the critical decomposition temperatures and limits of component miscibility. Statistical analysis of lattice distortions in the first and second coordination spheres reveals a detailed picture of the solid-solution local structure.

  5. Study of the electrochemical oxidation and reduction of C.I. Reactive Orange 4 in sodium sulphate alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    del Río, A I; Molina, J; Bonastre, J; Cases, F

    2009-12-15

    Synthetic solutions of hydrolysed C.I. Reactive Orange 4, a monoazo textile dye commercially named Procion Orange MX-2R (PMX2R) and colour index number C.I. 18260, was exposed to electrochemical treatment under galvanostatic conditions and Na2SO4 as electrolyte. The influence of the electrochemical process as well as the applied current density was evaluated. Ti/SnO2-Sb-Pt and stainless steel electrodes were used as anode and cathode, respectively, and the intermediates generated on the cathode during electrochemical reduction were investigated. Aliquots of the solutions treated were analysed by UV-visible and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy confirming the presence of aromatic structures in solution when an electro-reduction was carried out. Electro-oxidation degraded both the azo group and aromatic structures. HPLC measures revealed that all processes followed pseudo-first order kinetics and decolourisation rates showed a considerable dependency on the applied current density. CV experiments and XPS analyses were carried out to study the behaviour of both PMX2R and intermediates and to analyse the state of the cathode after the electrochemical reduction, respectively. It was observed the presence of a main intermediate in solution after an electrochemical reduction whose chemical structure is similar to 2-amino-1,5-naphthalenedisulphonic acid. Moreover, the analysis of the cathode surface after electrochemical reduction reveals the presence of a coating layer with organic nature.

  6. Aerosol synthesis and electrochemical analysis of niobium mixed-metal oxides for the ethanol oxidation reaction in acid and alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Daniel A.

    Direct ethanol fuel cells are especially important among emerging electrochemical power systems with the potential to offset a great deal of the energy demand currently met through the use of fossil fuels. Ethanol can be refined from petroleum sources or attained from renewable biomass, and is more easily and safely stored and transported than hydrogen, methanol or gasoline. The full energy potential of ethanol in fuel cells can only be realized if the reaction follows a total oxidation pathway to produce CO2. This must be achieved by the development of advanced catalysts that are electrically conductive, stable in corrosive environments, contain a high surface area on which the reaction can occur, and exhibit a bi-functional effect for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The latter criterion is achievable in mixed-metal systems. Platinum is an effective metal for catalyzing surface reactions of many adsorbates and is usually implemented in the form of Pt nanoparticles supported on inexpensive carbon. This carbon is believed to be neutral in the catalysis of Pt. Instead, carbon can be replaced with carefully designed metals and metal oxides as co-catalysis or support structures that favorably alter the electronic structure of Pt slightly through a strong metal support interaction, while also acting as an oxygen source near adsorbates to facilitate the total oxidation pathway. Niobium mixed-metal-oxides were explored in this study as bi-functional catalyst supports to Pt nanoparticles. We developed a thermal aerosol synthesis process by which mesoporous powders of mixed-metal-oxides decorated with Pt nanoparticles could be obtained from liquid precursors within ˜5 seconds or less, followed by carefully refined chemical and thermal post-treatments. Exceptionally high surface areas of 170--180m2/g were achieved via a surfactant-templated 3D wormhole-type porosity, comparable on a per volume basis to commercial carbon blacks and high surface area silica supports

  7. Removal of hexavalent chromium ions using CuO nanoparticles for water purification applications.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Chandra, Ramesh; Tyagi, Inderjeet; Verma, Monu

    2016-09-15

    Copper(II) oxide nanoparticles were synthesized at low temperature using cold finger assisted magnetron sputtering technique and were applied as adsorbent for the rapid removal of noxious Cr(VI) ions from the solvent phase. The average size of CuO nanoparticles from TEM analysis was found to be 8nm in addition to this the BET surface area (84.327m(2)/g) was found to be significantly high in comparison to the previously CuO nanoparticles synthesized via green route. The synthesized CuO nanoparticles is crystalline in nature and exhibits monoclinic phase, which was confirmed using various analytical techniques such as SAED, XRD and Raman analysis. The impact of influential parameters including pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, stirring speed, initial Cr(VI) ions concentration, and temperature were optimized using batch adsorption method in order to obtain maximum removal of Cr(VI) ions. From the thermodynamic parameters, the positive value of enthalpy (ΔH) and negative value of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) indicate the endothermic and spontaneous nature of Cr(VI) ions adsorption, respectively. The adsorption kinetics data was well fitted and found to be in good agreement with the pseudo second order kinetic behaviour. PMID:27285779

  8. The synthesis of CuO nanoleaves, structural characterization, and their glucose sensing application

    SciTech Connect

    Ibupoto, Z. H.; Khun, K.; Willander, M.; Lu, J.

    2013-03-11

    The present study describes the synthesis of well aligned and highly dense polyethylene glycol template assisted cupric oxide (CuO) nanoleaves on the gold coated glass substrate by hydrothermal growth method. The structural study based investigations of CuO nanoleaves were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized CuO nanoleaves electrode detected the wide range of glucose concentrations with good linearity and exhibited high sensitivity of 61.9 {+-} 2.0 mV/decade. The linear detection range was observed from 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} to 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M with detection limit of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M and a fast response time of less than 5 s was also observed. The glucose sensor electrode possesses good anti-interference ability, stability, repeatability, and reproducibility.

  9. Embedment of anodized p-type Cu₂O thin films with CuO nanowires for improvement in photoelectrochemical stability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Ng, Yun Hau; Amal, Rose

    2013-04-01

    A highly stable p-type cuprous oxide (Cu2O) photoelectrode has been fabricated by direct anodization of the Cu foil, followed by a thermal treatment to introduce a protective layer of copper oxide (CuO) nanowires penetrating the surface of the Cu2O layer. The anodized Cu2O served as the seeding sites for the growth of CuO nanowires. The embedment of CuO nanowires within the Cu2O matrix enhanced the adhesion of the nanowires onto the Cu substrate. In addition, the presence of CuO nanowires on the outer layer of the composite film, in turn stabilized the Cu2O layer by passivating the redox activities of Cu2O when exposed to the environment. This nanostructured p-type Cu2O photoelectrode generated 360 μA cm(-2) of photocathodic current density upon visible light illumination and managed to retain its photocathodic current density after being used and kept for one month. The improvement in photoelectrochemical (PEC) stability by introducing a passive layer of CuO nanowires provides useful insights into the development of a Cu2O photoelectrode, as its stability remained as the main challenge.

  10. Theory of Electromagnons in CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Kun; Giustino, Feliciano; Radaelli, Paolo G.

    2015-05-01

    We develop a theory of electromagnons in CuO by combining a symmetry analysis based on irreducible corepresentations, ab initio calculations, and simulations of spin dynamics using a model Hamiltonian and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. We show that the electromagnon measured in [Jones et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 3787 (2014)] with the electric field along the [101] direction originates from a magnetoelectric coupling mediated by Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions and consists of a rigid rotation of the Cu spins around the axis defined by the electric field. Furthermore we predict the existence of a second electromagnon originating from exchange striction and coupled to electric fields along the [010] direction in the AF2 phase.

  11. Clean method for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-supported PtPd alloys with high electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fangfang; Wang, Huiwen; Zhai, Chunyang; Zhu, Mingshan; Yue, Ruirui; Du, Yukou; Yang, Ping; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Wensheng

    2014-03-12

    In this article, a clean method for the synthesis of PtPd/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) catalysts with different Pt/Pd ratios is reported in which no additional components such as external energy (e.g., high temperature or high pressure), surfactants, or stabilizing agents are required. The obtained catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and electrochemical measurements. The HRTEM measurements showed that all of the metallic nanoparticles (NPs) exhibited well-defined crystalline structures. The composition of these Pt-Pd/RGO catalysts can be easily controlled by adjusting the molar ratio of the Pt and Pd precursors. Both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) results demonstrate that bimetallic PtPd catalysts have superior catalytic activity for the ethanol oxidation reaction compared to the monometallic Pt or Pd catalyst, with the best performance found with the PtPd (1:3)/RGO catalyst. The present study may open a new approach for the synthesis of PtPd alloy catalysts, which is expected to have promising applications in fuel cells.

  12. Selective trans-membrane transport of alkali and alkaline earth cations through graphene oxide membranes based on cation-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengzhan; Zheng, Feng; Zhu, Miao; Song, Zhigong; Wang, Kunlin; Zhong, Minlin; Wu, Dehai; Little, Reginald B; Xu, Zhiping; Zhu, Hongwei

    2014-01-28

    Graphene and graphene oxide (G-O) have been demonstrated to be excellent filters for various gases and liquids, showing potential applications in areas such as molecular sieving and water desalination. In this paper, the selective trans-membrane transport properties of alkali and alkaline earth cations through a membrane composed of stacked and overlapped G-O sheets ("G-O membrane") are investigated. The thermodynamics of the ion transport process reveal that the competition between the generated thermal motions and the interactions of cations with the G-O sheets results in the different penetration behaviors to temperature variations for the considered cations (K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Ba(2+)). The interactions between the studied metal atoms and graphene are quantified by first-principles calculations based on the plane-wave-basis-set density functional theory (DFT) approach. The mechanism of the selective ion trans-membrane transportation is discussed further and found to be consistent with the concept of cation-π interactions involved in biological systems. The balance between cation-π interactions of the cations considered with the sp(2) clusters of G-O membranes and the desolvation effect of the ions is responsible for the selectivity of G-O membranes toward the penetration of different ions. These results help us better understand the ion transport process through G-O membranes, from which the possibility of modeling the ion transport behavior of cellular membrane using G-O can be discussed further. The selectivity toward different ions also makes G-O membrane a promising candidate in areas of membrane separations.

  13. Photo-Fenton oxidation of phenol and organochlorides (2,4-DCP and 2,4-D) in aqueous alkaline medium with high chloride concentration.

    PubMed

    Luna, Airton J; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Machulek, Amilcar; de Moraes, José Ermírio F; Nascimento, Cláudio A O

    2012-11-30

    A highly concentrated aqueous saline-containing solution of phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was treated by the photo-Fenton process in a system composed of an annular reactor with a quartz immersion well and a medium-pressure mercury lamp (450 W). The study was conducted under special conditions to minimize the costs of acidification and neutralization, which are usual steps in this type of process. Photochemical reactions were carried out to investigate the influence of some process variables such as the initial concentration of Fe(2+) ([Fe(2+)](0)) from 1.0 up to 2.5 mM, the rate in mmol of H(2)O(2) fed into the system (FH(2)O(2);in) from 3.67 up to 7.33 mmol of H(2)O(2)/min during 120 min of reaction time, and the initial pH (pH(0)) from 3.0 up to 9.0 in the presence and absence of NaCl (60.0 g/L). Although the optimum pH for the photo-Fenton process is about 3.0, this particular system performed well in experimental conditions starting at alkaline and neutral pH. The results obtained here are promising for industrial applications, particularly in view of the high concentration of chloride, a known hydroxyl radical scavenger and the main oxidant present in photo-Fenton processes.

  14. Two and three way spectrophotometric-assisted multivariate determination of linezolid in the presence of its alkaline and oxidative degradation products and application to pharmaceutical formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegazy, Maha Abd El-Monem; Eissa, Maya Shaaban; Abd El-Sattar, Osama Ibrahim; Abd El-Kawy, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Linezolid (LIN) is determined in the presence of its alkaline (ALK) and oxidative (OXD) degradation products without preliminary separation based on ultraviolet spectrophotometry using two-way chemometric methods; principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares (PLS), and three-way chemometric methods; parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS). A training set of mixtures containing LIN, ALK and OXD; was prepared in the concentration ranges of 12-18, 2.4-3.6 and 1.2-1.8 μg mL-1, respectively according to a multilevel multifactor experimental design. The multivariate calibrations were obtained by measuring the zero-order absorbance from 220 to 320 nm using the training set. The validation of the multivariate methods was realized by analyzing their synthetic mixtures. The capabilities of the chemometric analysis methods for the analysis of real samples were evaluated by determination of LIN in its pharmaceutical preparation with satisfactory results. The accuracy of the methods, evaluated through the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), was 0.058, 0.026, 0.101 and 0.026 for LIN using PCR, PLS, PARAFAC and N-PLS, respectively. Protolytic equilibria of LIN and its degradation products were evaluated using the corresponding absorption spectra-pH data obtained with PARAFAC. The obtained pKa values of LIN, ALK and OXD are 5.70, 8.90 and 6.15, respectively. The results obtained were statistically compared to that of a reported HPLC method, and there was no significant difference between the proposed methods and the reported method regarding both accuracy and precision.

  15. Characterization of Surface and Bulk Nitrates of γ-Al2O3-Supported Alkaline Earth Oxides using Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Verrier, Christelle M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2009-05-14

    “Surface" and "bulk" nitrates formed on a series of alkaline earth oxides (AEOs), AE(NO3)2, were investigated using first-principles density functional theory calculations. The formation of these surface and bulk nitrates was modeled by the adsorption of NO2+NO3 pairs on gamma-Al2O3-supported monomeric AEOs (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO) and on the extended AEO(001) surfaces, respectively. The calculated vibrational frequencies of the surface and bulk nitrates based on our proposed models are in good agreement with experimental measurements of AEO/gamma-Al2O3 materials after prolonged NO2 exposure. This indicates that experimentally observed "surface" nitrates are most likely formed with isolated two dimensional (including monomeric) AEO clusters on the gamma-Al2O3 substrate, while the "bulk" nitrates are formed on exposed (including (001)) surfaces (and likely in the bulk as well) of large three dimensional AEO particles supported on the gamma-Al2O3 substrate. Also in line with the experiments, our calculations show that the low and high frequency components of the vibrations for both surface and bulk nitrates are systematically red shifted with the increasing basicity and cationic size of the AEOs. The adsorption strengths of NO2+NO3 pairs are nearly the same for the series of alumina-supported monomeric AEOs, while the adsorption strengths of NO2+NO3 pairs on the AEO surfaces increase in the order of MgO < CaO < SrO ~ BaO. Compared to the NO2+NO3 pair that only interacts with monomeric AEOs, the stability of NO2+NO3 pairs that interact with both the monomeric AEO and the gamma-Al2O3 substrate is enhanced by about 0.5 eV. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  16. Highly porous nickel@carbon sponge as a novel type of three-dimensional anode with low cost for high catalytic performance of urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ke; Zhang, Dongming; Guo, Fen; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-06-01

    Highly porous nickel@carbon sponge electrode with low cost is synthesized via a facile sponge carbonization method coupled with a direct electrodeposition of Ni. The obtained electrodes are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The catalytic performances of urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The Ni@carbon sponge electrode exhibits three-dimensional open network structures with a large surface area. Remarkably, the Ni@carbon sponge electrode shows much higher electrocatalytic activity and lower onset oxidation potential towards urea electro-oxidation compared to a Ni/Ti flat electrode synthesized by the same procedure. The Ni@carbon sponge electrode achieves an onset oxidation potential of 0.24 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and a peak current density of 290 mA cm-2 in 5 mol L-1 NaOH and 0.10 mol L-1 urea solutions accompanied with a desirable stability. The impressive electrocatalytic activity is largely attributed to the high intrinsic electronic conductivity, superior porous network structures and rich surface Ni active species, which can largely boost the interfacial electroactive sites and charge transfer rates for urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium, indicating promising applications in fuel cells.

  17. Experimental study of enhanced heat transfer by addition of CuO nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesumathy, Stella; Udayakumar, M.; Suresh, S.

    2012-06-01

    An energy storage system has been designed to study the thermal characteristics of paraffin wax with an embedded nano size copper oxide (CuO) particle. This paper presents studies conducted on phase transition times, heat fraction as well as heat transfer characteristics of paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM) embedded with CuO nanoparticles. 40 nm mean size CuO particles of 2, 5 and 10% by weight were dispersed in PCM for this study. Experiments were performed on a heat exchanger with 1.5-10 l/min of heat transfer fluid (HTF) flow. Time-based variations of the temperature distributions are revealed from the results of observations of melting and solidification curves. The results strongly suggested that the thermal conductivity enhances 6, 6.7 and 7.8% in liquid state and in dynamic viscosity it enhances by 5, 14 and 30% with increasing mass fraction of the CNEPs. The thermal conductivity ratio of the composites can be augmented by a factor up to 1.3. The heat transfer coefficient during solidification increased about 78% for the maximum flow rate. The analysis of experimental results reveals that the addition of copper oxide nanoparticles to the paraffin wax enhances both the conduction and natural convection very effectively in composites and in paraffin wax. The paraffin wax-based composites have great potential for energy storage applications like industrial waste heat recovery, solar thermal applications and solar based dynamic space power generation with optimal fraction of copper oxide nanoparticles.

  18. The induction of biochemical changes in Daphnia magna by CuO and ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mwaanga, Phenny; Carraway, Elizabeth R; van den Hurk, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Whilst a considerable number of studies have been reported on the acute toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) on invertebrates such as Daphnia magna, few studies have been reported on the biochemical change (biomarkers) induction on these species by NPs, especially metal oxide NPs. The aim of this study was to investigate some biomarkers in D. magna induced by copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs under controlled laboratory conditions. We exposed the 5 day old D. magna for 72 h to sublethal concentration of CuO and ZnO NPs in synthetic moderately hard water (MHW) with and without dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) and estimated the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, formation of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and amounts of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and metallothionein (MT). Additionally, complementary short term dissolution studies on CuO and ZnO NPs were conducted. The results showed inactivation of GST enzyme by both metal oxide NPs. The results also showed increased production of oxidized GSH, increased generation of TBARS and increased induction of MT. In the presence of NOM, significant reduction (p<0.05) in these biochemical changes was observed. These results indicated that oxidative stress is one of the toxicity mechanisms for these metal oxide NPs. Furthermore, the results suggest that these metal oxide NPs compromise the health of D. magna, and possibly other aquatic organisms, and therefore have potential to affect ecosystem stability. The short term dissolution studies showed that the proportion of dissolved NPs is higher (1.2% and 70% of initial concentration for dissolved Cu and Zn, respectively) at low particle concentration and is lower (0.4% and 17% of initial concentration for dissolved Cu and Zn, respectively) at higher particle concentration. These results suggest that the observed toxicity may be caused by both metal oxide nanoparticles and metal ions dissociated from the nanoparticles.

  19. Effect of aqueous media on the copper-ion-mediated phototoxicity of CuO nanoparticles toward green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shang, Enxiang; Li, Yang; Niu, Junfeng; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhou, Yijing; Liu, Han; Zhang, Xinqi

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative comparison of different aqueous media on the phototoxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) is crucial for understanding their ecological effects. In this study, the phototoxicity of CuO NPs toward the green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli (GFP-E. coli) under UV irradiation (365 nm) was investigated in Luria-Bertani medium (LB), NaCl solution, deionized water (DI) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The phototoxicity of CuO NPs toward GFP-E. coli decreased in the order of DI>NaCl>PBS>LB because of different released concentrations of Cu(2+). The 3h released Cu(2+) concentrations by 10mg/L CuO NPs in DI water, NaCl solution, LB medium, and PBS were 1946.3 ± 75.6, 1242.5 ± 47.6, 1023.4 ± 41.2, and 1162.1 ± 41.9 μg/L, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope images of E. coli exposed to CuO NPs demonstrated that the released Cu(2+) resulted in fragmentation of bacterial cell walls, leakage of intracellular components, and finally death of bacteria in four media after UV light irradiation. In each medium, the bacterial mortality rate logarithmically increased with the releasing concentrations of Cu(2+) by CuO NPs (R(2)>0.90) exposed to 3h UV light. This study highlights the importance of taking into consideration of water chemistry when the phototoxicity of CuO NPs is assessed in nanotoxicity research.

  20. Effect of aqueous media on the copper-ion-mediated phototoxicity of CuO nanoparticles toward green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Shang, Enxiang; Li, Yang; Niu, Junfeng; Guo, Huiyuan; Zhou, Yijing; Liu, Han; Zhang, Xinqi

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative comparison of different aqueous media on the phototoxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) is crucial for understanding their ecological effects. In this study, the phototoxicity of CuO NPs toward the green fluorescent protein-expressing Escherichia coli (GFP-E. coli) under UV irradiation (365 nm) was investigated in Luria-Bertani medium (LB), NaCl solution, deionized water (DI) and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The phototoxicity of CuO NPs toward GFP-E. coli decreased in the order of DI>NaCl>PBS>LB because of different released concentrations of Cu(2+). The 3h released Cu(2+) concentrations by 10mg/L CuO NPs in DI water, NaCl solution, LB medium, and PBS were 1946.3 ± 75.6, 1242.5 ± 47.6, 1023.4 ± 41.2, and 1162.1 ± 41.9 μg/L, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and laser scanning confocal microscope images of E. coli exposed to CuO NPs demonstrated that the released Cu(2+) resulted in fragmentation of bacterial cell walls, leakage of intracellular components, and finally death of bacteria in four media after UV light irradiation. In each medium, the bacterial mortality rate logarithmically increased with the releasing concentrations of Cu(2+) by CuO NPs (R(2)>0.90) exposed to 3h UV light. This study highlights the importance of taking into consideration of water chemistry when the phototoxicity of CuO NPs is assessed in nanotoxicity research. PMID:26283288

  1. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of cloxacillin in water samples and pharmaceutical preparation by using CuO nanosheets-enhanced luminol-hydrogen peroxide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Iranifam, Mortaza; Fathinia, Mehrangiz; Nikravesh, Mina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (flow-CL) system was developed for the determination of cloxacillin sodium in environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparations. The method was based on the enhancement effect of cloxacillin sodium on the CL reaction of luminal-H2O2-CuO nanosheets (NSs) in alkaline medium. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized using a green sonochemical method. The physical properties of the synthesized CuO nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The influences of various experimental factors such as H2O2, NaOH, luminol and CuO nanosheets concentrations were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of cloxacillin sodium in the range of the 0.05-30.00 mg L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The corresponding detection limit (3σ) was calculated to be 0.026 mg L-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the developed method was 2.21% with 11 repeated measurements of 4.00 mg L-1 cloxacillin sodium. Also, a total analysis time per sample was 30 s which confirmed the rapidity of the proposed method. The analytical applicability of the proposed CL system was assessed by determining cloxacillin sodium in spiked environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparation. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of CL reaction was discussed.

  2. First-principles study of fission product (Xe, Cs, Sr) incorporation and segregation in alkaline earth metal oxides, HfO2, and MgO-HfO2 interface

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiang-yang; Uberuaga, Blas P; Sickafus, Kurt E

    2008-01-01

    In order to close the nuclear fuel cycle, advanced concepts for separating out fission products are necessary. One approach is to use a dispersion fuel form in which a fissile core is surrounded by an inert matrix that captures and immobilizes the fission products from the core. If this inert matrix can be easily separated from the fuel, via e.g. solution chemistry, the fission products can be separated from the fissile material. We examine a surrogate dispersion fuel composition, in which hafnia (HfO{sub 2}) is a surrogate for the fissile core and alkaline earth metal oxides are used as the inert matrix. The questions of fission product incorporation in these oxides and possible segregation behavior at interfaces are considered. Density functional theory based calculations for fission product elements (Xe, Sr, and Cs) in these oxides are carried out. We find smaller incorporation energy in hafnia than in MgO for Cs and Sr, and Xe if variation of charge state is allowed. We also find that this trend is reversed or reduced for alkaline earth metal oxides with large cation sizes. Model interfacial calculations show a strong tendency of segregation from bulk MgO to MgO-HfO{sub 2} interfaces.

  3. Concentration- and roughness-dependent antibacterial and antifungal activities of CuO thin films and their Cu ion cytotoxicity and elution behavior.

    PubMed

    Shim, Gyu-In; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Eom, Hyung-Woo; Choi, Se-Young

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal properties, cytotoxicity, and elution behavior of copper oxide (CuO) thin films with varying concentrations and roughness values. CuO films greater than 0.2 mol % showed 99.9 % antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni, and Penicillium funiculosum. Cu ions were found to be noncytotoxic in New Zealand white rabbits. The concentration of Cu ions from CuO thin films eluted in drinking water in 24 h at 100 °C was 0.014 μg L(-1), which was below the standard acceptable level of 0.02 μg L(-1). The transmittance of CuO thin film-coated glass was similar to that of parent glass. The antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity, elution behavior, and transmittance of CuO deposited on glass suggest that these films could be useful in household devices and display devices.

  4. Electrochemical fabrication of Cu(OH) 2 and CuO nanostructures and their catalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Liu, Yang; Li, Haitao; He, Xiaodie; Ming, Jun; Ma, Zheng; Kang, Zhenhui

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we reported an anodization method for the fabrication of novel uniform Cu(OH) 2 nanowires, CuO nanoparticles, and CuO shuttle-like nanoparticles with advanced structures. The possible formation mechanism of Cu(OH) 2 nanowires, CuO nanoparticles, and CuO shuttle-like nanoparticles was proposed. The good catalytic properties of CuO nanoparticles converted from Cu(OH) 2 nanowires and the CuO shuttle-like nanoparticles were confirmed by evaluating their catalytic ability on the C-N cross coupling of amines with iodobenzene.

  5. Porous Co3O4/CuO composite assembled from nanosheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qin; Zhao, Dianyun; Duan, Huimei; Xu, Caixia

    2015-04-24

    Upon dealloying a carefully designed CoCuAl ternary alloy in NaOH solution at room temperature, a Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite with an interconnected porous microstructure assembled by a secondary structure of nanosheets was successfully fabricated. By using the dealloying strategy, the target metals directly grew to form uniform bimetallic oxide nanocomposites. Owing to the unique hierarchical structure and the synergistic effect of both active electrode materials, the Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite exhibits much enhanced electrochemical performance with higher capacities and better cycling stability compared to anodes of pure Co3 O4 . Moreover, it performs excellently in terms of cycle reversibility, Coulombic efficiency, and rate capability, at both low or high current rates. With the advantages of unique performance and ease of preparation, the as-made Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite demonstrates promising application potential as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Ammonia Vapor-Assisted Synthesis of Cu(OH)2 and CuO Nanostructures: Anionic (Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2-) Influence on the Product Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansournia, Mohammadreza; Arbabi, Akram

    2016-09-01

    Shape control of inorganic nanostructures generally requires using surfactants or ligands to passivate certain crystallographic planes. This paper describes a novel additive-free synthesis of cupric oxide nanostructures with different morphologies from the aqueous solutions of copper(II) with Cl-, NO3 -, and SO4 2- as counter ions. Through a one-step approach, CuO nanoleaves, nanoparticles and flower-like microspheres were directly synthesized at 80°C upon exposure to ammonia vapor using a cupric solution as a single precursor. Furthermore, during a two-step process, Cu(OH)2 nanofibers and nanorods were prepared under an ammonia atmosphere, then converted to CuO nanostructures with morphology preservation by heat treatment in air. The as-prepared Cu(OH)2 and CuO nanostructures are characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy techniques.

  7. Porous Co3O4/CuO composite assembled from nanosheets as high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qin; Zhao, Dianyun; Duan, Huimei; Xu, Caixia

    2015-04-24

    Upon dealloying a carefully designed CoCuAl ternary alloy in NaOH solution at room temperature, a Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite with an interconnected porous microstructure assembled by a secondary structure of nanosheets was successfully fabricated. By using the dealloying strategy, the target metals directly grew to form uniform bimetallic oxide nanocomposites. Owing to the unique hierarchical structure and the synergistic effect of both active electrode materials, the Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite exhibits much enhanced electrochemical performance with higher capacities and better cycling stability compared to anodes of pure Co3 O4 . Moreover, it performs excellently in terms of cycle reversibility, Coulombic efficiency, and rate capability, at both low or high current rates. With the advantages of unique performance and ease of preparation, the as-made Co3 O4 /CuO nanocomposite demonstrates promising application potential as an advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:25828049

  8. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  9. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nano - and microparticulate copper oxide: role of solubility and intracellular bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nano- or microscale copper oxide particles (CuO NP, CuO MP) are increasingly applied as catalysts or antimicrobial additives. This increases the risk of adverse health effects, since copper ions are cytotoxic under overload conditions. Methods The extra- and intracellular bioavailability of CuO NP and CuO MP were explored. In addition, different endpoints related to cytotoxicity as well as direct and indirect genotoxicity of the copper oxides and copper chloride (CuCl2) were compared. Results Comprehensively characterized CuO NP and CuO MP were analysed regarding their copper ion release in model fluids. In all media investigated, CuO NP released far more copper ions than CuO MP, with most pronounced dissolution in artificial lysosomal fluid. CuO NP and CuCl2 caused a pronounced and dose dependent decrease of colony forming ability (CFA) in A549 and HeLa S3 cells, whereas CuO MP exerted no cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 50 μg/mL. Cell death induced by CuO NP was at least in part due to apoptosis, as determined by subdiploid DNA as well as via translocation of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) into the cell nucleus. Similarly, only CuO NP induced significant amounts of DNA strand breaks in HeLa S3 cells, whereas all three compounds elevated the level of H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks. Finally, all copper compounds diminished the H2O2-induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, catalysed predominantly by poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1); here, again, CuO NP exerted the strongest effect. Copper derived from CuO NP, CuO MP and CuCl2 accumulated in the soluble cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of A549 cells, yielding similar concentrations in the cytoplasm but highest concentrations in the nucleus in case of CuO NP. Conclusions The results support the high cytotoxicity of CuO NP and CuCl2 and the missing cytotoxicity of CuO MP under the conditions applied. For these differences in cytotoxicity, extracellular copper ion levels due to dissolution of

  10. Comparison of Antibacterial Effects of ZnO and CuO Nanoparticles Coated Brackets against Streptococcus Mutans

    PubMed Central

    Ramazanzadeh, Baratali; Jahanbin, Arezoo; Yaghoubi, Masoud; Shahtahmassbi, Nasser; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Shakeri, Mohammadtaghi; Shafaee, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem During the orthodontic treatment, microbial plaques may accumulate around the brackets and cause caries, especially in high-risk patients. Finding ways to eliminate this microbial plaque seems to be essential. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of nano copper oxide (CuO) and nano zinc oxide (ZnO) coated brackets against Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) in order to decrease the risk of caries around the orthodontic brackets during the treatment. Materials and Method Sixty brackets were coated with nanoparticles of ZnO (n=20), CuO (n=20) and CuO-ZnO (n=20). Twelve uncoated brackets constituted the control group. The brackets were bonded to the crowns of extracted premolars, sterilized and prepared for antimicrobial tests (S.mutans ATCC35668). The samples taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours were cultured on agar plates. Colonies were counted 24 hours after incubation. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis. Results In CuO and CuO-ZnO coated brackets, no colony growth was seen after two hours. Between 0-6 hours, the mean colony counts were not significantly different between the ZnO and the control group (p>0.05). During 6-24 hours, the growth of S.mutans was significantly reduced by ZnO nanoparticles in comparison with the control group (p< 0.001). However, these bacteria were not totally eliminated. Conclusion CuO and ZnO-CuO nanoparticles coated brackets have better antimicrobial effect on S.mutans than ZnO coated brackets. PMID:26331150

  11. Photoelastic response of alkaline earth aluminosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Smedskjaer, Morten M; Saxton, Scott A; Ellison, Adam J; Mauro, John C

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the structural origins of the photoelastic response in oxide glasses is important for discovering new families of zero-stress optic glasses and for developing a predictive physical model. In this Letter, we have investigated the composition dependence of the stress optic coefficient C of 32 sodium aluminosilicate glasses with different types of alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO). We find that most of the composition dependence of the stress optic response can be captured by a linear regression model and that the individual contributions from the alkaline earths to C depend on the alkaline earth-oxygen bond metallicity. High bond metallicity is required to allow bonds to be distorted along both the bonding direction and perpendicular to it. These findings are valuable for understanding the photoelastic response of oxide glasses.

  12. Rapid synthesis of three-dimensional network structure CuO as binder-free anode for high-rate sodium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chengcheng; Dong, Yanying; Li, Songyue; Jiang, Zhuohan; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2016-07-01

    We report on the preparation of the three dimensional (3D) network structure CuO by rapid and facile engraving method and their application as high rate anode for sodium ion battery. The CuO is rapidly synthesized by in-situ etched and oxidated the specified Cu foils within 15 min. It shows the 3D network architecture with flower-like nanosheets connected by nanowires, which provides the porous structure, short ion diffusion pathway and collaborative electronic transmission. Furthermore, the etched CuO can be directly used as anode for sodium ion battery without polymer additions or conductive agents. The electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with a high capacity of 680 mAh·g-1 at 50 mA g-1 and a reversible capacity of 280 mAh·g-1 at 1000 mA g-1. In addition, the electrochemical reaction and detail charge/discharge process are carefully explored to discover the conversion reaction routes and the recession reason. Thus, the 3D network structure CuO might open an insight for transition-metal oxides as energy storage materials.

  13. Study of structural and optical properties of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Poonam; Gupta, Ankita; Kaur, Sarabjeet; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Sacheen; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-05-01

    Iron doped Copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method at different concentration (3%, 6%, 9%) at 300-400° C with Copper Acetate and Ferric Chloride as precursors in presence of Polyethylene Glycol and Sodium Hydroxide as stabilizing agent. Effect of doping on the structural and optical properties is studied. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Visible Spectroscopy for examining the size and the band gap respectively. The X-Ray Diffraction plots confirmed the monoclinic structure of Copper oxide suggesting the Cu atoms replaced by Fe atoms and no secondary phase was detected. The indirect band gap of Fe doped CuO nanoparticles is 2.4eV and increases to 3.4eV as the concentration of dopant increases. The majority of particle size is in range 8 nm to 35.55 nm investigated by X-ray diffractometer.

  14. Electron Doping by Charge Transfer at LaFeO 3 /Sm 2 CuO 4 Epitaxial Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Flavio Y.; Schmidt, R; Varela, Maria; Garcia-Barriocanal, Javier; Rivera-Calzada, Alberto; Cuellar, F.; Leon, Carlos; Thakur, P.; Cezar, J. C.; Brookes, N. B.; Garcia-Hernandez, M; Dagotto, Elbio R; Pennycook, Stephen J; Santamaria, J.

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of the lattice translational invariance symmetry that occurs at complex oxide interfaces may profoundly modify their electronic structure, leading to interfacial states with properties drastically different from those of the superlattice individual components. The appearance of a conducting two dimensional (2D) electron gas at the interface between two insulating oxides and induced magnetism in a non-magnetic material are just two among many fascinating examples. [ 1 8 ] One of the key factors underlying novel properties is the modifi cation of the doping and orbital occupancy near those interfaces, which may result from charge transfer processes. [ 3 , 9 11 ] If materials used in heterostructures have different work functions, a non-equilibrium situation will be created at the interface and charge will be transferred until the chemical potential levels off. [ 12 ] The use of such phenomena to modify doping in heterostructures has been proposed theoretically as a new route to avoid the quenched disorder that inevitably accompanies the chemical doping. At the interface between a Mott insulating parent compound of the high critical temperature superconductor (HTSC) family and a suitable material that would act as the charge donor, electron doped phases could be stabilized which would eventually turn metallic and perhaps superconducting. [ 12 , 13 ] Such charge transfer processes have been observed at interfaces involving copper oxides such as La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 / YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , [ 14 ] La 2 x Sr x CuO 4 /La 2 CuO 4 [ 15 ] and SrTi 1 x Nb x O 3 / Sm 2 CuO 4 . [ 16 ] While a novel 2D superconducting state was found at the La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 /La 2 CuO 4 interface, [ 17 ] the effect of doping by charge transfer could not be examined in the other two cases due to the detrimental effect on the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 superconductivity of the spin polarized electrons from La 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 in one case and due to the conducting nature of the SrTi 1 x Nb x O 3 in the

  15. Shining light on CuO for exploring high-Tc multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stucky, A.; Ubaldini, A.; Levallois, J.; Tran, M. K.; van der Marel, D.; Giannini, E.

    2014-12-01

    Searching for a 3D multiferroic material with a strong magnetoelectric coupling and high critical temperature is a major challenge in modern condensed matter research. CuO is the building block of high-temperature superconductors and triggered a new interest when it was established as potential high temperature multiferroic. We have succeeded in growing high quality single crystals of CuO with two different methods, namely the floating zone under high oxygen pressure and the chemical vapor transport growth. The fact that we are able to grow crystals of the same compound by different techniques makes it possible to study the effect of slightly different chemical compositions, various kinds of defects and variable strain on the final properties of the compound. Optical spectroscopy has been deployed to study the optical response of cupric oxide. Thereby we achieved a deeper insight of the optical, electronic and structural properties by measuring the infrared reflectivity under a magnetic field and the Raman shift under hydrostatic high pressure.

  16. Nanospecific Inhibition of Pyoverdine Siderophore Production in Pseudomonas Chlororaphis O6 by CuO Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Dimkpa, Christian O.; McLean, Joan E.; Britt, David W.; Johnson, William P.; Arey, Bruce W.; Lea, Alan S.; Anderson, Anne J.

    2012-03-01

    As traditional antibiotics become less effective against a growing number of pathogens, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are becoming more widely applied as biocides. NPs of Ag, ZnO, and CuO exhibit dose-dependent antimicrobial activity; however, information is scant on the impact of sublethal levels of NPs on bacteria. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of a sublethal concentration (200 mg/L) of commercial CuO NPs on the expression of genes involved in the production of the fluorescent siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD) in the plant-beneficial bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. PVDs are important in microbe-microbe and microbe-plant interactions, and are a virulence factor in pathogenic pseudomonads. Cells challenged with the NPs had reduced amounts of PVD in their periplasm and the external medium. The NPs impaired the expression of genes involved in transport of the PVD precursor through the plasmamembrane, PVD maturation in the periplasm, and export through the outer membrane. Also, expression from one of three predicted Fe-PVD receptors was reduced by the NPs. As these effects were not observed for cells challenged with copper ions, this is a nanoparticlespecific phenomenon mediating cellular reprogramming in bacteria, affecting secondary metabolism and thus associated critical microbial processes. The regulation of bacterial genes and secondary metabolites by sublethal doses of a common metal oxide NP has strong environmental and medical implications.

  17. Enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of CuO: catalytic disproportionation of hypobromous acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; von Gunten, Urs; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2012-10-16

    Bromate (BrO(3)(-)) in drinking water is traditionally seen as an ozonation byproduct from the oxidation of bromide (Br(-)), and its formation during chlorination is usually not significant. This study shows enhanced bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of cupric oxide (CuO). CuO was effective to catalyze hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or hypobromous acid (HOBr) decay (e.g., at least 10(4) times enhancement for HOBr at pH 8.6 by 0.2 g L(-1) CuO). Significant halate concentrations were formed from a CuO-catalyzed hypohalite disproportionation pathway. For example, the chlorate concentration was 2.7 ± 0.2 μM (225.5 ± 16.7 μg L(-1)) after 90 min for HOCl (C(o) = 37 μM, 2.6 mg L(-1) Cl(2)) in the presence of 0.2 g L(-1) CuO at pH 7.6, and the bromate concentration was 6.6 ± 0.5 μM (844.8 ± 64 μg L(-1)) after 180 min for HOBr (C(o) = 35 μM) in the presence of 0.2 g L(-1) CuO at pH 8.6. The maximum halate formation was at pHs 7.6 and 8.6 for HOCl or HOBr, respectively, which are close to their corresponding pK(a) values. In a HOCl-Br(-)-CuO system, BrO(3)(-) formation increases with increasing CuO doses and initial HOCl and Br(-) concentrations. A molar conversion (Br(-) to BrO(3)(-)) of up to (90 ± 1)% could be achieved in the HOCl-Br(-)-CuO system because of recycling of Br(-) to HOBr by HOCl, whereas the maximum BrO(3)(-) yield in HOBr-CuO is only 26%. Bromate formation is initiated by the formation of a complex between CuO and HOBr/OBr(-), which then reacts with HOBr to generate bromite. Bromite is further oxidized to BrO(3)(-) by a second CuO-catalyzed process. These novel findings may have implications for bromate formation during chlorination of bromide-containing drinking waters in copper pipes.

  18. Proteomic response of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to CuO NPs and Cu²⁺: an exploratory biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Tânia; Chora, Suze; Pereira, Catarina G; Cardoso, Cátia; Bebianno, Maria João

    2014-10-01

    CuO NPs are one of the most used metal nanomaterials nowadays with several industrial and other commercial applications. Nevertheless, less is known about the mechanisms by which these NPs inflict toxicity in mussels and to what extent it differs from Cu(2+). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in protein expression profiles in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed for 15 days to CuO NPs and Cu(2+) (10 μg L(-1)) using a proteomic approach. Results demonstrate that CuO NPs and Cu(2+) induced major changes in protein expression in mussels' showing several tissue and metal-dependent responses. CuO NPs showed a higher tendency to up-regulate proteins in the gills and down-regulate in the digestive gland, while Cu(2+) showed the opposite tendency. Distinctive sets of differentially expressed proteins were found, either common or specific to each Cu form and tissue, reflecting different mechanisms involved in their toxicity. Fifteen of the differentially expressed proteins from both tissues were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF. Identified proteins indicate common response mechanisms induced by CuO NPs and Cu(2+), namely in cytoskeleton and cell structure (actin, α-tubulin, paramyosin), stress response (heat shock cognate 71, putative C1q domain containing protein), transcription regulation (zinc-finger BED domain-containing protein 1, nuclear receptor subfamily 1G) and energy metabolism (ATP synthase F0 subunit 6). CuO NPs alone also had a marked effect on other biological processes, namely oxidative stress (GST), proteolysis (cathepsin L) and apoptosis (caspase 3/7-1). On the other hand, Cu(2+) affected a protein associated with adhesion and mobility, precollagen-D that is associated with the detoxification mechanism of Cu(2+). Protein identification clearly showed that the toxicity of CuO NPs is not solely due to Cu(2+) dissolution and can result in mitochondrial and nucleus stress-induced cell signalling cascades that can lead to apoptosis. While the

  19. Growth, characterization and electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical CuO nanostructures were grown on Cu foil. • Monoclinic phase of CuO was grown. • XPS analysis revealed the presence of Cu(2p{sub 3/2}) and Cu(2p{sub 1/2}) on the surfaces. • Specific capacitance of 94 F/g was achieved for the CuO using cyclic voltammetry. • Impedance spectra show their pseudo capacitor applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have investigated the electrochemical properties of hierarchical CuO nanostructures for pseudo-supercapacitor device applications. Moreover, the CuO nanostructures were formed on Cu substrate by in situ crystallization process. The as-grown CuO nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) analysis. The XRD and FT-IR analysis confirm the formation of monoclinic CuO nanostructures. FE-SEM analysis shows the formation of leave like hierarchical structures of CuO with high uniformity and controlled density. The electrochemical analysis such as cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies confirms the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the CuO nanostructures. Our experimental results suggest that CuO nanostructures will create promising applications of CuO toward pseudo-supercapacitors.

  20. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  1. Kinetics of the oxidation of lactose by copper(II) complexed with bipyridyl in alkaline medium using chloro-complex of rhodium(III) in its nano-concentration range as homogeneous catalyst: a spectrophotometric study.

    PubMed

    Kumar Singh, Ashok; Singh, Manjula; Srivastava, Jaya; Rahmani, Shahla

    2012-06-01

    Kinetics of the oxidation of lactose by Cu(II) complexed with bipyridyl have been investigated at 40 °C for the first time spectrophotometrically using Rh(III) chloride as homogeneous catalyst in aqueous alkaline medium in its nano-concentration range. The order of reaction was found to be fractional positive-order, when the concentration of Rh(III) chloride was varied from 0.30×10(-9) M to 6.00×10(-9) M. The reaction shows fractional positive-order kinetics with respect to [lactose] and [OH(-)] and zeroth-order kinetics with respect to [Cu(II)]. The reaction also shows slight increase in the rate by decreasing dielectric constant of the medium and remains unaffected by the change in ionic strength of the medium. The reaction was carried out at four different temperatures and observed values of rate constants were utilized to calculate various activation parameters specially the entropy of activation (ΔS(#)). The species, [RhCl(3)(H(2)O)(2)OH](-), was postulated as the main reactive species of Rh(III) chloride for the oxidation of lactose by Cu(II) in alkaline medium. On the basis of kinetic and equivalence studies together with spectrophotometric information for the formation of a complex, [formula see text] the most appropriate mechanism for the aforesaid reaction has been proposed. Support to the proposed mechanism was also given by the observed activation parameters and multiple regression analysis. Sodium salts of formic acid, arabinonic acid and lyxonic acid were identified as the main oxidation products of the reaction under investigation.

  2. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  3. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  4. Determination of concentration and distribution of (CuO) + in high- Tc superconducting La 2- xSr xCuO y pellet by flow-coulometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Aoyagi, H.; Takeishi, H.; Yoshida, Z.

    1992-02-01

    The novel wet-chemical method for the analysis of the concentration and the distribution of constituent(s) at a higher oxidation state, [CuO] +, in superconducting La 2- xSr xCuO y was developed. The sample pellet was dissolved in a flow of acid solution containing Fe 2+, and the solution was introduced continuously into a flow-coulometric system composed of two-step column electrodes of glassy carbon fibers as working electrodes. Fe 3+ generated in the solution through the stoichiometric redox between [CuO] + and Fe 2+ was detected at the first column electrode, and Cu 2+ in the dissolving solution was detected at the second column. It was obvious that the [CuO] + concentration in the surface region of ca. 200 μm in depth from the surface was lower than that of the bulk pellet and the distribution of [CuO] + near the surface was dependent on such sample-preparation parameters as sintering time, annealing atmosphere and storage time of the pellets, etc.

  5. Dielectric behavior of ternary composites of epoxy/BaTiO{3}/(CuO or MgO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhamouda, A.; Forniés-Marquina, J. M.; Bouzit, N.; Bourouba, N.

    2009-05-01

    The work we present in this article is an investigation of the optimal dielectric behaviour of a ternary composite based on a mixture of epoxy resin, titanates and oxides. Titanates are known by their capacity to provide high dielectric constant values that make their use very important in system of telecommunication, transmission microwaves, and in integrated circuit technology. A comparative study is established on two types of oxides added to titanates of either calcium, barium, or magnesium following different proportions. The protocol used to characterise different mixtures is the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). The acquired results show a good concordance between the experimental values of the ternary mixture dielectric constant and the theoretical models deduced from the Lichtenecker modified law. The copper oxide (CuO) is revealed to be more influential than the magnesium oxide (MgO) on the added titanate because of an insignificant dielectric behaviour that the latter presents. On the other hand, the linear behaviour of \\varepsilons appeared with a CuO concentration round about 15% in a RE.BT.CuO mixture. For a fixed barium titanate fraction (27%) this linear evolution is located between the upper and the lower limits derivative from direct and inverse Wiener laws.

  6. Superconducting transition at 38 K in insulating-overdoped La2CuO4-La1.64Sr0.36CuO4 superlattices: evidence for interface electronic redistribution from resonant soft X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Smadici, S; Lee, J C T; Wang, S; Abbamonte, P; Logvenov, G; Gozar, A; Cavellin, C Deville; Bozovic, I

    2009-03-13

    We use resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSXS) to quantify the hole distribution in a superlattice of insulating La2CuO4 (LCO) and overdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO). Despite its nonsuperconducting constituents, this structure is superconducting with T_{c}=38 K. We found that the conducting holes redistribute electronically from LSCO to the LCO layers. The LCO layers were found to be optimally doped, suggesting they are the main drivers of superconductivity. Our results demonstrate the utility of RSXS for separating electronic from structural effects at oxide interfaces. PMID:19392148

  7. Fusion of an oligopeptide to the N terminus of an alkaline α-amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica simultaneously improves the enzyme's catalytic efficiency, thermal stability, and resistance to oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiquan; Lu, Xinyao; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we constructed and expressed six fusion proteins composed of oligopeptides attached to the N terminus of the alkaline α-amylase (AmyK) from Alkalimonas amylolytica. The oligopeptides had various effects on the functional and structural characteristics of AmyK. AmyK-p1, the fusion protein containing peptide 1 (AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAK), exhibited improved specific activity, catalytic efficiency, alkaline stability, thermal stability, and oxidative stability compared with AmyK. Compared with AmyK, the specific activity and catalytic constant (kcat) of AmyK-p1 were increased by 4.1-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. The following properties were also improved in AmyK-p1 compared with AmyK: kcat/Km increased from 1.8 liter/(g·min) to 9.7 liter/(g·min), stable pH range was extended from 7.0 to 11.0 to 7.0 to 12.0, optimal temperature increased from 50°C to 55°C, and the half-life at 60°C increased by ∼2-fold. Moreover, AmyK-p1 showed improved resistance to oxidation and retained 54% of its activity after incubation with H2O2, compared with 20% activity retained by AmyK. Finally, AmyK-p1 was more compatible than AmyK with the commercial solid detergents tested. The mechanisms responsible for these changes were analyzed by comparing the three-dimensional (3-D) structural models of AmyK and AmyK-p1. The significantly enhanced catalytic efficiency and stability of AmyK-p1 suggests its potential as a detergent ingredient. In addition, the oligopeptide fusion strategy described here may be useful for improving the catalytic efficiency and stability of other industrial enzymes.

  8. Fusion of an Oligopeptide to the N Terminus of an Alkaline α-Amylase from Alkalimonas amylolytica Simultaneously Improves the Enzyme's Catalytic Efficiency, Thermal Stability, and Resistance to Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haiquan; Lu, Xinyao; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Du, Guocheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we constructed and expressed six fusion proteins composed of oligopeptides attached to the N terminus of the alkaline α-amylase (AmyK) from Alkalimonas amylolytica. The oligopeptides had various effects on the functional and structural characteristics of AmyK. AmyK-p1, the fusion protein containing peptide 1 (AEAEAKAKAEAEAKAK), exhibited improved specific activity, catalytic efficiency, alkaline stability, thermal stability, and oxidative stability compared with AmyK. Compared with AmyK, the specific activity and catalytic constant (kcat) of AmyK-p1 were increased by 4.1-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. The following properties were also improved in AmyK-p1 compared with AmyK: kcat/Km increased from 1.8 liter/(g·min) to 9.7 liter/(g·min), stable pH range was extended from 7.0 to 11.0 to 7.0 to 12.0, optimal temperature increased from 50°C to 55°C, and the half-life at 60°C increased by ∼2-fold. Moreover, AmyK-p1 showed improved resistance to oxidation and retained 54% of its activity after incubation with H2O2, compared with 20% activity retained by AmyK. Finally, AmyK-p1 was more compatible than AmyK with the commercial solid detergents tested. The mechanisms responsible for these changes were analyzed by comparing the three-dimensional (3-D) structural models of AmyK and AmyK-p1. The significantly enhanced catalytic efficiency and stability of AmyK-p1 suggests its potential as a detergent ingredient. In addition, the oligopeptide fusion strategy described here may be useful for improving the catalytic efficiency and stability of other industrial enzymes. PMID:23455344

  9. Electro-Catalytic Activity of RuO2-IrO2-Ta2O5 Mixed Metal Oxide Prepared by Spray Thermal Decomposition for Alkaline Water Electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyein; Lim, Dongwook; Kim, Taewoo; Lee, Duwon; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2016-05-01

    Oxygen evolution reaction for alkaline water electrolysis was studied using various mixed metal oxide catalysts. Mixed metal oxide electrodes consisting of RuO2, IrO2, and Ta2O5 with various ratios on a titanium substrate were prepared by spray thermal decomposition. The crystallinity of the synthesized catalyst was investigated via X-ray diffraction, and the oxidation state of each component was determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and the roughness factor was determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1 M H2SO4. Electo-catalytic activity for oxygen evolution reaction was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1 M KOH at room temperature, and it was found to be strongly dependent.on composition of catalyst. Among all electrodes tested, catalyst with a composition of Ru:Ir:Ta = 1:2:2.5 exhibited the highest current density of 100 mA cm(-2) at 1.67 V, corresponding to an overpotential of 0.44 V. PMID:27483764

  10. Thermal history dependence of the superconducting properties in La2CuO4+δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Toshikazu; Nakagawa, Masahito; Akihiko-Sumiyama; Oda, Yasukage

    1996-03-01

    We report the thermal history dependence of the superconducting properties in the ceramic La2CuO4+δ with excess oxygen. In the sample, annealed in high pressure oxygen gas, the transition temperature T c onset of 32K in rapidly cooling case changes into 37K in case of annealing at 200K. Another superconducting phase with T c around 45K was found to be enhanced in the samples annealed around 220K, both in the de susceptibility and resistivity measurements. We also studied thermal history dependence in the samples with electrochemical oxidation. And we observed the T c onset of 45K, however the T c onset of 45K did not change by thermal history.

  11. Oxidative-Alkaline Leaching of Washed 241-SY-102 and 241-SX-101 Tank Sludges and Its Impact on Immobilized High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Geeting, John G.H.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Vienna, John D.

    2007-02-15

    This report describes work designed to evaluate the effectiveness of alkaline permanganate contacts at selectively removing chromium from the Hanford tank sludges 241-SY-102 and 241-SX-101. The key variables examined in this study, as compared to contact with the standard conditions of stoichiometric permanganate in 3 M hydroxide at elevated temperature, were: a) excess permanganate and hydroxide at elevated temperature, b) the separation of an elevated temperature 3 M hydroxide leach with either a room temperature permanganate contact or an elevated temperature permanganate contact at 0.25 M hydroxide. It was determined that sequential permanganate and caustic leaching can provide as effective removal of Cr as the combined high hydroxide permanganate contact at elevated temperature while minimizing concomitant Pu dissolution.

  12. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  13. Electron-phonon interactions in superconducting La1.84Sr0.16CuO4 films.

    PubMed

    Shim, Heejae; Chaudhari, P; Logvenov, Gennady; Bozovic, Ivan

    2008-12-12

    We have measured quasiparticle tunneling across a junction perpendicular to the superconducting copper oxide planes. The tunneling spectra show peaks in the density of states. There are 11 minima in the second derivative d2I/dV2, where I is the current and V the voltage, suggesting multiple boson-quasiparticle interactions. These minima match precisely with the published Raman scattering data, leading us to conclude that the relevant bosons in superconducting La1.84Sr0.16CuO4 films are phonons. PMID:19113657

  14. Optimum inhomogeneity of local lattice distortions in La2CuO4+y

    PubMed Central

    Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Campi, Gaetano; Fratini, Michela; Puri, Alessandro; Gioacchino, Daniele Di; Marcelli, Augusto; Reynolds, Michael; Burghammer, Manfred; Saini, Naurang Lal; Aeppli, Gabriel; Bianconi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Electronic functionalities in materials from silicon to transition metal oxides are, to a large extent, controlled by defects and their relative arrangement. Outstanding examples are the oxides of copper, where defect order is correlated with their high superconducting transition temperatures. The oxygen defect order can be highly inhomogeneous, even in optimal superconducting samples, which raises the question of the nature of the sample regions where the order does not exist but which nonetheless form the “glue” binding the ordered regions together. Here we use scanning X-ray microdiffraction (with a beam 300 nm in diameter) to show that for La2CuO4+y, the glue regions contain incommensurate modulated local lattice distortions, whose spatial extent is most pronounced for the best superconducting samples. For an underdoped single crystal with mobile oxygen interstitials in the spacer La2O2+y layers intercalated between the CuO2 layers, the incommensurate modulated local lattice distortions form droplets anticorrelated with the ordered oxygen interstitials, and whose spatial extent is most pronounced for the best superconducting samples. In this simplest of high temperature superconductors, there are therefore not one, but two networks of ordered defects which can be tuned to achieve optimal superconductivity. For a given stoichiometry, the highest transition temperature is obtained when both the ordered oxygen and lattice defects form fractal patterns, as opposed to appearing in isolated spots. We speculate that the relationship between material complexity and superconducting transition temperature Tc is actually underpinned by a fundamental relation between Tc and the distribution of ordered defect networks supported by the materials. PMID:22961255

  15. Optimum inhomogeneity of local lattice distortions in La2CuO(4+y).

    PubMed

    Poccia, Nicola; Ricci, Alessandro; Campi, Gaetano; Fratini, Michela; Puri, Alessandro; Di Gioacchino, Daniele; Marcelli, Augusto; Reynolds, Michael; Burghammer, Manfred; Saini, Naurang Lal; Aeppli, Gabriel; Bianconi, Antonio

    2012-09-25

    Electronic functionalities in materials from silicon to transition metal oxides are, to a large extent, controlled by defects and their relative arrangement. Outstanding examples are the oxides of copper, where defect order is correlated with their high superconducting transition temperatures. The oxygen defect order can be highly inhomogeneous, even in optimal superconducting samples, which raises the question of the nature of the sample regions where the order does not exist but which nonetheless form the "glue" binding the ordered regions together. Here we use scanning X-ray microdiffraction (with a beam 300 nm in diameter) to show that for La(2)CuO(4+y), the glue regions contain incommensurate modulated local lattice distortions, whose spatial extent is most pronounced for the best superconducting samples. For an underdoped single crystal with mobile oxygen interstitials in the spacer La(2)O(2+y) layers intercalated between the CuO(2) layers, the incommensurate modulated local lattice distortions form droplets anticorrelated with the ordered oxygen interstitials, and whose spatial extent is most pronounced for the best superconducting samples. In this simplest of high temperature superconductors, there are therefore not one, but two networks of ordered defects which can be tuned to achieve optimal superconductivity. For a given stoichiometry, the highest transition temperature is obtained when both the ordered oxygen and lattice defects form fractal patterns, as opposed to appearing in isolated spots. We speculate that the relationship between material complexity and superconducting transition temperature T(c) is actually underpinned by a fundamental relation between T(c) and the distribution of ordered defect networks supported by the materials. PMID:22961255

  16. Evaluation of the alkaline electrolysis of zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Meisenhelder, J.H.; Brown, A.P.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-05-01

    The alkaline leach and electrolysis process for zinc production is compared to the conventional acid-sulfate process in terms of both energy saving and technical merit. In addition, the potential for industrial application of the alkaline process is discussed on the basis of present market conditions, possible future zinc market scenarios, and the probability of increased secondary zinc recovery. In primary zinc production, the energy-saving potential for the alkaline process was estimated to be greater than 10%, even when significantly larger electrolysis current densities than those required for the sulfate process are used. The principal technical advantages of the alkaline process are that it can handle low-grade, high-iron-content or oxidized ores (like most of those found in the US) in a more cost- and energy-efficient manner than can the sulfate process. Additionally, in the electrowinning operation, the alkaline process should be technically superior because a dendritic or sponge deposit is formed that is amenable to automated collection without interruption of the electrolysis. Also, use of the higher current densities would result in significant capital cost reductions. Alkaline-based electrolytic recovery processes were considered for the recycling of zinc from smelter baghouse dusts and from the potential source of nickel/zinc electric-vehicle batteries. In all comparisons, an alkaline process was shown to be technically superior and, particularly for the baghouse dusts, energetically and economically superior to alternatively proposed recovery methods based on sulfate electrolysis. It is concluded that the alkaline zinc method is an important alternative technology to the conventional acid zinc process. (WHK)

  17. Characterization of Doped and Undoped CuO Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazioǧlu, Dilek Taşkin; Dumludaǧ, Fatih; Altindal, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Undoped and doped with Ti, Cd and Zn CuO nanoparticles were obtained by precipitation method. The crystal structures of the CuO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Impedance spectroscopy (IS) and d.c conductivity (σd.c) measurements were performed on samples as a function of temperature and frequency (40-105 Hz.) to determine the electrical behavior of the nano powder. It was found that the Arrhenius graph of the samples consist of two linear regions and corresponding activation energies. The dependency of frequency exponent s on temperature and frequency suggests a conduction mechanism which is indication of hopping. The measured impedance spectra showed a furher semicircle at low frequencies for all temperatures. The low frequency semicirles in impedance spectra are attributted to the garin boundry effects.

  18. Study on multicaloric effect of CuO induced multiferroic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Yadav, K. L.

    2014-08-01

    One of the induced multiferroic materials, CuO has the magnetic as well as ferroelectric phase transition at same temperature (TN1 ˜ 213 K, TC and TN2 ˜ 230 K). These type of materials can show two types of entropy; magnetic field induced entropy (Magnetocaloric Effect) as well as electeric field induced entropy (Electrocaloric Effect). The presence of both type of entropy may be called "Multicaloric Entropy" (M. Vopson, Solid State Commun. 152, 2067 (2012) and Meng et al., Phys. Lett. A 377, 567 (2013)). We observed that "Multicaloric Entropy" in the induced multiferroic materials also depends on the magnetoelectric interaction (γ). Therofore, this numerical attempt to calculate the entropy of CuO may be useful for the future "electro-magnetic" based refrigerator technology.

  19. Controllable growth of dendrite-like CuO nanostructures by ethylene glycol assisted hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hui; Li Shenzhong; Ma Xiangyang; Yang Deren

    2008-05-06

    The dendrite-like CuO nanostructures, consisting of a rod-like main stem and some rod-like sub-branches, have been synthesized by a simple ethylene glycol (EG) assisted hydrothermal method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicate that the dendrite-like CuO nanostructures are of monoclinic phase and the individual branch of CuO is single crystalline in nature. The effects of the growth conditions such as temperature and pH value on the morphology and structures of CuO have also been investigated. It is indicated that different temperature and pH value result in the morphology and structure evolution of CuO. Moreover, a possible mechanism for the morphology and structures evolution of CuO has been primarily presented.

  20. Multiphonon hopping of carriers in CuO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serin, T.; Yildiz, A.; Şahin, Ş. H.; Serin, N.

    2011-10-01

    We have performed a detailed study of the electrical conduction process in CuO thin films deposited by the sol-gel dip coating technique in a temperature range 280-420 K. The electrical conduction is analyzed within the framework of various hopping conduction models. Multiphonon hopping conduction mechanism is found to dominate the electrical transport in the entire temperature region. Our results are consistent with this model of hopping conduction mechanisms with weak carrier-lattice coupling.

  1. Evaluation of a cloud point extraction approach for the preconcentration and quantification of trace CuO nanoparticles in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Majedi, Seyed Mohammad; Kelly, Barry C; Lee, Hian Kee

    2014-03-01

    The cloud point extraction (CPE) of commercial copper(II) oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs, mean diameter of 28nm) in water samples was fully investigated. Factors such as Triton X-114 (TX-114) concentration, pH, incubation temperature and time, were optimized. The effects of CuO NP behavior like agglomeration, dissolution, and surface adsorption of natural organic matter, Cu(2+), and coating chemicals, on its recovery were studied. The results indicated that all the CPE factors had significant effects on the extraction efficiency. An enrichment factor of ∼89 was obtained under optimum CPE conditions. The hydrodynamic diameter of CuO NPs increased to 4-5 μm upon agglomeration of NP-micelle assemblies, and decreased at pH >10.0 at which the extraction efficiency was also lowered. The solubility and therefore, the loss of NPs were greatly enhanced at pH <8.5 and in the first 60 min of incubation, whereas it declined at elevated incubation temperatures. Our results showed that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >5 mg C L(-1) and Cu(2+) >2 times that of CuO NPs, lowered and enhanced the extraction efficiency, respectively. Pre-treatment of samples with 3% wv(-1) of hydrogen peroxide and 10 mM of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid minimized the interferences posed by DOC and Cu(2+), respectively. The decrease in CPE efficiency was also evident for ligands like poly(ethylene glycol). The TX-114-rich phase could be determined with either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave digestion, or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The detection limits for CuO NPs were 0.02 and 0.06 μg L(-1) using these techniques, respectively. The optimum sample pre-treatment and CPE conditions were successfully applied to the river and wastewater samples. The relative recoveries of CuO NPs spiked at 5-100 μg L(-1) (as Cu) in these samples were in the range of between 59.2 and 108.2%. The approach demonstrates a robust analytical method for detecting trace

  2. Effect of NaOH concentration on structural, surface and antibacterial activity of CuO nanorods synthesized by direct sonochemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonia, S.; Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Suresh Kumar, P.; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2014-02-01

    Highly efficient Copper oxide (CuO) nanorods were synthesized by using one step sonochemical method under room temperature with change in NaOH concentration. XRD confirms the prepared nanorods are in pure monoclinic phase with lattice constants a = 4.68 Å, b = 3.42 Å, and c = 5.13 Å and FESEM analysis reveals an average diameter of 50-100 nm. Optical absorption spectra exhibits the strong blue shift compared with bulk and the bandgap increases with decreasing the size of the nanorods which is due to the nanosize effect. The composition of CuO nanorods were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirms the formation of monoclinic phase of CuO and the Thermal analysis was done by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The antibacterial properties of copper oxide nanorods were investigated using human pathogens and was compared based on diameter of inhibition zone using agar well diffusion method. The synthesized copper oxide nanostructures show excellent antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium than Staphylococcus aureus strain.

  3. Accumulation and toxicity of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles through waterborne and dietary exposure of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O

    2015-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to copper oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects, and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a 10-fold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain, and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p ≥ 0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p < 0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions.

  4. CO2 Sensors Based on Nanocrystalline SnO2 Doped with CuO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, Chung Chiun; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) doped with copper oxide (CuO) has been found to be useful as an electrical-resistance sensory material for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide in air. SnO2 is an n-type semiconductor that has been widely used as a sensing material for detecting such reducing gases as carbon monoxide, some of the nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons. Without doping, SnO2 usually does not respond to carbon dioxide and other stable gases. The discovery that the electrical resistance of CuO-doped SnO2 varies significantly with the concentration of CO2 creates opportunities for the development of relatively inexpensive CO2 sensors for detecting fires and monitoring atmospheric conditions. This discovery could also lead to research that could alter fundamental knowledge of SnO2 as a sensing material, perhaps leading to the development of SnO2-based sensing materials for measuring concentrations of oxidizing gases. Prototype CO2 sensors based on CuO-doped SnO2 have been fabricated by means of semiconductor-microfabrication and sol-gel nanomaterial-synthesis batch processes that are amendable to inexpensive implementation in mass production.

  5. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management. PMID:27136151

  6. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management.

  7. Rod-like CuMnOx transformed from mixed oxide particles by alkaline hydrothermal treatment as a novel catalyst for catalytic combustion of toluene.

    PubMed

    Li, W B; Liu, Z X; Liu, R F; Chen, J L; Xu, B Q

    2016-08-17

    Rod-like copper manganese mixed oxides (CuMnx-NR) have been synthesized from copper manganese mixed oxide particles by sodium hydroxide hydrothermal treatment, and a higher BET surface area of 221 m(2) g(-1) is obtained on the nanorod-like sample, which exhibits superior catalytic activity toward toluene combustion at 210 °C due to the increase in its oxygen mobility of the chemisorbed oxygen species as well as the increase in surface concentrations of higher valance cations, Cu(2+), Mn(3+) and Mn(4+), in the samples. PMID:27498822

  8. Dielectric Properties of Ca2CuO3-CaCu2O3-CuO Composite Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing-Shou; Zhang, Yun-Qiang; Li, Li-Ben; Zang, Guo-Zhong

    2013-03-01

    The Ca2CuO3-CaCu2O3-CuO ceramics were synthesized by traditional solid-state sintering method. The complex dielectric response of the samples measured from 102-106 Hz and from 300-500 K reveals very high real part of ɛ > 104. The activation energy (being about 0.63 eV) calculated by the Arrhenius equation indicates that the oxygen vacancies may contribute to the high dielectric response. And the fitting to a Schottky barrier model of capacitance versus applied voltage suggests that the existence of Schottky barrier at the grain boundaries may be another important reason for the origination of good dielectric properties.

  9. Purification and partial characterization of a detergent and oxidizing agent stable alkaline protease from a newly isolated Bacillus subtilis VSG-4 of tropical soil.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Sen, Shib Sankar; Oviya, M; Banu, B Nazeema; Jena, Prasant Kumar

    2011-06-01

    An extracellular detergent tolerant protease producing strain VSG-4 was isolated from tropical soil sample and identified as Bacillus subtilis based on morphological, biochemical characteristics as well as 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. The VSG-4 protease was purified to homogeneity using ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and sephadex G-200 gel permeation chromatography with a 17.4 purification fold. The purified enzyme was active and stable over a broad range of pH (8.0-11.0, optimum at 9.0) and temperature (40°C to 60°C, optimum at 50°C). The thermostability of the enzyme was significantly increased by the addition CaCl(2). This enzyme was strongly inhibited by PMSF and DFP, suggesting that it belongs to the serine protease superfamily. The purified VSG-4 alkaline protease showed remarkable stability in anionic (5 mM SDS) and ionic (1% Trion X-100 and 1% Tween 80) detergents. It retained 97±2% and 83.6±1.1% of its initial activity after 1 h preincubation in the presence of 1 % H(2)O(2) and 1 % sodium perborate, respectively. Furthermore, the purified enzyme showed excellent stability and compatibility with some commercial laundry detergents besides its stain removal capacity. Considering these promising properties, VSG-4 protease may find tremendous application in laundry detergent formulations.

  10. Interactions of CuO nanoparticles with the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa: adhesion, uptake, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Xuesong; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Chenchen; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-11-01

    The potential adverse effects of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) have increasingly attracted attention. Combining electron microscopic and toxicological investigations, we determined the adhesion, uptake, and toxicity of CuO NPs to eukaryotic alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. CuO NPs were toxic to C. pyrenoidosa, with a 72 h EC50 of 45.7 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy showed that CuO NPs were attached onto the surface of the algal cells and interacted with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excreted by the organisms. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that EPS layer of algae was thickened by nearly 4-fold after CuO NPs exposure, suggesting a possible protective mechanism. In spite of the thickening of EPS layer, CuO NPs were still internalized by endocytosis and were stored in algal vacuoles. TEM and electron diffraction analysis confirmed that the internalized CuO NPs were transformed to Cu2O NPs (d-spacing, ∼0.213 nm) with an average size approximately 5 nm. The toxicity investigation demonstrated that severe membrane damage was observed after attachment of CuO NPs with algae. Reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial depolarization were also noted upon exposure to CuO NPs. This work provides useful information on understanding the role of NPs-algae physical interactions in nanotoxicity.

  11. Interactions of CuO nanoparticles with the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa: adhesion, uptake, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Xuesong; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Chenchen; White, Jason C; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-11-01

    The potential adverse effects of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) have increasingly attracted attention. Combining electron microscopic and toxicological investigations, we determined the adhesion, uptake, and toxicity of CuO NPs to eukaryotic alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. CuO NPs were toxic to C. pyrenoidosa, with a 72 h EC50 of 45.7 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy showed that CuO NPs were attached onto the surface of the algal cells and interacted with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) excreted by the organisms. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that EPS layer of algae was thickened by nearly 4-fold after CuO NPs exposure, suggesting a possible protective mechanism. In spite of the thickening of EPS layer, CuO NPs were still internalized by endocytosis and were stored in algal vacuoles. TEM and electron diffraction analysis confirmed that the internalized CuO NPs were transformed to Cu2O NPs (d-spacing, ∼0.213 nm) with an average size approximately 5 nm. The toxicity investigation demonstrated that severe membrane damage was observed after attachment of CuO NPs with algae. Reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial depolarization were also noted upon exposure to CuO NPs. This work provides useful information on understanding the role of NPs-algae physical interactions in nanotoxicity. PMID:27345461

  12. Origin of electrically heterogeneous microstructure in CuO from scanning tunneling spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Jana, Pradip Kumar; Chaudhuri, B. K.

    2008-04-01

    We report electronic structure of the grains and grain boundaries (GBs) of the high permittivity (κ˜104) ceramic CuO from scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) studies. The p-type semiconducting character of the CuO grains and insulating behavior of the corresponding GBs, observed from STS studies, have been explained. This type of electrically inhomogeneous microstructure leads to the formation of barrier layer capacitance elements in CuO and, hence, provides an explanation of the colossal-κ response exhibited by CuO.

  13. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  14. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  15. Catalytic activity of ruthenium(III) on the oxidation of an anticholinergic drug-atropine sulfate monohydrate by copper(III) periodate complex in aqueous alkaline medium - decarboxylation and free radical mechanism.

    PubMed

    Byadagi, Kirthi S; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T; Chimatadar, Shivamurti A

    2013-01-01

    Atropine sulfate monohydrate (ASM) is an anticholinergic drug, having a wide spectrum of activity. Hence, the kinetics of oxidation of ASM by diperiodatocuperate (DPC) in the presence of micro (10-6) amounts of Ru(III) catalyst has been investigated spectrophotometrically in aqueous alkaline medium at I = 0.50 mol dm-3. The reaction between DPC and ASM exhibits 1:2 stoichiometry (ASM:DPC) i. e., one mole of ASM require two moles of DPC to give products. The main oxidation products were confirmed by spectral studies. The reaction is first order with respect to [DPC] and [Ru(III)], while the order with respect to [ASM] and [OH-] was less than unity. The rates decreased with increase in periodate concentration. The reaction rates revealed that Ru(III) catalyzed reaction was about seven-fold faster than the uncatalyzed reaction. The catalytic constant (KC) was also determined at different temperatures. A plausible mechanism is proposed. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were calculated and the thermodynamic quantities were also determined. Kinetic experiments suggest that [Cu(H2IO6)(H2O)2] is the reactive Cu(III) species and [Ru(H2O)5OH]2+ is the reactive Ru(III) species. PMID:24169716

  16. CuO cathode in lithium cells. I. Influence of the decomposition conditions of Cu(OH) 2 on the properties of CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, P.; Klápště, B.; Podhájecký, P.

    1985-07-01

    The electrochemical properties of CuO in galvanic cells with a lithium anode show a correlation with the conditions of its preparation from Cu(OH) 2. To attain the highest cell discharge capacity and a favourable discharge voltage, the Cu(OH) 2 must be decomposed at 300 °C for 2 h. Differences in the properties of CuO prepared under different conditions are attributed to a variable content of chemically bound water in the form of residual OH groups. No other phases were detected in the CuO structure by X-ray analysis.

  17. Nano-sized CuO, TiO₂ and ZnO affect Xenopus laevis development.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, Renato; Santo, Nadia; Fascio, Umberto; Moschini, Elisa; Freddi, Stefano; Chirico, Giuseppe; Camatini, Marina; Mantecca, Paride

    2012-06-01

    The teratogenic potential of commercially available copper oxide (CuO), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) was evaluated using the standardized FETAX test. After characterization of NP suspensions by TEM, DLS and AAS, histopathological screening and advanced confocal and energy-filtered electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the induced lesions and to track NPs in tissues. Except for nCuO, which was found to be weakly embryolethal only at the highest concentration tested, the NPs did not cause mortality at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. However, they induced significant malformation rates, and the gut was observed to be the main target organ. CuO NPs exhibited the highest teratogenic potential, although no specific terata were observed. ZnO NPs caused the most severe lesions to the intestinal barrier, allowing NPs to reach the underlying tissues. TiO₂ NPs showed mild embryotoxicity, and it is possible that this substance could be associated with hidden biological effects. Ions from dissolved nCuO contributed greatly to the observed embryotoxic effects, but those from nZnO did not, suggesting that their mechanisms of action may be different. PMID:21574813

  18. Characterization of Cu2O thin films prepared by evaporation of CuO powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorkyan, V. A.; Reymers, A. E.; Nersesyan, M. N.; Arzakantsyan, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    Among the potential photovoltaic devices based on semiconductor oxides as active layer is cuprous oxide (Cu2O). This oxide semiconductor shows many attractive characteristics useful for solar cells production such as low cost, nontoxicity, high mobility and diffusion length of minority carriers, high absorption coefficient and direct energy gap. In this work we report our results of optical and structural investigations of Cu2O thin films fabricated by thermal vacuum evaporation of CuO powder. The effects of the deposition velocity on structural and optical properties of Cu2O films were investigated. The X-ray investigations have shown that at low deposition velocity the films consist only of Cu2O phase without any interstitial phase and have a nano-grain structure. The grains have an average dimensions about (25-30) nm and all these grains showed (200) preferential crystallographic orientation. Optical investigations have shown that the absorption edge of prepared films is due to a direct allowed transition. The value of determined optical band gap is 2.05 eV which corresponds to band gap of bulk Cu2O.

  19. PVP Assisted Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Self-Assembled 1D ZnO and 3D CuO Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Fozia Z.; Parra, Mohammad Ramzan; Siddiqui, Hafsa; Singh, Neha; Singh, Nitu; Pandey, Padmini; Mishra, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    Self-assembled one-dimensional (1D) zinc oxide (ZnO) rods and three-dimensional (3D) cupric oxide (CuO) cubes like nanostructures with a mean crystallite size of approximately 33 and 32 nm were synthesized through chemical route in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) under mild synthesis conditions. The technique used for the synthesis of nanoparticles seems to be an efficient, inexpensive and easy method. X-Ray diffraction patterns confirmed well crystallinity and phase purity of the as prepared samples, followed by the compositional investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The formation of ZnO nanorods and CuO nanocubes like structures were through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. The mechanism and the formation factors of the self-assembly were discussed in detail. It was clearly observed from results that the concentration of precursors and PVP were important factors in the synthesis of self-assembly ZnO and CuO nanostructures. These self-assembly nanostructures maybe used as novel materials in various potential applications.

  20. Chemical Reduction of Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4− δ Powders in Supercritical Sodium Ammonia Solutions

    DOE PAGES

    Dias, Yasmin; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Haiqing; Lin, Feng; Lan, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4− δ powders are chemically reduced in supercritical sodium ammonia solutions from room temperature to 350°C. The crystallographic structure of the reduced powders is investigated from Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction. The atomic positions are maintained constant within experimental errors while temperature factors of all atoms increase significantly after the chemical treatments, especially of Nd/Ce atoms. The ammonothermally reduced Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4− δ powders show diamagnetic below 24 K which is contributed to the lower oxygen content and higher temperature factors of atoms in the treated compound.more » The ammonothermal method paves a new way to reduce oxides in supercritical solutions near room temperature.« less

  1. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH < 6.3 after oxidation had positive Hot Acidity. Samples with similar pH values before oxidation had dissimilar Hot Acidities due to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the

  2. Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, G G

    1994-10-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

  3. Study of structural and optical properties of cupric oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhineshbabu, N. R.; Rajendran, V.; Nithyavathy, N.; Vetumperumal, R.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, cupric oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized via sonochemical method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The spherical CuO nanoparticles were dispersed in sodium hexametaphosphate under sonication (25 kHz) to analyze the particle size distribution and UV absorption spectra. Using these absorption spectra, we further examined the CuO nanoparticle to explore the possibility of using them as a material for applications such as solar cell and textile production.

  4. Facile Synthesis of Hierarchical CuO Nanoflower for Supercapacitor Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jiaye; Li, Zheng; Dai, Zhen; Zhang, Zhuoya; Guo, Meiqing; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional CuO nanoflowers were prepared on the surface of flexible Cu foil (CuO@Cu) by a chemical deposition method. The morphology and composition of CuO nanoflowers were examined by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, respectively. The electrochemical supercapacitive properties of CuO nanoflowers were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrochemical tests indicated that the optimized product showed a high specific capacitance of 284.5 F g-1 at the current density of 0.5 mA cm-2. EIS analysis indicated that the CuO nanoflowers exhibited good conductivity and very low internal resistance. The cyclability of the electrode demonstrates a 20% loss in capacitance over 1000 cycles. Thus, the results revealed that CuO nanoflower active materials hold the potential for electrochemically stable supercapacitors.

  5. Copper@palladium-copper core-shell nanospheres as a highly effective electrocatalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jindi; Zeng, Yanzhen; Guo, Yonglang

    2014-12-01

    A novel Cu@PdCu/C catalyst with the core-shell structure is prepared by the galvanic replacement between Pd2+ ions and Cu particles. It is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDX) and electrochemical measurements. The Cu@PdCu nanoparticles are composed of the Cu core and PdCu alloying shell with a thickness of ca. 0.5 nm. The peak current density of ethanol oxidation on Cu@PdCu/C is 166.0 mA cm-2, which is 2.78 times higher than that on Pd/C catalyst (59.8 mA cm-2). Durability and poisoning tolerance of this catalyst are also greatly improved.

  6. Preparation of nano-sized graphite-supported CuO and Cu-Sn as active materials in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong-Won; Jeong, Jae-Hun; Kong, Byung-Seon; Lee, Jung Kyoo; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2012-04-01

    Nano-sized Cu-Sn and Cu oxide particles supported on ball-milled graphite were synthesized, and their electrochemical characteristics for use as anode active materials in lithium-ion batteries were investigated. The samples were also characterized via FE-SEM, XRD, and TGA. Most of the Cu oxides on BMG were monoclinic CuO crystals, whereas the Cu-Sn particles were composed of hexagonal Cu3Sn and tetragonal SnO2 crystals. These particles may contribute to an increase in the reversible capacity of lithium ion batteries.

  7. Yu Ping Feng San, an Ancient Chinese Herbal Decoction, Regulates the Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Cyclooxygenase-2 and the Activity of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase in Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Du, Crystal Y. Q.; Choi, Roy C. Y.; Dong, Tina T. X.; Lau, David T. W.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Yu Ping Feng San (YPFS), a Chinese herbal decoction comprising Astragali Radix (AR; Huangqi), Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR; Baizhu), and Saposhnikoviae Radix (SR; Fangfeng), has been used clinically to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Previously, we demonstrated a dual role of YPFS in regulating cytokine release in cultured macrophages. In this study, we elucidated the anti-inflammatory effect of YPFS that is mediated through modulating the expression of three key enzymes involved in IBD: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IALP). In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chronic-inflammation model of cultured murine macrophages, YPFS treatment suppressed the activation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Conversely, application of YPFS in cultured small intestinal enterocytes markedly induced the expression of IALP in a time-dependent manner, which might strengthen the intestinal detoxification system. A duality of YPFS in modulating the expression of iNOS and COX-2 was determined here. The expression of iNOS and COX-2 in macrophages was induced by YPFS, and this activation was partially blocked by the NF-κB-specific inhibitor BAY 11-7082, indicating a role of NF-κB signaling. These YPFS-induced changes in gene regulation strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of YPFS are mediated through the regulation of inflammatory enzymes. PMID:24967898

  8. Synthesis, physical properties and antibacterial activity of Ce doped CuO: a novel nanomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Tariq; Iqbal, Javed; Mansoor, Qaisar; Ismail, M.; Haider Naqvi, M. Sajjad; Gul, Asma; Faizan-ul-Hassan Naqvi, S.; Abbas, Fazal

    2014-09-01

    CuO nanostructures doped with Ce at different concentration levels have been synthesized via a simple co-precipitation technique. The prepared samples have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Structural studies exhibit the presence of a monoclinic structure of CuO for undoped and Ce doped samples without any additional impurity phases. SEM images have revealed the rod-like morphology with an average diameter of 30 nm for undoped CuO. FTIR results of undoped and Ce doped CuO nanostructures have further confirmed the formation of monoclinic CuO. The optical band gap calculated from the Tauc relation has been observed to be 2.48 eV for undoped CuO nanostructures, which is found to decrease down to 2.2 eV with the increase in the Ce doping level. This tuning in the optical band gap may be attributed to the merging of the impurity band with the conduction band of CuO. The Ce doping induced effects on the antibacterial activity of the CuO nanostructures have been examined by recording the growth curves of bacteria in the presence of prepared nanostructures. It has been observed that S. aureus bacterium may be completely eradicated by the application of Ce doped CuO nanostructures. Finally, the cytotoxicity analysis has shown that the synthesized undoped and Ce doped CuO nanostructures are biocompatible and non-toxic towards the human cell line SH-SY5Y cells.

  9. Copper Oxide Thin Films through Solution Based Methods for Electrical Energy Conversion and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Changqiong

    Copper oxides (Cu2O and CuO), composed of non-toxic and earth abundant elements, are promising materials for electrical energy generation and storage devices. Solution based techniques for creating thin films of these materials, such as electrodeposition, are important to understand and develop because of their potential for realizing substantial energy savings compared to traditional fabrication methods. Cuprous oxide (Cu2O), with its direct band gap, is a p-type semiconductor that is well suited for creating solution-processed photovoltaic devices (solar cells); several key advancements made toward this application are the primary focus of this thesis. Electrodeposition of single-phase, crystalline Cu2O thin films is demonstrated using previously unexplored, acidic lactate/Cu2+ solutions, which has provided additional understanding of the impacts of growth solution chemistry on film formation. The influence of pH on the resulting Cu2O thin film properties is revealed by using the same ligand (sodium lactate) at various solution pH values. Cu2O films grown from acidic lactate solutions can exhibit a distinctive flowerlike, dendritic morphology, in contrast to the faceted, dense films obtained using alkaline lactate solutions. Relative speciation distributions of the various metal complex ions present under different growth conditions are calculated using reported equilibrium association constants and experimentally supported by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Dependence of thin film morphology on the lactate/Cu2+ molar ratio and applied potential is described. Cu2O/eutectic gallium-indium Schottky junction devices are formed and devices are tested under monochromatic green LED illumination. Further surface examination of the Cu2O films using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals the fact that films grown from acidic lactate solution with a small lactate/Cu2+ molar ratio, which exhibit improved photovoltaic performance compared to films grown from

  10. Synthesis and phase transitions of oxide-ion conducting compound La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} doped with alkaline metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnikova, D. S.; Kharitonova, E. P.; Voronkova, V. I.

    2011-03-15

    The specific features of synthesis, polymorthism, and electric conductivity of oxide-ion conducting compounds La{sub 2-x}Me{sub x}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9-y}, where Me = Na, K, Rb, or Cs, have been studied. Ceramic samples were obtained by solid-state synthesis in the temperature range of 960-1100 Degree-Sign C. The regions where solid solutions exist have been found to depend on the temperature of the sample firing. According to the calorimetric and electrophysical data, the phase transition from the monoclinic phase ({alpha}) to the cubic phase ({beta}) in samples doped with potassium and rubidium disappears at x = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively. In these cases the only transition from the cubic {beta}{sub ms} phase to the high-temperature cubic {beta} phase is observed near 450 Degree-Sign C. Doping with sodium and cesium does not suppress the {alpha} {yields} {beta} phase transition.

  11. Novel alkaline earth silicate sealing glass for SOFC, Part I: the effect of nickel oxide on the thermal and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Gow, Robert N.

    2007-06-01

    This is a two-part study of a novel Sr-Ca-Ni-Y-B silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In this paper (Part I), the effect of NiO on glass forming, thermal, and mechanical properties was studied with two different approaches: glass making and composite glass. In the following paper (Part II), sealing and interfacial microstructure of candidate composite glass with 10v percent NiO will be addressed. In Part I, higher NiO content in the glass resulted in precipitation during the glass making process, and the sintered powder compacts of these glasses showed extensive macro- and micro-cracks. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) showed large decrease for glass with higher NiO contents. On the other hand, glass-based composites showed no fracture even with NiO content as high as 15 percent. The CTE of the composite glass, which increased with increasing NiO content (consistent with the rule of mixtures prediction), could be adjusted to match the CTE of SOFC components. Phase characterization by XRD identified phases of YBO3 and NiO in the glass, which were likely responsible for the poor mechanical and thermal properties for the glass making approach.

  12. Preparation of PdAg and PdAu nanoparticle-loaded carbon black catalysts and their electrocatalytic activity for the glycerol oxidation reaction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Binh Thi Xuan; Chiku, Masanobu; Higuchi, Eiji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    PdAg and PdAu alloy nanoparticle catalysts for the glycerol oxidation reaction (GOR) were prepared at room temperature by a wet method. The molar ratio of the precursors controlled the bulk composition of the PdAg and PdAu alloys, and their surface composition was Ag-enriched and Pd-enriched, respectively. On PdAg-loaded carbon black (PdAg/CB) electrodes, the onset potential of GOR was 0.10-0.15 V more negative than on the Pd/CB electrode due to the electronic effect. The ratio of GOR peak current densities in the backward and forward sweeps of CVs (ib/if) was smaller because of the improved tolerance to the poisoning species. The ratio of the GOR current density at 60 and 5 min (i60/i5) for the PdAg/CB electrodes was higher for more negative potentials than the Pd/CB electrode. In contrast, the PdAu-loaded CB (PdAu/CB) electrodes had an onset potential of GOR similar to the Pd/CB electrode and a higher GOR peak current density owing to the bi-functional effect. However, the ib/if ratio was higher for PdAu/CB because of the increase in ib as the Pd surface was recovered, and the i60/i5 ratio was higher for more positive potentials, similar to the Pd/CB electrode.

  13. Titanium corrosion in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Been, Jantje

    1998-12-01

    The corrosion of Grade 2 titanium in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments has been studied by weight loss corrosion tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and potentiodynamic polarography. Calcium ions and wood pulp were investigated as corrosion inhibitors. In alkaline peroxide, the titanium corrosion rate increased with increasing pH, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The corrosion controlling mechanism is thought to be the reaction of the oxide with the perhydroxyl ion. No evidence of thermodynamically stable calcium titanate was found in the surface film of test coupons exposed to calcium-inhibited alkaline peroxide solutions. Calcium inhibition is probably the result of low local alkali and peroxide concentrations at the metal surface produced by reaction of adsorbed calcium with hydrogen peroxide. It has been shown that the inhibiting effect of calcium is temporary, possibly through an effect of calcium on the chemical and/or physical stability of the surface oxide. Pulp is an effective and stable corrosion inhibitor. Raising the pulp concentration decreased the corrosion rate. The inhibiting effect of pulp may be related to the adsorption and interaction of the pulp fibers with H 2O2, thereby decreasing the peroxide concentration and rendering the solution less corrosive. The presence of both pulp and calcium led to higher corrosion rates than obtained by either one inhibitor alone. Replacement of hydrofluoric acid with alkaline peroxide for pickling of titanium was investigated. Titanium corrosion rates in alkaline peroxide exceeded those obtained in the conventional hydrofluoric acid bath. General corrosion was observed with extensive roughening of the surface giving a dull gray appearance. Preferred dissolution of certain crystallographic planes was investigated through the corrosion of a titanium single crystal. Whereas the overall effect on the corrosion rate was small

  14. Eradication of multi-drug resistant bacteria by a novel Zn-doped CuO nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Malka, Eyal; Perelshtein, Ilana; Lipovsky, Anat; Shalom, Yakov; Naparstek, Livnat; Perkas, Nina; Patick, Tal; Lubart, Rachel; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Banin, Ehud; Gedanken, Aharon

    2013-12-01

    Zinc-doped copper oxide nanoparticles are synthesized and simultaneously deposited on cotton fabric using ultrasound irradiation. The optimization of the processing conditions, the specific reagent ratio, and the precursor concentration results in the formation of uniform nanoparticles with an average size of ≈30 nm. The antibacterial activity of the Zn-doped CuO Cu₀.₈₈Zn₀.₁₂O in a colloidal suspension or deposited on the fabric is tested against Escherichia coli (Gram negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive) bacteria. A substantial enhancement of 10,000 times in the antimicrobial activity of the Zn-CuO nanocomposite compared to the pure CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) is observed after 10 min exposure to the bacteria. Similar activities are observed against multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR), (i.e., Methicillin-resistant S. aureus and MDR E. coli) further emphasizing the efficacy of this composite. Finally, the mechanism for this enhanced antibacterial activity is presented.

  15. High-performing visible-blind photodetectors based on SnO2/CuO nanoheterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ting; Hasan, Md Rezaul; Qiu, Botong; Arinze, Ebuka S.; Nguyen, Nhan V.; Motayed, Abhishek; Thon, Susanna M.; Debnath, Ratan

    2015-12-01

    We report on the significant performance enhancement of SnO2 thin film ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) through incorporation of CuO/SnO2 p-n nanoscale heterojunctions. The nanoheterojunctions are self-assembled by sputtering Cu clusters that oxidize in ambient to form CuO. We attribute the performance improvements to enhanced UV absorption, demonstrated both experimentally and using optical simulations, and electron transfer facilitated by the nanoheterojunctions. The peak responsivity of the PDs at a bias of 0.2 V improved from 1.9 A/W in a SnO2-only device to 10.3 A/W after CuO deposition. The wavelength-dependent photocurrent-to-dark current ratio was estimated to be ˜592 for the CuO/SnO2 PD at 290 nm. The morphology, distribution of nanoparticles, and optical properties of the CuO/SnO2 heterostructured thin films are also investigated.

  16. High-performing visible-blind photodetectors based on SnO{sub 2}/CuO nanoheterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ting; Hasan, Md Rezaul; Qiu, Botong; Arinze, Ebuka S.; Thon, Susanna M.; Nguyen, Nhan V.; Motayed, Abhishek; Debnath, Ratan

    2015-12-14

    We report on the significant performance enhancement of SnO{sub 2} thin film ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) through incorporation of CuO/SnO{sub 2} p-n nanoscale heterojunctions. The nanoheterojunctions are self-assembled by sputtering Cu clusters that oxidize in ambient to form CuO. We attribute the performance improvements to enhanced UV absorption, demonstrated both experimentally and using optical simulations, and electron transfer facilitated by the nanoheterojunctions. The peak responsivity of the PDs at a bias of 0.2 V improved from 1.9 A/W in a SnO{sub 2}-only device to 10.3 A/W after CuO deposition. The wavelength-dependent photocurrent-to-dark current ratio was estimated to be ∼592 for the CuO/SnO{sub 2} PD at 290 nm. The morphology, distribution of nanoparticles, and optical properties of the CuO/SnO{sub 2} heterostructured thin films are also investigated.

  17. Dispersed CuO nanoparticles on a silicon nanowire for improved performance of nonenzymatic H2O2 detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianfei; Zhu, Yihua; Zhong, Hua; Yang, Xiaoling; Li, Chunzhong

    2014-05-28

    A finely dispersed CuO nanoparticle electrocatalyst on a silicon nanowire (SiNW) was achieved via a designed, precursor-mediated strategy by combining metal-assisted chemical etching, electroless deposition, and thermal oxidation. The CuO assembled on silicon nanowires (CuO-SiNWs) showed a competent sensitivity of 22.27 μA/mM, a wider linear range from 0.01 to 13.18 mM, and a comparable detection limit of 1.6 μM (3S/N) for nonenzymatic H2O2 detection. The archetype sensor also demonstrated eligible selectivity against common interfering species. By the introduction of the SiNW carrier, which led to mitigated conglomeration of the electrocatalyst and a favorable microstructure of the electrocatalyst-carrier system, improved signal-concentration linearity and higher electrocatalyst utilization efficiency were obtained with CuO-SiNWs. These results demonstrated the feasibility of the synthetic strategy and the potential of the nanocomposite as a promising candidate for H2O2 sensing.

  18. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  19. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

  20. Fate and toxicity of CuO nanospheres and nanorods used in Al/CuO nanothermites before and after combustion.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alan J; Melby, Nicolas L; Moser, Robert D; Bednar, Anthony J; Son, Steven F; Lounds, Christopher D; Laird, Jennifer G; Nellums, Robert R; Johnson, David R; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2013-10-01

    Although nanotechnology advancements should be fostered, the environmental health and safety (EHS) of nanoparticles used in technologies must be quantified simultaneously. However, most EHS studies assess the potential implications of the free nanoparticles which may not be directly applicable to the EHS of particles incorporated into in-use technologies. This investigation assessed the aquatic toxicological implications of copper oxide (CuO) nanospheres relative to CuO nanorods used in nanoenergetic applications to improve combustion. Particles were tested in both the as-received form and following combustion of a CuO/aluminum nanothermite. Results indicated nanospheres were more stable in water and slowly released ions, while higher surface area nanorods initially released more ions and were more toxic but generally less stable. After combustion, particles sintered into larger, micrometer-scale aggregates, which may lower toxicity potential to pelagic organisms due to deposition from water to sediment and reduced bioavailability after complexation with sediment organic matter. Whereas the larger nanothermite residues settled rapidly, implying lower persistence in water, their potential to release dissolved Cu was higher which led to greater toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia relative to parent CuO material (nanosphere or rod). This study illustrates the importance of considering the fate and toxicology of nanoparticles in context with their relevant in-use applications.

  1. Characterization of CuO(1 1 1)/MgO(1 0 0) films grown under two different PLD backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawwam, M.; Alharbi, F. H.; Kayed, T.; Aldwayyan, A.; Alyamani, A.; Tabet, N.; Lebbou, K.

    2013-07-01

    Cupric oxide (CuO) films were deposited on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by two different pulsed laser deposition (PLD) configurations, molecular gas background and RF-plasma assisted, at temperatures over 250-450 °C range. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), reflection of high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometery, and four probe conductivity measurements. The heating temperature was found to have a limited effect on the structural properties of the films grown in RF-plasma assisted background while it has a significant effect in the case of the standard gas background. The structural observations revealed that RF-plasma background increased the possibility of Frank-van der Merwe or the initial stages of Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, leaving the CuO films highly textured in (1 1 1) direction, atomically smooth and chemically stoichiometric. Optoelectronic properties of best obtained CuO film are presented as well.

  2. One-pot hydrothermal growth of raspberry-like CeO2 on CuO microsphere as copper-based catalyst for Rochow reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zheying; Li, Jing; Shi, Laishun; Ji, Yongjun; Zhong, Ziyi; Su, Fabing

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we prepared a novel structure comprising of raspberry-like CeO2 deposited on CuO microspheres (Ce-CuO) for Rochow reaction. The synthesis was carried out via a facile one-pot hydrothermal reaction without using any template, in which, the basic copper carbonate microspheres were first formed via self-assembly of basic copper carbonate nanorods, followed with deposition of cerium hydroxide. After calcination, they were transformed into Ce-CuO but still maintained the hierarchical structure, and meanwhile, mesoporous structure was formed (for simplicity, we will only state them as metal oxide in the following context). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. When used as a Cu-based catalyst, Ce-CuO exhibited superior catalytic property to the single CuO, CeO2 and their physically mixture in the Rochow reaction with dimethyldichlorosilane (M2) selectivity increased from ca. 65 to 83.7%. The higher M2 selectivity of Ce-CuO is mainly due to its larger surface area and the synergistic effect between CuO and CeO2. This work demonstrates that catalytic performance of the Cu-based can be improved by adding Ce rare-earth element and by carefully controlling their structures.

  3. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris L. leaves and their catalytic performance for N-arylation of indoles and amines.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Rostami-Vartooni, Akbar; Hussin, Sarbast Mamand

    2016-03-15

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by biological method using aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris L. leaves as a reducing and capping agent. The progress of the reaction was monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy. The advantages of this procedure are simple operation, use of cheap, natural, nontoxic and benign precursors, absence of toxic reagents and mild and environmentally friendly conditions. The green synthesized CuO NPs was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). More importantly, the green synthesized CuO NPs was found to be an excellent heterogeneous catalyst for ligand-free N-arylation of indoles and amines. The N-arylated products were obtained in good to excellent yield and the catalyst can be recovered and reused for further catalytic reactions with almost no loss in activity. PMID:26707778

  4. Accumulation and Toxicity of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles through Waterborne and Dietary Exposure of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Mehmet; Arslan, Zikri; Demir, Veysel; Daniels, James; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and waterborne exposure to CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) was conducted using a simplified model of an aquatic food chain consisting of zooplankton (Artemia salina) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) to determine bioaccumulation, toxic effects and particle transport through trophic levels. Artemia contaminated with NPs were used as food in dietary exposure. Fish were exposed to suspensions of the NPs in waterborne exposure. ICP-MS analysis showed that accumulation primarily occurred in the intestine, followed by the gills and liver. Dietary uptake was lower, but was found to be a potential pathway for transport of NPs to higher organisms. Waterborne exposure resulted in about a tenfold higher accumulation in the intestine. The heart, brain and muscle tissue had no significant Cu or Zn. However, concentrations in muscle increased with NP concentration, which was ascribed to bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn released from NPs. Free Cu concentration in the medium was always higher than that of Zn, indicating CuO NPs dissolved more readily. ZnO NPs were relatively benign, even in waterborne exposure (p≥0.05). In contrast, CuO NPs were toxic. Malondialdehyde levels in the liver and gills increased substantially (p<0.05). Despite lower Cu accumulation, the liver exhibited significant oxidative stress, which could be from chronic exposure to Cu ions. PMID:24860999

  5. Green synthesis of CuO nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris L. leaves and their catalytic performance for N-arylation of indoles and amines.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Rostami-Vartooni, Akbar; Hussin, Sarbast Mamand

    2016-03-15

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by biological method using aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris L. leaves as a reducing and capping agent. The progress of the reaction was monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy. The advantages of this procedure are simple operation, use of cheap, natural, nontoxic and benign precursors, absence of toxic reagents and mild and environmentally friendly conditions. The green synthesized CuO NPs was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). More importantly, the green synthesized CuO NPs was found to be an excellent heterogeneous catalyst for ligand-free N-arylation of indoles and amines. The N-arylated products were obtained in good to excellent yield and the catalyst can be recovered and reused for further catalytic reactions with almost no loss in activity.

  6. Preparation and photocatalytic activities of 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingfei, Fan; Qi, Lan; Meili, Zhang; Ximei, Fan; Zuowan, Zhou; Chaoliang, Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Hierarchical 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures on the Cu substrates were synthesized by a wet chemical method and subsequent heat treatment. The synthesis, structure and morphologies of obtained samples under different concentrations of Na2S2O3 were investigated in detail and the possible growth mechanisms of the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures were discussed. Na2S2O3 plays a key role in the generation of the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures. When the concentration of Na2S2O3 is more than 0.4 mol/L, the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures can be prepared on the Cu foils. The photocatalytic performances were studied by analyzing the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution in the presence of hydroxide water (H2O2). The 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures exhibit higher photocatalytic activity (96.2% degradation rate) than commercial CuO particles (36.3% degradation rate). The origin of the higher photocatalytic activity of the 3D flower-like CuO nanostructures was also discussed. Project supported by the High-Tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2009AA03Z427).

  7. Selective Detection of NO2 Using Cr-Doped CuO Nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Mook; Kim, Hae-Ryong; Choi, Kwon-Il; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2012-01-01

    CuO nanosheets, Cr-doped CuO nanosheets, and Cr-doped CuO nanorods were prepared by heating a slurry containing Cu-hydroxide/Cr-hydroxide. Their responses to 100 ppm NO2, C2H5OH, NH3, trimethylamine, C3H8, and CO were measured. For 2.2 at% Cr-doped CuO nanorods, the response (Ra/Rg, Ra: resistance in air, Rg: resistance in gas) to 100 ppm NO2 was 134.2 at 250 °C, which was significantly higher than that of pure CuO nano-sheets (Ra/Rg = 7.5) and 0.76 at% Cr-doped CuO nanosheets (Ra/Rg = 19.9). In addition, the sensitivity for NO2 was also markedly enhanced by Cr doping. Highly sensitive and selective detection of NO2 in 2.2 at% Cr-doped CuO nanorods is explained in relation to Cr-doping induced changes in donor density, morphology, and catalytic effects. PMID:22969384

  8. Low thermal budget photonic processing of highly conductive Cu interconnects based on CuO nanoinks. Potential for flexible printed electronics

    DOE PAGES

    Rager, Matthew S.; Aytug, Tolga; Veith, Gabriel M.; Joshi, Pooran C.

    2015-12-31

    The developing field of printed electronics nanoparticle based inks such as CuO show great promise as a low-cost alternative to other metal-based counterparts (e.g., silver). In particular, CuO inks significantly eliminate the issue of particle oxidation, before and during the sintering process, that is prevalent in Cu-based formulations. We report here the scalable and low-thermal budget photonic fabrication of Cu interconnects employing a roll-to-roll compatible pulse-thermal-processing (PTP) technique that enables phase reduction and subsequent sintering of inkjet-printed CuO patterns onto flexible polymer templates. Detailed investigations of curing and sintering conditions were performed to understand the impact of PTP system conditionsmore » on the electrical performance of the Cu patterns. Specifically, the impact of energy and power of photonic pulses on print conductivity was systematically studied by varying the following key processing parameters: pulse intensity, duration and sequence. Through optimization of such parameters, highly conductive prints in < 1 s with resistivity values as low as 100 n m has been achieved. We also observed that the introduction of an initial ink-drying step in ambient atmosphere, after the printing and before sintering, leads to significant improvements in mechanical integrity and electrical performance of the printed Cu patterns. Moreover, the viability of CuO reactive inks, coupled with the PTP technology and pre ink-drying protocols, has also been demonstrated for the additive integration of a low-cost Cu temperature sensor onto a flexible polymer substrate.« less

  9. Low-Thermal-Budget Photonic Processing of Highly Conductive Cu Interconnects Based on CuO Nanoinks: Potential for Flexible Printed Electronics.

    PubMed

    Rager, Matthew S; Aytug, Tolga; Veith, Gabriel M; Joshi, Pooran

    2016-01-27

    In the developing field of printed electronics, nanoparticle based inks such as CuO show great promise as a low-cost alternative to other metal-based counterparts (e.g., silver). In particular, CuO inks significantly eliminate the issue of particle oxidation before and during the sintering process that is prevalent in Cu-based formulations. We report here the scalable and low-thermal-budget photonic fabrication of Cu interconnects employing a roll-to-roll (R2R)-compatible pulse-thermal-processing (PTP) technique that enables phase reduction and subsequent sintering of ink-jet-printed CuO patterns onto flexible polymer templates. Detailed investigations of curing and sintering conditions were performed to understand the impact of PTP system conditions on the electrical performance of the Cu patterns. Specifically, the impact of energy and power of photonic pulses on print conductivity was systematically studied by varying the following key processing parameters: pulse intensity, duration, and sequence. Through optimization of such parameters, highly conductive prints were obtained in <1 s with resistivity values as low as 10 μΩ cm (corresponding to ∼17% of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) conductivity) was achieved. It was also observed that the introduction of an initial ink-drying step in ambient atmosphere, after the printing and before sintering, leads to significant improvements in mechanical integrity and electrical performance of the printed Cu patterns. Moreover, the viability of CuO reactive inks, coupled with the PTP technology and pre-sintering ink-drying protocols, has also been demonstrated for the additive integration of a low-cost Cu temperature sensor onto a flexible polymer substrate. PMID:26720684

  10. Low thermal budget photonic processing of highly conductive Cu interconnects based on CuO nanoinks. Potential for flexible printed electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Rager, Matthew S.; Aytug, Tolga; Veith, Gabriel M.; Joshi, Pooran C.

    2015-12-31

    The developing field of printed electronics nanoparticle based inks such as CuO show great promise as a low-cost alternative to other metal-based counterparts (e.g., silver). In particular, CuO inks significantly eliminate the issue of particle oxidation, before and during the sintering process, that is prevalent in Cu-based formulations. We report here the scalable and low-thermal budget photonic fabrication of Cu interconnects employing a roll-to-roll compatible pulse-thermal-processing (PTP) technique that enables phase reduction and subsequent sintering of inkjet-printed CuO patterns onto flexible polymer templates. Detailed investigations of curing and sintering conditions were performed to understand the impact of PTP system conditions on the electrical performance of the Cu patterns. Specifically, the impact of energy and power of photonic pulses on print conductivity was systematically studied by varying the following key processing parameters: pulse intensity, duration and sequence. Through optimization of such parameters, highly conductive prints in < 1 s with resistivity values as low as 100 n m has been achieved. We also observed that the introduction of an initial ink-drying step in ambient atmosphere, after the printing and before sintering, leads to significant improvements in mechanical integrity and electrical performance of the printed Cu patterns. Moreover, the viability of CuO reactive inks, coupled with the PTP technology and pre ink-drying protocols, has also been demonstrated for the additive integration of a low-cost Cu temperature sensor onto a flexible polymer substrate.

  11. Low-Thermal-Budget Photonic Processing of Highly Conductive Cu Interconnects Based on CuO Nanoinks: Potential for Flexible Printed Electronics.

    PubMed

    Rager, Matthew S; Aytug, Tolga; Veith, Gabriel M; Joshi, Pooran

    2016-01-27

    In the developing field of printed electronics, nanoparticle based inks such as CuO show great promise as a low-cost alternative to other metal-based counterparts (e.g., silver). In particular, CuO inks significantly eliminate the issue of particle oxidation before and during the sintering process that is prevalent in Cu-based formulations. We report here the scalable and low-thermal-budget photonic fabrication of Cu interconnects employing a roll-to-roll (R2R)-compatible pulse-thermal-processing (PTP) technique that enables phase reduction and subsequent sintering of ink-jet-printed CuO patterns onto flexible polymer templates. Detailed investigations of curing and sintering conditions were performed to understand the impact of PTP system conditions on the electrical performance of the Cu patterns. Specifically, the impact of energy and power of photonic pulses on print conductivity was systematically studied by varying the following key processing parameters: pulse intensity, duration, and sequence. Through optimization of such parameters, highly conductive prints were obtained in <1 s with resistivity values as low as 10 μΩ cm (corresponding to ∼17% of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) conductivity) was achieved. It was also observed that the introduction of an initial ink-drying step in ambient atmosphere, after the printing and before sintering, leads to significant improvements in mechanical integrity and electrical performance of the printed Cu patterns. Moreover, the viability of CuO reactive inks, coupled with the PTP technology and pre-sintering ink-drying protocols, has also been demonstrated for the additive integration of a low-cost Cu temperature sensor onto a flexible polymer substrate.

  12. Copper oxide nanoparticles inhibit the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mashock, Michael J; Kappell, Anthony D; Hallaj, Nadia; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used increasingly in industrial applications and consumer products and thus may pose risk to human and environmental health. The interaction of CuO NPs with complex media and the impact on cell metabolism when exposed to sublethal concentrations are largely unknown. In the present study, the short-term effects of 2 different sized manufactured CuO NPs on metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The role of released Cu(2+) during dissolution of NPs in the growth media and the CuO nanostructure were considered. Characterization showed that the 28 nm and 64 nm CuO NPs used in the present study have different primary diameter, similar hydrodynamic diameter, and significantly different concentrations of dissolved Cu(2+) ions in the growth media released from the same initial NP mass. Exposures to CuO NPs or the released Cu(2+) fraction, at doses that do not have impact on cell viability, showed significant inhibition on S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. A greater CuO NP effect on the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae growth under respiring conditions was observed. Under the tested conditions the observed metabolic inhibition from the NPs was not explained fully by the released Cu ions from the dissolving NPs.

  13. CTAB-assisted synthesis and photocatalytic property of CuO hollow microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shunli; Xu, Hui; Qian, Liuqin; Jia, Xi; Wang, Junwei; Liu, Yangyi; Tang, Weihua

    2009-05-01

    CuO hollow microspheres have been fabricated through a simple hydrothermal method in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of reaction temperature, surfactant, and the molar ratio of Urea/Cu(Π) on the morphologies of the resulting products were investigated. The possible formation mechanism of CuO hollow dandelion-like architectures was proposed. The hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres exhibited a high photocatalytic activity for decolorization of Rhodamine B (RhB) under UV-light illumination.

  14. Copper oxide nanoparticles induced mitochondria mediated apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Ahmad, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2013-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are heavily utilized in semiconductor devices, gas sensor, batteries, solar energy converter, microelectronics and heat transfer fluids. It has been reported that liver is one of the target organs for nanoparticles after they gain entry into the body through any of the possible routes. Recent studies have shown cytotoxic response of CuO NPs in liver cells. However, the underlying mechanism of apoptosis in liver cells due to CuO NPs exposure is largely lacking. We explored the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by CuO NPs in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Prepared CuO NPs were spherical in shape with a smooth surface and had an average diameter of 22 nm. CuO NPs (concentration range 2-50 µg/ml) were found to induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells in dose-dependent manner, which was likely to be mediated through reactive oxygen species generation and oxidative stress. Tumor suppressor gene p53 and apoptotic gene caspase-3 were up-regulated due to CuO NPs exposure. Decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential with a concomitant increase in the gene expression of bax/bcl2 ratio suggested that mitochondria mediated pathway involved in CuO NPs induced apoptosis. This study has provided valuable insights into the possible mechanism of apoptosis caused by CuO NPs at in vitro level. Underlying mechanism(s) of apoptosis due to CuO NPs exposure should be further invested at in vivo level. PMID:23940521

  15. Dimensionality of high temperature superconductivity in oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. W.

    1989-01-01

    Many models have been proposed to account for the high temperature superconductivity observed in oxide systems. Almost all of these models proposed are based on the uncoupled low dimensional carrier Cu-O layers of the oxides. Results of several experiments are presented and discussed. They suggest that the high temperature superconductivity observed cannot be strictly two- or one-dimensional, and that the environment between the Cu-O layers and the interlayer coupling play an important role in the occurrence of such high temperature superconductivity. A comment on the very short coherence length reported is also made.

  16. Competing lattice fluctuations and magnetic excitations in CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K.-Y.; Lee, W.-J.; Glamazda, A.; Lemmens, P.; Wulferding, D.; Sekio, Y.; Kimura, T.

    2013-05-01

    Lattice vibrations as well as magnetic excitations are investigated using Raman scattering to understand the high-Tc multiferroic properties of CuO. We observe a flat, broad spinon continuum extending to 2800 cm-1, being superimposed by magnon excitations with energies below 1350 cm-1. This allows us to estimate an exchange coupling constant of J=108 meV. Three Raman-active phonon modes predicted by lattice dynamical calculations are assigned and analyzed. We find a crossover temperature T*=140-150 K through which new phonon modes are activated and phonon parameters show appreciable anomalies. This feature is discussed in terms of a competition of polar and nonpolar lattice distortions. Our study suggests the importance of competing lattice fluctuations for multiferroic compounds, which possess an intermediate multiferroic phase.

  17. Reduction of Cu-rich interfacial layer and improvement of bulk CuO property through two-step sputtering for p-CuO/n-Si heterojunction solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Dalapati, Goutam Kumar; Radhakrishnan, K.; Kumar, Avishek; Tan, Hui Ru

    2014-08-01

    Copper-rich interfacial-layer (Cu-rich IL) is formed during sputter deposition of cupric oxide (CuO) layer on silicon (Si). It has significant impact on the performance of p-CuO/n-Si heterojunction solar cells. In this report, CuO films deposited on Si at different RF-power levels using single and two-step RF-sputtering techniques and p-CuO/n-Si heterojunction solar cells have been investigated. Systematic characterization using XPS, AFM, XRD, Raman, and HR-TEM reveal that two-step RF-sputtering technique offers better crystal quality CuO film with thinner Cu-rich IL layer. Photovoltaic (PV) properties with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 421 mV, short circuit current (Jsc) of 4.5 mA/cm2, and a photocurrent of 8.3 mA/cm2 have been achieved for the cells prepared using two-step sputtering method, which are significantly higher than that for the solar cells fabricated using a single-step sputtering. The PV properties were further improved by depositing CuO films at higher working pressure with nitrogen doping. The efficiency of the best device achieved is approximately 1.21%, which is the highest value reported for p-CuO/n-Si heterojunction based solar cells.

  18. Degradation of mangrove tissues by arboreal termites (Nasutitermes acajutlae) and their role in the mangrove C cycle (Puerto Rico): Chemical characterization and organic matter provenance using bulk δ13C, C/N, alkaline CuO oxidation-GC/MS, and solid-state 13C NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vane, Christopher H.; Kim, Alexander W.; Moss-Hayes, Vicky; Snape, Colin E.; Diaz, Miguel Castro; Khan, Nicole S.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2013-08-01

    Arboreal termites are wood decaying organisms that play an important role in the first stages of C cycling in mangrove systems. The chemical composition of Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans, and Laguncularia racemosa leaf, stem, and pneumatophore tissues as well as associated sediments was compared to that of nests of the termite Nasutitermes acajutlae. Nests gave δ13C values of -26.1 to -27.2‰ (±0.1) and C/N of 43.3 (±2.0) to 98.6 (±16.2) which were similar to all stem and pneumatophores but distinct from mangrove leaves or sediments. Organic matter processed by termites yielded lignin phenol concentrations (Λ, lambda) that were 2-4 times higher than stem or pneumatophores and 10-20 times higher than that of leaves or sediments, suggesting that the nests were more resistant to biodegradation than the mangrove vegetation source. 13C NMR revealed that polysaccharide content of mangrove tissues (50-69% C) was higher than that of the nests (46-51% C). Conversely, lignin accounted for 16.2-19.6% C of nest material, a threefold increase relative to living mangrove tissues; a similar increase in aromatic methoxyl content was also observed in the nests. Lipids (aliphatic and paraffinic moieties) were also important but rather variable chemical components of all three mangrove species, representing between 13.5 and 28.3% of the C content. Termite nests contained 3.14 Mg C ha-1 which represents approximately 2% of above ground C storage in mangroves, a value that is likely to increase upon burial due to their refractory chemical composition.

  19. Evaluation of cytotoxicity, morphological alterations and oxidative stress in Chinook salmon cells exposed to copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Koigoora; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C; Rao, Janapala Venkateswara

    2016-05-01

    The current study is aimed to study cytotoxicity and oxidative stress mediated changes induced by copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) in Chinook salmon cells (CHSE-214). To this end, a number of biochemical responses are evaluated in CHSE-214 cells which are as follows [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide] MTT, neutral red uptake (NRU), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein carbonyl (PC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), oxidised glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione sulfo-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of CuO NPs to CHSE-214 cells after 24 h exposure was found to be 19.026 μg ml(-1). Viability of cells was reduced by CuO NPs, and the decrease was dose dependent as revealed by the MTT and NRU assay. CHSE-214 cells exposed to CuO NPs induced morphological changes. Initially, cells started to detach from the surface (12 h), followed by polyhedric, fusiform appearance (19 h) and finally the cells started to shrink. Later, the cells started losing their cellular contents leading to their death only after 24 h. LDH, PC, LPO, GSH, GPx, GST, SOD, CAT, 8-OHdG and ROS responses were seen significantly increased with the increase in the concentration of CuO NPs when compared to their respective controls. However, significant decrease in GSSG was perceptible in CHSE-214 cells exposed to CuO NPs in a dose-dependent manner. Our data demonstrated that CuO NPs induced cytotoxicity in CHSE-214 cells through the mediation of oxidative stress. The current study provides a baseline for the CuO NPs-mediated cytotoxic assessment in CHSE-214 cells for the future studies. PMID:26115719

  20. Alkaline galvanic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T.; Maeda, Y.; Momose, K.; Wakahata, T.

    1983-10-04

    An alkaline galvanic cell is disclosed including a container serving for a cathode terminal, a sealing plate in the form of a layered clad plate serving for an anode terminal to be fitted into the container, and an insulating packing provided between the sealing plate and container for sealing the cell upon assembly. The cell is provided with a layer of epoxy adduct polyamide amine having amine valence in the range of 50 to 400 and disposed between the innermost copper layer of the sealing plate arranged to be readily amalgamated and the insulating packing so as to serve as a sealing agent or liquid leakage suppression agent.

  1. Morphology-dependent performance of CuO anodes via facile and controllable synthesis for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Li, Qing; Wang, Fangfang; Xia, Guofeng; Liu, Ruiqing; Li, Deyu; Li, Ning; Spendelow, Jacob S; Wu, Gang

    2014-01-22

    Nanostructured CuO anode materials with controllable morphologies have been successfully synthesized via a facile and environmentally friendly approach in the absence of any toxic surfactants or templates. In particular, leaf-like CuO, oatmeal-like CuO, and hollow-spherical CuO were obtained by changing the ligand agents. The structures and electrochemical performance of these as-prepared CuO were fully characterized by various techniques, and the properties were found to be strongly dependent on morphology. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the leaf-like CuO and oatmeal-like CuO electrodes exhibit relatively high reversible capacities, whereas hollow-spherical CuO shows enhanced reversible capacity after initial degradation. Furthermore, an excellent high rate capability was obtained for the leaf-like CuO and hollow-spherical CuO electrodes. These results may provide valuable insights for the development of nanostructured anodes for next-generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:24377276

  2. Morphology-dependent performance of CuO anodes via facile and controllable synthesis for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Li, Qing; Wang, Fangfang; Xia, Guofeng; Liu, Ruiqing; Li, Deyu; Li, Ning; Spendelow, Jacob S; Wu, Gang

    2014-01-22

    Nanostructured CuO anode materials with controllable morphologies have been successfully synthesized via a facile and environmentally friendly approach in the absence of any toxic surfactants or templates. In particular, leaf-like CuO, oatmeal-like CuO, and hollow-spherical CuO were obtained by changing the ligand agents. The structures and electrochemical performance of these as-prepared CuO were fully characterized by various techniques, and the properties were found to be strongly dependent on morphology. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the leaf-like CuO and oatmeal-like CuO electrodes exhibit relatively high reversible capacities, whereas hollow-spherical CuO shows enhanced reversible capacity after initial degradation. Furthermore, an excellent high rate capability was obtained for the leaf-like CuO and hollow-spherical CuO electrodes. These results may provide valuable insights for the development of nanostructured anodes for next-generation high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Spin dynamics in CuO and Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

    SciTech Connect

    Carretta, P.; Corti, M.; Rigamonti, A. )

    1993-08-01

    [sup 63]Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), nuclear antiferromagnetic resonance (AFNMR), and spin-lattice relaxation, as well as [sup 7]Li NMR and relaxation measurements in CuO and in Cu[sub 1[minus][ital x

  4. CTAB-assisted synthesis and photocatalytic property of CuO hollow microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shunli; Xu Hui; Qian Liuqin; Jia Xi; Wang Junwei; Liu Yangyi; Tang Weihua

    2009-05-15

    CuO hollow microspheres have been fabricated through a simple hydrothermal method in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The effects of reaction temperature, surfactant, and the molar ratio of Urea/Cu(PI) on the morphologies of the resulting products were investigated. The possible formation mechanism of CuO hollow dandelion-like architectures was proposed. The hierarchical CuO hollow microspheres exhibited a high photocatalytic activity for decolorization of Rhodamine B (RhB) under UV-light illumination. - Graphical abstract: Dandelion-like CuO hollow microspheres were fabricated through a hydrothermal method. The prepared products exhibited a high photocatalytic activity for the photocatalytic decolorization of Rhodamine B aqueous solution under UV-light illumination.

  5. Surfactant-free Synthesis of CuO with Controllable Morphologies and Enhanced Photocatalytic Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing; Yang, Jiao; Shi, Liuxue; Gao, Meizhen

    2016-03-01

    A green synthesis for nanoleave, nanosheet, spindle-like, rugby-like, dandelion-like and flower-like CuO nanostructures (from 2D to 3D) is successfully achieved through simply hydrothermal synthetic method without the assistance of surfactant. The morphology of CuO nanostructures can be easily tailored by adjusting the amount of ammonia and the source of copper. By designing a time varying experiment, it is verified that the flower- and dandelion-like CuO structures are synthesized by the self-assembly and Ostwald ripening mechanism. Structural and morphological evolutions are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra. Additionally, the CuO nanostructures with different morphologies could serve as a potential photocatalyst on the photodecomposition of rhodamine B (RhB) aqueous solutions in the presence of H2O2 under visible light irradiation.

  6. Direct patterning of Cu microstructures using femtosecond laser-induced CuO nanoparticle reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakane, Shun; Mizoshiri, Mizue; Hata, Seiichi

    2015-06-01

    Cu-based microstructures were directly patterned using femtosecond laser-induced CuO nanoparticle reduction. CuO nanoparticle-based solution, consisting CuO nanoparticles, ethylene glycol, and polyvinylpyrrolidone, was spin-coated on glass substrates. Microstructures were formed by irradiating focused femtosecond laser pulses. Cu and Cu2O peak intensities were observed in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the microstructures. Compared to single scan, the Cu peak intensities increased by double scan. This result suggests that double scan is effective for increasing the amount of Cu from CuO nanoparticle solution. Cu- and Cu2O-rich microstructures were formed selectively by controlling laser irradiation conditions. The resistivity of the Cu-rich microstructures was estimated by 528 µΩ m which was 104 times and 10 times larger than the values of Cu and Cu2O, respectively. This large resistivity could be applied for microheaters.

  7. CuO urchin-nanostructures synthesized from a domestic hydrothermal microwave method

    SciTech Connect

    Keyson, D.; Volanti, D.P.; Cavalcante, L.S. Simoes, A.Z.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2008-03-04

    This letter reports the synthesis of CuO urchin-nanostructures by a simple and novel hydrothermal microwave method. The formation and growth of urchin-nanostructures is mainly affected by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG). The hierarchical malachite particles are uniform spheres with a diameter of 0.7-1.9 {mu}m. CuO urchin-nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The specific surface area of the CuO nanostructured microspheres was about 170.5 m{sup 2}/g. A possible mechanism for the formation of such CuO urchin-nanostructures is proposed.

  8. Superconducting- and Insulating-Ground States in La2CuO4 Structural Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Eleazer, Bennett; Irie, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2014-11-01

    La2CuO4, with the K2NiF4-structure, is known as the parent compound of hole-doped cuprate superconductors where the Cu ions are octahedrally coordinated and subject to the Jahn-Teller effect. While an octahedral coordination is known for stabilizing an antiferromagnetic and insulating state, we synthesized additional coordination geometries of copper in La2CuO4 where Cu is either square-planar or pyramidal coordinated by a state-of-the-art thin-film growth method. The degeneracy of the Jahn-Teller effect together with rearrangements of the crystal field are expected to have an influence on the electronic states. Indeed, we observed a metallic and superconducting state for La2CuO4 having the Nd2CuO4-structure with square-planar coordinated copper while octahedral and pyramidal coordinations are in favor of the insulating state.

  9. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  10. Single versus repeated applications of CuO and Ag nanomaterials and their effect on soil microflora.

    PubMed

    Schlich, Karsten; Beule, Lukas; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2016-08-01

    Nanomaterials enter the terrestrial environment via the repeated application of sludge to soils over many years. The goal of this investigation was to compare the effects of CuO and Ag nanomaterials on soil microorganisms after a single application and after repeated applications ultimately resulting in the same test concentrations. The effect on soil microorganisms was determined using the ammonium oxidation (ISO 15685), enzymatic activity patterns (ISO 22939) and MicroResp™ tests on days 28, 56 and 84. The comparability of single and repeated applications of ion-releasing nanomaterials depended on the test endpoint and duration. No significant differences between single and repeated applications were observed when testing nitrifying microorganisms and exoenzymes, but differences were observed in the substrate-induced respiration test. The three test systems used together provide more comprehensive information about the impact of different nanomaterials on the soil microflora and its diversity. PMID:27213573

  11. Electronic anisotropy in single-crystal La2CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, S.-W.; Fisk, Z.; Kwok, R. S.; Remeika, J. P.; Thompson, J. D.; Gruner, G.

    1988-04-01

    We have measured resistivity ρ components both parallel and perpendicular to the Cu-O planes in single-crystalline La2CuO4. Substantial anisotropy, reaching values as large as 103, is observed in the resistivity. The temperature dependence of ρ, together with Hall effect and thermoelectric power measurements, suggests hopping conduction between localized states at low temperatures, with diffusive transport at higher temperatures. These results are in contradistinction to previous reports.

  12. CuO hollow nanosphere-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl iodides with thiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Hyunje; Mohan, Balaji; Heo, Eunjung; Park, Ji Chan; Song, Hyunjoon; Park, Kang Hyun

    2013-09-01

    New functionalized CuO hollow nanospheres on acetylene black (CuO/AB) and on charcoal (CuO/C) have been found to be effective catalysts for C-S bond formation under microwave irradiation. CuO catalysts showed high catalytic activity with a wide variety of substituents which include electron-rich and electron-poor aryl iodides with thiophenols by the addition of two equivalents of K2CO3 as base in the absence of ligands.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of CuO hollow microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.G.; Yin, J.Z.; Yang, M.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CuO hollow microspheres were synthesized through hydrothermal route. • The possible growth mechanism was proposed according to the experimental results. • CuO hollow microspheres show an anomalous ferromagnetic behavior at 5 K and 300 K. - Abstract: In the present work, CuO hollow microspheres with the diameter about 2 μm were successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The phase purity, morphologies and structure features of the as obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that reaction temperature, reaction time and different volume ratios of ethanol and distilled water played important roles on the morphologies of the obtained CuO hollow microspheres. The possible formation mechanism was also proposed according to the corresponding experimental results. The magnetic properties were investigated by superconducting quantum interference device, revealing that the CuO hollow microspheres exhibited an anomalous ferromagnetic behavior at 5 K and 300 K. At the same time, the origin of the ferromagnetism in CuO hollow microspheres was also discussed.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of CuO nano particles using precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malviya, Nitin; Carpenter, Gopal; Oswal, Nidhi; Gupta, Nitish

    2015-06-01

    A simple and efficient synthesis of CuO nanoparticles was carried out by precipitation method using copper metal chips as precursor and sodium hydroxide as a stabilizing agent at different calcinations temperatures (100°C, 150°C, and 175°C). The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD indicated monoclinic structure of CuO. SEM indicated the variation in nanostructures with the heating temperatures and FTIR inidcated Cu-O stretching frequencies. The CuO nanostructures with the average particle size of about 16.52 nm were prepared at 100°C for 3 hr. When the calcinations temperature was increased to 150°C and 175°C, CuO nanostructures with the particle size of about 17.41 nm, and 18.44 nm were obtained respectively. This aqueous precipitation method can give a large scale production of CuO nanoparticles easily.

  15. RF sputtered CuO thin films: Structural, optical and photo-catalytic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Khedr, M. H.; Shahnawaze Ansari, M.; Hasan, P. M. Z.; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Farghali, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    Nanocrystalline CuO thin films were deposited for 600, 1200 and 1800 s on glass substrate using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The films deposited at room temperature were crystalline and showed Tenorite phase of CuO. The increase in average particle size from 6.67 nm to 9.09 nm and the thickness from 160 nm to 490 nm was observed with the increase in deposition time. The optical band gap was decreased from 2.2 eV to 1.73 eV as the film thickness was increased. The intensity of PL peak showed its maximum for the film deposited for 600 s and minimum for 1800 s. Some unusual emission peaks were observed due to the quantization effect and lattice/surface defects. The CuO films with different thicknesses could be used as photo-catalysts for the degradation of Methylene blue (MB) from the wastewater. Under the exposure of 200 W energy of tungsten lamp, CuO thin films showed excellent photo-catalytic activities. CuO thin film of minimum thickness of around 160 nm responded as a best catalyst for MB degradation. The films were very stable and have a speciality to be recycled without much loss of their photo-catalytic activity. These characteristics have proved the high possibility of commercial applications of CuO thin films in environmental remediation.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of CuO nano particles using precipitation method

    SciTech Connect

    Malviya, Nitin; Oswal, Nidhi; Carpenter, Gopal; Gupta, Nitish

    2015-06-24

    A simple and efficient synthesis of CuO nanoparticles was carried out by precipitation method using copper metal chips as precursor and sodium hydroxide as a stabilizing agent at different calcinations temperatures (100°C, 150°C, and 175°C). The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD indicated monoclinic structure of CuO. SEM indicated the variation in nanostructures with the heating temperatures and FTIR inidcated Cu-O stretching frequencies. The CuO nanostructures with the average particle size of about 16.52 nm were prepared at 100°C for 3 hr. When the calcinations temperature was increased to 150°C and 175°C, CuO nanostructures with the particle size of about 17.41 nm, and 18.44 nm were obtained respectively. This aqueous precipitation method can give a large scale production of CuO nanoparticles easily.

  17. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  18. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  19. Attaching an alkali metal atom to an alkaline earth metal oxide (BeO, MgO, or CaO) yields a triatomic metal oxide with reduced ionization potential and redirected polarity.

    PubMed

    Nowiak, Grzegorz; Skurski, Piotr; Anusiewicz, Iwona

    2016-04-01

    The existence of a series of neutral triatomic metal oxides MON and their corresponding cations MON (+) (M = Be, Mg, Ca; N = Li, Na, K) was postulated and verified theoretically using ab initio methods at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df)//MP2/6-311+G(3df) level of theory. The calculations revealed that the vertical ionization potentials (IPs) of the MON radicals (calculated using the outer-valence Green's function technique (OVGF) with the 6-311+G(3df) basis set) were ca. 2-3 eV smaller than the IPs of the corresponding MO and NO systems or that of the isolated M atom. Population analysis of the neutral triatomic MON molecules and their corresponding MO counterparts indicated that the attachment of an alkali metal atom to any oxide MO (BeO, MgO, CaO) reverses its polarity, which manifests itself as the redirection of the dipole moment vector. PMID:26994021

  20. In situ codoping of a CuO absorber layer with aluminum and titanium: the impact of codoping and interface engineering on the performance of a CuO-based heterojunction solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Radhakrishnan, K.; Ru, Tan Hui; Yi, Ren; Wong, Ten It; Dalapati, Goutam Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Aluminum-doped cupric oxide (CuO:Al) was prepared via an out-diffusion process of Al from an Al-coated substrate into the deposited CuO thin film upon thermal treatment. The effect of the annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of CuO:Al was investigated in detail. The influence of Al incorporation on the photovoltaic properties was then investigated by preparing a p-CuO:Al/n-Si heterojunction solar cell. A significant improvement in the performance of the solar cell was achieved by controlling the out-diffusion of Al. A novel in situ method to co-dope CuO with Al and titanium (Ti) has been proposed to demonstrate CuO-based solar cells with the front surface field (FSF) design. The FSF design was created by depositing a CuO:Al layer followed by a Ti-doped CuO (CuO:Ti) layer. This is the first successful experimental demonstration of the codoping of a CuO thin film and CuO thin film solar cells with the FSF design. The open circuit voltage (V oc), short circuit current density (J sc) and fill factor (FF) of the fabricated solar cells were significantly higher for the FSF device compared to devices without FSF. The FF of this device improved by 68% through the FSF design and a record efficiency ɳ of 2% was achieved. The improvement of the solar cell properties is mainly attributed to the reduction of surface recombination, which influences the charge carrier collection.

  1. Colossal internal barrier layer capacitance effect in polycrystalline copper (II) oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Jana, Pradip Kumar; Chaudhuri, B. K.

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy analysis of the high permittivity (κ˜104) copper (II) oxide (CuO) ceramic shows that the grain contribution plays a major role for the giant-κ value at low temperature, whereas grain boundary (GB) contribution dominates around room temperature and above. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy analysis reveals electrically heterogeneous microstructure in CuO consisting of semiconducting grains and insulating GBs. Finally, the giant dielectric phenomenon exhibited by CuO is attributed to the internal barrier layer (due to GB) capacitance mechanism.

  2. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification.

  3. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification. PMID:26508362

  4. Separator for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. W.; Pfluger, H. L.

    1968-01-01

    Separator compositions have been tested as components of three-plate silver-zinc oxide cells in a standard cycling test. Six materials meet imposed requirements, giving cycling performance superior to cellophane.

  5. Sonochemical coatings of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on teeth model.

    PubMed

    Eshed, Michal; Lellouche, Jonathan; Matalon, Shlomo; Gedanken, Aharon; Banin, Ehud

    2012-08-21

    Antibiotic resistance has prompted the search for new agents that can inhibit bacterial growth. We recently reported on the antibiofilm activities of nanosized ZnO and CuO nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by using sonochemical irradiation. In this study, we examined the antibacterial activity of ZnO and CuO NPs in a powder form and also examined the antibiofilm behavior of teeth surfaces that were coated with ZnO and CuO NPs using sonochemistry. Free ZnO and CuO NPs inhibited biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans . Furthermore, by using the sonochemical procedure, we were able to coat teeth surfaces that inhibited bacterial colonization.

  6. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies.

  7. The sulphate-reduction alkalinity pump tested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Patrick; Petrishcheva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate precipitation has been suggested to be induced by alkalinity increase during sulphate reduction under anoxic conditions. This mechanism may explain the formation of carbonate deposits in shallow marine environments, either within a redox stratified sediment inhabited by phototrophic microbial mats or in shallow water within the photic zone where sulphidic water is upwelling onto the shelf. The alkalinity pump may work as long as the sulphide is not reoxidized to sulphate, a process that would acidify the surrounding. The alkalinity effect of sulphate reduction was recently tested by Aloisi (2008) for microbial mats using a model approach. He found that sulphate reduction does not significantly increase or even decrease carbonate saturation and is unlikely to have played a significant role through Earth history. The model considers many environmental factors, including the effect of carbonate precipitation itself on the carbonate equilbrium and on the alkalinity. We used a modified version of Aloisi's (2008) model to simulate the saturation states of aragonite, calcite and dolomite without the effects of carbonate precipitation. This is necessary to evaluate the effect of microbial metabolisms exclusively on carbonate saturation, since carbonate precipitation is only the consequence, but not the cause of oversaturation. First results show that the saturation state is increased in the zone of phototrophic CO2 uptake. In contrast, the saturation state is strongly decreased in the zone where dissolved oxygen overlaps with dissolved sulphide. Aerobic sulphide oxidation consumes most of the HS- and dissipates most of the alkalinity produced in the sulphate reduction zone below. Hence, our results are consistent with the findings of Aloisi (2008), and they even more clearly show that sulphate reduction does not induce carbonate precipitation nor contributes to carbonate precipitation in combination with phototrophic CO2 uptake. The alkalinity effect of sulphate

  8. Transparent magnetic state in single crystal Nd(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y) superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuo, F.

    1995-01-01

    Several experimental studies have been reported as evidence of Josephson coupling between the superconducting layers in the highly anisotropic oxide such as the Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 and Tl2Ba2CuO6 systems. These include the large penetration depth of 100 mu m measured, ac and dc Josephson effects. Recently two critical temperatures corresponding to Josephson coupling in between the layers and the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the ab-plane have been directly observed in the transport measurements. If the field is applied parallel to the superconducting layers, the magnetic excitation is not the conventional Abrikosov vortices, but the Josephson vortices which extend lambda(sub ab) in the c-axis direction and lambda(sub J) = gamma s in the plane (s is the interlayer distance, gamma is the anisotropy constant). Because of the weak screening effect associated with the Josephson vortices, there have been predictions of magnetic transparent states at magnetic field above a characteristic field H(sub J), a behavior distinctively different from that of the type-II superconductors. In this paper, we report an experimental result which illustrates a transition from the Meissner state to the magnetic transparent state in single crystal of Nd(1.85)Ce(0.15)CuO(4-y). Magnetization has been measured as a function of temperature and field in the magnetic field parallel or close to ab-plane geometry. For a fixed magnetic field, the magnetization shows a two-step transition in M(T); for a fixed temperature, the magnetization shows an abrupt change to almost zero value above a characteristic field H(sub J), an indication of magnetic transparent state. The data of magnetization as a function of field clearly deviates from the behavior predicted by the Abrikosov theory for type-II superconductors. Instead, the data fit well into the picture of Josephson decoupling between the CuO2 layers.

  9. Structural and optical properties of Ag-doped copper oxide thin films on polyethylene napthalate substrate prepared by low temperature microwave annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sayantan; Alford, T. L.

    2013-06-28

    Silver doped cupric oxide thin films are prepared on polyethylene naphthalate (flexible polymer) substrates. Thin films Ag-doped CuO are deposited on the substrate by co-sputtering followed by microwave assisted oxidation of the metal films. The low temperature tolerance of the polymer substrates led to the search for innovative low temperature processing techniques. Cupric oxide is a p-type semiconductor with an indirect band gap and is used as selective absorption layer solar cells. X-ray diffraction identifies the CuO phases. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements confirm the stoichiometry of each copper oxide formed. The surface morphology is determined by atomic force microscopy. The microstructural properties such as crystallite size and the microstrain for (-111) and (111) planes are calculated and discussed. Incorporation of Ag led to the lowering of band gap in CuO. Consequently, it is determined that Ag addition has a strong effect on the structural, morphological, surface, and optical properties of CuO grown on flexible substrates by microwave annealing. Tauc's plot is used to determine the optical band gap of CuO and Ag doped CuO films. The values of the indirect and direct band gap for CuO are found to be 2.02 eV and 3.19 eV, respectively.

  10. Assessment of the Toxicity of CuO Nanoparticles by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants with Multiple Genes Deleted

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Shaopan; Lu, Qicong; Dai, Heping; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    To develop applicable and susceptible models to evaluate the toxicity of nanoparticles, the antimicrobial effects of CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) on various Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains (wild type, single-gene-deleted mutants, and multiple-gene-deleted mutants) were determined and compared. Further experiments were also conducted to analyze the mechanisms associated with toxicity using copper salt, bulk CuO (bCuO), carbon-shelled copper nanoparticles (C/Cu-NPs), and carbon nanoparticles (C-NPs) for comparisons. The results indicated that the growth inhibition rates of CuO-NPs for the wild-type and the single-gene-deleted strains were comparable, while for the multiple-gene deletion mutant, significantly higher toxicity was observed (P < 0.05). When the toxicity of the CuO-NPs to yeast cells was compared with the toxicities of copper salt and bCuO, we concluded that the toxicity of CuO-NPs should be attributed to soluble copper rather than to the nanoparticles. The striking difference in adverse effects of C-NPs and C/Cu-NPs with equivalent surface areas also proved this. A toxicity assay revealed that the multiple-gene-deleted mutant was significantly more sensitive to CuO-NPs than the wild type. Specifically, compared with the wild-type strain, copper was readily taken up by mutant strains when cell permeability genes were knocked out, and the mutants with deletions of genes regulated under oxidative stress (OS) were likely producing more reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, as mechanism-based gene inactivation could increase the susceptibility of yeast, the multiple-gene-deleted mutants should be improved model organisms to investigate the toxicity of nanoparticles. PMID:26386067

  11. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  12. Differences in soil solution chemistry between soils amended with nanosized CuO or Cu reference materials: implications for nanotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    McShane, Heather V A; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Whalen, Joann K; Hendershot, William H

    2014-07-15

    Soil toxicity tests for metal oxide nanoparticles often include micrometer-sized oxide and metal salt treatments to distinguish between toxicity from nanometer-sized particles, non-nanometer-sized particles, and dissolved ions. Test result will be confounded if each chemical form has different effects on soil solution chemistry. We report on changes in soil solution chemistry over 56 days-the duration of some standard soil toxicity tests-in three soils amended with 500 mg/kg Cu as nanometer-sized CuO (nano), micrometer-sized CuO (micrometer), or Cu(NO3)2 (salt). In the CuO-amended soils, the log Cu2+ activity was initially low (minimum -9.48) and increased with time (maximum -5.20), whereas in the salt-amended soils it was initially high (maximum -4.80) and decreased with time (minimum -6.10). The Cu2+ activity in the nano-amended soils was higher than in the micrometer-amended soils for at least the first 11 days, and lower than in the salt-amended soils for at least 28 d. The pH, and dissolved Ca and Mg concentrations in the CuO-amended soils were similar, but the salt-amended soils had lower pH for at least 14 d, and higher Ca and Mg concentrations throughout the test. Soil pretreatments such as leaching and aging prior to toxicity tests are suggested.

  13. Translocation and biotransformation of CuO nanoparticles in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng; Duan, Dechao; Xu, Chen; Chen, Yongsheng; Sun, Lijuan; Zhang, Hai; Yuan, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Lirong; Yang, Yuanqiang; Yang, Jianjun; Zhen, Xiangjun; Chen, Yingxu; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-02-01

    Metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) may be translocated and biochemically modified in vivo, which may influence the fate of MNPs in the environment. Here, synchrotron-based techniques were used to investigate the behavior of CuO NPs in rice plants exposed to 100 mg/L CuO NPs for 14 days. Micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) analysis revealed that CuO NPs moved into the root epidermis, exodermis, and cortex, and they ultimately reached the endodermis but could not easily pass the Casparian strip; however, the formation of lateral roots provided a potential pathway for MNPs to enter the stele. Moreover, bulk-XANES data showed that CuO NPs were transported from the roots to the leaves, and that Cu (II) combined with cysteine, citrate, and phosphate ligands and was even reduced to Cu (I). CuO NPs and Cu-citrate were observed in the root cells using soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy (STXM).

  14. A Root-Colonizing Pseudomonad Lessens Stress Responses in Wheat Imposed by CuO Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Melanie; Adams, Joshua; Yang, Kwang; McManus, Paul; Jacobson, Astrid; Gade, Aniket; McLean, Joan; Britt, David; Anderson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NPs) containing essential metals are being considered in formulations of fertilizers to boost plant nutrition in soils with low metal bioavailability. This paper addresses whether colonization of wheat roots by the bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 (PcO6), protected roots from the reduced elongation caused by CuO NPs. There was a trend for slightly elongated roots when seedlings with roots colonized by PcO6 were grown with CuO NPs; the density of bacterial cells on the root surface was not altered by the NPs. Accumulations of reactive oxygen species in the plant root cells caused by CuO NPs were little affected by root colonization. However, bacterial colonization did reduce the extent of expression of an array of genes associated with plant responses to stress induced by root exposure to CuO NPs. PcO6 colonization also reduced the levels of two important chelators of Cu ions, citric and malic acids, in the rhizosphere solution; presumably because these acids were used as nutrients for bacterial growth. There was a trend for lower levels of soluble Cu in the rhizosphere solution and reduced Cu loads in the true leaves with PcO6 colonization. These studies indicate that root colonization by bacterial cells modulates plant responses to contact with CuO NPs. PMID:27776146

  15. CuO nanoparticles encapsulated inside Al-MCM-41 mesoporous materials via direct synthetic route

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Chengli; Ouyang, Jing; Yang, Huaming

    2014-01-01

    Highly ordered aluminum-containing mesoporous silica (Al-MCM-41) was prepared using attapulgite clay mineral as a Si and Al source. Mesoporous complexes embedded with CuO nanoparticles were subsequently prepared using various copper sources and different copper loadings in a direct synthetic route. The resulting CuO/Al-MCM-41 composite possessed p6mm hexagonally symmetry, well-developed mesoporosity, and relatively high BET surface area. In comparison to pure silica, these mesoporous materials embedded with CuO nanoparticles exhibited smaller pore diameter, thicker pore wall, and enhanced thermal stability. Long-range order in the aforementioned samples was observed for copper weight percentages as high as 30%. Furthermore, a significant blue shift of the absorption edge for the samples was observed when compared with that of bulk CuO. H2-TPR measurements showed that the direct-synthesized CuO/Al-MCM-41 exhibited remarkable redox properties compared to the post-synthesized samples, and most of the CuO nanoparticles were encapsulated within the mesoporous structures. The possible interaction between CuO and Al-MCM-41 was also investigated. PMID:24419589

  16. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of CuO nanostructures templated by cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yunling; Li, Yan; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Qingjun; An, Dongmin

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures were synthesized by a simple method. ► Cotton fibers purchased from commercially are used as template. ► The concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution is an important parameter. -- Abstract: Flower-like and corn-like CuO nanostructures composed of CuO nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via ultrasound-assisted template method, respectively, by controlling the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution. Here, cotton fibers were used as template agent. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The results demonstrated that the initial concentration of Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} solution was an important parameter for determining whether CuO nanoparticles assembled into flower-like structures or corn-like structures. The mechanism of forming different nanostructures of CuO was discussed.

  17. Highly efficient photocatalytic activity of CuO quantum dot decorated rGO nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Shibsankar; Das, Kajari; Chakrabarti, Kaushik; Jana, D.; De, S. K.; De, Sukanta

    2016-08-01

    CuO quantum dots (QD) of size 4.5 nm decorated on a rGO sheet to form nanocomposites with different weight percentages via a simple soft chemical route was reported here. Tuning of CuO QD absorption towards the visible region from the UV region in the presence of rGO was also observed. The luminescence of rGO was found to be quenched in rGO–CuO nanocomposites due to charge transfer from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the rGO layer to the conduction band of CuO. Systematic and concise studies of photocatalytic performance towards degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye by CuO QD along with rGO–CuO nanocomposites were presented in this work. A nanocomposite with an equal weight percentage of rGO and CuO degrades almost 99% of MB under irradiation of visible light for 50 min, showing maximum degradation efficiency.

  18. Facile synthesis of Zn doped CuO hierarchical nanostructures: Structural, optical and antibacterial properties

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Javed E-mail: javed.suggau@iiu.edu.pk; Jan, Tariq E-mail: javed.suggau@iiu.edu.pk; Ul-Hassan, Sibt; Umair Ali, M.; Abbas, Fazal; Ahmed, Ishaq; Mansoor, Qaisar; Ismail, Muhammad

    2015-12-15

    Zn{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O (where x= 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mol%) hierarchical nanostructures have been prepared via soft chemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of the synthesized samples reveal the monoclinic structure of CuO without any impurity related phases. The micro-structural parameters such as crystallite size and microstrain have been strongly influenced by Zn doping. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses depict the formation of hierarchical nanostructures having average particle size in the range of 26-43 nm. The surface area of CuO nanostructures has been reduced systematically with the increase in Zn content which is linked with the variations in particle size. An obvious decrease in the optical band gap energy of the synthesized CuO hierarchical nanostructures has been observed with Zn doping which is assigned to the formation of shallow levels in the band gap of CuO and combined transition from oxygen 2p states to d sates of Cu and Zn ions. The bactericidal potency of the CuO hierarchical nanostructures have been found to be enhanced remarkably with Zn doping.

  19. In situ catalytic activity of CuO nanosheets synthesized from a surfactant-lamellar template.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2011-05-01

    CuO nanosheets approximately 0.8 nm thick were synthesized under ambient conditions within a few hours using a surfactant lamellar mesophase as a soft template. In aqueous media, metal ions and anionic surfactants form a lamellar mesophase. In the lamellar layers, metal ions can crystallize without structural collapse. Highly ordered CuO nanosheet/surfactant lamellar layers formed in an aqueous solution can be easily delaminated by washing with water. The use of the delaminated CuO nanosheet catalyst instead of traditional metallic catalysts resulted in a reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol with NaBH4 that obeyed zero-order kinetics. This indicates in situ conversion of CuO to Cu in the reaction solution. Cu in situ reduced by BH4- acted as a catalyst relaying electrons for the reduction of 4-NP. The catalytic reaction was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, and the reduction and crystalline structures of the nanosheets were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These results indicate CuO nanosheets to be an attractive alternative to metal catalysts in reactions involving hydrogen. PMID:21780485

  20. Discovery of Alkaline Volcanic Rocks on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y.; Team, A. S.

    2006-05-01

    Based on remote sensing measurements and the compositions of martian meteorites, the surface of Mars is inferred to be dominated by subalkaline mafic volcanic rocks. However, the Spirit rover has recently discovered lavas of alkalic composition. Picritic (Adirondack class) basalts with high alkali and low silica contents were previously analyzed on the plains of Gusev Crater, and two new classes of dark, fine-grained, relatively unaltered volcanic rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra have now been found as float and in a possible dike at high elevations in the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt and trachybasalt, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. Chemical compositions of these rocks lie along a MELTS-calculated liquid line of descent for Adirondack class basalt. Systematic changes in normative mineralogy are consistent with the calculated magmatic fractionation. We infer that Backstay- and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by low-pressure fractionation of primitive, oxidized Adirondack-class magmas and were possibly emplaced coevally with the plains basalts. The compositions of these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. This discovery may have implications for the composition of the martian mantle source region and the conditions under which it melted.

  1. Plasma dynamic synthesis of ultradispersed copper oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanenkova, Yu; Sivkov, A.; Saygash, A.; Shanenkov, I.

    2015-10-01

    Copper oxide is necessary material for production of superconductors. The issue of obtaining high purity and nanosides CuO is actual. This article shows the results on the obtaining of nanodispersed copper oxide by plasma dynamic method in system based on coaxial magneto plasma accelerator with copper electrodes. Such analyses of ultradispersed synthesized products as X-Ray diffractometry, IR-spectroscopy and thermal analysis were carried out. According to XRD such phases as copper Cu, copper oxide (I) Cu2O, copper oxide (II) CuO, and copper hydroxide hydrate Cu(OH)2·H2O were identified in the product. It was found that with the gradual heating of the initial product up to 800 °C the phase content changed dramatically in terms of enhancing copper oxide phase (up to 97%).

  2. Improved electrochemical performances of CuO nanotube array prepared via electrodeposition as anode for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: CuO nanotube array electrodes prepared by electrodeposition method exhibit an excellent lithium ion storage ability as anode of Li-ion battery. - Highlights: • CuO nanotube arrays are synthesized by an electrodeposition method. • CuO nanotube shows a high-rate performance. • CuO nanotube shows an excellent cycling performance. - Abstract: We report a facile strategy to prepared CuO nanotube arrays directly grown on Cu plate through the electrodeposition method. The as-prepared CuO nanotubes show a quasi-cylinder nanostructure with internal diameters of ca. ∼100 nm, external diameters of ca. ∼120 nm, and average length of ∼3 μm. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the electrochemical properties of the CuO nanotube arrays are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Due to the unique nanotube nanostructure, the as-prepared CuO electrodes exhibit good rate performance (550 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 464 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C) and cycling performance (581 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C and 538 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 C)

  3. Highly efficient conversion of biomass-derived glycolide to ethylene glycol over CuO in water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingli; Huo, Zhibao; Fu, Jun; Jin, Fangming

    2014-06-01

    The efficient conversion of biomass-derived glycolide into ethylene glycol over CuO in water was investigated. The reaction of glycolide was carried out with 25 mmol Zn and 6 mmol CuO with 25% water filling at 250 °C for 150 min, which yielded the desired ethylene glycol in 94% yield. PMID:24769741

  4. High performance HTPB-based energetic nanomaterial with CuO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, José Luis; Mosquera, Gonzalo; París, Rodrigo

    2009-12-01

    This work describes the first example to demonstrate the enhancement of performances of composite highly energetic materials by mean of employing standard CuO nano-powder as burning rate catalyst in comparison to micro-fillers. The solid composite propellants with CuO microparticles are less stable due to oversensitivity to pressure variations, but the nano-structured composite propellant yields high stable burning rates over a broad pressure range. In addition, the incorporation of CuO nanoparticles in the formulations of these energetic materials also improves their combustion and thermal properties, according to the characterization obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). These results indicate the excellent benefits found in using these nanoparticles as additive for solid rocket propulsion applications.

  5. Synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional copper oxide nanostructures through a biomineralization-inspired approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xiang; Shao, Zhengzhong; Chen, Xin

    2013-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures were synthesized in a regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin aqueous solution at room temperature. In the synthesis process, silk fibroin served as the template and helped to form the hierarchical CuO nanostructures by self-assembly. Cu(OH)2 nanowires were formed initially, and then they transformed into almond-like CuO nanostructures with branched edges and a compact middle. The size of the final CuO nanostructures can be tuned by varying the concentration of silk fibroin in the reaction system. A possible mechanism has been proposed based on various characterization techniques, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The synthesized CuO nanostructured material has been evaluated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, and the result showed that they had a good electrochemical performance. The straightforward energy-saving method developed in this research may provide a useful preparation strategy for other functional inorganic materials through an environmentally friendly process.Three-dimensional (3D) copper oxide (CuO) nanostructures were synthesized in a regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin aqueous solution at room temperature. In the synthesis process, silk fibroin served as the template and helped to form the hierarchical CuO nanostructures by self-assembly. Cu(OH)2 nanowires were formed initially, and then they transformed into almond-like CuO nanostructures with branched edges and a compact middle. The size of the final CuO nanostructures can be tuned by varying the concentration of silk fibroin in the reaction system. A possible mechanism has been proposed based on various characterization techniques, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The synthesized CuO nanostructured material has been evaluated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, and the result

  6. Morphology- and facet-controlled synthesis of CuO micro/nanomaterials and analysis of their lithium ion storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodi; Liu, Guangyin; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Yinping; Ma, Yupei; Ma, Jianmin

    2016-04-01

    Hierarchical CuO architectures and monodisperse CuO nanoplates are synthesized via a hydrothermal method with the assistance of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl). The products are characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, BET, and XPS, and the results indicate that the CuO architectures are composed of nanosheets with exposed (001) facets and the CuO nanoplates are single crystals enclosed by (200) facets. More specially, it is found that [Bmim]Cl serves as an effective template for the synthesis of CuO nanoplates by adsorbing on the (200) planes of monoclinic CuO. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, CuO architectures possess higher discharge capacity, better cycling stability, and better rate capability than CuO nanoplates. The initial discharge capacity of CuO architectures is 1096 mAh g-1 at a rate of 0.5 C, whereas CuO nanoplates exhibit a lower capacity of 878.4 mAh g-1. Moreover, after 50 cycles, CuO architectures and CuO nanoplates can deliver discharge capacities of 465.6 and 281.6 mAh g-1, respectively.

  7. Bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost using calcium lime and ash.

    PubMed

    Hijikata, Nowaki; Tezuka, Rui; Kazama, Shinobu; Otaki, Masahiro; Ushijima, Ken; Ito, Ryusei; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost with calcium lime and ash were investigated. Two indicator microorganisms, Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage, were used as surrogates for enteric pathogens. The alkaline-treated compost with calcium oxide (CaO) or ash resulted primarily in damage to the outer membrane and enzyme activities of E. coli. The alkaline treatment of compost also led to the infectivity loss of the coliphage because of the partial capsid damage and RNA exteriorization due to a raised pH, which is proportional to the amount of alkaline agents added. These results indicate that the alkaline treatment of compost using calcium oxide and ash is effective and can contribute to the safe usage of compost from a mixing type dry toilet. PMID:27562698

  8. Synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic property of feather-like Cd-doped CuO nanostructures by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqian; Jiang, Tingting; Meng, Dawei; Wang, Dagui; Yu, Meihua

    2015-11-01

    Feather-like Cd-doped CuO nanostructures were fabricated by a one-step hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) demonstrated that Cd2+ entered the crystal lattice of CuO and substituted Cu2+ without destroying crystal structures to form feather-like CuO nanostructures. The optical property of Cd-doped CuO was investigated by using UV-vis spectrophotometer. A slight blue-shift of optical band gap was observed because of quantum confinement effect. The doped samples exhibited obviously higher absorbance in UV light region and better photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of methyl blue than the pure CuO nanosheets.

  9. Toxicity and internalization of CuO nanoparticles to prokaryotic alga Microcystis aeruginosa as affected by dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Jing; Zhao, Jian; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-07-15

    This is the first study investigating the toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) to algae in the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Suwannee river fulvic acid (SRFA), a type of DOM, could significantly increase the toxicity of CuO NPs to prokaryotic alga Microcystis aeruginosa. Internalization of CuO NPs was observed for the first time in the intact algal cells using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and the cell uptake was enhanced by SRFA. A fast Fourier transformation (FFT)/inversed FFT (IFFT) process revealed that a main form of intracellular NPs was Cu(2)O, and an intracellular environment may reduce CuO into Cu(2)O. The internalization behavior alone did not seem to pose a hazard to membrane integrity as shown from the flow cytometry data. Elevated CuO nanotoxicity by SRFA was related to a combination of a lesser degree of aggregation, higher Cu(2+) release, and enhanced internalization of CuO NPs.

  10. Fabrication of functional transition metal oxide and hydroxide used as catalysts and battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Linping

    My research is focused on developing metal oxide and hydroxide nanomaterials which can be used as battery materials, organic transformation catalysts, and photocatalysts. This research involves studying ZnO with different morphologies as photocatalysts for phenol degradation, producing CuO as olefin epoxidation catalysts, developing V and Cu incorporated manganese oxides as cathode materials for Li-ion batteries, and fabricating alpha-nickel hydroxide for Li-air battery materials. The first part includes producing ZnO as a photocatalyst for phenol degradation. The goal of this study is the synthesis of ZnO with different morphologies using the solvothermal method. The influence of solvents has been studied in detail. Their properties and photocatalytic performances have been explored as well. The second part of the research is concerned with developing novel urchin-like CuO as an olefin epoxidation catalyst. The purpose of this study is to develop a new catalyst, CuO, for olefin epoxidation. The copper source and precipitators were optimized, and the possible self-assembly mechanism of the urchin-like morphology was proposed. The catalytic activity of CuO for olefin epoxidation was studied. The third part of this work includes developing V, Cu incorporated manganese oxide (V-Cu-OMS-2) as cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The purpose of this project is to develop a new material with enhanced battery performance. V and Cu incorporated manganese oxide were developed using hydrothermal methods. Octahedral molecular sieve (OMS) materials show mixed valences of Mn 3+ and Mn4+, which produces novel properties in battery applications. Inexpensive starting materials make OMS materials more promising for commercial applications. How the incorporation of V and Cu affected OMS-2 materials was investigated in terms of their crystal structure, morphologies, and surface areas. The battery performance of the incorporated OMS-2 materials with different loading amounts of V

  11. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xin D.; Tiwari, Prabhat

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  12. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  13. Observation of bistable resistance memory switching in CuO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C. H.; Jang, Y. H.; Hwang, H. J.; Sun, Z. H.; Moon, H. B.; Cho, J. H.

    2009-03-01

    We report a bistable resistance switching behavior of CuO thin films. To understand the resistance switching mechanism, we have studied impedance spectroscopy and nanoscale electrical property. From the frequency-dependent impedance properties of CuO thin films in high resistance (ROFF) and low resistance (RON) states, we infer the formation of conducting paths generated by external bias as a possible origin of the bistable resistance states. In addition, the observation of inhomogeneous conducting path using a conducting atomic force microscope is also consistent with our inference.

  14. Thermochemical process for recovering Cu from CuO or CuO.sub.2

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, deceased, Donald M.; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1981-01-01

    A process for producing hydrogen comprises the step of reacting metallic Cu with Ba(OH).sub.2 in the presence of steam to produce hydrogen and BaCu.sub.2 O.sub.2. The BaCu.sub.2 O.sub.2 is reacted with H.sub.2 O to form Cu.sub.2 O and a Ba(OH).sub.2 product for recycle to the initial reaction step. Cu can be obtained from the Cu.sub.2 O product by several methods. In one embodiment the Cu.sub.2 O is reacted with HF solution to provide CuF.sub.2 and Cu. The CuF.sub.2 is reacted with H.sub.2 O to provide CuO and HF. CuO is decomposed to Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2. The HF, Cu and Cu.sub.2 O are recycled. In another embodiment the Cu.sub.2 O is reacted with aqueous H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 solution to provide CuSO.sub.4 solution and Cu. The CuSO.sub.4 is decomposed to CuO and SO.sub.3. The CuO is decomposed to form Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2. The SO.sub.3 is dissolved to form H.sub.2 SO.sub.4. H.sub.2 SO.sub.4, Cu and Cu.sub.2 O are recycled. In another embodiment Cu.sub.2 O is decomposed electrolytically to Cu and O.sub.2. In another aspect of the invention, Cu is recovered from CuO by the steps of decomposing CuO to Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2, reacting the Cu.sub.2 O with aqueous HF solution to produce Cu and CuF.sub.2, reacting the CuF.sub.2 with H.sub.2 O to form CuO and HF, and recycling the CuO and HF to previous reaction steps.

  15. Genotoxicity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles with Different Surface Chemistry on Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jiang, Pengfei; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Botuo; Mao, Zhengwei; Antipov, Alexei; Correia, Manuel; Larsen, Erik H; Gao, Changyou

    2016-06-01

    The surface chemistry of nanoparticles (NPs) is one of the critical factors determining their cellular responses. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of copper oxide (CuO) NPs with a similar size but different surface chemistry to rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated. The morphology, size and surface charge of four types of CuO NPs, i.e., CuO-core, CuO-COOH, CuO-NH2 and CuO-PEG NPs, were characterized by TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta-potential measurement, respectively. All of the four CuO NPs had a negative surface charge around -10 mV and showed a similar tendency to form agglomerates with a size of -200 nm in cell culture environment. The cytotoxicity of CuO NPs to MSCs at various concentrations and incubation periods were firstly evaluated. The CuO NPs showed dose-dependent and time-dependent toxicity to MSCs, and their surface chemistry had influence on the toxicity to some extent too. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level of MSCs was then quantified. Finally, the genotoxicity of the CuO NPs was studied by comet assay. The results suggest that the genotoxicity of CuO NPs was mainly dependent on NPs concentration, and was only slightly influenced by their surface chemistry. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation abilities of the MSCs exposed to different CuO NPs were studied by Alizarin Res S and Oil Red O staining. The preliminary results showed that the exposure to 10 μg/mL CuO NPs will, not lead to significant impact on the differentiation potential of the MSCs. PMID:27427588

  16. Genotoxicity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles with Different Surface Chemistry on Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Jiang, Pengfei; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Botuo; Mao, Zhengwei; Antipov, Alexei; Correia, Manuel; Larsen, Erik H; Gao, Changyou

    2016-06-01

    The surface chemistry of nanoparticles (NPs) is one of the critical factors determining their cellular responses. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of copper oxide (CuO) NPs with a similar size but different surface chemistry to rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were investigated. The morphology, size and surface charge of four types of CuO NPs, i.e., CuO-core, CuO-COOH, CuO-NH2 and CuO-PEG NPs, were characterized by TEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta-potential measurement, respectively. All of the four CuO NPs had a negative surface charge around -10 mV and showed a similar tendency to form agglomerates with a size of -200 nm in cell culture environment. The cytotoxicity of CuO NPs to MSCs at various concentrations and incubation periods were firstly evaluated. The CuO NPs showed dose-dependent and time-dependent toxicity to MSCs, and their surface chemistry had influence on the toxicity to some extent too. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level of MSCs was then quantified. Finally, the genotoxicity of the CuO NPs was studied by comet assay. The results suggest that the genotoxicity of CuO NPs was mainly dependent on NPs concentration, and was only slightly influenced by their surface chemistry. The osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation abilities of the MSCs exposed to different CuO NPs were studied by Alizarin Res S and Oil Red O staining. The preliminary results showed that the exposure to 10 μg/mL CuO NPs will, not lead to significant impact on the differentiation potential of the MSCs.

  17. Effect of copper oxide nanoparticles on the conformation and activity of β-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Gulam; Khan, Mohd Jahir; Ahmad, Abrar; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2014-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is to explore the interaction of β-galactosidase with copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs). Steady-state absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques have been employed to unveil the conformational changes of β-galactosidase induced by the binding of CuO NPs. Temperature dependent fluorescence quenching results indicates a static quenching mechanism in the present case. The binding thermodynamic parameters delineate the predominant role of H-bonding and van der Waals forces between β-galactosidase and CuO NPs binding process. The binding was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and the result revealed that the complexation is enthalpy driven, the ΔH°<0, ΔS°<0 indicates the formation of hydrogen bonds between β-galactosidase and CuO NPs occurs. Disruption of the native conformation of the protein upon binding with CuO NPs is reflected through a reduced functionality (in terms of hydrolase activity) of the protein CuO NPs conjugate system in comparison to the native protein and CuO NPs exhibited a competitive mode of inhibition. This also supports the general belief that H-bond formation occurs with NPs is associated with a lesser extent of modification in the native structure. Morphological features and size distributions were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Additionally the considerable increase in the Rh following the addition of CuO NPs accounts for the unfolding of β-galactosidase. Chemical and thermal unfolding of β-galactosidase, when carried out in the presence of CuO NPs, also indicated a small perturbation in the protein structure. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound β-galactosidase which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  18. Effect of copper oxide nanoparticles on the conformation and activity of β-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Gulam; Khan, Mohd Jahir; Ahmad, Abrar; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2014-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is to explore the interaction of β-galactosidase with copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs). Steady-state absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic techniques have been employed to unveil the conformational changes of β-galactosidase induced by the binding of CuO NPs. Temperature dependent fluorescence quenching results indicates a static quenching mechanism in the present case. The binding thermodynamic parameters delineate the predominant role of H-bonding and van der Waals forces between β-galactosidase and CuO NPs binding process. The binding was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and the result revealed that the complexation is enthalpy driven, the ΔH°<0, ΔS°<0 indicates the formation of hydrogen bonds between β-galactosidase and CuO NPs occurs. Disruption of the native conformation of the protein upon binding with CuO NPs is reflected through a reduced functionality (in terms of hydrolase activity) of the protein CuO NPs conjugate system in comparison to the native protein and CuO NPs exhibited a competitive mode of inhibition. This also supports the general belief that H-bond formation occurs with NPs is associated with a lesser extent of modification in the native structure. Morphological features and size distributions were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Additionally the considerable increase in the Rh following the addition of CuO NPs accounts for the unfolding of β-galactosidase. Chemical and thermal unfolding of β-galactosidase, when carried out in the presence of CuO NPs, also indicated a small perturbation in the protein structure. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound β-galactosidase which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:25260221

  19. Low temperature synthesis of seed mediated CuO bundle of nanowires, their structural characterisation and cholesterol detection.

    PubMed

    Ibupoto, Z H; Khun, K; Liu, X; Willander, M

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we have successfully synthesised CuO bundle of nanowires using simple, cheap and low temperature hydrothermal growth method. The growth parameters such as precursor concentration and time for duration of growth were optimised. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has demonstrated that the CuO bundles of nanowires are highly dense, uniform and perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has demonstrated that the CuO nanostructures consist of bundle of nanowires and their growth pattern is along the [010] direction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique described that CuO bundle of nanowires possess the monoclinic crystal phase. The surface and chemical composition analyses were carried out with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique and the obtained results suggested the pure crystal state of CuO nanostructures. In addition, the CuO nanowires were used for the cholesterol sensing application by immobilising the cholesterol oxidase through electrostatic attraction. The infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy study has also revealed that CuO nanostructures are consisting of only CuO bonding and has also shown the possible interaction of cholesterol oxidase with the sharp edge surface of CuO bundle of nanowires. The proposed cholesterol sensor has demonstrated the wide range of detection of cholesterol with good sensitivity of 33.88±0.96 mV/decade. Moreover, the CuO bundle of nanowires based sensor electrode has revealed good repeatability, reproducibility, stability, selectivity and a fast response time of less than 10s. The cholesterol sensor based on the immobilised cholesterol oxidase has good potential applicability for the determination of cholesterol from the human serum and other biological samples.

  20. Dissolution of metal oxides accumulated in nuclear steam generators: study of solutions containing organic chelating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.; Ouellet, L.

    1985-03-01

    A study of the reactivity of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and hydrazine for the dissolution of magnetite particles has allowed some steps of the different mechanisms to be identified. Two mechanisms are suggested: In acidic solutions, the chelating agents are adsorbed at the solid/solution interface followed by desorption of the complexed species FeH /SUB n/ L, where HnL is EDTA or citric acid, whereas in alkaline media, direct dissolution of the oxide particles takes place followed by complexation of the species Fe/sup 3 +//Fe/sup 2 +/ in solution. The hydrazine apparently reduces the Fe/sup 3 +/ ions via a surface complexing reaction involving the N/sub 2/H/sub +//sub 5/ ions, a reaction which is in competition with the protonation of the Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ crystal lattice. Finally, regardless of the type of oxide (Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, FeOOH, CuO, or Cu/sub 2/O) or the composition of the complexing solutions, suspensions of these particles are highly unstable with respect to agglomeration or settling out, more because of the high concentration of chelating agents than their chemical characteristics.

  1. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Masao; Ogumi, Zempachi

    Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an OH-form anion exchange membrane and polyhydric alcohols were studied. A high open circuit voltage of ca. 800 mV was obtained for a cell using Pt-Ru/C (anode) and Pt/C (cathode) at 323 K, which was about 100-200 mV higher than that for a DMFC using Nafion ®. The maximum power densities were in the order of ethylene glycol > glycerol > methanol > erythritol > xylitol. Silver catalysts were used as a cathode catalyst to fabricate alkaline fuel cells, since silver catalyst is almost inactive in the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells using silver as a cathode catalyst gave excellent performance because higher concentrations of fuel could be supplied to the anode.

  2. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev

    2001-12-21

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

  3. Microbial Thiocyanate Utilization under Highly Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tourova, Tatyana P.; Lysenko, Anatoly M.; Kuenen, J. Gijs

    2001-01-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS−) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  4. Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Lysenko, A M; Kuenen, J G

    2001-02-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS-) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  5. Alkaline biofiltration of H2S odors.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio; Deshusses, Marc A

    2008-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a very common odor nuisance which is best controlled by chemical or biological scrubbing. Under alkaline pH, the amount of H2S that can be solubilized in a scrubbing liquid increases significantly, and therefore, gas-liquid mass transfer limitations can be reduced. To date, biological scrubbing of H2S has been limited to neutral or acidic pH, despite the potential benefit of reduced mass transfer limitations at alkaline pH. In the present paper, an alkaliphilic sulfoxidizing bacterial consortium was deployed in a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter treating H2S at pH 10. The gas contact time ranged from 1 to 6 s, and H2S inlet concentrations, from 2.5 to 18 ppm(v). The results showed that under most conditions, H2S removal exceeded 98% and the degradation end-product was sulfate. At the highest H2S concentrations and shortest gas contacttimes, when the loading exceeded 30 g m(-3) h(-1), the H2S removal efficiency decreased significantly due to biological reaction limitation, and incompletely oxidized sulfides were measured in the trickling liquid. An analysis of the process demonstrated that operating the biotrickling filter at high pH results in an enhancement of the mass transfer by a factor of 1700-11 000. Overall, alkaline biotrickling filtration was shown to be very effective at low concentration of H2S and very short gas contact time. This is the first demonstration of a biotrickling filter for air pollution control operated at high pH.

  6. Physical and electrical properties of copper oxide doped bismuth borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhiman, R. L.; Kundu, Virender Singh; Arora, Susheel; Maan, A. S.

    2013-06-01

    The role of CuO on the physical and electrical properties in x CuO.(25-x)Bi2O3.75B2O3;(5≤x≤20) glass system has been investigated. The glasses were prepared by normal melt quench technique. The density and molar volume of the glasses decreases with increase in CuO (mol %). The dc conductivity was measured in the temperature range 413-513 K. The conduction mechanism in these glasses was discussed in terms of small polaron hopping (SPH) theory proposed by Mott. The activation energy is found to decrease with increasing copper oxide content. The dc conductivity increases with increase in CuO content and ranging from 6.02×10-12 (Ωm)-1 to 1.096×10-10 (Ωm)-1 at 450K.

  7. SILAC-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Human Lung Cell Response to Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Edelmann, Mariola J.; Shack, Leslie A.; Naske, Caitlin D.; Walters, Keisha B.; Nanduri, Bindu

    2014-01-01

    Copper (II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NP) are widely used in industry and medicine. In our study we evaluated the response of BEAS-2B human lung cells to CuO NP, using Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics and phosphoproteomics. Pathway modeling of the protein differential expression showed that CuO NP affect proteins relevant in cellular function and maintenance, protein synthesis, cell death and survival, cell cycle and cell morphology. Some of the signaling pathways represented by BEAS-2B proteins responsive to the NP included mTOR signaling, protein ubiquitination pathway, actin cytoskeleton signaling and epithelial adherens junction signaling. Follow-up experiments showed that CuO NP altered actin cytoskeleton, protein phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination level. PMID:25470785

  8. SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of human lung cell response to copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Mariola J; Shack, Leslie A; Naske, Caitlin D; Walters, Keisha B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2014-01-01

    Copper (II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NP) are widely used in industry and medicine. In our study we evaluated the response of BEAS-2B human lung cells to CuO NP, using Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics and phosphoproteomics. Pathway modeling of the protein differential expression showed that CuO NP affect proteins relevant in cellular function and maintenance, protein synthesis, cell death and survival, cell cycle and cell morphology. Some of the signaling pathways represented by BEAS-2B proteins responsive to the NP included mTOR signaling, protein ubiquitination pathway, actin cytoskeleton signaling and epithelial adherens junction signaling. Follow-up experiments showed that CuO NP altered actin cytoskeleton, protein phosphorylation and protein ubiquitination level.

  9. Magnetic field dependence of high- Tc interface superconductivity in La1.55Sr0.45CuO4/La2CuO4 heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Gasparov, V. A.; Drigo, L.; Audouard, A.; He, Xi; Božović, I.

    2016-07-11

    Heterostructures made of a layer of a cuprate insulator La2CuO4 on the top of a layer of a nonsuperconducting cuprate metal La1.55Sr0.45CuO4 show high-Tc interface superconductivity confined within a single CuO2 plane. Given this extreme quasi-two-dimensional quantum confinement, it is of interest to find out how interface superconductivity behaves when exposed to an external magnetic field. With this motivation, we have performed contactless tunnel-diode-oscillator-based measurements in pulsed magnetic fields up to 56 T as well as measurements of the complex mutual inductance between a spiral coil and the film in static fields up to 3 T. Remarkably, we observe thatmore » interface superconductivity survives up to very high perpendicular fields, in excess of 40 T. Additionally, the critical magnetic field Hm(T) reveals an upward divergence with decreasing temperature, in line with vortex melting as in bulk superconducting cuprates.« less

  10. Solubility-driven toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to Caco2 cells and Escherichia coli: Effect of sonication energy and test environment.

    PubMed

    Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kahru, Anne; Nurmsoo, Helen; Kubo, Anna-Liisa; Bondarenko, Olesja M

    2016-10-01

    Due to small size and high surface energy nanoparticles (NPs) tend to agglomerate and precipitate. To avoid/diminish that, sonication of NPs stock suspensions prior toxicity testing is often applied. Currently, there is no standardized particle sonication protocol available leading to inconsistent toxicity data, especially if toxicity is driven by NPs' dissolution that may be enhanced by sonication. In this study we addressed the effect of sonication on hydrodynamic size (Dh), dissolution and toxicity of copper oxide (CuO) NPs to mammalian cell line Caco-2 in vitro and bacteria Escherichia coli in the respective test environments (cell culture MEM medium, bacterial LB medium and deionised (DI) water). NPs were suspended using no sonication, water bath and probe sonication with different energy intensities. Increased sonication energy (i) decreased the Dh of CuO NPs in all three test environments; (ii) increased dissolution of NPs in MEM medium and their toxicity to Caco-2; (iii) increased dissolution of NPs in LB medium and their bioavailability to E. coli; and (iv) had no effect on dissolution and antibacterial effects of NPs in DI water. Thus, to reduce variations in dissolution and toxicity, we recommend sonication of NPs in DI water following the dilution into suitable test media. PMID:27511801

  11. Solubility-driven toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to Caco2 cells and Escherichia coli: Effect of sonication energy and test environment.

    PubMed

    Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kahru, Anne; Nurmsoo, Helen; Kubo, Anna-Liisa; Bondarenko, Olesja M

    2016-10-01

    Due to small size and high surface energy nanoparticles (NPs) tend to agglomerate and precipitate. To avoid/diminish that, sonication of NPs stock suspensions prior toxicity testing is often applied. Currently, there is no standardized particle sonication protocol available leading to inconsistent toxicity data, especially if toxicity is driven by NPs' dissolution that may be enhanced by sonication. In this study we addressed the effect of sonication on hydrodynamic size (Dh), dissolution and toxicity of copper oxide (CuO) NPs to mammalian cell line Caco-2 in vitro and bacteria Escherichia coli in the respective test environments (cell culture MEM medium, bacterial LB medium and deionised (DI) water). NPs were suspended using no sonication, water bath and probe sonication with different energy intensities. Increased sonication energy (i) decreased the Dh of CuO NPs in all three test environments; (ii) increased dissolution of NPs in MEM medium and their toxicity to Caco-2; (iii) increased dissolution of NPs in LB medium and their bioavailability to E. coli; and (iv) had no effect on dissolution and antibacterial effects of NPs in DI water. Thus, to reduce variations in dissolution and toxicity, we recommend sonication of NPs in DI water following the dilution into suitable test media.

  12. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Lin, Ya-Ting; Shiu, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-25

    Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO2(-)) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pKa2 of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r=((0.89±0.11)×10(-4) mM(1-(a+b))h(-1))×[NB](a=1.35±0.10)[AA](b=0.89±0.01). The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  13. Controlled Growth of Copper Oxide Nano-Wires through Direct Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilman, Joann; Neupane, Ravi; Yost, Andrew J.; Chien, Teyu

    Copper oxides, both Cu2O and CuO, have many applications in solar cells, sensors, and nano-electronics. The properties of the copper oxides are further influenced by the dimension of the materials, especially when made in nanoscale. In particular, the properties of the copper oxide nanowires could be tuned by their structures, lengths, and widths. While several methods have been reported to grow nanowires, direct oxidation is arguably the most economical one. This research examines the effects of oxidization duration and temperature in dry air environment on the development of copper oxide nanowires in order to achieve cost effective controllable growth. Using the direct oxidation method in dry air we have demonstrated growth of CuO nano-wires at temperatures as low as 300 °C and as short as 1hr. Furthermore we have observed that the lengths and diameters of the CuO NWs can be controlled by the duration and temperature of the oxidation process. WY NASA Space Grant Consortium.

  14. Preparation of flower-like CuO by a simple chemical precipitation method and their application as electrode materials for capacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hongxia; Feng Jing; Zhang Milin

    2008-12-01

    A novel CuO electrode material with flower-like nanostructures was fabricated at a low temperature (80 deg. C) by a simple chemical precipitation method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that CuO with spherical and flower-like structure can be formed under a weak alkali (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}), and CuO with sheets structure can be obtained under a strong alkali (NaOH). A possible growth mechanism of CuO nanocrystals was discussed. The flower-like CuO electrode exhibited a higher specific capacitance (133.6 Fg{sup -1}) and an excellent cycle performance at a high current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. Specific capacitance of flower-like CuO was 405.3% higher than globular CuO (26.44 Fg{sup -1}) at 2 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Nanostructured CuO Thin Films using Sol-gel Dip Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariffudin, S. S.; Khalid, S. S.; Sahat, N. M.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Hashim, H.

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructured CuO thin films were deposited onto quartz substrates by sol-gel dip coating technique. The precursor solution was prepared by dissolving copper acetate powder into isopropanol with molarity of 0.25M. Preheating and annealing temperature were fixed at 250°C and 600°C respectively. This study focused on various film thicknesses by varying the frequent number of deposited layers. The effect of thickness on electrical, surface morphology and optical properties of CuO thin film were studied. The surface morphology was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), surface profiler for thickness measurement, optical properties of CuO thin film were characterized by using ultraviolet- visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) for transmittance and absorbance, and the electrical property was examined by using two point probes method. The films were found to be denser at higher film thickness due to lesser porous observed on the surface. The thickness of these CuO thin films varied from 87.14 - 253.58 nm and the direct band gap energy was observed in between 1.9 to 2.35 eV. Lowest resistivity was found for sample with a thickness of 253.58 nm.

  16. Weak ferromagnetism and magnetic phase transitions in Gd2CuO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. J.; Chatterji, T.

    2011-08-01

    We report a polarized neutron study of the magnetic structures and phase transitions in Gd2CuO4 in low magnetic fields. These experiments have been complemented by integrated intensity measurements with unpolarized neutrons in zero field. Polarized neutron flipping ratio measurements have been made with magnetic fields H=0.05, 0.10, and 0.5 T in the temperature range 4-20 K. These have enabled us to deduce that the anomalous temperature behavior of the coherent magnetic scattering from the Cu sublattice, which shows sharp intensity minima at TC1 ≈18 K and TC2 ≈8 K, is due to cross overs in the sign of the interaction between strongly coupled, weakly ferromagnetic, CuO2 layers. At TC1 the coupling changes from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic and long-range order between layers is temporarily lost. TC2 is the temperature at which the Gd moments order and a further reorganization of the interlayer order takes place. The weak ferromagnetism of the CuO layers is found to be due to a small rotation of the Cu moments in the same direction as that in which their coordinating oxygen squares rotate in the tetragonal to orthorhombic distortion of the crystal structure. Further analysis of the flipping ratio measurements has enabled us to model the magnetic structures of the zero-field and the field-induced phases of Gd2CuO4.

  17. A robust enzymeless glucose sensor based on CuO nanoseed modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Tripathy, Nirmalya; Hahn, Yoon-Bong; Umar, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Ahmed A; Kim, S H

    2015-07-28

    Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of a robust enzymeless glucose sensor based on CuO nanoseeds (CNSs) synthesized at low-temperature. The as-fabricated sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic ability in a wide-linear range and was further employed for the glucose concentration determined in freshly drawn mice whole blood and serum samples. PMID:26079109

  18. Slave Boson Description of CuO2 Planes of the High-Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrkonjic, Ivana; Barisic, Slaven

    Slave-boson mean-field calculation is carried out analytically for doped CuO2 conduction planes, described by the extended Emery model which is parameterized by Cu-O charge transfer energy Δpd, Cu-O hopping t0, O-O hopping t' and Coulomb repulsion U localized on Cu site, taken as infinite. At zero doping δ, finite small t' expands the range of stability of the covalent, conducting state, characterized by renormalized band parameters Δpf and t, on the expense of insulating t=0 state, which, however, remains stable at larger Δpd. For sufficiently large Δpd, Δpf saturates at 4|t'|. Finite doping suppresses the insulating state nearly symmetrically with respect to its sign. The regime with Δpf close to 4|t'| fits remarkably well ARPES spectra of Y123, Bi2212 and LSCO, and, in the latter case, explains the observed strong doping-dependence of the effective Cu-O hopping.

  19. Single-crystalline CuO nanowires for resistive random access memory applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yi-Siang; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Ting Kai; He, Ruo Shiuan; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2015-04-27

    Recently, the mechanism of resistive random access memory (RRAM) has been partly clarified and determined to be controlled by the forming and erasing of conducting filaments (CF). However, the size of the CF may restrict the application and development as devices are scaled down. In this work, we synthesized CuO nanowires (NW) (∼150 nm in diameter) to fabricate a CuO NW RRAM nanodevice that was much smaller than the filament (∼2 μm) observed in a bulk CuO RRAM device in a previous study. HRTEM indicated that the Cu{sub 2}O phase was generated after operation, which demonstrated that the filament could be minimize to as small as 3.8 nm when the device is scaled down. In addition, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) show the resistive switching of the dielectric layer resulted from the aggregated oxygen vacancies, which also match with the I-V fitting results. Those results not only verify the switching mechanism of CuO RRAM but also show RRAM has the potential to shrink in size, which will be beneficial to the practical application of RRAM devices.

  20. Superconductivity in undoped T'-RE2CuO4 with TC > 30 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Michio; Matsumoto, Osamu; Utsuki, Aya; Tsukada, Akio; Yamamoto, Hideki; Manabe, Takaaki

    2008-03-01

    We report the superconductivity in T'-RE2CuO4 (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd), which have been for a long time believed as a Mott insulator. The highest Tc of undoped T'-RE2CuO4 is over 30 K, substantially higher than that of `electron-doped' analogs. Remarkably, Gd2CuO4, even the derivatives of which have not shown superconductivity so far, gets superconducting with Tc^onset as high as 20 K. Our discovery was achieved by using metal-organic decomposition (MOD), an inexpensive and easy-to-implement thin-film process. The keys to prepare the superconducting films are rather simple, namely low-PO2 firing and subsequent low-temperature reduction. One point to be emphasized is that low-PO2 phase field has been almost unexplored in the search for new superconductors because of the belief that high PO2 should be required in the synthesis of Cu^2+ compounds. Our discovery contradicts with the past results supporting undoped mother compounds, T'-RE2CuO4, to be insulating. The clue to understanding the sharp contrast between the past and our results is impurity oxygen (Oap) at the apical site, which has to be cleaned up in order to reach the `generic' electronic phase diagram.

  1. Legionella pneumophila transcriptional response following exposure to CuO nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper ions are an effective antimicrobial agent used to control Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever arising from institutional drinking water systems. Here we present data on an alternative bactericidal agent, CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs), and test its efficacy at three conce...

  2. Copper and Zinc Oxide Composite Nanostructures for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fei

    Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source to counter global environmental issues of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and depletion of natural resources. To extract useful work from solar energy, silicon-based photovoltaic devices are extensively used. The technological maturity and the high quality of silicon (Si) make it a material of choice. However limitations in Si exist, ranging from its indirect band gap to low light absorption coefficient and energy and capital intensive crystal growth schemes. Therefore, alternate materials that are earth-abundant, benign and simpler to process are needed for developing new platforms for solar energy harvesting applications. In this study, we explore oxides of copper (CuO and Cu2O) in a nanowire morphology as alternate energy harvesting materials. CuO has a bandgap of 1.2 eV whereas Cu2O has a bandgap of 2.1 eV making them ideally suited for absorbing solar radiation. First, we develop a method to synthesize vertical, single crystalline CuO and Cu2O nanowires of ~50 microm length and aspect ratios of ~200. CuO nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal oxidation of Cu foils. Cu2O nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal reduction of CuO nanowires. Next, surface engineering of these nanowires is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO. By depositing 1.4 nm of ZnO, a highly defective surface is produced on the CuO nanowires. These defects are capable of trapping charge as is evident through persistent photoconductivity measurements of ZnO coated CuO nanowires. The same nanowires serve as efficient photocatalysts reducing CO2 to CO with a yield of 1.98 mmol/g-cat/hr. Finally, to develop a robust platform for flexible solar cells, a protocol to transfer vertical CuO nanowires inside flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated. Embedded CuO nanowires-ZnO pn junctions show a VOC of 0.4 V and a JSC of 10.4 microA/cm2 under white light illumination of 5.7 mW/cm2. Thus, this research provides broad

  3. Corrosion testing of candidates for the alkaline fuel cell cathode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Joseph; Fielder, William L.

    1990-01-01

    Current/voltage data have been obtained for specially made corrosion electrodes of some oxides and of gold materials for the purpose of developing a screening test of catalysts and supports for use at the cathode of the alkaline fuel cell. The data consist of measurements of current at fixed potentials and cyclic voltammograms. These data will have to be correlated with longtime performance data in order to evaluate fully this approach to corrosion screening.

  4. Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhuang, Haifeng; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient.

  5. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  6. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  7. The Effect of Green Synthesized CuO Nanoparticles on Callogenesis and Regeneration of Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed Central

    Anwaar, Sadaf; Maqbool, Qaisar; Jabeen, Nyla; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Nawaz, Bushra; Hussain, Talib; Hussain, Syed Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the effect of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) on callogenesis and regeneration of Oryza sativa L (Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, and Basmati 385). In this regard, CuO-NPs have been bio-synthesized via Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis depicts average particle size of 40 ± 5 nm with highly homogenous and spherical morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been employed to confirm the phase purity of the synthesized NPs. It is found that CuO-NPs exhibit very promising results against callus induction. It is attributed to the fact that green synthesized CuO-NPs at optimum dosage possess very supportive effects on plant growth parameters. In contrast to callogenesis, differential regeneration pattern has been observed against all of the examined O. sativa L. indigenous verities. Overall observation concludes that CuO, being one of the essential plant nutrients, has greatly tailored the nutritive properties at nano-scale. PMID:27630655

  8. The Effect of Green Synthesized CuO Nanoparticles on Callogenesis and Regeneration of Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed Central

    Anwaar, Sadaf; Maqbool, Qaisar; Jabeen, Nyla; Nazar, Mudassar; Abbas, Fazal; Nawaz, Bushra; Hussain, Talib; Hussain, Syed Z.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the effect of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) on callogenesis and regeneration of Oryza sativa L (Super Basmati, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, and Basmati 385). In this regard, CuO-NPs have been bio-synthesized via Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis depicts average particle size of 40 ± 5 nm with highly homogenous and spherical morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been employed to confirm the phase purity of the synthesized NPs. It is found that CuO-NPs exhibit very promising results against callus induction. It is attributed to the fact that green synthesized CuO-NPs at optimum dosage possess very supportive effects on plant growth parameters. In contrast to callogenesis, differential regeneration pattern has been observed against all of the examined O. sativa L. indigenous verities. Overall observation concludes that CuO, being one of the essential plant nutrients, has greatly tailored the nutritive properties at nano-scale.

  9. Insight into the adsorption and dissociation of water over different CuO(111) surfaces: The effect of surface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Riguang; Wang, Baojun; Ling, Lixia

    2016-02-01

    Water adsorption and dissociation on solid surfaces play a key role in a variety of industrial processes, a detailed comprehension of this process and the effect of the surface structure will assist in developing the improved catalysts. In this study, the adsorption and dissociation of H2O on three different types of CuO(111) surfaces, including the stoichiometric, oxygen-vacancy and oxygen-rich surfaces, have been systematically investigated and compared using density functional theory methods. All possible initial configurations of H2O adsorbed on those surfaces with only one coverage have been identified. Our results show that the adsorption ability of H2O is substantially weaker than that of the dissociated species (HO, H and O). H2O chemisorbs at the CuSUB, Cu2 and CuSUB sites of the stoichiometric, oxygen-vacancy and oxygen-rich surfaces, respectively; subsequently, the chemisorption H2O dissociates into OH and H species. The dissociation mechanisms of chemisorption H2O and the single OH group leading to the final O and H species suggest that the dissociation of single OH species occurs at a higher barrier compared to the dissociation of OH in the presence of neighboring H atom (produced from the initial step of H2O dissociation), namely, the presence of H is in favor of OH dissociation, which agrees with the results of charge transfer. However, owing to the significantly high barrier of OH dissociation compared to the initial dissociation step of H2O, OH species is considered as the dominant product on those surfaces. Oxygen-rich surface is the most favorable for the initial dissociation of H2O both thermodynamically and kinetically than other two surfaces. The calculated vibrational frequencies for the adsorbed H2O and OH species on CuO(111) surfaces can be applied to guide the experimental research of surface vibrational spectroscopy. In addition, our results may provide a basis for the study of H2O interaction with other metal oxide surfaces.

  10. CuFe2 O4 -CuO Nanocomposites as Promising Materials for Solar Hydrogen Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mehdi; Amrollahi, Pouya; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Tayebi, Lobat; Vashaee, Daryoosh

    2014-03-01

    Currently, hydrogen is produced, almost exclusively, by waterelectrolysis. This method can take advantage of economies of scale and most established techniques of producing hydrogen. We developed a nanocomposite material system composed of CuFe2O4 and CuO semiconductor particles to produce hydrogen by electrolysis of water. The nanocomposite powder was prepared using the sol-gel method. Techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV diffuse reflectance analysis were employed to characterize the synthesized products.The results confirmed the formation of CuFe2O4-CuO nanocomposite powder. The hydrogen evolution was successfully observed over the new hetero-system of CuFe2O4-CuO. The electrolysis activity depended on the concentration of CuO in the system. In order to enhance the hydrogen production, we further optimized the composite material versus the concentration of the compounds.

  11. Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Doye, I.; Duchesne, J.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

  12. Catalytic wet oxidation of the pretreated synthetic pulp and paper mill effluent under moderate conditions.

    PubMed

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, I M; Chand, Shri

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) was investigated for the destruction of organic pollutants in the thermally pretreated effluent from a pulp and paper mill under moderate temperature and pressure conditions. The thermal pretreatment studies were conducted at atmospheric pressure and 368K using copper sulfate as a catalyst. The thermal pretreatment reduced COD by about 61%. The filtrate of the thermal pretreatment step was used at pH 8.0 for CWO at 383-443K temperature and a total pressure of 0.85MPa for 4h. Catalysts used for the reaction include copper sulfate, 5% CuO/95% activated carbon, 60% CuO/40% MnO(2), and 60% CuO/40% CeO(2). Maximum COD reduction was found to be 89% during CWO step using 5% CuO/95% activated carbon with a catalyst loading of 8gl(-1) at 443K and 0.85MPa total pressure. Overall COD reduction for the pretreatment and the CWO was found to be 96%. Besides this, 60% CuO/40% CeO(2) catalyst also exhibited the similar activity as that of obtained with 5% CuO/95% activated carbon catalyst at 423K temperature and 0.85MPa total pressure. The pH of the solution during the experimental runs decreases initially due to the formation of carboxylic acid and then increases due to the decomposition of acids.

  13. Impact of oxygen annealing on the heat capacity and magnetic resonance of superconducting Pr0.88LaCe0.12CuO4−

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shiliang; Chi, Songxue; Zhao, Jun; Wen, H. H.; Stone, Matthew B; Lynn, J. W.; Dai, Pengcheng

    2008-01-01

    We use thermodynamic and neutron-scattering measurements to study the effect of oxygen annealing on the superconductivity and magnetism in Pr0.88LaCe0.12CuO4−. Although the transition temperature Tc measured by susceptibility and superconducting coherence length increases smoothly with gradual oxygen removal from the annealing process, bulk superconductivity, marked by a specific-heat anomaly at Tc and the presence of a neutron magnetic resonance, only appears abruptly when Tc is close to the largest value. These results suggest that the effect of oxygen annealing must first be determined in order to establish a Ce doping dependence of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity phase diagram for electron-doped copper oxides.

  14. CuO single crystal with exposed {001} facets--a highly efficient material for gas sensing and Li-ion battery applications.

    PubMed

    Su, Dawei; Xie, Xiuqiang; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Single crystal copper oxide nanoplatelets with a high percentage of {001} facets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach. The as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission microscopy. Via density functional theory calculations, it was found that the {001} facets are active crystal planes. When the single crystal CuO nanoplatelets were applied as an anode material in Li-ion batteries, they demonstrated outstanding electrochemical performance with high lithium storage capacity, satisfactory cyclability, and excellent high rate capacity. When used as a sensing material in gas sensors, they exhibited a superior sensitivity towards toxic and flammable gases. PMID:25169039

  15. Effect of pH on the properties of nanocrystalline CuO thin films deposited by sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat Niavol, S.; Ghodsi, F. E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline cupric oxide thin films were prepared using the sol-gel method. Three sols with different pH were performed in order to evaluate the pH effect on the morphology and optical properties of the films. XRD pattern confirmed the nanocrystalline monoclinic CuO phase formation. The influences of pH on surface morphology of films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was observed that grains size increases by increasing the pH of the sol. UV-Vis spectrum measurement showed low transparency of the films in the visible region. Optical constants such as extinction coefficient, refractive index and optical band gap were evaluated from these spectra by using the Pointwise Unconstrained Minimization Approach (PUMA). The band gap of the films varies from 2.20 to 1.98 eV for various pH of sol.

  16. CuO single crystal with exposed {001} facets - A highly efficient material for gas sensing and Li-ion battery applications

    PubMed Central

    Su, Dawei; Xie, Xiuqiang; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Guoxiu

    2014-01-01

    Single crystal copper oxide nanoplatelets with a high percentage of {001} facets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach. The as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission microscopy. Via density functional theory calculations, it was found that the {001} facets are active crystal planes. When the single crystal CuO nanoplatelets were applied as an anode material in Li-ion batteries, they demonstrated outstanding electrochemical performance with high lithium storage capacity, satisfactory cyclability, and excellent high rate capacity. When used as a sensing material in gas sensors, they exhibited a superior sensitivity towards toxic and flammable gases. PMID:25169039

  17. One-dimensional variable range hopping conduction in a single crystal of La 2CuO 4+y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corraze, B.; Ribault, M.

    1993-02-01

    We have measured the resistivity perpendicular to the CuO 2 planes, in the magnetically ordered phases of a single crystal of La 2CuO 4+y as a function of temperature. Within a limited temperature range a one-dimensional variable range hopping conduction mechanism is identified, in zero magnetic field. The analysis of both the temperature range and the magnetic field variation shows that this mechanism is strongly dependent on the intraplane and on the interplane couplings.

  18. The effect of CuO NPs on reactive oxygen species and cell cycle gene expression in roots of rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuling; Liu, Hanzhu; Zhang, Yuxi; Xin, Hua

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) on root growth, root reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the expression of 2 genes (OsCDC2 and OsCYCD) associated with root growth of Oryza sativa (rice), rice roots were treated with 5 mg/L CuO NP suspension, 5 mg/L CuO bulk particle suspension, and 0.27 mg/L CuSO4  · 5H2 O solution, with distilled water as control. The results indicated that CuO NPs and Cu(2+) severely inhibited the elongation and biomass of rice roots after 72-h exposure. Dyeing with 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) showed that in all 3 treatment groups, the fluorescence was primarily located in the meristem zone, demonstrating that the meristem zone was where ROS were primarily generated. In addition, a significant increase in ROS was detected in the meristem zone of roots treated with the CuO NP suspension and the CuSO4  · 5H2 O solution, both of which greatly influenced the expression level of OsCDC2 and OsCYCD. The impact of Cu(2+) on these 2 genes was smaller than that of CuO NPs. The Cu content in roots of rice after treatment with CuO NPs was much higher than that found after the other treatments, which indicated that CuO NPs may have been absorbed into root tissue. Collectively, these data suggest that growth inhibition, higher ROS production, and gene expression inhibition may be caused not only by the ions themselves, but also the NPs.

  19. Effects of copper oxide nanoparticles on developing zebrafish embryos and larvae

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Gong; He, Zizi; Wang, Yajie; Cui, Jianlin; Li, Yuhao

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used for a variety of purposes in a wide range of commercially available products. Some CuO NPs probably end up in the aquatic systems, thus raising concerns about aqueous exposure toxicity, and the impact of CuO NPs on liver development and neuronal differentiation remains unclear. In this study, particles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Zebrafish embryos were continuously exposed to CuO NPs from 4 hours postfertilization at concentrations of 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, or 1 mg/L. The expression of gstp1 and cyp1a was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and superoxide dismutase 1 was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Liver development and retinal neurodifferentiation were analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization, hematoxylin–eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry, and a behavioral test was performed to track the movement of larvae. We show that exposure of CuO NPs at low doses has little effect on embryonic development. However, exposure to CuO NPs at concentrations of 12.5 mg/L or higher leads to abnormal phenotypes and induces an inflammatory response in a dose-dependent pattern. Moreover, exposure to CuO NPs at high doses results in an underdeveloped liver and a delay in retinal neurodifferentiation accompanied by reduced locomotor ability. Our data demonstrate that short-term exposure to CuO NPs at high doses shows hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. PMID:27022258

  20. High specific surface area nickel mixed oxide powders LaNiO{sub 3} (perovskite) and NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} (spinel) via sol-gel type routes for oxygen electrocatalysis in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    El Baydi, M.; Chartier, P.; Koenig, J.F.; Poillerat, G.; Tiwari, S.K. |; Singh, R.N.; Rehspringer, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    A novel sol-gel process of preparation of oxide electrocatalysts is investigated to prepare Ni-containing mixed oxides LaNiO{sub 3} and NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} at moderate temperatures. High surface area (20-55 m{sup 2} g{sup {minus}1}) powders and high roughness electrodes (30-1500) were obtained. Apparent and real electrocatalytical activity are compared and discussed.