Science.gov

Sample records for alkaline extraction method

  1. Rapid alkaline extraction method for the isolation of plasmid DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Birnboim, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    Plasmids are double-stranded circular DNA molecules that have the property of self-replication, independent of chromosomal DNA. Although the presence of a plasmid in a bacterial cell may be detected genetically as a change in phenotype, often it is necessary to isolate plasmid DNA for molecular studies, such as size determination, restriction enzyme mapping, and nucleotide sequencing, or for the construction of new hybrid plasmids. The degree of purification required will depend upon the intended use. Less purified plasmid DNA is often satisfactory for recombinant DNA studies, and a large number of shorter and simpler methods have been developed. This chapter describes one such method that uses an alkaline extraction step. It is rapid enough to be used as a screening method, permitting 50-100 or more samples to be extracted in a few hours. The DNA is sufficiently pure to be digestible by restriction enzymes, an important advantage for screening. A preparative version that allows isolation of larger quantities of more highly purified material is also described.

  2. Characterization of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method.

    PubMed

    Souza, Daiana de; Sbardelotto, Arthur Francisco; Ziegler, Denize Righetto; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina

    2016-01-15

    This study evaluated the characteristics of rice starch and protein obtained by a fast alkaline extraction method on rice flour (RF) derived from broken rice. The extraction was conducted using 0.18% NaOH at 30°C for 30min followed by centrifugation to separate the starch rich and the protein rich fractions. This fast extraction method allowed to obtain an isoelectric precipitation protein concentrate (IPPC) with 79% protein and a starchy product with low protein content. The amino acid content of IPPC was practically unchanged compared to the protein in RF. The proteins of the IPPC underwent denaturation during extraction and some of the starch suffered the cold gelatinization phenomenon, due to the alkaline treatment. With some modifications, the fast method can be interesting in a technological point of view as it enables process cost reduction and useful ingredients obtention to the food and chemical industries. PMID:26258699

  3. Hot-Alkaline DNA Extraction Method for Deep-Subseafloor Archaeal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Takeshi; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Inagaki, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    A prerequisite for DNA-based microbial community analysis is even and effective cell disruption for DNA extraction. With a commonly used DNA extraction kit, roughly two-thirds of subseafloor sediment microbial cells remain intact on average (i.e., the cells are not disrupted), indicating that microbial community analyses may be biased at the DNA extraction step, prior to subsequent molecular analyses. To address this issue, we standardized a new DNA extraction method using alkaline treatment and heating. Upon treatment with 1 M NaOH at 98°C for 20 min, over 98% of microbial cells in subseafloor sediment samples collected at different depths were disrupted. However, DNA integrity tests showed that such strong alkaline and heat treatment also cleaved DNA molecules into short fragments that could not be amplified by PCR. Subsequently, we optimized the alkaline and temperature conditions to minimize DNA fragmentation and retain high cell disruption efficiency. The best conditions produced a cell disruption rate of 50 to 80% in subseafloor sediment samples from various depths and retained sufficient DNA integrity for amplification of the complete 16S rRNA gene (i.e., ∼1,500 bp). The optimized method also yielded higher DNA concentrations in all samples tested compared with extractions using a conventional kit-based approach. Comparative molecular analysis using real-time PCR and pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes showed that the new method produced an increase in archaeal DNA and its diversity, suggesting that it provides better analytical coverage of subseafloor microbial communities than conventional methods. PMID:24441163

  4. A new DNA extraction method by controlled alkaline treatments from consolidated subsurface sediments.

    PubMed

    Kouduka, Mariko; Suko, Takeshi; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Ito, Kazumasa; Suzuki, Yohey

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities that thrive in subterranean consolidated sediments are largely unknown owing to the difficulty of extracting DNA. As this difficulty is often attributed to DNA binding onto the silica-bearing sediment matrix, we developed a DNA extraction method for consolidated sediment from the deep subsurface in which silica minerals were dissolved by being heated under alkaline conditions. NaOH concentrations (0.07 and 0.33 N), incubation temperatures (65 and 94 °C) and incubation times (30-90 min) before neutralization were evaluated based on the copy number of extracted prokaryotic DNA. Prokaryotic DNA was detected by quantitative PCR analysis after heating the sediment sample at 94 °C in 0.33 N NaOH solution for 50-80 min. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the extracted DNA were all consistent with regard to the dominant occurrence of the metallophilic bacterium, Cupriavidus metallidurans, and Pseudomonas spp. Mineralogical analysis revealed that the dissolution of a silica mineral (opal-CT) during alkaline treatment was maximized at 94 °C in 0.33 N NaOH solution for 50 min, which may have resulted in the release of DNA into solution. Because the optimized protocol for DNA extraction is applicable to subterranean consolidated sediments from a different locality, the method developed here has the potential to expand our understanding of the microbial community structure of the deep biosphere. PMID:22092362

  5. Determination of Lutein from Fruit and Vegetables Through an Alkaline Hydrolysis Extraction Method and HPLC Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Mignogna, Rossella; Niro, Serena; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of lutein content, successfully used for cereal matrices, was evaluated in fruit and vegetables. The method involved the determination of lutein after an alkaline hydrolysis of the sample matrix, followed by extraction with solvents and analysis by normal phase HPLC. The optimized method was simple, precise, and accurate and it was characterized by few steps that could prevent loss of lutein and its degradation. The optimized method was used to evaluate the lutein amounts in several fruit and vegetables. Rich sources of lutein were confirmed to be green vegetables such as parsley, spinach, chicory, chard, broccoli, courgette, and peas, even if in a range of variability. Taking into account the suggested reference values these vegetables can be stated as good sources of lutein. PMID:26540023

  6. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  7. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    This invention relates generally to a process for extracting technetium from nuclear wastes and more particularly to a process for extracting technetium from alkaline waste solutions containing technetium and high concentrations of alkali metal nitrates. A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate comprises the steps of: contacting the aqueous alkaline solution with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent, the diluent being a water-immiscible organic liquid in which the crown ether is soluble, for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution into the solvent; separating the solvent containing the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution; and stripping the technetium values from the solvent by contacting the solvent with water.

  8. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  9. Extraction of the transplutonium elements from alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Karalova, Z.K.; Bukina, T.I.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1986-03-01

    This paper investigates the extraction of transplutonium elements (TPE) and other elements using aliquat-336 and alkylpyrocatechol from strongly alkaline solutions in the presence of complexforming substances. It was shown by the methods of NMR and IR spectroscopy that elements can be extracted from alkaline solutions both in the form of coordination-saturated internal complex compounds and in the form of ionic associates, the anionic portion of which consists either of hydroxo-complexes of the cooresponding metals or their compounds with the complex-forming substance. Together with the TPE and REE the authors also studied the extraction of Fe(III), Ru(III), Zr(IV), Pu(IV), Pa(V), Nb(V), U(VI), Cs(I), and Th(IV) from alkaline solutions.

  10. Surfactant and adhesive formulations from alkaline biomass extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Matthew

    This work studies the ability to produce effective surfactant and adhesive formulations using surface active biological material extracted from different biomass sources using alkaline extraction methods. Two urban waste biomass sources were used to produce surfactants, Return Activated Sludge (RAS), and solid Urban Refuse (UR). The third biomass source investigated was isolated mustard protein (MP). RAS and MP extracts were investigated for adhesive production. The results indicate that extracts from the waste biomass sources, RAS and UR, can be combined with a commercial surfactant, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), to produce surfactants with low interfacial tensions against various oils. These highly surface-active formulations were shown to be useful in the removal of bitumen from contaminated sand. RAS and MP showed potential as protein-based wood adhesives. These sources were used in adhesive formulations to produce a strong bond strength under low-pressure, ambient pressing conditions.

  11. Alkaline extraction of phenolic compounds from intact sorghum kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was employed to extract phenolic compounds from whole grain sorghum without decortication or grinding as determined by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC). The alkaline extract ORAC values were more stable over 32 days compared to neutralized and freeze dri...

  12. Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

  13. The Chemical Kinetics of Alkaline Extraction of Tellurium from Lead-Bismuth Eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence E. Auman; Eric P. Loewen; Thomas F. Gesell; Shuji Ohno

    2005-07-01

    Polonium-210 is an important radioactive product of neutron activation of molten lead-bismuth eutectic, a promising candidate coolant for advanced fast nuclear reactors. The radiological hazard potential associated with polonium can be significantly reduced by continuous online removal of polonium from the coolant. The removal method under investigation in this research is alkaline extraction. Chemical kinetic measurements were made to determine first and second order rate constants, activation energy, and heat of reaction at various temperatures using tellurium as a surrogate. First and second order alkaline extraction rate constants were measured to be: k1 = 10.05 e –52,274/RT and k2 = 167 e –97,224/RT. Alkaline extraction is dependent on temperature and was found to follow the Arrhenius rate law. The activation energy (Ea) ranged between 52,274 – 97,224 J mol-1. With a strong foundation of surrogate work completed, this work should be validated using polonium-210.

  14. Quantifying phytate in dairy digesta and feces: alkaline extraction and high-performance ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ray, P P; Shang, C; Maguire, R O; Knowlton, K F

    2012-06-01

    Development of an analytical method with appropriate combination of extraction and quantification approaches for undigested phytate in ruminant feces and digesta will advance knowledge of phytate degradation in ruminants and help to reduce phosphorus excretion. Established quantification methods give satisfactory results for feedstuffs and nonruminant manure but recovery of phytate is incomplete for ruminant feces and digesta because of their complex sample matrix and low ratio of phytate to inorganic P. The objective was to develop a robust, accurate, sensitive, and inexpensive method to extract and quantify phytate in feeds, ruminant feces, and digesta. Diets varying in phytate content were fed to dairy heifers, dry cows, and lactating cows to generate digesta and fecal samples of varying composition to challenge extraction and quantification methods. Samples were extracted with 0.5 M HCl or 0.25 M NaOH + 0.05 M EDTA. Acid extracts were mixed with 20% NaCl, alkaline extracts were acidified to final pH < 2, and then both extracts were clarified with C₁₈ cartridges and 0.2-μm filters. High-performance ion chromatography (HPIC) was used to quantify phytate. In feed samples, the measured phytate was comparable in alkaline and acid extracts (2,965 vs. 3,085 μg/g of DM). In digesta and fecal samples, alkaline extraction yielded greater estimates of phytate content than did acid extraction (40.7 vs. 33.6 and 202.9 vs. 144.4 μg/g of DM for digesta and fecal samples, respectively). Analysis of alkaline extracts by HPIC is usually not possible because of sample matrix interferences; acidification and C(18)-cartridge elution of alkaline extracts prevented this interference. Pure phytate added to dry samples before extraction was almost completely recovered (88 to 105%), indicating high extraction efficiency, no adverse effect of extract clean-up procedures, and accurate quantification of phytate. The proposed method is rapid, inexpensive, robust, and combines the

  15. Alkaline extraction of polonium from liquid lead bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinitz, S.; Neuhausen, J.; Schumann, D.

    2011-07-01

    The production of highly radiotoxic polonium isotopes poses serious safety concerns for the development of future nuclear systems cooled by lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). In this paper it is shown that polonium can be extracted efficiently from LBE using a mixture of alkaline metal hydroxides (NaOH + KOH) in a temperature range between 180 and 350 °C. The extraction ratio was analyzed for different temperatures, gas blankets and phase ratios. A strong dependence of the extraction performance on the redox properties of the cover gas was found. While hydrogen facilitates the removal of polonium, oxygen has a negative influence on the extraction. These findings open new possibilities to back up the safety of future LBE based nuclear facilities.

  16. A method for making an alkaline battery electrode plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chida, K.; Ezaki, T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for making an alkaline battery electrode plate where the desired active substances are filled into a nickel foam substrate. In this substrate an electrolytic oxidation reduction occurs in an alkaline solution containing lithium hydroxide.

  17. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, A.B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo0/sub 3/).

  18. Leaching properties of electric arc furnace dust prior/following alkaline extraction.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Mikelić, Luka; Sofilić, Tahir; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka; Uzarević, Krunoslav; Medunić, Gordana; Elez, Loris; Lulić, Stipe

    2007-02-15

    This study was carried out to determine the appropriate treatment of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust prior to permanent disposal. The total heavy metal content as well as heavy metal leaching from EAF dust was investigated in five composite samples obtained from three Croatian and Slovenian steelworks. In order to recover zinc and reduce its leaching from the dust, all five samples were submitted to alkaline extraction with 10 M NaOH. Reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr(III) was conducted using FeSO4 x 7H2O solution. The elements Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, and notably Zn and Pb, exhibited highest mobility during toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Comparing to TCLP extracts of initial EAF dust, zinc was found to be over 15 times lower and lead over 200 times lower in TCLP extracts of EAF dust processed by the alkaline leaching method. Since Cr (VI) exceeded its permissible level in the DIN 38414-S4 extracts of both initial and alkaline digested dust, its reduction to Cr (III) prior to permanent disposal is necessary. The recovery of zinc from EAF dust treated with alkaline agent ranged from 50.3% to 73.2%. According to phase analysis, recovery yield showed dependence on zincite/franklinite ratio. The results of the study indicate that permanent disposal of EAF dust require the following procedure: alkaline digestion (followed by leachate purification and alkaline zinc electrolyses), chromate reduction (if necessary), solidification of leaching residue and its testing using the leaching analyses. PMID:17365298

  19. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Presley, Derek J.

    2001-01-01

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  20. A precise study on effects that trigger alkaline hemicellulose extraction efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hutterer, Christian; Schild, Gabriele; Potthast, Antje

    2016-08-01

    The conversion of paper-grade pulps into dissolving pulps requires efficient strategies and process steps to remove low-molecular noncellulosic macromolecules generally known as hemicelluloses. Current strategies include alkaline extractions and enzymatic treatments. This study focused on the evaluation of extraction efficiencies in alkaline extractions of three economically interesting hardwood species: beech (Fagus sylvatica), birch (Betula papyrifera), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus). Substrate pulps were subjected to alkaline treatments at different temperatures and alkalinities using white liquor as the alkali source, followed by analyses of both pulps and hemicellulose-containing extraction lyes. The extracted hardwood xylans have strong potential as an ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Subsequent analyses revealed strong dependencies of the extraction efficiencies and molar mass distributions of hemicelluloses on the process variables of temperature and effective alkalinity. The hemicellulose content of the initial pulps, the hardwood species, and the type of applied base played minor roles. PMID:27163434

  1. An improved protocol for DNA extraction from alkaline soil and sediment samples for constructing metagenomic libraries.

    PubMed

    Verma, Digvijay; Satyanarayana, T

    2011-09-01

    An improved single-step protocol has been developed for extracting pure community humic substance-free DNA from alkaline soils and sediments. The method is based on direct cell lysis in the presence of powdered activated charcoal and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone followed by precipitation with polyethyleneglycol and isopropanol. The strategy allows simultaneous isolation and purification of DNA while minimizing the loss of DNA with respect to other available protocols for metagenomic DNA extraction. Moreover, the purity levels are significant, which are difficult to attain with any of the methods reported in the literature for DNA extraction from soils. The DNA thus extracted was free from humic substances and, therefore, could be processed for restriction digestion, PCR amplification as well as for the construction of metagenomic libraries. PMID:21519906

  2. Multiple biological complex of alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Zhou, Li; Kawano, Michiyo; Thet, May Maw; Tanaka, Shoji; Machino, Mamoru; Amano, Shigeru; Kuroshita, Reina; Watanabe, Shigeru; Chu, Qing; Wang, Qin-Tao; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Sekine, Keisuke; Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Chang-Hao; Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Mohri, Kiminori; Kitajima, Madoka; Oizumi, Hiroshi; Oizumi, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown anti-inflammatory potential of alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder (SE). The aim of the present study was to clarity the molecular entity of SE, using various fractionation methods. SE inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), but not tumour necrosis factor-α by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage-like cells. Lignin carbohydrate complex prepared from SE inhibited the NO production to a comparable extent with SE, whereas chlorophyllin was more active. On successive extraction with organic solvents, nearly 90% of SE components, including chlorophyllin, were recovered from the aqueous layer. Anti-HIV activity of SE was comparable with that of lignin-carbohydrate complex, and much higher than that of chlorophyllin and n-butanol extract fractions. The CYP3A inhibitory activity of SE was significantly lower than that of grapefruit juice and chlorophyllin. Oral administration of SE slightly reduced the number of oral bacteria. When SE was applied to HPLC, nearly 70% of SE components were eluted as a single peak. These data suggest that multiple components of SE may be associated with each other in the native state or after extraction with alkaline solution. PMID:20952742

  3. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  4. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  5. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  6. COMPARISON OF THREE WET-ALKALINE METHODS OF DIGESTION OF BIOGENIC SILICA IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for determination of low levels of biogenic silica (0.2-0.4 mg SiO2) in aqueous samples after digestion with three wet-alkaline extraction procedures compared favourably in both precision of replicates and recovery of silica utilized by diatoms in budgeted cultures. Time-...

  7. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  8. Zinc Extraction from Zinc Plants Residue Using Selective Alkaline Leaching and Electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtari, Pedram; Pourghahramani, Parviz

    2015-10-01

    Annually, a great amount of zinc plants residue is produced in Iran. One of them is hot filter cake (known as HFC) which can be used as a secondary resource of zinc, cobalt and manganese. Unfortunately, despite its heavy metal content, the HFC is not treated. For the first time, zinc was selectively leached from HFC employing alkaline leaching. Secondly, leaching was optimized to achieve maximum recovery using this method. Effects of factors like NaOH concentration (C = 3, 5, 7 and 9 M), temperature (T = 50, 70, 90 and 105 °C), solid/liquid ratio (weight/volume, S/L = 1/10 and 1/5 W/V) and stirring speed (R = 500 and 800 rpm) were studied on HFC leaching. L16 orthogonal array (OA, two factors in four levels and two factors in two levels) was applied to determine the optimum condition and the most significant factor affecting the overall zinc extraction. As a result, maximum zinc extraction was 83.4 %. Afterwards, a rough test was conducted for zinc electrowinning from alkaline solution according to the common condition available in literature by which pure zinc powder (99.96 %) was successfully obtained.

  9. Extractive distillation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Sh.; Miyamoto, M.

    1984-05-08

    A method is disclosed for separating a hydrocarbon mixture into relatively difficulty soluble hydrocarbons and relatively easily soluble hydrocarbons by extractive distillation using a polar solvent. The method comprises feeding the starting hydrocarbon mixture to at least two evaporators, an extractive distillation column, a stripping column and a rectifying column; the improvement wherein (1) the polar solvent discharged at a high temperature from the bottom of the stripping column is recycled to the extractive distillation column after it has been cooled to a suitable temperature by giving up heat to a reboiler of the extractive distillation column, a reboiler of the rectifying column and successively to the two or more evaporators, and (2) the starting hydrocarbon mixture is divided into two or more streams and heated in two or more evaporators, one stream being evaporated in a first evaporator to a pressure necessary for introduction into the extractive distillation column and then fed to the extractive distillation column, and the other stream, after evaporation in a second and subsequent evaporators, being pressurized to a pressure required for introduction into the extractive distillation column by means of a compressor and then fed into the extractive distillation column.

  10. Enzymatic method of determining lead using alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhovtsova, T.N.; Kucheryaeva, V.V.; Dolmanova, I.F.

    1986-03-20

    The purpose of this work was to determine the possibility of using alkaline phosphatase to determine trace amounts of ions of a number of metals - Mg, Ba, Ca, Sr, Cd, Pb - for which there are virtually no sensitive and simple methods of determination.

  11. Alkaline-side extraction of technetium from tank waste using crown ethers and other extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.; Presley, D.J.; Armstrong, V.S.; Haverlock, T.J.; Counce, R.M.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    The chemical development of a new crown-ether-based solvent-extraction process for the separation of (Tc) from alkaline tank-waste supernate is ready for counter-current testing. The process addresses a priority need in the proposed cleanup of Hanford and other tank wastes. This need has arisen from concerns due to the volatility of Tc during vitrification, as well as {sup 99}Tc`s long half-life and environmental mobility. The new process offers several key advantages that direct treatability--no adjustment of the waste composition is needed; economical stripping with water; high efficiency--few stages needed; non-RCRA chemicals--no generation of hazardous or mixed wastes; co-extraction of {sup 90}Sr; and optional concentration on a resin. A key concept advanced in this work entails the use of tandem techniques: solvent extraction offers high selectivity, while a subsequent column sorption process on the aqueous stripping solution serves to greatly concentrate the Tc. Optionally, the stripping solution can be evaporated to a small volume. Batch tests of the solvent-extraction and stripping components of the process have been conducted on actual melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste as well as simulants of MVST and Hanford waste. The tandem process was demonstrated on MVST waste simulants using the three solvents that were selected the final candidates for the process. The solvents are 0.04 M bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (abbreviated di-t-BuCH18C6) in a 1:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M (an isoparaffinic kerosene); 0.02 M di-t-BuCH18C6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar M and pure TBP. The process is now ready for counter-current testing on actual Hanford tank supernates.

  12. Protection against Experimental Cryptococcosis following Vaccination with Glucan Particles Containing Cryptococcus Alkaline Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chrono K.; Huang, Haibin; Shen, Zu T.; Lodge, Jennifer K.; Leszyk, John; Ostroff, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A vaccine capable of protecting at-risk persons against infections due to Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii could reduce the substantial global burden of human cryptococcosis. Vaccine development has been hampered though, by lack of knowledge as to which antigens are immunoprotective and the need for an effective vaccine delivery system. We made alkaline extracts from mutant cryptococcal strains that lacked capsule or chitosan. The extracts were then packaged into glucan particles (GPs), which are purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls composed primarily of β-1,3-glucans. Subcutaneous vaccination with the GP-based vaccines provided significant protection against subsequent pulmonary infection with highly virulent strains of C. neoformans and C. gattii. The alkaline extract derived from the acapsular strain was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the most abundant proteins were identified. Separation of the alkaline extract by size exclusion chromatography revealed fractions that conferred protection when loaded in GP-based vaccines. Robust Th1- and Th17-biased CD4+ T cell recall responses were observed in the lungs of vaccinated and infected mice. Thus, our preclinical studies have indicated promising cryptococcal vaccine candidates in alkaline extracts delivered in GPs. Ongoing studies are directed at identifying the individual components of the extracts that confer protection and thus would be promising candidates for a human vaccine. PMID:26695631

  13. Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts. Results Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80°C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (~20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and β-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation. Conclusions This work demonstrates that this two

  14. Improved Performance of the Alkaline-Side CSEX Process for Cesium Extraction from Alkaline High-Level Waste Obtained by Characterization of the Effect of Surfactant Impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.

    1999-11-04

    Improved understanding and performance of the alkaline-side CSEX process has been obtained through the characterization of impurity effects that hinder complete stripping of cesium from the solvent. It is shown in this report that tests of the alkaline-side CSEX process conducted in the summer and fall of 1998 were complicated by the presence of common surfactant anions, undecyl- and dodecylsulfonate, as trace impurities in the two simulants tested. This conclusion was drawn from the results of a series of systematic extraction tests followed by a definitive identification by electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS). Based on this understanding, a straightforward preventative measure involving the addition of a lipophilic tertiary amine extractant at a small concentration to the solvent is proposed and demonstrated. As part of the task ''Fission Product Solvent Extraction'' supported by the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program within the USDOE Office of Environmental Management, the alkaline-side CSEX process has been developed for removal of radio-cesium ({sup 137}Cs) from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site and Savannah River Site (SRS). As described in a previous report, tests conducted in Fiscal Year 1998 generally demonstrated performance meeting the requirements for cesium removal from the waste to be treated at the SRS. However, discrepancies in stripping behavior were shown to arise from unidentified differences ''in the batches of waste simulant employed for testing. Various effects such as solvent impurities, kinetics, contacting method, and counting method were eliminated as possible causes of the observed discrepancies. Tests in Fiscal Year 1999 reported herein confirmed the earlier suspicion that the simulants contained lipophilic anionic impurities. Extraction tests demonstrated that the impurities could be concentrated in the solvent, and by ES-MS in the negative-ion mode it was possible to

  15. Peroxyacetyl nitrate: comparison of alkaline hydrolysis and chemiluminescence methods

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D.; Harrison, J.

    1985-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN; CH/sub 3/C(O)OONO/sub 2/) was prepared from sunlight irradiation of organic-NO/sub x/ and chlorine-organic-NO/sub x/ mixtures in air, and its concentration was measured by using two methods. The first method involved ion chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis of PAN to acetate, and the second method involved PAN measurements using a chemiluminescent NO/sub x/ analyzer. The two methods were found to be in good agreement in the range of PAN concentrations tested, 0-400 ppb. Applications and limitations of the two methods are discussed for both laboratory and ambient measurements of PAN.

  16. Extraction of starch from wheat flour by alkaline solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Separation of starch from wheat flour with high purity is very important for the analysis of starch such as amylose and amylopectin determination by size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC). A procedure that extracts starch from flour by ethanol precipitation after dissolving flour in KOH and urea solution wa...

  17. Aqueous two-phase extraction for the purification of alkaline agarases from culture extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AG LSL-11.

    PubMed

    Koti, Basawaraj A; Lakshmikanth, M; Manohar, S; Lalitha, J

    2012-01-01

    The agarases were purified for the first time an using aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and phosphate salt. The three extracellular, alkaline agarases produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa AG LSL-11 were efficiently extracted into the top PEG-rich layer. The influencing factors on the partition of agarases--molecular weight of the PEG, system pH, system temperature, and NaCl concentration--were investigated. All the factors were found to have a significant effect on the partition of agarases except NaCl. The optimal ATPS parameters for the partitioning and purification of agarases were found to be 12% PEG 600 and 11.9% (w/w) phosphate salt at pH 8.0 and 4°C. All three agarases were concentrated in the top PEG phase with 6.19-fold purity and 71.21% recovery. The ATPS was found to be more convenient and economical than the conventional ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) method for extraction of three agarases and could be significantly employed for the purification of agarases from fermentation broth. PMID:22708813

  18. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  19. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  20. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  1. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-11-20

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Delignification of EFB facilitated the hydrolysis of EFB-xylan by a pure endo-β-1,4-xylanase. Up to 91% (w/w) of the non-extracted xylan in the delignified EFB was hydrolysed compared to less than 4% (w/w) of that in untreated EFB. Alkaline extraction of EFB, without prior delignification, yielded only 50% of the xylan. The xylan obtained was hydrolysed only for 40% by the endo-xylanase used. Hence, delignification alone outperformed alkaline extraction as pretreatment for enzymatic fingerprinting of EFB xylans. From the analysis of the oligosaccharide-fingerprint of the delignified endo-xylanase hydrolysed EFB xylan, the structure was proposed as acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoarabinoxylan. PMID:27561506

  2. Efficiency of alkaline hydrolysis method in environment protection.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Tajana; Toth, Ivan; Kalambura, Sanja; Jovicić, Nives

    2014-06-01

    Development of new technologies for the efficient use of proteins of animal origin, apart from heat treatment in rendering facilities that was used to date, has become the primary goal of the integral waste management system. The emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe and in the World in the 1990s opened up new questions regarding medical safety and use of meat bone meal in the animal feed, which is produced by processing animal waste. Animal waste is divided into three categories, out of which the first category is high-risk waste. Alkaline hydrolysis is alternative method for management of animal by-products not intended for human diet and imposes itself as one of the solutions for disposal of high-risk proteins. The paper will present the analyses of animal by-products not intended for human diet treated in laboratory reactor for alkaline hydrolysis, as one of the two recognized methods in EU for the disposal of this type of material and use in fertilization. PMID:25144977

  3. Optimization of Alkaline Extraction and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Yin, Luoyi; Zhang, Xuejiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qiuzhi; Jin, Chenzhong; Wang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as the following: NaOH concentration (A) 0.3 M, temperature (B) 80°C, ratio of NaOH to solid (C) 10-fold, and extraction time (D) 4 h, in which ratio of NaOH to solid was a key factor. The order of the factors was ratio of NaOH to solid (fold, C) > extraction temperature (°C, B) > NaOH concentration (M, A) > extraction time (h, D). The monosaccharide compositions of polysaccharides from P. odoratum were rhamnose, mannose, xylose, and arabinose with the molecular ratio of 31.78, 31.89, 11.11, and 1.00, respectively. The reducing power, the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging rate, the hydroxyl radicals scavenging rate, and the inhibition rate to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation of the alkaline soluble polysaccharides from P. odoratum at 1 mg/mL were 9.81%, 52.84%, 19.22%, and 19.42% of ascorbic acid at the same concentration, respectively. They also showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. PMID:25093173

  4. Histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase in the uterus of rats: response to a few indigenous plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Mathur, R

    1986-01-01

    Localization of alkaline phosphatase in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium of rats under the influence of 50% ethanolic and benzene extracts of three indigenous plants viz. Embelia ribes Burm. (dried berries), Artobotrys odoratissimus Linn. (fresh green leaves) and Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn. (flowers) has been studied histochemically. 75 and 150 mg/kg doses of 50% ethanolic extracts of E. ribes increased the intensity of reaction for alkaline phosphatase in both luminal and glandular epithelium, whereas extracts of A. odorantissimus and H. rosa-sinensis could not elicit any significant positive staining in luminal and glandular epithelium for alkaline phosphatase. Intense positive reaction for alkaline phosphatase due to E. ribes extract has been correlated with its estrogenic mode of action. PMID:3577595

  5. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  6. Separator for alkaline batteries and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    The preparation of membranes suitable for use as separators in concentrated alkaline battery cells by selective solvolysis of copolymers of methacrylate esters with acrylate esters followed by addition of a base and to the resultant products is described. The method of making copolymers by first copolymerizing a methacrylate ester (or esters) with a more readily hydrolyzable ester, followed by a selective saponification whereby the methacrylate ester moieties remain essentially intact and the readily hydrolyzable ester moiety is suponified and to the partial or complete neutralization of the relatively brittle copolymer acid with a base to make membranes which are sufficiently flexible in the dry state so that they may be wrapped around electrodes without damage by handling is described.

  7. Major discrepancies between results obtained with two different methods for evaluating DNA damage: alkaline elution and alkaline unwinding. Possible explanations.

    PubMed

    Taningher, M; Bordone, R; Russo, P; Grilli, S; Santi, L; Parodi, S

    1987-01-01

    The fluorometric assay of DNA alkaline unwinding, developed by Birnboim and Jevcak (Cancer Res 41: 1889-1892, 1981) was applied to rat liver DNA, after treatment in vivo. N-nitrosodimethylamine, for which DNA damage in rat liver has been extensively investigated, was tested as a standard compound. The results were in complete agreement (both in terms of damage and repair) with data from the literature and with our own results obtained with other methods of detecting DNA alkaline fragmentation. Sensitivity was also of the same order of that of usual methods, with the effect of 0.3 mg/Kg of N-nitrosodimethylamine being detectable. Other DNA damaging carcinogens such as 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, 2-naphthylamine and dacarbazine were also correctly detected. Compounds like nitrofurantoin, benzoin and caprolactam, which appeared clearly positive with the alkaline elution technique, but for which genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are doubtful (nitrofurantoin) or most likely negative (benzoin and caprolactam), gave negative results with this method. This is also in agreement with previous results, observed using a different approach to measuring DNA unwinding. On the basis of these and other observations, we suggest that, under certain conditions, the alkaline elution technique is perhaps not only sensitive to DNA breaks but also to changes in chromatin conformation. Unwinding methods could be more specific in the detection of DNA fragmentations. PMID:3674758

  8. The carbon distribution among the functional groups of humic acids isolated by sequential alkaline extraction from gray forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Konstantinov, A. I.; Perminova, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    Preparations of humic acids (HAs) were isolated from a gray forest soil by sequential alkaline extraction. From a sample of 500 g, HA preparations of 2.24, 0.23, and 0.20 g were obtained from the first, second, and third alkaline extracts, respectively. The structure of the preparations was determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy. At each next extraction step, the portion of aliphatic fragments in the HA preparations increased and the content of aromatic structures decreased. The conclusion was drawn that a single extraction is sufficient for obtaining a representative HA sample.

  9. Use of solid phase extraction for the sequential injection determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2012-08-30

    In this work, a solid phase extraction sequential injection methodology for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems was developed. The determination of the enzymatic activity was based on the spectrophotometric detection of a coloured product, p-nitrophenol, at 405 nm. The p-nitrophenol is the product of the catalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, a non-coloured substrate. Considering the low levels expected in natural waters and exploiting the fact of alkaline phosphatase being a metalloprotein, the enzyme was pre-concentrated in-line using a NTA Superflow resin charged with Zn(2+) ions. The developed sequential injection method enabled a quantification range of 0.044-0.441 unit mL(-1) of enzyme activity with a detection limit of 0.0082 unit mL(-1) enzyme activity (1.9 μmol L(-1) of pNP) and a determination rate of 17 h(-1). Recovery tests confirmed the accuracy of the developed sequential injection method and it was effectively applied to different natural waters and to plant root extracts. PMID:22939148

  10. Preparative yield and properties of humic acids obtained by sequential alkaline extractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, V. A.; Yaroslavtseva, N. V.; Konstantinov, A. I.; Perminova, I. V.

    2015-10-01

    The preparative yield, composition, and structure of humic acids obtained by sequential alkaline extractions from two soils (a soddy-podzolic soil under forest and a typical chernozem in treatment with permanent black fallow of a long-term experiment since 1964) have been studied. The preparative yield of humic acids from the first extraction is 0.40 and 0.94% for the soddy-podzolic soil (Retisols) and the chernozem, respectively. The preparative yield from the second extraction is lower by several times, and the yield from the third extraction is lower by an order of magnitude. The study of the obtained preparations by elemental analysis, gel-permeation chromatography, and 13C NMR spectroscopy has shown insignificant changes in the elemental, molecular-weight, and structural-group composition of humic acids among the extractions. It has been supposed that this is related to the soil features: typical climatic factors for the formation of soil subtype in the case of soddy-podzolic soil and the land use in the long-term experiment in the case of typical chernozem. It has been concluded that that a single extraction is sufficient for the separation of humic acids and the preparation of a representative sample.

  11. Recovering lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by mechano-chemical extraction in alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenglong; Wang, Jingwei; Bai, Jianfeng; Guan, Jie; Wu, Wenjie; Guo, Cuixiang

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluates the efficiency of lead (Pb) extraction from cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass in strongly alkaline solution using mechanical activation in a ball mill as the chemical breakage and defects formed in the inner structures will contribute to the easy dissolution of the activated Pb glass. The combination of mechanical activation and a chemical leaching process in a single operation (mechano-chemical leaching) is more effective than the mechanical activation and subsequent chemical leaching. More than 97% of Pb in the CRT funnel glass can be extracted with a stirring ball mill leaching process in 5 M sodium hydroxide at 70°C. The diameter of the stainless steel balls as the activation medium is 5 mm; the mass ratio of ball to raw materials is 25:1. Pb powder with a purity of 97% can be obtained by electrowinning from the leaching solution. The Pb-depleted solution can be recycled into the leaching step. After Pb is removed, the solid leaching residues can be used for preparation of foam glass. Thus, a novel hydrometallurgical process for recovering Pb from CRT funnel glass in alkaline solution is proposed. PMID:23592759

  12. Lactoperoxidase-125I localization of salt-extractable alkaline phosphatase on the cytoplasmic membrane of Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D B; Hulett, F M

    1981-02-01

    Previous histochemical and biochemical localizations of alkaline phosphatase in Bacillus licheniformis MC14 have shown that the membrane-associated form of the enzyme is located on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane, and soluble forms are located in the periplasmic space and in the growth medium. The distribution of salt-extractable alkaline phosphatase on the surfaces of the cytoplasmic membrane of B. licheniformis MC14 was determined by using lactoperoxidase-125I labeling techniques. Cells harvested during rapid alkaline phosphatase production were converted to protoplasts or lysed protoplasts and labeled. Analysis of the data obtained indicated that 30% of the salt-extractable, membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase was located on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane, whereas 70% of the membrane-associated enzyme was localized on the inner surface. Controls for protoplast integrity (release of tritiated thymidine or examination of cytoplasmic proteins for label content) indicated excellent protoplast stability. Controls indicated that chemical labeling was not a factor in the apparent distribution of alkaline phosphatase on the membrane. These results support the previously reported histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase on the membrane inner surface. The presence of alkaline phosphatase on the membrane outer surface is reasonable, considering the soluble forms of the enzyme found in the periplasmic region and in the culture medium. PMID:7462164

  13. Lactoperoxidase-125I localization of salt-extractable alkaline phosphatase on the cytoplasmic membrane of Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, D B; Hulett, F M

    1981-01-01

    Previous histochemical and biochemical localizations of alkaline phosphatase in Bacillus licheniformis MC14 have shown that the membrane-associated form of the enzyme is located on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane, and soluble forms are located in the periplasmic space and in the growth medium. The distribution of salt-extractable alkaline phosphatase on the surfaces of the cytoplasmic membrane of B. licheniformis MC14 was determined by using lactoperoxidase-125I labeling techniques. Cells harvested during rapid alkaline phosphatase production were converted to protoplasts or lysed protoplasts and labeled. Analysis of the data obtained indicated that 30% of the salt-extractable, membrane-associated alkaline phosphatase was located on the outer surface of the cytoplasmic membrane, whereas 70% of the membrane-associated enzyme was localized on the inner surface. Controls for protoplast integrity (release of tritiated thymidine or examination of cytoplasmic proteins for label content) indicated excellent protoplast stability. Controls indicated that chemical labeling was not a factor in the apparent distribution of alkaline phosphatase on the membrane. These results support the previously reported histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase on the membrane inner surface. The presence of alkaline phosphatase on the membrane outer surface is reasonable, considering the soluble forms of the enzyme found in the periplasmic region and in the culture medium. Images PMID:7462164

  14. Structural Features of Alkaline Extracted Polysaccharide from the Seeds of Plantago asiatica L. and Its Rheological Properties.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun-Yi; Chen, Hai-Hong; Lin, Hui-Xia; Xie, Ming-Yong; Nie, Shao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. has many bioactivities, but few papers report on the structural and rheological characteristics of the alkaline extract. The alkaline extracted polysaccharide was prepared from seeds of P. asiatica L. and named herein as alkaline extracted polysaccharide from seeds of P. asiatica L. (PLAP). Its structural and rheological properties were characterized by monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS and rheometry. PLAP, as an acidic arabinoxylan, was mainly composed of 1,2,4-linked Xylp and 1,3,4-linked Xylp residues. PLAP solution showed pseudoplastic behavior, and weak gelling properties at high concentration. Sodium and especially calcium ions played a significant role in increasing the apparent viscosity and gel strength. PMID:27608001

  15. Selective separation of hydroxide from alkaline nuclear tank waste by liquid-liquid extraction with weak hydroxy acids.

    PubMed

    Chambliss, C Kevin; Haverlock, Tamara I; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Moyer, Bruce A

    2002-04-15

    Recovery and recycle of caustic reagents in industrial processes offer potential means of pollution prevention, as investigated herein for particular needs related to the cleanup of alkaline nuclear waste. Specifically, the recovery of hydroxide from alkaline media by liquid-liquid extraction can be effected utilizing weak hydroxy acids, as demonstrated for NaOH utilizing a series of lipophilic fluorinated alcohols and alkylated phenols dissolved in 1-octanol. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the hydroxy acids, the phenols being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. After extraction, NaOH is effectively recoverable from the organic phase upon contact with water. The weakest hydroxy acids are the most efficiently stripped, NaOH recovery being nearly quantitative in a single contact. In competitive extraction experiments, good selectivity for hydroxide recovery over other anions such as nitrate and chloride was demonstrated. Since the order of extraction favors larger anions, the exceptional preference for hydroxide implies that the extraction occurs by deprotonation of the hydroxy acids in a cation-exchange process. Stripping therefore occurs by hydrolysis to regenerate the neutral hydroxy acid, liberating NaOH to the aqueous phase. Since hydroxide equivalents rather than actual hydroxide ions are transferred to the solvent, the process is termed "pseudohydroxide extraction." Hydroxide recovery from a simulant of alkaline nuclear tank waste (Hanford DSSF simulant) was also demonstrated in repeated extraction and stripping cycles. PMID:11993889

  16. Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1998-12-01

    Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

  17. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, David T.

    1992-01-01

    A method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction.

  18. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  19. Formulation and optimization of alkaline extracted ispaghula husk microparticles of isoniazid - in vitro and in vivo assessment.

    PubMed

    Maurya, D P; Sultana, Yasmin; Aqil, M; Kumar, D; Chuttani, K; Ali, A; Mishra, A K

    2011-01-01

    Microparticles containing isoniazid were prepared by the emulsification internal ionic gelation method using a novel, alkaline extracted ispaghula husk as a wall forming material. A four-factor three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to study the effect of independent variables on dependent variables. Sodium alginate concentration (X(1)), alkaline extraction of ispaghula husk (AEISP) concentration (X(2)), concentration of cross-linking agents (X(3)) and stirring speed (X(4)) were four independent variables considered in the preparation of microparticles, while the particle size (Y(1)) and entrapment efficiency (Y(2)) were dependent variables. Optimized microparticles exhibited 83.43% drug entrapment and 51.53 µm particle size with 97.80% and 96.37% validity, respectively, at the following conditions - sodium alginate (3.55% w/v), alkaline extracted ispaghula husk (3.60% w/v), cross-linker concentration (7.82% w/v) and stirring speed (1200 rpm). The optimized formulation showed controlled drug release for more than 12 h by following Higuchi kinetics via non-Fickian diffusion. The gamma scintigraphy of the optimized formulation in Wistar rats showed that microparticles could be observed in the intestinal lumen after 1 h and were detectable in the intestine up to 12 h, with decreased percentage of radioactivity (t(1/2) of (99m)Tc 4-5 h). PMID:21561399

  20. COMBINED EXTRACTION OF CESIUM, STRONTIUM, AND ACTINIDES FROM ALKALINE MEDIA: AN EXTENSION OF THE CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION (CSSX) PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This fundamental research on combined cesium, strontium, and actinide separation from alkaline media by solvent extraction addresses the EM need for more efficient processes for the combined separation of these elements. The goal of this research is to obtain fundamental informat...

  1. Structure characterization and antitumor activity of a polysaccharide from the alkaline extract of king oyster mushroom.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinkui; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Hongmin; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Yuexia

    2015-03-15

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, designated as KOMAP, was isolated and purified from the alkaline extract of king oyster mushroom, which was composed of glucose (Glc), mannose (Man) and arabinose (Ara) in a molar ratio of 6.2:2.1:2.0. It had an average molecular weight of 2.1×10(4)Da. GC-MS analysis revealed that KOMAP was a linear structure of the polymer with a backbone composed of β-1,4-linked glucopyranosyl and β-1,3,6-linked mannopyranosyl units, which was terminated with α-1-linked arabinofuranosyl unit at C-6 position of β-1,3,6-linked mannopyranosyl residue along the main chain in the ratio of 3.1:1. The results in the animal experiment showed that 50, 100 and 200mg/mL of KOMAP not only inhibited the tumor growth, but also increased relative thymus and spleen indices, LPS- or ConA-induced lymphocytes proliferation, and serum cytokine IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, as well as the activities of NK cells and CTLs in spleen of Renca tumor-bearing mice. In summary, our data indicate that the KOMAP exerts effective immunoregulatory and anti-tumor activities in vivo. PMID:25542113

  2. Extraction of alkaline earth and actinide cations by mixtures of Di(2-ethylhexyl)alkylenediphosphonic acids and neutral synergists.

    SciTech Connect

    McAlister, D. R.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M. L.; Herlinger, A. W.; Zalupski, P. R.; Chemistry; Loyola Univ.

    2002-09-18

    The synergistic extraction of alkaline earth (Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+} and Ra{sup 2+}) and actinide (Am{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+}) cations from aqueous nitric acid solutions by mixtures of P,P'-di(2-ethylhexyl) methylene-(H{sub 2}DEH[MDP]), ethylene-(H{sub 2}DEH[EDP]), and butylene-(H{sub 2}DEH[BuDP]) diphosphonic acids and neutral extractants in o-xylene has been investigated. The cis-syn-cis and cis-anti-cis stereoisomers of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6), the unsubstituted 21-crown-7 (21C7) and dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 (DCH21C7) were used as neutral synergists of the crown ether type. For Am(III) synergistic effects were also investigated using neutral organophosphorus esters, such as, tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP), diamyl amylphosphonate (DA[AP]) and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as co-extractants. In all systems investigated, no synergistic extraction enhancement was observed for actinide ions. For the alkaline earth cations, synergistic effects were only observed when mixtures of H{sub 2}DEH[EDP] or H{sub 2}DEH-[BuDP] with DCH18C6 were used to extract Sr{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+} and Ra{sup 2+}. No synergistic effects were observed for the extraction of alkaline earth cations by H{sub 2}DEH[MDP] or for the extraction of Ca{sup 2+} by any of the diphosphonic acids studied. The synergistic effects obtained with DCH18C6 were significantly higher for the cis-syn-cis than for the cis-anti-cis stereoisomer.

  3. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  4. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    PubMed

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. PMID:23260272

  5. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1992-10-06

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction. 2 figs.

  6. Removal of dissolved actinides from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    DOEpatents

    Krot, Nikolai N.; Charushnikova, Iraida A.

    1997-01-01

    A method of reducing the concentration of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline radwastes containing plutonium and neptunium values along with other transuranic values produced during the course of plutonium production. The OH.sup.- concentration of the alkaline radwaste is adjusted to between about 0.1M and about 4M. [UO.sub.2 (O.sub.2).sub.3 ].sup.4- ion is added to the radwastes in the presence of catalytic amounts of Cu.sup.+2, Co.sup.+2 or Fe.sup.+2 with heating to a temperature in excess of about 60.degree. C. or 85.degree. C., depending on the catalyst, to coprecipitate plutonium and neptunium from the radwaste. Thereafter, the coprecipitate is separated from the alkaline radwaste.

  7. Yam (Dioscorea batatas) Root and Bark Extracts Stimulate Osteoblast Mineralization by Increasing Ca and P Accumulation and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suji; Shin, Mee-Young; Son, Kun-Ho; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Kwun, In-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea batatas) is widely consumed as functional food for health promotion mainly in East Asia countries. We assessed whether yam root (tuber) or bark (peel) extracts stimulated the activity of osteoblasts for osteogenesis. MC3T3-E1 cells (mouse osteoblasts) were treated with yam root extracts (water or methanol) (study I) or bark extracts (water or hexane) (study II) within 0~10 μg/mL during the periods of osteoblast proliferation (5~10 day), matrix maturation (11~15 day) and mineralization (16~20 day) as appropriate. In study I, both yam root water and methanol extracts increased cell proliferation as concentration-dependent manner. Cellular collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, both the indicators of bone matrix protein and inorganic phosphate production for calcification respectively, were also increased by yam root water and methanol extract. Osteoblast calcification as cell matrix Ca and P accumulation was also increased by the addition of yam root extracts. In study II, yam bark extracts (water and hexane) increased osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, as collagen synthesis and ALP activity and osteoblast matrix Ca and P deposition. The study results suggested that both yam root and bark extracts stimulate osteogenic function in osteoblasts by stimulating bone matrix maturation by increasing collagen synthesis, ALP activity, and matrix mineralization. PMID:25320717

  8. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Reis, Signo T.; Velez, Mariano; Day, Delbert E.

    2010-01-26

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  9. The Overview of Entity Relation Extraction Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xian-Yi; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Hua, Jin

    The Information extraction can be defined as the task of extracting information of specified events or facts, and then stored in a database for the users' querying. Only with the correct relationship between the various entities, the database can be correctly store in. Entity relation extraction becomes a key technology of information Extraction system. In this paper, we analyze the status of entity relation extraction method; propose several problems for this field to be solved.

  10. Gelation properties of spent duck meat surimi-like material produced using acid-alkaline solubilization methods.

    PubMed

    Nurkhoeriyati, T; Huda, N; Ahmad, R

    2011-01-01

    The gelation properties of spent duck meat surimi-like material produced using acid solubilization (ACS) or alkaline solubilization (ALS) were studied and compared with conventionally processed (CON) surimi-like material. The ACS process yielded the highest protein recovery (P < 0.05). The ALS process generated the highest lipid reduction, and the CON process yielded the lowest reduction (P < 0.05). Surimi-like material produced by the CON process had the highest gel strength, salt extractable protein (SEP), and water holding capacity (WHC), followed by materials produced via the ALS and ACS processes and untreated duck meat (P < 0.05). The material produced by the CON process also had the highest cohesiveness, hardness, and gumminess values and the lowest springiness value. Material produced by the ACS and ALS processes had higher whiteness values than untreated duck meat gels and gels produced by the CON method (P < 0.05). Surimi-like material produced using the ACS and CON processes had significantly higher myoglobin removal (P < 0.05) than that produced by the ALS method and untreated duck meat. Among all surimi-like materials, the highest Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was found in conventionally produced gels (P < 0.05). This suggests that protein oxidation was induced by acid-alkaline solubilization. The gels produced by ALS had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) total SH content than the other samples. This result showed that the acid-alkaline solubilization clearly improved gelation and color properties of spent duck and possibly applied for other high fat raw material. PMID:21535715

  11. The effect of deoxyribonucleic acid extraction methods from lymphoid tissue on the purity, content, and amplifying ability

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Hossein; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Ayatollahi, Ali; Shajiei, Arezoo; Sheikhi, Maryam; Bakhshi, Samane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, definitive diagnosis of numerous diseases is based on the genetic and molecular findings. Therefore, preparation of fundamental materials for these evaluations is necessary. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the first material for the molecular pathology and genetic analysis, and better results need more pure DNA. Furthermore, higher concentration of achieved DNA causes better results and higher amplifying ability for subsequent steps. We aim to evaluate five DNA extraction methods to compare DNA intimacy including purity, concentration, and amplifying ability with each other. Materials and Methods: The lymphoid tissue DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue through five different methods including phenol-chloroform as the reference method, DNA isolation kit (QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue Kit, Qiagen, Germany), proteinase K and xylol extraction and heat alkaline plus mineral oil extraction as authorship innovative method. Finally, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR method were assessed to compare each following method consider to DNA purity and its concentration. Results: Among five different applied methods, the highest mean of DNA purity was related to heat alkaline method. Moreover, the highest mean of DNA concentration was related to heat alkaline plus mineral oil. Furthermore, the best result in quantitative PCR was in proteinase K method that had the lowest cycle threshold averages among the other extraction methods. Conclusion: We concluded that our innovative method for DNA extraction (heat alkaline plus mineral oil) achieved high DNA purity and concentration.

  12. COMPARISON OF SELECTED WELD DEFECT EXTRACTION METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, R.; Baniukiewicz, P.; Chady, T.; Rucinski, W.; Swiadek, K.; Caryk, M.; Lopato, P.

    2008-02-28

    This paper presents three different methods of welding defects detection from radiographs. First two methods are dedicated for extraction of flaws directly from radiograms. Fuzzy logic system considers whether the pixel belongs to crack (or background) using defects probability maps together with simple fuzzy rules. Neural network method uses knowledge gathered from radiographs with known defects. Indirect method extracts defects by subtracting background from the radiograph and next using various local thresholding methods.

  13. Electronic Nose Feature Extraction Methods: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jia; Guo, Xiuzhen; Duan, Shukai; Jia, Pengfei; Wang, Lidan; Peng, Chao; Zhang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Many research groups in academia and industry are focusing on the performance improvement of electronic nose (E-nose) systems mainly involving three optimizations, which are sensitive material selection and sensor array optimization, enhanced feature extraction methods and pattern recognition method selection. For a specific application, the feature extraction method is a basic part of these three optimizations and a key point in E-nose system performance improvement. The aim of a feature extraction method is to extract robust information from the sensor response with less redundancy to ensure the effectiveness of the subsequent pattern recognition algorithm. Many kinds of feature extraction methods have been used in E-nose applications, such as extraction from the original response curves, curve fitting parameters, transform domains, phase space (PS) and dynamic moments (DM), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), energy vector (EV), power density spectrum (PSD), window time slicing (WTS) and moving window time slicing (MWTS), moving window function capture (MWFC), etc. The object of this review is to provide a summary of the various feature extraction methods used in E-noses in recent years, as well as to give some suggestions and new inspiration to propose more effective feature extraction methods for the development of E-nose technology. PMID:26540056

  14. Microwave-assisted alkaline extraction of galactan-rich rhamnogalacturonan I from potato cell wall by-product.

    PubMed

    Khodaei, Nastaran; Karboune, Salwa; Orsat, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Galactan-rich rhamnogalacturonan I (RG I), exhibiting promising health benefits, is the most abundant polysaccharide in potato pulp by-product. In the present study, the microwave-assisted alkaline extraction of galactan-rich RG I was investigated. Solid/liquid ratio was identified as the most significant parameter affecting linearly yield and galactose/rhamnose contents. Microwave power and solid/liquid ratio exhibited a significant adverse interactive effect on the yield. Galactose content of extracted polysaccharides can be modulated by compromising between KOH concentration and extraction time, which exhibited adverse interaction. Optimum conditions were identified using the established predicted models and consisted of treatment of potato cell wall at solid/liquid ratio of 2.9% (w/v) with 1.5M KOH under microwave power of 36.0 W for 2.0 min. Yield of intact galactan-rich RG I of 21.6% and productivity of 192.0 g/Lh were achieved. The functional properties of RG I-rich polysaccharides were comparable or superior to potato galactan and oranges homogalacturonan. PMID:26213002

  15. Simultaneous speciation analysis of chromate, molybdate, tungstate and vanadate in welding fume alkaline extracts by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Ščančar, Janez; Berlinger, Balázs; Thomassen, Yngvar; Milačič, Radmila

    2015-09-01

    A novel analytical procedure was developed for the simultaneous speciation analysis of chromate, molybdate, tungstate and vanadate by anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Linear gradient elution from 100% water to 100% 0.7 M NaCl was applied for chromatographic separation of metal species. In standard aqueous solution at neutral pH molybdate, tungstate and vanadate exist in several aqueous species, while chromate is present as a single CrO4(2-) species. Consequently, only chromate can be separated from this solution in a sharp chromatographic peak. For obtaining sharp chromatographic peaks for molybdate, tungstate and vanadate, the pH of aqueous standard solutions was raised to 12. At highly alkaline conditions single CrO4(2-), MoO4(2-) and WO4(2-) are present and were eluted in sharp chromatographic peaks, while VO4(3-) species, which predominates at pH 12 was eluted in slightly broaden peak. In a mixture of aqueous standard solutions (pH 12) chromate, molybdate, tungstate and vanadate were eluted at retention times from 380 to 420 s, 320 to 370 s, 300 to 350 s and 240 to 360 s, respectively. Eluted species were simultaneously detected on-line by ICP-MS recording m/z 52, 95, 182 and 51. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of leachable concentrations of chromate, molybdate, tungstate and vanadate in alkaline extracts (2% NaOH+3% Na2CO3) of manual metal arc (MMA) welding fumes loaded on filters. Good repeatability and reproducibility of measurement (RSD±3.0%) for the investigated species were obtained in both aqueous standard solutions (pH 12) and in alkaline extracts of welding fumes. Low limits of detection (LODs) were found for chromate (0.02 ng Cr mL(-1)), molybdate (0.1 ng Mo mL(-1)), tungstate (0.1 ng W mL(-1)) and vanadate (0.2 ng V mL(-1)). The accuracy of analytical procedure for the determination of chromate was checked by analysis of

  16. Extraction and Separation of Vitisin D, Ampelopsin B and cis-Vitisin A from Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz by Alkaline Extraction-Acid Precipitation and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lv, Huanhuan; Zhou, Wenna; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhenhua; Suo, Yourui; Wang, Honglun

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring oligostilbenes are receiving more attention because they exhibit several beneficial effects for health, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-adipogenic, antioxidant, antiaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiviral, immunosuppressive and neuroprotective activities. Thus, they could be of some potentially therapeutic values for several diseases. In this study, we adopted the alkaline extraction-acid precipitation (AEAP) method for extraction of oligostilbenes from the seed kernel of Iris lactea Then, the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for preparative isolation and purification of oligostilbenes from the AEAP extracts. Finally, three oligostilbenes, namely vitisin D (73 mg), ampelopsin B (25 mg) and cis-vitisin A (16 mg), were successfully fractionated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:5:3:6, v/v/v/v) from 300 mg of the AEAP extracts in ∼ 190 min. The purities of the three isolated oligostilbenes were all over 95.0% as analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. They all were isolated from I. lacteal for the first time.The method of AEAP for the preparation of the oligostilbene-enriched crude sample was simple, and the HSCCC technique for the isolation and purification of oligostilbenes was efficient. PMID:26847919

  17. An improved method for analysis of hydroxide and carbonate in alkaline electrolytes containing zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified method for titration of carbonate and hydroxide in alkaline battery electrolyte is presented involving a saturated KSCN solution as a complexing agent for zinc. Both hydroxide and carbonate can be determined in one titration, and the complexing reagent is readily prepared. Since the pH at the end point is shifted from 8.3 to 7.9 - 8.0, m-cresol purple or phenol red are used as indicators rather than phenolphthalein. Bromcresol green is recommended for determination of the second end point of a pH of 4.3 to 4.4.

  18. An improved method for analysis of hydroxide and carbonate in alkaline electrolytes containing zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified method for titration of carbonate and hydroxide in alkaline battery electrolyte is presented involving a saturated KSCN solution as a complexing agent for zinc. Both hydroxide and carbonate can be determined in one titration, and the complexing reagent is readily prepared. Since the pH at the end point is shifted from 8.3 to 7.9-8.0, m-cresol purple or phenol red are used as indicators rather than phenolphthalein. Bromcresol green is recommended for determination of the second end point of a pH of 4.3 to 4.4.

  19. Hydrophilic Electrode For An Alkaline Electrochemical Cell, And Method Of Manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Senyarich, Stephane; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel

    2000-03-07

    A negative electrode for an alkaline electrochemical cell. The electrode comprises an active material and a hydrophilic agent constituted by small cylindrical rods of polyolefin provided with hydrophilic groups. The mean length of the rods is less than 50 microns and the mean diameter thereof is less than 20 microns. A method of manufacturing a negative electrode in which hydrophilic rods are made by fragmenting long polyolefin fibers having a mean diameter of less than 20 microns by oxidizing them, with the rods being mixed with the active material and the mixture being applied to a current conductor.

  20. Stability indicating methods for the analysis of cefprozil in the presence of its alkaline induced degradation product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attia, Khalid A. M.; Nassar, Mohammed W. I.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Serag, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Three simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of cefprozil (CZ) in the presence of its alkaline induced degradation product (DCZ). The first method was the bivariate method, while the two other multivariate methods were partial least squares (PLS) and spectral residual augmented classical least squares (SRACLS). The multivariate methods were applied with and without variable selection procedure (genetic algorithm GA). These methods were tested by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures of the above drug with its alkaline induced degradation product and they were applied to its commercial pharmaceutical products.

  1. Extraction Methods in Soil Phosphorus Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soinne, Helena

    2010-05-01

    Extraction methods are widely used to assess the bioavailability of P and to characterise soil P reserves. Even though new and more sophisticated methods to characterise soil P are constantly developed the use of extraction methods is not likely to be replaced because of the relatively simple analytical equipment needed for the analysis. However, the large variety of extractants, pre-treatments and sample preparation procedures complicate the comparison of published results. In order to improve our understanding of the behaviour and cycling of P in soil, it is important to know the role of extracted P in the soil P cycle. The knowledge of the factors affecting the analytical outcome is a prerequisite for justified interpretation of the results. In this study, the effect of sample pre-treatment and properties of the used extractant on extractable molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) and molybdate-unreactive phosphorus (MUP) was studied. Furthermore, the effect of sample preparation procedures prior the analysis on measured MRP and MUP was studied. Two widely used sequential extraction procedures were compared on their ability to show management induced differences on soil P. These results revealed that pre-treatments changed soil properties and air-drying was found to affect soil P, particularly extractable MUP, thought to represent organic P, by disrupting organic matter. This was evidenced by an increase in the water-extractable small-sized (<0.2 µm) P that, at least partly, took place at the expense of the large-sized (>0.2 µm) P. In addition to the effects of sample pre-treatment, the results showed that extractable organic P was sensitive to the chemical nature of the used extractant and to the sample preparation procedures employed prior to P analysis, including centrifugation and filtering of soil suspensions. Filtering may remove a major proportion of extractable MUP; therefore filtering cannot be recommended in the characterisation of solubilised MUP

  2. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Alinat, Elodie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Archer, Xavier; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Gareil, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1M sodium hydroxide for 1h at 60 °C). PMID:25562808

  3. Evaluation of an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste using laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R. A.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M. W.; Sedlet, J.; Aase, S. B.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1999-11-29

    An alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste was evaluated experimentally using a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. Single-stage and multistage tests were conducted with this contactor to determine hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet. The results and conclusions of these tests are reported along with those from various supporting tests. Also discussed is the ability to scale-up from laboratory- to plant-scale operation when centrifugal contractors are used to carry out the solvent extraction process. While some problems were encountered, a promising solution for each problem has been identified. Overall, this alkaline-side cesium extraction process appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste.

  4. Augmented digestion of lignocellulose by steam explosion, acid and alkaline pretreatment methods: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Joginder; Suhag, Meenakshi; Dhaka, Anil

    2015-03-01

    Lignocellulosic materials can be explored as one of the sustainable substrates for bioethanol production through microbial intervention as they are abundant, cheap and renewable. But at the same time, their recalcitrant structure makes the conversion process more cumbersome owing to their chemical composition which adversely affects the efficiency of bioethanol production. Therefore, the technical approaches to overcome recalcitrance of biomass feedstock has been developed to remove the barriers with the help of pretreatment methods which make cellulose more accessible to the hydrolytic enzymes, secreted by the microorganisms, for its conversion to glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in cost effective manner is a major challenge to bioethanol technology research and development. Hence, in this review, we have discussed various aspects of three commonly used pretreatment methods, viz., steam explosion, acid and alkaline, applied on various lignocellulosic biomasses to augment their digestibility alongwith the challenges associated with their processing. PMID:25498680

  5. Probing metabolic stability of CdSe nanoparticles: alkaline extraction of free cadmium from liver and kidney samples of rats exposed to CdSe nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Zikri; Ates, Mehmet; McDuffy, Wanaki; Agachan, M Sabri; Farah, Ibrahim O; Yu, W William; Bednar, Anthony J

    2011-08-15

    Cadmium selenide nanoparticles (CdSe NPs) exhibit novel optoelectronic properties for potential biomedical applications. However, their metabolic stability is not fully understood because of the difficulties in measurement of free Cd from biological tissues of exposed individuals. In this study, alkaline dissolution with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is demonstrated for selective determination of free Cd and intact NPs from liver and kidney samples of animals that were exposed to thiol-capped CdSe NPs. Aqueous suspensions of CdSe NPs (3.2 nm) were used to optimize the conditions for extracting free Cd without affecting NPs. Nanoparticles were found to aggregate when heated in TMAH without releasing any significant Cd to solution. Performance of the method in discriminating free Cd and intact NPs were verified by Dogfish Liver (DOLT-4) certified reference material. The samples from the animals were digested in 4 mL TMAH at 70°C to extract free Cd followed by analysis of aqueous phase by ICP-MS. Both liver and kidney contained significant levels of free Cd. Total Cd was higher in the liver, while kidney accumulated mostly free Cd such that up to 47.9% of total Cd in the kidney was free Cd when NPs were exposed to UV-light before injection. PMID:21700388

  6. Determination of lignin in marine sediment using alkaline cupric oxide oxidation-solid phase extraction-on-column derivatization-gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Li, Xianguo; Sun, Shuwen; Lan, Haiqing; Du, Peirui; Wang, Min

    2013-03-01

    Lignin serves as one of the most important molecular fossils for tracing Terrestrial Organic Matters (TOMs) in marine environment. Extraction and derivatization of lignin oxidation products (LOPs) are crucial for accurate quantification of lignin in marine sediment. Here we report a modification of the conventional alkaline cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation method, the modification consisting in a solid phase extraction (SPE) and a novel on-column derivatization being employed for better efficiency and reproducibility. In spiking blanks, recoveries with SPE for the LOPs are between 77.84% and 99.57% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 0.57% to 8.04% ( n=3), while those with traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) are from 44.52% to 86.16% with RSDs being from 0.53% to 13.14% ( n=3). Moreover, the reproducibility is greatly improved with SPE, with less solvent consumption and shorter processing time. The average efficiency of on-column derivatization for LOPs is 100.8% ± 0.68%, which is significantly higher than those of in-vial or in-syringe derivatization, thus resulting in still less consumption of derivatizing reagents. Lignin in the surface sediments sampled from the south of Yangtze River estuary, China, was determined with the established method. Recoveries of 72.66% to 85.99% with standard deviation less than 0.01mg/10g dry weight are obtained except for p-hydroxyben-zaldehyde. The lignin content Σ8 (produced from 10 g dry sediment) in the research area is between 0.231 and 0.587 mg. S/V and C/V ratios (1.028 ± 0.433 and 0.192 ± 0.066, respectively) indicate that the TOMs in this region are originated from a mixture of woody and nonwoody angiosperm plants; the high values of (Ad/Al)v suggest that the TOMs has been highly degraded.

  7. Alkaline protease production, extraction and characterization from alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis KBDL4: a Lonar soda lake isolate.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Anupama P; Deshmukh, Kshipra B

    2012-08-01

    A bacterium producing an alkaline protease was isolated from the Lonar soda lake, Buldhana district (19 degrees 58' N; 76 degrees 31' E), Maharashtra, India. The most appropriate medium for the growth and protease production was composed of (g/L): casein 10; yeast extract 4; KH2PO4 0.5, K2HPO4 0.5 and CaCl2 0.5. The enzyme showed maximum activity with and without 5 mM Ca2+ at 70 and 60 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme retained 40 and 82% of its initial activity after heating for 60 min at 60 degrees C, in absence and presence of 5 mM CaCl2 respectively. The enzyme remained active and stable at pH 8-12, with an optimum at pH 10. The enzyme showed stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants, and oxidizing agents. It also showed excellent stability and compatibility with commonly used laundry detergents. Wash performance analysis revealed that enzyme could effectively remove blood stains. It also showed decomposition of gelatinous coating on X- ray film. PMID:23016494

  8. Molecular diversity of riverine alkaline-extractable sediment organic matter and its linkages with spectral indicators and molecular size distributions.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Chen, Meilian; Park, Jae-Eun; Hur, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have been conducted to examine the spatial heterogeneity of riverine sediment organic matter (SOM) at the molecular level. The present study explored the chemical and molecular heterogeneity of alkaline-extractable SOM from riverine sediments via multiple analytical tools including molecular composition, absorption and fluorescence spectra, and molecular size distributions. The riverine SOM revealed complex and diverse characteristics, exhibiting a great number of non-redundant formulas and high spatial variations. The molecular diversity was more pronounced for the sediments affected by a higher degree of anthropogenic activities. Unlike the cases of aquatic dissolved organic matter, highly-unsaturated structures with oxygen (HUSO) of SOM were more associated with the spectral and size features of humic-like (or terrestrial) substances than aromatic molecules were, cautioning the interpretation of the SOM molecules responsible for apparent indicators. Noting that a higher detection rate (DR) produces fewer common molecules, the common molecules of 23 different SOMs were determined at a reasonable DR value of 0.35, which accounted for a small portion (5.8%) of all detected molecules. They were mainly CHO compounds (>98%), which positively correlated with spectral indicators of biological production. Despite the low abundance, however, the ratios of aromatic to aliphatic substances could be indexed to classify the common molecules into several geochemical molecular groups with different degrees of the associations with the apparent spectral and size indicators. PMID:27192357

  9. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield. PMID:27155264

  10. The effect of alkaline pretreatment methods on cellulose structure and accessibility.

    PubMed

    Bali, Garima; Meng, Xianzhi; Deneff, Jacob I; Sun, Qining; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of different alkaline pretreatments on cellulose structural features and accessibility are compared and correlated with the enzymatic hydrolysis of Populus. The pretreatments are shown to modify polysaccharides and lignin content to enhance the accessibility for cellulase enzymes. The highest increase in the cellulose accessibility was observed in dilute sodium hydroxide, followed by methods using ammonia soaking and lime (Ca(OH)2 ). The biggest increase of cellulose accessibility occurs during the first 10 min of pretreatment, with further increases at a slower rate as severity increases. Low temperature ammonia soaking at longer residence times dissolved a major portion of hemicellulose and exhibited higher cellulose accessibility than high temperature soaking. Moreover, the most significant reduction of degree of polymerization (DP) occurred for dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonia pretreated Populus samples. The study thus identifies important cellulose structural features and relevant parameters related to biomass recalcitrance. PMID:25421020

  11. Theoretical considerations and a simple method for measuring alkalinity and acidity in low-pH waters by gran titration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Johnsson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Titrations for alkalinity and acidity using the technique described by Gran (1952, Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations, Part II: The Analyst, v. 77, p. 661-671) have been employed in the analysis of low-pH natural waters. This report includes a synopsis of the theory and calculations associated with Gran's technique and presents a simple and inexpensive method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations. However, potential sources of error introduced by the chemical character of some waters may limit the utility of Gran's technique. Therefore, the cost- and time-efficient method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations described in this report is useful for exploring the suitability of Gran's technique in studies of water chemistry.

  12. Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-09

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  13. A Cell Extraction Method for Oily Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Lappé, Michael; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are also an important economical resource and through natural seepage or accidental release they can be major pollutants. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence, thereby hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008) separates the cells from the sediment matrix. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it was not originally optimized for this application. Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification, and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from oily samples treated according to our new protocol are significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008). We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and – in samples containing more mature oils – methanol, delivered the best results. However, as solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which hydrocarbon extraction is maximized and cell lysis minimized. A volumetric ratio of 1:2–1:5 between a formalin-fixed sediment slurry and solvent delivered highest cell counts. Extraction efficiency was around 30–50% and was checked on both oily samples spiked with known amounts of E. coli cells and oil-free samples amended with fresh and biodegraded oil. The method provided reproducible results on samples containing very different kinds of oils with regard to their degree of biodegradation. For strongly biodegraded oil MeOH turned out to be the most appropriate solvent, whereas for less biodegraded

  14. New automatic liver segmentation and extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pinzheng; Xu, Qinzheng; Wang, Zheng

    2007-12-01

    Liver segmentation is critical in designing and developing computer-assisted systems that have been used for liver disease diagnosis before surgery or transplantation. The purpose of this study is to develop a computerized system for extracting liver contours and reconstructing liver volume using contrast-enhanced hepatic CT images. The automatic liver segmentation method adopted the graph optimal algorithm with ratio contour as its salient measure. This new cost function encoded the Gestalt laws and synthesized the gap length, the liver region area, the length of the closed contour and the average curvature of the closed boundary. With the extracted liver contours, a promising system to exclude tissues outside the liver was developed. It promised to save time and simplify liver volume reconstruction by minimizing intervention operations. Some 3D-rendered reconstruction results were also created to demonstrate the final results of our system.

  15. [Comparison of two extraction methods for maxingshigan decoction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Sun, X; Wang, L; Liu, H; Lu, Q

    1997-07-01

    The semi-bionic extraction and the extraction with water, two methods for the Maxingshigan Decoction, were compared. The results show that the semi-bionic extraction is superior to the extraction with water in the yield of ephedrine, hydrocyanic acid, glycyrrhetinic acid, calcium ion and extract. PMID:11038900

  16. Procedure for the large-scale isolation of highly purified plasmid DNA using alkaline extraction and binding to glass powder

    SciTech Connect

    Marko, M.A.; Chipperfield, R.; Birnboim, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    A preparative procedure for obtaining highly purified plasmid DNA from bacterial cells is described. The method is adapted from our earlier procedure, which gave partially purified plasmid in a form suitable for rapid screening of a large number of samples. In the present method, all detectable RNA, chromosomal DNA, and protein are removed without the use of enzymes, phenol extraction, dialysis, or equilibrium centrifugation. Binding of plasmid DNA to glass powder in the presence of 6 M sodium perchlorate is used for the final purification step.

  17. Method for extraction of uranium from ores

    SciTech Connect

    Bings, H.; Fischer, P.; Kampf, F.; Pietsch, H.; Thome, R.; Turke, W.; Wargalla, G.; Winkhaus, G.

    1982-11-30

    A method for continuously extracting uranium from ores comprises the steps of: forming a slurry of ore in a leaching solution; heating the slurry while pumping it through a tube reactor at high turbulences characterized by Reynolds numbers in excess of 50,000; supplying gaseous oxygen at high pressures into the tube reactor such that the uranium is substantially completely oxidized in a soluble form but impurities in the slurry are substantially kept from becoming soluble; recovering the uranium oxide solute which is substantially free of impurities.

  18. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappé, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are an important economical resource and, through natural seepage or accidental release, they can be major pollutants. Oil sands from Alberta, Canada, and samples from the seafloor of the Gulf of Mexico represent typical examples of either natural or anthropogenically affected oily sediments. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence and thereby massively hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008) separates the cells from the sediment matrix, producing a sediment free cell extract that can then be used for subsequent staining and cell enumeration under a fluorescence microscope. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it was not originally optimized for this application and does not provide satisfactory results. Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction by a solvent treatment. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from oily samples treated according to our new protocol were significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008). We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and - in samples containing more biodegraded oils - methanol, delivered the best results. Because solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which the positive effect of hydrocarbon extraction overcomes the negative effect of cell lysis. A volumetric ratio of 1:2 to 1:5 between a formalin-fixed sediment slurry and solvent delivered highest cell counts. Extraction

  19. A simple solvent method for the recovery of LixCoO2 and its applications in alkaline rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Song, Dawei; Li, Li; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, LiFang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-04-01

    A simple solvent method is proposed for the recovery of waste LixCoO2 from lithium-ion batteries, which employs inexpensive DMF to remove the binder of PVDF. This method is convenient to manipulate and low-cost to apply. Electrochemical investigations indicate that recovered LixCoO2 materials with a small amount of S-doping exhibit excellent properties as negative materials for alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries. At the discharge current density of 100 mA g-1, the LixCoO2 + 1% S electrode displays the max discharge capacity of 357 mAh g-1 and outstanding capacity retention rate of 85.5% after 100 cycles. It could overcome not only the sophisticated, energy-intensive shortcomings of conventional recycling methods, but also the high-cost restriction on alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries.

  20. Methods of use of calcium hexa aluminate refractory linings and/or chemical barriers in high alkali or alkaline environments

    DOEpatents

    McGowan, Kenneth A; Cullen, Robert M; Keiser, James R; Hemrick, James G; Meisner, Roberta A

    2013-10-22

    A method for improving the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of a liner in contact with at least one of an alkali and/or alkaline environments is provided. The method comprises lining a surface that is subject to wear by an alkali environment and/or an alkaline environment with a refractory composition comprising a refractory aggregate consisting essentially of a calcium hexa aluminate clinker having the formula CA.sub.6, wherein C is equal to calcium oxide, wherein A is equal to aluminum oxide, and wherein the hexa aluminate clinker has from zero to less than about fifty weight percent C.sub.12A.sub.7, and wherein greater than 98 weight percent of the calcium hexa aluminate clinker having a particle size ranging from -20 microns to +3 millimeters, for forming a liner of the surface. This method improves the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of the liner.

  1. The effectiveness of ferrous iron and sodium dithionite for decreasing resin-extractable Cr(VI) in Cr(VI)-spiked alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Jung; Lin, Tzu-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Pin; Juang, Kai-Wei; Lee, Dar-Yuan

    2009-05-30

    Ferrous iron, Na(2)S(2)O(4), and a mixture of Fe(II) and Na(2)S(2)O(4) (4:1 mol/mol) were tested for their effectiveness for decreasing resin-extractable Cr(VI) in alkaline Cr(VI)-spiked soils. The results indicated that adding those reductants greatly decreased the amount of resin-extractable Cr(VI) when the application rate of reductants equaled the number of equivalents of dichromate added to the Cr(VI)-spiked soils. This was mainly as a result of the Cr(VI) reduction into Cr(III), as supported by the XANES spectra. Among the tested reductants, a mixture of Fe(II) and Na(2)S(2)O(4) was the most effective to decrease resin-extractable Cr(VI). The extent to which resin-extractable Cr(VI) and soil pH were decreased was affected by the pH of the reductants. Among the tested reductants at various pH, FeSO(4) at pH below 1 was the most effective in decreasing resin-extractable Cr(VI) in alkaline soils. However, the soil pH was the most decreased as well. On the other hand, the mixtures of ferrous iron and dithionite at a wide range of pH were all efficient (>70% efficiency) in decreasing resin-extractable Cr(VI). Moreover, the extent of the decrease in soil pH was much smaller than that by FeSO(4) (pH<1) alone, and thus the possibility of the Cr(III) hazard can be avoided. PMID:18824300

  2. Effects of the low-temperature thermo-alkaline method on the rheological properties of sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruikun; Zhao, Zhenghui; Yin, Qianqian; Liu, Jianzhong

    2016-07-15

    Municipal sewage sludge (hereafter referred to as sludge) in increasing amounts is a serious threat to the environment and human health. Sludge is difficult to dispose because of its complex properties, such as high water content, viscosity, and hazardous compound concentration. The rheological properties of sludge also significantly influence treatment processes, including stirring, mixing, pumping, and conveying. Improving the rheological properties and reducing the apparent viscosity of sludge are conducive to economic and safe sludge treatment. In this study, the low-temperature thermo-alkaline (LTTA) method was used to modify sludge. Compared with the original sludge with an apparent viscosity at 100 s(-1) (η100) of 979.3 mPa s, the sludge modified under 90 °C-Ca(OH)2-1 h and 90 °C-NaOH-1 h conditions exhibited lower η100 values of 208.7 and 110.8 mPa s respectively. The original sludge exhibited a pseudoplastic behavior. After modification, the pseudoplastic behavior was weakened, and the sludge gradually tended to behave as Newton fluids. The hysteresis loop observed during the shear rate cycle was mainly caused by the viscoelasticity of the sludge. The hysteresis loop area (Hla) reflected to a certain extent the energy required to break the elastic solid structure of the sludge. The larger the Hla, the more energy was needed. However, this result should be evaluated comprehensively by considering other sludge parameters, such as yield stress and apparent viscosity. Hla may also reflect the damage degree of the sludge structure after shearing action. The irreversible destruction of the structure during shearing may also increase Hla. PMID:27082259

  3. Development of Alkaline Oxidative Dissolution Methods for Chromium (III) Compounds Present in Hanford Site Tank Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Krot, N N.; Shilov, V P.; Fedoseev, A M.; Budantseva, N A.; Nikonov, M V.; Yusov, A B.; Garnov, A Y.; Charushnikova, I A.; Perminov, V P.; Astafurova, L N.; Lapitskaya, T S.; Makarenkov, V I.

    1999-07-02

    The high-level radioactive waste sludge in the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site contains various chromium solid phases. Dissolution and removal of chromium from tank waste sludges is desirable prior to high-level waste vitrification because increased volume is required to incorporate the residual chromium. Unfortunately, dissolution of chromium from the sludge to form Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup -} through treatment with heated NaOH solution (also used to dissolve aluminum phases and metathesize phosphates to sodium salts) generally has been unsuccessful in tests with both simulated and genuine Hanford waste sludges. Oxidative dissolution of the Cr(III) compounds to form soluble chromate has been proposed as an alternative chromium solid phase dissolution method and results of limited prior testing have been reported. The present systematic tests investigated oxygen gas, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium persulfate oxidants to dissolve Cr(III) under alkaline conditions to form soluble chromate. Permanganate and ozone also were considered for testing but were thought to be of secondary interest because of the insoluble residue (MnO{sub 2} from permanganate) and complex equipment (necessary to generate ozone) implicit with use of these reagents. The oxygen and hydrogen peroxide reagents leave no condensable residue and sodium persulfate only leaves soluble sodium sulfate. Crystalline Cr(OH){sub 3}, various hydrothermally aged amorphous Cr(III) oxide hydrates, mixed Fe(III)/Cr(III) oxide hydrates, and nickel and iron Cr(III) spinels, all of which have been identified or are likely constituents in Hanford tank wastes, were prepared and characterized for the dissolution tests. The effects of reagent and hydroxide concentrations, reaction temperature, and transition metal catalysts on reaction progress were investigated for each reagent as functions of reaction time. Reaction progress was measured by monitoring chromate concentration. Oxidation of chromium compounds by

  4. Effect of water soluble extract of nacre (Pinctada maxima) on alkaline phosphatase activity and Bcl-2 expression in primary cultured osteoblasts from neonatal rat calvaria.

    PubMed

    Moutahir-Belqasmi, F; Balmain, N; Lieberrher, M; Borzeix, S; Berland, S; Barthelemy, M; Peduzzi, J; Milet, C; Lopez, E

    2001-01-01

    The nacre (mother of pearl) layer of the oyster Pinctada maxima shell can initiate bone formation by human osteoblasts in vivo and in vitro and is a new biomaterial that induces osteogenesis. This activity of nacre could be due to its water-soluble matrix. We examined the action of a water-soluble extract of nacre on the osteoblast phenotype of cells isolated from rat neonatal calvaria by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and by localization of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 by immunocytochemistry. ALP activity was increased 7% (p<0.001) by 100 microg proteins/ml extract and 20% (p<0.001) by 50 microg proteins/ml extract, but a low concentration of extract decreased the ALP activity by 8%. Cells treated with a high aspartic acid content fraction of the extract had increased ALP activity (23%, p<0.0001). Nacre extract and the fraction have no effect on the proliferation of mature osteoblasts. Immunoreactive Bcl-2 was overproduced in the cytoplasm and nuclei of osteoblasts at all stages of culture. Bcl-2 was found over the whole chromatin in quiescent and mitotic cells at the end of mitosis in the two nuclei in one cell, before cytodieresis. Bcl-2 was also found over chromosomes. Thus, nacre extract stimulates Bcl-2 production in osteoblasts, that is correlated with the cell cycle. Bcl-2 was also abundant in the nucleoli of extract-treated cells. Thus, the concentration and subcellular distribution of Bcl-2 in osteoblasts in primary cultures is influenced by nacre extract, and related to the cell cycle and the regulation of gene expression. Hence, knowledge of how water-soluble extracts of Pinctada maxima nacre act on osteoblasts in vitro may reveal the mechanisms involved in its action in vivo on bone cells and bone regeneration. PMID:15348370

  5. Evaluation of extraction method on the chemical composition in Apeiba tibourbou Aubl's extracts

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the potential of Apeiba tibourbou Aubl, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of fatty acid, rosmarinic (Ra) and caffeic (Ca) acid from A. tibourbou. Materials and Methods: Determinations of residual moisture (Rm), proteins (Pt), lipids (Lp), total fiber (Tf), and carbohydrate (Cy) were performed in triplicate samples according assessment of antioxidant capacity. Extraction of fatty acids was carried out by two different methods: (i) By shoxlet and (ii) bligh and dyer. The optimized conditions were determined by surface response methodology (RSM), and the criterion of desirability was the maximum extraction of Ra and Ca. Results: The method of bligh and dyer was able to extraction more total Lp than the shoxlet. However, the extraction of fatty acid was different for the two methods. The optimized conditions to extract RA and Ca was calculated by RSM, 42°C, 30% (alcohol degree) and 24 min, this conditions maximize simultaneously the extraction of Ca (0, 04%) and Ry (1.89), Conclusion: It was observed that the extraction method alters the chemical composition of extract, and it is possible to extract Ca and Ra from A. tibourbou's leaves using ultrasound-assisted extraction. PMID:25829777

  6. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  7. A Modified SDS-Based DNA Extraction Method for High Quality Environmental DNA from Seafloor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Vengadesh Perumal; Zhang, Xinxu; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Wang, Fengping

    2016-01-01

    Recovering high quality genomic DNA from environmental samples is a crucial primary step to understand the genetic, metabolic, and evolutionary characteristics of microbial communities through molecular ecological approaches. However, it is often challenging because of the difficulty of effective cell lysis without fragmenting the genomic DNA. This work aims to improve the previous SDS-based DNA extraction methods for high-biomass seafloor samples, such as pelagic sediments and metal sulfide chimney, to obtain high quality and high molecular weight of the genomic DNA applicable for the subsequent molecular ecological analyses. In this regard, we standardized a modified SDS-based DNA extraction method (M-SDS), and its performance was then compared to those extracted by a recently developed hot-alkaline DNA extraction method (HA) and a commercial DNA extraction kit. Consequently, the M-SDS method resulted in higher DNA yield and cell lysis efficiency, lower DNA shearing, and higher diversity scores than other two methods, providing a comprehensive DNA assemblage of the microbial community on the seafloor depositional environment. PMID:27446026

  8. A Modified SDS-Based DNA Extraction Method for High Quality Environmental DNA from Seafloor Environments.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Vengadesh Perumal; Zhang, Xinxu; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Wang, Fengping

    2016-01-01

    Recovering high quality genomic DNA from environmental samples is a crucial primary step to understand the genetic, metabolic, and evolutionary characteristics of microbial communities through molecular ecological approaches. However, it is often challenging because of the difficulty of effective cell lysis without fragmenting the genomic DNA. This work aims to improve the previous SDS-based DNA extraction methods for high-biomass seafloor samples, such as pelagic sediments and metal sulfide chimney, to obtain high quality and high molecular weight of the genomic DNA applicable for the subsequent molecular ecological analyses. In this regard, we standardized a modified SDS-based DNA extraction method (M-SDS), and its performance was then compared to those extracted by a recently developed hot-alkaline DNA extraction method (HA) and a commercial DNA extraction kit. Consequently, the M-SDS method resulted in higher DNA yield and cell lysis efficiency, lower DNA shearing, and higher diversity scores than other two methods, providing a comprehensive DNA assemblage of the microbial community on the seafloor depositional environment. PMID:27446026

  9. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  10. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  11. Thermal fluids for CSP systems: Alkaline nitrates/nitrites thermodynamics modelling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzoni, A. C.; Sau, S.; Corsaro, N.; Giaconia, A.; D'Ottavi, C.; Licoccia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Molten salt (MS) mixtures are used for the transport (HTF-heat transfer fluid) and storage of heat (HSM-heat storage material) in Concentration Solar Plants (CSP). In general, alkaline and earth-alkaline nitrate/nitrite mixtures are employed. Along with its upper stability temperature, the melting point (liquidus point) of a MS mixture is one of the main parameters which defines its usefulness as a HTF and HSM medium. As a result, we would like to develop a predictive model which will allow us to forecast freezing points for different MS mixture compositions; thus circumventing the need to determine experimentally the phase diagram for each MS mixture. To model ternary/quaternary phase diagram, parameters for the binary subsystems are to be determined, which is the purpose of the concerned work. In a binary system with components A and B, in phase equilibrium conditions (e.g. liquid and solid) the chemical potentials (partial molar Gibbs energy) for each component in each phase are equal. For an ideal solution it is possible to calculate the mixing (A+B) Gibbs energy:ΔG = ΔH - TΔS = RT(xAlnxA + xBlnxB) In case of non-ideal solid/liquid mixtures, such as the nitrates/nitrites compositions investigated in this work, the actual value will differ from the ideal one by an amount defined as the "mixing" (mix) Gibbs free energy. If the resulting mixtures is assumed, as indicated in the previous literature, to follow a "regular solution" model, where all the non-ideality is considered included in the enthalpy of mixing value and considering, for instance, the A component:Δ G ≡0 =(Δ HA-T Δ SA)+(ΔH¯ m i x AL-T ΔS¯ m i x AL)-(ΔH¯ m i x AS-T ΔS¯ m i x AS)where the molar partial amounts can be calculated from the total value by the Gibbs Duhem equation: (ΔH¯m i x AL=ΔHm i x-XB Ld/Δ Hm i x d XB L ) L;(ΔH¯m i x AS=ΔHm i x-XB Sd/Δ Hm i x d XB S ) S and, in general, it is possible to express the mixing enthalpy for solids and liquids as a function of the mol

  12. Method of underground mining by pillar extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Ray J.; Bowen, William R.

    1980-08-12

    A method of sublevel caving and pillar and top coal extraction for mining thick coal seams includes the advance mining of rooms and crosscuts along the bottom of a seam to a height of about eight feet, and the retreat mining of the top coal from the rooms, crosscuts and portions of the pillars remaining from formation of the rooms and cross-cuts. In the retreat mining, a pocket is formed in a pillar, the top coal above the pocket is drilled, charged and shot, and then the fallen coal is loaded by a continuous miner so that the operator remains under a roof which has not been shot. The top coal from that portion of the room adjacent the pocket is then mined, and another pocket is formed in the pillar. The top coal above the second pocket is mined followed by the mining of the top coal of that portion of the room adjacent the second pocket, all by use of a continuous miner which allows the operator to remain under a roof portion which has not been shot.

  13. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  14. Combined Extraction of Cesium, Strontium, and Actinides from Alkaline Media: An Extension of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Raymond

    2004-11-03

    The wastes present at DOE long-term storage sites are usually highly alkaline, and because of this, much of the actinides in these wastes are in the sludge phase. Enough actinide materials still remain in the supernatant liquid that they require separation followed by long-term storage in a geological repository. The removal of these metals from the liquid waste stream would permit their disposal as low-level waste and dramatically reduce the volume of high-level wastes.

  15. Bioproduction of 4-vinylphenol from corn cob alkaline hydrolyzate in two-phase extractive fermentation using free or immobilized recombinant E. coli expressing pad gene.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Curiel, José Antonio; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2014-05-10

    In situ extractive fermentation was used to produce 4-vinyl derivatives from hydroxycinnamic acids extracted from corn cobs by recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing Lactobacillus plantarum phenolic acid descarboxylase (PAD) gene. This microorganism mainly produced 4-vinylphenol (4VP) from p-coumaric acid (p-CA). In the first study , we observed that the concentrations of 4VP are higher than 1g/L which had a negative impact on decarboxylation of p-CA to 4VP by recombinant E. coli cells. Because of this, and in order to improve the downstream process, a two-phase aqueous-organic solvent system was developed. The results of the extractive fermentation indicated that it was possible to use hydrolyzates as aqueous phase to bioproduce 4VP, and recover simultaneously the product in the organic phase containing hexane. The detoxification of pre-treated corn cob alkaline hydrolyzate improved 4VP production up to 1003.5mg/L after 24h fermentation (QP=41.813mg/Lh). Additionally, preliminary experiments using cells immobilized in calcium alginate showed to be a good system for the biotransform of p-CA to 4VP in extractive fermentation, although the process hindered partially the recovery of 4VP in the organic phase. PMID:24731821

  16. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator includes a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte, (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group, and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrode. The mixture comprises at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 sq meters/gram, at last one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram. The volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder. The filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle.

  17. COMPARISON OF DNA EXTRACTION METHODS ON DAIRY CONSTRUCTED WETLAND WASTEWATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct DNA extraction from environmental samples is a useful and culture-independent method for the examination of microbial diversity. To date, there is little information on the effectiveness of commercial DNA extraction kits on wastewater. We compared two commercial DNA extraction kits for amount...

  18. Alternatives to Nitric Acid Stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process for Cesium Removal from Alkaline High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Haverlock, Tamara; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Ditto, Mary E; Moyer, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    Effective alternatives to nitric acid stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent have been demonstrated in this work. The CSSX solvent employs calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-18-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) as the cesium extractant in a modified alkane diluent for decontamination of alkaline high-level wastes. Results reported in this paper support the idea that replacement of the nitrate anion by a much more hydrophilic anion like borate can substantially lower cesium distribution ratios on stripping. Without any other change in the CSSX flowsheet, however, the use of a boric acid stripping solution in place of the 1 mM nitric acid solution used in the CSSX process marginally, though perhaps still usefully, improves stripping. The less-than-expected improvement was explained by the carryover of nitrate from scrubbing into stripping. Accordingly, more effective stripping is obtained after a scrub of the solvent with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Functional alternatives to boric acid include sodium bicarbonate or cesium hydroxide as strip solutions. Profound stripping improvement is achieved when trioctylamine, one of the components of the CSSX solvent, is replaced with a commercial guanidine reagent (LIX 79). The more basic guanidine affords greater latitude in selection of aqueous conditions in that it protonates even at mildly alkaline pH values. Under process-relevant conditions, cesium distributions on stripping are decreased on the order of 100-fold compared with current CSSX performance. The extraction properties of the solvent were preserved unchanged over three successive extract-scrub-strip cycles. From the point of view of compatibility with downstream processing, boric acid represents an attractive stripping agent, as it is also a potentially ideal feed for borosilicate vitrification of the separated 137Cs product stream. Possibilities for use of these results toward a dramatically better next-generation CSSX process, possibly one employing the

  19. Alkaline phosphatase from pig kidney. Method of purification and molecular properties

    PubMed Central

    Wachsmuth, Ernst D.; Hiwada, Kunio

    1974-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) from pig kidney brush-border membranes was solubilized from membrane precipitates by butan-1-ol at a critical pH of 7.0. The 12000-fold purification procedure included (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE-and TEAE-cellulose chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and neuraminidase digestion followed by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The purified protein contained 20% (w/w) carbohydrate and had mol.wt. 150000–156000 as estimated by Sephadex filtration and ultracentrifuge analysis. It was a tetrameric glycoprotein consisting of identical subunits, and it had a molecular activity at 25°C of 2600s−1 per tetramer. Its concentration in kidney was estimated to be 8.5–8.8mg/kg. PMID:4455205

  20. Method for contour extraction for object representation

    DOEpatents

    Skourikhine, Alexei N.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2005-08-30

    Contours are extracted for representing a pixelated object in a background pixel field. An object pixel is located that is the start of a new contour for the object and identifying that pixel as the first pixel of the new contour. A first contour point is then located on the mid-point of a transition edge of the first pixel. A tracing direction from the first contour point is determined for tracing the new contour. Contour points on mid-points of pixel transition edges are sequentially located along the tracing direction until the first contour point is again encountered to complete tracing the new contour. The new contour is then added to a list of extracted contours that represent the object. The contour extraction process associates regions and contours by labeling all the contours belonging to the same object with the same label.

  1. Glucans from alkaline extract of a hybrid mushroom (backcross mating between PfloVv12 and Volvariella volvacea): structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Ramsankar; Nandan, Chanchal K; Bhunia, Sanjoy K; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2012-01-10

    Two different glucans (water-soluble PS-I, water-insoluble PS-II) were isolated from the alkaline extract of the fruit bodies of hybrid mushroom. PS-I was found to consist of only (1→6)-linked β-D-glucopyranose. PS-II was composed of terminal, (1→3,4)-linked, and (1→3)-linked β-D-glucopyranosyl moieties in a molar ratio of nearly 1:1:1. PS-I showed macrophages, splenocytes, and thymocytes activation as well as antioxidant property. On the basis of sugar analysis, methylation analysis, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC), the structure of the repeating unit of these glucans were established as: PMID:22129838

  2. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification.

    PubMed

    Yeates, C; Gillings, M R; Davison, A D; Altavilla, N; Veal, D A

    1998-05-14

    Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1). DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size. PMID:12734590

  3. Preparation and some functional properties of rice bran protein concentrate at different degree of hydrolysis using bromelain and alkaline extraction.

    PubMed

    Apinunjarupong, Suthep; Lapnirun, Surawoot; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran protein was extracted by using defatted rice bran and water at 1:6 (w/w) and 6% of bromelain at pH 9.0, 50 degrees C, 500 rpm for 15 and 30 mins. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) of rice bran protein extract (RBPE) was 19 and 36.5%, respectively, and their nitrogen solubility was higher than the controls. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was prepared by spray drying. Emulsion activity of RBPC produced from 19% DH RBPE was increased while emulsion stability index was not significantly different from the control. Foam capacity and rehydration ability of RBPC were greater than the control. PMID:19291580

  4. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR EXTRACTING BOUND PESTICIDES FROM AVIAN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed to extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from avian serum. In this method, a 1-mL serum sample fortified with two levels of OCs or POPs was treated with 8M urea or 4M urea and 4...

  5. Extraction of Roots of Quintics by Division Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method to extract roots of a reducible quintic over the real field, which makes use of a simple division. A procedure to synthesize such quintics is given and a numerical example is solved to extract the roots of quintic with the proposed method.

  6. Investigation on the co-precipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Krot, N.; Shilov, V.; Bessonov, A.; Budantseva, N.; Charushnikova, I.; Perminov, V.; Astafurova, L.

    1996-06-06

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions originating from production of plutonium for military purposes are stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The purification of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium is important in the treatment and disposal of these wastes. This report describes scoping tests with sodium hydroxide solutions, where precipitation techniques were investigated to perform the separation. Hydroxides of iron (III), manganese (II), cobalt (II, III), and chromium (III); manganese (IV) oxide, and sodium uranate were investigated as carriers. The report describes the optimum conditions that were identified to precipitate these carriers homogeneously throughout the solution by reductive, hydrolytic, or catalytic decomposition of alkali-soluble precursor compounds by a technique called the Method of Appearing Reagents. The coprecipitation of pentavalent and hexavalent neptunium and plutonium was investigated for the candidate agents under optimum conditions and is described in this report along with the following results. Plutonium coprecipitated well with all tested materials except manganese (IV) oxide. Neptunium only coprecipitated well with uranate. The report presents a hypothesis to explain these behaviors. Further tests with more complex solution matrices must be performed.

  7. Comparison of methods for extracting thylakoid membranes of Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Yuan, Shu; Schröder, Wolfgang P

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible methods for extracting thylakoid membranes are required for the analysis of photosynthetic processes in higher plants such as Arabidopsis. Here, we compare three methods for thylakoid extraction using two different buffers. Method I involves homogenizing the plant material with a metal/glass blender; method II involves manually grinding the plant material in ice-cold grinding buffer with a mortar and method III entails snap-freezing followed by manual grinding with a mortar, after which the frozen powder is thawed in isolation buffer. Thylakoid membrane samples extracted using each method were analyzed with respect to protein and chlorophyll content, yields relative to starting material, oxygen-evolving activity, protein complex content and phosphorylation. We also examined how the use of fresh and frozen thylakoid material affected the extracts' contents of protein complexes. The use of different extraction buffers did not significantly alter the protein content of the extracts in any case. Method I yielded thylakoid membranes with the highest purity and oxygen-evolving activity. Method III used low amounts of starting material and was capable of capturing rapid phosphorylation changes in the sample at the cost of higher levels of contamination. Method II yielded thylakoid membrane extracts with properties intermediate between those obtained with the other two methods. Finally, frozen and freshly isolated thylakoid membranes performed identically in blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments conducted in order to separate multimeric protein supracomplexes. PMID:26337850

  8. Extraction of lipids from microalgae by ultrasound application: prospection of the optimal extraction method.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Glacio S; Matos, Leonardo J B L; Fernandes, Jader O; Cartaxo, Samuel J M; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Farias, Wladimir R L

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae have the ability to grow rapidly, synthesize and accumulate large amounts (approximately 20-50% of dry weight) of lipids. A successful and economically viable algae based oil industry will depend on the selection of appropriate microalgal strains and the selection of the most suitable lipid extraction method. In this paper, five extraction methods were evaluated regarding the extraction of lipids from Chlorella vulgaris: Bligh and Dyer, Chen, Folch, Hara and Radin, and Soxhlet. Furthermore, the addition of silica powder was studied to evaluate the introduction of more shear stress to the system as to increase the disruption of cell walls. Among the studied methods, the Bligh and Dyer method assisted by ultrasound resulted in the highest extraction of oil from C. vulgaris (52.5% w/w). Addition of powder silica did not improve the extraction of oil. PMID:22938999

  9. Extraction and identification of cyclobutanones from irradiated cheese employing a rapid direct solvent extraction method.

    PubMed

    Tewfik, Ihab

    2008-01-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (cyclobutanones) are accepted as chemical markers for irradiated foods containing lipid. However, current extraction procedures (Soxhlet-florisil chromatography) for the isolation of these markers involve a long and tedious clean-up regime prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry identification. This paper outlines an alternative isolation and clean-up method for the extraction of cyclobutanones in irradiated Camembert cheese. The newly developed direct solvent extraction method enables the efficient screening of large numbers of food samples and is not as resource intensive as the BS EN 1785:1997 method. Direct solvent extraction appears to be a simple, robust method and has the added advantage of a considerably shorter extraction time for the analysis of foods containing lipid. PMID:19382334

  10. Density Measurement of Molten Alkaline-Earth Fluorides Using Archimedean Dual-Sinker Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Osamu; Yanagase, Kei-ichi; Anbo, Yusuke; Aono, Masahiro; Hoshino, Yosuke; Sato, Yuzuru

    2015-11-01

    The densities of molten alkaline-earth fluorides ({MgF}2, {CaF}2, {SrF}2, and {BaF}2) were measured over the temperature range from 1526 K to 1873 K at ambient pressure using an Archimedean dual-sinker densitometer designed and set up by the authors. The volume difference between two sinkers was precisely determined by considering the wetting conditions between tungsten sinkers and water; appropriate experimental techniques were developed. The wetting condition became unstable when the sinkers were being moved for immersion in water, because the sinkers were moved in a direction that increased the contact angle. The wetting condition became stable when the sinkers were pulled up from the water, because the sinkers were moved in a direction that decreased the contact angle. The force exerted by the surface tension was efficiently canceled, and the volume difference became constant when the sinkers were pulled up. In this study, the total uncertainty was about 0.3 % at a maximum. The densities measured at high temperatures showed good linearity, with small scatter, over a wide temperature range. The densities and molar volumes increased in the following order: {MgF}2, {CaF}2, {SrF}2, and {BaF}2. The thermal-expansion coefficients showed anomalous behavior. The large thermal-expansion coefficient of {MgF}2 is attributed to a decrease in the cohesive force as a result of a partial loss of the coulombic force, because of the high charge density.

  11. Smart Methods for Linezolid Determination in the Presence of Alkaline and Oxidative Degradation Products Utilizing Their Overlapped Spectral Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Monem Hegazy, M.; Shaaban Eissa, M.; Abd El-Sattar, O. I.; Abd El-Kawy, M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Linezolid (LIN) is considered the first available oxazolidinone antibacterial agent. It is susceptible to hydrolysis and oxidation. Five simple, accurate, sensitive and validated UV spectrophotometric methods were developed for LIN determination in the presence of its alkaline (ALK) and oxidative (OXD) degradation products in bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulation. Method A is a second derivative one (D2) in which LIN is determined at 240.9 nm. Method B is a pH-induced differential derivative one where LIN is determined using the fourth derivative (D4) of the difference spectra (ΔA) at 285.3 nm. Methods C, D, and E are manipulating ratio spectra, where C is the double divisor-ratio difference spectrophotometric one (DD-RD) in which LIN was determined by calculating the amplitude difference at 243.7 and 267.6 nm of the ratio spectra. Method D is the double divisor-first derivative of ratio spectra (DD-DD1) in which LIN was determined at 270.2 nm. Method E is a mean centering of ratio spectra one (MCR) in which LIN was determined at 318.0 nm. The developed methods have been validated according to ICH guidelines. The results were statistically compared to that of a reported HPLC method and there was no significant difference regarding both accuracy and precision.

  12. Method and apparatus for continuous flow injection extraction analysis

    DOEpatents

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Siemer, Darryl D.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a continuous flow injection batch extraction aysis system is disclosed employing extraction of a component of a first liquid into a second liquid which is a solvent for a component of the first liquid, and is immiscible with the first liquid, and for separating the first liquid from the second liquid subsequent to extraction of the component of the first liquid.

  13. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  14. AN OVERVIEW OF ENTERIC VIRUS EXTRACTION AND ASSAY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric viruses, particularly norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are major contaminants of molluscan shellfish, leading to outbreaks of viral illness. A host of procedures have been developed for the extraction and assay of viruses from shellfish. Early extraction and assay methods focused on the de...

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF VIRUS EXTRACTION AND ASSAY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric viruses, particularly norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are major contaminants of molluscan shellfish and can cause illness. A host of procedures have been developed for the extraction of viruse from shellfish and for their assay. Some extraction and assay methods focused on detection of vacc...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids and juice content shall...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids and juice content shall...

  18. An Efficient Substring Search Method by Using Delayed Keyword Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Makoto; Ando, Kazuaki; Lee, Samuel Sangkon; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Aoe, Jun-ichi

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and extracting appropriate keywords from documents and proposes an effective substring search method by extending a pattern matching machine for multi-keywords called delayed keyword extraction (DKE). Also proposes a construction algorithm of the retrieval structure for speeding up the substring search.…

  19. A comparison of DNA extraction methods using Petunia hybrida tissues.

    PubMed

    Tamari, Farshad; Hinkley, Craig S; Ramprashad, Naderia

    2013-09-01

    Extraction of DNA from plant tissue is often problematic, as many plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites that can interfere with downstream applications, such as the PCR. Removal of these secondary metabolites usually requires further purification of the DNA using organic solvents or other toxic substances. In this study, we have compared two methods of DNA purification: the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method that uses the ionic detergent hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and chloroform-isoamyl alcohol and the Edwards method that uses the anionic detergent SDS and isopropyl alcohol. Our results show that the Edwards method works better than the CTAB method for extracting DNA from tissues of Petunia hybrida. For six of the eight tissues, the Edwards method yielded more DNA than the CTAB method. In four of the tissues, this difference was statistically significant, and the Edwards method yielded 27-80% more DNA than the CTAB method. Among the different tissues tested, we found that buds, 4 days before anthesis, had the highest DNA concentrations and that buds and reproductive tissue, in general, yielded higher DNA concentrations than other tissues. In addition, DNA extracted using the Edwards method was more consistently PCR-amplified than that of CTAB-extracted DNA. Based on these results, we recommend using the Edwards method to extract DNA from plant tissues and to use buds and reproductive structures for highest DNA yields. PMID:23997658

  20. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  3. Determination of humic and fulvic acids in commercial solid and liquid humic products by alkaline extraction and gravimetric determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased use of humic substances in agriculture has generated intense interest among producers, consumers, and regulators for an accurate and reliable method for quantification of humic (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) in raw ores and products. Here we present a thoroughly validated method, the Humic Pro...

  4. SOLIEX: A Novel Solid-Liquid Method of Radionuclides Extraction from Radioactive Waste Solutions - 13486

    SciTech Connect

    Shilova, E.; Viel, P.; Huc, V.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes recent developments in new solid-liquid extraction method, called SOLIEX, to remove cesium from alkaline solutions. SOLIEX relies on the use of a reversible complexing system comprising a carbon felt bearing molecular traps (calixarenes). This complexing system exhibits a high selectivity for Cs, and is thus expected to be helpful for the treatment of highly diluted cesium wastes even with a high concentration of competing alkali metal cations. As additional advantage, this complexing system can be adapted by molecular engineering to capture other radionuclides, such as Sr, Eu, Am. Finally, this complexing system can be easily and efficiently regenerated by using a cost effective stripping procedure, which limits further generation of waste to meet 'zero liquid' discharge requirements for nuclear facilities. (authors)

  5. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

  6. Arsenic extraction and speciation in plants: Method comparison and development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Li, Hong-Bo; Xu, Jia-Yi; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Qiying

    2015-08-01

    We compared four methods to extract arsenic (As) from three different plants containing different As levels for As speciation with the goal of developing a more efficient method, i.e., As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata at 459-7714mgkg(-1), rice seedling at 53.4-574mgkg(-1), and tobacco leaf at 0.32-0.35mgkg(-1). The four methods included heating with dilute HNO3, and sonication with phosphate buffered solution, methanol/water, and ethanol/water, with As being analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Among the four methods, the ethanol/water method produced the most satisfactory extraction efficiency (~80% for the roots and >85% for the fronds) without changing As species based on P. vittata. The lower extraction efficiency from P. vittata roots was attributed to its dominance by arsenate (82%) while arsenite dominated in the fronds (89%). The ethanol/water method used sample:solution ratio of 1:200 (0.05g:10mL) with 50% ethanol and 2h sonication. Based on different extraction times (0.5-2h), ethanol concentrations (25-100%) and sample:solution ratios (1:50-1:300), the optimized ethanol/water method used less ethanol (25%) and time (0.5h for the fronds and 2h for the roots). Satisfactory extraction was also obtained for tobacco leaf (78-92%) and rice seedlings (~70%) using the optimized method, which was better than the other three methods. Based on satisfactory extraction efficiency with little change in As species during extraction from three plants containing different As levels, the optimized method has the potential to be used for As speciation in other plants. PMID:25863504

  7. Method for rapid, high sensitivity tritiated water extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R.; Belovodsky, L.; Gaevoy, V.; Golubev, A.

    1997-04-20

    We have developed a thermal vacuum desorption process to rapidly extract water from environmental samples for tritium analysis. Thermal vacuum desorption allows for extraction of the moisture from the sample within a few hours in a form and quantity suitable for liquid scintillation counting and allows detection of tritium at the levels of <2 Bq/L of milk, <0.5 Bq/gm of vegetation, and < 0.5 Bq/gin of soil. We developed a prototype unit that can process batches of twenty or more samples within 24 hours. Early data shows that a high percentage of water is extracted reproducibly without enrichment or depletion of the tritium content. The quench coefficient of the extracted water is low allowing for accurate, direct liquid scintillation counting. Excellent comparison has been observed with results using freeze-dry lypholization as the water extraction method.

  8. Development of a method for the regeneration of an alkaline electrolyte in an air-aluminum chemical power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushkin, K. V.; Sevruk, S. D.; Suvorova, E. V.; Farmakovskaya, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The results of studying the development of a regeneration technology for the spent alkaline electrolyte in an air-aluminum chemical power supply are presented. The application of this technology is a component of the wasteless and friendly environmental operation of an energy installation based on an air-aluminum chemical power supply. The operability of the energy installation based on the air-aluminum chemical power supply using regenerated alkaline electrolytes is experimentally confirmed. Technical requirements for the technological equipment for alkaline electrolyte regeneration are developed on the basis of the obtained results.

  9. A Simple Alkaline Method for Decellularizing Human Amniotic Membrane for Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Winkler, Michael A.; Kramerov, Andrei A.; Hemmati, David M.; Ghiam, Chantelle A.; Dimitrijevich, Slobodan D.; Sareen, Dhruv; Ornelas, Loren; Ghiasi, Homayon; Brunken, William J.; Maguen, Ezra; Rabinowitz, Yaron S.; Svendsen, Clive N.; Jirsova, Katerina; Ljubimov, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane is a standard substratum used to culture limbal epithelial stem cells for transplantation to patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. Various methods were developed to decellularize amniotic membrane, because denuded membrane is poorly immunogenic and better supports repopulation by dissociated limbal epithelial cells. Amniotic membrane denuding usually involves treatment with EDTA and/or proteolytic enzymes; in many cases additional mechanical scraping is required. Although ensuring limbal cell proliferation, these methods are not standardized, require relatively long treatment times and can result in membrane damage. We propose to use 0.5 M NaOH to reliably remove amniotic cells from the membrane. This method was used before to lyse cells for DNA isolation and radioactivity counting. Gently rubbing a cotton swab soaked in NaOH over the epithelial side of amniotic membrane leads to nearly complete and easy removal of adherent cells in less than a minute. The denuded membrane is subsequently washed in a neutral buffer. Cell removal was more thorough and uniform than with EDTA, or EDTA plus mechanical scraping with an electric toothbrush, or n-heptanol plus EDTA treatment. NaOH-denuded amniotic membrane did not show any perforations compared with mechanical or thermolysin denuding, and showed excellent preservation of immunoreactivity for major basement membrane components including laminin α2, γ1-γ3 chains, α1/α2 and α6 type IV collagen chains, fibronectin, nidogen-2, and perlecan. Sodium hydroxide treatment was efficient with fresh or cryopreserved (10% dimethyl sulfoxide or 50% glycerol) amniotic membrane. The latter method is a common way of membrane storage for subsequent grafting in the European Union. NaOH-denuded amniotic membrane supported growth of human limbal epithelial cells, immortalized corneal epithelial cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. This simple, fast and reliable method can be used to standardize

  10. A modified alkaline lysis method for the preparation of highly purified plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Feliciello, I; Chinali, G

    1993-08-01

    We have developed a very efficient and rapid method for the preparation on a small or large scale of highly purified plasmid DNA from Escherichia coli. The procedure consists of five steps: (1) cell lysis by NaOH-SDS, (2) precipitation of cell lysate with 2 M potassium acetate-1 M acetic acid, (3) precipitation of the resulting supernatant with isopropanol, (4) treatment of the precipitate with RNase, and (5) a second isopropanol precipitation. The new procedure yields a plasmid DNA that is more than 90% in the supercoiled form and virtually free from proteins, RNA, and chromosomal DNA. We have thoroughly tested the method in the preparation of several thousand samples of different plasmids from various E. coli strains. We found that it consistently produced samples of plasmid DNA suitable for all routine uses such as restriction analysis, sequencing, and preparation of DNA probes for cloning and hybridization experiments. Moreover, plasmids purified by this procedure could fully replace plasmids purified on CsCl gradients for more demanding tasks such as the in vitro synthesis of RNA probes by phage RNA polymerases, the generation of deletion mutants with exonuclease III, and the transfection of mammalian cells by the calcium phosphate coprecipitation method, as tested on human fibroblasts and on CV-1 cells. PMID:8214582

  11. Method and apparatus for back-extracting metal chelates

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metal and metalloid species from a solid or liquid substrate using a supercritical fluid solvent containing one or more chelating agents followed by back-extracting the metal and metalloid species from the metal and metalloid chelates formed thereby. The back-extraction acidic solution is performed utilizing an acidic solution. Upon sufficient exposure of the metal and metalloid chelates to the acidic solution, the metal and metalloid species are released from the chelates into the acid solution, while the chelating agent remains in the supercritical fluid solvent. The chelating agent is thereby regenerated and the metal and metalloid species recovered.

  12. Method and apparatus for back-extracting metal chelates

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-08-11

    A method is described for extracting metal and metalloid species from a solid or liquid substrate using a supercritical fluid solvent containing one or more chelating agents followed by back-extracting the metal and metalloid species from the metal and metalloid chelates formed thereby. The back-extraction acidic solution is performed utilizing an acidic solution. Upon sufficient exposure of the metal and metalloid chelates to the acidic solution, the metal and metalloid species are released from the chelates into the acid solution, while the chelating agent remains in the supercritical fluid solvent. The chelating agent is thereby regenerated and the metal and metalloid species recovered. 3 figs.

  13. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  14. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  15. Inorganic arsenic in seafood: does the extraction method matter?

    PubMed

    Pétursdóttir, Ásta H; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Nine different extraction methods were evaluated for three seafood samples to test whether the concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) determined in seafood is dependent on the extraction method. Certified reference materials (CRM) DOLT-4 (Dogfish Liver) and TORT-2 (Lobster Hepatopancreas), and a commercial herring fish meal were evaluated. All experimental work described here was carried out by the same operator using the same instrumentation, thus eliminating possible differences in results caused by laboratory related factors. Low concentrations of iAs were found in CRM DOLT-4 (0.012±0.003mgkg(-1)) and the herring fish meal sample (0.007±0.002mgkg(-1)) for all extraction methods. When comparing the concentration of iAs in CRM TORT-2 found in this study and in the literature dilute acids, HNO3 and HCl, showed the highest extracted iAs wheras dilute NaOH (in 50% ethanol) showed significantly lower extracted iAs. However, most other extraction solvents were not statistically different from one another. PMID:24360462

  16. Evaluation of various parameters of calcium-alginate immobilization method for enhanced alkaline protease production by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042 using statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Subhakar, Ch; Pavani, A; Jetty, Annapurna

    2008-04-01

    Calcium-alginate immobilization method for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus licheniformis NCIM-2042 was optimized statistically. Four variables, such as sodium-alginate concentration, calcium chloride concentration, inoculum size and agitation speed were optimized by 2(4) full factorial central composite design and subsequent analysis and model validation by a second-order regression equation. Eleven carbon, 11 organic nitrogen and seven inorganic nitrogen sources were screened by two-level Plackett-Burman design for maximum alkaline protease production by using optimized immobilized conditions. The levels of four variables, such as Na-alginate 2.78%; CaCl(2), 2.15%; inoculum size, 8.10% and agitation, 139 rpm were found to be optimum for maximal production of protease. Glucose, soybean meal and ammonium sulfate were resulted in maximum protease production at 644 U/ml, 720 U/ml, and 806 U/ml when screened for carbon, organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen sources, respectively, using optimized immobilization conditions. Repeated fed batch mode of operation, using optimized immobilized conditions, resulted in continuous operation for 12 cycles without disintegration of beads. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope images have shown the growth pattern of B. licheniformis in Ca-alginate immobilized beads. PMID:17643299

  17. Development of Alkaline Oxidative Dissolution Methods for Chromium (III) Compounds Present in Hanford Site Tank Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    NN Krot; VP Shilov; AM Fedoseev; NA Budantseva; MV Nikonov; AB Yusov; AYu Garnov; IA Charushnikova; VP Perminov; LN Astafurova; TS Lapitskaya; VI Makarenkov

    1999-07-02

    The high-level radioactive waste sludge in the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site contains various chromium(III)solid phases. Dissolution and removal of chromium from tank waste sludges is desirable prior to high-level waste vitrification because increased volume is required to incorporate the residual chromium. Unfortunately, dissolution of chromium from the sludge to form Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} through treatment with heated NaOH solution (also used to dissolve aluminum phases and metathesize phosphates to sodium salts) generally has been unsuccessful in tests with both simulated and genuine Hanford waste sludges. Oxidative dissolution of the Cr(III) compounds to form soluble chromate has been proposed as an alternative chromium solid phase dissolution method and results of limited prior testing have been reported.

  18. A simple method for extracting DNA from old skeletal material.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Smillie, D M; Gelsthorpe, K; Piccinini, A; Gelsthorpe, A R; Sokol, R J

    1995-07-28

    Extraction of DNA from old skeletal material is of great importance in the identification of human remains, but is particularly difficult because the methods currently employed, especially those using phenol/chloroform, are not always satisfactory. A simple technique based on the removal of non-nucleic acid material by salting out (precipitation) with saturated sodium acetate is described; the presence of DNA in the extract being confirmed by amplification of selected sequences of the HLA-DRB1 gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The method was applied to fresh bone (five femoral heads and six vertebral bodies) and to bone from two forensic cases, 3 and 9 months post-mortem, respectively. Parallel extractions using the phenol/chloroform technique were performed on all samples in order to compare the efficiency of the two methods. Using sodium acetate precipitation, amplifiable DNA was consistently extracted from fresh bone, as well as from the two forensic cases. With the phenol/chloroform method, amplification was successful in only 7 out of 11 instances with the fresh bone samples and failed in both forensic cases. The studies also showed that an effective way of removing PCR inhibitors is to subject the extract to agarose gel electrophoresis, isolate the high molecular weight area and re-extract the DNA from the gel by boiling. It was concluded that the sodium acetate method is a valid alternative to established techniques for extracting DNA from bone and that it offers the advantages of being simple, quick, inexpensive and avoids using hazardous reagents. PMID:7557753

  19. Method of manufacturing a polymer-consolidated cadmium electrode for an alkaline storage cell, and an electrode obtained by the method

    SciTech Connect

    Brezillon, J.L.; Dauchier, J.M.

    1987-09-01

    A method is described of manufacturing a polymer-consolidated cadmium electrode for an alkaline storage cell, the method comprising the steps of: mixing the following ingredients in water: a gelling agent; cadmium and cadmium oxide in powder form constituting the active material; and a copolymer of carboxylated styrene-butadiene at a concenration lying in the range 0.5% to 3% by weight of active materials; coating the resulting paste one a metal current collector; drying the coated current collector; and subjecting the resulting assembly to a temperature lying in the range 120/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C for a period of a few minutes in order to cause the polymer to cross-link.

  20. Assessment of antiproliferative activity of pectic substances obtained by different extraction methods from rapeseed cake on cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cobs-Rosas, M; Concha-Olmos, J; Weinstein-Oppenheimer, C; Zúñiga-Hansen, M E

    2015-03-01

    In this work the antiproliferative activity of pectic substances obtained by different extraction methods from defatted rapeseed cake was assessed on cancer cell lines. The process consisted of sequential treatment with alkalized water (pH∼8), EDTA (0.01 M), alkaline protease (Alkalase 2.4L) and a commercial pectinase preparation (Viscozyme L or Pectinex Ultra SP-L). Pectic extracts identification was performed using spectroscopy and chromatography techniques. FT-IR and HPLC-IR results suggest that the neutral pectic extracts produced would be arabinogalactans and β-galactans. All the pectic substances extracted (acid and neutral) from RSC exhibited antiproliferative activity, being more effective on MCF-7 cells than Caco-2. The most effective pectic extract was obtained by Alkalase 2.4 L which killed over 80% of MCF-7 cells and 60% of Caco-2 cells. At less than 10 mg/mL pectic extracts enriched in neutral sugars also exhibited antiproliferative activity (50 and 40%, respectively), which was superior to the modified citric pectins activity at the same concentration for the breast cancer cell line (61.6% for MCF-7 and 49.9% for Caco-2 cells). These results show that the antiproliferative activity depends on both the type of pectin (acid or neutral) and the extraction procedure. PMID:25498718

  1. Separating nano graphene oxide from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method with alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xuebing; Yu, Yun; Wang, Yongqing; Zhou, Jianer; Song, Lixin

    2015-02-01

    In the modified Hummers method for preparing graphene oxide, the yellow slurry can be obtained. After filtering through a quantitative filter paper, the strong-acid filtrate containing the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide was gained. The corresponding filtrate was added gradually with an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution at room temperature. The unprecipitated nano graphene oxide could undergo fast aggregation when the pH value of the filtrate was about 1.7 and formed the stable floccules. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the dominant peak of the floccules is about 11°, which accords to the peak of graphene oxide. Spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the presence in the floccules of an abundance of oxygen functional groups and the purified graphene oxide floccules can be obtained. Atomic force microscopy measurement shows the graphene oxide floccules consists of sheet-like objects, mostly containing only a few layers (about 5 layers). Zeta potential analysis demonstrates the surface charge of the graphene oxide is pH-sensitive and its isoelectric point is ∼1.7. The flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide ascribes to the acid-base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers.

  2. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves. PMID:25726419

  3. BMAA extraction of cyanobacteria samples: which method to choose?

    PubMed

    Lage, Sandra; Burian, Alfred; Rasmussen, Ulla; Costa, Pedro Reis; Annadotter, Heléne; Godhe, Anna; Rydberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin reportedly produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, is proposed to be linked to the development of neurological diseases. BMAA has been found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, both in its phytoplankton producers and in several invertebrate and vertebrate organisms that bioaccumulate it. LC-MS/MS is the most frequently used analytical technique in BMAA research due to its high selectivity, though consensus is lacking as to the best extraction method to apply. This study accordingly surveys the efficiency of three extraction methods regularly used in BMAA research to extract BMAA from cyanobacteria samples. The results obtained provide insights into possible reasons for the BMAA concentration discrepancies in previous publications. In addition and according to the method validation guidelines for analysing cyanotoxins, the TCA protein precipitation method, followed by AQC derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis, is now validated for extracting protein-bound (after protein hydrolysis) and free BMAA from cyanobacteria matrix. BMAA biological variability was also tested through the extraction of diatom and cyanobacteria species, revealing a high variance in BMAA levels (0.0080-2.5797 μg g(-1) DW). PMID:26304815

  4. A rapid solid-phase extraction fluorometric method for thiamine and riboflavin in salmonid eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, J.L.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.; Brown, L.R.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed and successfully applied to the selective measurement of thiamine (nonphosphorylated), total thiamine (sum of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate [TMP], thiamine diphosphate [TDP], and thiamine triphosphate [TTP]), and potentially interfering riboflavin in acidic (2% trichloroacetic acid) extracts of selected salmonid and walleye egg samples. Acidic extracts of eggs were applied directly to end-capped C18, reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns and separated into three fractions by elution with mixtures of PO4 buffer (pH 2), methanol (10%), and acetonitrile (20%). All thiamine compounds recovered in the first two fractions were oxidized to their corresponding thiochromes with alkaline potassium hexacyanoferrate, and we measured the thiochrome fluorescence (excitation at 360 nm, emission at 460 nm) in a 96-well microplate reader. Riboflavin, recovered in third fraction (eluted with pH 2, 20% acetonitrile), was analyzed directly by measuring the fluorescence of this fraction (excitation at 450 nm, emission at 530 nm). Significant portions of the phosphate esters of thiamine (TMP, TDP, and presumably TTP), when present at low concentrations (< 10 nmol of total -thiamine per gram of egg), were not retained by the 100-mg SPE column, and were collected directly during sample loading and in a subsequent phosphoric acid rinse as fraction 1. Free thiamine (nonphosphorylated) and remaining portions of the TDP and TMP were then eluted in the second fraction with 10% methanol/PO4 buffer, whereas the un-ionized, relatively nonpolar riboflavin was eluted in the third fraction with 20% acetonitrile. This new method uses a traditional sample homogenization of egg tissue to extract thiamine compounds into 2% trichlororacetic acid solution; an inexpensive, commercially available SPE column; small amounts of sample (0.5-1 g); microliter volumes of solvents per sample; a traditional, relatively nonhazardous, oxidation of thiamine compounds to

  5. A novel method of genomic DNA extraction for Cactaceae1

    PubMed Central

    Fehlberg, Shannon D.; Allen, Jessica M.; Church, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. • Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and complete avoidance of mucilage as compared to typical tissue extractions. Sequences from one nuclear and three plastid regions were obtained across eight genera and 20 species of cacti using DNA extracted from spines. • Conclusions: Genomic DNA useful for amplification and sequencing can be obtained from cactus spines. The protocols described here are valuable for any cactus species, but are particularly useful for investigators interested in sampling living collections, extensive field sampling, and/or conservation genetic studies. PMID:25202521

  6. Isolation of alkaline mutagens from complex mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.; Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.

    1981-05-01

    A method for the preparative-scale enrichment of alkaline mutagens from complex natural and anthropogenic mixtures is described. Mutagenic alkaline fractions were isolated from cigarette smoke, crude petroleum, and petroleum substitutes derived from coal and shale.

  7. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies. PMID:24395368

  8. Protein folding pathways extracted by OFLOOD: Outlier FLOODing method.

    PubMed

    Harada, Ryuhei; Nakamura, Tomotake; Takano, Yu; Shigeta, Yasuteru

    2015-01-15

    The Outlier FLOODing method (OFLOOD) is proposed as an efficient conformational sampling method to extract biologically rare events such as protein folding. In OFLOOD, sparse distributions (outliers in the conformational space) were regarded as relevant states for the transitions. Then, the transitions were enhanced through conformational resampling from the outliers. This evidence indicates that the conformational resampling of the sparse distributions might increase chances for promoting the transitions from the outliers to other meta-stable states, which resembles a conformational flooding from the outliers to the neighboring clusters. OFLOOD consists of (i) detections of outliers from conformational distributions and (ii) conformational resampling from the outliers by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Cycles of (i) and (ii) are simply repeated. As demonstrations, OFLOOD was applied to folding of Chignolin and HP35. In both cases, OFLOOD automatically extracted folding pathways from unfolded structures with ns-order computational costs, although µs-order canonical MD failed to extract them. PMID:25363340

  9. Ambient formic acid in southern California air: A comparison of two methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and alkaline trap-liquid chromatography with UV detection

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. ); Tuazon, E.C. ); Fujita, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Formic acid is an ubiquitous component of urban smog. Sources of formic acid in urban air include direct emissions from vehicles and in situ reaction of ozone with olefins. Ambient levels of formic acid in southern California air were first measured some 15 years ago by Hanst et al. using long-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All subsequent studies of formic acid in the Los Angeles area have involved the use of two methods, either FTIR or collection on alkaline traps followed by gas chromatography, ion chromatography, or liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection, ATLC-UV. The Carbon Species Methods Comparison Study (CSMCS), a multilaboratory air quality study carried out in August 1986 at a southern California smog receptor site, provided an opportunity for direct field comparison of the FTIR and alkaline trap methods. The results of the comparison are presented in this brief report.

  10. Efficient extraction method to collect sugar from sweet sorghum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sweet sorghum is a domesticated grass containing a sugar-rich juice that can be readily utilized for ethanol production. Most of the sugar is stored inside the cells of the stalk tissue and can be difficult to release, a necessary step before conventional fermentation. While this crop holds much promise as an arid land sugar source for biofuel production, a number of challenges must be overcome. One lies in the inherent labile nature of the sugars in the stalks leading to a short usable storage time. Also, collection of sugars from the sweet sorghum stalks is usually accomplished by mechanical squeezing, but generally does not collect all of the available sugars. Results In this paper, we present two methods that address these challenges for utilization of sweet sorghum for biofuel production. The first method demonstrates a means to store sweet sorghum stalks in the field under semi-arid conditions. The second provides an efficient water extraction method that can collect as much of the available sugar as feasible. Operating parameters investigated include temperature, stalk size, and solid–liquid ratio that impact both the rate of sugar release and the maximal amount recovered with a goal of low water use. The most desirable conditions include 30°C, 0.6 ratio of solid to liquid (w/w), which collects 90 % of the available sugar. Variations in extraction methods did not alter the efficiency of the eventual ethanol fermentation. Conclusions The water extraction method has the potential to be used for sugar extraction from both fresh sweet sorghum stalks and dried ones. When combined with current sugar extraction methods, the overall ethanol production efficiency would increase compared to current field practices. PMID:23305036

  11. INFLUENCE OF SEDIMENT EXTRACT FRACTIONATION METHODS ON BIOASSAY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four bioassays [Microtax(tm), Mutatox(tm), sister chromatid exchange (SCE), and metabolic cooperation] were used to analyze marine sediment extracts fractionated by two different methods: silica gel column chromatography and acid-base fractionation. esults indicated that a sedime...

  12. Single corn kernel aflatoxin B1 extraction and analysis method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic compounds produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus is a phytopathogenic fungus that commonly infects crops such as cotton, peanuts, and maize. The goal was to design an effective sample preparation method and analysis for the extraction of afla...

  13. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  14. Spindle extraction method for ISAR image based on Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xia; Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xu, Gaogui

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a method of spindle extraction of target in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image is proposed which depends on Radon Transform. Firstly, utilizing Radon Transform to detect all straight lines which are collinear with these line segments in image. Then, using Sobel operator to detect image contour. Finally, finding all intersections of each straight line and image contour, the two intersections which have maximum distance between them is the two ends of this line segment and the longest line segment of all line segments is spindle of target. According to the proposed spindle extraction method, one hundred simulated ISAR images which are respectively rotated 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees in counterclockwise are used to do experiment and the proposed method and the detection results are more close to the real spindle of target than the method based on Hough Transform .

  15. Extractive Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Tropicamide

    PubMed Central

    Shoaibi, ZA; Gouda, AA

    2012-01-01

    Two simple, rapid, and extractive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of tropicamide (TPC). These methods are based on the formation of ionpair complexes between the basic nitrogen of the drug with bromocresol purple (BCP) and methyl orange (MO) in acidic buffer solution. The formed complexes were extracted with chloroform and measured at 408 and 427 nm using BCP and MO, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the range 1.0–16 μg ml–1 with correlation coefficient (n=6) ≥0.9991. The molar absorpitivity, Sandell sensitivity, detection, and quantification limits were also calculated. The composition of the ion pairs was found 1:1 by Job's method. The proposed methods have been applied successfully for the analysis of TPC in pure and in its eye drops. PMID:22523460

  16. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  17. Integrated method for extracting nickel and vanadium compounds from oils

    SciTech Connect

    Overfield, R.E.

    1987-02-17

    A method is described for the extraction of vanadium or nickel metaloporphyrinic compounds from an oil containing such compounds. The method comprises contacting oil with a solvent selected from the group of gammabutyrolactone, acetonitrile, phenol, furfural, 2-pyrrolidinones, dimethylsulfone, dimethylformamide, pyridine-water mixtures, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, ethylene trithiocarbonate, and dimethyl sulfone to produce a solvent-metalloporphyrinic compound stream and a demetallated product oil stream, regenerating the solvent-metalloporphyrinic stream by contacting it with a highly aromatic oil stream.

  18. System and method for extracting a sample from a surface

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary; Covey, Thomas

    2015-06-23

    A system and method is disclosed for extracting a sample from a sample surface. A sample is provided and a sample surface receives the sample which is deposited on the sample surface. A hydrophobic material is applied to the sample surface, and one or more devices are configured to dispense a liquid on the sample, the liquid dissolving the sample to form a dissolved sample material, and the one or more devices are configured to extract the dissolved sample material from the sample surface.

  19. Functional properties of protein isolates from Caragana korshinskii Kom. extracted by three different methods.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Zhao; Jia, Shi-Ru; Tan, Zhi-Lei; Han, Pei-Pei

    2012-10-17

    Seeking cheap, sustainable protein sources greatly facilitates in alleviating the dependence upon expensive animal-based protein in many developing countries. Caragana korshinskii Kom. offers a good alternative feedstock because of its high-content of protein, low fertilizer and pesticide requirements, excellent stress (high salty and less water) tolerance, wide adaptability, etc. The functional properties of C. korshinskii Kom. protein isolates by three different extraction methods were investigated. The extraction processes greatly influenced the physiological characteristics of protein isolates. C. korshinskii Kom. protein isolate by traditional alkaline extraction (Al-CPI) exhibited good performance on emulsifying activity index, oil and water absorption capacity, and foaming property compared to A-CPI ( C. korshinskii Kom. protein isolate by the acetone precipitation method) and TCA-CPI ( C. korshinskii Kom. protein isolate by trichloroacetic acid-acetone precipitation). The water and oil adsorption capacities of Al-CPI were observed at 4.99 and 3.45 g/g, respectively, even much higher than those of soy protein isolate (SPI) (3.94 and 2.95 g/g, respectively). The highest foaming capacity was observed by Al-CPI at 185.0%, followed by A-CPI (177.5%), TCA-CPI (142.5%), and SPI (141.9%), respectively. It has to be noted that A-CPI showed good solubility at acidic pH and excellent in vitro digestibility. After sequential pepsin-trypsin digestion, the percentage of N release of A-CPI reached up to 83.7%, which was 1.63 times that of Al-CPI (51.2%), 1.19 times that of TCA-CPI (70.1%), and slightly higher than that of the commercial SPI (82.5%). These results indicate that C. korshinskii Kom. holds great potential for application in the animal feed and food additive industry. PMID:22998113

  20. Automatic Fault Extraction at Mid-Ocean Ridges: Effects of Bathymetry Resolution and Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnur, S.; Escartin, J.; Purves, R. S.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Soule, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    High-angle normal faults at mid-ocean ridges are important indicators of the processes driving oceanic crust formation. Fault size and distribution are currently either estimated in the field or scarp outlines are painstakingly digitized by hand following a cruise. Some attempts have been made to automate this process using techniques from the fields of geomorphometry and image analysis, such as slope gradient and curvature thresholding and wavelet filtering. However, little assessment of the accuracy of these techniques has been made. Additionally, these techniques require manual threshold selection and thus cannot be equally applied to areas with different length scales of deformation. This study presents a fully-automatic method of fault extraction consisting of two major steps: fault identification and error removal. Fault scarps are initially extracted using slope gradient thresholding, profile curvature thresholding and the Canny edge detection algorithm. The extracted set of faults is then refined by removing small noise objects, eliminating other steep seafloor features with an aspect ratio threshold, and finally by focusing on a single fault population using an azimuth threshold. Terrain thresholds are automatically determined from digital bathymetric model (DBM) gradient and curvature histograms using the Jenks natural breaks algorithm, and error removal thresholds are standardized based on DBM resolution. DBMs at a variety of resolutions (1 m - 150 m pixels) and at a variety of spreading locations are used to test the three methods. Results show that automatic extraction accuracy varies widely and is affected most by the linearity of fault lines and the smoothness of fault upper and lower boundaries rather than by resolution or extraction method. Assessed visually, the gradient method gives better results for large, smooth, linear faults located far from the axis. The curvature method gives better results for small, sharp, complex faults located adjacent

  1. Effective extraction method for determination of neonicotinoid residues in tea.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ru-Yan; Jiao, Wei-Ting; Qian, Xiao-San; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Xiao, Yu; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2013-12-26

    Sample preparation using an absorbent for removal of polyphenols and a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge for cleanup followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been investigated for the simultaneous determination of eight neonicotinoid insecticides (dinotefuran, nitenpyram, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, clothianidin, imidaclothiz, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid). After tea samples were soaked with water and extracted with acetonitrile, sample extracts were treated with an appropriate amount of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) to effectively remove polyphenols. The treated extract was cleaned up with a Carb-PSA cartridge. Neonicotinoid insecticides were eluted with acetonitrile from the cartridge and dried. The extract was redissolved with methanol/water (1:9, v/v) and analyzed by conventional HPLC coupled with an ultraviolet detector. The recoveries of eight neonicotinoid insecticides in tea samples were 71.4-106.6% at 0.1-1.0 mg kg(-1) spiked levels. Relative standard deviations were <10% for all of the recovery tests. The established method was simple, effective, and accurate and could be used for monitoring neonicotinoid insecticides in tea. PMID:24308380

  2. Effects of Low Level Water-soluble Pentosans, Alkaline-extractable Pentosans, and Xylanase on the Growth and Development of Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Q. K.; Yang, L. Q.; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of low levels of water-soluble pentosans (WSP), alkaline-extractable pentosans (AEP), and xylanase on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. Three hundred and fifty 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into seven experimental groups of five pen replicates, with ten chicks per replicate. The control group consumed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Six dietary treatment groups consumed the basal diet supplemented with one of the following: WSP at 50 mg/kg (WSP50) or 100 mg/kg (WSP100); AEP at 50 mg/kg (AEP50) or 100 mg/kg (AEP100); or xylanase at 3 mg/kg (Xase3) or 6 mg/kg (Xase6). Data including the body weight, digestive organ weights, gut length, rectal digesta viscosity, and gut microflora and pH were collected on d 5, 10, and 15. When compared to the control group, WSP50 promoted body weight gain and organ growth throughout the study, calculated as 3-d averages (p<0.05). WSP100 increased weight gain and enhanced organ development (proventriculus, gizzard, and gut) on d 10 (p<0.05), but the 3-d averages were not different from the control group except for the weight of gizzard. Both Xase3 and Xase6 increased the 3-d average weight gain and the growth of the gizzard (p<0.05). WSP50 increased the digesta viscosity compared to Xase3 on d 10 and 15 (p<0.05). WSP50, Xase3, and Xase6 increased the concentration of Lactobacillus in the rectum when compared to the control group (p<0.05), but only Xase3 lowered the digesta pH in the ileum and cecum on d 10 and 15. AEP had minimal influence on the growth and organ development of broilers. The results showed that low levels of WSP, AEP, and xylanase had different effects and underlying mechanisms on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. WSP50 could increase the growth performance of broilers fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. PMID:25049914

  3. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  4. Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of Co(II) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Hasanpour, Foroozan; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Taei, Masoumeh; Nekouei, Mohsen; Mozafari, Elmira

    2016-05-01

    Analytical performance of conventional spectrophotometer was developed by coupling of effective dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method with spectrophotometric determination for ultra-trace determination of cobalt. The method was based on the formation of Co(II)-alpha-benzoin oxime complex and its extraction using a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction technique. During the present work, several important variables such as pH, ligand concentration, amount and type of dispersive, and extracting solvent were optimized. It was found that the crucial factor for the Co(II)-alpha benzoin oxime complex formation is the pH of the alkaline alcoholic medium. Under the optimized condition, the calibration graph was linear in the ranges of 1.0-110 μg L(-1) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.5 μg L(-1). The preconcentration operation of 25 mL of sample gave enhancement factor of 75. The proposed method was applied for determination of Co(II) in soil samples. PMID:27040110

  5. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis in alkaline media as polyoxoanions of two strategic metals: Niobium and tantalum.

    PubMed

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P; Chagnes, Alexandre; Cote, Gérard; Vial, Jérôme; Rivals, Isabelle; Delaunay, Nathalie

    2016-03-11

    Tantalum (Ta) and niobium (Nb) are two strategic metals essential to several key sectors, like the aerospace, gas and oil, nuclear and electronic industries, but their separation is really difficult due to their almost identical chemical properties. Whereas they are currently produced by hydrometallurgical processes using fluoride-based solutions, efforts are being made to develop cleaner processes by replacing the fluoride media by alkaline ones. However, methods to analyze Nb and Ta simultaneously in alkaline samples are lacking. In this work, we developed a capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) method able to separate and quantify Nb and Ta directly in alkaline media. This method takes advantage of the hexaniobate and hexatantalate ions which are naturally formed at pH>9 and absorb in the UV domain. First, the detection conditions, the background electrolyte (BGE) pH, the nature of the BGE co-ion and the internal standard (IS) were optimized by a systematic approach. As the BGE counter-ion nature modified the speciation of both ions, sodium- and lithium-based BGE were tested. For each alkaline cation, the BGE ionic strength and separation temperature were optimized using experimental designs. Since changes in the migration order of IS, Nb and Ta were observed within the experimental domain, the resolution was not a monotonic function of ionic strength and separation temperature. This forced us to develop an original data treatment for the prediction of the optimum separation conditions. Depending on the consideration of either peak widths or peak symmetries, with or without additional robustness constraints, four optima were predicted for each tested alkaline cation. The eight predicted optima were tested experimentally and the best experimental optimum was selected considering analysis time, resolution and robustness. The best separation was obtained at 31.0°C and in a BGE containing 10mM LiOH and 35mM LiCH3COO.The separation voltage was finally optimized

  6. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  7. Cyclopamine bioactivity by extraction method from Veratrum californicum.

    PubMed

    Turner, Matthew W; Cruz, Roberto; Mattos, Jared; Baughman, Nic; Elwell, Jordan; Fothergill, Jenny; Nielsen, Anna; Brookhouse, Jessica; Bartlett, Ashton; Malek, Petr; Pu, Xinzhu; King, Matthew D; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-08-15

    Veratrum californicum, commonly referred to as corn lily or Californian false hellebore, grows in high mountain meadows and produces the steroidal alkaloid cyclopamine, a potent inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. The Hh pathway is a crucial regulator of many fundamental processes during vertebrate embryonic development. However, constitutive activation of the Hh pathway contributes to the progression of various cancers. In the present study, a direct correlation was made between the extraction efficiency for cyclopamine from root and rhizome by eight methods, and the associated biological activity in Shh-Light II cells using the Dual-Glo® Luciferase Assay System. Alkaloid recovery ranged from 0.39 to 8.03mg/g, with ethanol soak being determined to be the superior method for obtaining biologically active cyclopamine. Acidic ethanol and supercritical extractions yielded degraded or contaminated cyclopamine with lower antagonistic activity towards Hh signaling. PMID:27338657

  8. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet extraction

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Michael J.; Shepherd, Jason F.

    2007-02-20

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet extraction. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of determining a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, generating nodes for merging, and merging the nodes to delete the sheet of hexahedral mesh elements and modify the volume mesh.

  9. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  10. Preparing Silica Aerogel Monoliths via a Rapid Supercritical Extraction Method

    PubMed Central

    Gorka, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10-3 molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes. PMID:24637334

  11. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes. PMID:24637334

  12. Mechanomyographic Parameter Extraction Methods: An Appraisal for Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Zuniga, Jorge M.; Hasnan, Nazirah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG) parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity. PMID:25479326

  13. Methods for extracting social network data from chatroom logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osesina, O. Isaac; McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Bartley, Cecilia; Tudoreanu, M. Eduard

    2012-06-01

    Identifying social network (SN) links within computer-mediated communication platforms without explicit relations among users poses challenges to researchers. Our research aims to extract SN links in internet chat with multiple users engaging in synchronous overlapping conversations all displayed in a single stream. We approached this problem using three methods which build on previous research. Response-time analysis builds on temporal proximity of chat messages; word context usage builds on keywords analysis and direct addressing which infers links by identifying the intended message recipient from the screen name (nickname) referenced in the message [1]. Our analysis of word usage within the chat stream also provides contexts for the extracted SN links. To test the capability of our methods, we used publicly available data from Internet Relay Chat (IRC), a real-time computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool used by millions of people around the world. The extraction performances of individual methods and their hybrids were assessed relative to a ground truth (determined a priori via manual scoring).

  14. Mechanomyographic parameter extraction methods: an appraisal for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Zuniga, Jorge M; Hasnan, Nazirah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG) parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity. PMID:25479326

  15. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  16. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for freshwater eukaryotic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Eland, Lucy E; Davenport, Russell; Mota, Cesar R

    2012-10-15

    The use of molecular methods to investigate microalgal communities of natural and engineered freshwater resources is in its infancy, with the majority of previous studies carried out by microscopy. Inefficient or differential DNA extraction of microalgal community members can lead to bias in downstream community analysis. Three commercially available DNA extraction kits have been tested on a range of pure culture freshwater algal species with diverse cell walls and mixed algal cultures taken from eutrophic waste stabilization ponds (WSP). DNA yield and quality were evaluated, along with DNA suitability for amplification of 18S rRNA gene fragments by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). QiagenDNeasy(®) Blood and Tissue kit (QBT), was found to give the highest DNA yields and quality. Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the diversity of communities from which DNA was extracted. No significant differences were found among kits when assessing diversity. QBT is recommended for use with WSP samples, a conclusion confirmed by further testing on communities from two tropical WSP systems. The fixation of microalgal samples with ethanol prior to DNA extraction was found to reduce yields as well as diversity and is not recommended. PMID:22853974

  17. Cepstrum based feature extraction method for fungus detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorulmaz, Onur; Pearson, Tom C.; Çetin, A. Enis

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, a method for detection of popcorn kernels infected by a fungus is developed using image processing. The method is based on two dimensional (2D) mel and Mellin-cepstrum computation from popcorn kernel images. Cepstral features that were extracted from popcorn images are classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Experimental results show that high recognition rates of up to 93.93% can be achieved for both damaged and healthy popcorn kernels using 2D mel-cepstrum. The success rate for healthy popcorn kernels was found to be 97.41% and the recognition rate for damaged kernels was found to be 89.43%.

  18. A moving foreground objects extraction method under camouflage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen-zhen; Li, Jing-yue; Yang, Si-si; Zhou, Hong

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the problem of segmenting foreground objects with apertures or discontinuities under camouflage effect and the optical physics model is introduced into foreground detection. A moving foreground objects extraction method based on color invariants is proposed in which color invariants are used as descriptors to model the background and do the foreground segmentation. It makes full use of the color spectral information and spatial configuration. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in various situations of color similarity and meets the demand of real-time performance.

  19. A β-glucan from the alkaline extract of a somatic hybrid (PfloVv5FB) of Pleurotus florida and Volvariella volvacea: structural characterization and study of immunoactivation.

    PubMed

    Maity, Kankan K; Patra, Sukesh; Dey, Biswajit; Bhunia, Sanjoy K; Mandal, Soumitra; Bahera, Birendra; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2013-04-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide isolated from the alkaline extract of the somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv5FB), obtained through protoplast fusion between Pleurotus florida and Volvariella volvacea strains was found to contain d-glucose only. Structural investigation was carried out using acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis; periodate oxidation, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC). On the basis of the above mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as: This polysaccharide exhibited strong immunoactivation of macrophages, splenocytes as well as thymocytes. PMID:23419942

  20. Extraction of sea ice concentration based on spectral unmixing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Ke, Changqing; Sun, Bo; Lei, Ruibo; Tang, Xueyuan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional methods to derive sea ice concentration are mainly from low resolution microwave data, which is disadvantageous to meet the grid size requirement of high resolution climate models. In this paper, moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Terra calibrated radiances Level-1B (MOD02HKM) data with 500 m resolution in the vicinity of the Abbot Ice Shelf, Antarctica, is unmixed, respectively, by two neural networks to extract the sea ice concentration. After two different neural network models and MODIS potential open water algorithm (MPA) are introduced, a MOD02HKM image is unmixed using these neural networks and sea ice concentration maps are derived. At the same time, sea ice concentration for the same area is extracted by MPA from MODIS/Terra sea ice extent (MOD29) data with 1 km resolution. Comparisons among sea ice concentration results of the three algorithms showed that a spectral unmixing method is suitable for the extraction of sea ice concentration with high resolution and the accuracy of radial basis function neural network is better than that of backpropagation.

  1. A comparison of single channel fetal ECG extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Behar, Joachim; Johnson, Alistair; Clifford, Gari D; Oster, Julien

    2014-06-01

    The abdominal electrocardiogram (ECG) provides a non-invasive method for monitoring the fetal cardiac activity in pregnant women. However, the temporal and frequency overlap between the fetal ECG (FECG), the maternal ECG (MECG) and noise results in a challenging source separation problem. This work seeks to compare temporal extraction methods for extracting the fetal signal and estimating fetal heart rate. A novel method for MECG cancelation using an echo state neural network (ESN) based filtering approach was compared with the least mean square (LMS), the recursive least square (RLS) adaptive filter and template subtraction (TS) techniques. Analysis was performed using real signals from two databases composing a total of 4 h 22 min of data from nine pregnant women with 37,452 reference fetal beats. The effects of preprocessing the signals was empirically evaluated. The results demonstrate that the ESN based algorithm performs best on the test data with an F1 measure of 90.2% as compared to the LMS (87.9%), RLS (88.2%) and the TS (89.3%) techniques. Results suggest that a higher baseline wander high pass cut-off frequency than traditionally used for FECG analysis significantly increases performance for all evaluated methods. Open source code for the benchmark methods are made available to allow comparison and reproducibility on the public domain data. PMID:24604619

  2. Mobility of as, Cu, Cr, and Zn from tailings covered with sealing materials using alkaline industrial residues: a comparison between two leaching methods.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yu; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Different alkaline residue materials (fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud) generated from the pulp and paper industry as sealing materials were evaluated to cover aged mine waste tailings (<1% sulfur content, primarily pyrite). The mobility of four selected trace elements (Cr, Cu, Zn, and As) was compared based on batch and column leaching studies to assess the effectiveness of these alkaline materials as sealing agents. Based on the leaching results, Cr, Cu, and Zn were immobilized by the alkaline amendments. In the amended tailings in the batch system only As dramatically exceeded the limit values at L/S 10 L/kg. The leaching results showed similar patterns to the batch results, though leached Cr, Cu, and Zn showed higher levels in the column tests than in the batch tests. However, when the columns were compared with the batches, the trend for Cu was opposite for the unamended tailings. By contrast, both batch and column results showed that the amendment caused mobilization of As compared with the unamended tailings in the ash-amended tailings. The amount of As released was greatest in the ash column and decreased from the dregs to the lime columns. The leaching of As at high levels can be a potential problem whenever alkaline materials (especially for fly ash) are used as sealing materials over tailings. The column test was considered by the authors to be a more informative method in remediation of the aged tailings with low sulfur content, since it mimics better actual situation in a field. PMID:26330323

  3. An acidic method of zein extraction from DDGS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weijie; Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2007-07-25

    Zein with a higher intrinsic viscosity and phosphorus content, similar protein content, lower yellowness, and at potentially much lower cost than commercially available zein was obtained from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A novel extraction method using acidic conditions in the presence of a reducing agent has been used to obtain about 10% aqueous ethanol soluble zein from DDGS. The optimum pH, time, temperature, and amount of reducing agent that can produce zein with high quality and yield have been developed. In addition to the zein, about 17% oil based on the dry weight of DDGS has also been obtained during zein extraction. The zein obtained from this research is expected to be suitable for use as fibers, films, and binders and in paints. PMID:17590006

  4. Evaluation of two methods for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Wong, Chi-Chun; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chen, Feng

    2007-05-01

    The efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods used in Chinese medicine (the decoction method and the maceration method) were evaluated for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants. A group of medicinal plants possessing nutritious and tonic functions were chosen as model plants. A commonly used extraction method was used as a reference method. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays as well as the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the two traditional extraction methods could effectively extract antioxidants from medicinal plants. These extraction methods can be applied to the analysis and purification of antioxidants in plants, respectively. At home, people can use these methods to extract antioxidants from plants for consumption. In the food industry, these methods could be utilized to prepare crude extracts from plants containing antioxidants for use as food additives. PMID:17387460

  5. Feature extraction from mammographic images using fast marching methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottigli, U.; Golosio, B.

    2002-07-01

    Features extraction from medical images represents a fundamental step for shape recognition and diagnostic support. The present work faces the problem of the detection of large features, such as massive lesions and organ contours, from mammographic images. The regions of interest are often characterized by an average grayness intensity that is different from the surrounding. In most cases, however, the desired features cannot be extracted by simple gray level thresholding, because of image noise and non-uniform density of the surrounding tissue. In this work, edge detection is achieved through the fast marching method (Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999), which is based on the theory of interface evolution. Starting from a seed point in the shape of interest, a front is generated which evolves according to an appropriate speed function. Such function is expressed in terms of geometric properties of the evolving interface and of image properties, and should become zero when the front reaches the desired boundary. Some examples of application of such method to mammographic images from the CALMA database (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 460 (2001) 107) are presented here and discussed.

  6. A method for quickly and exactly extracting hepatic vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qing; Yuan, Rong; Wang, Luyao; Wang, Yanchun; Li, Zhen; Hu, Daoyu; Xie, Qingguo

    2013-02-01

    It is of vital importance that providing detailed and accurate information about hepatic vein (HV) for liver surgery planning, such as pre-operative planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Due to the different blood flow rate of intra-hepatic vascular systems and the restrictions of CT scan, it is common that HV and hepatic portal vein (HPV) are both filled with contrast medium during the scan and in high intensity in the hepatic venous phase images. As a result, the HV segmentation result obtained from the hepatic venous phase images is always contaminated by HPV which makes accurate HV modeling difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method for quick and accurate HV extraction. Based on the topological structure of intra-hepatic vessels, we analyzed the anatomical features of HV and HPV. According to the analysis, three conditions were presented to identify the nodes that connect HV with HPV in the topological structure, and thus to distinguish HV from HPV. The method costs less than one minute to extract HV and provides a correct and detailed HV model even with variations in vessels. Evaluated by two experienced radiologists, the accuracy of the HV model obtained from our method is over 97%. In the following work, we will extend our work to a comprehensive clinical evaluation and apply this method to actual LDLT surgical planning.

  7. Texture analysis with statistical methods for wheat ear extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhouche, M.; Cointault, F.; Gouton, P.

    2007-01-01

    In agronomic domain, the simplification of crop counting, necessary for yield prediction and agronomic studies, is an important project for technical institutes such as Arvalis. Although the main objective of our global project is to conceive a mobile robot for natural image acquisition directly in a field, Arvalis has proposed us first to detect by image processing the number of wheat ears in images before to count them, which will allow to obtain the first component of the yield. In this paper we compare different texture image segmentation techniques based on feature extraction by first and higher order statistical methods which have been applied on our images. The extracted features are used for unsupervised pixel classification to obtain the different classes in the image. So, the K-means algorithm is implemented before the choice of a threshold to highlight the ears. Three methods have been tested in this feasibility study with very average error of 6%. Although the evaluation of the quality of the detection is visually done, automatic evaluation algorithms are currently implementing. Moreover, other statistical methods of higher order will be implemented in the future jointly with methods based on spatio-frequential transforms and specific filtering.

  8. Optimized protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Dilip K; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Lakshman, Sukla; Garrett, Wesley M; Dhar, Arun K

    2008-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani (Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris, T. praticola) is a basidiomycetous fungus and a major cause of root diseases of economically important plants. Various isolates of this fungus are also beneficially associated with orchids, may serve as biocontrol agents or remain as saprophytes with roles in decaying and recycling of soil organic matter. R. solani displays several hyphal anastomosis groups (AG) with distinct host and pathogenic specializations. Even though there are reports on the physiological and histological basis of Rhizoctonia-host interactions, very little is known about the molecular biology and control of gene expression early during infection by this pathogen. Proteamic technologies are powerful tools for examining alterations in protein profiles. To aid studies on its biology and host pathogen interactions, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel-based global proteomic study has been initiated. To develop an optimized protein extraction protocol for R. solani, we compared two previously reported protein extraction protocols for 2-D gel analysis of R. solani (AG-4) isolate Rs23. Both TCA-acetone precipitation and phosphate solubilization before TCA-acetone precipitation worked well for R. solani protein extraction, although selective enrichment of some proteins was noted with either method. About 450 spots could be detected with the densitiometric tracing of Coomassie blue-stained 2-D PAGE gels covering pH 4-7 and 6.5-205 kDa. Selected protein spots were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Eleven protein spots were positively identified based on peptide mass fingerprinting match with fungal proteins in public databases with the Mascot search engine. These results testify to the suitability of the two optimized protein extraction protocols for 2-D proteomic studies of R. solani. PMID:19202841

  9. A method of ECG template extraction for biometrics applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Meng; Bao, Shu-Di; Miao, Fen

    2014-01-01

    ECG has attracted widespread attention as one of the most important non-invasive physiological signals in healthcare-system related biometrics for its characteristics like ease-of-monitoring, individual uniqueness as well as important clinical value. This study proposes a method of dynamic threshold setting to extract the most stable ECG waveform as the template for the consequent ECG identification process. With the proposed method, the accuracy of ECG biometrics using the dynamic time wraping for difference measures has been significantly improved. Analysis results with the self-built electrocardiogram database show that the deployment of the proposed method was able to reduce the half total error rate of the ECG biometric system from 3.35% to 1.45%. Its average running time on the platform of android mobile terminal was around 0.06 seconds, and thus demonstrates acceptable real-time performance. PMID:25570031

  10. Method of extracting heat from dry geothermal reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Potter, R.M.; Robinson, E.S.; Smith, M.C.

    1974-01-22

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to interconnect two or more holes that penetrate a previously dry geothermal reservoir, and to produce within the reservoir a sufficiently large heat-transfer surface so that heat can be extracted from the reservoir at a usefully high rate by a fluid entering it through one hole and leaving it through another. Introduction of a fluid into the reservoir to remove heat from it and establishment of natural (unpumped) convective circulation through the reservoir to accomplish continuous heat removal are important and novel features of the method. (auth)

  11. Rapid new methods for paint collection and lead extraction.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L; Winstead, Wayne; Sorrell, Kristen; Binstock, David A; Salmons, Cynthia A; Haas, Curtis; McCombs, Michelle; Studabaker, William; Wall, Constance V; Moore, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure of children to lead can result in permanent physiological impairment. In adults, it can cause irritability, poor muscle coordination, and nerve damage to the sense organs and nerves controlling the body. Surfaces coated with lead-containing paints are potential sources of exposure to lead. In April 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized new requirements that would reduce exposure to lead hazards created by renovation, repair, and painting activities, which disturb lead-based paint. On-site, inexpensive identification of lead-based paint is required. Two steps have been taken to meet this challenge. First, this paper presents a new, highly efficient method for paint collection that is based on the use of a modified wood drill bit. Second, this paper presents a novel, one-step approach for quantitatively grinding and extracting lead from paint samples for subsequent lead determination. This latter method is based on the use of a high-revolutions per minute rotor with stator to break up the paint into approximately 50 micron-size particles. Nitric acid (25%, v/v) is used to extract the lead in <3 minutes. Recoveries are consistently >95% for real-world paints, National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference materials, and audit samples from the American Industrial Hygiene Association's Environmental Lead Proficiency Analytical Testing Program. This quantitative extraction procedure, when paired with quantitative paint sample collection and lead determination, may enable the development of a lead paint test kit that will meet the specifications of the final EPA rule. PMID:19137153

  12. Chloroform extraction of iodine in seawater: method development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidler, H. B.; Glimme, A.; Tumey, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    While 129I poses little to no radiological health hazard, the isotopic ratio of 129I to stable iodine is very useful as a nearly conservative tracer for ocean mixing processes. The unfortunate disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant released many radioactive materials into the environment, including 129I. The release allows the studying of oceanic processes through the tracking of 129I. However, with such a low iodine (~0.5 micromolar) and 129I concentrations (<10-11) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is needed for accurate measurements. In order to prepare the samples of ocean water for analysis by AMS, the iodine needs to be separated from the various other salts in the seawater. Solvent extraction is the preferred method for preparation of seawater for AMS analysis of 129I. However, given the relatively low background 129I concentrations in the Pacific Ocean, we sought to optimize recovery of thismethod, which would minimize both the sample size and the carrier addition required for analysis. We started from a base method described in other research and worked towards maximum efficiency of the process while boosting the recovery of iodine. During development, we assessed each methodological change qualitatively using a color scale (I2 in CHCl3) and quantitatively using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The "optimized method" yielded a 20-40% increase in recovery of the iodine compared to the base method (80-85% recovery vs. 60%). Lastly, the "optimized method" was tested by AMS for fractionation of the extracted iodine.

  13. Alternative and efficient extraction methods for marine-derived compounds.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B

    2015-05-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe's surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  14. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  15. A comparison of methods for extracting influenza viral titer characteristics.

    PubMed

    González-Parra, Gilberto; Rodriguez, Thalia; Dobrovolny, Hana M

    2016-05-01

    Viral titer data collected in vitro or in vivo is often analyzed by extracting viral titer characteristics such as peak viral titer, time of viral peak and area under the curve (AUC). Researchers compare these characteristics in the absence and presence of various concentrations of antivirals in an attempt to quantify the effect of antivirals. Often these characteristics are estimated using only measured data points, although fitting of simple mathematical models to estimate these parameters is becoming more prevalent. In this article, our aim is to compare the estimates of different viral titer characteristics using three different approaches. The first approach is the traditional method that uses estimates based on experimentally measured data. The second approach relies on the use of a linear model to fit the viral titer data. The third approach uses an exponential model for the fitting process and the parameters of interest are extracted from there. The mathematical models are tested using in vivo and in vitro influenza infection data. Estimates of viral titer characteristics using either of the two fitting approaches were similar, but differed from estimates using the traditional method. PMID:26880246

  16. A method to extract soil water for stable isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revesz, K.; Woods, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    A method has been developed to extract soil water for determination of deuterium (D) and 18O content. The principle of this method is based on the observation that water and toluene form an azeotropic mixture at 84.1??C, but are completely immiscible at ambient temperature. In a specially designed distillation apparatus, the soil water is distilled at 84.1??C with toluene and is separated quantitatively in the collecting funnel at ambient temperature. Traces of toluene are removed and the sample can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Kerosene may be substituted for toluene. The accuracy of this technique is ?? 2 and ?? 0.2???, respectively, for ??D and ??18O. Reduced accuracy is obtained at low water contents. ?? 1990.

  17. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane Schafer; Marron, Lisa C.; Salton, Jonathan R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  18. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  19. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Chinese Yellow Rice Wine by Diatomaceous Earth Extraction and GC/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pinggu; Zhang, Liqun; Shen, Xianghong; Wang, Liyuan; Zou, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Tang, Jun; Ma, Bingjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and rapid analytical method based on alkaline diatomaceous earth extraction followed by GC/MS was developed for the quantitative determination of the toxic contaminant ethyl carbamate (EC) in yellow rice wines. The optimal extraction conditions were investigated. With the application of diatomaceous earth extraction, the damage of organic acids to the capillary column was greatly reduced. By using d5-EC as an internal standard for quantitative analysis of EC, the linearity of the calibration curves was good between 10 and 1000 ng/mL. The LOD and LOQ were 1.7 and 5.0 μg/kg, respectively. The spiked level of EC was 5.0-300 μg/kg, and the average recovery of the spikes was between 78.4 and 98.2%, with an RSD between 4.3 and 8.3%. Upon validation by five laboratories when spiked with 50, 100, and 300 μg/kg, the average respective recoveries were 102.9, 102.2, and 98.7% with a RSD between 0.7 and 8.1%. The validation results demonstrated that the method is fast, simple, selective, and suitable for the determination of EC in yellow rice wines. PMID:26086264

  20. Influence of different extraction methods on the yield and linalool content of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Galhiane, Mário S; Rissato, Sandra R; Chierice, Gilberto O; Almeida, Marcos V; Silva, Letícia C

    2006-09-15

    This work has been developed using a sylvestral fruit tree, native to the Brazilian forest, the Eugenia uniflora L., one of the Mirtaceae family. The main goal of the analytical study was focused on extraction methods themselves. The method development pointed to the Clevenger extraction as the best yield in relation to SFE and Soxhlet. The SFE method presented a good yield but showed a big amount of components in the final extract, demonstrating low selectivity. The essential oil extracted was analyzed by GC/FID showing a large range of polarity and boiling point compounds, where linalool, a widely used compound, was identified. Furthermore, an analytical solid phase extraction method was used to clean it up and obtain separated classes of compounds that were fractionated and studied by GC/FID and GC/MS. PMID:18970765

  1. Development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction of waste with acidic extraction fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sorini, S.S.

    1993-08-01

    Subject is characterization of waste materials. Since acid rain is increasingly prevalent throughout the world, a sequential batch extraction method was developed which uses a dilute acid solution as the extraction fluid. A collaborative study was conducted in which the draft method was used to treat a spray dryer waste from a clean coal technology process and a composite mining waste. Effects of filter pore size and digestion vs nondigestion on analytical concentrations in extracts were also studied. Elements determined included Al, Ba, B, Ca, Cr, Si, Na, Sr, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Zn. The draft method will be published as ASTM Method D5284-92.

  2. CEMS using hot wet extractive method based on DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Changku

    2011-11-01

    A continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) using hot wet extractive method based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is designed. The developed system is applied to retrieving the concentration of SO2 and NOx in flue gas on-site. The flue gas is carried along a heated sample line into the sample pool at a constant temperature above the dew point. In this case, the adverse impact of water vapor on measurement accuracy is reduced greatly, and the on-line calibration is implemented. And then the flue gas is discharged from the sample pool after the measuring process is complete. The on-site applicability of the system is enhanced by using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control each valve in the system during the measuring and on-line calibration process. The concentration retrieving method used in the system is based on the partial least squares (PLS) regression nonlinear method. The relationship between the known concentration and the differential absorption feature gathered by the PLS nonlinear method can be figured out after the on-line calibration process. Then the concentration measurement of SO2 and NOx can be easily implemented according to the definite relationship. The concentration retrieving method can identify the information and noise effectively, which improves the measuring accuracy of the system. SO2 with four different concentrations are measured by the system under laboratory conditions. The results proved that the full-scale error of this system is less than 2%FS.

  3. Acid-base reaction-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for extraction of three classes of pesticides from fruit juice samples.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-29

    A sample preparation method involving acid-base reaction-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography using nitrogen-phosphorous detection has been developed for the analysis of three classes of pesticides in juice samples. In this method, a basic organic solvent (p-chloroaniline) is used as an extraction solvent. It is dissolved in acidified deionized water and then injected into an alkaline aqueous sample solution. After injection, an acid-base reaction occurs and deprotonation of the organic solvent leads to formation of tiny droplets of the extractant and subsequent extraction of the analytes from sample solution. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed low limits of detection and quantification in the range of 0.05-0.43ngmL(-1) and 0.17-1.43ngmL(-1), respectively. Extraction recoveries and enrichment factors were between 39.2 and 84.1% and between 548 and 1178, respectively. Relative standard deviations of less than 8.6% for the extraction of 2.0ngmL(-1) of each pesticide were obtained for intra- (n=6) and inter-day (n=4) precisions. Finally, different juice samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method, and penconazole, diniconazole, triadimenol, and acetamiprid were determined in some samples at ngmL(-1) levels. PMID:26755415

  4. Polyphenols: Extraction Methods, Antioxidative Action, Bioavailability and Anticarcinogenic Effects.

    PubMed

    Brglez Mojzer, Eva; Knez Hrnčič, Maša; Škerget, Mojca; Knez, Željko; Bren, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Being secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols represent a large and diverse group of substances abundantly present in a majority of fruits, herbs and vegetables. The current contribution is focused on their bioavailability, antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. An overview of extraction methods is also given, with supercritical fluid extraction highlighted as a promising eco-friendly alternative providing exceptional separation and protection from degradation of unstable polyphenols. The protective role of polyphenols against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, UV light, plant pathogens, parasites and predators results in several beneficial biological activities giving rise to prophylaxis or possibly even to a cure for several prevailing human diseases, especially various cancer types. Omnipresence, specificity of the response and the absence of or low toxicity are crucial advantages of polyphenols as anticancer agents. The main problem represents their low bioavailability and rapid metabolism. One of the promising solutions lies in nanoformulation of polyphenols that prevents their degradation and thus enables significantly higher concentrations to reach the target cells. Another, more practiced, solution is the use of mixtures of various polyphenols that bring synergistic effects, resulting in lowering of the required therapeutic dose and in multitargeted action. The combination of polyphenols with existing drugs and therapies also shows promising results and significantly reduces their toxicity. PMID:27409600

  5. Enhancing the various solvent extraction method via microwave irradiation for extraction of lipids from marine microalgae in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chee Loong; Idris, Ani

    2014-11-01

    The types of microalgae strains and the method used in lipid extraction have become crucial factors which influence the productivity of crude oil. In this paper, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were chosen as the strains and four different methods were used to extract the lipids: Hara and Radin, Folch, Chen and Bligh and Dyer. These methods were performed by using conventional heating and microwave irradiation methods. Results revealed that highest lipid yield from the different species was obtained using different extraction methods; both under microwave irradiation. The lipid yield for Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. was highest when Hara and Radin (8.19%), and Folch (8.47%) methods were used respectively under microwave irradiation. The lipids extracted were then transesterified to biodiesel and the quality of the biodiesel was analyzed using the gas chromatography. PMID:25201293

  6. A novel protein extraction method for identification of mycobacteria using MALDI-ToF MS.

    PubMed

    Adams, La'Tonzia L; Salee, Parichat; Dionne, Kim; Carroll, Karen; Parrish, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Commercial extraction methods for identification of mycobacteria using MALDI-ToF MS are laborious and time consuming. We have developed a novel extraction method which utilizes a bead beater and zirconia/silica beads to significantly shorten the existing protocol. This novel method provides a more rapid extraction of mycobacteria versus the commercial standard. PMID:26392293

  7. Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.

    PubMed

    Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

    2004-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus. PMID:15508836

  8. System and method for preparing near-surface heavy oil for extraction using microbial degradation

    DOEpatents

    Busche, Frederick D.; Rollins, John B.; Noyes, Harold J.; Bush, James G.

    2011-04-12

    A system and method for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil in an oil extraction environment by feeding nutrients to a preferred microbial species (bacteria and/or fungi). A method is described that includes the steps of: sampling and identifying microbial species that reside in the oil extraction environment; collecting fluid property data from the oil extraction environment; collecting nutrient data from the oil extraction environment; identifying a preferred microbial species from the oil extraction environment that can transform the heavy oil into a lighter oil; identifying a nutrient from the oil extraction environment that promotes a proliferation of the preferred microbial species; and introducing the nutrient into the oil extraction environment.

  9. A method of extracting operating parameters of a quantum circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sete, Eyob A.; Block, Maxwell; Scheer, Michael; Zanoci, Cris; Vahidpour, Mehrnoosh; Thompson, Dane; Rigetti, Chad

    Rigorous simulation-driven design methods are an essential component of traditional integrated circuit design. We adapt these techniques to the design and development of superconducting quantum integrated circuits by combining classical finite element analysis in the microwave domain with Brune circuit synthesis by Solgun [PhD thesis 2014] and BKD Hamiltonian analysis by Burkard et al. [Phys. Rev. B 69, 064503 (2004)]. Using the Hamiltonian of the quantum circuit, constructed using the synthesized equivalent linear circuit and the nonlinear Josephson junctions' contributions, we extract operating parameters of the quantum circuit such as resonance coupling strength, dispersive shift, qubit anharmonicitiy, and decoherence rates for single-and multi-port quantum circuits. This approach has been experimentally validated and allows the closed-loop iterative simulation-driven development of quantum information processing devices.

  10. Method for improving the extraction properties of a tributyl phosphate solution

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Earl C.; Bruns, Lester E.

    1976-01-01

    A method for improving the extraction properties of a tributyl phosphate extractant used for reprocessing irradiated nuclear reactor fuel (Purex Process) containing degradation products of tributyl phosphate by contacting the extractant with diazomethane in a suitable solvent whereby the degradation products are esterified to triester phosphates which have extraction properties similar to those of tributyl phosphate.

  11. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-01-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  12. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-07-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  13. A proposed method for enhanced eigen-pair extraction using finite element methods: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jara-Almonte, J.; Mitchell, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    The paper covers two distinct parts: theory and application. The goal of this work was the reduction of model size with an increase in eigenvalue/vector accuracy. This method is ideal for the condensation of large truss- or beam-type structures. The theoretical approach involves the conversion of a continuum transfer matrix beam element into an 'Exact' dynamic stiffness element. This formulation is implemented in a finite element environment. This results in the need to solve a transcendental eigenvalue problem. Once the eigenvalue is determined the eigenvectors can be reconstructed with any desired spatial precision. No discretization limitations are imposed on the reconstruction. The results of such a combined finite element and transfer matrix formulation is a much smaller FEM eigenvalue problem. This formulation has the ability to extract higher eigenvalues as easily and as accurately as lower eigenvalues. Moreover, one can extract many more eigenvalues/vectors from the model than the number of degrees of freedom in the FEM formulation. Typically, the number of eigenvalues accurately extractable via the 'Exact' element method are at least 8 times the number of degrees of freedom. In contrast, the FEM usually extracts one accurate (within 5 percent) eigenvalue for each 3-4 degrees of freedom. The 'Exact' element results in a 20-30 improvement in the number of accurately extractable eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

  14. Efficient Extraction Method of the Change of Buildings for Fixed Property Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanauchi, Y.; Chikatsu, H.

    2012-07-01

    In order to appraise fixed property, local governments in Japan annually investigate taxable buildings on January 1, but the efficiency of the investigation is an issue. With this context, change extraction methods of buildings have been studied using various data. However, labor and time optimization for change extraction methods remains an issue. With this in mind, the authors have concentrated on developing a change extraction method for buildings that uses only photomaps of two separate times. This paper describes the extraction method using color and texture, which can be obtained from photomaps. In order to evaluate effectiveness, the proposed method was investigated using photomaps of two separate times on various locations. It was confirmed that the proposed method extracted the changed buildings. It was also verified that the change of buildings cannot be extracted by color information only; rather, the change extraction of buildings was accomplished by using both color and texture. It should be noted that all changed buildings include extracted regions so that the change extraction of buildings is effectively performed without oversights. The proposed method could extract all changed buildings. In conclusion, the proposed method can reduce over-extraction of changed buildings by intensively visually checking extracted regions that have changes in color or texture rather than by visually checking all regions of photomaps. It is concluded that the proposed method has the ability to effectively extract changed buildings by using only photomaps.

  15. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  16. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research. PMID:24456581

  17. Four different methods comparison for extraction of astaxanthin from green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shengzhao; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Shihui; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the potent organisms for production of astaxanthin. Up to now, no efficient method has been achieved due to its thick cell wall hindering solvent extraction of astaxanthin. In this study, four different methods, hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by acetone extraction (HCl-ACE), hexane/isopropanol (6:4, v/v) mixture solvents extraction (HEX-IPA), methanol extraction followed by acetone extraction (MET-ACE, 2-step extraction), and soy-oil extraction, were intensively evaluated for extraction of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. Results showed that HCl-ACE method could obtain the highest oil yield (33.3±1.1%) and astaxanthin content (19.8±1.1%). Quantitative NMR analysis provided the fatty acid chain profiles of total lipid extracts. In all cases, oleyl chains were predominant, and high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains were observed and the major fatty acid components were oleic acid (13-35%), linoleic acid (37-43%), linolenic acid (20-31%), and total saturated acid (17-28%). DPPH radical scavenging activity of extract obtained by HCl-ACE was 73.2±1.0%, which is the highest amongst the four methods. The reducing power of extract obtained by four extraction methods was also examined. It was concluded that the proposed extraction method of HCl-ACE in this work allowed efficient astaxanthin extractability with high antioxidant properties. PMID:24574909

  18. Four Different Methods Comparison for Extraction of Astaxanthin from Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shengzhao; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Shihui; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the potent organisms for production of astaxanthin. Up to now, no efficient method has been achieved due to its thick cell wall hindering solvent extraction of astaxanthin. In this study, four different methods, hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by acetone extraction (HCl-ACE), hexane/isopropanol (6 : 4, v/v) mixture solvents extraction (HEX-IPA), methanol extraction followed by acetone extraction (MET-ACE, 2-step extraction), and soy-oil extraction, were intensively evaluated for extraction of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. Results showed that HCl-ACE method could obtain the highest oil yield (33.3 ± 1.1%) and astaxanthin content (19.8 ± 1.1%). Quantitative NMR analysis provided the fatty acid chain profiles of total lipid extracts. In all cases, oleyl chains were predominant, and high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains were observed and the major fatty acid components were oleic acid (13–35%), linoleic acid (37–43%), linolenic acid (20–31%), and total saturated acid (17–28%). DPPH radical scavenging activity of extract obtained by HCl-ACE was 73.2 ± 1.0%, which is the highest amongst the four methods. The reducing power of extract obtained by four extraction methods was also examined. It was concluded that the proposed extraction method of HCl-ACE in this work allowed efficient astaxanthin extractability with high antioxidant properties. PMID:24574909

  19. Purification of alkaline solutions and wastes from actinides and technetium by coprecipitation with some carriers using the method of appearing reagents: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peretrukhin, V.F.; Silin, V.I.; Kareta, A.V.; Gelis, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; German, K.E.; Firsova, E.V.; Maslennikov, A.G.; Trushina, V.E.

    1998-09-01

    The coprecipitation of transuranium elements (TRU) and technetium from alkaline solutions and from simulants of Hanford Site tank wastes has been studied in reducing and oxidizing conditions on uranium(IV,VI) hydroxocompounds, tetraalkylammonium perrhenate and perchlorate, and on hydroxides of Fe(III), Co(III), Mn(II), and Cr(III) using the method of appearing reagents (MAR). Coprecipitations in alkaline solution have been shown to give high decontamination factors (DF) at low content of carrier and in the presence of high salt concentrations. Uranium(IV) hydroxide in concentrations higher than 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M coprecipitates Pu and Cm in any oxidation state from 0.2 to 4 M NaOH with DFs of 110 to 1000 and Np and Tc with DFs of 51 to 176. Technetium (VII) coprecipitates with (5 to 8) {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M tetrabutylammonium (TBA) perrhenate in 0.01 to 0.02 M TBA hydroxide from 0.5 to 1.5 M NaOH to give DFs of 150 to 200. Coprecipitations of Np and Pu with Co(OH){sub 3}, Fe(OH){sub 3}, Cr(OH){sub 3}, and Mn(OH){sub 2} obtained by the MAR from precursors in the range from pH 10.5 to 0.4 M NaOH give DFs from 80 to 400.

  20. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : evaluation of alkaline persulfate digestion as an alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for determination of total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

    2003-01-01

    Alkaline persulfate digestion was evaluated and validated as a more sensitive, accurate, and less toxic alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for routine determination of nitrogen and phosphorus in surface- and ground-water samples in a large-scale and geographically diverse study conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2002. Data for this study were obtained from about 2,100 surface- and ground-water samples that were analyzed for Kjeldahl nitrogen and Kjeldahl phosphorus in the course of routine operations at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL). These samples were analyzed independently for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using an alkaline persulfate digestion method developed by the NWQL Methods Research and Development Program. About half of these samples were collected during nominally high-flow (April-June) conditions and the other half were collected during nominally low-flow (August-September) conditions. The number of filtered and whole-water samples analyzed from each flow regime was about equal.By operational definition, Kjeldahl nitrogen (ammonium + organic nitrogen) and alkaline persulfate digestion total nitrogen (ammonium + nitrite + nitrate + organic nitrogen) are not equivalent. It was necessary, therefore, to reconcile this operational difference by subtracting nitrate + nitrite concentra-tions from alkaline persulfate dissolved and total nitrogen concentrations prior to graphical and statistical comparisons with dissolved and total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations. On the basis of two-population paired t-test statistics, the means of all nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen and Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations (2,066 paired results) were significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level. Statistically, the means of Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations were greater than those of nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen concentrations. Experimental evidence strongly

  1. A comparative evaluation of six principal IgY antibody extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hao; Yang, Wenjing; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Zhang, Xiaoying; Schade, Rüdiger

    2016-03-01

    Egg yolk has been considered a promising source of antibodies. Our study was designed to compare six principal IgY extraction methods (water dilution, polyethylene glycol [PEG] precipitation, caprylic acid extraction, chloroform extraction, phenol extraction, and carrageenan extraction), and to assess their relative extraction efficiencies and the purity of the resulting antibodies. The results showed that the organic solvents (chloroform or phenol) minimised the lipid ratio in the egg yolk. The water dilution, PEG precipitation and caprylic acid extraction methods resulted in high yields, and antibodies purified with PEG and carrageenan exhibited high purity. Our results indicate that phenol extraction would be more suitable for preparing high concentrations of IgY for non-therapeutic usage, while the water dilution and carrageenan extraction methods would be more appropriate for use in the preparation of IgY for oral administration. PMID:27031600

  2. Heteroglycan from an alkaline extract of a somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv1aFB) of Pleurotus florida and Volvariella volvacea: structural characterization and study of immunoenhancing properties.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Sanjoy Kumar; Dey, Biswajit; Maity, Kankan K; Patra, Sukesh; Mandal, Soumitra; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2012-06-01

    A water soluble heteroglycan, isolated from the alkaline extract of the fruit bodies of the somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv1aFB), raised through protoplast fusion between the strains of Pleorutus florida and Volverilla volvacea, was found to consist of (1→3)-, (1→6)-, (1→3,4)-linked, and terminal β-D-Glcp along with (1→2,6)-α-D-Galp and terminal α-D-Manp in a relative proportion of approximately 1:1:1:1:1:1. This polysaccharide exhibited strong immunostimulating activity of macrophages as well as splenocytes and thymocytes. Structural investigation was carried out using sugar analysis, methylation analysis; periodate oxidation study, and NMR experiments ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of the above mentioned experiments, the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as: [formula see text]. PMID:22572124

  3. Improved Butanol-Methanol (BUME) Method by Replacing Acetic Acid for Lipid Extraction of Biological Samples.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Mutya; Wang, Miao; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica; Han, Xianlin

    2016-07-01

    Extraction of lipids from biological samples is a critical step in lipidomics, especially for shotgun lipidomics where lipid extracts are directly infused into a mass spectrometer. The butanol-methanol (BUME) extraction method was originally developed to extract lipids from plasma samples with 1 % acetic acid. Considering some lipids are sensitive to acidic environments, we modified this protocol by replacing acetic acid with lithium chloride solution and extended the modified extraction to tissue samples. Although no significant reduction of plasmalogen levels in the acidic BUME extracts of rat heart samples was found, the modified method was established to extract various tissue samples, including rat liver, heart, and plasma. Essentially identical profiles of the majority of lipid classes were obtained from the extracts of the modified BUME and traditional Bligh-Dyer methods. However, it was found that neither the original, nor the modified BUME method was suitable for 4-hydroxyalkenal species measurement in biological samples. PMID:27245345

  4. A method suitable for DNA extraction from humus-rich soil.

    PubMed

    Miao, Tianjin; Gao, Song; Jiang, Shengwei; Kan, Guoshi; Liu, Pengju; Wu, Xianming; An, Yingfeng; Yao, Shuo

    2014-11-01

    A rapid and convenient method for extracting DNA from soil is presented. Soil DNA is extracted by direct cell lysis in the presence of EDTA, SDS, phenol, chloroform and isoamyl alcohol (3-methyl-1-butanol) followed by precipitation with 2-propanol. The extracted DNA is purified by modified DNA purification kit and DNA gel extraction kit. With this method, DNA extracted from humus-rich dark brown forest soil was free from humic substances and, therefore, could be used for efficient PCR amplification and restriction digestion. In contrast, DNA sample extracted with the traditional CTAB-based method had lower yield and purity, and no DNA could be extracted from the same soil sample with a commonly-used commercial soil DNA isolation kit. In addition, this method is time-saving and convenient, providing an efficient choice especially for DNA extraction from humus-rich soils. PMID:24980851

  5. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; McDowell, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  6. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1987-10-23

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  7. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for selectively extracting precious metal such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  8. Evaluation of sample extraction methods for proteomics analysis of green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2016-05-01

    Many protein extraction methods have been developed for plant proteome analysis but information is limited on the optimal protein extraction method from algae species. This study evaluated four protein extraction methods, i.e. direct lysis buffer method, TCA-acetone method, phenol method, and phenol/TCA-acetone method, using green algae Chlorella vulgaris for proteome analysis. The data presented showed that phenol/TCA-acetone method was superior to the other three tested methods with regards to shotgun proteomics. Proteins identified using shotgun proteomics were validated using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) technique. Additionally, SWATH provides protein quantitation information from different methods and protein abundance using different protein extraction methods was evaluated. These results highlight the importance of green algae protein extraction method for subsequent MS analysis and identification. PMID:26935773

  9. A new method for extraction of pectin from cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, N.O.; Mort, A.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Pectin is often extracted from plant tissues using the Ca{sup ++} chelators ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) or cyclohexane-trans-1,2 diamine tetraacetate (CDTA). While these chelators are effective in solubilizing pectin, even after extensive dialysis against distilled water, EDTA or CDTA remains associated with the pectin. The authors have found that if 500 mM imidazole buffer, pH 7.0 is substituted for 50 mM CDTA, pH 6.5, and for equivalent extraction periods, an equivalent amount of pectin with the same sugar composition is extracted. But, the imidazole buffer can be dialyzed away completely into distilled water. Their alternative procedure for extraction of pectin from cell walls will be presented. Utilization of the procedure for extraction of whole cell walls or cell walls pretreated with liquid hydrogen fluoride is discussed.

  10. Alkaline-resistance model of subtilisin ALP I, a novel alkaline subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Mizutani, O; Yamagata, Y; Ichishima, E; Nakajima, T

    2001-05-01

    The alkaline-resistance mechanism of the alkaline-stable enzymes is not yet known. To clarify the mechanism of alkaline-resistance of alkaline subtilisin, structural changes of two typical subtilisins, subtilisin ALP I (ALP I) and subtilisin Sendai (Sendai), were studied by means of physicochemical methods. Subtilisin NAT (NAT), which exhibits no alkaline resistance, was examined as a control. ALP I gradually lost its activity, accompanied by protein degradation, but, on the contrary, Sendai was stable under alkaline conditions. CD spectral measurements at neutral and alkaline pH indicated no apparent differences between ALP I and Sendai. A significant difference was observed on measurement of fluorescence emission spectra of the tryptophan residues of ALP I that were exposed on the enzyme surface. The fluorescence intensity of ALP I was greatly reduced under alkaline conditions; moreover, the reduction was reversed when alkaline-treated ALP I was neutralized. The fluorescence spectrum of Sendai remained unchanged. The enzymatic and optical activities of NAT were lost at high pH, indicating a lack of functional and structural stability in an alkaline environment. Judging from these results, the alkaline resistance is closely related to the surface structure of the enzyme molecule. PMID:11328588

  11. Comparison antioxidant activity of Tarom Mahali rice bran extracted from different extraction methods and its effect on canola oil stabilization.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Reza; Asnaashari, Maryam; Sayyad, Ruhollah

    2015-10-01

    In this study, Tarom Mahali rice bran extracts by ultrasound assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and ethanol: water (50:50)) extraction method were compared. The total phenolic and tocopherol content and antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined and compared with TBHQ by DPPH assay and β-carotene bleaching method. The results show that the extract from ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic treatment with high amount of phenols (919.66 mg gallic acid/g extract, tocopherols (438.4 μg α-tocopherol/ mL extract) indicated the highest antioxidant activity (80.36 % radical scavenging and 62.69 % β-carotene-linoleic bleaching) and thermal stability (4.95 h) at 120 °C in canola oil. Being high in antioxidant and antiradical potential and high content of phenolic and tocopherol compounds of ethanol: water (50:50) ultrasonic extract caused to evaluate its thermal stability at 180 °C in canola oil during frying process. So, different concentrations of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract (100, 800, and 1200 ppm) were added to canola oil. TBHQ at 100 ppm served as standard besides the control. Free fatty acids (FFAs), Peroxide value (PV), carbonyl value (CV), total polar compounds (TPC) and oxidative stability index (OSI) were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of Tarom Mahali rice bran extract in stabilization of canola oil. Results from different parameters were in agreement with each other, suggesting that 800 ppm of the extract could act better than 100 ppm TBHQ in inhibition of lipid oxidation in canola oil during frying process and can be used as predominant alternative of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26396383

  12. [DNA extraction methods of compost for molecular ecology analysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xiao, Yong; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yun-Guo; Deng, Jiu-Hua

    2006-08-01

    Molecular ecology provides new techniques for studying compost microbes, and the DNA extraction is the basis of molecular techniques. Because of the contamination of humic acids, it turns to be more difficult for compost microbial DNA extraction. Three different approaches, named as lysozyme lysis, ultrasonic lysis and proteinase K lysis with CTAB, were used to extract the total DNA from compost. The detection performed on a nucleic acids and protein analyzer showed that all the three approaches produced high DNA yields. The agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the DNA fragments extracted from compost had a length of about 23 kb. A eubacterial 16S rRNA gene targeted primer pair (27F and 1 495R) was used for PCR amplification, and all the samples got almost the full length 16S rDNA sequence (about 1.5 kb). After digested by restriction endonucleases (Hae Ill and Alu I), the restriction map showed relatively identical microbial diversity in the DNA, which was extracted by the three different approaches. All the compost microbial DNA extracted by the three different approaches could be used for molecular ecological study, and researchers should choose the right approach for extracting microbial DNA from compost based on the facts. PMID:17111621

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  15. The effects of different extraction methods on composition and storage stability of sturgeon oil.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shuxian; Wei, Ya; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Cen, Jianwei; Huang, Hui; Lin, Wanling; Yuan, Xiaomin

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different extraction methods on oil yield, colour attributes, oxidative stability, fatty acids composition and production of volatile compounds in sturgeon oil during storage. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method with carbon dioxide resulted in higher oil yields, better colour attributes, and higher oxidative stability compared to other traditional extraction methods such as enzymatic extraction, amino, and wet reduction. After storage at 4 °C for 33 days, the aldehyde content in oil extracted by the enzymatic extraction and wet reduction methods was twice as high as that obtained by the other methods. There was a significant reduction in the content of total acids in oils extracted by the enzymatic extraction and wet reduction methods (p<0.05), whereas amine compounds were mainly detected in oil extracted by the amino method. The oil extracted by SFE exhibited higher UFA and lower SFA. Significant diffidence among PUFA with C above 20 was observed in oil extracted with SFE. PMID:25466023

  16. RECLAMATION OF ALKALINE ASH PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to develop methods for reclaiming ash disposal piles for the ultimate use as agricultural or forest lands. The ashes studied were strongly alkaline and contained considerable amounts of salts and toxic boron. The ashes were produced from burning bit...

  17. Accurate analytical method for the extraction of solar cell model parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phang, J. C. H.; Chan, D. S. H.; Phillips, J. R.

    1984-05-01

    Single diode solar cell model parameters are rapidly extracted from experimental data by means of the presently derived analytical expressions. The parameter values obtained have a less than 5 percent error for most solar cells, in light of the extraction of model parameters for two cells of differing quality which were compared with parameters extracted by means of the iterative method.

  18. A COMPARISON OF AUTOMATED AND TRADITIONAL METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF ARSENICALS FROM FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automated extractor employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has been compared with a traditional sonication method of extraction for the extraction of arsenicals from fish tissue. Four different species of fish and a standard reference material, DORM-2, were subjected t...

  19. Comparison of extraction methods for analysis of citrinin in red fermented rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiping; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Xinfeng; Zhang, Huashan; Huang, Qin; Li, Dongsheng; Yao, Jicheng

    2014-08-15

    There is no standard method for the extraction and analysis of citrinin in red fermented rice (RFR). In the study, five extraction methods were compared for their efficiency to analyse citrinin in RFR by HPLC-FLD (reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection), including, (1) ultrasonic extraction with EW solution (ethanol:water, 7:3, v/v); (2) ultrasonic extraction with TEF solvent mixtures (toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid, 7:3:1, v/v); (3) shaking extraction with EW; (4) shaking extraction with EF solvent mixtures (ethyl acetate:formic acid, 1:1, v/v); (5) shaking combined with ultrasonic extraction in EW. Comparison of chromatograms of citrinin by HPLC-FLD with different extraction methods revealed that EW was the best extraction solvent. It was also found that shaking combined with ultrasonic extraction in EW was the most efficient extraction method to extract citrinin from RFR for qualitative and quantitative analysis. PMID:24679798

  20. Estimates of evapotranspiration in alkaline scrub and meadow communities of Owens Valley, California, using the Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L. F. W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In Owens Valley, evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the largest components of outflow in the hydrologic budget and the least understood. ET estimates for December 1983 through October 1985 were made for seven representative locations selected on the basis of geohydrology and the characteristics of phreatophytic alkaline scrub and meadow communities. The Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods were used to estimate ET. The results of the analyses appear satisfactory when compared to other estimates of ET. Results by the eddy-correlation method are for a direct and a residual latent-heat flux that is based on sensible-heat flux and energy budget measurements. Penman-combination potential ET estimates were determined to be unusable because they overestimated actual ET. Modification in the psychrometer constant of this method to account for differences between heat-diffusion resistance and vapor-diffusion resistance permitted actual ET to be estimated. The methods may be used for studies in similar semiarid and arid rangeland areas in the Western United States. Meteorological data for three field sites are included in the appendix. Simple linear regression analysis indicates that ET estimates are correlated to air temperature, vapor-density deficit, and net radiation. Estimates of annual ET range from 300 mm at a low-density scrub site to 1,100 mm at a high-density meadow site. The monthly percentage of annual ET was determined to be similar for all sites studied. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Innovative method for boron extraction from iron ore containing boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang; Wang, Jing-song; Yu, Xin-yun; Shen, Ying-feng; Zuo, Hai-bin; Xue, Qing-guo

    2016-03-01

    A novel process for boron enrichment and extraction from ludwigite based on iron nugget technology was proposed. The key steps of this novel process, which include boron and iron separation, crystallization of boron-rich slag, and elucidation of the boron extraction behavior of boron-rich slag by acid leaching, were performed at the laboratory. The results indicated that 95.7% of the total boron could be enriched into the slag phase, thereby forming a boron-rich slag during the iron and slag melting separation process. Suanite and kotoite were observed to be the boron-containing crystalline phases, and the boron extraction properties of the boron-rich slag depended on the amounts and grain sizes of these minerals. When the boron-rich slag was slowly cooled to 1100°C, the slag crystallized well and the efficiency of extraction of boron (EEB) of the slag was the highest observed in the present study. The boron extraction property of the slow-cooled boron-rich slag obtained in this study was much better than that of szaibelyite ore under the conditions of 80% of theoretical sulfuric acid amount, leaching time of 30 min, leaching temperature of 40°C, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 8 mL/g.

  2. [Research advances on DNA extraction methods from peripheral blood mononuclear cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Chen-Xi

    2014-10-01

    DNA extraction is a basic technology of molecular biology. The purity and the integrality of DNA structure are necessary for different experiments of gene engineering. As commonly used materials in the clinical detection, the fast, efficient isolation and extraction of genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells is very important for the inspection and analysis of clinical blood. At present, there are many methods for extracting DNA, such as phenol-chloroform method, salting out method, centrifugal adsorption column chromatography method (artificial methods), magnetic beads (semi-automatic method) and DNA extraction kit. In this article, a brief review of the principle for existing DNA blood extraction method, the specific steps and the assessment of the specific methods briefly are summarized. PMID:25338615

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural... Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural... Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11...

  5. Characterization of activated sludge exocellular polymers using several cation-associated extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul; Novak, John T

    2007-04-01

    Evaluation of prior research and preliminary investigations in our laboratory led to the development of an extraction strategy that can be used to target different cations in activated sludge floc and extract their associated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The methods we used were the cation exchange resin (CER) procedure, base extraction, and sulfide addition to extract EPS linked with divalent cations, Al, and Fe, respectively. A comparison of sludge cations before and after CER extraction revealed that most of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were removed while Fe and Al remained intact, suggesting that this method is highly selective for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)-bound EPS. The correlation between sludge Fe and sulfide-extracted EPS was indicative of selectivity of this method for Fe-bound EPS. The base extraction was less specific than the other methods but it was the method releasing the largest amount of Al into the extract, indicating that the method extracted Al-bound EPS. Concomitantly, the composition of extracted EPS and the amino acid composition differed for the three methods, indicating that EPS associated with different metals were not the same. The change in EPS following anaerobic and aerobic digestion was also characterized by the three extraction methods. CER-extracted EPS were reduced after aerobic digestion while they changed little by anaerobic digestion. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion was associated with the decrease in sulfide-extracted EPS. These results suggest that different types of cation-EPS binding mechanisms exist in activated sludge and that each cation-associated EPS fraction imparts unique digestion characteristics to activated sludge. PMID:17346764

  6. RNASwift: A rapid, versatile RNA extraction method free from phenol and chloroform.

    PubMed

    Nwokeoji, Alison O; Kilby, Peter M; Portwood, David E; Dickman, Mark J

    2016-11-01

    RNASwift is an inexpensive, versatile method for the rapid extraction of RNA. Existing RNA extraction methods typically use hazardous chemicals including phenol, chloroform and formamide which are often difficult to completely remove from the extracted RNA. RNASwift uses sodium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulphate to lyse the cells and isolate the RNA from the abundant cellular components in conjunction with solid phase extraction or isopropanol precipitation to rapidly purify the RNA. Moreover, the purified RNA is directly compatible with downstream analysis. Using spectrophotometry in conjunction with ion pair reverse phase chromatography to analyse the extracted RNA, we show that RNASwift extracts and purifies RNA of higher quality and purity in comparison to alternative RNA extraction methods. The RNASwift method yields approximately 25 μg of RNA from only 10(8)Escherichia coli cells. Furthermore, RNASwift is versatile; the same simple reagents can be used to rapidly extract RNA from a variety of different cells including bacterial, yeast and mammalian cells. In addition to the extraction of total RNA, the RNASwift method can also be used to extract double stranded RNA from genetically modified E. coli in higher yields compared to alternative methods. PMID:27495141

  7. A modified and automated version of the 'Fluorimetric Detection of Alkaline DNA Unwinding' method to quantify formation and repair of DNA strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Villanueva, María; Pfeiffer, Ragen; Sindlinger, Thilo; Leake, Alan; Müller, Marcus; Kirkwood, Thomas BL; Bürkle, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Background Formation and repair of DNA single-strand breaks are important parameters in the assessment of DNA damage and repair occurring in live cells. The 'Fluorimetric Detection of Alkaline DNA Unwinding (FADU)' method [Birnboim HC, Jevcak JJ. Cancer Res (1981) 41:1889–1892] is a sensitive procedure to quantify DNA strand breaks, yet it is very tedious to perform. Results In order (i) to render the FADU assay more convenient and robust, (ii) to increase throughput, and (iii) to reduce the number of cells needed, we have established a modified assay version that is largely automated and is based on the use of a liquid handling device. The assay is operated in a 96-well format, thus greatly increasing throughput. The number of cells required has been reduced to less than 10,000 per data point. The threshold for detection of X-ray-induced DNA strand breaks is 0.13 Gy. The total assay time required for a typical experiment to assess DNA strand break repair is 4–5 hours. Conclusion We have established a robust and convenient method measuring of formation and repair of DNA single-strand breaks in live cells. While the sensitivity of our method is comparable to current assays, throughput is massively increased while operator time is decreased. PMID:19389244

  8. Ball mill assisted rapid mechanochemical extraction method for natural products from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Bi, Wentao; Huang, Xiaohua; Chen, David Da Yong

    2016-06-01

    A ball mill assisted mechanochemical extraction method was developed to extract compounds of natural product (NP) from plant using ionic liquid (IL). A small volume ball mill, also known as PastPrep(®) Homogenizer, which is often used for high-speed lysis of biological samples and for other applications, was used to dramatically increase the speed, completeness and reproducibility of the extraction process at room temperature to preserve the chemical integrity of the extracted compounds. In this study, tanshinones were selected as target compounds to evaluate the performance of this extraction method. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the duration, IL concentration and solid/liquid ratio were systematically optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the described method was more efficient and much faster than the conventional extraction methods such as methanol based ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and heat reflux extraction (HRE) that consumes a lot more organic solvent. In addition, the natural products of interest were enriched by anion metathesis of ionic liquids, combining extraction and preconcentration in the same process. The extractant was analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS. The reproducibility (RSD, n=5), correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curve, and the limit of detection, were determined to be in the range of 4.7-5.2%, 0.9992-0.9995, and 20-51ng/mL, respectively. PMID:27157426

  9. [Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and steam distillation methods for the extraction of essential oils from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qin; Ling, Jianya; Ding, Yuping; Chang, Hongwen; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Tingli

    2005-11-01

    Essential oil was extracted from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and steam distillation (SD). The components extracted were determined by gas chromatography with area normalization method and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The optimal chromatographic conditions were: capillary column, SE-54 (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 microm); column temperature, 50 degrees C (3 min) --> (5 degrees c/min) 180 degrees C (2 min --> (10 degrees C/ min) 260 degrees C 50 min); split injection, split ratio 1: 50; injector temperature, 280 degrees C. Fifty-four components were identified for the essential oils extracted by SFE, and its main components were found to be pulegone, menthone, linoleic acid chloride etc. Thirty-nine components were identified for the essential oil obtained by SD, and its main components were found to be pulegone, menthone, limonene etc. The SFE method is better than the SD method in reliability stability and reproducibility, and is thus well suitable for similar applications involving for extraction of other traditional Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:16498998

  10. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  11. Edge extraction of optical subaperture based on fractal dimension method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunqi; Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-09-01

    Optical synthetic aperture imaging technology is an effective approach to increase the aperture diameter of optical system for purpose of improving resolution. In optical synthetic aperture imaging system, the edge is more complex than that of traditional optical imaging system, and the relatively large size of the gaps between the subapertures makes cophasing a difficult problem. So it is significant to extract edge phase of each subaperture for achieving phase stitching and avoiding the loss of effective frequency. Fractal dimension as a measure feature of image surface irregularities can statistically evaluate the complexity which is consistent with human visual image perception of rough surface texture. Therefore, fractal dimension provides a powerful tool to describe surface characteristics of image and can be applied to edge extraction. In our research, the box-counting dimension was used to calculate fractal dimension of the whole image. Then the calculated fractal dimension is mapped to grayscale image. The region with large fractal dimension represents a sharper change of the gray scale in original image, which was accurately extracted as the edge region. Subaperture region and interference fringe edge was extracted from interference pattern of optical subaperture, which has laid the foundation for the subaperture edge phase detection in the future work.

  12. A Method for Group Extraction in Complex Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bródka, Piotr; Musial, Katarzyna; Kazienko, Przemysław

    The extraction of social groups from social networks existing among employees in the company, its customers or users of various computer systems became one of the research areas of growing importance. Once we have discovered the groups, we can utilise them, in different kinds of recommender systems or in the analysis of the team structure and communication within a given population.

  13. Development and validation of an HPLC-method for determination of free and bound phenolic acids in cereals after solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Irakli, Maria N; Samanidou, Victoria F; Biliaderis, Costas G; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N

    2012-10-01

    Whole cereal grains are a good source of phenolic acids associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. This paper reports the development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the determination of phenolic acids in cereals in either free or bound form. Extraction of free phenolic acids and clean-up was performed by an optimised solid-phase extraction (SPE) protocol on Oasis HLB cartridges using aqueous methanol as eluant. The mean recovery of analytes ranged between 84% and 106%. Bound phenolic acids were extracted using alkaline hydrolysis with mean recoveries of 80-95%, except for gallic acid, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid. Both free and bound phenolic extracts were separated on a Nucleosil 100 C18 column, 5 μm (250 mm × 4.6 mm) thermostated at 30 °C, using a linear gradient elution system consisting of 1% (v/v) acetic acid in methanol. Method validation was performed by means of linearity, accuracy, intra-day and inter-day precision and sensitivity. Detection limits ranged between 0.13 and 0.18 μg/g. The method was applied to the analysis of free and bound phenolic acids contents in durum wheat, bread wheat, barley, oat, rice, rye, corn and triticale. PMID:25005991

  14. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  15. Evaluating DNA Extraction Methods for Community Profiling of Pig Hindgut Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yang; Hugenholtz, Philip; Batstone, Damien John

    2015-01-01

    Recovery of high quality PCR-amplifiable DNA has been the general minimal requirement for DNA extraction methods for bulk molecular analysis. However, modern high through-put community profiling technologies are more sensitive to representativeness and reproducibility of DNA extraction method. Here, we assess the impact of three DNA extraction methods (with different levels of extraction harshness) for assessing hindgut microbiomes from pigs fed with different diets (with different physical properties). DNA extraction from each sample was performed in three technical replicates for each extraction method and sequenced by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Host was the primary driver of molecular sequencing outcomes, particularly on samples analysed by wheat based diets, but higher variability, with one failed extraction occurred on samples from a barley fed pig. Based on these results, an effective method will enable reproducible and quality outcomes on a range of samples, whereas an ineffective method will fail to generate extract, but host (rather than extraction method) remains the primary factor. PMID:26560873

  16. Antioxidant activity of bulbs and aerial parts of Crocus caspius, impact of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Masomeh; Fathi, Hamed; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Crocus genus (Iridaceae) is comprises approximately 80 species. In this study in vitro antioxidant activities of extracts from C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts were investigated. Ultrasonically assisted extraction (US), percolation method (PE) and polyphenolic fraction (PP) were used. Antioxidant activities were evaluated with five different tests. Aerial parts US extract with high levels of phenol and flavonoids were the most potent extract in DPPH radical scavenging than others. Aerial parts PE extract had shown very potent reducing power, which was so better than other extracts (p<0.01). Aerial parts PP fraction showed very good Fe(2+) chelating ability. Aerial parts US extract were the most potent extract in scavenging of H(2)O(2). Bulb PP fraction with IC(50)=22.8±0.7 µg ml(-1) was the most potent fraction in nitric oxide scavenging. The results improved high levels of antioxidant activities of C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts in all tested models. PMID:27166547

  17. Evidence of non-extractable florfenicol residues: development and validation of a confirmatory method for total florfenicol content in kidney by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Dermot; Cantley, Margaret; Walker, Matthew; Crooks, Steven; Kennedy, David; Elliott, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The parent compound florfenicol (FF) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial compound licensed in the UK for use in cattle, pigs and the aquaculture industry. The analysis of porcine tissues in this study demonstrates that significant amounts of solvent non-extractable FF-related residues are present in incurred tissues (kidney and muscle) from treated animals. The results indicate that methods based on solvent extraction alone may carry a significant risk of reporting false-negative results. The use of a strong acid hydrolysis step prior to solvent extraction of tissue samples is necessary for an accurate estimate of the total tissue FF content. A robust and sensitive method for the determination of total FF residue content in kidney samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. This method covers the synthetic amphenicol drug FF and its metabolites, measured as the marker residue florfenicol amine (FFA) as per Commission Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010. Non-extractable and intermediate metabolites are converted to the hydrolysis product FFA, and then partitioned into ethyl acetate. Extracts are solvent exchanged prior to a dispersive solid-phase extraction step, then analysed using an alkaline reverse-phase gradient separation by UPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated around the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set out in Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010 for bovine kidney in accordance with Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. The following method performance characteristics were assessed during a single laboratory validation study: selectivity, specificity, sensitivity, linearity, matrix effects, accuracy and precision (decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were determined). PMID:27053017

  18. Rapid, Effective DNA Isolation from Osmanthus via Modified Alkaline Lysis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Variability of leaf structure and presence of secondary metabolites in mature leaf tissue present a challenge for reliable DNA extraction from Osmanthus species and cultivars. The objective of this study was to develop a universal rapid, effective, and cost-efficient method of DNA isolation for Osmanthus mature leaf tissue. Four different methods were used to isolate DNA from 8 cultivars of Osmanthus. Absorbance spectra, DNA concentration, appearance on agarose gel, and performance in PCR were used to analyze quality, quantity, and integrity of isolated DNA. Methods were ranked in order, based on total quantity, quality, and performance points as the following: 1) solid-phase extraction (SPE), 2) modified alkaline lysis (SDS), 3) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with chloroform (CHL), and 4) CTAB with phenol/chloroform (PHE). Total DNA, isolated via SPE, showed the least contamination but the lowest mean quantity (9.6 ± 3.4 μg) and highest cost. The highest quantity of DNA was isolated via SDS (117 ± 54.1 μg). SPE and SDS resolved the most individuals on agarose gel, whereas the 2 CTAB methods had poorly resolved gels. All methods except PHE performed well in PCR. Additions to the modified alkaline lysis method increased A260:A230 by up to 59% without affecting yield. With the use of SDS, an average of 1000 μg/g DNA was isolated from fresh leaf tissue of 18 samples in ∼1.5 h at a cost of 0.74 U.S. dollars (USD)/sample. We recommend improved alkaline lysis as a rapid, effective, and cost-efficient method of isolating DNA from Osmanthus species. PMID:26816495

  19. Rapid, Effective DNA Isolation from Osmanthus via Modified Alkaline Lysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Variability of leaf structure and presence of secondary metabolites in mature leaf tissue present a challenge for reliable DNA extraction from Osmanthus species and cultivars. The objective of this study was to develop a universal rapid, effective, and cost-efficient method of DNA isolation for Osmanthus mature leaf tissue. Four different methods were used to isolate DNA from 8 cultivars of Osmanthus. Absorbance spectra, DNA concentration, appearance on agarose gel, and performance in PCR were used to analyze quality, quantity, and integrity of isolated DNA. Methods were ranked in order, based on total quantity, quality, and performance points as the following: 1) solid-phase extraction (SPE), 2) modified alkaline lysis (SDS), 3) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with chloroform (CHL), and 4) CTAB with phenol/chloroform (PHE). Total DNA, isolated via SPE, showed the least contamination but the lowest mean quantity (9.6 ± 3.4 μg) and highest cost. The highest quantity of DNA was isolated via SDS (117 ± 54.1 μg). SPE and SDS resolved the most individuals on agarose gel, whereas the 2 CTAB methods had poorly resolved gels. All methods except PHE performed well in PCR. Additions to the modified alkaline lysis method increased A260:A230 by up to 59% without affecting yield. With the use of SDS, an average of 1000 μg/g DNA was isolated from fresh leaf tissue of 18 samples in ∼1.5 h at a cost of 0.74 U.S. dollars (USD)/sample. We recommend improved alkaline lysis as a rapid, effective, and cost-efficient method of isolating DNA from Osmanthus species. PMID:26816495

  20. Alkaline igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitton, J.G.; Upton, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this volume, an international team of scientists provides an up-to-date overview of the nature, origin, and evolution of alkaline magmas. Particular attention is paid to carbonatites, lamprophyres, and lamproites which are rock suites of current interest not recently reviewed elsewhere. Recent work on the classical alkaline provinces of East Africa, South Greenland, and the Kola Peninsula is included together with reviews of other areas of alkaline magmatism in North and South America, East Greenland, Europe, West Africa, and the ocean basins. Other papers discuss the impact of experimental isotopic and geochemical studies of the petrogenesis of alkaline rocks. This book will be of interest to petrologists and geochemists studying alkaline igneous rocks, and to other earth scientists as a reference on the rapidly expanding field of igneous petrology.

  1. Bridging the gap between comprehensive extraction protocols in plant metabolomics studies and method validation.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Foubert, Kenn; Voorspoels, Stefan; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation. Validation of an extraction protocol in untargeted plant metabolomics should ideally be accomplished by validating the protocol for all possible outcomes, i.e. for all secondary metabolites potentially present in the plant. In an effort to approach this ideal validation scenario, two plant matrices were selected based on their wide versatility of phytochemicals: meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) for its polyphenols content, and spicy paprika powder (from the genus Capsicum) for its apolar phytochemicals content (carotenoids, phytosterols, capsaicinoids). These matrices were extracted with comprehensive extraction protocols adapted from literature and analysed with a generic LC-PDA-amMS characterization platform that was previously validated for broad range phytochemical analysis. The performance of the comprehensive sample preparation protocols was assessed based on extraction efficiency, repeatability and intermediate precision and on ionization suppression/enhancement evaluation. The manuscript elaborates on the finding that none of the extraction methods allowed to exhaustively extract the metabolites. Furthermore, it is shown that depending on the extraction conditions enzymatic degradation mechanisms can occur. Investigation of the fractions obtained with the different extraction methods

  2. New Y-function based MOSFET parameter extraction method from weak to strong inversion range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, J. B.; Rafhay, Q.; Cros, A.; Ghibaudo, G.

    2016-09-01

    A new Y-function based MOSFET parameter extraction method is proposed. This method relies on explicit expressions of inversion charge and drain current versus Yc(=Qi√Cgc)-function and Y(=Id/√gm)-function, respectively, applicable from weak to strong inversion range. It enables a robust MOSFET parameter extraction even for low gate voltage overdrive, whereas conventional extraction techniques relying on strong inversion approximation fail.

  3. Study of information extraction method of water body based on Mapping satellite-1 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxi; Hu, Zhuowei; Du, Hongyue

    2014-11-01

    To find a suitable water extraction method from Mapping satellite-1 imagery in urban areas, this paper compared the results of different water extraction methods and studied the effect of building shadow on water extraction. Taken parts of Xinjiang (Beitun of Irtysh river Basin) as the study area, Mapping satellite-1 imagery as data sources, single-band threshold method, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and spectral relationship method based on spectral area were applied respectively to extract information of water body. The results of information extraction by use of the four methods were compared to determine the optimal method for water body extraction. The results showed that, for Mapping satellite-1 imagery, single-band threshold method and spectral relationship method which based on spectral area were effective to eliminate classification errors cased by shadows from buildings, fast, easy and accurate to extract information of water body from urban areas. In addition, the spectral relationship method based on spectral area also had the character of extracting small tributary rivers.

  4. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

  5. An evaluation of extraction techniques for arsenic in staple diets (fish and rice) utilising both classical and enzymatic extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic extraction methods were evaluated with classical extraction approaches for the determination of arsenic in food. The extraction efficiency for total arsenic was determined by analysing CRM materials DORM-3 fish protein, NIES 106 rice flour and GBW10015 spinach. These were compared with total arsenic concentration determined using microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICP-MS. The total arsenic concentrations in the CRM materials were in good agreement with the certified values. Enzymatic hydrolysis using trypsin has been successfully employed to extract arsenic species in DORM-3 and fish samples. Whilst this method of hydrolysing the proteins worked well for the fish samples, an alternative approach was required to facilitate the digestion of cellulose in plant materials. However, enzymatic extraction using cellulase was found to give unsatisfactory results for both the NIES and GBW10015 CRM materials. Dilute nitric acid (1% HNO3) was found to give a more efficient extraction for arsenic species in the same CRM materials and rice samples. The study was extended to evaluate a range of real samples. Total arsenic concentrations in 13 different types of fish tissue were determined following microwave-assisted acid digestion using nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide, followed by measurement using HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. The results obtained for fish were in the range of 3.53-98.80 µg g(-1) As (dry weight). Similarly, the results of 17 rice samples were in the range of 0.054-0.823 µg g(-1). This study demonstrates the importance of selecting an appropriate extraction technique for the quantitative measurement of arsenic species in food. PMID:26760914

  6. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for the analysis of microbial community in biological activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lu; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to isolate DNA from biological activated carbon (BAC) samples used in water treatment plants, owing to the scarcity of microorganisms in BAC samples. The aim of this study was to identify DNA extraction methods suitable for a long-term, comprehensive ecological analysis of BAC microbial communities. To identify a procedure that can produce high molecular weight DNA, maximizes detectable diversity and is relatively free from contaminants, the microwave extraction method, the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) extraction method, a commercial DNA extraction kit, and the ultrasonic extraction method were used for the extraction of DNA from BAC samples. Spectrophotometry, agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) analysis were conducted to compare the yield and quality of DNA obtained using these methods. The results showed that the CTAB method produce the highest yield and genetic diversity of DNA from BAC samples, but DNA purity was slightly less than that obtained with the DNA extraction-kit method. This study provides a theoretical basis for establishing and selecting DNA extraction methods for BAC samples. PMID:22629615

  7. A SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    John E. Rogers and Dragoslav Marcovich. Submitted. Simple Method for the Extraction and Quantification of Photopigments from Symbiodinium spp.. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods. 19 p. (ERL,GB 1192).

    We have developed a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol which, when...

  8. Collaborative study of a mineral oil method for the extraction of light filth from ground paprika.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, J J; Gentry, R

    1977-01-01

    An official first action method for the extraction of light filth from spices, 44.A03--44.A05, was modified for the analyses of ground paprika. The sample is extracted with isopropanol and light filth is isolated from 40% isopropanol with mineral oil. Eight collaborators analyzed 4 paprika samples, 2 by the official method and 2 by the proposed method. Average recoveries of added elytral squares were 97 and 66%, respectively, for the proposed and official methods. Recoveries of added rodent hairs were 94 and 61%, respectively. The method has been adopted as official first action for the extraction of light filth from ground paprika. PMID:833083

  9. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Fasahat Ullah; Teng, Shyh Wei; Awrangjeb, Mohammad; Lu, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE) method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality). Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state-of-the-art building

  10. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Fasahat Ullah; Teng, Shyh Wei; Awrangjeb, Mohammad; Lu, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE) method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality). Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state-of-the-art building

  11. Enhanced recovery and purification of P(3HB-co-3HHx) from recombinant Cupriavidus necator using alkaline digestion method.

    PubMed

    Anis, Siti Nor Syairah; Nurhezreen, M I; Sudesh, K; Amirul, A A

    2012-06-01

    A simple, efficient and economical method for the recovery of P(3HB-co-3HHx) was developed using various chemicals and parameters. The initial content of P(3HB-co-3HHx) in bacterial cells was 50-60 wt%, whereas the monomer composition of 3HHx used in this experiments was 3-5 mol%. It was found that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was the most effective chemical for the recovery of biodegradable polymer. High polyhydroxyalkanoate purity and recovery yield both in the range of 80-90 wt% were obtained when 10-30 mg/ml of cells were incubated in NaOH at the concentration of 0.1 M for 60-180 min at 30 °C and polished using 20 % (v/v) of ethanol. PMID:22569781

  12. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method. PMID:27282822

  13. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method. PMID:27282822

  14. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  15. Comparisons of direct extraction methods of microbial DNA from different paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Rashedul; Sultana, Tahera; Melvin Joe, M; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Sa, Tongmin

    2012-07-01

    Molecular analyses for the study of soil microbial communities often depend on the direct extraction of DNA from soils. The present work compares the effectiveness of three different methods of extracting microbial DNA from seven different paddy soils. Comparison among different DNA extraction methods against different paddy soil samples revealed a marked variation in DNA yields from 3.18-20.17 μg DNA/g of dry soil. However, irrespective of the soil samples and extraction methods the DNA fragment size was >10 kb. Among the methods evaluated, method-C (chemical-enzymatic-mechanical) had better cell lysis efficiency and DNA yield. After purification of crude DNA by Purification Kit, A260/A230 and A260/A280 ratios of the DNA obtained by method-C reached up to 2.27 and 1.89, respectively, sustaining the efficacy of this technique in removing humic acid, protein and other contaminants. Results of the comprehensive evaluation of DNA extraction methods suggest that method-C is superior to other two methods (chemical-enzymatic and chemical-mechanical), and was the best choice for extraction of total DNA from soil samples. Since soil type and microbial community characteristics influence DNA recovery, this study provides guidance for choosing appropriate extraction and purification methods according to experimental goals. PMID:23961194

  16. Optimisation of selective alkaline extraction for Cr(VI) determination in dairy and cereal products by HPIC-ICPMS using an experimental design.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Fanny; Séby, Fabienne; Millour, Sandrine; Noël, Laurent; Guérin, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the optimisation through an experimental design then the validation of a method to determine Cr(VI) in certain foodstuffs by high-performance ionic chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This method is free from interferences possibly associated with chloride and organic or inorganic carbon. Analytical performances assessed by the accuracy profile method were satisfactory in terms of linearity, specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability and intermediate precision. Limits of quantification ranged from 0.6μg.kg(-1) in dairy products to 0.8μg.kg(-1) in cereal products. The method was applied to the determination of Cr(VI) in dairy and cereal products from different brands and origins. Despite the method's very high sensitivity, Cr(VI) was not found in all the studied samples. This confirms the results of the most recent studies using an on-line speciation method, and invalidates older studies that found traces of Cr(VI) in food by using a less specific off-line speciation method. PMID:27507483

  17. Comparison of different methods for extraction from Tetraclinis articulata: yield, chemical composition and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Herzi, Nejia; Bouajila, Jalloul; Camy, Séverine; Romdhane, Mehrez; Condoret, Jean-Stéphane

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, three techniques of extraction: hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (conventional 'Soxhlet' technique) and an innovative technique, i.e., the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), were applied to ground Tetraclinis articulata leaves and compared for extraction duration, extraction yield, and chemical composition of the extracts as well as their antioxidant activities. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using two methods: ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•). The yield obtained using HD, SFE, hexane and ethanol Soxhlet extractions were found to be 0.6, 1.6, 40.4 and 21.2-27.4 g/kg respectively. An original result of this study is that the best antioxidant activity was obtained with an SFE extract (41 mg/L). The SFE method offers some noteworthy advantages over traditional alternatives, such as shorter extraction times, low environmental impact, and a clean, non-thermally-degraded final product. Also, a good correlation between the phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity was observed with extracts obtained by SFE at 9 MPa. PMID:23993518

  18. Preparation method and stability of ellagic acid-rich pomegranate fruit peel extract.

    PubMed

    Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom; Itsuriya, Atcharaporn; Sirikatitham, Anusak

    2010-02-01

    A simple one-step purification using liquid-liquid extraction for preparing pomegranate peel extract rich in ellagic acid has been demonstrated. The method involved partitioning of the 10% v/v water in methanol extract of pomegranate peel between ethyl acetate and 2% aqueous acetic acid. This method was capable of increasing the ellagic acid content of the extract from 7.06% to 13.63% w/w. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the extract evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was also increased (ED(50) from 38.21 to 14.91 micro/mL). Stability evaluations of the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract in several conditions through a period of four months found that the extracts were stable either kept under light or protected from light. The extracts were also stable under 4 degrees +/- 2 degrees C, 30 degrees +/- 2 degrees C and accelerated conditions at 45 degrees C with 75% relative humidity. However, study on the effect of pH on stability of the extract in the form of solution revealed that the extract was not stable in all tested pH (5.5, 7 and 8). These results indicated that the ellagic acid-rich pomegranate peel extract was stable when it was kept as dried powder, but it was not stable in any aqueous solution. PMID:20645841

  19. Estimates of evapotranspiration in alkaline scrub and meadow communities of Owens Valley, California, using the Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and penman-combination methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, Lowell F. W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In Owens Valley, evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the largest components of outflow in the hydrologic budget and the least understood. ET estimates for December 1983 through October 1985 were made for seven representative locations selected on the basis of geohydrology and the characteristics of phreatophytic alkaline scrub and meadow communities. The Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods were used to estimate ET. The results of the analyses appear satisfactory when compared with other estimates of ET. Results by the eddy-correlation method are for a direct and a residual latent-heat flux that is based on sensible-heat flux and energy-budget measurements. Penman-combination potential-ET estimates were determined to be unusable because they overestimated actual ET. Modification of the psychrometer constant of this method to account for differences between heat-diffusion resistance and vapor-diffusion resistance permitted actual ET to be estimated. The methods described in this report may be used for studies in similar semiarid and arid rangeland areas in the Western United States. Meteorological data for three field sites are included in the appendix of this report. Simple linear regression analysis indicates that ET estimates are correlated to air temperature, vapor-density deficit, and net radiation. Estimates of annual ET range from 301 millimeters at a low-density scrub site to 1,137 millimeters at a high-density meadow site. The monthly percentage of annual ET was determined to be similar for all sites studied.

  20. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    DOEpatents

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  1. A Novel Lipid Extraction Method from Wet Microalga Picochlorum sp. at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fangfang; Xiang, Wenzhou; Sun, Xiumei; Wu, Hualian; Li, Tao; Long, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    A novel method using ethanol was proposed for extracting lipids from wet microalga Picochlorum sp. at room temperature and pressure. In this study, Central Composite design (CCD) was applied to investigate the optimum conditions of lipid extraction. The results revealed that the solvent to biomass ratio had the largest effect on lipid extraction efficiency, followed by extraction time and temperature. A high lipid extraction yield (33.04% of the dry weight) was obtained under the following extraction conditions: 5 mL solvents per gram of wet biomass for 37 min with gentle stirring at room temperature. The extraction yield was comparable to that obtained by the widely used Bligh-Dyer method. Furthermore, no significant differences in the distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition were observed according to different extraction methods. In conclusion, these results indicated that the proposed procedure using ethanol could extract lipids from wet biomass efficiently and had giant potential for lipid extraction at large scale. PMID:24663114

  2. Inorganic fractions in extracellular polymeric substance extracted from activated sludge and biofilm samples by different methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leiyan; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang

    2012-01-01

    This study highlighted the inorganic fractions in the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) extract from two activated sludges and one biofilm. Nine EPS extraction methods (centrifugation, sonication, cation exchange resin (CER) + sonication, CER, heating, formaldehyde + heating, formaldehyde + NaOH, ethanol and EDTA) were used in the study. The EPS extracts had large inorganic fractions, which ranged from 28% to 94% of the EPS dry weight. The EPS inorganic fraction was dependent on the source of the sludge and wastewater, the kinds of bacteria and the extraction method. The EPS extracts obtained by heating and sonication had smaller inorganic fractions than those obtained by centrifugation. The compositions of the inorganic fraction of EPS extracts obtained with CER and sonication + CER showed similar trends. The chemical extraction methods could contaminate the inorganic composition of EPS extracts by impurities, carrying over of the extractant itself or by changing the pH of the solution. Ethanol was the most effective extractant for obtaining inorganic ions. PMID:22828296

  3. Comparison of methods for extracting kafirin proteins from sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Tilley, Michael; Bean, Scott; Sun, X Susan; Wang, Donghai

    2009-09-23

    Use of coproducts generated during fermentation is important to the overall economics of biofuel production. The main coproduct from grain-based ethanol production is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). High in protein, DDGS is a potential source of protein for many bioindustrial applications such as adhesives and resins. The objective of this research was to characterize the composition as well as chemical and physical properties of kafirin proteins from sorghum DDGS with various extraction methods including use of acetic acid, HCl-ethanol and NaOH-ethanol under reducing conditions. Extraction conditions affected purity and thermal properties of the extracted kafirin proteins. Extraction yields of 44.2, 24.2, and 56.8% were achieved by using acetic acid, HCl-ethanol and NaOH-ethanol, respectively. Acetic acid and NaOH-ethanol produced protein with higher purity than kafirins extracted with the HCl-ethanol protocol. The acetic acid extraction protocol produced protein with the highest purity, 98.9%. Several techniques were used to evaluate structural, molecular and thermal properties of kairin extracts. FTIR showed alpha-helix dominated in all three samples, with only a small portion of beta-sheet present. Electrophoresis results showed alpha(1), alpha(2) band and beta kafirins were present in all three extracts. Glass transition peaks of the extracts were shown by DSC to be approximately 230 degrees C. Kafirin degraded at 270-290 degrees C. Size exclusion chromatography revealed that the acetic acid and HCl-ethanol based extraction methods tended to extract more high molecular weight protein than the NaOH-ethanol based method. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography showed that the gamma kafirins were found only in extracts from the NaOH-ethanol extraction method. PMID:19754169

  4. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction as a preparation method for mass spectrometry of dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Atsuki; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Nishiumi, Shin; Suzuki, Makoto; Azuma, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2014-10-15

    The potential of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as a preparation method for mass spectrometry of dried blood spots (DBS) was examined. SFE is generally used for the extraction of hydrophobic compounds, but hydrophilic metabolites such as amino acids, amines, and nucleic-acid-related metabolites could be extracted by adding a low level of methanol as a modifier. Under the optimized conditions, over 200 metabolites were detected from a dried serum spot, of which over 160 metabolites could be analyzed stably (RSD <20%). These results show that SFE is an effective extraction method of metabolites with a wide range of polarity in DBS. PMID:25178194

  6. Structural and luminescent properties of Eu2+ and Nd3+-doped mixed alkaline earth aluminates prepared by the sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Čelan Korošin, Nataša; Bukovec, Nataša; Bukovec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline earth aluminates with the overall nominal compositions Mg0.5Sr0.5Al2O4 (MSA), Ca0.5Mg0.5Al2O4 (CMA) and Ca0.5Sr0.5Al2O4 (CSA) doped with 0.5 mol% of Eu2+ and 0.25 mol% of Nd3+ ions were obtained by a modified aqueous sol-gel method and annealed in a reducing atmosphere at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1300 °C. The sample structures were investigated by XRD. Solid solubility was only confirmed for the CSA samples. UV-excited luminescence was observed in the blue region (λ = 440 nm) in the samples of CMA containing the monoclinic CaAl2O4 phase and in the green region (λ = 512 nm) in the samples of MSA containing hexagonal or monoclinic phases of SrAl2O4. The CSA samples, besides the blue region, exhibited an extended shoulder in the green region, which proved the existence of some pure strontium phases. Co-doped Nd3+ ions did not affect the wavelength of the emitted light, but the persistent luminescence at room temperature was greatly extended with respect to the aluminates doped with Eu2+ ions only. PMID:26085411

  7. Extracting Communities from Complex Networks by the k-Dense Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Kazama, Kazuhiro

    To understand the structural and functional properties of large-scale complex networks, it is crucial to efficiently extract a set of cohesive subnetworks as communities. There have been proposed several such community extraction methods in the literature, including the classical k-core decomposition method and, more recently, the k-clique based community extraction method. The k-core method, although computationally efficient, is often not powerful enough for uncovering a detailed community structure and it produces only coarse-grained and loosely connected communities. The k-clique method, on the other hand, can extract fine-grained and tightly connected communities but requires a substantial amount of computational load for large-scale complex networks. In this paper, we present a new notion of a subnetwork called k-dense, and propose an efficient algorithm for extracting k-dense communities. We applied our method to the three different types of networks assembled from real data, namely, from blog trackbacks, word associations and Wikipedia references, and demonstrated that the k-dense method could extract communities almost as efficiently as the k-core method, while the qualities of the extracted communities are comparable to those obtained by the k-clique method.

  8. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  9. A High Accuracy Method for Semi-supervised Information Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2007-04-22

    Customization to specific domains of dis-course and/or user requirements is one of the greatest challenges for today’s Information Extraction (IE) systems. While demonstrably effective, both rule-based and supervised machine learning approaches to IE customization pose too high a burden on the user. Semi-supervised learning approaches may in principle offer a more resource effective solution but are still insufficiently accurate to grant realistic application. We demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome by integrating fully-supervised learning techniques within a semi-supervised IE approach, without increasing resource requirements.

  10. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Billa, Nanditha; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Lahren, Tylor; Burkhard, Lawrence P

    2014-02-01

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [2] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo (2006) [1]. With the accelerated solvent extraction method using chloroform:methanol solvent and the colorimetric lipid determination method, 28 of 30 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%, determined using standard additions) and 1 of 30 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%, determined using Youden Blank measurements). With sonic extraction, 0 of 6 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%) and 1 of 6 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%). These demonstrate that the accelerated solvent extraction method with chloroform:methanol solvent system creates an interference with the colorimetric assay method, and without accounting for the bias in the analysis, inaccurate measurements would be obtained. PMID:24401464

  11. Comparison of six DNA extraction methods for recovery of fungal DNA as assessed by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Fredricks, David N; Smith, Caitlin; Meier, Amalia

    2005-10-01

    The detection of fungal pathogens in clinical samples by PCR requires the use of extraction methods that efficiently lyse fungal cells and recover DNA suitable for amplification. We used quantitative PCR assays to measure the recovery of DNA from two important fungal pathogens subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or Candida albicans yeast cells were added to bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and subjected to DNA extraction in order to assess the recovery of DNA from a defined number of fungal propagules. In order to simulate hyphal growth in tissue, Aspergillus fumigatus conidia were allowed to form mycelia in tissue culture media and then harvested for DNA extraction. Differences among the DNA yields from the six extraction methods were highly significant (P<0.0001) in each of the three experimental systems. An extraction method based on enzymatic lysis of fungal cell walls (yeast cell lysis plus the use of GNOME kits) produced high levels of fungal DNA with Candida albicans but low levels of fungal DNA with Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or hyphae. Extraction methods employing mechanical agitation with beads produced the highest yields with Aspergillus hyphae. The Master Pure yeast method produced high levels of DNA from C. albicans but only moderate yields from A. fumigatus. A reagent from one extraction method was contaminated with fungal DNA, including DNA from Aspergillus and Candida species. In conclusion, the six extraction methods produce markedly differing yields of fungal DNA and thus can significantly affect the results of fungal PCR assays. No single extraction method was optimal for all organisms. PMID:16207973

  12. Comparison of an acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and "dispersive solid-phase extraction" method with classical multi-residue methods for the extraction of herbicide residues in barley samples.

    PubMed

    Díez, C; Traag, W A; Zommer, P; Marinero, P; Atienza, J

    2006-10-27

    An acetonitrile/partitioning extraction and "dispersive solid-phase extraction (SPE)" method that provides high quality results with a minimum number of steps and a low solvent and glassware consumption was published in 2003. This method, suitable for the analysis of multiple classes of pesticide residues in foods, has been given an acronymic name, QuEChERS, that reflects its major advantages (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe). In this work, QuEChERS method, which was originally created for vegetable samples with a high amount of water, was modified to optimise the extraction of a wide range of herbicides in barley. Then, it was compared with known conventional multi-residue extraction procedures such as the Luke method, which was simplified and shortened by eliminating the Florisil clean-up (mini Luke) and the ethyl acetate extraction, which involves a subsequent clean-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and which is the official extraction method used by some of European authorities. Finally, a simple acetone extraction was carried out to check the differences with the other three methods. Extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Mini Luke was significantly more effective for the extraction of non-polar and medium-polar compounds, but the best recoveries for polar compounds were achieved by QuEChERS and ethyl acetate methods. QuEChERS was the only method that provided an overall recovery value of 60-70% for non-, medium- and polar compounds, with some exceptions due to co-eluted matrix interferences. Clean-up by dispersive SPE was effective and did not differ so much with ethyl acetate extracts considering that QuEChERS clean-up step is much easier and less time-consuming. As a conclusion, it resulted to be the most universal extraction method by providing a well-defined phase separation without dilution and achieving acceptable

  13. Novel DNA Extraction Method Unveiled the Ancient Hot Deep Biosphere Concealed in Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouduka, M.; Suko, T.; Okuzawa, K.; Fukuda, A.; Nanba, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It has been proposed that the hot deep biosphere is distributed deeply in the crust of the Earth. Below the upper limit of life, prokaryotic habitats extend at a depth of 4 km within a typical range of thermal gradients (2.5-3°C/100m). In contrary, large geothermal gradients allow the hot deep biosphere approaching to the Earth’s surface. We conducted aseptic and deoxygenated drilling targeting Miocene marine siliceous rocks in a tectonically stable inland fore-arc basin in central Japan. Although the in-situ groundwater temperature was 30.2°C at a maximum drilling depth of 352 mbgl, opal-CT and clinoptilolite, which commonly form as a result of progressive burial at 30-60°C and over 70°C, respectively, were detected by XRD analysis. However, burial-driven degradation and transformation of sterols (sterene to sterane) was not evident in the core samples. As presented by Y. Suzuki et al. in this meeting, extant microbial populations were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. and Flavobacterium spp. with cell numbers ranging ~107-108 cells/cm3 rock. Despite the abundance of microbial cells, DNA were not extracted from the core samples by conventional methods. We developed a DNA extraction method to avoid binding of DNA onto the siliceous mineral matrix by heating under alkaline conditions, which resulted in the successful retrieval of PCR-amplifiable DNA. Unexpectedly, 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Thermus thermophilus were dominant in the clone libraries from 300- and 350-m deep core samples, while those almost identical to the Pseudomonas spp. were minor. Based on the correlation between the GC contents of 16S rRNA gene sequences and growth temperatures of prokaryotes, the estimated growth temperatures were 90.0°C (G+C=66.3%) and 67.5°C (G+C=61.3%) for G. stearothermophilus and T. thermophilus, respectively. From these results, it is implied that temperature rise in the past led to the colonization of

  14. Extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid using the selective inclusion complex method.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Parisa; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Lycopene, a precursor of β-carotene with well-known antioxidant activity and powerful health properties, can be found in many natural products such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), watermelon, red pepper, and papaya. Many separation methods have been reported for extracting lycopene from its sources. The inclusion complex is an effective method for extraction and purification of organic chemicals. This procedure has 2 main components: host and guest molecules. In this study, lycopene (guest) was extracted from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid, the inclusive agent (host). The molecular structure of the extracted lycopene was then confirmed by (1) HNMR and its purity was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods, in comparison with a standard product. The results indicated that the proposed separation method was very promising and could be used for the extraction and purification of lycopene from tomato paste. PMID:24111697

  15. a Probability-Based Statistical Method to Extract Water Body of TM Images with Missing Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Shizhong; Chen, Jiangping; Luo, Minghai

    2016-06-01

    Water information cannot be accurately extracted using TM images because true information is lost in some images because of blocking clouds and missing data stripes, thereby water information cannot be accurately extracted. Water is continuously distributed in natural conditions; thus, this paper proposed a new method of water body extraction based on probability statistics to improve the accuracy of water information extraction of TM images with missing information. Different disturbing information of clouds and missing data stripes are simulated. Water information is extracted using global histogram matching, local histogram matching, and the probability-based statistical method in the simulated images. Experiments show that smaller Areal Error and higher Boundary Recall can be obtained using this method compared with the conventional methods.

  16. Methods for extracting climate indicator data from social media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuka, M. Z.; Fuka, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    This paper shows how we've used the R software suite to extract climate indicator data from Twitter. In the course of this research we've collected extensive data sets of unsolicited observations ("tweets") for hundreds of climate-related phenological, biological, epidemiological and meteorological effects. R has proved itself in our work as a useful tool for manipulating those large data sets. Our experience from this effort has yielded a variety of insights on using R to extract geophysics-specific information from publicly accessible social media sources. We illustrate our methodology by mapping tweeted US armadillo sightings to explore the impact of climate variability on the extent of the animal's range. This example usefully demonstrates R's technical capabilities in collecting, time-stamping, geolocating, analyzing, visualizing and otherwise processing climate-related data derived from unsolicited social media postings. We also "mash-up" the data sets with those acquired by more traditional means, for example, temperature and precipitation data across the armadillo's US range. Our data-handling practice is extendable to social sharing services other than Twitter, providing the environmental modeling community an opportunity to access largely untapped resources of non-traditional climate indicator data to better understand the effects of climate change at local, regional and global scales.

  17. [Study of DNA extraction methods for testing for genetically modified organisms in soyproducts].

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, Rie; Monma, Kimio; Kamata, Kunihiro; Ibe, Akihiro

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate three different methods for DNA extraction (CTAB, DNeasy Plant Mini Kit and Wizard DNA Clean-up Resin system), the yields of DNA extracted from soyproducts and the copy numbers of lectin genes amplified by quantitative PCR were compared. Fermented foods, such as miso and nattou, gave poor yields of DNA and low copy numbers with any method. However atsu-age and kinugoshi-tofu gave high-quality results with all methods. Kinako gave a high yield of DNA, but poor amplification. Boiled soybeans and soymilk showed in poor amplification. It is important to choose the appropriate DNA extraction method for each product. PMID:19029786

  18. Comparison of accelerated methods for the extraction of phenolic compounds from different vine-shoot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Torre, M Pilar; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Pérez-Juan, Pedro M; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2012-03-28

    Most research on the extraction of high-priced compounds from vineyard/wine byproducts has traditionally been focused on grape seeds and skins as raw materials. Vine-shoots can represent an additional source to those materials, the characteristics of which could depend on the cultivar. A comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts from 18 different vineyard cultivars obtained by superheated liquid extraction (SHLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) is here presented. The optimal working conditions for each type of extraction have been investigated by using multivariate experimental designs to maximize the yield of total phenolic compounds, measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and control hydroxymethylfurfural because of the organoleptic properties of furanic derivatives and toxicity at given levels. The best values found for the influential variables on each extraction method were 80% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at pH 3, 180 °C, and 60 min for SHLE; 140 W and 5 min microwave irradiation for MAE; and 280 W, 50% duty cycle, and 7.5 min extraction for USAE. SHLE reported better extraction efficiencies as compared to the other two approaches, supporting the utility of SHLE for scaling-up the process. The extracts were dried in a rotary evaporator, reconstituted in 5 mL of methanol, and finally subjected to liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane to remove nonpolar compounds that could complicate chromatographic separation. The methanolic fractions were analyzed by both LC-DAD and LC-TOF/MS, and the differences in composition according to the extraction conditions were studied. Compounds usually present in commercial wood extracts (mainly benzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and aldehydes) were detected in vine-shoot extracts. PMID:22372567

  19. Optimization of cloud point extraction and solid phase extraction methods for speciation of arsenic in natural water using multivariate technique.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jameel A; Kazi, Tasneem G; Shah, Abdul Q; Arain, Mohammad B; Afridi, Hassan I; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Khan, Sumaira

    2009-09-28

    The simple and rapid pre-concentration techniques viz. cloud point extraction (CPE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) were applied for the determination of As(3+) and total inorganic arsenic (iAs) in surface and ground water samples. The As(3+) was formed complex with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114, after centrifugation the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.1 mol L(-1) HNO(3) in methanol. While total iAs in water samples was adsorbed on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)); after centrifugation, the solid phase was prepared to be slurry for determination. The extracted As species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors for the recovery of As(3+) and total iAs by CPE and SPE. The standard addition method was used to validate the optimized methods. The obtained result showed sufficient recoveries for As(3+) and iAs (>98.0%). The concentration factor in both cases was found to be 40. PMID:19733735

  20. Comparison of methods and optimisation of the analysis of fumonisins B₁ and B₂ in masa flour, an alkaline cooked corn product.

    PubMed

    De Girolamo, A; Pascale, M; Visconti, A

    2011-05-01

    A comparison study of different extraction and clean-up procedures for the liquid chromatographic analysis of fumonisins B(1) (FB(1)) and B(2) (FB(2)) in corn masa flour was performed. The procedures included extraction (heat or room temperature) with acidic conditions or EDTA-containing solvents, and clean-up by immunoaffinity or C18 solid-phase extraction columns. Thereafter an analytical method was optimised using extraction with an acidic mixture of methanol-acetonitrile-citrate/phosphate buffer, clean-up through the immunoaffinity column and determination of fumonisins by liquid chromatography with automated pre-column derivatisation with o-phthaldialdehyde reagent. Recovery experiments performed on yellow, white and blue masa flours at spiking levels of 400, 800 and 1200 µg kg(-1) FB(1) and of 100, 200 and 300 µg kg(-1) FB(2) gave overall mean recoveries of 99% (±6%) for FB(1) and 88% (±6%) for FB(2). Good recoveries (higher than 90% for both FB(1) and FB(2)) were also obtained with corn tortilla chips. The limits of quantification of the method (signal-to-noise ratio of 10) were 25 µg kg(-1) for FB(1) and 17 µg kg(-1) for FB(2). The method was tested on different commercial corn masa flours as well as on white and yellow corn tortilla chips, showing fumonisin contamination levels (FB(1) + FB(2)) up to 1800 µg kg(-1) (FB(1) + FB(2)) in masa flour and 960 µg kg(-1) in tortilla chips. Over 30% of masa flours originating from Mexico exceeded the European Union maximum permitted level. PMID:21400323

  1. Chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis): a study of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Assis Jacques, Rosângela; dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Flores Peres, Valéria; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Bastos Caramão, Elina

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by means of three extraction techniques: pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, also called accelerated solvent extraction--ASE), maceration, and sonication. Samples of mate tea leaves were collected from an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Indfistria e Comércio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. Six solvents with increasing polarities (n-hexane, toluene, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) were used in this investigation. Chemical analysis of the extracts was performed by GC coupled with a mass spectrometer detector. The identification and quantification were accomplished by coinjections of certified standards. The results showed that no significant differences in the qualities of the extracts were noticed regarding the extraction methods. On the other hand, the PLE technique was found to be more effective for the extractions of caffeine, phytol, palmitic, and stearic acid. The use of PLE led to a significant decrease in the total extraction time, amount of solvent consumption, and manipulation of samples compared to maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods. PMID:17305239

  2. How adequate are the current methods of lead extraction? A review of the efficiency and safety of transvenous lead extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Buiten, Maurits S; van der Heijden, Aafke C; Schalij, Martin J; van Erven, Lieselot

    2015-05-01

    Currently several extraction tools are available in order to allow safe and successful transvenous lead extraction (TLE) of pacemaker and ICD leads; however, no directives exist to guide physicians in their choice of extraction tools and approaches. To aim of the current review is to provide an overview of the success and complication rates of different extraction methods and tools available. A comprehensive search of all published literature was conducted in the databases of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Central. Included papers were original articles describing a specific method of TLE and the corresponding success rates of at least 50 patients. Fifty-three studies were included; the majority (56%) utilized 2 (1-4) different venous extraction approaches (subclavian and femoral), the median number of extraction tools used was 3 (1-6). A stepwise approach was utilized in the majority of the studies, starting with simple traction which resulted in successful TLE in 7-85% of the leads. When applicable the procedure was continued with non-powered tools resulting in a successful extraction of 34-87% leads. Subsequently, powered tools were applied whereby success rates further increased to 74-100%. The final step in TLE was usually utilized by femoral snare leading to an overall TLE success rate of 96-100%. The median procedure-related mortality and major complication described were, respectively, 0% (0-3%) and 1% (0-7%) per patient. In conclusion, a stepwise extraction approach can result in a clinical successful TLE in up to 100% of the leads with a relatively low risk of procedure-related mortality and complications. PMID:25687745

  3. A comparison of protein extraction methods suitable for gel-based proteomic studies of aphid proteins.

    PubMed

    Cilia, M; Fish, T; Yang, X; McLaughlin, M; Thannhauser, T W; Gray, S

    2009-09-01

    Protein extraction methods can vary widely in reproducibility and in representation of the total proteome, yet there are limited data comparing protein isolation methods. The methodical comparison of protein isolation methods is the first critical step for proteomic studies. To address this, we compared three methods for isolation, purification, and solubilization of insect proteins. The aphid Schizaphis graminum, an agricultural pest, was the source of insect tissue. Proteins were extracted using TCA in acetone (TCA-acetone), phenol, or multi-detergents in a chaotrope solution. Extracted proteins were solubilized in a multiple chaotrope solution and examined using 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis and compared directly using 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). Mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins from each extraction type. We were unable to ascribe the differences in the proteins extracted to particular physical characteristics, cell location, or biological function. The TCA-acetone extraction yielded the greatest amount of protein from aphid tissues. Each extraction method isolated a unique subset of the aphid proteome. The TCA-acetone method was explored further for its quantitative reliability using 2-D DIGE. Principal component analysis showed that little of the variation in the data was a result of technical issues, thus demonstrating that the TCA-acetone extraction is a reliable method for preparing aphid proteins for a quantitative proteomics experiment. These data suggest that although the TCA-acetone method is a suitable method for quantitative aphid proteomics, a combination of extraction approaches is recommended for increasing proteome coverage when using gel-based separation techniques. PMID:19721822

  4. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for sweet corn and processed sweet corns.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Noritake, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    DNA was extracted from sweet corn and its processed products using four DNA extraction methods: the CTAB method, the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G. DNA was successfully extracted from raw sweet corn and baby corn samples using all four methods. Meanwhile, from frozen, canned, and dry pack products, DNA was well extracted using the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G, but not enough with the CTAB method. The highest yield of DNA was obtained with Genomic-tip 20/G. The degree of degradation of extracted DNA was observed to increase in the order of raw, frozen, canned, dry pack, and baby corn samples. To evaluate the quality of extracted DNA, real-time PCR analyses were conducted using three maize endogenous genes. The DNAs extracted using GM Quicker 3 had high purity, suggesting that GM Quicker 3 would be the most suitable method for DNA extraction from processed sweet corn products. PMID:24025210

  5. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhisheng; Liu, Qundi; Liang, Zhikun; Zhao, Mingqian; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Depo; Xu, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and solvent extraction (SE). A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD), 56 (HS-SPME), and 48 (SE) compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81%) were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level. PMID:24349825

  6. An unsupervised text mining method for relation extraction from biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Quan, Changqin; Wang, Meng; Ren, Fuji

    2014-01-01

    The wealth of interaction information provided in biomedical articles motivated the implementation of text mining approaches to automatically extract biomedical relations. This paper presents an unsupervised method based on pattern clustering and sentence parsing to deal with biomedical relation extraction. Pattern clustering algorithm is based on Polynomial Kernel method, which identifies interaction words from unlabeled data; these interaction words are then used in relation extraction between entity pairs. Dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing are combined for relation extraction. Based on the semi-supervised KNN algorithm, we extend the proposed unsupervised approach to a semi-supervised approach by combining pattern clustering, dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing rules. We evaluated the approaches on two different tasks: (1) Protein-protein interactions extraction, and (2) Gene-suicide association extraction. The evaluation of task (1) on the benchmark dataset (AImed corpus) showed that our proposed unsupervised approach outperformed three supervised methods. The three supervised methods are rule based, SVM based, and Kernel based separately. The proposed semi-supervised approach is superior to the existing semi-supervised methods. The evaluation on gene-suicide association extraction on a smaller dataset from Genetic Association Database and a larger dataset from publicly available PubMed showed that the proposed unsupervised and semi-supervised methods achieved much higher F-scores than co-occurrence based method. PMID:25036529

  7. A novel cobalt tetranitrophthalocyanine/graphene composite assembled by an in situ solvothermal synthesis method as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guojun; Cui, Lili; Wu, Yanying; Liu, Ying; Pu, Tao; He, Xingquan

    2013-08-21

    A novel micro/nano-composite, based on cobalt(II) tetranitrophthalocyanine (CoTNPc) grown on poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) modified graphene (PGr), as a non-noble-metal catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), is fabricated by an in situ solvothermal synthesis method. The CoTNPc/PGr is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of the CoTNPc/PGr composite toward the ORR is evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry methods. The CoTNPc/PGr composite exhibits an unexpected, surprisingly high ORR activity compared to CoTNPc or PGr. The onset potential for ORR on CoTNPc/PGr is found to be around -0.10 V vs. SCE in 0.1 M NaOH solution, which is 30 mV and 70 mV more positive than that on PGr and CoTNPc, respectively. The peak current density on CoTNPc/PGr is about 2 times than that on PGr and CoTNPc, respectively. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements reveal that the ORR mechanism is nearly via a four-electron pathway on CoTNPc/PGr. The current density for ORR on CoTNPc/PGr still remains 69.9% of its initial value after chronoamperometric measurements for 24 h. Pt/C catalyst, on the other hand, only retains 13.3% of its initial current. The peak potential shifts slightly and current barely changes when 3 M methanol is added. The fabricated composite catalyst for ORR displays high activity, good stability and excellent tolerance to the crossover effect, which may be used as a promising Pt-free catalyst in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). PMID:23820483

  8. Review of methods used in lunar organic analysis - Extraction and hydrolysis techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Extraction, hydrolysis, and crushing procedures have been useful in discovering some of the carbon compounds in lunar samples from the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. The nonaqueous solvent system used mostly in lunar sample work has been benzene:methanol. Two methods of extraction have been sonication and Soxhlet extraction, sonication appearing to be the preferred method. Extraction of lunar samples with water and acid hydrolysis of the water extract has proved to be the best method in the search for amino acids or their precursors. Direct acid hydrolysis of lunar samples provided evidence for the presence of carbides or carbide-like materials in lunar surface samples. Hydrolysis of lunar samples with DF, DC1, and NaOD has shown that methane and ethane are indigenous to the moon.

  9. Lipid profiling and corresponding biodiesel quality of Mortierella isabellina using different drying and extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Ruan, Zhenhua; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Four lipid extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer, hexane & isopropanol, dichloromethane & methanol, and hexane) were evaluated to extract lipid from freeze- and oven-dried fungus Mortierella isabellina ATCC42613. The highest lipid yield (41.8%) was obtained from Bligh & Dyer extraction on the oven-dried fungal biomass with a methanol:chloroform:water ratio of 2:1:0.8. Other lipid extraction methods on both freeze- and oven-dried samples had lipid yields ranging from 20.7% to 35.9%. Non-polar lipid was the main lipid class (more than 90% of total lipid) in M. isabellina. Regarding fatty acid profile, there was no significant difference on fatty acid concentration between different drying and extraction methods. Estimation of biodiesel fuel properties using correlative models further demonstrated that the fungal biodiesel is a good alternative to fossil diesel. PMID:25034797

  10. Comparison of two methods for RNA extraction from the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Gan, M F; Yang, H L; Qian, J L; Wu, C S; Yuan, C X; Li, X F; Zou, J

    2016-01-01

    RNA extraction from the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs has been extensively used in orthopedic studies. We compared two methods for extracting RNA from the nucleus pulposus: liquid nitrogen grinding and enzyme digestion. The RNA was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the purity was evaluated by absorbance ratio using a spectrophotometer. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression was assayed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Thirty human lumbar intervertebral discs were used in this study. The liquid nitrogen-grinding method was used for RNA extraction from 15 samples, and the mean RNA concentration was 491.04 ± 44.16 ng/mL. The enzyme digestion method was used on 15 samples, and the mean RNA concentration was 898.42 ± 38.64 ng/mL. The statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in concentration between the different methods. Apparent 28S, 18S, and 5S bands were detectable in RNA extracted using the enzyme digestion method, whereas no 28S or 18S bands were detected in RNA extracted using the liquid nitrogen-grinding method. The GAPDH band was visible, and no non-specific band was detected in the RT-PCR assay by the enzyme digestion method. Therefore, the enzyme digestion method is an efficient and easy method for RNA extraction from the nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs for further intervertebral disc degeneration-related studies. PMID:27323116

  11. The BUME method: a novel automated chloroform-free 96-well total lipid extraction method for blood plasma[S

    PubMed Central

    Löfgren, Lars; Ståhlman, Marcus; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Saarinen, Sinikka; Nilsson, Ralf; Hansson, Göran I.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid extraction from biological samples is a critical and often tedious preanalytical step in lipid research. Primarily on the basis of automation criteria, we have developed the BUME method, a novel chloroform-free total lipid extraction method for blood plasma compatible with standard 96-well robots. In only 60 min, 96 samples can be automatically extracted with lipid profiles of commonly analyzed lipid classes almost identically and with absolute recoveries similar or better to what is obtained using the chloroform-based reference method. Lipid recoveries were linear from 10–100 µl plasma for all investigated lipids using the developed extraction protocol. The BUME protocol includes an initial one-phase extraction of plasma into 300 µl butanol:methanol (BUME) mixture (3:1) followed by two-phase extraction into 300 µl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) using 300 µl 1% acetic acid as buffer. The lipids investigated included the most abundant plasma lipid classes (e.g., cholesterol ester, free cholesterol, triacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin) as well as less abundant but biologically important lipid classes, including ceramide, diacylglycerol, and lyso-phospholipids. This novel method has been successfully implemented in our laboratory and is now used daily. We conclude that the fully automated, high-throughput BUME method can replace chloroform-based methods, saving both human and environmental resources. PMID:22645248

  12. Method and system for extraction of chemicals from aquifer remediation effluent water

    DOEpatents

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Moor, Kenneth S.; Shook, G. Michael; Barker, Donna L.

    2003-01-01

    A method and system for extraction of chemicals from an groundwater remediation aqueous effluent are provided. The extraction method utilizes a critical fluid for separation and recovery of chemicals employed in remediating groundwater contaminated with hazardous organic substances, and is particularly suited for separation and recovery of organic contaminants and process chemicals used in surfactant-based remediation technologies. The extraction method separates and recovers high-value chemicals from the remediation effluent and minimizes the volume of generated hazardous waste. The recovered chemicals can be recycled to the remediation process or stored for later use.

  13. Apparatus and method for extraction of chemicals from aquifer remediation effluent water

    DOEpatents

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Moor, Kenneth S.; Shook, G. Michael; Moses, John M.; Barker, Donna L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for extraction of chemicals from an aquifer remediation aqueous effluent are provided. The extraction method utilizes a critical fluid for separation and recovery of chemicals employed in remediating aquifers contaminated with hazardous organic substances, and is particularly suited for separation and recovery of organic contaminants and process chemicals used in surfactant-based remediation technologies. The extraction method separates and recovers high-value chemicals from the remediation effluent and minimizes the volume of generated hazardous waste. The recovered chemicals can be recycled to the remediation process or stored for later use.

  14. New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, P.J.

    1996-04-23

    This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

  15. METHOD OF LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF BLOOD SURROGATES FOR ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline method of liquid?liquid extraction for assessing human exposure to JP-8 jet fuel was established by extracting several representative compounds ranging from very volatile to semi-volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, nonane, decane, undecane, tridec...

  16. Significance of metabolite extraction method for evaluating sulfamethazine toxicity in adult zebrafish using metabolomics.

    PubMed

    De Sotto, Ryan; Medriano, Carl; Cho, Yunchul; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Park, Youngja; Kim, Sungpyo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, environmental metabolomics has been introduced as a next generation environmental toxicity method which helps in evaluating toxicity of bioactive compounds to non-target organisms. In general, efficient metabolite extraction from target cells is one of the keys to success to better understand the effects of toxic substances to organisms. In this regard, the aim of this study is (1) to compare two sample extraction methods in terms of abundance and quality of metabolites and (2) investigate how this could lead to difference in data interpretation using pathway analysis. For this purpose, the antibiotic sulfamethazine and zebrafish (Danio rerio) were selected as model toxic substance and target organism, respectively. The zebrafish was exposed to four different sulfamethazine concentrations (0, 10, 30, and 50mg/L) for 72h. Metabolites were extracted using two different methods (Bligh and Dyer and solid-phase extraction). A total of 13,538 and 12,469 features were detected using quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (QTOF LC-MS). Of these metabolites, 4278 (Bligh and Dyer) and 332 (solid phase extraction) were found to be significant after false discovery rate adjustment at a significance threshold of 0.01. Metlin and KEGG pathway analysis showed comprehensive information from fish samples extracted using Bligh and Dyer compared to solid phase extraction. This study shows that proper selection of sample extraction method is critically important for interpreting and analyzing the toxicity data of organisms when metabolomics is applied. PMID:26827276

  17. Comparison of methods to determine carbon and nitrogen in soil extractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) in soil samples are routinely measured by the direct extraction method of Vance et al. (1989), which involves extraction with 0.5 M K2SO4 from paired fumigated and un-fumigated soil sub-samples. As widely reported in the literature, total organic car...

  18. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD FOR PCR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGAL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following air sampling, fungal DNA needs to be extracted and purified to a state suitable for laboratory use. Our laboratory has developed a simple method of extraction and purification of fungal DNA appropriate for enzymatic manipulation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) appli...

  19. Comparison of Cell Disruption Methods for Improving Lipid Extraction from Thraustochytrid Strains.

    PubMed

    Byreddy, Avinesh R; Gupta, Adarsha; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2015-08-01

    Lipid extraction is an integral part of biodiesel production, as it facilitates the release of fatty acids from algal cells. To utilise thraustochytrids as a potential source for lipid production. We evaluated the extraction efficiency of various solvents and solvent combinations for lipid extraction from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. The maximum lipid extraction yield was 22% using a chloroform:methanol ratio of 2:1. We compared various cell disruption methods to improve lipid extraction yields, including grinding with liquid nitrogen, bead vortexing, osmotic shock, water bath, sonication and shake mill. The highest lipid extraction yields were obtained using osmotic shock and 48.7% from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and 29.1% from Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents were more than 60% in Schizochytrium sp. S31 which suggests their suitability for biodiesel production. PMID:26270668

  20. Comparison of Cell Disruption Methods for Improving Lipid Extraction from Thraustochytrid Strains

    PubMed Central

    Byreddy, Avinesh R.; Gupta, Adarsha; Barrow, Colin J.; Puri, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Lipid extraction is an integral part of biodiesel production, as it facilitates the release of fatty acids from algal cells. To utilise thraustochytrids as a potential source for lipid production. We evaluated the extraction efficiency of various solvents and solvent combinations for lipid extraction from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. The maximum lipid extraction yield was 22% using a chloroform:methanol ratio of 2:1. We compared various cell disruption methods to improve lipid extraction yields, including grinding with liquid nitrogen, bead vortexing, osmotic shock, water bath, sonication and shake mill. The highest lipid extraction yields were obtained using osmotic shock and 48.7% from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and 29.1% from Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents were more than 60% in Schizochytrium sp. S31 which suggests their suitability for biodiesel production. PMID:26270668

  1. Direct DNA extraction method of an obligate parasitic fungus from infected plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Wang, C L; Peng, W Y; Yang, J; Lan, M Q; Zhang, B; Li, J B; Zhu, Y Y; Li, C Y

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew and rust fungi are obligate parasites that cannot live without host organisms. They are difficult to culture in synthetic medium in the laboratory. Genomic DNA extraction is one of the basic molecular techniques used to study the genetic structure of populations. In this study, 2 different DNA extraction methods, Chelex-100 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), were used to extract DNA from euonymus powdery mildew and Puccinia striiformis f. sp Tritici. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a race-specific-marker rDNA-internal transcribed spacer sequence. Both DNA extraction methods were compared and analyzed. The results showed that both Chelex-100 and CTAB were effective for extracting genomic DNA from infected plant tissue. However, less DNA was required for the Chelex-100 method than for the CTAB method, and the Chelex-100 method involved fewer steps, was simpler and safer, and did not require organic solvents compared to the CTAB method. DNA quality was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and the results showed that genomic DNA extracted using the Chelex-100 method was better than that using CTAB method, and was sufficient for studying the genetic structure of population. PMID:26782502

  2. Critical assessment of extracellular polymeric substances extraction methods from mixed culture biomass.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Domingo-Félez, Carlos; Mutlu, A Gizem; Smets, Barth F

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have a presumed determinant role in the structure, architecture, strength, filterability, and settling behaviour of microbial solids in biological wastewater treatment processes. Consequently, numerous EPS extraction protocols have recently been published that aim to optimize the trade off between high EPS recovery and low cell lysis. Despite extensive efforts, the obtained results are often contradictory, even when analysing similar biomass samples and using similar experimental conditions, which greatly complicates the selection of an extraction protocol. This study presents a rigorous and critical assessment of existing physical and chemical EPS extraction methods applied to mixed-culture biomass samples (nitrifying, nitritation-anammox, and activated sludge biomass). A novel fluorescence-based method was developed and calibrated to quantify the lysis potential of different EPS extraction protocols. We concluded that commonly used methods to assess cell lysis (DNA concentrations or G6PDH activities in EPS extracts) do not correlate with cell viability. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of certain chemicals in EPS extracts results in severe underestimation of protein and carbohydrate concentrations by using standard analytical methods. Keeping both maximum EPS extraction yields and minimal biomass lysis as criteria, it was identified a sonication-based extraction method as the best to determine and compare tightly-bound EPS fractions in different biomass samples. Protein was consistently the main EPS component in all analysed samples. However, EPS from nitrifying enrichments was richer in DNA, the activated sludge EPS had a higher content in humic acids and carbohydrates, and the nitritation-anammox EPS, while similar in composition to the nitrifier EPS, had a lower fraction of hydrophobic biopolymers. In general, the easily-extractable EPS fraction was more abundant in carbohydrates and humic substances, while

  3. Optimization of a single phase method for lipid extraction from milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Rochfort, Simone; Cocks, Benjamin G

    2016-08-01

    For LC-MS-based lipidomic analysis of milk, total lipid extraction from raw milk is generally conducted with Folch or Bligh and Dyer methods; both methods are based on two-phase partition of lipids, and thus time-consuming. In this work, three solvent systems for one-phase extraction of milk lipids were compared with the standard Folch method. Two of the solvent systems (butanol/methanol, 3:1 and 1:1) previously tested for lipid extraction from plasma were found to provide adequate extraction for polar lipids, but incomplete extraction for triglycerides, especially highly lipophilic species. By contrast, our newly designed solvent mix composed of butanol, methanol and chloroform (at a 3:5:4 ratio) provided similar extraction efficiency for triglycerides and higher yield for some of the phospholipids, as compared to the Folch method. This new one-phase extraction method is very simple yet comprehensive and thus suitable for high throughput lipid analysis of milk samples. PMID:27372415

  4. Comparative study of methods for extraction and purification of environmental DNA from soil and sludge samples.

    PubMed

    Roh, Changhyun; Villatte, Francois; Kim, Byung-Gee; Schmid, Rolf D

    2006-08-01

    An important prerequisite for successful construction of a metagenome library is an efficient procedure for extracting DNA from environmental samples. We compared three indirect and four direct extraction methods, including a commercial kit, in terms of DNA yield, purity, and time requirement. A special focus was on methods that are appropriate for the extraction of environmental DNA (eDNA) from very limited sample sizes (0.1 g) to enable a highly parallel approach. Direct extraction procedures yielded on average 100-fold higher DNA amounts than indirect ones. A drawback of direct extraction was the small fragment size of approx 12 kb. The quality of the extracted DNA was evaluated by the ability of different restriction enzymes to digest the eDNA. Only the commercial kit and a direct extraction method using freeze-thaw cell lysis in combination with an in-gel patch electrophoresis with hydroxyapatite to remove humic acid substances yielded DNA, which was completely digested by all restriction enzymes. Moreover, only DNA extracted by these two procedures could be used as template for the amplification of fragments of several 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA groups under standard polymerase chain reaction conditions. PMID:16943632

  5. Comparison and evaluation of volatile oils from three different extraction methods for some Thai fragrant flowers.

    PubMed

    Paibon, W; Yimnoi, C-A; Tembab, N; Boonlue, W; Jampachaisri, K; Nuengchamnong, N; Waranuch, N; Ingkaninan, K

    2011-04-01

    Several tropical flowers have distinctive fragrances which are very appealing to use in perfumery, cosmetics and spa. However, to obtain a 'natural fragrance' from the flower is a challenge as the scent could change during the extraction process. The aim of the study is to find the suitable procedure for extraction of volatile oils from some Thai fragrant flowers. Three different methods: hydrodistillation, solvent extraction and enfleurage methods have been applied for the extraction of volatile oil from Jasminum sambac L. Aiton; Oleaceae (jasmine). The quantities and quality of jasmine volatile oils obtained from the different tested methods were compared. The solvent extraction method using 95% ethanol provided the greatest level of oil yield. However, sensory evaluation using preference test showed that the scents of the volatile oils from solvent extraction using diethyl ether and from enfleurage method were the closest to the fresh flowers compared with the volatile oils obtained from other methods. Their chemical constituents were analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. Both volatile oils were then evaluated using a triangle discrimination test. From the triangle test, we found that 14 panellists from the total of 36 could not distinguish between the scents of jasmine oil from enfleurage and fresh jasmine flowers whereas only one panellist could not distinguish between the scent of jasmine oil from the solvent extraction and fresh jasmine flowers. These results suggest that the scent of the volatile oil obtained from the enfleurage method was the closest to fresh flowers compared with that obtained from other methods. This method was then successfully applied for extraction of volatile oils from three other Thai fragrant flowers, Michelia alba DC.; Magnoliaceae, Millingtonia hortensis L.; Bignoniaceae and Hedychium coronarium J. Konig; Zingiberaceae. PMID:20704598

  6. Study of burn scar extraction automatically based on level set method using remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Dai, Qin; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, ShiBin; Yang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Burn scar extraction using remote sensing data is an efficient way to precisely evaluate burn area and measure vegetation recovery. Traditional burn scar extraction methodologies have no well effect on burn scar image with blurred and irregular edges. To address these issues, this paper proposes an automatic method to extract burn scar based on Level Set Method (LSM). This method utilizes the advantages of the different features in remote sensing images, as well as considers the practical needs of extracting the burn scar rapidly and automatically. This approach integrates Change Vector Analysis (CVA), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) to obtain difference image and modifies conventional Level Set Method Chan-Vese (C-V) model with a new initial curve which results from a binary image applying K-means method on fitting errors of two near-infrared band images. Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI data sets are used to validate the proposed method. Comparison with conventional C-V model, OSTU algorithm, Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm are made to show that the proposed approach can extract the outline curve of fire burn scar effectively and exactly. The method has higher extraction accuracy and less algorithm complexity than that of the conventional C-V model. PMID:24503563

  7. Extracting ocean surface information from altimeter returns - The deconvolution method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto; Chapman, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of the deconvolution method for estimating ocean surface parameters from ocean altimeter waveforms is presented. It is shown that this method presents a fast, accurate way of determining the ocean surface parameters from noisy altimeter data. Three parameters may be estimated by using this method, including the altimeter-height error, the ocean-surface standard deviation, and the ocean-surface skewness. By means of a Monte Carlo experiment, an 'optimum' deconvolution algorithm and the accuracies with which the above parameters may be estimated using this algorithm are determined. Then the influence of instrument effects, such as errors in calibration and pointing-angle estimation, on the estimated parameters is examined. Finally, the deconvolution algorithm is used to estimate height and ocean-surface parameters from Seasat data.

  8. An efficient DNA extraction method for desert Calligonum species.

    PubMed

    Abdellaoui, Raoudha; Gouja, Hassen; Sayah, Amel; Neffati, Mohamed

    2011-12-01

    Genetic conservation programs in arid environments rely on molecular methods for diversity assessments. DNA-based molecular profiling will aid in conservation and protection of species from genetic erosion. Obtaining intact genomic DNA from Calligonum species, of sufficiently high-quality that is readily amplifiable using PCR, is challenging because of the presence of the exceptionally large amount of oxidized polyphenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and other secondary metabolites. The present method involves a modification of the available CTAB method employing higher concentrations of NaCl and CTAB, and incorporating PEG 6000 (1%) and glucose. The yield of DNA was 60-670 μg g(-1) of fresh tissue. The protocol has been tested with two species from the arid region. The DNA isolated was successfully amplified by two ITS primer pairs. PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region among and within Calligonum species followed by sequencing is under way. PMID:21681578

  9. Generalized framework for context-specific metabolic model extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Robaina Estévez, Semidán; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) are increasingly applied to investigate the physiology not only of simple prokaryotes, but also eukaryotes, such as plants, characterized with compartmentalized cells of multiple types. While genome-scale models aim at including the entirety of known metabolic reactions, mounting evidence has indicated that only a subset of these reactions is active in a given context, including: developmental stage, cell type, or environment. As a result, several methods have been proposed to reconstruct context-specific models from existing genome-scale models by integrating various types of high-throughput data. Here we present a mathematical framework that puts all existing methods under one umbrella and provides the means to better understand their functioning, highlight similarities and differences, and to help users in selecting a most suitable method for an application. PMID:25285097

  10. Comparison of microvolume DNA quantification methods for use with volume-sensitive environmental DNA extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate DNA concentration estimates from environmental samples using minimal sample volumes are essential for most downstream applications. To compare the efficacy of microvolume quantification methods, DNA was extracted from soil, compost, and pure culture samples, and quantified using two absorba...

  11. Conventional and modified hydrodistillation method for the extraction of glucosinolate hydrolytic products: a comparative account.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rohit; Singh, Bikram; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Arora, Saroj

    2016-01-01

    Eruca sativa is extensively used as raw and its oil is also used for cooking due to its exceptional flavour. The volatile nature of the hydrolytic products of glucosinolates makes the extraction difficult. The hydrodistillation method used previously yield very less amount of the extract as well as the absence of stirring in the round bottom flask causes burning of both the crushed seeds and the flask. To overcome these drawbacks, a method has been developed using magnetic stirrer and hot plate. The yield and composition of hydrolytic products in the extract with the modified method was increased along with an increase in the amount of major hydrolytic products as seen by GC-MS. This method thus has immense potential in pharmaceutical industries, due to the ease of extraction and isolation. PMID:27217994

  12. Rapid methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds in citrus rinds.

    PubMed

    Magwaza, Lembe Samukelo; Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Cronje, Paul J R; Landahl, Sandra; Ortiz, Jose Ordaz; Terry, Leon A

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds in citrus rinds are time consuming. Rapid methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds were developed by comparing three extraction solvent combinations (80:20 v/v ethanol:H2O; 70:29.5:0.5 v/v/v methanol:H2O:HCl; and 50:50 v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO):methanol) for effectiveness. Freeze-dried, rind powder was extracted in an ultrasonic water bath at 35°C for 10, 20, and 30 min. Phenolic compound quantification was done with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with diode array detector. Extracting with methanol:H2O:HCl for 30 min resulted in the optimum yield of targeted phenolic acids. Seven phenolic acids and three flavanone glycosides (FGs) were quantified. The dominant phenolic compound was hesperidin, with concentrations ranging from 7500 to 32,000 μg/g DW. The highest yield of FGs was observed in samples extracted, using DMSO:methanol for 10 min. Compared to other extraction methods, methanol:H2O:HCl was efficient in optimum extraction of phenolic acids. The limit of detection and quantification for all analytes were small, ranging from 1.35 to 5.02 and 4.51 to 16.72 μg/g DW, respectively, demonstrating HPLC quantification method sensitivity. The extraction and quantification methods developed in this study are faster and more efficient. Where speed and effectiveness are required, these methods are recommended. PMID:26788305

  13. Efficiency of solvent extraction methods for the determination of methyl mercury in forest soils.

    PubMed

    Qian, J; Skyllberg, U; Tu, Q; Bleam, W F; Frech, W

    2000-07-01

    Methyl mercury was determined by gas chromatography, microwave induced plasma, atomic emission spectrometry (GC-MIP-AES) using two different methods. One was based on extraction of mercury species into toluene, pre-concentration by evaporation and butylation of methyl mercury with a Grignard reagent followed by determination. With the other, methyl mercury was extracted into dichloromethane and back extracted into water followed by in situ ethylation, collection of ethylated mercury species on Tenax and determination. The accuracy of the entire procedure based on butylation was validated for the individual steps involved in the method. Methyl mercury added to various types of soil samples showed an overall average recovery of 87.5%. Reduced recovery was only caused by losses of methyl mercury during extraction into toluene and during pre-concentration by evaporation. The extraction of methyl mercury added to the soil was therefore quantitative. Since it is not possible to directly determine the extraction efficiency of incipient methyl mercury, the extraction efficiency of total mercury with an acidified solution containing CuSO4 and KBr was compared with high-pressure microwave acid digestion. The solvent extraction efficiency was 93%. For the IAEA 356 sediment certified reference material, mercury was less efficiently extracted and determined methyl mercury concentrations were below the certified value. Incomplete extraction could be explained by the presence of a large part of inorganic sulfides, as determined by x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES). Analyses of sediment reference material CRM 580 gave results in agreement with the certified value. The butylation method gave a detection limit for methyl mercury of 0.1 ng g(-1), calculated as three times the standard deviation for repeated analysis of soil samples. Lower values were obtained with the ethylation method. The precision, expressed as RSD for concentrations 20 times above the

  14. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  15. An extremophile Microbacterium strain and its protease production under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jin; Wu, Xiaodan; Jiang, Yali; Cai, Xiaofeng; Huang, Luyao; Yang, Yongbo; Wang, Huili; Zeng, Aibing; Li, Aiying

    2014-05-01

    Extremophiles are potential resources for alkaline protease production. In order to search for alkaline protease producers, we isolated and screened alkaliphilic microorganisms from alkaline saline environments. The microorganism HSL10 was identified as a member of the genus Microbacterium by morphological observation, Gram staining and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. By colony-forming unit counting under alkali or salt stress, it was further identified as an alkaliphilic microbe with mild halotolerance. In addition, it was capable of secreting alkaline proteases, evidenced by larger hydrolyzation zones in the skim milk-containing medium at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.0. Subsequently, we demonstrated that both NaCl and yeast extract significantly promoted protease production by HSL10. Finally, we established a sensitive colorimetric method for the detection of protease production by HSL10 under neutral and alkaline conditions, by using the Bradford reagent for substrate staining to improve the contrast between the hydrolyzation zone and the substrate background on agar plates. HSL10 was the first example of an alkaliphilic protease-producing member in Microbacterium, and its isolation and characterization have both academic and commercial importance. PMID:23686381

  16. [Optimization of extracellular polymeric substance extraction method and its role in the dewaterability of sludge].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Wong, Woo-Chung

    2013-07-01

    Seven commonly adopted extraction schemes were selected to extract extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) from the sludge, and the dewaterability of sludge was also investigated before and after extracting EPS. Results showed that Formaldehyde + NaOH and 2% EDTA methods were proved to be effective in extracting EPS from the sludge, and the total EPS production of the total suspend solid was 128.86 mg x g(-1) and 42.38 mg x g(-1), respectively. However, the cell destructed seriously after extracted by Formaldehyde + NaOH and 2% EDTA methods. Heating method was a gentle and efficient method, and the total EPS production was 21.97 mg x g(-1). Sludge dewaterability was largely improved after extracted slime, loosely bound EPS and tightly bound EPS from the sludge flocs. It was also found that the higher content of EPS in slime, the worse dewaterability of sludge, and sludge dewaterability would be deteriorated when EPS was released from other layers to slime. Capillary suction time (CST) values of sludge from the ShekWuHui and Stonecutters Island Treatment works were 132.9 s and 229.9 s compared to 80.8 s and 79.4 s, separately after extracted Slime from sludge flocs, and the dewaterability of sludge was greatly improved. PMID:24028009

  17. Pseudophasic extraction method for the separation of ultra-fine minerals

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2002-01-01

    An improved aqueous-based extraction method for the separation and recovery of ultra-fine mineral particles. The process operates within the pseudophase region of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system where a low-molecular-weight, water soluble polymer alone is used in combination with a salt and operates within the pseudo-biphase regime of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system. A combination of low molecular weight, mutually immiscible polymers are used with or without a salt. This method is especially suited for the purification of clays that are useful as rheological control agents and for the preparation of nanocomposites.

  18. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances. PMID:27138987

  19. Transient signal analysis based on Levenberg-Marquardt method for fault feature extraction of rotating machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shibin; Cai, Gaigai; Zhu, Zhongkui; Huang, Weiguo; Zhang, Xingwu

    2015-03-01

    Localized faults in rotating machines tend to result in shocks and thus excite transient components in vibration signals. An iterative extraction method is proposed for transient signal analysis based on transient modeling and parameter identification through Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method, and eventually for fault feature extraction. For each iteration, a double-side asymmetric transient model is firstly built based on parametric Morlet wavelet, and then the LM method is introduced to identify the parameters of the model. With the implementation of the iterative procedure, transients are extracted from vibration signals one by one, and Wigner-Ville Distribution is applied to obtain time-frequency representation with satisfactory energy concentration but without cross-term. A simulation signal is used to test the performance of the proposed method in transient extraction, and the comparison study shows that the proposed method outperforms ensemble empirical mode decomposition and spectral kurtosis in extracting transient feature. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the applications in transient analysis for bearing and gear fault feature extraction.

  20. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances. PMID:27138987

  1. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for the detection of Cytomegalovirus in dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    Koontz, D.; Baecher, K.; Amin, M.; Nikolova, S.; Gallagher, M.; Dollard, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dried blood spots (DBS) are collected universally from newborns and may be valuable for the diagnosis of congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The reported analytical sensitivity for DBS testing compared to urine or saliva varies greatly across CMV studies. The purpose of this study was to directly compare the performance of various DNA extraction methods for identification of CMV in DBS including those used most often in CMV studies. Study design Whatman® Grade 903 filter paper cards were spotted with blood samples from 25 organ transplant recipients who had confirmed CMV viremia. Six DNA extraction methods were compared for relative yield of viral and cellular DNA: 2 manual solution-based methods (Gentra Puregene, thermal shock), 2 manual silica column-based methods (QIAamp DNA Mini, QIAamp DNA Investigator), and 2 automated methods (M48 MagAttract Mini, QIAcube Investigator). DBS extractions were performed in triplicate followed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results For extraction of both viral and cellular DNA, two methods (QIAamp DNA Investigator and thermal shock) consistently gave the highest yields, and two methods (M48 MagAttract Mini and QIAamp DNA Mini) consistently gave the lowest yields. There was an average 3-fold difference in DNA yield between the highest and lowest yield methods. Conclusion The choice of DNA extraction method is a major factor in the ability to detect low levels of CMV in DBS and can largely account for the wide range of DBS sensitivities reported in studies to date. PMID:25866346

  2. A high volume extraction and purification method for recovering DNA from human bone.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Pamela L; Stoljarova, Monika; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    DNA recovery, purity and overall extraction efficiency of a protocol employing a novel silica-based column, Hi-Flow(®) (Generon Ltd., Maidenhead, UK), were compared with that of a standard organic DNA extraction methodology. The quantities of DNA recovered by each method were compared by real-time PCR and quality of DNA by STR typing using the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Pro System (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) on DNA from 10 human bone samples. Overall, the Hi-Flow method recovered comparable quantities of DNA ranging from 0.8ng±1 to 900ng±159 of DNA compared with the organic method ranging from 0.5ng±0.9 to 855ng±156 of DNA. Complete profiles (17/17 loci tested) were obtained for at least one of three replicates for 3/10 samples using the Hi-Flow method and from 2/10 samples with the organic method. All remaining bone samples yielded partial profiles for all replicates with both methods. Compared with a standard organic DNA isolation method, the results indicated that the Hi-Flow method provided equal or improved recovery and quality of DNA without the harmful effects of organic extraction. Moreover, larger extraction volumes (up to 20mL) can be employed with the Hi-Flow method which enabled more bone sample to be extracted at one time. PMID:24997320

  3. Method for solvent extraction with near-equal density solutions

    DOEpatents

    Birdwell, Joseph F.; Randolph, John D.; Singh, S. Paul

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a modified centrifugal contactor for separating solutions of near equal density. The modified contactor has a pressure differential establishing means that allows the application of a pressure differential across fluid in the rotor of the contactor. The pressure differential is such that it causes the boundary between solutions of near-equal density to shift, thereby facilitating separation of the phases. Also disclosed is a method of separating solutions of near-equal density.

  4. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  5. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    PubMed

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material. PMID:26985935

  6. UAE, MAE, SFE-CO2 and classical methods for the extraction of Mitragyna speciosa leaves.

    PubMed

    Orio, Laura; Alexandru, Lavinia; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Barge, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia, is well known for its psychoactive properties. Its leaves are traditionally chewed by Thai and Malaysian farmers and manual labourers as it causes a numbing, stimulating effect. The present study aims to evaluate alkaloid yield and composition in the leaf extracts. For this purpose we have compared several non-conventional extraction techniques with classic procedures (room temperature or under heating). Dried M. speciosa leaves belonging to three batches of different origin (from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia) were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction SFE-CO(2), using methanol, ethanol, water and binary mixtures. The extracts were compared using an HPLC/ESI-MS analysis of mitragynine and four other related alkaloids which were present in the alkaloid fraction. The extraction technique influences both the raw product yield and the relative alkaloid content of M. speciosa leaves. Of the several methods tested, MAE in a closed vessel at 110 °C (60 W, methanol/water 1:1) gave the highest alkaloid fraction amount, while UAE with an immersion horn at 25 °C (21.4 kHz, 50 W, methanol) showed the best yield for mitragynine. This work may prove to be a useful contribution to forensic, toxicological and pharmacognosy studies. Although the potential applications of M. speciosa alkaloids clearly need further investigation, these results may facilitate the scaling-up of their extraction. PMID:22054912

  7. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol. PMID:25856060

  8. Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Klancnik, Anja; Piskernik, Sasa; Jersek, Barbara; Mozina, Sonja Smole

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate diffusion and dilution methods for determining the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their mixtures. Several methods for measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a plant extract are available, but there is no standard procedure as there is for antibiotics. We tested different plant extracts, their mixtures and phenolic acids on selected gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Infantis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli) with the disk diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and macrodilution methods. The disk diffusion method was appropriate only as a preliminary screening test prior to quantitative MIC determination with dilution methods. A comparison of the results for MIC obtained by agar dilution and broth microdilution was possible only for gram-positive bacteria, and indicated the latter as the most accurate way of assessing the antimicrobial effect. The microdilution method with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) or INT (2-p-iodophenyl-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride) to indicate the viability of aerobic bacteria was found to be the best alternative approach, while only ATP determination was appropriate for microaerophilic Campylobacter spp. Using survival curves the kinetics of bacterial inactivation on plant extract exposure was followed for 24h and in this way the MIC values determined by the microdilution method were confirmed as the concentrations of extracts that inhibited bacterial growth. We suggest evaluation of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts using the broth microdilution method as a fast screening method for MIC determination and the macrodilution method at selected MIC values to confirm bacterial inactivation. Campylobacter spp. showed a similar sensitivity to plant extracts as the tested gram-positive bacteria, but S

  9. Use of an enzyme-assisted method to improve protein extraction from olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Barberán, M; Lerma-García, M J; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F

    2015-02-15

    The improvement of protein extraction from olive leaves using an enzyme-assisted protocol has been investigated. Using a cellulase enzyme (Celluclast® 1.5L), different parameters that affect the extraction process, such as the influence and amount of organic solvent, enzyme amount, pH and extraction temperature and time, were optimised. The influence of these factors was examined using the standard Bradford assay and the extracted proteins were characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimum extraction parameters were: 30% acetonitrile, 5% (v/v) Celluclast® 1.5L at pH 5.0 and 55°C for 15min. Under these conditions, several protein extracts from olive leaves of different genetic variety (with a total protein amount comprised between 1.87 and 6.64mgg(-1)) were analysed and compared by SDS-PAGE, showing differences in their electrophoretic protein profiles. The developed enzyme-assisted extraction method has shown a faster extraction, higher recovery and reduced solvent usage with respect to the use of the non-enzymatic methods described in literature. PMID:25236194

  10. High-throughput preparation methods of crude extract for robust cell-free protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Chan; Jewett, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Crude extract based cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful technology platform for high-throughput protein production and genetic part characterization. Unfortunately, robust preparation of highly active extracts generally requires specialized and costly equipment and can be labor and time intensive. Moreover, cell lysis procedures can be hard to standardize, leading to different extract performance across laboratories. These challenges limit new entrants to the field and new applications, such as comprehensive genome engineering programs to improve extract performance. To address these challenges, we developed a generalizable and easily accessible high-throughput crude extract preparation method for CFPS based on sonication. To validate our approach, we investigated two Escherichia coli strains: BL21 Star™ (DE3) and a K12 MG1655 variant, achieving similar productivity (defined as CFPS yield in g/L) by varying only a few parameters. In addition, we observed identical productivity of cell extracts generated from culture volumes spanning three orders of magnitude (10 mL culture tubes to 10 L fermentation). We anticipate that our rapid and robust extract preparation method will speed-up screening of genomically engineered strains for CFPS applications, make possible highly active extracts from non-model organisms, and promote a more general use of CFPS in synthetic biology and biotechnology. PMID:25727242

  11. Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2011-09-15

    The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 μg(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. PMID:21807199

  12. Influence of extraction method on size exclusion chromatography fingerprints of EPS from wastewater sludges.

    PubMed

    Bourven, I; Simon, S; Guibaud, G

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were separated using two serial-linked size exclusion chromatography (SEC) columns to obtain detailed fingerprints. The chromatographic profile results were influenced by the nature of biological sludge (activated sludges, anaerobic granules, anaerobic flocculated sludges). Furthermore, our results highlight that EPS fingerprints are also highly dependent on the extraction method. If physical extractions modify only the relative absorbance of the chromatographic peaks, heating during extraction induces significant modifications of the fingerprints, probably owing to better organic matter extraction efficiency as well as an increase in hydrolysis for some compounds but not for EPS extracted from anaerobic granular sludges. This confirms that thermal treatment is a proper method to extract EPS from anaerobic granular sludges. The use of chemical extraction results in major changes on the EPS fingerprints. This work demonstrates that some chromatographic peaks are due to residues from the chemical reagent (such as EDTA, glutaraldehyde) which can modify or form complexes with some EPS macromolecules. As a result, due to its sensitivity to sludge origin and/or extraction procedure, SEC appears to be a suitable tool for an accurate qualitative EPS characterization. PMID:23530346

  13. Evaluation of the alkaline electrolysis of zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Meisenhelder, J.H.; Brown, A.P.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-05-01

    The alkaline leach and electrolysis process for zinc production is compared to the conventional acid-sulfate process in terms of both energy saving and technical merit. In addition, the potential for industrial application of the alkaline process is discussed on the basis of present market conditions, possible future zinc market scenarios, and the probability of increased secondary zinc recovery. In primary zinc production, the energy-saving potential for the alkaline process was estimated to be greater than 10%, even when significantly larger electrolysis current densities than those required for the sulfate process are used. The principal technical advantages of the alkaline process are that it can handle low-grade, high-iron-content or oxidized ores (like most of those found in the US) in a more cost- and energy-efficient manner than can the sulfate process. Additionally, in the electrowinning operation, the alkaline process should be technically superior because a dendritic or sponge deposit is formed that is amenable to automated collection without interruption of the electrolysis. Also, use of the higher current densities would result in significant capital cost reductions. Alkaline-based electrolytic recovery processes were considered for the recycling of zinc from smelter baghouse dusts and from the potential source of nickel/zinc electric-vehicle batteries. In all comparisons, an alkaline process was shown to be technically superior and, particularly for the baghouse dusts, energetically and economically superior to alternatively proposed recovery methods based on sulfate electrolysis. It is concluded that the alkaline zinc method is an important alternative technology to the conventional acid zinc process. (WHK)

  14. ALKALINE CARBONATE LEACHING PROCESS FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbitts, A.T.

    1957-11-12

    A process for the leaching of uranium from high carbonate ores is presented. According to the process, the ore is leached at a temperature of about 200 deg C and a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. with a solution containing alkali carbonate, alkali permanganate, and bicarbonate ion, the bicarbonate ion functionlng to prevent premature formation of alkali hydroxide and consequent precipitation of a diuranate. After the leaching is complete, the uranium present is recovered by precipitation with NaOH.

  15. Combination of heterogeneous EEG feature extraction methods and stacked sequential learning for sleep stage classification.

    PubMed

    Herrera, L J; Fernandes, C M; Mora, A M; Migotina, D; Largo, R; Guillen, A; Rosa, A C

    2013-06-01

    This work proposes a methodology for sleep stage classification based on two main approaches: the combination of features extracted from electroencephalogram (EEG) signal by different extraction methods, and the use of stacked sequential learning to incorporate predicted information from nearby sleep stages in the final classifier. The feature extraction methods used in this work include three representative ways of extracting information from EEG signals: Hjorth features, wavelet transformation and symbolic representation. Feature selection was then used to evaluate the relevance of individual features from this set of methods. Stacked sequential learning uses a second-layer classifier to improve the classification by using previous and posterior first-layer predicted stages as additional features providing information to the model. Results show that both approaches enhance the sleep stage classification accuracy rate, thus leading to a closer approximation to the experts' opinion. PMID:23627659

  16. Extraction of Roof Lines from High-Resolution Images by a Grouping Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Poz, A. P.; Fernandes, V. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a method for extracting groups of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines from highresolution aerial images using corresponding Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) roof polyhedrons as initial approximations. The proposed method is based on two main steps. First, straight lines that are candidates to represent roof ridgelines and roof boundaries of a building are extracted from the aerial image. Second, a group of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines of a selected building is obtained through the optimization of a Markov Random Field (MRF)-based energy function using the genetic algorithm optimization method. The formulation of this energy function considers several attributes, such as the proximity of the extracted straight lines to the corresponding projected ALS-derived roof polyhedron and the rectangularity (extracted straight lines that intersect at nearly 90°). Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. Chemical Compounds and Extraction Methods of “Maollahm”

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghpoor, Omid; Dayeni, Manijeh; Razi, Samane

    2016-01-01

    Background: Maollahm or meat juice, a by-product of meat, is a traditional remedy in Persian medicine. This product was used as a nourishment or treatment substance for sick people. According to the ancient Persian medicine, animal meat has more affinity with the human body and the body easily absorbs its nutrition. Therefore, one could resort to maollahm for patients requiring urgent nourishment to boost and strengthen their body. Methods: In this work, different ways of preparing maollahm from poultry, goat, cow, and sheep meat are studied. Most of these methods are based on distillation or barbecue before distillation, as prescribed by traditional medicine books. The reactions, chemical processes, and volatile compounds related to different types of cooked meat are also compared with the outcome of recent research studies. Results: The difference between various types of meat is related to their compounds. Different cooking processes such as barbecuing, roasting, cooking, and boiling have an effect on the taste, smell and the chemical constituents of maollahm. Additionally, the type of meat, animal feed, as well as using or removing the fat during the cooking process, have an effect on the produced volatile compounds. Conclusion: Cooking process and the type of meat have a direct effect on the compounds of maollahm. Possible reactions in the preparation process of maollahm are investigated and presented according to the new research studies. PMID:27516659

  18. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lime spray dryer (LSD) ash using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Weavers, Linda K; Taerakul, Panuwat; Walker, Harold W

    2006-01-01

    In this study, traditional Soxhlet, automatic Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction techniques were employed to determine the speciation and concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples collected from the baghouse of a spreader stoker boiler. To test the efficiencies of different extraction methods, LSD ash samples were doped with a mixture of 16 US EPA specified PAHs to measure the matrix spike recoveries. The results showed that the spike recoveries of PAHs were different using these three extraction methods with dichloromethane (DCM) as the solvent. Traditional Soxhlet extraction achieved slightly higher recoveries than automatic Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. Different solvents including toluene, DCM:acetone (1:1 V/V) and hexane:acetone (1:1 V/V) were further examined to optimize the recovery using ultrasonic extraction. Toluene achieved the highest spike recoveries of PAHs at a spike level of 10 microg kg(-1). When the spike level was increased to 50 microg kg(-1), the spike recoveries of PAHs also correspondingly increased. Although the type and concentration of PAHs detected on LSD ash samples by different extraction methods varied, the concentration of each detected PAH was consistently low, at microg kg(-1) levels. PMID:15990154

  19. Comparison of two silica-based extraction methods for DNA isolation from bones.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Jessica; Nagy, Marion

    2016-09-01

    One of the most demanding DNA extractions is from bones and teeth due to the robustness of the material and the relatively low DNA content. The greatest challenge is due to the manifold nature of the material, which is defined by various factors, including age, storage, environmental conditions, and contamination with inhibitors. However, most published protocols do not distinguish between different types or qualities of bone material, but are described as being generally applicable. Our laboratory works with two different extraction methods based on silica membranes or the use of silica beads. We compared the amplification success of the two methods from bone samples with different qualities and in the presence of inhibitors. We found that the DNA extraction using the silica membrane method results an in higher DNA yield but also in a higher risk of co-extracting impurities, which can act as inhibitors. In contrast the silica beads method shows decreased co-extraction of inhibitors but also less DNA yield. Related to our own experiences it has to be considered that each bone material should be reviewed independently regarding the analysis and extraction method. Therefore, the most ambitious task is determining the quality of the bone material, which requires substantial experience. PMID:27591537

  20. DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Jany, Klaus Dieter

    2011-06-15

    The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels (without treatment), maize flour (mechanical treatment), canned maize (sweet corn), frozen maize (sweet corn), maize starch, extruded maize, popcorn, corn flacks, maize snacks, and bread made from corn flour (mechanical and thermal treatments). The quality and quantity of the DNA extracted from the standards, containing known percentages of GMO material and from the different food products were evaluated. For qualitative detection of the GMO varieties in foods, the GMOScreen 35S/NOS test kit was used, to screen the genetic modification in the samples. The positive samples for the 35S promoter and/or the NOS terminator were identified by the standard methods adopted by EU. All of the used methods extracted yielded good DNA quality. However, we noted that the purest DNA extract were obtained using the DNA extraction kit (Roche) and this generally was the best method for extracting DNA from most of the maize-derived foods. We have noted that the yield of DNA extracted from maize-derived foods was generally lower in the processed products. The results indicated that 17 samples were positive for the presence of 35S promoter, while 34% from the samples were positive for the genetically modified maize line Bt-176. PMID:25213972

  1. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong; Wang, Xiaoling

    2012-04-17

    A method of biosensor-based detection of toxins comprises the steps of providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  2. [A New Method of Accurately Extracting Spectral Values for Discrete Sampling Points].

    PubMed

    Lü, Zhen-zhen; Liu, Guang-ming; Yang, Jin-song

    2015-08-01

    In the establishment of remote sensing information inversion model, the actual measured data of discrete sampling points and the corresponding spectrum data to pixels of remote sensing image, are used to establish the relation, thus to realize the goal of information retrieval. Accurate extraction of spectrum value is very important to establish the remote sensing inversion mode. Converting target spot layer to ROI (region of interest) and then saving the ROI as ASCII is one of the methods that researchers often used to extract the spectral values. Analyzing the coordinate and spectrum values extracted using original coordinate in ENVI, we found that the extracted and original coordinate were not inconsistent and part of spectrum values not belong to the pixel containing the sampling point. The inversion model based on the above information cannot really reflect relationship between the target properties and spectral values; so that the model is meaningless. We equally divided the pixel into four parts and summed up the law. It was found that only when the sampling points distributed in the upper left corner of pixels, the extracted values were correct. On the basis of the above methods, this paper systematically studied the principle of extraction target coordinate and spectral values, and summarized the rule. A new method for extracting spectral parameters of the pixel that sampling point located in the environment of ENVI software. Firstly, pixel sampling point coordinates for any of the four corner points were extracted by the sample points with original coordinate in ENVI. Secondly, the sampling points were judged in which partition of pixel by comparing the absolute values of difference longitude and latitude of the original and extraction coordinates. Lastly, all points were adjusted to the upper left corner of pixels by symmetry principle and spectrum values were extracted by the same way in the first step. The results indicated that the extracted spectrum

  3. Effect of different extracting methods on quality of Chrysanthemum Morifolium Ramat. Infusion.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qian; Liang, Yuerong; Lu, Jianliang

    2007-01-01

    The flower of Chrysanthemum Morifolium Ramat. (CM) is a useful food and folk medicine in China. Effects of Chrysanthemum Morifolium extracting (CME) conditions, including extraction temperature, extraction time and the ratio of flower to water on infusion quality were investigated. The extractability, liquor color differences and the major flavonoids of luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside and luteolin of various CME methods were evaluated. The results indicated that CME temperature was the most important factors affecting quality of CM infusion. Based on the extractability and chemical compositions, the best CME conditions were the 90 to approximately 100 degrees C, 20-30 min and the ratio of flower to water of 1:40 (w/v). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of Chrysanthemum Morifolium chemical compositions including luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside and luteolin was also discussed in the present paper. PMID:17392101

  4. Differential efficiency among DNA extraction methods influences detection of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Bletz, M C; Rebollar, E A; Harris, R N

    2015-02-10

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is responsible for massive declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide. The most common method for detecting Bd is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR is a highly sensitive detection technique, but its ability to determine the presence and accurately quantify the amount of Bd is also contingent on the efficiency of the DNA extraction method used prior to PCR. Using qPCR, we compared the extraction efficiency of 3 different extraction methods commonly used for Bd detection across a range of zoospore quantities: PrepMan Ultra Reagent, Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, and Mobio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. We show that not all extraction methods led to successful detection of Bd for the low zoospore quantities and that there was variation in the estimated zoospore equivalents among the methods, which demonstrates that these methods have different extraction efficiencies. These results highlight the importance of considering the extraction method when comparing across studies. The Qiagen DNeasy kit had the highest efficiency. We also show that replicated estimates of less than 1 zoospore can result from known zoospore concentrations; therefore, such results should be considered when obtained from field data. Additionally, we discuss the implications of our findings for interpreting previous studies and for conducting future Bd surveys. It is imperative to use the most efficient DNA extraction method in tandem with the highly sensitive qPCR technique in order to accurately diagnose the presence of Bd as well as other pathogens. PMID:25667331

  5. Collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from ground turmeric.

    PubMed

    Glaze, L E

    1975-05-01

    An improved method has been developed for the extraction of light filth from ground turmeric. The method involves an isopropanol defatting followed by a direct flotation from 40% isopropanol with Tween 80-EDTA (1+1) and hot mineral oil. Collaborative results show that the method is rapid and yields better filth recoveries than the official first action method, 44.118. The method has been adopted as official first action to replace 44.118. PMID:1170163

  6. Comparison study of feature extraction methods in structural damage pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjia; Chen, Bo; Swartz, R. Andrew

    2011-04-01

    This paper compares the performance of various feature extraction methods applied to structural sensor measurements acquired in-situ, from a decommissioned bridge under realistic damage scenarios. Three feature extraction methods are applied to sensor data to generate feature vectors for normal and damaged structure data patterns. The investigated feature extraction methods include identification of both time domain methods as well as frequency domain methods. The evaluation of the feature extraction methods is performed by examining distance values among different patterns, distance values among feature vectors in the same pattern, and pattern recognition success rate. The test data used in the comparison study are from the System Identification to Monitor Civil Engineering Structures (SIMCES) Z24 Bridge damage detection tests, a rigorous instrumentation campaign that recorded the dynamic performance of a concrete box-girder bridge under progressively increasing damage scenarios. A number of progressive damage test case data sets, including undamaged cases and pier settlement cases (different depths), are used to test the separation of feature vectors among different patterns and the pattern recognition success rate for different feature extraction methods is reported.

  7. A method of building information extraction based on mathematical morphology and multiscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing-wen; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Zi-ping; Xue, Long-li; Yin, Shou-qiang; Zhou, Song

    2015-12-01

    In view of monitoring the changes of buildings on Earth's surface ,by analyzing the distribution characteristics of building in remote sensing image, combined with multi-scale in image segmentation and the advantages of mathematical morphology, this paper proposes a multi-scale combined with mathematical morphology of high resolution remote sensing image segmentation method, and uses the multiple fuzzy classification method and the shadow of auxiliary method to extract information building, With the comparison of k-means classification, and the traditional maximum likelihood classification method, the results of experiment object based on multi-scale combined with mathematical morphology of image segmentation and extraction method, can accurately extract the structure of the information is more clear classification data, provide the basis for the intelligent monitoring of earth data and theoretical support.

  8. An automatic abrupt information extraction method based on singular value decomposition and higher-order statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tian; Ye, Wu; Pan, Qiang; Liu, Xiandong

    2016-02-01

    One key aspect of local fault diagnosis is how to effectively extract abrupt features from the vibration signals. This paper proposes a method to automatically extract abrupt information based on singular value decomposition and higher-order statistics. In order to observe the distribution law of singular values, a numerical analysis to simulate the noise, periodic signal, abrupt signal and singular value distribution is conducted. Based on higher-order statistics and spectrum analysis, a method to automatically choose the upper and lower borders of the singular value interval reflecting the abrupt information is built. And the selected singular values derived from this method are used to reconstruct abrupt signals. It is proven that the method is able to obtain accurate results by processing the rub-impact fault signal measured from the experiments. The analytical and experimental results indicate that the proposed method is feasible for automatically extracting abrupt information caused by faults like the rotor-stator rub-impact.

  9. Comparison of the Profile and Composition of Volatiles in Coniferous Needles According to Extraction Methods.

    PubMed

    Jun, Yonjin; Lee, Sang Mi; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Lee, Hong Jin; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Jo, Gyeong Suk; Kim, Young-Suk

    2016-01-01

    The enantiomeric distribution and profile of volatiles in plants, which affect the biological and organoleptic properties, can be varied depending on extraction methods as well as their cultivars. The secondary volatile components of the needles of three conifer cultivars (Chamaecyparispisifera, Chamaecyparisobtusa, and Thujaorientalis) were compared. Furthermore, the effects of three different extraction methods--solid-phase microextraction (SPME), steam distillation (SD), and solvent extraction (SE)--on the composition and enantiomeric distribution of those volatiles were elucidated. Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in all samples, and the compositions of sesquiterpenes and diterpenes differed according to the cultivar. In particular, the yields of oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were greatest for SD, whereas those of sesquiterpenes and diterpenes were highest for SE. On the other hand, more monoterpenes with higher volatility could be obtained with SPME and SD than when using SE. In addition, the enantiomeric composition of nine chiral compounds found in three cultivars differed according to their chemotype. There were also some differences in the yielded oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, but not monoterpene hydrocarbons, according to the extraction method. These results demonstrate that the extraction methods used as well as the cultivars influence the measured volatile profiles and enantiomeric distribution of coniferous needle extracts. PMID:26999095

  10. A comprehensive method of contour extraction for industrial computed tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Haina; Zeng, Li; Bi, Bi

    2013-03-01

    A novel contour extraction method is presented in this paper. In reverse engineering based on industrial computed tomography, quality of extracted contours greatly influences the reverse results. As a widely used method of edge extraction, the wavelet transform modulus maximum algorithm is also employed to extract contours. It often gets results through thresholding wavelet transform coefficients and then follows it up by edge tracking. Generally, threshold affects the accuracy of edge localization, and additional edge tracking increases complexity. To overcome these shortcomings, in this paper, we present a method of contour extraction synchronizing with edge tracking but omitting the thresholding process. Firstly, wavelet transform is performed on an original gray image to get modulus matrix. Secondly, by manually clicking inside and outside of the desired contour on the original image, a starting contour point can be obtained through determination of local modulus maximum value. Thirdly, on the mask centered on the starting contour point, a next contour point can be automatically detected by searching local modulus maximum value. Then, starting from that new contour point and recursively seeking the local modulus maximum value, an occlusive contour can be correctly found. Experiments show that this method can directly extract continuous and single-pixel wide contours from gray image.

  11. Utilization of phosphorus loaded alkaline residue to immobilize lead in a shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yubo; Qi, Fangjie; Seshadri, Balaji; Xu, Yilu; Hou, Jiexi; Ok, Yong Sik; Dong, Xiaoli; Li, Qiao; Sun, Xiuyun; Wang, Lianjun; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-11-01

    The alkaline residue generated from the production of soda ash using the ammonia-soda method has been successfully used in removing phosphorus (P) from aqueous solution. But the accumulation of P-containing solid after P removal is an undesirable menace to the environment. To achieve the goal of recycling, this study explored the feasibility of reusing the P loaded alkaline residue as an amendment for immobilization of lead (Pb) in a shooting range soil. The main crystalline phase and micromorphology of amendments were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), sequential extraction procedure, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of Pb immobilization in soil after 45 d incubation. Treatment with P loaded alkaline residue was significantly effective in reducing the TCLP and PBET extractable Pb concentrations in contrast to the untreated soil. Moreover, a positive change in the distribution of Pb fractions was observed in the treated soil, i.e., more than 60% of soil-Pb was transformed to the residual fraction compared to the original soil. On the other hand, P loaded amendments also resulted in a drastic reduction in phytoavailable Pb to the winter wheat and a mild release of P as a nutrient in treated soil, which also confirmed the improvement of soil quality. PMID:27513552

  12. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants. PMID:27366749

  13. Clean recovery of antioxidant flavonoids from onions: optimising solvent free microwave extraction method.

    PubMed

    Zill-E-Huma; Abert Vian, Maryline; Maingonnat, Jean Francois; Chemat, Farid

    2009-11-01

    A solvent free microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity extraction (MHG) of flavonol content from onion (Allium cepa L.) was studied. Effectiveness of this innovative method in extraction of onion total phenolic content, total quercetin (TQ), quercetin aglycon (QA), quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside (QDG), quercetin-4'-monoglucoside (Q4G), quercetin-3-monoglucoside (Q3G), kaempferol (KMF) and myricetin (MRT) have been evaluated and compared with conventional solvent extraction. Microwave extraction offers important advantages like shorter extraction time (23min), cleaner feature (no solvent or water used) and extraction of valuable onion crude juice retaining fresh organoleptic properties with higher phenolic content (58.29mgGAE/gDW) at optimized power (500W). Microwave extraction resulted significant yield (81.5%) with 41.9% of flavonol contents, with better retain of remaining flavonoids (55.9%) in residues of onions. QDG (239.7mg/100gDW) and Q4G (82.55mg/100gDW) have been reported the main flavonol in this study. Minor quantities of QA (traces), Q3G (4.22mg/100gDW) and KMF (3.99mg/100gDW) were also detected in microwave onion extracts. PMID:19800069

  14. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water

    PubMed Central

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants. PMID:27366749

  15. Procyanidin composition of selected fruits and fruit byproducts is affected by extraction method and variety.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2009-10-14

    Fruits and fruit byproducts are rich sources of polyphenols, including procyanidins, which are known to have numerous potential health benefits. This study investigated if varietal differences existed in the procyanidin composition of grape seed and if soaking in extraction solvent overnight prior to extraction improved the recovery of procyanidins from grape seed, grape pomace, and blueberry and cranberry powders. Riesling contained the highest amount of procyanidins, including the lower molecular weight monomers and dimers, followed by Chardonnay (60%), whereas Merlot contained much lower levels (14%) of individual and total procyanidins. A modified method of extraction whereby selected fruits and fruit byproducts were soaked in the extraction solvent overnight before the extraction process was begun increased procyanidins extracted by 24-100% from grape seeds and by 0-30% with berry procyanidin sources. The results indicate a wide variation in the procyanidin contents among different varieties of grape seeds that could have implications in the selection of procyanidin-rich germplasm. Soaking samples in the extraction solvent for 16 h resulted in increased procyanidins extracted and thus higher calculated concentrations in the food samples tested. PMID:19722520

  16. The influence of pretreatment methods on saccharification of sugarcane bagasse by an enzyme extract from Chrysoporthe cubensis and commercial cocktails: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Maitan-Alfenas, Gabriela Piccolo; Visser, Evan Michael; Alfenas, Rafael Ferreira; Nogueira, Bráulio Ris G; de Campos, Guilherme Galvão; Milagres, Adriane Ferreira; de Vries, Ronald P; Guimarães, Valéria Monteze

    2015-09-01

    Biomass enzymatic hydrolysis depends on the pretreatment methods employed, the composition of initial feedstock and the enzyme cocktail used to release sugars for subsequent fermentation into ethanol. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated with 1% H2SO4 and 1% NaOH and the biomass saccharification was performed with 8% solids loading using 10 FPase units/g of bagasse of the enzymatic extract from Chrysoporthe cubensis and three commercial cocktails for a comparative study. Overall, the best glucose and xylose release was obtained from alkaline pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The C. cubensis extract promoted higher release of glucose (5.32 g/L) and xylose (9.00 g/L) than the commercial mixtures. Moreover, the C. cubensis extract presented high specific enzyme activities when compared to commercial cocktails mainly concerning to endoglucanase (331.84 U/mg of protein), β-glucosidase (29.48 U/mg of protein), β-xylosidase (2.95 U/mg of protein), pectinase (127.46 U/mg of protein) and laccase (2.49 U/mg of protein). PMID:26094192

  17. GC-MS evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-10-15

    Bioactive compounds of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil, using different media have been tentatively identified with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation was complemented using weakly acidic and alkaline media for the oil extraction. Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was also used. Analyses of the oils revealed the presence of 7, 16, 22, and 15 compounds in the water-distilled (WD), microwave-distilled (MD), acid-distilled (AD), and base-distilled (BD), essential oils, respectively. Total yield of the volatile fractions was 0.73%, 0.64%, 0.70%, and 0.45%, respectively. Citral was found to be the major component, the base extraction having the highest content. This was followed by 2-isopropenyl-5-methylhex-4-enal, p-cymene, and 2-thujene. The antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities and assessment of medicinal/nutritional uses of the essential oils are subjects of future studies. PMID:27173561

  18. A chelating ion exchanger for gallium recovery from alkaline solution using 5-palmitoyl-8-hydroxyquinoline immobilized on a nonpolar adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Filik, H.; Apak, R.

    1998-06-01

    The recently developed method of gallium recovery from alkaline solution by alkanoyl oxine/chloroform extraction has been improved by immobilizing palmitoyl oxine on hydrophobic macroporous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer Amberlite XAD-2 and passing the GA-containing alkaline solution of pH 13.5 through the synthesized resin column. The developed column showed reasonable efficiency after successive passages, and the selectivity of Ga over Al was very high, suggesting the utilizibility of the method in Ga recovery from the basic aluminate liquor of the Bayer process. The Ga capacity of the oxine-based resin was 3.94 {micro}mol/g. Two mg Ga retained on 10 g resin could be eluted with 25 mL of 2 N HCl at a throughput rate of 2 mL/min. The developed process has prospective use in Ga separation from Al in a strongly alkaline solution.

  19. Antioxidant property of water-soluble polysaccharides from Poria cocos Wolf using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nani; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xuping; Huang, Xiaowen; Fei, Ying; Yu, Yong; Shou, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Poria cocos Wolf is a popular traditional medicinal plant that has invigorating activity. Water-soluble polysaccharides (PCPs) are its main active components. In this study, four different methods were used to extract PCPs, which include hot water extraction (PCP-H), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (PCP-U), enzyme-assisted extraction (PCP-E) and microwave-assisted extraction (PCP-M). Their chemical compositions and structure characterizations were compared. In vitro antioxidant activities were studied on the basis of DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, reducing power and metal chelating ability. The results showed that PCPs were composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose, and had typical IR spectra characteristics of polysaccharides. Compared with other PCPs, PCP-M had lower neutral sugar content, higher mannose content and higher uronic acid content. The molecular weight were determined as PCP-Eextraction yield of PCP-M by implementing the Box-Behnken design. Under the optimized conditions, the PCP-M yield was 9.95%, which was well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model. Overall, the microwave-assisted extraction was an effective and mild method for obtaining antioxidant polysaccharides from P. cocos Wolf. PMID:26601761

  20. An Efficient Extraction Method for Fragrant Volatiles from Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiuping; Jin, Xinyi; Zhu, Xinliang; Lin, Tongxiang; Hao, Zhilong; Yang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The sweet smell of aroma of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. is releasing while the flowers are blooming. Although components of volatile oil have been extensively studied, there are problematic issues, such as low efficiency of yield, flavour distortion. Here, the subcritical fluid extraction (SFE) was performed to extract fragrant volatiles from activated carbon that had absorbed the aroma of jasmine flowers. This novel method could effectively obtain main aromatic compounds with quality significantly better than solvent extraction (SE). Based on the analysis data with response surface methodology (RSM), we optimized the extraction conditions which consisted of a temperature of 44°C, a solvent-to-material ratio of 3.5:1, and an extraction time of 53 min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield was 4.91%. Furthermore, the key jasmine essence oil components, benzyl acetate and linalool, increase 7 fold and 2 fold respectively which lead to strong typical smell of the jasmine oil. The new method can reduce spicy components which lead to the essential oils smelling sweeter. Thus, the quality of the jasmine essence oil was dramatically improved and yields based on the key component increased dramatically. Our results provide a new effective technique for extracting fragrant volatiles from jasmine flowers. PMID:25891116

  1. Rapid Method To Estimate the Presence of Secondary Metabolites in Microbial Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Richard E.; Zahn, James A.; Gygi, Jeffrey D.; Hilton, Matthew D.

    2001-01-01

    Screening microbial secondary metabolites is an established method to identify novel biologically active molecules. Preparation of biological screening samples from microbial fermentation extracts requires growth conditions that promote synthesis of secondary metabolites and extraction procedures that capture the secondary metabolites produced. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of fermentation extracts can be used to estimate the number of secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms under various growth conditions but is slow. In this study we report on a rapid (approximately 1 min per assay) surrogate measure of secondary metabolite production based on a metabolite productivity index computed from the electrospray mass spectra of samples injected directly into a spectrometer. This surrogate measure of productivity was shown to correlate with an HPLC measure of productivity with a coefficient of 0.78 for a test set of extracts from 43 actinomycetes. This rapid measure of secondary metabolite productivity may be used to identify improved cultivation and extraction conditions by analyzing and ranking large sets of extracts. The same methods may also be used to survey large collections of extracts to identify subsets of highly productive organisms for biological screening or additional study. PMID:11133468

  2. A rapid and repeatable method for venom extraction from cubozoan nematocysts.

    PubMed

    Carrette, T; Seymour, J

    2004-08-01

    Various comparative studies into the biological activity and relative toxicity of cubozoan venoms have been investigated, in particular the venom from the potentially lethal cubozoan Chironex fleckeri. Efficient and reliable extraction of venom from nematocysts is essential before any research into venom toxicity can be conducted and previous cited methods of extraction have varied greatly, each with their own associated problems. A new standardised technique for the recovery of venom from nematocysts of cubozoans is investigated to decrease the variation displayed between authors due to differing extraction techniques. The use of a mini bead mill beater, as investigated in this trial, allows for the rapid extraction of venom from nematocysts and is devoid of the previously isolated problems experienced with other methods of venom isolation, such as excessive heat build up. PMID:15246760

  3. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  4. Lipid extraction methods from microalgal biomass harvested by two different paths: screening studies toward biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Sergio D; Castañeda, Joandiet; Torras, Carles; Farriol, Xavier; Salvadó, Joan

    2013-04-01

    Microalgae can grow rapidly and capture CO2 from the atmosphere to convert it into complex organic molecules such as lipids (biodiesel feedstock). High scale economically feasible microalgae based oil depends on optimizing the entire process production. This process can be divided in three very different but directly related steps (production, concentration, lipid extraction and transesterification). The aim of this study is to identify the best method of lipid extraction to undergo the potentiality of some microalgal biomass obtained from two different harvesting paths. The first path used all physicals concentration steps, and the second path was a combination of chemical and physical concentration steps. Three microalgae species were tested: Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Nannochloropsis gaditana, and Chaetoceros calcitrans One step lipid extraction-transesterification reached the same fatty acid methyl ester yield as the Bligh and Dyer and soxhlet extraction with n-hexane methods with the corresponding time, cost and solvent saving. PMID:23434816

  5. Comparison and optimization of methods for the simultaneous extraction of DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vorreiter, Fränze; Richter, Silke; Peter, Michel; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Tomm, Janina M

    2016-09-01

    The challenge of performing a time-resolved comprehensive analysis of molecular systems has led to the quest to optimize extraction methods. When the size of a biological sample is limited, there is demand for the simultaneous extraction of molecules representing the four areas of "omics": genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we optimized a protocol for the simultaneous extraction of DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites and compared it with two existing protocols. Our optimization comprised the addition of a methanol/chloroform metabolite purification before the separation of DNA/RNA and proteins. Extracted DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites were quantitatively and/or qualitatively analyzed. Of the three methods, only the newly developed protocol yielded all biomolecule classes of adequate quantity and quality. PMID:27237373

  6. [Rapid method to extract high-quality RNA from activated sludge].

    PubMed

    Jin, Min; Zhao, Zu-Guo; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Zhao-Li; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Chao; Wang, Xin-Wei; Dong, Yan; Li, Jun-Wen

    2010-01-01

    An effective and fast RNA isolation method of activated sludge was established and five different methods were compared based on RNA yield, purity, integrity, RT-PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes and subsequent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. That is, the precipitated activated sludge was washed with TENP and PBS buffer, followed by using lysozyme and TRIzol to direct lysis of microbial cells, chloroform to remove protein and most of the DNA from bacterial lysate, isopropanol to precipitate nucleic acid and DNase I to hydrolyze residual DNA. To further purify RNA, RNA purifying column was utilized. The results demonstrated that the extraction method, with the aid of TRIzol and RNA purification kit, can effectively extract high-quality RNA. It not only means low degradability and high quantity, purity and diversity, but also the genes of 16S rRNA and amoA can be amplified by RT-PCR. Compared with other methods, it showed great advantage of low cost and high efficiency and can be applied to RNA extraction of activated sludge in a large number. Furthermore, T-RFLP results indicated that the community composition as well as the abundance of individual members was affected by the kind of RNA extraction methods. This work established a rapid and effective method to extract high-quality RNA from activated sludge and would show great potential for monitoring microbial changes and studying metabolism and community array of activated sludge. PMID:20329549

  7. Evaluation of extraction methods for ochratoxin A detection in cocoa beans employing HPLC.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rupesh K; Catanante, Gaëlle; Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa is an important ingredient for the chocolate industry and for many food products. However, it is prone to contamination by ochratoxin A (OTA), which is highly toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. In this work, four different extraction methods were tested and compared based on their recoveries. The best protocol was established which involves an organic solvent-free extraction method for the detection of OTA in cocoa beans using 1% sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) in water within 30 min. The extraction method is rapid (as compared with existing methods), simple, reliable and practical to perform without complex experimental set-ups. The cocoa samples were freshly extracted and cleaned-up using immunoaffinity column (IAC) for HPLC analysis using a fluorescence detector. Under the optimised condition, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for OTA were 0.62 and 1.25 ng ml(-1) respectively in standard solutions. The method could successfully quantify OTA in naturally contaminated samples. Moreover, good recoveries of OTA were obtained up to 86.5% in artificially spiked cocoa samples, with a maximum relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.7%. The proposed extraction method could determine OTA at the level 1.5 µg kg(-)(1), which surpassed the standards set by the European Union for cocoa (2 µg kg(-1)). In addition, an efficiency comparison of IAC and molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) column was also performed and evaluated. PMID:26829387

  8. A comparison of methods for total community DNA preservation and extraction from various thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kendra R; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2008-10-01

    The widespread use of molecular techniques in studying microbial communities has greatly enhanced our understanding of microbial diversity and function in the natural environment and contributed to an explosion of novel commercially viable enzymes. One of the most promising environments for detecting novel processes, enzymes, and microbial diversity is hot springs. We examined potential biases introduced by DNA preservation and extraction methods by comparing the quality, quantity, and diversity of environmental DNA samples preserved and extracted by commonly used methods. We included samples from sites representing the spectrum of environmental conditions that are found in Yellowstone National Park thermal features. Samples preserved in a non-toxic sucrose lysis buffer (SLB), along with a variation of a standard DNA extraction method using CTAB resulted in higher quality and quantity DNA than the other preservation and extraction methods tested here. Richness determined using DGGE revealed that there was some variation within replicates of a sample, but no statistical difference among the methods. However, the sucrose lysis buffer preserved samples extracted by the CTAB method were 15-43% more diverse than the other treatments. PMID:18633656

  9. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-03-07

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

  10. A method for the extraction and quantitation of phycoerythrin from algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of a new technique for the extraction and quantitation of phycoerythrin (PHE) from algal samples is described. Results of analysis of four extracts representing three PHE types from algae including cryptomonad and cyanophyte types are presented. The method of extraction and an equation for quantitation are given. A graph showing the relationship of concentration and fluorescence units that may be used with samples fluorescing around 575-580 nm (probably dominated by cryptophytes in estuarine waters) and 560 nm (dominated by cyanophytes characteristics of the open ocean) is provided.

  11. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid--liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers.

  12. Development of ion transportation, extraction and neutralization systems for atomic beam resonance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagae, Daisuke; Asahi, Koichiro; Miyoshi, Hisanori; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Ueno, Hideki; Murata, Jiro; Uchida, Makoto; Kameda, Daisuke; Kato, Go; Emori, Shoken; Kijima, Go; Oshima, Sachiko; Takemura, Makoto; Arai, Takemasa; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Haseyama, Tomohito; Schmidt-Ott, W. D.

    2005-11-01

    A device that produces a low-energy and largely spin polarized RI beam based on the atomic beam resonance method (RIABR) has been developed. We have performed measurements of stopping and drifting an incoming RI ion beam in a gas chamber, extraction of the ions into a vacuum region, and neutralization of the extracted low-energy ion beam. The drift efficiency of RI ions in a gas and the extraction efficiency at a Laval-type glass nozzle were found to be 0.72±0.04 and 0.033, respectively. The result of the experiment for the neutralization is also discussed.

  13. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

  14. Selective enrichment of phenols from coal liquefaction oil by solid phase extraction method

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, M.; Feng, J.

    2009-07-01

    This study focuses on the solid phase extraction method for the enrichment and separation of phenol from coal liquefaction oil. The phenols' separation efficiency was compared on different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, and the effect of solvents with different polarity and solubility parameter on amino-bonded silica was compared for selection of optimal elution solution. The result showed that amino-bonded silica has the highest selectivity and best extraction capability due to two factors, weak anion exchange adsorption and polar attraction adsorption.

  15. Evaluation of extraction methods for hexavalent chromium determination in dusts, ashes, and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the difficulties in performing speciation analyses on solid samples is finding a suitable extraction method. Traditional methods for extraction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in soils, such as SW846 Method 3060A, can be tedious and are not always compatible with some determination methods. For example, the phosphate and high levels of carbonate and magnesium present in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 3060A digestion for Cr(VI) were found to be incompatible with the High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) detection method used by our laboratory. Modification of Method 3060A by eliminating the use of the phosphate buffer provided improved performance with the detection method, however dilutions are still necessary to achieve good chromatographic separation and detection of Cr(VI). An ultrasonic extraction method using a 1 mM Na2CO3 - 9 mM NaHCO3 buffer solution, adapted from Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Method ID215, has been used with good results for the determination of Cr(VI) in air filters. The average recovery obtained for BCR-545 - Welding Dust Loaded on Filter (IRMM, Belgium) using this method was 99 percent (1.2 percent relative standard deviation) with no conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during the extraction process. This ultrasonic method has the potential for use with other sample matrices, such as ashes and soils. Preliminary investigations using NIST 2701 (Hexavalent Chromium in Contaminated Soil) loaded onto quartz filters showed promising results with approximately 90 percent recovery of the certified Cr(VI) value. Additional testing has been done using NIST 2701 and NIST 2700 using different presentation methods. Extraction efficiency of bulk presentation, where small portions of the sample are added to the bottom of the extraction vessel, will be compared with supported presentation, where small portions of the sample are loaded onto a

  16. Review and assessment of technologies for the separation of strontium from alkaline and acidic media

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Kurath, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A literature survey has been conducted to identify and evaluate methods for the separation of strontium from acidic and alkaline media as applied to Hanford tank waste. The most promising methods of solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange are described. The following criteria were used for evaluating the separation methods: Appreciable strontium removal must be demonstrated; Strontium selectivity over bulk components must be demonstrated; The method must show promise for evolving into a practical and fairly simple process; The process should be safe to operate; The method must be robust (i.e., capable of separating strontium from various waste types); Secondary waste generation must be minimized; and The method must show resistance to radiation damage. The methods discussed did not necessarily satisfy all of the above criteria; thus, key areas requiring further development are also given for each method. Less promising solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange methods were also identified; areas for potential development are included in this report.

  17. A simple digestion method with a Lefort aqua regia solution for diatom extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huipin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Sunlin; Wang, Yuzhong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yanji

    2015-01-01

    Presence of diatoms in tissues has been considered as a significant sign of drowning. However, there are limitations in the present extraction methods. We developed a new digestion method using the Lefort aqua regia solution (3:1 nitric acid to hydrochloric acid) for diatom extraction and evaluated the digestive capability, diatom destruction, and diatoms' recovery of this new method. The kidney tissues from rabbit mixed with water rich in diatoms were treated by the Lefort aqua regia digestion method (n = 10) and the conventional acid digestion method (n = 10). The results showed that the digestive capability of Lefort aqua regia digestion method was superior to conventional acid digestion method (p < 0.01); the structure of diatom remained almost intact; and the recovery of diatom was comparable to the conventional acid digestion method (p > 0.05). The Lefort aqua regia reagent is an improvement over the conventional acid digestion for recovery of diatoms from tissue samples. PMID:25399968

  18. A method for extracting task-oriented information from biological text sources.

    PubMed

    Kuttiyapillai, Dhanasekaran; Rajeswari, R

    2015-01-01

    A method for information extraction which processes the unstructured data from document collection has been introduced. A dynamic programming technique adopted to find relevant genes from sequences which are longest and accurate is used for finding matching sequences and identifying effects of various factors. The proposed method could handle complex information sequences which give different meanings in different situations, eliminating irrelevant information. The text contents were pre-processed using a general-purpose method and were applied with entity tagging component. The bottom-up scanning of key-value pairs improves content finding to generate relevant sequences to the testing task. This paper highlights context-based extraction method for extracting food safety information, which is identified from articles, guideline documents and laboratory results. The graphical disease model verifies weak component through utilisation of development data set. This improves the accuracy of information retrieval in biological text analysis and reporting applications. PMID:26510293

  19. Evaluation of seamless ligation cloning extract preparation methods from an Escherichia coli laboratory strain.

    PubMed

    Okegawa, Yuki; Motohashi, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Seamless ligation cloning extract (SLiCE) is a simple and efficient method for DNA cloning without the use of restriction enzymes. Instead, SLiCE uses homologous recombination activities from Escherichia coli cell lysates. To date, SLiCE preparation has been performed using an expensive commercially available lytic reagent. To expand the utility of the SLiCE method, we evaluated different methods for SLiCE preparation that avoid using this reagent. Consequently, cell extracts prepared with buffers containing Triton X-100, which is a common and low-cost nonionic detergent, exhibited sufficient cloning activity for seamless gene incorporation into a vector. PMID:26133399

  20. Radial period extraction method employing frequency measurement for quantitative collimation testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sikun; Wang, Xiangzhao

    2016-01-01

    A radial period extraction method employing frequency measurement is proposed for quantitative collimation testing using spiral gratings. The radial period of the difference-frequency fringe is treated as a measure of the collimation condition. A frequency measurement technique based on wavelet transform and a statistical approach is presented to extract the radial period directly from the amplitude-transmittance spiral fringe. A basic constraint to set the parameters of the wavelet is introduced. Strict mathematical demonstration is given. The method outperforms methods employing phase measurement in terms of precision, stability and noise immune ability.

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography method development for a polymeric controlled-release drug formulation.

    PubMed

    Roston, D A; Sun, J J; Collins, P W; Perkins, W E; Tremont, S J

    1995-11-01

    We have recently been involved in the development of a method for assaying the active component in a controlled-release drug formulation, which is composed of a drug substance covalently bonded to polymer matrix. The drug substance in the formulation is the active enantiomer of misoprostol, a synthetic analog of natural prostaglandins and the active ingredient in Cytotec. Our method development consisted of a systematic evaluation of dynamic, off-line supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as sample preparation for the formulation assay. Extracts were analyzed with normal phase and reversed-phase HPLC methods. The reversed-phase system utilized postcolumn reaction to provide selective detection of the extracted prostaglandin sample components. Several SFE parameters were investigated to optimize the recovery of the drug substance from the formulation, including sample quantity, extraction cell volume, extraction duration, supercritical carbon dioxide modifier, temperature, pressure, and collection solvent. The SFE experiments were completed with a commercially available multicell extractor. Preliminary validation studies utilized a formulation made with radiolabeled drug to determine the recovery achieved under the optimized SFE conditions and assessed the precision of replicate determinations. Analysis was completed under the optimized conditions to quantitate levels of the active component and related compounds in lots of the experimental polymeric formulation and to determine the total weight per cent extracted. PMID:8788137

  2. Improved RNA extraction method using the BioMasher and BioMasher power-plus.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takuji; Nakashima, Kentaro; Maruta, Yukio; Kiriyama, Tomomi; Sasaki, Michi; Sugiyama, Shunpei; Suzuki, Kana; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Sasaki, Jun; Kaku-Ushiki, Yuko; Tanida, Masatoshi; Irie, Shinkichi; Hattori, Shunji

    2012-12-01

    The BioMasher is a disposable homogenizer that was developed to homogenize bovine brain tissue for bovine spongiform encephalopathy diagnosis. Capable of preventing the biohazard risk from infectious samples, it also prevents cross-contamination among samples. The BioMasher is thus widely used in biochemical research, especially for RNA extraction. Here, we tested a novel BioMasher application for RNA extraction from animal and plant tissues. We also developed a grinding machine specific for the BioMasher, named the BioMasher Power-Plus. We developed RNA extraction protocols using the BioMasher combined with the BioMasher Power-Plus. We compared RNA extraction efficiency of the BioMasher with that of the FastPrep and the glass homogenizer. Though the RNA extraction efficiency by the BioMasher was nearly equivalent to that of the FastPrep and the glass homogenizer, sample preparation time was shorter for the BioMasher. The utility of RNA extraction by the BioMasher was examined in mouse, rat, and tomato tissue samples. In the rodent tissues, the highest extraction efficiency of total RNA was from liver, with lowest efficiency from fibrous tissues such as muscle. The quality of extracted total RNA was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis which produced highly visible clear bands of 18S and 28S rRNAs. Reproducibility among different operators in RNA extraction from tomato roots was improved by using the BioMasher Power-Plus. The BioMasher and BioMasher Power-Plus provide an effective and easy homogenization method for total RNA extraction from some rodent and plant tissues. PMID:22813946

  3. Exploring microbial diversity in volcanic environments: a review of methods in DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Aude; Cockell, Charles S

    2007-07-01

    The last decade has been marked by a large number of studies focused on understanding the distribution of microorganisms in volcanic environments. These studies are motivated by the desire to elucidate how the geochemically extreme conditions of such environments can influence microbial diversity both on the surface and in the subsurface of the Earth. The exploration of microbial community diversity has generally not relied on culture-dependent methods, but has been carried out using environmental DNA extraction. Because of the large diversity of chemically and physically complex samples, extracting DNA from volcanic environments is technically challenging. In view of the emerging literature, and our own experience in the optimisation of methods for DNA extraction from volcanic materials, it is timely to provide a methodological comparison. This review highlights and discusses new insights and methods published on DNA extraction methods from volcanic samples, considering the different volcanic environments. A description of a recent method for DNA extraction from basalt and obsidian glass rock samples from Iceland is included. Finally, we discuss these approaches in the wider context of modern work to understand the microbial diversity of volcanic environments. PMID:17540467

  4. Comparison of Different Protein Extraction Methods for Gel-Based Proteomic Analysis of Ganoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R; Saidi, Noor Baity; Usuldin, Siti Rokhiyah Ahmad; Hussin, Siti Nahdatul Isnaini Said; Yusoff, Noornabeela Md; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-04-01

    Ganoderma species are a group of fungi that have the ability to degrade lignin polymers and cause severe diseases such as stem and root rot and can infect economically important plants and perennial crops such as oil palm, especially in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Unfortunately, very little is known about the complex interplay between oil palm and Ganoderma in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Proteomic technologies are simple yet powerful tools in comparing protein profile and have been widely used to study plant-fungus interaction. A critical step to perform a good proteome research is to establish a method that gives the best quality and a wide coverage of total proteins. Despite the availability of various protein extraction protocols from pathogenic fungi in the literature, no single extraction method was found suitable for all types of pathogenic fungi. To develop an optimized protein extraction protocol for 2-DE gel analysis of Ganoderma spp., three previously reported protein extraction protocols were compared: trichloroacetic acid, sucrose and phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol. The third method was found to give the most reproducible gels and highest protein concentration. Using the later method, a total of 10 protein spots (5 from each species) were successfully identified. Hence, the results from this study propose phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol as the most effective protein extraction method for 2-DE proteomic studies of Ganoderma spp. PMID:27016942

  5. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%. PMID:26304436

  6. A Comprehensive Benchmark of Kernel Methods to Extract Protein–Protein Interactions from Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tikk, Domonkos; Thomas, Philippe; Palaga, Peter; Hakenberg, Jörg; Leser, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    The most important way of conveying new findings in biomedical research is scientific publication. Extraction of protein–protein interactions (PPIs) reported in scientific publications is one of the core topics of text mining in the life sciences. Recently, a new class of such methods has been proposed - convolution kernels that identify PPIs using deep parses of sentences. However, comparing published results of different PPI extraction methods is impossible due to the use of different evaluation corpora, different evaluation metrics, different tuning procedures, etc. In this paper, we study whether the reported performance metrics are robust across different corpora and learning settings and whether the use of deep parsing actually leads to an increase in extraction quality. Our ultimate goal is to identify the one method that performs best in real-life scenarios, where information extraction is performed on unseen text and not on specifically prepared evaluation data. We performed a comprehensive benchmarking of nine different methods for PPI extraction that use convolution kernels on rich linguistic information. Methods were evaluated on five different public corpora using cross-validation, cross-learning, and cross-corpus evaluation. Our study confirms that kernels using dependency trees generally outperform kernels based on syntax trees. However, our study also shows that only the best kernel methods can compete with a simple rule-based approach when the evaluation prevents information leakage between training and test corpora. Our results further reveal that the F-score of many approaches drops significantly if no corpus-specific parameter optimization is applied and that methods reaching a good AUC score often perform much worse in terms of F-score. We conclude that for most kernels no sensible estimation of PPI extraction performance on new text is possible, given the current heterogeneity in evaluation data. Nevertheless, our study shows that three

  7. Development of a Simultaneous Extraction and Cleanup Method for Pyrethroid Pesticides from Indoor House Dust Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    An efficient and reliable analytical method was developed for the sensitive and selective quantification of pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) in house dust samples. The method is based on selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) of the dust-bound PYRs into dichloromethane (DCM) wi...

  8. COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION/LARGE VOLUME INJECTION PROCEDURES FOR METHOD 8270

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two solid phase (SPE) and one traditional continuous liquid-liquid extraction method are compared for analysis of Method 8270 SVOCs. Productivity parameters include data quality, sample volume, analysis time and solvent waste.

    One SPE system, unique in the U.S., uses aut...

  9. Review Paper on Cell Membrane Electroporation of Microalgae using Electric Field Treatment Method for Microalgae Lipid Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannes, C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Yasir, S. M.; Mansa, R. F.

    2015-04-01

    The paper reviews the recent studies on the lipid extraction of microalgae that mainly highlighted on the cell disruption method using variety of microalgae species. Selection of cell disruption method and devices are crucial in order to achieve the highest extraction percentage of lipid and other valuable intracellular (proteins, carotenoids and chlorophylls) from microalgae cell. Pulsed electric field (PEF) and electrochemical lysis methods were found to be potential for enhancing the extraction efficiencies either conducted in single step extraction or used as pre-treatment followed by conventional extraction method. The PEF technology capable to extract lipid as high as 75%. While, electrochemical lysis treatment capable to extract lipid approximately 93% using Stainless Steel (SS) and Ti/IrO2 as the cathode and anode electrode respectively. PEF technology and electrochemical lysis are still considered to be a new method for microalgae lipid extraction and further investigation can still be done for better improvement of the system.

  10. Improvement on the extraction method of RNA in mites and its quality test.

    PubMed

    Zhao, YaE; Hu, Li; Yang, Yuan Jun; Niu, Dong Ling; Wang, Rui Ling; Li, Wen Hao; Ma, Si Jia; Cheng, Juan

    2016-02-01

    To solve the long-existing difficult problems in extracting RNA and constructing a complementary DNA (cDNA) library for trace mites, we conducted a further comparative experiment among three RNA extraction methods (TRIzol method, Omega method, and Azanno method) based on our previous attempts at the construction of cDNA library of mites, with Psoroptes cuniculi still used as the experimental subject. By subsequently decreasing the number of mites, the least number of mites needed for RNA extraction of each method were found by criteria of completeness, concentration, and purity of the extracted RNA. Specific primers were designed according to the allergen Pso c1, Pso c2, and Actin gene sequences of Psoroptes to test the reliability of cDNA library. The results showed that Azanno method needed only 10 mites with sensitivity 204 times higher than previously used TRIzol method and 20 times higher than Omega method; clear RNA band was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis; and ultraviolet spectrophotometer determination showed that RNA concentration, 260/280, and 260/230 were in the range of 102 to 166 ng/μl, 1.83 to 1.99, and 1.49 to 1.72, respectively. Finally, specific primers detection showed that the amplified sequences had 98.33, 98.19, and 99.52% identities with those of P. cuniculi or Psoroptes ovis in GenBank, respectively, indicating that the cDNA library constructed using 10 mites was successful and it could meet the requirements for molecular biology research. Therefore, we concluded that Azanno method was more effective than TRIzol method and Omega method in RNA extraction and cDNA library construction of trace mites. PMID:26545909

  11. Extraction of leuco forms of vat dyes of the violanthrone series and its analytical use

    SciTech Connect

    Shelyapina, E.N.; Ovesnova, N.A.; Rudenko, B.A.

    1987-12-20

    The vat diketonic dyes of the violantrone series are extracted by chloroform in the form of ionic associates, formed by dianions of vat diketonic dyes (obtained by reduction with sodium dithionite in an alkaline medium), and quaternary ammonium. An extraction-photometric method was developed for the determination of three dyes of the violanthrone series in the atmosphere of industrial installations.

  12. Comparing DNA extraction methods for analysis of botanical materials found in anti-diabetic supplements.

    PubMed

    Llongueras, Jose P; Nair, Saraswathy; Salas-Leiva, Dayana; Schwarzbach, Andrea E

    2013-03-01

    A comparative performance evaluation of DNA extraction methods from anti-diabetic botanical supplements using various commercial kits was conducted, to determine which produces the best quality DNA suitable for PCR amplification, sequencing and species identification. All plant materials involved were of suboptimal quality showing various levels of degradation and therefore representing real conditions for testing herbal supplements. Eight different DNA extraction methods were used to isolate genomic DNA from 13 medicinal plant products. Two methods for evaluation, DNA concentration measurements that included absorbance ratios as well as PCR amplifiability, were used to determine quantity and quality of extracted DNA. We found that neither DNA concentrations nor commonly used UV absorbance ratio measurements at A(260)/A(280) between 1.7 and 1.9 are suitable for globally predicting PCR success in these plant samples, and that PCR amplifiablity itself was the best indicator of extracted product quality. However, our results suggest that A(260)/A(280) ratios below about 1.3 and above 2.3 indicated a DNA quality too poor to amplify. Therefore, A(260)/A(280) measurements are not useful to identify samples that likely will amplify but can be used to exclude samples that likely will not amplify reducing the cost for unnecessarily subjecting samples to PCR. The two Nucleospin(®) plant II kit extraction methods produced the most pure and amplifiable genomic DNA extracts. Our results suggest that there are clear, discernable differences between extraction methods for low quality plant samples in terms of producing contamination-free, high-quality genomic DNA to be used for further analysis. PMID:22403012

  13. An Extraction Method of an Informative DOM Node from a Web Page by Using Layout Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Masanobu; Masuyama, Shigeru

    We propose an informative DOM node extraction method from a Web page for preprocessing of Web content mining. Our proposed method LM uses layout data of DOM nodes generated by a generic Web browser, and the learning set consists of hundreds of Web pages and the annotations of informative DOM nodes of those Web pages. Our method does not require large scale crawling of the whole Web site to which the target Web page belongs. We design LM so that it uses the information of the learning set more efficiently in comparison to the existing method that uses the same learning set. By experiments, we evaluate the methods obtained by combining one that consists of the method for extracting the informative DOM node both the proposed method and the existing methods, and the existing noise elimination methods: Heur removes advertisements and link-lists by some heuristics and CE removes the DOM nodes existing in the Web pages in the same Web site to which the target Web page belongs. Experimental results show that 1) LM outperforms other methods for extracting the informative DOM node, 2) the combination method (LM, {CE(10), Heur}) based on LM (precision: 0.755, recall: 0.826, F-measure: 0.746) outperforms other combination methods.

  14. Investigation on the coprecipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents. Study of the effects of waste components on decontamination from Np(IV) and Pu(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonov, A.A.; Budantseva, N.A.; Gelis, A.V.; Nikonov, M.V.; Shilov, V.P.

    1997-09-01

    The third stage of the study on the homogeneous coprecipitation of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline high-level radioactive waste solutions by the Method of Appearing Reagents has been completed. Alkaline radioactive wastes exist at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The recent studies investigated the effects of neptunium chemical reductants, plutonium(IV) concentration, and the presence of bulk tank waste solution components on the decontamination from tetravalent neptunium and plutonium achieved by homogeneous coprecipitation. Data on neptunium reduction to its tetravalent state in alkaline solution of different NaOH concentrations are given. Eleven reductants were tested to find those most suited to remove neptunium, through chemical reduction, from alkaline solution by homogeneous coprecipitation. Hydrazine, VOSO{sub 4}, and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} were found to be the most effective reductants. The rates of reduction with these reductants were comparable with the kinetics of carrier formation. Solution decontamination factors of about 400 were attained for 10{sup -6}M neptunium. Coprecipitation of plutonium(IV) with carriers obtained as products of thermal hydrolysis, redox transformations, and catalytic decomposition of [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+}, [Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]{sup 2-}, Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, KMnO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 4}UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}){sub 3} was studied and results are described. Under optimum conditions, a 100-fold decrease of plutonium concentration was possible with each of these reagents.

  15. Influence of Leaf Litter Moisture on the Efficiency of the Winkler Method for Extracting Ants

    PubMed Central

    Delsinne, Thibaut D.; Arias-Penna, Tania M.

    2012-01-01

    The Winkler extraction is one of the two fundamental sampling techniques of the standardized “Ants of the Leaf Litter” protocol, which aims to allow qualitative and quantitative comparisons of ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages. To achieve this objective, it is essential that the standard 48—hour extraction provides a reliable picture of the assemblages under study. Here, we tested to what extent the efficiency of the ant extraction is affected by the initial moisture content of the leaf litter sample. In an Ecuadorian mountain rainforest, the leaf litter present under rainfall—excluded and rainfall—allowed plots was collected, its moisture content measured, and its ant fauna extracted with a mini—Winkler apparatus for a 48—hour and a 96—hour period. The efficiency of the Winkler method to extract ant individuals over a 48—hour period decreased with the moisture content of the leaf litter sample. However, doubling the extraction time did not improve the estimations of the ant species richness, composition, and relative abundance. Although the moisture content of the leaf litter slightly affected the ant sampling, our results indicated that a 48—hour Winkler extraction, as recommended by the “Ants of the Leaf Litter” protocol, is sufficient to allow reliable comparisons of ant assemblages. PMID:22962850

  16. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Seth W.; Lin, Yupo J.; Hestekin' Jamie A.; Henry, Michael P.; Pujado, Peter; Oroskar, Anil; Kulprathipanja, Santi; Randhava, Sarabjit

    2010-09-21

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  17. Extraction Method for Earthquake-Collapsed Building Information Based on High-Resolution Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Jian; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    At present, the extraction of earthquake disaster information from remote sensing data relies on visual interpretation. However, this technique cannot effectively and quickly obtain precise and efficient information for earthquake relief and emergency management. Collapsed buildings in the town of Zipingpu after the Wenchuan earthquake were used as a case study to validate two kinds of rapid extraction methods for earthquake-collapsed building information based on pixel-oriented and object-oriented theories. The pixel-oriented method is based on multi-layer regional segments that embody the core layers and segments of the object-oriented method. The key idea is to mask layer by layer all image information, including that on the collapsed buildings. Compared with traditional techniques, the pixel-oriented method is innovative because it allows considerably rapid computer processing. As for the object-oriented method, a multi-scale segment algorithm was applied to build a three-layer hierarchy. By analyzing the spectrum, texture, shape, location, and context of individual object classes in different layers, the fuzzy determined rule system was established for the extraction of earthquake-collapsed building information. We compared the two sets of results using three variables: precision assessment, visual effect, and principle. Both methods can extract earthquake-collapsed building information quickly and accurately. The object-oriented method successfully overcomes the pepper salt noise caused by the spectral diversity of high-resolution remote sensing data and solves the problem of same object, different spectrums and that of same spectrum, different objects. With an overall accuracy of 90.38%, the method achieves more scientific and accurate results compared with the pixel-oriented method (76.84%). The object-oriented image analysis method can be extensively applied in the extraction of earthquake disaster information based on high-resolution remote sensing.

  18. Methods of EEG signal features extraction using linear analysis in frequency and time-frequency domains.

    PubMed

    Al-Fahoum, Amjed S; Al-Fraihat, Ausilah A

    2014-01-01

    Technically, a feature represents a distinguishing property, a recognizable measurement, and a functional component obtained from a section of a pattern. Extracted features are meant to minimize the loss of important information embedded in the signal. In addition, they also simplify the amount of resources needed to describe a huge set of data accurately. This is necessary to minimize the complexity of implementation, to reduce the cost of information processing, and to cancel the potential need to compress the information. More recently, a variety of methods have been widely used to extract the features from EEG signals, among these methods are time frequency distributions (TFD), fast fourier transform (FFT), eigenvector methods (EM), wavelet transform (WT), and auto regressive method (ARM), and so on. In general, the analysis of EEG signal has been the subject of several studies, because of its ability to yield an objective mode of recording brain stimulation which is widely used in brain-computer interface researches with application in medical diagnosis and rehabilitation engineering. The purposes of this paper, therefore, shall be discussing some conventional methods of EEG feature extraction methods, comparing their performances for specific task, and finally, recommending the most suitable method for feature extraction based on performance. PMID:24967316

  19. Methods of EEG Signal Features Extraction Using Linear Analysis in Frequency and Time-Frequency Domains

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fahoum, Amjed S.; Al-Fraihat, Ausilah A.

    2014-01-01

    Technically, a feature represents a distinguishing property, a recognizable measurement, and a functional component obtained from a section of a pattern. Extracted features are meant to minimize the loss of important information embedded in the signal. In addition, they also simplify the amount of resources needed to describe a huge set of data accurately. This is necessary to minimize the complexity of implementation, to reduce the cost of information processing, and to cancel the potential need to compress the information. More recently, a variety of methods have been widely used to extract the features from EEG signals, among these methods are time frequency distributions (TFD), fast fourier transform (FFT), eigenvector methods (EM), wavelet transform (WT), and auto regressive method (ARM), and so on. In general, the analysis of EEG signal has been the subject of several studies, because of its ability to yield an objective mode of recording brain stimulation which is widely used in brain-computer interface researches with application in medical diagnosis and rehabilitation engineering. The purposes of this paper, therefore, shall be discussing some conventional methods of EEG feature extraction methods, comparing their performances for specific task, and finally, recommending the most suitable method for feature extraction based on performance. PMID:24967316

  20. An effective modified water extraction method for Landsat-8 OLI imagery of mountainous plateau regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Wang, L.; Jing, L.; Xu, J.

    2016-04-01

    Water body extraction from remote sensing imagery is an efficient way to investigate and monitor water resources. In the study area of this research, a mountainous plateau near Kashgar, China, sparse vegetation and seasonal rivers affect water body extraction. In order to extract water bodies, a modified water body extraction method is proposed in this paper and tested using Landsat-8 OLI imagery. Following this method, binary images are first generated using a classification, a Tasseled Cap transform, and a normalized difference water index, respectively, and then combined to yield a mask. Next, water bodies are delineated by masking the Landsat-8 OLI imagery and then refined by eliminating false areas using a supervised classification. It is demonstrated from the resulting water body maps that terrain related shadows in imagery were effectively eliminated and river tributaries and artificial ditches were precisely delineated, with accuracy up to 94%. Compared with several current water body extraction methods, the modified method yielded water body maps with better visualization and slightly improved accuracy.

  1. An Efficient Method for Automatic Road Extraction Based on Multiple Features from LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Hu, X.; Guan, H.; Liu, P.

    2016-06-01

    The road extraction in urban areas is difficult task due to the complicated patterns and many contextual objects. LiDAR data directly provides three dimensional (3D) points with less occlusions and smaller shadows. The elevation information and surface roughness are distinguishing features to separate roads. However, LiDAR data has some disadvantages are not beneficial to object extraction, such as the irregular distribution of point clouds and lack of clear edges of roads. For these problems, this paper proposes an automatic road centerlines extraction method which has three major steps: (1) road center point detection based on multiple feature spatial clustering for separating road points from ground points, (2) local principal component analysis with least squares fitting for extracting the primitives of road centerlines, and (3) hierarchical grouping for connecting primitives into complete roads network. Compared with MTH (consist of Mean shift algorithm, Tensor voting, and Hough transform) proposed in our previous article, this method greatly reduced the computational cost. To evaluate the proposed method, the Vaihingen data set, a benchmark testing data provided by ISPRS for "Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction" project, was selected. The experimental results show that our method achieve the same performance by less time in road extraction using LiDAR data.

  2. Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Young Park; Jong Hyun Won; Tai Gyu Lee

    2006-12-15

    The mercury contents of various types of coal currently consumed in Korea were analyzed using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods. The results of analysis by acid extraction and pyrolysis methods were compared and discussed. Generally, high mercury concentrations of 105.6 to 434.5 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 125.7 to 475.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis) were obtained for tested anthracite coals in this study. For bituminous coals, the mercury contents were 11.5-48 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 12.5-52.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis). For coal samples, much simpler and far less time-consuming pyrolysis method tends to give higher values for the Hg concentration than the acid extraction method (by less than 10%) because of the interference from a UV absorption by SOx generated during thermal destruction of coal matrix. Also, further analysis shows that coals with higher densities have higher mercury contents and that the sulfur and mercury contents of coals are positively correlated with each other. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Optimization of a greener method for removal phenol species by cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, N. N. M.; Abu Bakar, N. K.; Mohamad, S.; Saleh, N. Md.

    2014-01-01

    A greener method based on cloud point extraction was developed for removing phenol species including 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in water samples by using the UV-Vis spectrophotometric method. The non-ionic surfactant DC193C was chosen as an extraction solvent due to its low water content in a surfactant rich phase and it is well-known as an environmentally-friendly solvent. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as pH, temperature and incubation time, concentration of surfactant and salt, amount of surfactant and water content were evaluated and optimized. The proposed method was successfully applied for removing phenol species in real water samples.

  4. Assessment of metal bioavailability in the vineyard soil-grapevine system using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Vázquez Vázquez, Francisco A; Pérez Cid, Benita; Río Segade, Susana

    2016-10-01

    This study was focused on the assessment of single and sequential extraction methods to predict the bioavailability of metals in the vineyard soil-grapevine system. The modified BCR sequential extraction method and two single-step extraction methods based on the use of EDTA and acetic acid were applied to differently amended vineyard soils. The variety effect was studied on the uptake of metals by leaves and grapes. Most of the elements studied (Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb) were weakly mobilized from vineyard soils, with the exception of Cu and Mn. The determination of total metal content in leaves and grapes showed a different accumulation pattern in the two parts of the vine. A significant relationship was observed, for all the elements studied except for Fe, between the content bioavailable in the soil and the accumulated in both leaves and grapes (R=0.602-0.775, p<0.01). PMID:27132841

  5. Enantioselective Liquid-Solid Extraction (ELSE)--An Unexplored, Fast, and Precise Analytical Method.

    PubMed

    Ulatowski, Filip; Hamankiewicz, Paulina; Jurczak, Janusz

    2015-09-14

    A novel method of evaluating the enantioselectivity of chiral receptors is investigated. It involves extraction of an ionic guest in racemic form from an ion-exchange resin to the organic solvent, where it is bound by a chiral receptor. The enantioselectivity of the examined receptor is determined simply by measuring the enantiomeric excess of the extracted guest. We show that the concept is viable for neutral receptors binding chiral organic anions extracted into acetonitile. This method was determined to be more accurate and far less time-consuming than the classical titrations. Multiple racemic guests can be applied to a resin in a single experiment, giving the method a very high throughput. PMID:26263300

  6. Chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong Min; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2012-12-01

    The chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide [SC-CO(2)], mechanical press, and solvent extraction) were studied. The SC-CO(2) extraction at 420 bar and 50 °C and hexane extraction showed significantly higher oil yield than mechanical press extraction (P < 0.05). The fatty acid compositions in the oils were virtually identical regardless of the extraction methods. The contents of tocopherol, sterol, policosanol, and phosphorus in the perilla oils greatly varied with the extraction methods. The SC-CO(2) -extracted perilla oils contained significantly higher contents of tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols than the mechanical press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils (P < 0.05). The SC-CO(2) -extracted oil showed the greatly lower oxidative stability than press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils during the storage in the oven under dark at 60 °C. However, the photooxidative stabilities of the oils were not considerably different with extraction methods. PMID:23106331

  7. Synthesis of silica particles from rice straw waste using a simple extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Rahman, T.; Fadhlulloh, M. A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Hamidah, I.; Mulyanti, B.

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize silica particles from rice straw waste using a simple extraction method. The experiment was conducted by heating and extracting rice straw waste into basic solution. To get silica particles, the extracted solution was then put into acid solution and heated to remove the remained solvent. The experimental results showed that the aggregated silica particles with sizes of about 200 nm were successfully produced. The XRD and FTIR analysis showed that the final product was silica and free of graphite. However, we found that some KCl component in the final product in which this was possibly from the use of KOH as the extraction agent. Therefore, further studies are still required to synthesize high purity silica particles from rice straw waste.

  8. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [E. Van Handel, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1(1985) 302] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo ...

  9. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), Soxhlet and shaking methods for pendimethalin extraction from soils: effect of soil properties and water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spack, Lionel; Alvarez, Cristina; Martins, Jean M. F.; Tarradellas, Joseph

    1998-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction with CO 2 was applied to the analysis of traces of pendimethalin, a herbicide of the dinitroanilines group, in four different natural soils. The Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method was compared with the classical Soxhlet and shaking methods in terms of ease to run, extraction efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility. The influence of the physico-chemical properties of the soil matrix on herbicide extraction was then evaluated with the SFE method. The supercritical fluid extraction system used in the present study was found to be much easier to run than the other two methods, less time consuming and requires fewer operations as it was optimized for on-line sample clean up. SFE is the most selective of the three tested methods as fewer co-extracts are obtained in the final samples. SFE with CO 2 is particularly powerful because pendimethalin is highly hydrophobic. However, this makes pendimethalin a poor choice for a selectivity study of SFE as it is very rapidly extracted at any CO 2 density. Pendimethalin extraction with supercritical CO 2 was found to be almost complete with average recoveries of 96-99%, similarly to Soxhlet but with a much lower standard deviation (8-10%). The performance of SFE was shown to be unaffected by soil parameters except soil water content. It is demonstrated indeed that extraction efficiency is not linearly related to soil water content, and optimal recovery was found for water contents ranging from 2 to 15% depending on the type of soil. Soil water increases extraction efficiency because water acts as a modifier of the supercritical fluid and increases the penetration of the fluid inside the soil particles (clay swelling). In contrast to SFE and Soxhlet, the efficiency of the shaking method appeared to be partial and strongly dependent on soil properties. Although initial developments should be needed, the various benefits of SFE-CO 2 make this method attractive compared to traditional methods.

  10. SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS AND MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS (MAAS) FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous extraction methods have been developed and used in the quantitation of both photopigments and mycosporine amino acids (MAAs) found in Symbiodinium sp. and zooanthellate metazoans. We have development of a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol, which when coupl...

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and preventing DNA damage effect of pomegranate extracts by chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shanshan; Deng, Qianchun; Xiao, Junsong; Xie, Bijun; Sun, Zhida

    2007-04-18

    The antioxidant activities of three parts (peel, juice, and seed) and extracts of three pomegranate varieties in China were investigated by using a chemiluminescence (CL) method in vitro. The scavenging ability of pomegranate extracts (PEs) on superoxide anion, hydroxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide was determined by the pyrogallol-luminol system, the CuSO4-Phen-Vc-H2O2 system, and the luminol-H2O2 system, respectively. DNA damage preventing the effect of PE was determined by the CuSO4-Phen-Vc-H2O2-DNA CL system. The results showed that the peel extract of red pomegranate had the best effect on the scavenging ability of superoxide anion because its IC50 value (4.01 +/- 0.09 microg/mL) was the lowest in all PEs. The seed extract of white pomegranate could scavenge hydroxide radical most effectively of the nine extracts (the IC50 value was 1.69 +/- 0.03 microg/mL). The peel extract of white pomegranate had the best scavenging ability on hydrogen peroxide, which had the lowest IC50 value (0.032 +/- 0.003 microg/mL) in the nine extracts. The seed extract of white pomegranate (the IC50 value was 3.67 +/- 0.03 microg/mL) was the most powerful on the DNA damage-preventing effect in all of the PEs. Also, the statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences (at P < 0.05) among the extracts of the different varieties and parts in each system. PMID:17381116

  12. Engineering challenges of ocean alkalinity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, T.; Renforth, P.

    2012-04-01

    The addition of calcium oxide (CaO) to the ocean as a means of enhancing the capacity of the ocean as a carbon sink was first proposed by Haroon Kheshgi in 1995. Calcium oxide is created by heating high purity limestone in a kiln to temperatures of approximately 1000°C. Addition of this material to the ocean draws carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere (approximately 1 tonne of CaO could sequester 1.3 tonnes of CO2). Abiotic carbonate precipitation is inhibited in the surface ocean. This is a carbon and energy expensive process, where approximately 0.8 tonnes of CO2 are produced at a point source for every tonne sequestered. The feasibility of ocean alkalinity enhancement requires capture and storage of the point source of CO2. We present details of a feasibility study of the engineering challenges of Kheshgi's method focusing on the potential scalability and costs of the proposed process. To draw down a PgC per year would require the extraction and processing of ~6Pg of limestone per year, which is similar in scale to the current coal industry. Costs are estimated at ~USD30-40 per tonne of CO2 sequestered through the process, which is favourable to comparative processes. Kheshgi, H. (1995) Energy 20 (9) 915-922

  13. Comparison of five DNA extraction methods for molecular analysis of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus).

    PubMed

    Mornkham, T; Wangsomnuk, P P; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Pattanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2012-01-01

    DNA extraction is an essential step for molecular analysis of an organism, but it is difficult to acquire a sufficient amount of pure DNA from plant tissue with high levels of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, proteins, and secondary metabolites. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) has high levels of such substances. We compared five commonly used methods of extracting genomic DNA in tests made with leaves and seed of four Jerusalem artichoke genotypes: 1) modified method of Tai and Tanksley, 2) method of Doyle and Doyle, 3) method of Porebski, 4) modified method of Štorchová, and 5) Plant DNA Kit of Omega Bio-tek. The quality and quantity of extracted DNAs were assessed by photometric assay, electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel and a PCR-based technique. The modified method of Tai and Tanksley was found to be superior for both young leaves and seed. The quality of the extracted DNA was confirmed by sequence-related amplified polymorphism. This information will be useful for molecular analyses of Jerusalem artichoke and other related Helianthus species. PMID:22535392

  14. An optimized DNA extraction and purification method from dairy manure compost for genetic diversity analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Zhang, Zhenhua; Liu, Dongyang; Zhou, Tiantian; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

    2013-05-01

    An unbiased DNA extraction protocol is necessary for analysis of genetic diversity, particularly, of genes in complex environmental samples by nucleic acid techniques. In the present study, three manual extraction methods and two commonly used commercial kits, which were accompanied by two DNA purification strategies, were compared based on cell lysis efficiency, DNA and humic acid yields, PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The results show that in spite of higher cell lysis efficiencies of the two commercial kits, the purified DNA yields were only one-third of that obtained by the two manual methods of FTSP (Freeze-thaw-SDS-Protein K) and FTSPP (Freeze-thaw-SDS-Protein K-Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone). The purified DNA from all five methods was pure enough for successful PCR and real-time PCR amplifications in the presence of 1 μg μL(-1) BSA. However, the FTSPP extraction method with DNA purification by a Wizard(®) kit yielded the largest number of 16S rRNA gene copies and ribotypes or bands in DGGE profiles, which indicated a superiority over the other four methods. The development of this optimized DNA extraction and purification method may provide a valuable tool for further molecular analysis of compost. PMID:23239373

  15. An optimal control method for maximizing the efficiency of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability. PMID:25152913

  16. Sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Misiuk, Wieslawa; Tykocka, Agnieszka

    2007-12-01

    Two simple, sensitive and rapid extractive spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the assay of the antidepressant drug nortriptyline (NOR) hydrochloride in pure form and in different dosage forms. The methods involve the formation of colored ion-pairs between the drug and the complex of niobium(V)-thiocyanate (Nb-SCN) or iron(III)-thiocyanate (Fe-SCN) followed by their extraction with butanol or a mixture of butanol and chloroform and quantitative determination at 360 nm and 490 nm, using Nb-SCN and Fe-SCN, respectively. The experimental conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum colour intensity. The methods permit the determination of nortriptyline over a concentration range of 15-100 microg/ml and 5-24 microg/ml with the detection limit of 0.84 microg/ml and 0.32 microg/ml, using Nb-SCN and Fe-SCN, respectively. The proposed methods are applicable for the assay of the investigated drug in different dosage forms and the results are in good agreement with those obtained by the official and HPLC methods. No interference was observed from common excipients present in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed procedures were applied to determine the amount of nortriptyline hydrochloride as active ingredient in the presence of its degradation product, dibenzosuberone. The extractive spectrophotometric methods can also be used to determine the amount of nortriptyline hydrochloride in tablets after its solid phase extraction (SPE). PMID:18057736

  17. An Optimal Control Method for Maximizing the Efficiency of Direct Drive Ocean Wave Energy Extraction System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability. PMID:25152913

  18. A simple silica-based method for metagenomic DNA extraction from soil and sediments.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Herrera, R; Narváez-Zapata, J; Zamudio-Maya, M; Mena-Martínez, M E

    2008-09-01

    A new method is described for extraction of metagenomic DNA from soil and sediments which is based on DNA adsorption to silica without the use of phenol, ethanol precipitation or a cesium chloride gradient. High-quality DNA was obtained, and PCR inhibition was overcome by adding bovine serum albumin and adjusting magnesium concentration. By using PCR-DGGE with Firmicutes and lactic acid bacteria-specific primers the extracted metagenomic DNA was shown to contain a mixture of bacterial genomes. This method can be used for screening bacterial diversity in soil and sediment samples. PMID:18373226

  19. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  20. Development and validation of a stability indicative HPLC-PDA method for kaurenoic acid in spray dried extracts of Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski, Asteraceae.

    PubMed

    Fucina, Giovana; Block, Luciana Catia; Baccarin, Thaisa; Ribeiro, Thiago Ruiz Gutierrez; Quintão, Nara Lins Meira; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Silva, Ruth Meri Lucinda; Bresolin, Tania Mari Bellé

    2012-11-15

    A gradient stability indicative HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for assay of the marker kaurenoic acid (KA) in spray dried extract of Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski. The marker, and another unidentified polar component, were separated on a Luna Phenomenex C(18) column (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase composed of acetonitrile:acidified water pH 3.0 with phosphoric acid, in a gradient run of 40 min; at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1), 35 °C, using wavelengths of 210 and 338 nm. The method was linear over a KA concentration range of 4.5-30.0 μg mL(-1), without interference of the herbal matrix on the linearity of the method. The RSD% values for the intra- and inter-day precision studies were <2.0 and <8.0% for inter-laboratorial study. The method showed excellent KA recovery (99.0%). The LOQ value was found to be 1.13 μg mL(-1) and the method proved to be robust for small, deliberate changes in temperature and pH of the mobile phase with RSD%<2.5% for the KA assay. A forced degradation study of S. trilobata dried extract was conducted under conditions of visible light (1.200.000 l×h(-1)) and UV (200 Whm(-2)) irradiation, acid (0.5 mol L(-1) HCl, 30 min), basic (1 mol L(-1) NaOH, 2 h) and oxidative (30% H(2)O(2), 4h) hydrolysis, in order to develop a gradient stability-indicating LC-UV method for KA quantification, the selected marker, and also to detect the major polar components of the extract, under investigation. The KA contents remaining after these stress conditions were 72.3, 70.0, 97.6, 65.8 and 87.0%, respectively. The alkaline conditions resulted in higher degradation for the unknown polar components of the extract, without interference of supplementary peaks at the retention time of the KA. This method can be used for the KA assay and qualitative analysis of polar components in stability study of spray dried extracts of S. trilobata, for subsequent use in the quality control of dosage forms. PMID:23158359

  1. Collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from crushed red peppers.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, J J

    1975-05-01

    A new method was developed for the extraction of light filth from crushed red peppers. The method utilizes an isoprapanol defatting of the product followed by separation of light filth elements with mineral oil and n-heptane (85+15) in a 2 L trap flask. Collaborative studies resulted in good recoveries of light filth spike elements and clean extration papers. The method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:1170161

  2. MIT extraction method for measuring average subchannel axial velocities in reactor assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, J.T.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    The MIT extraction method for obtaining flow split data for individual subchannels is described in detail. An analysis of the method is presented which shows that isokinetic values of the subchannel flow rates are obtained directly even though the method is non-isokinetic. Time saving methods are discussed for obtaining the average value of the interior region flow split parameter. An analysis of the method at low bundle flow rates indicates that there is no inherent low flow rate limitation on the method and suggests a way to obtain laminar flow split data.

  3. A machine learning method for extracting symbolic knowledge from recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Vahed, A; Omlin, C W

    2004-01-01

    Neural networks do not readily provide an explanation of the knowledge stored in their weights as part of their information processing. Until recently, neural networks were considered to be black boxes, with the knowledge stored in their weights not readily accessible. Since then, research has resulted in a number of algorithms for extracting knowledge in symbolic form from trained neural networks. This article addresses the extraction of knowledge in symbolic form from recurrent neural networks trained to behave like deterministic finite-state automata (DFAs). To date, methods used to extract knowledge from such networks have relied on the hypothesis that networks' states tend to cluster and that clusters of network states correspond to DFA states. The computational complexity of such a cluster analysis has led to heuristics that either limit the number of clusters that may form during training or limit the exploration of the space of hidden recurrent state neurons. These limitations, while necessary, may lead to decreased fidelity, in which the extracted knowledge may not model the true behavior of a trained network, perhaps not even for the training set. The method proposed here uses a polynomial time, symbolic learning algorithm to infer DFAs solely from the observation of a trained network's input-output behavior. Thus, this method has the potential to increase the fidelity of the extracted knowledge. PMID:15006023

  4. METHODS FOR PORE WATER EXTRACTION FROM UNSATURATED ZONE TUFF, YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. SCOFIELD

    2006-03-22

    Assessing the performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires an understanding of the chemistry of the water that moves through the host rock. The uniaxial compression method used to extract pore water from samples of tuffaceous borehole core was successful only for nonwelded tuff. An ultracentrifugation method was adopted to extract pore water from samples of the densely welded tuff of the proposed repository horizon. Tests were performed using both methods to determine the efficiency of pore water extraction and the potential effects on pore water chemistry. Test results indicate that uniaxial compression is most efficient for extracting pore water from nonwelded tuff, while ultracentrifugation is more successful in extracting pore water from densely welded tuff. Pore water splits taken from a single nonwelded tuff core during uniaxial compression tests have shown changes in pore water chemistry with increasing pressure for calcium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate, while the chemistry of pore water splits from welded and nonwelded tuffs using ultracentrifugation indicates that there is no significant fractionation of solutes.

  5. The Extraction of Heavy Metals by Means of a New Electrolytic Method

    SciTech Connect

    Guiragossian, Z. G.; Martoyan, G. A.; Injeyan, S. G.; Tonikyan, S. G.; Nalbandyan, G. G.

    2003-02-25

    The extraction of metals in known metallurgical methods is pursued on the basis of separating as much as possible the desired metal's content from the ore concentrate, in the most economical manner. When these principles are also applied to the extraction of heavy metals, the related environmental factors do not readily meet with requirements. Today, an acceptable extraction technology for metals must satisfy the need to produce the deep separation of metals from their source in both economical and environmentally safe manner. This pertains to the direction of our ongoing research and development, among others in the field of environmental remediation. Earlier, we successfully addressed in an environmentally safe manner the selective extraction of radioactive isotopes from liquid radioactive wastes, produced at Armenia's Metzamor Nuclear Power Plant and implemented a functioning LRW station at the NPP. Currently, we extended our new electrodialysis-based electrolytic method in a laboratory scale, for the extraction and deep separation of different metals, including the heavy metals. Our new method, its efficiency, economy and full compliance with environmental issues will be presented.

  6. A NEW METHOD FOR EXTRACTING SPIN-DEPENDENT NEUTRON STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS FROM NUCLEAR DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Y.F.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2009-01-01

    High-energy electrons are currently the best probes of the internal structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons). By collecting data on electrons scattering off light nuclei, such as deuterium and helium, one can extract structure functions (SFs), which encode information about the quarks that make up the nucleon. Spin-dependent SFs, which depend on the relative polarization of the electron beam and the target nucleus, encode quark spins. Proton SFs can be measured directly from electron-proton scattering, but those of the neutron must be extracted from proton data and deuterium or helium-3 data because free neutron targets do not exist. At present, there is no reliable method for accurately determining spin-dependent neutron SFs in the low-momentum-transfer regime, where nucleon resonances are prominent and the functions are not smooth. The focus of this study was to develop a new method for extracting spin-dependent neutron SFs from nuclear data. An approximate convolution formula for nuclear SFs reduces the problem to an integral equation, for which a recursive solution method was designed. The method was then applied to recent data from proton and deuterium scattering experiments to perform a preliminary extraction of spin-dependent neutron SFs in the resonance region. The extraction method was found to reliably converge for arbitrary test functions, and the validity of the extraction from data was verifi ed using a Bjorken integral, which relates integrals of SFs to a known quantity. This new information on neutron structure could be used to assess quark-hadron duality for the neutron, which requires detailed knowledge of SFs in all kinematic regimes.

  7. An Improved Method for High Quality Metagenomics DNA Extraction from Human and Environmental Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bag, Satyabrata; Saha, Bipasa; Mehta, Ojasvi; Anbumani, D.; Kumar, Naveen; Dayal, Mayanka; Pant, Archana; Kumar, Pawan; Saxena, Shruti; Allin, Kristine H.; Hansen, Torben; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Vestergaard, Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Pereira, Verima; Abraham, Philip; Tripathi, Reva; Wadhwa, Nitya; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Prakash, Visvanathan Gnana; Radha, Venkatesan; Anjana, R. M.; Mohan, V.; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Kurakawa, Takashi; Nair, G. Balakrish; Das, Bhabatosh

    2016-01-01

    To explore the natural microbial community of any ecosystems by high-resolution molecular approaches including next generation sequencing, it is extremely important to develop a sensitive and reproducible DNA extraction method that facilitate isolation of microbial DNA of sufficient purity and quantity from culturable and uncultured microbial species living in that environment. Proper lysis of heterogeneous community microbial cells without damaging their genomes is a major challenge. In this study, we have developed an improved method for extraction of community DNA from different environmental and human origin samples. We introduced a combination of physical, chemical and mechanical lysis methods for proper lysis of microbial inhabitants. The community microbial DNA was precipitated by using salt and organic solvent. Both the quality and quantity of isolated DNA was compared with the existing methodologies and the supremacy of our method was confirmed. Maximum recovery of genomic DNA in the absence of substantial amount of impurities made the method convenient for nucleic acid extraction. The nucleic acids obtained using this method are suitable for different downstream applications. This improved method has been named as the THSTI method to depict the Institute where the method was developed. PMID:27240745

  8. An Improved Method for High Quality Metagenomics DNA Extraction from Human and Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Bag, Satyabrata; Saha, Bipasa; Mehta, Ojasvi; Anbumani, D; Kumar, Naveen; Dayal, Mayanka; Pant, Archana; Kumar, Pawan; Saxena, Shruti; Allin, Kristine H; Hansen, Torben; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Vestergaard, Henrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Pereira, Verima; Abraham, Philip; Tripathi, Reva; Wadhwa, Nitya; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Prakash, Visvanathan Gnana; Radha, Venkatesan; Anjana, R M; Mohan, V; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Kurakawa, Takashi; Nair, G Balakrish; Das, Bhabatosh

    2016-01-01

    To explore the natural microbial community of any ecosystems by high-resolution molecular approaches including next generation sequencing, it is extremely important to develop a sensitive and reproducible DNA extraction method that facilitate isolation of microbial DNA of sufficient purity and quantity from culturable and uncultured microbial species living in that environment. Proper lysis of heterogeneous community microbial cells without damaging their genomes is a major challenge. In this study, we have developed an improved method for extraction of community DNA from different environmental and human origin samples. We introduced a combination of physical, chemical and mechanical lysis methods for proper lysis of microbial inhabitants. The community microbial DNA was precipitated by using salt and organic solvent. Both the quality and quantity of isolated DNA was compared with the existing methodologies and the supremacy of our method was confirmed. Maximum recovery of genomic DNA in the absence of substantial amount of impurities made the method convenient for nucleic acid extraction. The nucleic acids obtained using this method are suitable for different downstream applications. This improved method has been named as the THSTI method to depict the Institute where the method was developed. PMID:27240745

  9. A simultaneous extraction method for organophosphate, pyrethroid, and neonicotinoid insecticides in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    de Perre, Chloé; Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    A method was developed for the extraction and analysis of 2 organophosphate, 8 pyrethroid, and 5 neonicotinoid insecticides from the same water sample. A salted liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was optimized with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) step that separated the organophosphates (OPs) and pyrethroids from the neonicotinoids. Factors that were optimized included volume of solvent and amount of salt used in the LLE, homogenization time for the LLE, and type and volume of eluting solvent used for the SPE. The OPs and pyrethroids were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the neonicotinoids were quantified using liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Results showed that the optimized method was accurate, precise, reproducible, and robust; recoveries in river water spiked with 100 ng L(-1) of each of the insecticides were all between 86 and 114 % with RSDs between 2 and 8 %. The method was also sensitive with method detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 27.2 ng L(-1) depending on compounds and matrices. The optimized method was thus appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of 15 widely applied insecticides from three different classes and was shown to provide valuable information on their environmental fate from field-collected aqueous samples. PMID:25608617

  10. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Radha, Sudhakar; Arunraj, Rex; Curtis, Wayne R.; Ramya, Mohandass

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely “powdered glass method” from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC) as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil) with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05) and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03). The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method’s applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666). PMID:26167854

  11. Comparison between several methods of total lipid extraction from Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Moreira, Daniel Mendonça; Kunigami, Claudete Norie; Aranda, Donato Alexandre Gomes; Teixeira, Cláudia Maria Luz Lapa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lipids obtained from microalgae biomass has been described as a promising alternative for production of biodiesel to replace petro-diesel. It involves steps such as the cultivation of microalgae, biomass harvesting, extraction and transesterification of lipids. The purpose of the present study was to compare different methods of extracting total lipids. These methods were tested in biomass of Chlorella vulgaris with the solvents ethanol, hexane and a mixture of chloroform:methanol in ratios 1:2 and 2:1. The solvents were associated with other mechanisms of cell disruption such as use of a Potter homogenizer and ultrasound treatment. The percentage of triglycerides in the total lipids was determinated by the glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase-p-chlorophenol method (triglycerides monoreagent K117; Bioclin). Among the tested methods, the mixture of chloroform:methanol (2:1) assisted by ultrasound was most efficient, extracting an average of 19% of total lipids, of which 55% were triglycerides. The gas chromatographic analysis did not show differences in methyl ester profiles of oils extracted under the different methods. PMID:24910443

  12. Rapid extraction method with pronase B for grouping beta-hemolytic streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ederer, G M; Herrmann, M M; Bruce, R; Matsen, J M; Chapman, S S

    1972-02-01

    The enzyme, Pronase B, was used to extract the C carbohydrates of betahemolytic streptococci for serological grouping. Reference strains of streptococci, groups A through N, were accurately grouped by using this extraction method. Of the beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from patients' cultures, 1,197 were classified as either group A or not group A by this method. There was 100% correlation with the reference Lancefield method. In contrast, false reactions occurred with the presumptive bacitracin disc method in 4.1% of the group A and 12.7% of the non-group A cultures. The Pronase method proved simple, accurate, and readily adaptable to the clinical laboratory routine. PMID:4622824

  13. Comparative assessment of genomic DNA extraction processes for Plasmodium: Identifying the appropriate method.

    PubMed

    Mann, Riti; Sharma, Supriya; Mishra, Neelima; Valecha, Neena; Anvikar, Anupkumar R

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium DNA, in addition to being used for molecular diagnosis of malaria, find utility in monitoring patient responses to antimalarial drugs, drug resistance studies, genotyping and sequencing purposes. Over the years, numerous protocols have been proposed for extracting Plasmodium DNA from a variety of sources. Given that DNA isolation is fundamental to successful molecular studies, here we review the most commonly used methods for Plasmodium genomic DNA isolation, emphasizing their pros and cons. A comparison of these existing methods has been made, to evaluate their appropriateness for use in different applications and identify the method suitable for a particular laboratory based study. Selection of a suitable and accessible DNA extraction method for Plasmodium requires consideration of many factors, the most important being sensitivity, cost-effectiveness and, purity and stability of isolated DNA. Need of the hour is to accentuate on the development of a method that upholds well on all these parameters. PMID:26714505

  14. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Chen, Huali; Qu, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio) were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs). Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes. PMID:26020778

  15. An efficient extraction method to enhance analysis of low abundant proteins from soybean seed.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry S; Krishnan, Hari B; Lakshman, Sukla; Garrett, Wesley M

    2009-11-15

    Large amounts of the major storage proteins, beta-conglycinin and glycinin, in soybean (Glycine max) seeds hinder the isolation and characterization of less abundant seed proteins. We investigated whether isopropanol extraction could facilitate resolution of the low abundant proteins, different from the main storage protein fractions, in one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-PAGE) and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). 1D-PAGE of proteins extracted by different concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80%) of isopropanol showed that greater than 30% isopropanol was suitable for preferential enrichment of low abundant proteins. Analysis of 2D-PAGE showed that proteins which were less abundant or absent by the conventional extraction procedure were clearly seen in the 40% isopropanol extracts. Increasing isopropanol concentration above 40% resulted in a decrease in the number of less abundant protein spots. We have identified a total of 107 protein spots using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrophotometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our results suggest that extraction of soybean seed powder with 40% isopropanol enriches lower abundance proteins and is a suitable method for 2D-PAGE separation and identification. This methodology could potentially allow the extraction and characterization of low abundant proteins of other legume seeds containing highly abundant storage proteins. PMID:19651100

  16. Scale parameter-estimating method for adaptive fingerprint pore extraction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yao; Cao, Liangcai; Guo, Wei; Luo, Yaping; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-11-01

    Sweat pores and other level 3 features have been proven to provide more discriminatory information about fingerprint characteristics, which is useful for personal identification especially in law enforcement applications. With the advent of high resolution (>=1000 ppi) fingerprint scanning equipment, sweat pores are attracting increasing attention in automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS), where the extraction of pores is a critical step. This paper presents a scale parameter-estimating method in filtering-based pore extraction procedure. Pores are manually extracted from a 1000 ppi grey-level fingerprint image. The size and orientation of each detected pore are extracted together with local ridge width and orientation. The quantitative relation between the pore parameters (size and orientation) and local image parameters (ridge width and orientation) is statistically obtained. The pores are extracted by filtering fingerprint image with the new pore model, whose parameters are determined by local image parameters and the statistically established relation. Experiments conducted on high resolution fingerprints indicate that the new pore model gives good performance in pore extraction.

  17. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Linssen, Jozef P H; de Groot, Aede; Evstatieva, Lyuba N

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and beta-carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of plant extracts. The strengths and limitations of each method have been illustrated by testing a number of extracts, of differing polarity, from plants of the genus Sideritis, and two known antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and rosmarinic acid). The sample polarity was important for the exhibited activity in the BCBT and HS-GC methods but not for the DPPH method. The complex composition of the extracts and partition phenomena affected their activity in each assay. The value of the BCBT method appears to be limited to less polar samples. Although slow, the HS-GC method is preferable for assessing the antioxidant inhibitory properties on the formation of unwanted secondary volatile products. Being rapid, simple and independent of sample polarity, the DPPH method is very convenient for the quick screening of many samples for radical scavenging activity. PMID:11899609

  18. A method for automatically extracting infectious disease-related primers and probes from the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primer and probe sequences are the main components of nucleic acid-based detection systems. Biologists use primers and probes for different tasks, some related to the diagnosis and prescription of infectious diseases. The biological literature is the main information source for empirically validated primer and probe sequences. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important for researchers to navigate this important information. In this paper, we present a four-phase method for extracting and annotating primer/probe sequences from the literature. These phases are: (1) convert each document into a tree of paper sections, (2) detect the candidate sequences using a set of finite state machine-based recognizers, (3) refine problem sequences using a rule-based expert system, and (4) annotate the extracted sequences with their related organism/gene information. Results We tested our approach using a test set composed of 297 manuscripts. The extracted sequences and their organism/gene annotations were manually evaluated by a panel of molecular biologists. The results of the evaluation show that our approach is suitable for automatically extracting DNA sequences, achieving precision/recall rates of 97.98% and 95.77%, respectively. In addition, 76.66% of the detected sequences were correctly annotated with their organism name. The system also provided correct gene-related information for 46.18% of the sequences assigned a correct organism name. Conclusions We believe that the proposed method can facilitate routine tasks for biomedical researchers using molecular methods to diagnose and prescribe different infectious diseases. In addition, the proposed method can be expanded to detect and extract other biological sequences from the literature. The extracted information can also be used to readily update available primer/probe databases or to create new databases from scratch. PMID:20682041

  19. Standard Extraction Methods May Underestimate Nitrate Stocks Captured by Field-Aged Biochar.

    PubMed

    Haider, Ghulam; Steffens, Diedrich; Müller, Christoph; Kammann, Claudia I

    2016-07-01

    Biochar (BC) has been shown to increase the potential for N retention in agricultural soils. However, the form of N retained and its strength of retention are poorly understood. Here, we examined if the N retained could be readily extractable by standard methods and if the amount of N retained varied with BC field ageing. We investigated soil and field-aged BC (BC) particles of a field experiment (sandy soil amended with BC at 0, 15, and 30 t ha) under two watering regimes (irrigated and rain-fed). Throughout the study, greater nitrate than ammonium retention was observed with BC addition in topsoil (0-15 cm). Subsoil (15-30 cm) nitrate concentrations were reduced in BC treatments, indicating reduced nitrate leaching (standard 2 mol L KCl method). The mineral-N release of picked BC particles was examined with different methods: standard 2 mol L KCl extraction; repeated (10×) extraction in 2 mol L KCl at 22 ± 2°C and 80°C (M); electro-ultrafiltration (M); repeated water + KCl long-term shaking (M); and M plus one repeated shaking at 80°C (M). Nitrate amounts captured by BC particles were several-fold greater than those in the BC-amended soil. Compared with M, standard 2 mol L KCl or electro-ultrafiltration extractions retrieved only 13 and 30% of the total extractable nitrates, respectively. Our results suggest that "nitrate capture" by BC may reduce nitrate leaching in the field and that the inefficiency of standard extraction methods deserves closer research attention to decipher mechanisms for reactive N management. PMID:27380067

  20. [Compensation-fitting extraction of dynamic spectrum based on least squares method].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Wu, Ruo-Nan; Li, Yong-Cheng; Zhou, Mei; Li, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Extraction method for dynamic spectrum (DS) with a high signal to noise ratio is a key to achieving high-precision noninvasive detection of blood components. In order to further improve the accuracy and speed of DS extraction, linear similarity between photoelectric plethysmographys (PPG) at each two different wavelengths was analyzed in principle, and an experimental verification was conducted. Based on this property, the method of compensation-fitting extraction was proposed. Firstly, the baseline of PPG at each wavelength is estimated and compensated using single-period sampling average, which would remove the effect of baseline drift caused by motion artifact. Secondly, the slope of least squares fitting between each single-wavelength PPG and full-wavelength averaged PPG is acquired to construct DS, which would significantly suppress random noise. Contrast experiments were conducted on 25 samples in NIR wave band and Vis wave band respectively. Flatness and processing time of DS using compensation-fitting extraction were compared with that using single-trial estimation. In NIR band, the average variance using compensation-fitting estimation was 69.0% of that using single-trial estimation, and in Vis band it was 57.4%, which shows that the flatness of DS is steadily improved. In NIR band, the data processing time using compensation-fitting extraction could be reduced to 10% of that using single-trial estimation, and in Vis band it was 20%, which shows that the time for data processing is significantly reduced. Experimental results show that, compared with single-trial estimation method, dynamic spectrum compensation-fitting extraction could steadily improve the signal to noise ratio of DS, significantly improve estimation quality, reduce data processing time, and simplify procedure. Therefore, this new method is expected to promote the development of noninvasive blood components measurement. PMID:25269319

  1. LEACHING OF URANIUM ORES USING ALKALINE CARBONATES AND BICARBONATES AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbits, A.T.; Simard, R.; Herbst, H.J.

    1961-07-18

    A method of leaching uranium ores containing sulfides is described. The method consists of adding a leach solution containing alkaline carbonate and alkaline bicarbonate to the ore to form a slurry, passing the slurry through a series of agitators, passing an oxygen containing gas through the slurry in the last agitator in the series, passing the same gas enriched with carbon dioxide formed by the decomposition of bicarbonates in the slurry through the penultimate agitator and in the same manner passing the same gas increasingly enriched with carbon dioxide through the other agitators in the series. The conditions of agitation is such that the extraction of the uranium content will be substantially complete before the slurry reaches the last agitator.

  2. Comparative evaluation of different extraction and quantification methods for forensic RNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Grabmüller, Melanie; Madea, Burkhard; Courts, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Since about 2005, there is increasing interest in forensic RNA analysis whose versatility may very favorably complement traditional DNA profiling in forensic casework. There is, however, no method available specifically dedicated for extraction of RNA from forensically relevant sample material. In this study we compared five commercially available and commonly used RNA extraction kits and methods (mirVana™ miRNA Isolation Kit Ambion; Trizol® Reagent, Invitrogen; NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit Macherey-Nagel; AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and RNeasy® Mini Kit both Qiagen) to assess their relative effectiveness of yielding RNA of good quality and their compatibility with co-extraction of DNA amenable to STR profiling. We set up samples of small amounts of dried blood, liquid saliva, semen and buccal mucosa that were aged for different time intervals for co-extraction of RNA and DNA. RNA quality was assessed by determination of 'RNA integrity number' (RIN) and quantitative PCR based expression analysis. DNA quality was assessed via monitoring STR typing success rates. By comparison, the different methods exhibited considerable differences between RNA and DNA yields, RNA quality values and expression levels, and STR profiling success, with the AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and the NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit excelling at DNA co-extraction and RNA results, respectively. Overall, there was no 'best' method to satisfy all demands of comprehensible co-analysis of RNA and DNA and it appears that each method has specific merits and flaws. We recommend to cautiously choose from available methods and align its characteristics with the needs of the experimental setting at hand. PMID:25625965

  3. An improved extraction method for the HPLC determination of morphine and its metabolites in plasma.

    PubMed

    Pawula, M; Barrett, D A; Shaw, P N

    1993-01-01

    A new, simple and rapid extraction procedure coupled with a combined coulometric-fluorescence HPLC assay is described for the simultaneous determination of morphine (M) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), and normorphine (NM) in plasma. The effect of concentration and pH of selected ion-pairing agents on the extraction of these compounds from plasma by solid-phase extraction was investigated. The extraction procedure was optimized in terms of recovery, reproducibility and lack of interference from endogenous materials. The optimized method uses tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate (TBAHS) at pH 10 followed by separation on a single C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. For routine analysis the procedure provides high and reproducible recoveries over a concentration range of 1.0-1000 ng ml-1 for morphine, M6G and normorphine and 20-1000 ng ml-1 for M3G. The method was used successfully to analyse plasma samples from a pharmacokinetic study in which sheep had received an intravenous dose of 0.015 mg kg-1 of M6G. PMID:8357878

  4. Evaluation of two different extraction methods for chromatographic determination of bioactive amines in tomato products.

    PubMed

    Chiacchierini, E; Restuccia, D; Vinci, G

    2006-05-15

    Bioactive amines are organic bases originating from corresponding amino acid which have undergone decarboxylation by putrefactive bacteria or lactic acid bacteria. When formed by microbial enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids, they are called " biogenic" and can produce detrimental effects on human health. Many techniques have been developed for extraction and/or clean up of bioactive amines in food, including acidic or organic extraction as well as solid phase extraction. This study deals with the comparison of two different extraction methods, homogenizing and matrix solid phase dispersion, for the chromatographic determination of eight non-volatile bioactive amines in tomato-based products (mashed tomato, biological mashed tomato, concentrated tomato pasta and ketchup) very popular in Italian alimentary habits. In both cases, perchloric acid has been used for analytes extraction and the influence of different parameters affecting amine recoveries have been evaluated. After a derivatization step with dansyl-chloride, samples were analyzed for amines quantitative determination using 1,7-diaminoheptane as internal standard on a C(18)-RP-HPLC-UV system. Method performances were tested and good results of linearity, repeatability and recovery were obtained for all the considered amines. The collected data have shown that ketchup contains the highest levels of amines followed by concentrated tomato pasta, biological mashed tomato and common mashed tomato. Moreover, it has been found that in all samples, putrescine is the most abundant amine followed by tyramine, spermidine and tryptamine. PMID:18970603

  5. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  6. PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE STUDY OF METHODS TO EXTRACT VIRUS FROM RAW AND PROCESSED SEWAGE SLUDGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two simple virus extraction techniques were compared to an EPA standard method for detection of human enteric viruses in raw sewage sludge and class A biosolids. The techniques were used to detect both indigenous and seeded virus from a plant that distributes class A material pr...

  7. Development of extraction method of pharmaceuticals and their occurrences found in Japanese wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Takashi; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Matsukawa, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Kaoru

    2009-07-01

    In this study, occurrence of 66 PPCPs (pharmaceuticals and personal care products) in liquid and solid phases of sewage sludge was elucidated. The extraction methods for the PPCPs from sludge were newly developed employing Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) and Ultrasonic Solvent Extraction (USE). As an appropriate method, PLE using water (pH2), PLE using methanol (pH4), and USE using mixture of methanol and water (1/9,v/v, pH11) was found most effective because total recovery of most of the PPCPs indicated 40 to 130%. The developed extraction method with previously developed method for liquid phase analysis was applied to field survey at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Japan. 56 compounds were detected from the primary sludge and 61 compounds were detected from the excess sludge. The concentration was ranged between several ng/g and several microg/g. Solid-water distribution coefficient (Log K(d)) ranged between 0.9 L/kg (Caffeine) and 3.7 L/kg (Levofloxacin) for primary sludge and between 1.4 L/kg (Sulpirid) and 4.3 L/kg (Mefenamic acid) for excess sludge. PMID:19201472

  8. Method developments to extract proteins from oil palm chromoplast for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Benjamin Yii Chung; Deb-Choudhury, Santanu; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M; Ramli, Umi Salamah

    2015-01-01

    Proteins from the plant chromoplast are essential for many physiological processes such as fatty acid biosynthesis. Different protein extraction methods were tested to find the most robust method to obtain oil palm chromoplast proteins for mass spectrometry analysis. Initially, two different solvents were employed to reduce the fruit lipids. Then, two plant cell wall digestive enzymes were used to acquire the protoplasts to increase the protein extraction effectiveness. A two-stage centrifugation-based fractionation approach enhanced the number of identified proteins, particularly the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes. The effectiveness of each extraction method was assessed using protein yields and 2DE gel profiles. The ideal method was successfully used to establish the 2DE chromoplast proteome maps of low and high oleic acid mesocarps of oil palm. Further nanoLC-MS/MS analysis of the extracted chromoplast proteins led to the identification of 162 proteins, including some of the main enzymes involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis. The established procedures would provide a solid foundation for further functional studies, including fatty acid biosynthetic expression profiling and evaluation of regulatory function. PMID:26702380

  9. Quantification of fungicides in snow-melt runoff from turf: A comparison of four extraction methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of pesticides are used to control diverse stressors to turf. These pesticides have a wide range in physical and chemical properties. The objective of this project was to develop an extraction and analysis method for quantification of chlorothalonil and PCNB (pentachloronitrobenzene), two p...

  10. Use of DCPIP in a Colorimetric Method to Investigate Electron Transport in Crude Heart Mitochondrial Extracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Alan

    1990-01-01

    A method of obtaining a crude mitochondrial extract from sheep and beef heart is described. The respiratory substrates succinate and malate are examined as well as the inhibitory effect of malonate. An interface with a microcomputer for plotting colorimeter results is discussed. (Author/CW)

  11. Method for forming an extraction agent for the separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Harrup, Mason K.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.

    2010-04-27

    An extraction agent for the separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides in an acidic media and a method for forming same are described, and wherein the methodology produces a stable regiospecific and/or stereospecific dithiophosphinic acid that can operate in an acidic media having a pH of less than about 7.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the simultaneous determination of emerging contaminants in freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Diana Nara Ribeiro; Grosseli, Guilherme Martins; Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Fadini, Pedro Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Sediments are the fate of several emerging organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products and hormones, and therefore an important subject in environmental monitoring studies. In the present work, a simple and sensitive method was developed, validated and applied for the simultaneous extraction of atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, propranolol, triclosan, estrone, 17-β-estradiol and 17-α-ethinylestradiol using ultrasound-assisted extraction from freshwater sediment samples followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The solvent type and extraction pH were evaluated to obtain the highest recoveries of the compounds. The best method shows absolute recoveries between 54.0 and 94.4% at 50 ng/g concentration. The method exhibits good precision with relative standard deviation ranging from 1.0-16%. The detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.006-0.067 and 0.016-0.336 ng/g, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to freshwater sediment samples collected from different sites in Jundiaí River basin of São Paulo State, Brazil. The compounds atenolol, caffeine, propranolol and triclosan were detected in all the sampling sites with concentrations of 13.8, 41.0, 28.5 and 176 ng/g, respectively. PMID:26257164

  13. A robust infrared dim target detection method based on template filtering and saliency extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenguang; Li, Chenming; Shi, Jianing

    2015-11-01

    Dim target detection in infrared image with complex background and low signal-clutter ratio (SCR) is a significant and difficult task in the infrared target tracking system. A robust infrared dim target detection method based on template filtering and saliency extraction is proposed in this paper. The weighted gray map is obtained from the infrared image to highlight the target which is brighter than its neighbors and has weak correlation with its background. The target saliency map is then calculated by phase spectrum of Fourier Transform, so that the dim target detection could be converted to salient region extraction. The potential targets are finally extracted by combining the two maps. Moreover, position discrimination between targets in the two maps is used to exclude the false alarms and extract the targets. Experimental results on measured images indicate that our method is feasible, adaptable and robust in different backgrounds. The ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves obtained from the simulated images demonstrate the proposed method outperforms some existing typical methods in both detection rate and false alarm rate, for target detection with low SCR.

  14. Comparison of cleanup methods for fipronil and its degradation products in sediment extracts.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Amanda A; You, Jing; Lydy, Michael J

    2009-06-15

    Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and solid phase extraction (SPE) were compared for cleaning extracts containing fipronil, fipronil-sulfide, and fipronil-sulfone at sub-ppb concentrations in sediment. With both methods, analytes were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction, and analyzed with gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. The GPC was performed with a Waters Envirogel GPC column with dichloromethane as the mobile phase, while SPE was conducted with dual-layer cartridges containing graphitized carbon black and primary and secondary amines with a mixture of acetone and hexane as the eluting solvent. Method detection limits for fipronil, fipronil-sulfide, and fipronil-sulfone from three sediments with varying organic carbon content ranged from 0.12 to 0.52 microg/kg dry weight, while percent recoveries were 72-119% from sediment aged from 0.24 to 14d. Although both methods were effective at analyzing fipronil and its degradation products, SPE was the less expensive and less labor-intensive method. PMID:19362209

  15. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...

  16. Variations in the contents of gingerols and chromatographic fingerprints of ginger root extracts prepared by different preparation methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Xia, Xinhua; Chou, Guixin; Liu, Dong; Zuberi, Aamir; Ye, Jianping; Liu, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, an HPLC-DAD method was optimized for the quantitative determination of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol in ginger extracts. A chromatographic fingerprinting method was also established to differentiate and evaluate the ginger extracts for bioactivity. Twenty-one extracts were prepared by methods differing in ginger type (fresh versus dried), solvent, and extraction methods. The ANOVA analysis showed the methods' influence on the mean extraction yields of gingerols increased in the order of: high pressure-high temperature (HP)>blender (BD)>low pressure (LP). The optimal solvent to extract gingerols was found to be 95% ethanol. The type of ginger used had significant effects on the content of gingerols, but its overall influence depended on the solvent used. In order to maximize the extraction efficiency of gingerols, a combination of dry ginger, 95% ethanol, and the HP extraction method should be employed. The chromatographic fingerprints were obtained to differentiate the unknown components from all ginger extracts. The similarity of the chromatographic fingerprints was used to evaluate the differences among all extracts. It can be concluded that the chromatographic fingerprints are able to ensure the stability of each extract and have some correlation with the observed bioactivity. PMID:24672859

  17. A Novel Method of Extraction of Blend Component Structure from SANS Measurements of Homopolymer Bimodal Blends

    PubMed Central

    Smerdova, Olga; Graham, Richard S; Gasser, Urs; Hutchings, Lian R; De Focatiis, Davide S A

    2014-01-01

    A new method is presented for the extraction of single-chain form factors and interchain interference functions from a range of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on bimodal homopolymer blends. The method requires a minimum of three blends, made up of hydrogenated and deuterated components with matched degree of polymerization at two different chain lengths, but with carefully varying deuteration levels. The method is validated through an experimental study on polystyrene homopolymer bimodal blends with . By fitting Debye functions to the structure factors, it is shown that there is good agreement between the molar mass of the components obtained from SANS and from chromatography. The extraction method also enables, for the first time, interchain scattering functions to be produced for scattering between chains of different lengths. PMID:25866454

  18. Precision and Selection of Extraction Methods of Aphelenchid Nematodes from Maritime Pine Wood, Pinus pinaster L.

    PubMed

    Penas, Ana C; Diias, Luis S; Mota, Manuel M

    2002-03-01

    Four extraction methods for Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and other aphelenchid nematodes were compared on the number of nematodes per gram recovered, and on the precision of the mean number of nematodes per gram of pine wood. The number of nematodes per gram recovered by each method, in addition to its inherent shortcomings when the actual number of nematodes is unknown, failed to provide clear rankings among the extraction methods. The precision of the mean number of nematodes per gram did provide clear guidelines for selection. Selection of the method may be based on prior knowledge about the range of nematodes to be expected or the independence of precision from the mean number of nematodes. PMID:19265909

  19. Robust method for extracting the pulmonary vascular trees from 3D MDCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taeprasartsit, Pinyo; Higgins, William E.

    2011-03-01

    Segmentation of pulmonary blood vessels from three-dimensional (3D) multi-detector CT (MDCT) images is important for pulmonary applications. This work presents a method for extracting the vascular trees of the pulmonary arteries and veins, applicable to both contrast-enhanced and unenhanced 3D MDCT image data. The method finds 2D elliptical cross-sections and evaluates agreement of these cross-sections in consecutive slices to find likely cross-sections. It next employs morphological multiscale analysis to separate vessels from adjoining airway walls. The method then tracks the center of the likely cross-sections to connect them to the pulmonary vessels in the mediastinum and forms connected vascular trees spanning both lungs. A ground-truth study indicates that the method was able to detect on the order of 98% of the vessel branches having diameter >= 3.0 mm. The extracted vascular trees can be utilized for the guidance of safe bronchoscopic biopsy.

  20. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD IS SUCCESSFULLY APPLIED TO ITS-RFLP ANALYSIS OF MYCORRHIZAL ROOT TIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid method for extracting DNA from intact, single root tips using a Xanthine solution was developed to handle very large numbers of analyses of ectomycorrhizas. By using an extraction without grinding we have attempted to bias the extraction towards the fungal DNA in the man...