Science.gov

Sample records for alkaline extraction method

  1. Development of a rapid, 96-well alkaline based differential DNA extraction method for sexual assault evidence.

    PubMed

    Hudlow, William R; Buoncristiani, Martin R

    2012-01-01

    We present a rapid alkaline lysis procedure for the extraction of DNA from sexual assault evidence that generates purified sperm fraction extracts that yield STR typing results similar to those obtained from the traditional organic/dithiothreitol differential extraction. Specifically, a sodium hydroxide based differential extraction method has been developed in a single-tube format and further optimized in a 96-well format. The method yields purified extracts from a small sample set (≈ 2-6 swabs) in approximately 2h and from a larger sample set (up to 96 swabs) in approximately 4h. While conventional differential extraction methods require vigorous sample manipulation to remove the spermatozoa from the substrate, the method described here exploits the propensity of sperm to adhere to a substrate and does not require any manipulation of the substrate after it is sampled. For swabs, sample handling is minimized by employing a process where the tip of the swab, including the shaft, is transferred to the appropriate vessel eliminating the need for potentially hazardous scalpels to separate the swab material from the shaft. The absence of multiple handling steps allows the process to be semi-automated, however the procedure as described here does not require use of a robotic system. This method may provide forensic laboratories a cost-effective tool for the eradication of backlogs of sexual assault evidence, and more timely service to their client agencies. In addition, we have demonstrated that a modification of the procedure can be used to retrieve residual sperm-cell DNA from previously extracted swabs.

  2. Determination of Lutein from Fruit and Vegetables Through an Alkaline Hydrolysis Extraction Method and HPLC Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Mignogna, Rossella; Niro, Serena; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of lutein content, successfully used for cereal matrices, was evaluated in fruit and vegetables. The method involved the determination of lutein after an alkaline hydrolysis of the sample matrix, followed by extraction with solvents and analysis by normal phase HPLC. The optimized method was simple, precise, and accurate and it was characterized by few steps that could prevent loss of lutein and its degradation. The optimized method was used to evaluate the lutein amounts in several fruit and vegetables. Rich sources of lutein were confirmed to be green vegetables such as parsley, spinach, chicory, chard, broccoli, courgette, and peas, even if in a range of variability. Taking into account the suggested reference values these vegetables can be stated as good sources of lutein.

  3. Extracting Vanadium from Stone Coal by a Cyclic Alkaline Leaching Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kailong; Liu, Xuheng; Li, Qinggang

    2017-04-01

    In order to achieve an efficient and economical approach on extracting vanadium from stone coal, a cyclic alkaline leaching method was studied in this work. The effects of operating parameters, including the NaOH concentration, temperature, reaction time, and liquid-solid ratio, on vanadium leaching efficiency were investigated. Also, we studied the influence of caustic soda dosage on the cyclic leaching process as well as the effect of increasing ionic strength in leachates and wash water. The results show that this method achieved a 51 pct decrease of the dosage of caustic soda under the optimized conditions compared with the single-step alkaline leaching. The average leaching yield of vanadium reached 82.28 pct. The leachates and wash water in each leaching cycle were utilized for the next leaching cycle, achieving the recycling of alkali as well as waste water. During the cyclic process, the volume of water was not increased, which markedly reduces the discharge of waste water and is also beneficial in terms of cost reduction.

  4. Extracting Vanadium from Stone Coal by a Cyclic Alkaline Leaching Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kailong; Liu, Xuheng; Li, Qinggang

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve an efficient and economical approach on extracting vanadium from stone coal, a cyclic alkaline leaching method was studied in this work. The effects of operating parameters, including the NaOH concentration, temperature, reaction time, and liquid-solid ratio, on vanadium leaching efficiency were investigated. Also, we studied the influence of caustic soda dosage on the cyclic leaching process as well as the effect of increasing ionic strength in leachates and wash water. The results show that this method achieved a 51 pct decrease of the dosage of caustic soda under the optimized conditions compared with the single-step alkaline leaching. The average leaching yield of vanadium reached 82.28 pct. The leachates and wash water in each leaching cycle were utilized for the next leaching cycle, achieving the recycling of alkali as well as waste water. During the cyclic process, the volume of water was not increased, which markedly reduces the discharge of waste water and is also beneficial in terms of cost reduction.

  5. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  6. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  7. Surfactant and adhesive formulations from alkaline biomass extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Matthew

    This work studies the ability to produce effective surfactant and adhesive formulations using surface active biological material extracted from different biomass sources using alkaline extraction methods. Two urban waste biomass sources were used to produce surfactants, Return Activated Sludge (RAS), and solid Urban Refuse (UR). The third biomass source investigated was isolated mustard protein (MP). RAS and MP extracts were investigated for adhesive production. The results indicate that extracts from the waste biomass sources, RAS and UR, can be combined with a commercial surfactant, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), to produce surfactants with low interfacial tensions against various oils. These highly surface-active formulations were shown to be useful in the removal of bitumen from contaminated sand. RAS and MP showed potential as protein-based wood adhesives. These sources were used in adhesive formulations to produce a strong bond strength under low-pressure, ambient pressing conditions.

  8. Alkaline extraction of phenolic compounds from intact sorghum kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was employed to extract phenolic compounds from whole grain sorghum without decortication or grinding as determined by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC). The alkaline extract ORAC values were more stable over 32 days compared to neutralized and freeze dri...

  9. [Rapid extraction of DNA from Chinese medicinal products by alkaline lysis].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qi; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Li, Rao-Rao; Chen, Kang; Yuan, Yuan; Jin, Yan

    2014-10-01

    The study is aimed to explore a rapid method to extract DNA from fried Chinese medicinal products. The alkaline lysis buffer was made of sodium hydroxide, 1% PVP and 1% TritonX-100 and Tris-HCl solution was neutralized, through heat cracking and neutralization two step to extract DNA from processed and prepared products of traditional Chinese medicine. Then universal primes were used to amplify PCR products for fired Chinese medicinal materials. The results indicated the optimized alkaline lysis method for extracting DNA is quick and easy. Extracting of the different processed Sophora japonica of DNA concentration was (420.61 ± 123.91) g x L(-1). Using 5% Chelex-100 resin purification can improve the DNA concentration. Our results showed that the optimized alkaline lysis method is suitable for Chinese medicinal materials for quickly DNA extraction.

  10. Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

  11. Leaching properties of electric arc furnace dust prior/following alkaline extraction.

    PubMed

    Orescanin, Visnja; Mikelić, Luka; Sofilić, Tahir; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka; Uzarević, Krunoslav; Medunić, Gordana; Elez, Loris; Lulić, Stipe

    2007-02-15

    This study was carried out to determine the appropriate treatment of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust prior to permanent disposal. The total heavy metal content as well as heavy metal leaching from EAF dust was investigated in five composite samples obtained from three Croatian and Slovenian steelworks. In order to recover zinc and reduce its leaching from the dust, all five samples were submitted to alkaline extraction with 10 M NaOH. Reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr(III) was conducted using FeSO4 x 7H2O solution. The elements Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, and notably Zn and Pb, exhibited highest mobility during toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Comparing to TCLP extracts of initial EAF dust, zinc was found to be over 15 times lower and lead over 200 times lower in TCLP extracts of EAF dust processed by the alkaline leaching method. Since Cr (VI) exceeded its permissible level in the DIN 38414-S4 extracts of both initial and alkaline digested dust, its reduction to Cr (III) prior to permanent disposal is necessary. The recovery of zinc from EAF dust treated with alkaline agent ranged from 50.3% to 73.2%. According to phase analysis, recovery yield showed dependence on zincite/franklinite ratio. The results of the study indicate that permanent disposal of EAF dust require the following procedure: alkaline digestion (followed by leachate purification and alkaline zinc electrolyses), chromate reduction (if necessary), solidification of leaching residue and its testing using the leaching analyses.

  12. The Chemical Kinetics of Alkaline Extraction of Tellurium from Lead-Bismuth Eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence E. Auman; Eric P. Loewen; Thomas F. Gesell; Shuji Ohno

    2005-07-01

    Polonium-210 is an important radioactive product of neutron activation of molten lead-bismuth eutectic, a promising candidate coolant for advanced fast nuclear reactors. The radiological hazard potential associated with polonium can be significantly reduced by continuous online removal of polonium from the coolant. The removal method under investigation in this research is alkaline extraction. Chemical kinetic measurements were made to determine first and second order rate constants, activation energy, and heat of reaction at various temperatures using tellurium as a surrogate. First and second order alkaline extraction rate constants were measured to be: k1 = 10.05 e –52,274/RT and k2 = 167 e –97,224/RT. Alkaline extraction is dependent on temperature and was found to follow the Arrhenius rate law. The activation energy (Ea) ranged between 52,274 – 97,224 J mol-1. With a strong foundation of surrogate work completed, this work should be validated using polonium-210.

  13. Alkaline extraction of polonium from liquid lead bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinitz, S.; Neuhausen, J.; Schumann, D.

    2011-07-01

    The production of highly radiotoxic polonium isotopes poses serious safety concerns for the development of future nuclear systems cooled by lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). In this paper it is shown that polonium can be extracted efficiently from LBE using a mixture of alkaline metal hydroxides (NaOH + KOH) in a temperature range between 180 and 350 °C. The extraction ratio was analyzed for different temperatures, gas blankets and phase ratios. A strong dependence of the extraction performance on the redox properties of the cover gas was found. While hydrogen facilitates the removal of polonium, oxygen has a negative influence on the extraction. These findings open new possibilities to back up the safety of future LBE based nuclear facilities.

  14. Polyhydroxyflavones as extractants. Communication 7. Solvent extraction of europrium complexes with morin from alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, A.B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper studies the analytical application of europium (III)-morin complex which is formed in alkaline medium and has an intense color. The extent of europium extraction was determined by adding to the extract a morin solution in isoamyl alcohol in a 50-100-fold excess with respect to europium. The dependence of the optical density of the extracts on the ph in the system europium (III)-morin-water-organic solvent for different excesses of the reagent is shown: this indicates formation of two extractable complexes, one being dominant in the pH range 4-7, the other at pH greater than or equal to 8.5. The extraction of the europium (III)-morin complex from alkaline solution is used for direct extraction-photometric determination of europium(III) in compounds of elements having amphoteric properties or forming amines (Zns, Mo0/sub 3/).

  15. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Presley, Derek J.

    2001-01-01

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  16. An improved protocol for DNA extraction from alkaline soil and sediment samples for constructing metagenomic libraries.

    PubMed

    Verma, Digvijay; Satyanarayana, T

    2011-09-01

    An improved single-step protocol has been developed for extracting pure community humic substance-free DNA from alkaline soils and sediments. The method is based on direct cell lysis in the presence of powdered activated charcoal and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone followed by precipitation with polyethyleneglycol and isopropanol. The strategy allows simultaneous isolation and purification of DNA while minimizing the loss of DNA with respect to other available protocols for metagenomic DNA extraction. Moreover, the purity levels are significant, which are difficult to attain with any of the methods reported in the literature for DNA extraction from soils. The DNA thus extracted was free from humic substances and, therefore, could be processed for restriction digestion, PCR amplification as well as for the construction of metagenomic libraries.

  17. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  18. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  19. Method of infusion extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  20. PMBP extraction and TPE separation in alkaline pyrophosphate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Karalova, Z.K.; Bukina, T.I.; Lavrinovich, E.A.; Trofimov, T.I.; Kulyako, Yu.M.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1988-11-01

    Measurements have been made on the solvent extraction of Am(III), Am(V), Cm(III), and Eu(III) in trace and macroscopic amounts from (NH/sub 4/)/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (pH = 7.6) and Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (pH = 10) solutions as coordination compounds with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoylpyrazol-5-one (PMBP). A method has been devised for separating weighable amounts of americium and curium, which is based in trivalent curium being extracted quantitatively from 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate (pH 10) by 0.1 M PMBP solution in chloroform, where high distribution coefficients apply, while americium is electrochemically oxidized in that medium to Am(VI) and on contact with the extraction agent is reduced to Am(V) and remains in the aqueous phase. The separation factor for the Cm(III)-Am(V) pair is about 10/sup 3/.

  1. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  2. Delignification outperforms alkaline extraction for xylan fingerprinting of oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    PubMed

    Murciano Martínez, Patricia; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-11-20

    Enzyme hydrolysed (hemi-)celluloses from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFBs) are a source for production of bio-fuels or chemicals. In this study, after either peracetic acid delignification or alkaline extraction, EFB hemicellulose structures were described, aided by xylanase hydrolysis. Delignification of EFB facilitated the hydrolysis of EFB-xylan by a pure endo-β-1,4-xylanase. Up to 91% (w/w) of the non-extracted xylan in the delignified EFB was hydrolysed compared to less than 4% (w/w) of that in untreated EFB. Alkaline extraction of EFB, without prior delignification, yielded only 50% of the xylan. The xylan obtained was hydrolysed only for 40% by the endo-xylanase used. Hence, delignification alone outperformed alkaline extraction as pretreatment for enzymatic fingerprinting of EFB xylans. From the analysis of the oligosaccharide-fingerprint of the delignified endo-xylanase hydrolysed EFB xylan, the structure was proposed as acetylated 4-O-methylglucuronoarabinoxylan.

  3. Alkaline-side extraction of technetium from tank waste using crown ethers and other extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.; Presley, D.J.; Armstrong, V.S.; Haverlock, T.J.; Counce, R.M.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    The chemical development of a new crown-ether-based solvent-extraction process for the separation of (Tc) from alkaline tank-waste supernate is ready for counter-current testing. The process addresses a priority need in the proposed cleanup of Hanford and other tank wastes. This need has arisen from concerns due to the volatility of Tc during vitrification, as well as {sup 99}Tc`s long half-life and environmental mobility. The new process offers several key advantages that direct treatability--no adjustment of the waste composition is needed; economical stripping with water; high efficiency--few stages needed; non-RCRA chemicals--no generation of hazardous or mixed wastes; co-extraction of {sup 90}Sr; and optional concentration on a resin. A key concept advanced in this work entails the use of tandem techniques: solvent extraction offers high selectivity, while a subsequent column sorption process on the aqueous stripping solution serves to greatly concentrate the Tc. Optionally, the stripping solution can be evaporated to a small volume. Batch tests of the solvent-extraction and stripping components of the process have been conducted on actual melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste as well as simulants of MVST and Hanford waste. The tandem process was demonstrated on MVST waste simulants using the three solvents that were selected the final candidates for the process. The solvents are 0.04 M bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (abbreviated di-t-BuCH18C6) in a 1:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M (an isoparaffinic kerosene); 0.02 M di-t-BuCH18C6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar M and pure TBP. The process is now ready for counter-current testing on actual Hanford tank supernates.

  4. Protection against Experimental Cryptococcosis following Vaccination with Glucan Particles Containing Cryptococcus Alkaline Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chrono K.; Huang, Haibin; Shen, Zu T.; Lodge, Jennifer K.; Leszyk, John; Ostroff, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A vaccine capable of protecting at-risk persons against infections due to Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii could reduce the substantial global burden of human cryptococcosis. Vaccine development has been hampered though, by lack of knowledge as to which antigens are immunoprotective and the need for an effective vaccine delivery system. We made alkaline extracts from mutant cryptococcal strains that lacked capsule or chitosan. The extracts were then packaged into glucan particles (GPs), which are purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls composed primarily of β-1,3-glucans. Subcutaneous vaccination with the GP-based vaccines provided significant protection against subsequent pulmonary infection with highly virulent strains of C. neoformans and C. gattii. The alkaline extract derived from the acapsular strain was analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and the most abundant proteins were identified. Separation of the alkaline extract by size exclusion chromatography revealed fractions that conferred protection when loaded in GP-based vaccines. Robust Th1- and Th17-biased CD4+ T cell recall responses were observed in the lungs of vaccinated and infected mice. Thus, our preclinical studies have indicated promising cryptococcal vaccine candidates in alkaline extracts delivered in GPs. Ongoing studies are directed at identifying the individual components of the extracts that confer protection and thus would be promising candidates for a human vaccine. PMID:26695631

  5. Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts. Results Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80°C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (~20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and β-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation. Conclusions This work demonstrates that this two

  6. Improved Performance of the Alkaline-Side CSEX Process for Cesium Extraction from Alkaline High-Level Waste Obtained by Characterization of the Effect of Surfactant Impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.

    1999-11-04

    Improved understanding and performance of the alkaline-side CSEX process has been obtained through the characterization of impurity effects that hinder complete stripping of cesium from the solvent. It is shown in this report that tests of the alkaline-side CSEX process conducted in the summer and fall of 1998 were complicated by the presence of common surfactant anions, undecyl- and dodecylsulfonate, as trace impurities in the two simulants tested. This conclusion was drawn from the results of a series of systematic extraction tests followed by a definitive identification by electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS). Based on this understanding, a straightforward preventative measure involving the addition of a lipophilic tertiary amine extractant at a small concentration to the solvent is proposed and demonstrated. As part of the task ''Fission Product Solvent Extraction'' supported by the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program within the USDOE Office of Environmental Management, the alkaline-side CSEX process has been developed for removal of radio-cesium ({sup 137}Cs) from alkaline high-level wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site and Savannah River Site (SRS). As described in a previous report, tests conducted in Fiscal Year 1998 generally demonstrated performance meeting the requirements for cesium removal from the waste to be treated at the SRS. However, discrepancies in stripping behavior were shown to arise from unidentified differences ''in the batches of waste simulant employed for testing. Various effects such as solvent impurities, kinetics, contacting method, and counting method were eliminated as possible causes of the observed discrepancies. Tests in Fiscal Year 1999 reported herein confirmed the earlier suspicion that the simulants contained lipophilic anionic impurities. Extraction tests demonstrated that the impurities could be concentrated in the solvent, and by ES-MS in the negative-ion mode it was possible to

  7. Extraction of starch from wheat flour by alkaline solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Separation of starch from wheat flour with high purity is very important for the analysis of starch such as amylose and amylopectin determination by size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC). A procedure that extracts starch from flour by ethanol precipitation after dissolving flour in KOH and urea solution wa...

  8. Rapid determination of methanol content in paper materials by alkaline extraction, coupled with headspace analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Yun; Li, Ling-Ling; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Barnes, Donald G

    2014-07-11

    This study reports on a rapid method for the determination of methanol in paper-based materials by alkaline extraction, coupled with headspace analysis. Methanol partition equilibria between solid-liquid phases and vapor-liquid phases were conducted in two separate containers, from which an equation for calculating the total methanol content in the original paper sample was derived. It was found that the extraction equilibrium of methanol from solid sample could be achieved within 5min at room temperature using a high-speed disintegrator, and a subsequent neutralization step is an effective way to prevent methanol from being regenerated at high temperature during headspace equilibration. The results showed that the relative standard deviations for reproducibility tests were in the range of 1.86-6.03%, and the recoveries were in the range of 92.3-107%. The present method is simple and practical; it can be an efficient tool for quantifying the methanol content in paper-based materials and thus play an important role in the investigation of methanol migration behavior in food and beverage packaging.

  9. Investigation of alkaline mine drainage impacted streamside soil composition for select metals using extraction and acid digestion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Styer, J.C.; Fish, C.

    1996-10-01

    The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ca, Zn and P were determined in soils that are adjacent to alkaline mine drainage impacted Four Mile Run in Latrobe, PA. The hypothesis stated: soils closer to the mine drainage win have higher extractable and total metal concentrations in an eroded zone closer to the stream than soils in an uneroded zone farther from the stream. Since the area will sustain enhanced and man-made wetlands, it is necessary to determine the bioavailability of nutrients to plants. A comparison was made of extractions, which mimic plant roots, and digestions which give total metals. The extraction technique is the Mehlich Method, and the digestion technique is EPA SW-846 method No.3050A. The samples were analyzed on the Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometer. The results show no difference between extractable metals in erosion and uneroded zones. This study will also provide valuable information as to the fertility and cation exchange capacity of these soils.

  10. Composition of suberin extracted upon gradual alkaline methanolysis of Quercus suber L. cork.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M H; Gil, A M; Silvestre, A J; Neto, C P

    2000-02-01

    The monomeric composition of suberin extracts obtained by gradual alkaline methanolysis of Quercus suber cork was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that 1-alkanols and alkanoic and alpha,omega-alkanedioic acids are preferentially removed upon mild alkaline conditions, whereas mid-chain-modified omega-hydroxyalkanoic acids are preferentially removed under stronger alkaline conditions. Saturated omega-hydroxyalkanoic acids are found to be abundant in all suberin extracts. These results are consistent with two distinct suberin fractions with different locations in cork cell walls and/or esterification degrees. It is proposed that these fractions correlate with the two main suberin peaks in the solid state (13)C NMR spectra of cork and suberin extracts. Quantitative GC-MS analysis showed that suberin monomers comprise approximately 30% (w/w) of the suberin extracts, the remaining comprising nonvolatile structures with high M(n) values, as measured by vapor pressure osmometry. The presence of a large fraction of high molecular weight aliphatic structures in suberin extracts is supported by the corresponding NMR spectra.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and alkaline extracts from mushrooms (Agaricus blazei Murill).

    PubMed

    Padilha, Marina M; Avila, Ana A L; Sousa, Pergentino J C; Cardoso, Luis Gustavo V; Perazzo, Fábio F; Carvalho, José Carlos T

    2009-04-01

    The effects of aqueous and alkaline extracts from Agaricus blazei Murill, an edible mushroom used as folk medicine in Brazil, Japan, and China to treat several illnesses, were investigated on the basis of the inflammatory process induced by different agents. Oral administration of A. blazei extracts marginally inhibited the edema induced by nystatin. In contrast, when complete Freund's adjuvant was used as the inflammatory stimulus, both extracts were able to inhibit this process significantly (P < .05, analysis of variance followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison post hoc test), although it inhibited the granulomatous tissue induction moderately. These extracts were able to decrease the ulcer wounds induced by stress. Also, administration of extracts inhibited neutrophil migration to the exudates present in the peritoneal cavity after carrageenin injection. Therefore, it is possible that A. blazei extracts can be useful in inflammatory diseases because of activation of the immune system and its cells induced by the presence of polysaccharides such as beta-glucans.

  12. Efficiency of alkaline hydrolysis method in environment protection.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Tajana; Toth, Ivan; Kalambura, Sanja; Jovicić, Nives

    2014-06-01

    Development of new technologies for the efficient use of proteins of animal origin, apart from heat treatment in rendering facilities that was used to date, has become the primary goal of the integral waste management system. The emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe and in the World in the 1990s opened up new questions regarding medical safety and use of meat bone meal in the animal feed, which is produced by processing animal waste. Animal waste is divided into three categories, out of which the first category is high-risk waste. Alkaline hydrolysis is alternative method for management of animal by-products not intended for human diet and imposes itself as one of the solutions for disposal of high-risk proteins. The paper will present the analyses of animal by-products not intended for human diet treated in laboratory reactor for alkaline hydrolysis, as one of the two recognized methods in EU for the disposal of this type of material and use in fertilization.

  13. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  14. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  15. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  16. DECREASE IN DYNAMIC VISCOSITY AND AVERAGE MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF ALGINATE FROM LAMINARIA DIGITATA DURING ALKALINE EXTRACTION(1).

    PubMed

    Vauchel, Peggy; Arhaliass, Abdellah; Legrand, Jack; Kaas, Raymond; Baron, Régis

    2008-04-01

    Alginates are natural polysaccharides that are extracted from brown seaweeds and widely used for their rheological properties. The central step in the extraction protocol used in the alginate industry is the alkaline extraction, which requires several hours. In this study, a significant decrease in alginate dynamic viscosity was observed after 2 h of alkaline treatment. Intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight of alginates from alkaline extractions 1-4 h in duration were determined, indicating depolymerization of alginates: average molecular weight decreased significantly during the extraction, falling by a factor of 5 between 1 and 4 h of extraction. These results suggested that reducing extraction time could enable preserving the rheological properties of the extracted alginates.

  17. Fractionation of bagasse into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin with ionic liquid treatment followed by alkaline extraction.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wu; Liu, Chuan-Fu; Sun, Run-Cang

    2011-08-24

    Lignocellulose materials are potentially valuable resources for transformation into biofuels and bioproducts. However, their complicated structures make it difficult to fractionate them into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, which limits their utilization and economical conversion into value-added products. This study proposes a novel and feasible fractionation method based on complete dissolution of bagasse in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(4)mim]Cl) followed by precipitation in acetone/water (9:1, v/v) and extraction with 3% NaOH solution. The ionic liquid [C(4)mim]Cl was easily recycled after concentration and treatment with acetonitrile. (1)H NMR analysis confirmed that there was no obvious difference between the recycled [C(4)mim]Cl and fresh material. Bagasse was fractionated with this method to 36.78% cellulose, 26.04% hemicelluloses, and 10.51% lignin, accounting for 47.17 and 33.85% of the original polysaccharides and 54.62% of the original lignin, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the isolated fractions were characterized by chemical analysis, high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and (1)H and 2D (13)C-(1)H correlation (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that the acetone-soluble lignin and alkaline lignin fractions had structures similar to those of milled wood lignin (MWL). The easy extraction of the noncellulose components from homogeneous bagasse solution and amorphous regenerated materials resulted in the relatively high purity of cellulosic fraction (>92%). The hemicellulosic fraction was mainly 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronoxylans with some α-L-arabinofuranosyl units substituted at C-2 and C-3.

  18. Optimization of Alkaline Extraction and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Yin, Luoyi; Zhang, Xuejiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qiuzhi; Jin, Chenzhong; Wang, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to explore the optimal extraction parameters, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from rhizome of Polygonatum odoratum. The optimal extraction parameters were determined as the following: NaOH concentration (A) 0.3 M, temperature (B) 80°C, ratio of NaOH to solid (C) 10-fold, and extraction time (D) 4 h, in which ratio of NaOH to solid was a key factor. The order of the factors was ratio of NaOH to solid (fold, C) > extraction temperature (°C, B) > NaOH concentration (M, A) > extraction time (h, D). The monosaccharide compositions of polysaccharides from P. odoratum were rhamnose, mannose, xylose, and arabinose with the molecular ratio of 31.78, 31.89, 11.11, and 1.00, respectively. The reducing power, the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging rate, the hydroxyl radicals scavenging rate, and the inhibition rate to polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation of the alkaline soluble polysaccharides from P. odoratum at 1 mg/mL were 9.81%, 52.84%, 19.22%, and 19.42% of ascorbic acid at the same concentration, respectively. They also showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. PMID:25093173

  19. Separator for alkaline batteries and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    The preparation of membranes suitable for use as separators in concentrated alkaline battery cells by selective solvolysis of copolymers of methacrylate esters with acrylate esters followed by addition of a base and to the resultant products is described. The method of making copolymers by first copolymerizing a methacrylate ester (or esters) with a more readily hydrolyzable ester, followed by a selective saponification whereby the methacrylate ester moieties remain essentially intact and the readily hydrolyzable ester moiety is suponified and to the partial or complete neutralization of the relatively brittle copolymer acid with a base to make membranes which are sufficiently flexible in the dry state so that they may be wrapped around electrodes without damage by handling is described.

  20. Use of solid phase extraction for the sequential injection determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2012-08-30

    In this work, a solid phase extraction sequential injection methodology for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems was developed. The determination of the enzymatic activity was based on the spectrophotometric detection of a coloured product, p-nitrophenol, at 405 nm. The p-nitrophenol is the product of the catalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, a non-coloured substrate. Considering the low levels expected in natural waters and exploiting the fact of alkaline phosphatase being a metalloprotein, the enzyme was pre-concentrated in-line using a NTA Superflow resin charged with Zn(2+) ions. The developed sequential injection method enabled a quantification range of 0.044-0.441 unit mL(-1) of enzyme activity with a detection limit of 0.0082 unit mL(-1) enzyme activity (1.9 μmol L(-1) of pNP) and a determination rate of 17 h(-1). Recovery tests confirmed the accuracy of the developed sequential injection method and it was effectively applied to different natural waters and to plant root extracts.

  1. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  2. Integrating kinetics with thermodynamics to study the alkaline extraction of protein from Caragana korshinskii Kom.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng; Zhou, Zhao; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Jia, Shi-Ru; Sun, Zhuo; Dale, Bruce E

    2014-09-01

    Extraction and recovery of protein from abundant plant biomass is one potential way to improve the economic feasibility of biorefineries. However, valorization of the protein fraction is challenging due to its low yield (kg protein extraction/kg biomass). In order to reveal the limiting operation parameters, the alkaline extraction process of protein from Caragana korshinskii Kom. was investigated by an integrative analysis of kinetics and thermodynamics. Both a two-site kinetic extraction model and a second-order model indicated that particle size is the most pivotal factor affecting protein extraction yield. In a two-site model, most proteins are extracted quickly from broken cells, while protein removal from the intact cells takes much longer; these are the faster and slower processes, respectively. A decrease of particle size from 20-40 to 60-80 mesh resulted in a decrease of C2 (protein yield in the slower process) from 14.02 to 7.32 mg g(-1), but a great increase of C1 (protein yield in the faster process) from 20.61 to 59.07 mg g(-1) . However, the protein yield was dominated by the faster process when the average particle size is under 80 mesh. The maximum initial extraction rate was 72.20 mg g(-1) min(-1) with the particle size of 60-80 mesh, almost ninefold of that with 20-40 mesh. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that the enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) in the protein extraction process were calculated as 21.08 kJ mol(-1) and 84.76 J K(-1), respectively. The standard free energy (ΔG) had a magnitude from -3.77 to -5.46, suggesting that the extraction process was spontaneous and physically feasible.

  3. Evaluation of alkaline phosphatase detection in dairy products using a modified rapid chemiluminescent method and official methods.

    PubMed

    Albillos, S M; Reddy, R; Salter, R

    2011-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is a ubiquitous milk enzyme that historically has been used to verify adequate pasteurization of milk for public health purposes. Current approved methods for detection of alkaline phosphatase in milk include the use of enzyme photoactivated substrates to give readings in milliunits per liter. The U.S. and European public health limit for alkaline phosphatase in pasteurized drinks is 350 mU/liter. A modified chemiluminescent method, fast alkaline phosphatase, was compared with the approved fluorometric and chemiluminescent alkaline phosphatase methods to determine whether the modified method was equivalent to the approved methods and suitable for detecting alkaline phosphatase in milk. Alkaline phosphatase concentrations in cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk and in flavored drinks and cream were determined by three methods. Evaluations in each matrix were conducted with pasteurized samples spiked with raw milk to produce alkaline phosphatase concentrations of 2 to 5,000 mU/liter. The tests were performed by the method developer and then reproduced at a laboratory at the National Center for Food Safety and Technology following the criteria for a single laboratory validation. The results indicated that the fast alkaline phosphatase method was not significantly different from the approved chemiluminescent method, with a limit of detection of 20 to 50 mU/liter in all the studied matrices. This modified chemiluminescent method detects alkaline phosphatase in the 350 mU/liter range with absolute differences from triplicate data that are lower and within the range of the allowed intralaboratory repeatability values published for the approved chemiluminescent method.

  4. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for meat analysis.

    PubMed

    Yalçınkaya, Burhanettin; Yumbul, Eylem; Mozioğlu, Erkan; Akgoz, Muslum

    2017-04-15

    Preventing adulteration of meat and meat products with less desirable or objectionable meat species is important not only for economical, religious and health reasons, but also, it is important for fair trade practices, therefore, several methods for identification of meat and meat products have been developed. In the present study, ten different DNA extraction methods, including Tris-EDTA Method, a modified Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) Method, Alkaline Method, Urea Method, Salt Method, Guanidinium Isothiocyanate (GuSCN) Method, Wizard Method, Qiagen Method, Zymogen Method and Genespin Method were examined to determine their relative effectiveness for extracting DNA from meat samples. The results show that the salt method is easy to perform, inexpensive and environmentally friendly. Additionally, it has the highest yield among all the isolation methods tested. We suggest this method as an alternative method for DNA isolation from meat and meat products.

  5. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, David T.

    1992-01-01

    A method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction.

  6. Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1998-12-01

    Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

  7. Cost-effective method of DNA extraction from taeniid eggs.

    PubMed

    Dyachenko, V; Beck, E; Pantchev, N; Bauer, C

    2008-03-01

    A new cost-effective method using silicon dioxide- and guanidine isothiocyanate-containing buffers, after previous alkaline lysis, was established for the DNA extraction from taeniid eggs isolated from canine faeces. The purified DNA can be used to amplify the species-specific 12S mitochondrial DNA of Echinococcus multilocularis in direct and nested polymerase chain reaction in order to differentiate between E. multilocularis and Taenia spp.

  8. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  9. Lignin isolation process from rice husk by alkaline hydrogen peroxide: Lignin and silica extracted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma'ruf, Anwar; Pramudono, Bambang; Aryanti, Nita

    2017-03-01

    Biomass is one of abundance resources in the world. Biomass consists of three main materials such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Therefore, biomass can be referred to lignocellulosic material. Both the cellulose and hemicelluloses fractions are polymers of sugars, and thereby a potential source of fermentable sugars, or other processes that convert sugars into products. Lignin is a polymer compound which contains of phenolic compounds. Rice husk is one of biomass, which has high contain of lignin. Rice husk has special characteristics because of silica content. The aim of this paper is to analyze lignin and silica extracted during lignin isolation process of rice husk using alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Three main variables such as solvent/solid ratio, concentration of hydrogen peroxide and pH of the mixture are studied. The optimum conditions for lignin isolation are at solvent/solid ratio 9:1 ml/gr, hydrogen peroxide concentration of 1.5%v and pH of the mixture of 11.

  10. Quantitative method for determining serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity II. Development and clinical application of method for measuring four serum alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, M D; Peake, M J; Walmsley, R N

    1986-01-01

    A method for quantitating the liver, bone, intestinal and placental alkaline phosphatase activity of serum, using an algorithm for converting selective inactivation by guanidine hydrochloride, L-phenylalanine, and heat into equivalent isoenzyme activity is described. The method can individually quantify mixtures of isoenzymes to within a margin of 3%; it has acceptable reproducibility and has been used to develop both age and sex related reference ranges. Analysis time is about 30 minutes. The clinical reliability of this method has been shown in a study of 101 patients, in 79% of whom isoenzyme results were compatible with the final clinical diagnosis; in 10% a clinical diagnosis resulted from isoenzyme analysis, and in a further 11% the source of the increased alkaline phosphatase activity was identified and supported by electrophoresis, with a definite clinical diagnosis yet to be made. PMID:3760234

  11. Chitin extraction from blue crab (Portunus segnis) and shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) shells using digestive alkaline proteases from P. segnis viscera.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Marwa; Hammami, Amal; Hajji, Sawssen; Jridi, Mourad; Nasri, Moncef; Nasri, Rim

    2017-03-20

    Since chitin is closely associated with proteins, deproteinization is a crucial step in the process of extracting chitin. Thus, this research aimed to extract chitin from Portunus segnis and Penaeus kerathurus shells by means of crude digestive alkaline proteases from the viscera of P. segnis, regarding deproteinization step, as an alternative to chemical treatment. Casein zymography revealed that five caseinolytic proteases bands exist, suggesting the presence of at least five different major proteases. The optimum pH and temperature for protease activity were pH 8.0 and 60°C, respectively, using casein as a substrate. The crude enzymes extract was highly stable at low temperatures and over a wide range of pH from 6.0 to 12.0. The crude alkaline protease extract was found to be effective in the deproteinization of blue crab and shrimp shells, to produce chitin. The best efficiency in deproteinization (84.69±0.65% for blue crab shells and 91.06±1.40% for shrimp shells) was achieved with an E/S ratio of 5U/mg of proteins after 3h incubation at 50°C. These results suggest that enzymatic deproteinization of crab and shrimp wastes by fish endogenous alkaline proteases could be a potential alternative in the chitin production process.

  12. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    PubMed

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded.

  13. Effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the acid-soluble collagen from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dasong; Wei, Guanmian; Li, Tiancheng; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Zhou, Peng

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the production of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from grass carp skin. For alkaline pretreatment, 0.05 and 0.1M NaOH removed non-collagenous proteins without significant loss of ASC at 4, 10, 15 and 20 °C; while 0.2 and 0.5M NaOH caused significant loss of ASC, and 0.5M NaOH caused structural modification of ASC at 15 and 20 °C. For acid extraction at 4, 10, 15 and 20 °C, ASC was partly extracted by 0.1 and 0.2M acetic acid, while 0.5 and 1.0M acetic acid resulted in almost complete extraction. The processing conditions involving 0.05-0.1M NaOH for pretreatment, 0.5M acetic acid for extraction and 4-20 °C for both pretreatment and extraction, produced ASC with the structural integrity being well maintained and hence were recommended to prepare ASC from grass carp skin in practical application.

  14. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1992-10-06

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction. 2 figs.

  15. The application of alkaline lysis and pressure cycling technology in the differential extraction of DNA from sperm and epithelial cells recovered from cotton swabs.

    PubMed

    Nori, Deepthi V; McCord, Bruce R

    2015-09-01

    This study reports the development of a two-step protocol using pressure cycling technology (PCT) and alkaline lysis for differential extraction of DNA from mixtures of sperm and vaginal epithelial cells recovered from cotton swabs. In controlled experiments, in which equal quantities of sperm and female epithelial cells were added to cotton swabs, 5 min of pressure pulsing in the presence of 0.4 M NaOH resulted in 104 ± 6% recovery of female epithelial DNA present on the swab. Following the pressure treatment, exposing the swabs to a second 5-min alkaline treatment at 95 °C without pressure resulted in the selective recovery of 69 ± 6% of the sperm DNA. The recovery of the vaginal epithelia and sperm DNA was optimized by examining the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration, incubation temperature, and time. Following the alkaline lysis steps, the samples were neutralized with 2 M Tris (pH 7.5) and purified with phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol to permit downstream analysis. The total processing time to remove both fractions from the swab was less than 20 min. Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of these fractions obtained from PCT treatment and alkaline lysis generated clean profiles of female epithelial DNA and male sperm DNA for 1:1 mixtures of female and male cells and predominant male profiles for mixtures up to 5:1 female to male cells. By reducing the time and increasing the recovery of DNA from cotton swabs, this new method presents a novel and potentially useful procedure for forensic differential extractions.

  16. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  17. Removal of dissolved actinides from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    DOEpatents

    Krot, Nikolai N.; Charushnikova, Iraida A.

    1997-01-01

    A method of reducing the concentration of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline radwastes containing plutonium and neptunium values along with other transuranic values produced during the course of plutonium production. The OH.sup.- concentration of the alkaline radwaste is adjusted to between about 0.1M and about 4M. [UO.sub.2 (O.sub.2).sub.3 ].sup.4- ion is added to the radwastes in the presence of catalytic amounts of Cu.sup.+2, Co.sup.+2 or Fe.sup.+2 with heating to a temperature in excess of about 60.degree. C. or 85.degree. C., depending on the catalyst, to coprecipitate plutonium and neptunium from the radwaste. Thereafter, the coprecipitate is separated from the alkaline radwaste.

  18. Removal of dissolved actinides from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Krot, N.N.; Charushnikova, I.A.

    1997-06-17

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline radwastes containing plutonium and neptunium values along with other transuranic values produced during the course of plutonium production. The OH{sup {minus}} concentration of the alkaline radwaste is adjusted to between about 0.1M and about 4M. [UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup 4{minus}} ion is added to the radwastes in the presence of catalytic amounts of Cu{sup +2}, Co{sup +2} or Fe{sup +2} with heating to a temperature in excess of about 60 C or 85 C, depending on the catalyst, to coprecipitate plutonium and neptunium from the radwaste. Thereafter, the coprecipitate is separated from the alkaline radwaste. 2 figs.

  19. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Reis, Signo T.; Velez, Mariano; Day, Delbert E.

    2010-01-26

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  20. Alternative Alkaline Conditioning of Amidoxime Based Adsorbent for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Liao, W. -P.; Flicker Byers, M.; Tsouris, C.; Janke, C. J.; Mayes, R. T.; Schneider, E.; Kuo, L. -J.; Wood, J. R.; Gill, G. A.; Dai, S.

    2016-04-20

    Alkaline conditioning of the amidoxime based adsorbents is a significant step in the preparation of the adsorbent for uranium uptake from seawater. The effects of various alkaline conditioning parameters such as the type of alkaline reagent, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated with respect to uranium adsorption capacity from simulated seawater (spiked with 8 ppm uranium) and natural seawater (from Sequim Bay, WA). An adsorbent (AF1) was prepared at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory by radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) with acrylonitrile and itaconic acid onto high-surface-area polyethylene fibers. For the AF1 adsorbent, sodium hydroxide emerged as a better reagent for alkaline conditioning over potassium hydroxide, which has typically been used in previous studies, because of higher uranium uptake capacity and lower cost over the other candidate alkaline reagents investigated in this study. Use of sodium hydroxide in place of potassium hydroxide is shown to result in a 21-30% decrease in the cost of uranium recovery.

  1. Alternative alkaline conditioning of amidoxime based adsorbent for uranium extraction from seawater

    DOE PAGES

    Das, Sadananda; Liao, Wei -Po; Byers, Maggie Flicker; ...

    2015-10-18

    Alkaline conditioning of the amidoxime based adsorbents is a significant step in the preparation of the adsorbent for uranium uptake from seawater. The effects of various alkaline conditioning parameters such as the type of alkaline reagent, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated with respect to uranium adsorption capacity from simulated seawater (spiked with 8 ppm uranium) and natural seawater (from Sequim Bay, WA). An adsorbent (AF1) was prepared at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory by radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) with acrylonitrile and itaconic acid onto high-surface-area polyethylene fibers. For the AF1 adsorbent, sodium hydroxide emerged as a better reagentmore » for alkaline conditioning over potassium hydroxide, which has typically been used in previous studies, because of higher uranium uptake capacity and lower cost over the other candidate alkaline reagents investigated in this study. Furthermore, the use of sodium hydroxide in place of potassium hydroxide is shown to result in a 21–30% decrease in the cost of uranium recovery.« less

  2. Alternative alkaline conditioning of amidoxime based adsorbent for uranium extraction from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sadananda; Liao, Wei -Po; Byers, Maggie Flicker; Tsouris, Costas; Janke, Christopher James; Mayes, Richard T.; Schneider, Eric; Kuo, Li -Jung; Wood, Jordana R.; Gill, Gary A.; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-18

    Alkaline conditioning of the amidoxime based adsorbents is a significant step in the preparation of the adsorbent for uranium uptake from seawater. The effects of various alkaline conditioning parameters such as the type of alkaline reagent, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated with respect to uranium adsorption capacity from simulated seawater (spiked with 8 ppm uranium) and natural seawater (from Sequim Bay, WA). An adsorbent (AF1) was prepared at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory by radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) with acrylonitrile and itaconic acid onto high-surface-area polyethylene fibers. For the AF1 adsorbent, sodium hydroxide emerged as a better reagent for alkaline conditioning over potassium hydroxide, which has typically been used in previous studies, because of higher uranium uptake capacity and lower cost over the other candidate alkaline reagents investigated in this study. Furthermore, the use of sodium hydroxide in place of potassium hydroxide is shown to result in a 21–30% decrease in the cost of uranium recovery.

  3. Digestive Alkaline Proteases from Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, Raja clavata, and Scorpaena scrofa: Characteristics and Application in Chitin Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Rim; Younes, Islem; Lassoued, Imen; Ghorbel, Sofiane; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study some biochemical characteristics of crude alkaline protease extracts from the viscera of goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus), thornback ray (Raja clavata), and scorpionfish (Scorpaena scrofa), and to investigate their applications in the deproteinization of shrimp wastes. At least four caseinolytic proteases bands were observed in zymogram of each enzyme preparation. The optimum pH for enzymatic extracts activities of Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa were 8.0-9.0, 8.0, and 10.0, respectively. Interestingly, all the enzyme preparations were highly stable over a wide range of pH from 6.0 to 11.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity were 50°C for Z. ophiocephalus and R. clavata and 55°C for S. scrofa crude alkaline proteases. Proteolytic enzymes showed high stability towards non-ionic surfactants (5% Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100). In addition, crude proteases of S. scrofa, R. clavata, and Z. ophiocephalus were found to be highly stable towards oxidizing agents, retaining 100%, 70%, and 66%, respectively, of their initial activity after incubation for 1 h in the presence of 1% sodium perborate. They were, however, highly affected by the anionic surfactant SDS. The crude alkaline proteases were tested for the deproteinization of shrimp waste in the preparation of chitin. All proteases were found to be effective in the deproteinization of shrimp waste. The protein removals after 3 h of hydrolysis at 45°C with an enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) of 10 were about 76%, 76%, and 80%, for Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa crude proteases, respectively. These results suggest that enzymatic deproteinization of shrimp wastes by fish endogenous alkaline proteases could be applicable to the chitin production process. PMID:22312476

  4. Digestive Alkaline Proteases from Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, Raja clavata, and Scorpaena scrofa: Characteristics and Application in Chitin Extraction.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Rim; Younes, Islem; Lassoued, Imen; Ghorbel, Sofiane; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study some biochemical characteristics of crude alkaline protease extracts from the viscera of goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus), thornback ray (Raja clavata), and scorpionfish (Scorpaena scrofa), and to investigate their applications in the deproteinization of shrimp wastes. At least four caseinolytic proteases bands were observed in zymogram of each enzyme preparation. The optimum pH for enzymatic extracts activities of Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa were 8.0-9.0, 8.0, and 10.0, respectively. Interestingly, all the enzyme preparations were highly stable over a wide range of pH from 6.0 to 11.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity were 50°C for Z. ophiocephalus and R. clavata and 55°C for S. scrofa crude alkaline proteases. Proteolytic enzymes showed high stability towards non-ionic surfactants (5% Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100). In addition, crude proteases of S. scrofa, R. clavata, and Z. ophiocephalus were found to be highly stable towards oxidizing agents, retaining 100%, 70%, and 66%, respectively, of their initial activity after incubation for 1 h in the presence of 1% sodium perborate. They were, however, highly affected by the anionic surfactant SDS. The crude alkaline proteases were tested for the deproteinization of shrimp waste in the preparation of chitin. All proteases were found to be effective in the deproteinization of shrimp waste. The protein removals after 3 h of hydrolysis at 45°C with an enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) of 10 were about 76%, 76%, and 80%, for Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa crude proteases, respectively. These results suggest that enzymatic deproteinization of shrimp wastes by fish endogenous alkaline proteases could be applicable to the chitin production process.

  5. Recovery of zinc and manganese from spent alkaline batteries by liquid-liquid extraction with Cyanex 272

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado, Aline L.; Veloso, Aline M. O.; Pereira, Daniel D.; Gontijo, Glayson S.; Salum, Adriane; Mansur, Marcelo B.

    A hydrometallurgical route based on the liquid-liquid extraction technique using Cyanex 272 as extractant is investigated for the selective separation of metal values, in particular, zinc and manganese from spent alkaline batteries. The recycling route consists of following steps: (1) cryogenic dismantling of the spent batteries, (2) pre-treatment of the internal material consisting of drying, grinding and screening steps in order to produce a dry homogeneous powder, (3) leaching of the powder with sulphuric acid and (4) metal separation by liquid-liquid extraction. Bench scale experiments have shown that zinc and manganese are easily separated (ΔpH 1/2≈2.0) using 20% (v/v) Cyanex 272 dissolved in Escaid 110 at 50 °C. Therefore, the proposed route can treat residues from both zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries because metal composition of these batteries is quite similar. The metal content of other batteries such as Ni-Cd and nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) has been also determined in order to include them in future investigations.

  6. Gelation properties of spent duck meat surimi-like material produced using acid-alkaline solubilization methods.

    PubMed

    Nurkhoeriyati, T; Huda, N; Ahmad, R

    2011-01-01

    The gelation properties of spent duck meat surimi-like material produced using acid solubilization (ACS) or alkaline solubilization (ALS) were studied and compared with conventionally processed (CON) surimi-like material. The ACS process yielded the highest protein recovery (P < 0.05). The ALS process generated the highest lipid reduction, and the CON process yielded the lowest reduction (P < 0.05). Surimi-like material produced by the CON process had the highest gel strength, salt extractable protein (SEP), and water holding capacity (WHC), followed by materials produced via the ALS and ACS processes and untreated duck meat (P < 0.05). The material produced by the CON process also had the highest cohesiveness, hardness, and gumminess values and the lowest springiness value. Material produced by the ACS and ALS processes had higher whiteness values than untreated duck meat gels and gels produced by the CON method (P < 0.05). Surimi-like material produced using the ACS and CON processes had significantly higher myoglobin removal (P < 0.05) than that produced by the ALS method and untreated duck meat. Among all surimi-like materials, the highest Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was found in conventionally produced gels (P < 0.05). This suggests that protein oxidation was induced by acid-alkaline solubilization. The gels produced by ALS had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) total SH content than the other samples. This result showed that the acid-alkaline solubilization clearly improved gelation and color properties of spent duck and possibly applied for other high fat raw material.

  7. Improved method of signature extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christianson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Kriegler, F. J.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R. E.; Mclaughlin, R.; Smith, V.

    1977-01-01

    System promises capability of rapidly processing large amounts of data generated by currently available and planned multispectral sensors, such as those utilized on aircraft and spacecraft. Techniques developed for system, greatly decrease operator time required for signature extraction from multispectral data base.

  8. Pueraria mirifica extract and puerarin enhance proliferation and expression of alkaline phosphatase and type I collagen in primary baboon osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Tiyasatkulkovit, Wacharaporn; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Havill, Lorena M; Ford, Allen L; VandeBerg, John L

    2014-10-15

    Phytoestrogen-rich Pueraria mirifica (PM) tuberous extract is a promising candidate for the development of anti-osteoporosis drugs for postmenopausal women, but its action has never been validated in humans or in non-human primates, which are more closely related to humans than rodents. In vitro study of non-human primate osteoblasts is thus fundamental to prepare for in vivo studies of phytoestrogen effects on primate bone. This study aimed to establish a culture system of baboon primary osteoblasts and to investigate the effects of PM extract and its phytoestrogens on these cells. Primary osteoblasts from adult baboon fibulae exhibited osteoblast characteristics in regard to proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and estrogen receptor expression. They responded to 17β-estradiol by increased proliferation rate and mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen, and osteocalcin. After being exposed for 48 h to 100 μg/ml PM extract, 1000 nM genistein, or 1000 nM puerarin, primary baboon osteoblasts markedly increased the rate of proliferation and mRNA levels of ALP and type I collagen without changes in Runx2, osterix, or osteocalcin expression. PM extract, genistein, and puerarin also decreased the RANKL/OPG ratio, suggesting that they could decrease osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. However, neither PM extract nor its phytoestrogens altered calcium deposition in osteoblast culture. In conclusion, we have established baboon primary osteoblast culture, which is a new tool for bone research and drug discovery. Furthermore, the present results provide substantial support for the potential of PM extract and its phytoestrogens to be developed as therapeutic agents against bone fragility.

  9. Removing tannins from medicinal plant extracts using an alkaline ethanol precipitation process: a case study of Danshen injection.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Qu, Haibin

    2014-11-14

    The alkaline ethanol precipitation process is investigated as an example of a technique for the removal of tannins extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma for the manufacture of Danshen injection. More than 90% of the tannins can be removed. However, the recoveries of danshensu, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B were less than 60%. Total tannin removal increased as the refrigeration temperature decreased or the amount of NaOH solution added increased. Phenolic compound recoveries increased as refrigeration temperature increased or the amount of NaOH solution added decreased. When operated at a low refrigeration temperature, a relative high separation selectivity can be realized. Phenolic compound losses and tannin removal were mainly caused by precipitation. The formation of phenol salts, whose solubility is small in the mixture of ethanol and water used, is probably the reason for the precipitation. A model considering dissociation equilibrium and dissolution equilibrium was established. Satisfactory correlation results were obtained for phenolic compound recoveries and total tannin removal. Two important parameters in the model, which are the water content and pH value of alkaline supernatant, are suggested to be monitored and controlled to obtain high batch-to-batch consistency.

  10. Comparison of methods for following alkaline phosphatase catalysis: spectrophotometric versus amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R Q; Barone, G C; Halsall, H B; Heineman, W R

    1991-01-01

    An amperometric method for alkaline phosphatase is described and compared to the most widely used spectrophotometric method. Catalytic hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenylphosphate (the substrate in the spectrophotometric method) gives 4-aminophenylphosphate (the substrate in the amperometric method). The latter substrate has the formula C6H6NO4PNa2.5H2O and a Mr of 323. The Michaelis constant for 4-aminophenylphosphate in 0.10 M, pH 9.0. Tris buffer is 56 microM, while it is 82 microM for 4-nitrophenyl phosphate. The amperometric method has a detection limit of 7 nM for the product of the enzyme reaction, which is almost 20 times better than the spectrophotometric method. Similarly, with a 15-min reaction at room temperature and in a reaction volume of 1.1 ml, 0.05 microgram/l alkaline phosphatase can be detected by electrochemistry, almost an order of magnitude better than by absorption spectrophotometry. Amperometric detection is ideally suited for small-volume and trace immunoassay.

  11. Alkaline solubilization and microwave irradiation as a combined sludge disintegration and minimization method.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Ilgin; Sanin, F Dilek

    2009-05-01

    Commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline solubilization (using NaOH) and a relatively new technology of microwave (MW) irradiation (160 degrees C) were combined as a pretreatment method of waste activated sludge (WAS) in this study. First alkaline and MW pretreatment methods were examined separately, then their combination for different conditions was investigated in terms of their effect on COD solubilization, turbidity and capillary suction time (CST). For combined pretreatments, soluble COD to total COD ratio (SCOD/TCOD) of WAS increased from 0.005 (control) to 0.18, 0.27, 0.34 and 0.37 for combined methods of MW and pH-10, 11, 12 and 12.5, respectively. Deteriorated dewaterability due to alkaline pretreatment was also improved due to the incorporation of MW irradiation. Further, with small scale batch anaerobic reactors, pH-10, pH-12, MW (alone), MW+pH-10 and MW+pH-12 pretreated WAS samples were anaerobically digested. Highest total gas and methane productions were achieved with MW+pH-12 pretreatment with 16.3% and 18.9% improvements over control reactor, respectively. Finally the performance of MW+pH-12 pretreatment was examined with 2L anaerobic semi-continuous reactors for 92 days and compared to that of the control reactors. These reactors were operated at an SRT of 15 days. After steady state, 43.5% and 55% improvements were obtained in respective daily total gas and methane productions. TS, VS and TCOD reductions were improved by 24.9%, 35.4% and 30.3%, respectively based on a relative calculation with respect to control reactors. This way combined alkaline-microwave treatment proved to be an effective sludge minimization method. Pretreated digested sludge had 22% improved dewaterability than unpretreated digested sludge. Higher SCOD and NH(3)-N concentrations were measured in the pretreated digested sludge supernatant; however, PO(4)-P concentration did not increase much.

  12. Electronic Nose Feature Extraction Methods: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jia; Guo, Xiuzhen; Duan, Shukai; Jia, Pengfei; Wang, Lidan; Peng, Chao; Zhang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Many research groups in academia and industry are focusing on the performance improvement of electronic nose (E-nose) systems mainly involving three optimizations, which are sensitive material selection and sensor array optimization, enhanced feature extraction methods and pattern recognition method selection. For a specific application, the feature extraction method is a basic part of these three optimizations and a key point in E-nose system performance improvement. The aim of a feature extraction method is to extract robust information from the sensor response with less redundancy to ensure the effectiveness of the subsequent pattern recognition algorithm. Many kinds of feature extraction methods have been used in E-nose applications, such as extraction from the original response curves, curve fitting parameters, transform domains, phase space (PS) and dynamic moments (DM), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), energy vector (EV), power density spectrum (PSD), window time slicing (WTS) and moving window time slicing (MWTS), moving window function capture (MWFC), etc. The object of this review is to provide a summary of the various feature extraction methods used in E-noses in recent years, as well as to give some suggestions and new inspiration to propose more effective feature extraction methods for the development of E-nose technology. PMID:26540056

  13. Simultaneous speciation analysis of chromate, molybdate, tungstate and vanadate in welding fume alkaline extracts by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Ščančar, Janez; Berlinger, Balázs; Thomassen, Yngvar; Milačič, Radmila

    2015-09-01

    A novel analytical procedure was developed for the simultaneous speciation analysis of chromate, molybdate, tungstate and vanadate by anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Linear gradient elution from 100% water to 100% 0.7 M NaCl was applied for chromatographic separation of metal species. In standard aqueous solution at neutral pH molybdate, tungstate and vanadate exist in several aqueous species, while chromate is present as a single CrO4(2-) species. Consequently, only chromate can be separated from this solution in a sharp chromatographic peak. For obtaining sharp chromatographic peaks for molybdate, tungstate and vanadate, the pH of aqueous standard solutions was raised to 12. At highly alkaline conditions single CrO4(2-), MoO4(2-) and WO4(2-) are present and were eluted in sharp chromatographic peaks, while VO4(3-) species, which predominates at pH 12 was eluted in slightly broaden peak. In a mixture of aqueous standard solutions (pH 12) chromate, molybdate, tungstate and vanadate were eluted at retention times from 380 to 420 s, 320 to 370 s, 300 to 350 s and 240 to 360 s, respectively. Eluted species were simultaneously detected on-line by ICP-MS recording m/z 52, 95, 182 and 51. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of leachable concentrations of chromate, molybdate, tungstate and vanadate in alkaline extracts (2% NaOH+3% Na2CO3) of manual metal arc (MMA) welding fumes loaded on filters. Good repeatability and reproducibility of measurement (RSD±3.0%) for the investigated species were obtained in both aqueous standard solutions (pH 12) and in alkaline extracts of welding fumes. Low limits of detection (LODs) were found for chromate (0.02 ng Cr mL(-1)), molybdate (0.1 ng Mo mL(-1)), tungstate (0.1 ng W mL(-1)) and vanadate (0.2 ng V mL(-1)). The accuracy of analytical procedure for the determination of chromate was checked by analysis of

  14. An improved method for analysis of hydroxide and carbonate in alkaline electrolytes containing zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified method for titration of carbonate and hydroxide in alkaline battery electrolyte is presented involving a saturated KSCN solution as a complexing agent for zinc. Both hydroxide and carbonate can be determined in one titration, and the complexing reagent is readily prepared. Since the pH at the end point is shifted from 8.3 to 7.9 - 8.0, m-cresol purple or phenol red are used as indicators rather than phenolphthalein. Bromcresol green is recommended for determination of the second end point of a pH of 4.3 to 4.4.

  15. Hydrophilic Electrode For An Alkaline Electrochemical Cell, And Method Of Manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Senyarich, Stephane; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel

    2000-03-07

    A negative electrode for an alkaline electrochemical cell. The electrode comprises an active material and a hydrophilic agent constituted by small cylindrical rods of polyolefin provided with hydrophilic groups. The mean length of the rods is less than 50 microns and the mean diameter thereof is less than 20 microns. A method of manufacturing a negative electrode in which hydrophilic rods are made by fragmenting long polyolefin fibers having a mean diameter of less than 20 microns by oxidizing them, with the rods being mixed with the active material and the mixture being applied to a current conductor.

  16. An improved method for analysis of hydroxide and carbonate in alkaline electrolytes containing zinc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified method for titration of carbonate and hydroxide in alkaline battery electrolyte is presented involving a saturated KSCN solution as a complexing agent for zinc. Both hydroxide and carbonate can be determined in one titration, and the complexing reagent is readily prepared. Since the pH at the end point is shifted from 8.3 to 7.9-8.0, m-cresol purple or phenol red are used as indicators rather than phenolphthalein. Bromcresol green is recommended for determination of the second end point of a pH of 4.3 to 4.4.

  17. Extraction and Separation of Vitisin D, Ampelopsin B and cis-Vitisin A from Iris lactea Pall. var. chinensis (Fisch.) Koidz by Alkaline Extraction-Acid Precipitation and High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lv, Huanhuan; Zhou, Wenna; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhenhua; Suo, Yourui; Wang, Honglun

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring oligostilbenes are receiving more attention because they exhibit several beneficial effects for health, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-adipogenic, antioxidant, antiaging, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiviral, immunosuppressive and neuroprotective activities. Thus, they could be of some potentially therapeutic values for several diseases. In this study, we adopted the alkaline extraction-acid precipitation (AEAP) method for extraction of oligostilbenes from the seed kernel of Iris lactea Then, the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used for preparative isolation and purification of oligostilbenes from the AEAP extracts. Finally, three oligostilbenes, namely vitisin D (73 mg), ampelopsin B (25 mg) and cis-vitisin A (16 mg), were successfully fractionated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2:5:3:6, v/v/v/v) from 300 mg of the AEAP extracts in ∼ 190 min. The purities of the three isolated oligostilbenes were all over 95.0% as analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. They all were isolated from I. lacteal for the first time.The method of AEAP for the preparation of the oligostilbene-enriched crude sample was simple, and the HSCCC technique for the isolation and purification of oligostilbenes was efficient.

  18. Alkaline pretreatment methods followed by acid hydrolysis of Saccharum spontaneum for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Gaurav; Singh, Lalit Kumar; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2012-11-01

    Different alkaline pretreatment methods (NaOH, NaOH+10% urea and aqueous ammonia) were optimized for maximum delignification of Saccharum spontaneum at 30°C. Maximum delignification were obtained as 47.8%, 51% and 48% from NaOH (7% NaOH, 48h, and 10% biomass loading), NaOH+urea (7% NaOH+10% urea, 48 h and 10% biomass loading) and 30% ammonia (40 days and 10% biomass loading) respectively. H(2)SO(4) 60% (v/v), 10% biomass loading at 30°C for 4h, were optimized conditions to solubilize the cellulose and hemicellulose from solid residue obtained after different optimized alkaline pretreatments. Slurry thus obtained was diluted to obtain final acid concentration of 10% (v/v) for real hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose at 100°C for 1h. Among all pretreatment methods applied, the best result 0.58 g (85%) reducing sugars/g of initial biomass after acid hydrolysis was obtained from aqueous ammonia pretreated biomass. Scheffersomyces stipitis CBS6054 was used to ferment the hydrolysate; ethanol yield (Y(p/s)) and productivity (r(p)) were found to be 0.35 g/g and 0.22 g/L/h respectively.

  19. Determining the location of an Arabidopsis chloroplast protein using in vitro import followed by fractionation and alkaline extraction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-Min

    2011-01-01

    Chloroplasts have one of the most complicated structures among organelles. They have three membrane systems, the outer and inner envelope membranes and the thylakoid membrane, which enclose three aqueous spaces: the intermembrane space between the two envelope membranes, the stroma, and the thylakoid lumen. Each of the chloroplast's sub-organellar compartments houses a distinct set of proteins that perform distinct functions. Determining the sub-organellar location of a protein in the chloroplast is vital for understanding or verifying the function of the protein. Here, we present protocols for determining the sub-organellar location of a chloroplast protein. The protein of interest is synthesized and labeled with [(35)S]methionine by an in vitro translation system, and imported into isolated chloroplasts. The location of the protein is then identified by fractionation of the chloroplasts through differential and sucrose step-gradient centrifugations. The various sub-chloroplast fractions are analyzed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography, so no specific antibody against the protein of interest is required. For membrane proteins, an alkaline extraction protocol is provided to further determine whether the protein is a peripheral or an integral membrane protein. The fractionation and extraction procedures presented can also be used in conjunction with immunoblotting, if an antibody against the protein of interest is available, enabling analyses of endogenous proteins.

  20. Augmented digestion of lignocellulose by steam explosion, acid and alkaline pretreatment methods: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Joginder; Suhag, Meenakshi; Dhaka, Anil

    2015-03-06

    Lignocellulosic materials can be explored as one of the sustainable substrates for bioethanol production through microbial intervention as they are abundant, cheap and renewable. But at the same time, their recalcitrant structure makes the conversion process more cumbersome owing to their chemical composition which adversely affects the efficiency of bioethanol production. Therefore, the technical approaches to overcome recalcitrance of biomass feedstock has been developed to remove the barriers with the help of pretreatment methods which make cellulose more accessible to the hydrolytic enzymes, secreted by the microorganisms, for its conversion to glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in cost effective manner is a major challenge to bioethanol technology research and development. Hence, in this review, we have discussed various aspects of three commonly used pretreatment methods, viz., steam explosion, acid and alkaline, applied on various lignocellulosic biomasses to augment their digestibility alongwith the challenges associated with their processing.

  1. Extraction Methods in Soil Phosphorus Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soinne, Helena

    2010-05-01

    Extraction methods are widely used to assess the bioavailability of P and to characterise soil P reserves. Even though new and more sophisticated methods to characterise soil P are constantly developed the use of extraction methods is not likely to be replaced because of the relatively simple analytical equipment needed for the analysis. However, the large variety of extractants, pre-treatments and sample preparation procedures complicate the comparison of published results. In order to improve our understanding of the behaviour and cycling of P in soil, it is important to know the role of extracted P in the soil P cycle. The knowledge of the factors affecting the analytical outcome is a prerequisite for justified interpretation of the results. In this study, the effect of sample pre-treatment and properties of the used extractant on extractable molybdate-reactive phosphorus (MRP) and molybdate-unreactive phosphorus (MUP) was studied. Furthermore, the effect of sample preparation procedures prior the analysis on measured MRP and MUP was studied. Two widely used sequential extraction procedures were compared on their ability to show management induced differences on soil P. These results revealed that pre-treatments changed soil properties and air-drying was found to affect soil P, particularly extractable MUP, thought to represent organic P, by disrupting organic matter. This was evidenced by an increase in the water-extractable small-sized (<0.2 µm) P that, at least partly, took place at the expense of the large-sized (>0.2 µm) P. In addition to the effects of sample pre-treatment, the results showed that extractable organic P was sensitive to the chemical nature of the used extractant and to the sample preparation procedures employed prior to P analysis, including centrifugation and filtering of soil suspensions. Filtering may remove a major proportion of extractable MUP; therefore filtering cannot be recommended in the characterisation of solubilised MUP

  2. [Contrastive study on dynamic spectrum extraction method].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui-quan; Xiong, Chan; Lin, Ling

    2012-05-01

    Dynamic spectrum method extracts the absorbance of the artery pulse blood with some wavelengths. The method can reduce some influence such as measurement condition, individual difference and spectrum overlap. It is a new way for noninvasive blood components detection However, how to choose a dynamic spectrum extraction method is one of the key links for the weak ingredient spectrum signal. Now there are two methods to extract the dynamic spectral signal-frequency domain analysis and single-trial estimation in time domain In the present research, comparison analysis and research on the two methods were carrued out completely. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the two methods extract the dynamic spectrum from different angles. But they are the same in essence--the basic principle of dynamic spectrum, the signal statistical and average properties. With the pulse wave of relative stable period and amplitude, high precision dynamic spectrum can be obtained by the two methods. With the unstable pulse wave due to the influence of finger shake and contact-pressure change, the dynamic spectrum extracted by single-trial estimation is more accurate than the one by frequecy domain analysis.

  3. Probing metabolic stability of CdSe nanoparticles: alkaline extraction of free cadmium from liver and kidney samples of rats exposed to CdSe nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Zikri; Ates, Mehmet; McDuffy, Wanaki; Agachan, M. Sabri; Farah, Ibrahim O.; Yu, W. William; Bednar, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium selenide nanoparticles (CdSe NPs) exhibit novel optoelectronic properties for potential biomedical applications. However, their metabolic stability is not fully understood because of the difficulties in measurement of free Cd from biological tissues of exposed individuals. In this study, alkaline dissolution with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is demonstrated for selective determination of free Cd and intact NPs from liver and kidney samples of animals that were exposed to thiol-capped CdSe NPs. Aqueous suspensions of CdSe NPs (3.2 nm) were used to optimize the conditions for extracting free Cd without affecting NPs. Nanoparticles were found to aggregate when heated in TMAH without releasing any significant Cd to solution. Performance of the method in discriminating free Cd and intact NPs were verified by Dogfish Liver (DOLT-4) certified reference material. The samples from the animals were digested in 4 mL TMAH at 70 °C to extract free Cd followed by analysis of aqueous phase by ICP-MS. Both liver and kidney contained significant levels of free Cd. Total Cd was higher in the liver, while kidney accumulated mostly free Cd such that up to 47.9% of total Cd in the kidney was free Cd when NPs were exposed to UV-light before injection. PMID:21700388

  4. The effect of alkaline pretreatment methods on cellulose structure and accessibility

    DOE PAGES

    Bali, Garima; Meng, Xianzhi; Deneff, Jacob I.; ...

    2014-11-24

    The effects of different alkaline pretreatments on cellulose structural features and accessibility are compared and correlated with the enzymatic hydrolysis of Populus. The pretreatments are shown to modify polysaccharides and lignin content to enhance the accessibility for cellulase enzymes. The highest increase in the cellulose accessibility was observed in dilute sodium hydroxide, followed by methods using ammonia soaking and lime (Ca(OH)2). The biggest increase of cellulose accessibility occurs during the first 10 min of pretreatment, with further increases at a slower rate as severity increases. Low temperature ammonia soaking at longer residence times dissolved a major portion of hemicellulose andmore » exhibited higher cellulose accessibility than high temperature soaking. Moreover, the most significant reduction of degree of polymerization (DP) occurred for dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonia pretreated Populus samples. The study thus identifies important cellulose structural features and relevant parameters related to biomass recalcitrance.« less

  5. The effect of alkaline pretreatment methods on cellulose structure and accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Bali, Garima; Meng, Xianzhi; Deneff, Jacob I.; Sun, Qining; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2014-11-24

    The effects of different alkaline pretreatments on cellulose structural features and accessibility are compared and correlated with the enzymatic hydrolysis of Populus. The pretreatments are shown to modify polysaccharides and lignin content to enhance the accessibility for cellulase enzymes. The highest increase in the cellulose accessibility was observed in dilute sodium hydroxide, followed by methods using ammonia soaking and lime (Ca(OH)2). The biggest increase of cellulose accessibility occurs during the first 10 min of pretreatment, with further increases at a slower rate as severity increases. Low temperature ammonia soaking at longer residence times dissolved a major portion of hemicellulose and exhibited higher cellulose accessibility than high temperature soaking. Moreover, the most significant reduction of degree of polymerization (DP) occurred for dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonia pretreated Populus samples. The study thus identifies important cellulose structural features and relevant parameters related to biomass recalcitrance.

  6. Determination of lignin in marine sediment using alkaline cupric oxide oxidation-solid phase extraction-on-column derivatization-gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Li, Xianguo; Sun, Shuwen; Lan, Haiqing; Du, Peirui; Wang, Min

    2013-03-01

    Lignin serves as one of the most important molecular fossils for tracing Terrestrial Organic Matters (TOMs) in marine environment. Extraction and derivatization of lignin oxidation products (LOPs) are crucial for accurate quantification of lignin in marine sediment. Here we report a modification of the conventional alkaline cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation method, the modification consisting in a solid phase extraction (SPE) and a novel on-column derivatization being employed for better efficiency and reproducibility. In spiking blanks, recoveries with SPE for the LOPs are between 77.84% and 99.57% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 0.57% to 8.04% ( n=3), while those with traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) are from 44.52% to 86.16% with RSDs being from 0.53% to 13.14% ( n=3). Moreover, the reproducibility is greatly improved with SPE, with less solvent consumption and shorter processing time. The average efficiency of on-column derivatization for LOPs is 100.8% ± 0.68%, which is significantly higher than those of in-vial or in-syringe derivatization, thus resulting in still less consumption of derivatizing reagents. Lignin in the surface sediments sampled from the south of Yangtze River estuary, China, was determined with the established method. Recoveries of 72.66% to 85.99% with standard deviation less than 0.01mg/10g dry weight are obtained except for p-hydroxyben-zaldehyde. The lignin content Σ8 (produced from 10 g dry sediment) in the research area is between 0.231 and 0.587 mg. S/V and C/V ratios (1.028 ± 0.433 and 0.192 ± 0.066, respectively) indicate that the TOMs in this region are originated from a mixture of woody and nonwoody angiosperm plants; the high values of (Ad/Al)v suggest that the TOMs has been highly degraded.

  7. Alkaline protease production, extraction and characterization from alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis KBDL4: a Lonar soda lake isolate.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Anupama P; Deshmukh, Kshipra B

    2012-08-01

    A bacterium producing an alkaline protease was isolated from the Lonar soda lake, Buldhana district (19 degrees 58' N; 76 degrees 31' E), Maharashtra, India. The most appropriate medium for the growth and protease production was composed of (g/L): casein 10; yeast extract 4; KH2PO4 0.5, K2HPO4 0.5 and CaCl2 0.5. The enzyme showed maximum activity with and without 5 mM Ca2+ at 70 and 60 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme retained 40 and 82% of its initial activity after heating for 60 min at 60 degrees C, in absence and presence of 5 mM CaCl2 respectively. The enzyme remained active and stable at pH 8-12, with an optimum at pH 10. The enzyme showed stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants, and oxidizing agents. It also showed excellent stability and compatibility with commonly used laundry detergents. Wash performance analysis revealed that enzyme could effectively remove blood stains. It also showed decomposition of gelatinous coating on X- ray film.

  8. Improved enzymatic saccharification of steam exploded cotton stalk using alkaline extraction and fermentation of cellulosic sugars into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Keshav, Praveen K; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2016-08-01

    Cotton stalk, a widely available and cheap agricultural residue lacking economic alternatives, was subjected to steam explosion in the range 170-200°C for 5min. Steam explosion at 200°C and 5min led to significant hemicellulose solubilization (71.90±0.10%). Alkaline extraction of steam exploded cotton stalk (SECOH) using 3% NaOH at room temperature for 6h led to 85.07±1.43% lignin removal with complete hemicellulose solubilization. Besides, this combined pretreatment allowed a high recovery of the cellulosic fraction from the biomass. Enzymatic saccharification was studied between steam exploded cotton stalk (SECS) and SECOH using different cellulase loadings. SECOH gave a maximum of 785.30±8.28mg/g reducing sugars with saccharification efficiency of 82.13±0.72%. Subsequently, fermentation of SECOH hydrolysate containing sugars (68.20±1.16g/L) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 23.17±0.84g/L ethanol with 0.44g/g yield.

  9. Theoretical considerations and a simple method for measuring alkalinity and acidity in low-pH waters by gran titration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, J.L.; Johnsson, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Titrations for alkalinity and acidity using the technique described by Gran (1952, Determination of the equivalence point in potentiometric titrations, Part II: The Analyst, v. 77, p. 661-671) have been employed in the analysis of low-pH natural waters. This report includes a synopsis of the theory and calculations associated with Gran's technique and presents a simple and inexpensive method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations. However, potential sources of error introduced by the chemical character of some waters may limit the utility of Gran's technique. Therefore, the cost- and time-efficient method for performing alkalinity and acidity determinations described in this report is useful for exploring the suitability of Gran's technique in studies of water chemistry.

  10. Rapid extraction methods for organics in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Alsop, G.M.; Conway, R.A.

    1983-03-01

    This article presents rapid methods for the extraction and subsequent analysis of organics in soils potentially contaminated from chemical wastes. A methylene chloride extraction, on both a micro scale in a syringe and a macro scale in a shaken flask, with subsequent gravimetric analysis are described. On wet soils, anhydrous sodium sulfate is added to bind the water before adding methylene chloride and mixing with a vortex touch mixer. A baseline procedure is the direct gravimetric determination of volatile organics corrected with a Karl Fischer determination of water. Estimates of time saved by using the rapid methods, as well as precision and accuracy data, are presented.

  11. Methods of extracting hydrogen from lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bustin, Roberta

    1988-01-01

    Increasing interest in establishing a lunar base has generated considerable study on the utilization of lunar resources. Because of its importance in producing water, reducing oxides, and serving as a fuel for orbital tranfer vehicles, hydrogen is of prime importance as a resource. Lowman (1985) states that hydrogen would greatly facilitate the establishment of an autonomous permanent colony, and he calls hydrogen the most valuable lunar resource. Through the centuries, hydrogen has been embedded in lunar soil by the solar wind. The hydrogen can be extracted by heating the soil to 900 C (Carr et al, 1987). In order to obtain hydrogen on the lunar surface, an extraction method must be developed which will not only be reliable but also economically feasible. Three heating methods are examined for possible use in extracting hydrogen from lunar soil.

  12. Evaluation of Extraction and Degradation Methods to Obtain Chickpeasaponin B1 from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kun; Gao, Hua; Wang, Rong-Rong; Liu, Yang; Hou, Yu-Xue; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-21

    The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1) from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) processing parameters-such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction temperature, microwave irradiation power, and irradiation time-were evaluated. Using 1g of material with 8 mL of 70% aqueous ethanol and an extraction time of 10 min at 70 °C under irradiation power 400W provided optimal extraction conditions. Compared with the conventional extraction techniques, including heat reflux extraction (HRE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), and ultrasonic extraction (UE), MAE produced higher extraction efficiency under a lower extraction time. DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin can be degraded to structurally stable saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group. The influence of pH and the concentration of potassium hydroxide on transformation efficiency of the target compound was investigated. A solution of 0.25 M potassium hydroxide in 75% aqueous ethanol was suitable for converting the corresponding DDMP saponins of chickpeasaponin B1. The implementation by the combining MAE technique and alkaline hydrolysis method for preparing chickpeasaponin B1 provides a convenient technology for future applications.

  13. LC method for determination of prasugrel and mass spectrometry detection for thermal and alkaline degradation products.

    PubMed

    Rigobello, C; Barden, A T; Steppe, M

    2015-08-01

    A stability-indicating RP-LC method for the determination of prasugrel in tablets was developed and validated. Stress testing of prasugrel was carried out in accordance with ICH guidelines, where the drug was submitted to acidic and basic hydrolysis, oxidative, thermal and photolytic conditions. Prasugrel was unstable under all the conditions and the degradations products were analyzed by HPLC-UV. Furthermore, two main degradation products found under alkaline and thermal conditions were investigated by LC-MS. Based on the fragmentation patterns, two products resulted from hydrolysis of the acetate ester moiety of prasugrel were observed. Due the chemical equilibrium, tautomerism occurs between the ketone and alcohol functions justifying the similar molecular weight and fragment pattern obtained in degradation products analysis. Successful separation was achieved on a RP-18 octadecyl silane column using acetonitrile and triethylamine 0.5% mixture (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at 25 degrees C. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the detector wavelength was 263 nm. The method proposed in this work was successfully applied to quality control of prasugrel and contribute to stability assessment of pharmaceutical products containing this drug.

  14. Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-09

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  15. Structure and antitumor activity of a branched (1----3)-beta-D-glucan from the alkaline extract of Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Kiho, T; Katsuragawa, M; Nagai, K; Ukai, S; Haga, M

    1992-02-07

    A beta-(1----6)-branched (1----3)-beta-D-glucan(AM-ASN) was isolated from the alkaline extract of the fruiting bodies of Amanita muscaria. AM-ASN had [alpha]D - 11 degrees in 0.5 M sodium hydroxide. Its estimated molecular weight was 95,000 in this alkaline solution and 260,000 in a neutral solution. The branches in the glucan were primarily single, (1----6)-linked D-glucopyranosyl groups, two for every seven residues in the (1----3)-linked main chain. AM-ASN exhibited significant antitumor activity against Sarcoma 180 in mice, and a mixture of AM-ASN with mitomycin C was more effective against the tumor than mitomycin C only.

  16. Methods of use of calcium hexa aluminate refractory linings and/or chemical barriers in high alkali or alkaline environments

    DOEpatents

    McGowan, Kenneth A; Cullen, Robert M; Keiser, James R; Hemrick, James G; Meisner, Roberta A

    2013-10-22

    A method for improving the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of a liner in contact with at least one of an alkali and/or alkaline environments is provided. The method comprises lining a surface that is subject to wear by an alkali environment and/or an alkaline environment with a refractory composition comprising a refractory aggregate consisting essentially of a calcium hexa aluminate clinker having the formula CA.sub.6, wherein C is equal to calcium oxide, wherein A is equal to aluminum oxide, and wherein the hexa aluminate clinker has from zero to less than about fifty weight percent C.sub.12A.sub.7, and wherein greater than 98 weight percent of the calcium hexa aluminate clinker having a particle size ranging from -20 microns to +3 millimeters, for forming a liner of the surface. This method improves the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of the liner.

  17. Hydrometallurgical recovery of germanium from coal gasification fly ash. Solvent extraction method

    SciTech Connect

    Arroyo, F.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.

    2008-05-15

    This article is concerned with a simple hydrometallurgical method for the selective recovery of germanium from fly ash (FA) generated in an integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) process. The method is based on the leaching of FA with water and a subsequent concentration and selective separation of germanium by a solvent method. Regarding the leaching step, the different operational conditions studied were liquid/solid (L/S) ratio and time of contact. The solvent extraction method was based on germanium complexation with catechol (CAT) in an aqueous solution followed by the extraction of the Ge-CAT complex with an extracting organic reagent diluted in an organic solvent. The main factors examined during the extraction tests were aqueous phase/organic phase (AP/OP) volumetric ratio, aqueous phase pH, amounts of reagents, and time of contact. Germanium extraction yields were higher than 90%. Alkaline and acid stripping of organic extracts were studied obtaining the best results with 1M NaOH (85%). A high-purity germanium solution was obtained. Experimental data presented in this work show that the extraction of germanium by the solvent method designed can be selective toward germanium, and this element can be effectively separated from arsenic, molybdenum, nickel, antimony, vanadium, and zinc.

  18. Extractive fermentation for enhanced production of alkaline phosphatase from Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 1483 using aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S K; Banik, R M

    2011-03-01

    A study was made to find out maximum partitioning of Bacillus licheniformis alkaline phosphatase in different ATPSs composed of different molecular weight of PEG X (X=2000, 4000, 6000) with salts (magnesium sulphate, sodium sulphate, sodium citrate) and polymers (dextran 40, dextran T500). Physicochemical factors such as effect of system pH, system temperature and production media were evaluated for partitioning of alkaline phosphatase. PEG 4000 [9.0% (w/v)] and dextran T500 [9.6% (w/v)] were selected as most suitable system components for alkaline phosphatase production by B. licheniformis based on greater partition coefficient (k=5.23). The two-phase system produced fewer enzymes than the homogeneous fermentation (control) in early stage of fermentation, but after 72 h the enzyme produced in the control system was less than that in the ATPS. Total alkaline phosphatase yield in ATPS fermentation was 3907.01 U/ml and in homogeneous fermentation 2856.50 U/ml.

  19. Combined alkaline hydrolysis and ultrasound-assisted extraction for the release of nonextractable phenolics from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) waste.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Smagghe, Guy; Raes, Katleen; Van Camp, John

    2014-04-16

    Cauliflower waste contains high amounts phenolic compounds, but conventional solvent extraction misses high amounts of nonextractable phenolics (NEP), which may contribute more to the valorization of these waste streams. In this study, the NEP content and composition of cauliflower waste were investigated. The ability of alkaline hydrolysis, sonication, and their combination to release NEP was assessed. Alkaline hydrolysis with sonication was found to extract the highest NEP content (7.3 ± 0.17 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry waste), which was higher than the extractable fraction. The highest yield was obtained after treatment of 2 M NaOH at 60 °C for 30 min of sonication. Quantification and identification were done using U(H)PLC-DAD and U(H)PLC-ESI-MS(E). Kaempferol and quercetin glucosides along with several phenolic acids were found. The results of the study show that there are higher amounts of valuable health-promoting compounds from cauliflower waste than what is currently described in the literature.

  20. Method for extraction of uranium from ores

    SciTech Connect

    Bings, H.; Fischer, P.; Kampf, F.; Pietsch, H.; Thome, R.; Turke, W.; Wargalla, G.; Winkhaus, G.

    1982-11-30

    A method for continuously extracting uranium from ores comprises the steps of: forming a slurry of ore in a leaching solution; heating the slurry while pumping it through a tube reactor at high turbulences characterized by Reynolds numbers in excess of 50,000; supplying gaseous oxygen at high pressures into the tube reactor such that the uranium is substantially completely oxidized in a soluble form but impurities in the slurry are substantially kept from becoming soluble; recovering the uranium oxide solute which is substantially free of impurities.

  1. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappé, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are an important economical resource and, through natural seepage or accidental release, they can be major pollutants. Oil sands from Alberta, Canada, and samples from the seafloor of the Gulf of Mexico represent typical examples of either natural or anthropogenically affected oily sediments. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence and thereby massively hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008) separates the cells from the sediment matrix, producing a sediment free cell extract that can then be used for subsequent staining and cell enumeration under a fluorescence microscope. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it was not originally optimized for this application and does not provide satisfactory results. Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction by a solvent treatment. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from oily samples treated according to our new protocol were significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008). We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and - in samples containing more biodegraded oils - methanol, delivered the best results. Because solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which the positive effect of hydrocarbon extraction overcomes the negative effect of cell lysis. A volumetric ratio of 1:2 to 1:5 between a formalin-fixed sediment slurry and solvent delivered highest cell counts. Extraction

  2. Preparation of novel alkaline pH-responsive copolymers for the formation of recyclable aqueous two-phase systems and their application in the extraction of lincomycin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; Cao, Xuejun

    2016-02-01

    Aqueous two-phase systems have potential industrial application in bioseparation and biocatalysis engineering; however, their practical application is limited primarily because the copolymers involved in the formation of aqueous two-phase systems cannot be recovered. In this study, two novel alkaline pH-responsive copolymers were synthesized and examined for the extraction of lincomycin. The two copolymers could form a novel alkaline aqueous two-phase systems when their concentrations were both 6% w/w and the pH was 8.4(±0.1)-8.7(±0.1). One copolymer was synthesized using acrylic acid, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, and butyl methacrylate as monomers. Moreover, 98.8% of the copolymer could be recovered by adjusting the solution pH to its isoelectric point (pH 6.29). The other copolymer was synthesized using the monomers methacrylic acid, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, and methyl methacrylate. In this case, 96.7% of the copolymer could be recovered by adjusting the solution pH to 7.19. The optimal partition coefficient of lincomycin was 0.17 at 30°C in the presence of 10 mM KBr and 5.5 at 40°C in the presence of 80 mM Ti(SO4)2 using the novel alkaline aqueous two-phase systems.

  3. An alkaline oxidation method for determination of total arsenic and selenium in sewage sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Baojin; Tabatabai, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    A simple and precise method was developed for determination of total As and Se in sewage sludges by using hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS). It involves boiling a 50-mg sample with sodium hypobromite (NaOBr) solution to dryness in a sand bath (260-280{degrees}C), extraction of the As and Se in the digest with 1.25 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and determination of these elements by HGAAS after reducing As(V) and Se(VI) to As(III) and Se(IV), respectively. The proposed method gives quantitative recovery of As and Se in standard reference materials (96-103%) and of these elements added to sewage sludges (95-100%). The average results of AS (9.8 mg/kg) and Se (7.5 mg/kg) in 12 sewage sludges determined by the proposed digestion method agreed closely with those obtained by the acid digestion methods recommended by USGS and USEPA. Tests with 13 metals indicated that, at the concentrations expected in sewage sludges, none of the metals interfered with determination of As and Se by the proposed method. A single operator can complete analysis of one of the elements in 40 samples in a normal working day, or both elements in 1.5 d.

  4. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  5. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  6. Thermal fluids for CSP systems: Alkaline nitrates/nitrites thermodynamics modelling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzoni, A. C.; Sau, S.; Corsaro, N.; Giaconia, A.; D'Ottavi, C.; Licoccia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Molten salt (MS) mixtures are used for the transport (HTF-heat transfer fluid) and storage of heat (HSM-heat storage material) in Concentration Solar Plants (CSP). In general, alkaline and earth-alkaline nitrate/nitrite mixtures are employed. Along with its upper stability temperature, the melting point (liquidus point) of a MS mixture is one of the main parameters which defines its usefulness as a HTF and HSM medium. As a result, we would like to develop a predictive model which will allow us to forecast freezing points for different MS mixture compositions; thus circumventing the need to determine experimentally the phase diagram for each MS mixture. To model ternary/quaternary phase diagram, parameters for the binary subsystems are to be determined, which is the purpose of the concerned work. In a binary system with components A and B, in phase equilibrium conditions (e.g. liquid and solid) the chemical potentials (partial molar Gibbs energy) for each component in each phase are equal. For an ideal solution it is possible to calculate the mixing (A+B) Gibbs energy:ΔG = ΔH - TΔS = RT(xAlnxA + xBlnxB) In case of non-ideal solid/liquid mixtures, such as the nitrates/nitrites compositions investigated in this work, the actual value will differ from the ideal one by an amount defined as the "mixing" (mix) Gibbs free energy. If the resulting mixtures is assumed, as indicated in the previous literature, to follow a "regular solution" model, where all the non-ideality is considered included in the enthalpy of mixing value and considering, for instance, the A component:Δ G ≡0 =(Δ HA-T Δ SA)+(ΔH¯ m i x AL-T ΔS¯ m i x AL)-(ΔH¯ m i x AS-T ΔS¯ m i x AS)where the molar partial amounts can be calculated from the total value by the Gibbs Duhem equation: (ΔH¯m i x AL=ΔHm i x-XB Ld/Δ Hm i x d XB L ) L;(ΔH¯m i x AS=ΔHm i x-XB Sd/Δ Hm i x d XB S ) S and, in general, it is possible to express the mixing enthalpy for solids and liquids as a function of the mol

  7. Arsenic speciation in marine product samples: comparison of extraction-HPLC method and digestion-cryogenic trap method.

    PubMed

    Geng, Wenhua; Komine, Rieko; Ohta, Toshiharu; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Ohki, Akira

    2009-07-15

    For the arsenic speciation in marine product samples, two types of pretreatment-analysis combination were compared. One is the combination of solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) followed by a highly sensitive arsenic detection, while the other is the combination of alkaline digestion and cryogenic trap (CT) method followed by a highly sensitive arsenic detection. For six certified reference materials (CRMs) of marine animal samples, the concentrations of arsenobetaine (AsB) obtained from the extraction-HPLC method were very consistent with those of trimethylated arsenic species measured by the digestion-CT method. For four seaweed samples, the determination of three arsenosugars (Sugar-1, Sugar-2, and Sugar-3) was favorably carried out by the extraction-HPLC method. Those seaweed samples were also subjected to the digestion-CT method, and the amounts of dimethylated arsenic species measured by the method were approximately equal to the sum of the amounts of dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and three arsenosugars (Sugar-1+Sugar-2+Sugar-3) obtained from the extraction-HPLC method.

  8. Release of bound procyanidins from cranberry pomace by alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    White, Brittany L; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2010-07-14

    Procyanidins in plant products are present as extractable or unextractable/bound forms. We optimized alkaline hydrolysis conditions to liberate procyanidins and depolymerize polymers from dried cranberry pomace. Alkaline extracts were neutralized (pH 6-7) and then procyanidins were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by normal phase high performance liquid chromatography. Alkaline hydrolysis resulted in an increase in low molecular weight procyanidins, and the increase was greater at higher temperature, short time combinations. The most procyanidins (DP1-DP3) were extracted at 60 degrees C for 15 min with each concentration of NaOH. When compared to conventional extraction using homogenization with acetone/water/acetic acid (70:29.5:0.5 v/v/v), treatment with NaOH increased procyanidin oligomer extraction by 3.8-14.9-fold, with the greatest increase being DP1 (14.9x) and A-type DP2 (8.4x) procyanidins. Alkaline treatment of the residue remaining after conventional extraction resulted in further procyanidin extraction, indicating that procyanidins are not fully extracted by conventional extraction methods.

  9. HPAEC-PAD method for the analysis of alkaline hydrolyzates of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Alex; van der Put, Robert M F; Beurret, Michel

    2013-09-01

    A gradient method has been devised for the rapid analysis of alkaline hydrolyzates of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). As compared with published procedures, peak shape and sensitivity were significantly improved with this approach, analysis time was short and there was little interference from impurities. The limits of detection and quantification were established with a purified reference polysaccharide. We propose this method as a practical alternative for the analysis of minute amounts of Hib polysaccharide, which can be lower than with the conventional approaches.

  10. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  11. Evaluation of extraction method on the chemical composition in Apeiba tibourbou Aubl's extracts

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the potential of Apeiba tibourbou Aubl, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of fatty acid, rosmarinic (Ra) and caffeic (Ca) acid from A. tibourbou. Materials and Methods: Determinations of residual moisture (Rm), proteins (Pt), lipids (Lp), total fiber (Tf), and carbohydrate (Cy) were performed in triplicate samples according assessment of antioxidant capacity. Extraction of fatty acids was carried out by two different methods: (i) By shoxlet and (ii) bligh and dyer. The optimized conditions were determined by surface response methodology (RSM), and the criterion of desirability was the maximum extraction of Ra and Ca. Results: The method of bligh and dyer was able to extraction more total Lp than the shoxlet. However, the extraction of fatty acid was different for the two methods. The optimized conditions to extract RA and Ca was calculated by RSM, 42°C, 30% (alcohol degree) and 24 min, this conditions maximize simultaneously the extraction of Ca (0, 04%) and Ry (1.89), Conclusion: It was observed that the extraction method alters the chemical composition of extract, and it is possible to extract Ca and Ra from A. tibourbou's leaves using ultrasound-assisted extraction. PMID:25829777

  12. Improving electrochemical methods of producing hydrogen in alkaline media via ammonia and urea electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Bryan Kenneth

    Theoretically, ammonia electrolysis consumes 95% less energy than its major competitor water electrolysis and offers an economical, environmental, and efficient means for reducing nitrate contaminations in ground and drinking water. Thermodynamically at standard conditions, ammonia electrolysis consumes 1.55 Wh to produce one gram of hydrogen. This same gram of hydrogen generates 33 Wh utilizing a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). There is a potential of 31.45 Wh of net energy when coupling an ammonia electrolytic cell (AEC) and a PEMFC. Considering that PEMFCs are 60% efficient, the actual energy output ranges between 18 and 20 Wh. Prior to the research shown here, ammonia electrolysis in alkaline media was requiring more than 20 Wh of energy input due to slow anode kinetics and poor electrochemical cell design thus making any chances of a self-sustaining energy generator unfeasible. This research focused on improving and optimizing anode electrocatalyst materials, electrode configurations, and cell designs, as well as demonstrating stationary and mobile applications of ammonia electrolysis. In addition to ammonia electrolysis, a novel electrochemical technique, urea electrolysis in alkaline media, was created and investigated. Similar to ammonia electrolysis, the anodic reaction, which is the oxidation of urea, was found to be the most rate-limiting half-cell reaction and required improvement. This research focused on fundamentally understanding the mechanism of urea electrolysis as well as investigating common electrocatalysts for small organic molecules. As a result, urea electrolysis in alkaline media proved to be a direct, economical, and environmental approach to producing hydrogen electrochemically with an inexpensive transition metal.

  13. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  14. A Modified SDS-Based DNA Extraction Method for High Quality Environmental DNA from Seafloor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Vengadesh Perumal; Zhang, Xinxu; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Wang, Fengping

    2016-01-01

    Recovering high quality genomic DNA from environmental samples is a crucial primary step to understand the genetic, metabolic, and evolutionary characteristics of microbial communities through molecular ecological approaches. However, it is often challenging because of the difficulty of effective cell lysis without fragmenting the genomic DNA. This work aims to improve the previous SDS-based DNA extraction methods for high-biomass seafloor samples, such as pelagic sediments and metal sulfide chimney, to obtain high quality and high molecular weight of the genomic DNA applicable for the subsequent molecular ecological analyses. In this regard, we standardized a modified SDS-based DNA extraction method (M-SDS), and its performance was then compared to those extracted by a recently developed hot-alkaline DNA extraction method (HA) and a commercial DNA extraction kit. Consequently, the M-SDS method resulted in higher DNA yield and cell lysis efficiency, lower DNA shearing, and higher diversity scores than other two methods, providing a comprehensive DNA assemblage of the microbial community on the seafloor depositional environment. PMID:27446026

  15. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator includes a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte, (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group, and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrode. The mixture comprises at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 sq meters/gram, at last one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram. The volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder. The filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle.

  16. Evaluation of microscopic structure of Justicia wynaadensis and the stability of its color extracted by using conventional and microwave extraction method.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nital; Nigudkar, Manjusha; Sane, Ramesh; Ajitkumar, B S; Datar, Ajit

    2015-10-01

    Justicia wynaadensis locally known as Moddu Soppu belongs to the family Acanthaceae. The aqueous bluish purple color extracted from the leaves and stems of Justicia is used in the preparation of a sweet dish by the natives of Kodagu district, Karanataka, India, exclusively during the monsoons. This traditional practice is believed to keep the people healthy throughout the year. Owing to its potential to be used as a natural colorant there is a strong need to develop efficient extraction method for maximum yield of colorant and preliminary scientific study of stability. Microscopy was carried out to find out the location of purple color in both leaves and stem and to study the anatomical details. An optimized microwave extraction method for extraction of colorant from Justicia has been developed. The microwave oven extraction yield of colorant is 9.41 % (±0.8598) under the optimized conditions of extraction time 30 min., extraction temperature 150 °C and ratio of liquid to solid 30 ml/g. The study demonstrated that the purple extract of the plant was stable against pH range 6.0-8.0, low temperature (4 °C), high temperature (≥50 °C) and sensitive to light. Thus these observations recommend the use of J. wynaadensis extract as a food colorant in neutral or slightly alkaline products (bakery, milk, egg etc.) and could be the potential source for the food colorant market.

  17. Combined Extraction of Cesium, Strontium, and Actinides from Alkaline Media: An Extension of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Raymond

    2004-11-03

    The wastes present at DOE long-term storage sites are usually highly alkaline, and because of this, much of the actinides in these wastes are in the sludge phase. Enough actinide materials still remain in the supernatant liquid that they require separation followed by long-term storage in a geological repository. The removal of these metals from the liquid waste stream would permit their disposal as low-level waste and dramatically reduce the volume of high-level wastes.

  18. A comparative study of thermal calcination and an alkaline hydrolysis method in the isolation of hydroxyapatite from Thunnus obesus bone.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Qian, Zhong Ji; Ryu, BoMi; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se Kwon

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was isolated from Thunnus obesus bone using alkaline hydrolysis and thermal calcination methods. The obtained ceramic has been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction analysis, cytotoxic analysis and cell proliferation analysis. The results indicate that there are significant differences between the ceramics and T. obesus bone. FT-IR and TGA results affirmed that the collagen and organic moieties have been eliminated by both the proposed methods. XRD results were in agreement with JCPDS data. TEM and selective area diffraction images have signified that the thermal calcination method produces good crystallinity with dimensions 0.3-1.0 µm, whereas the alkaline hydrolysis method produces nanostructured HAp crystals with 17-71 nm length and 5-10 nm width. Biocompatibility of HAp crystals was evaluated by cytotoxicity and cell proliferation with human osteoblast-like cell MG-63.

  19. Method of underground mining by pillar extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Ray J.; Bowen, William R.

    1980-08-12

    A method of sublevel caving and pillar and top coal extraction for mining thick coal seams includes the advance mining of rooms and crosscuts along the bottom of a seam to a height of about eight feet, and the retreat mining of the top coal from the rooms, crosscuts and portions of the pillars remaining from formation of the rooms and cross-cuts. In the retreat mining, a pocket is formed in a pillar, the top coal above the pocket is drilled, charged and shot, and then the fallen coal is loaded by a continuous miner so that the operator remains under a roof which has not been shot. The top coal from that portion of the room adjacent the pocket is then mined, and another pocket is formed in the pillar. The top coal above the second pocket is mined followed by the mining of the top coal of that portion of the room adjacent the second pocket, all by use of a continuous miner which allows the operator to remain under a roof portion which has not been shot.

  20. Environmental friendly alkaline sulfite anthra quinone-methonal (ASAM) pulping with Rumex crispus plant extract of woody materials.

    PubMed

    Mertoglu-Elmas, Gulnur; Gunaydin, Keriman; Ozden, Oznur

    2012-09-01

    ASAM with Rumex crispus extract organosolv pulping was developed by using 1,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-7-methyl-anthraquinone from Rumex crispus root, instead of anthraquinone. ASAM was also produced as a control pulping. Both pulps were made by handsheets from fast growing P. deltoides clone (Samsun p. clone), Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus pinaster grown in Turkey for wood fibrous raw materials. The mechanical consisting tensile, bursting and tear values and optical values of ASAM handsheets yellowness, brightness and whiteness were compared to ASAM with Rumex crispus L. extracted. It is concluded that ASAM with Rumex crispus extract pulping suits well in the manufacturing of special papers.

  1. Alternatives to Nitric Acid Stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process for Cesium Removal from Alkaline High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Haverlock, Tamara; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Ditto, Mary E; Moyer, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    Effective alternatives to nitric acid stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent have been demonstrated in this work. The CSSX solvent employs calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-18-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) as the cesium extractant in a modified alkane diluent for decontamination of alkaline high-level wastes. Results reported in this paper support the idea that replacement of the nitrate anion by a much more hydrophilic anion like borate can substantially lower cesium distribution ratios on stripping. Without any other change in the CSSX flowsheet, however, the use of a boric acid stripping solution in place of the 1 mM nitric acid solution used in the CSSX process marginally, though perhaps still usefully, improves stripping. The less-than-expected improvement was explained by the carryover of nitrate from scrubbing into stripping. Accordingly, more effective stripping is obtained after a scrub of the solvent with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Functional alternatives to boric acid include sodium bicarbonate or cesium hydroxide as strip solutions. Profound stripping improvement is achieved when trioctylamine, one of the components of the CSSX solvent, is replaced with a commercial guanidine reagent (LIX 79). The more basic guanidine affords greater latitude in selection of aqueous conditions in that it protonates even at mildly alkaline pH values. Under process-relevant conditions, cesium distributions on stripping are decreased on the order of 100-fold compared with current CSSX performance. The extraction properties of the solvent were preserved unchanged over three successive extract-scrub-strip cycles. From the point of view of compatibility with downstream processing, boric acid represents an attractive stripping agent, as it is also a potentially ideal feed for borosilicate vitrification of the separated 137Cs product stream. Possibilities for use of these results toward a dramatically better next-generation CSSX process, possibly one employing the

  2. A polysaccharide from the alkaline extract of Glycyrrhiza inflata induces apoptosis of human oral cancer SCC-25 cells via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guang; Shen, Huan; Tang, Guo; Cai, Xingwei; Bi, Lixia; Sun, Bin; Yang, Yongjin; Xun, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, we isolated and characterized a homogenous polysaccharide (GIAP1) from the alkaline extract of the roots of Glycyrrhiza inflata. The anti-tumor activity of GIAP1 toward human oral cancer SCC-25 cells and the underlying mechanisms were also examined in vitro. GIAP1 dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of SCC-25 cells via inducing apoptosis. Moreover, GIAP1 downregulated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and caused the release of cytochrome c to cytosol. Besides, GIAP1 triggered activation of capase-3 and caspase-9, as well as the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In addition, the caspase-3 or caspase-9 inhibitor significantly inhibited GIAP1-induced apoptosis in SCC-25 cells. Collectively, we can conclude that the GIAP1 induces apoptosis in SCC-25 cells via a mitochondrial pathway.

  3. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from the feet of Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) as affected by acid, alkaline, and enzyme pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abedinia, Ahmadreza; Ariffin, Fazilah; Huda, Nurul; Nafchi, Abdorreza Mohammadi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of different pretreatments on yield and composition of extraction, physicochemical, and rheological properties of duck feet gelatin (DFG) were investigated. Gelatins were extracted from the whole feet of Pekin duck with an average yield of 4.09%, 3.65%, and 5.75% for acidic (Ac-DFG), alkaline (Al-DFG), and enzymatic (En-DFG) pretreatment on a wet weight basis, respectively. Proteins at 81.38%, 79.41%, 82.55%, and 87.38% were the major composition for Ac-DFG, Al-DFG, En-DFG, and bovine, respectively. Amino acid analysis showed glycine as the predominant amino acid in Ac-DFG, followed by hydroxyproline, proline, and alanine for Ac-DFG, Al-DFG, and En-DFG, respectively. Rheological analysis indicated that the maximum elastic modulus (9972.25Pa) and loss modulus (4956.28Pa) for Ac-DFG gelatin were significantly higher than those of other gelatins. Extracted gelatins contained α1 and α2 chains as the predominant components, and enzymatic gelatin had low molecular weight peptides. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the peak of the gelatins was mainly positioned in the amide band region (amides I, II, and III). A considerable loss of molecular-order triple helical structure was also observed after pepsin treatment. In summary, duck feet gelatin has potential to replace as mammalian gelatin in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Natural Colorants: Pigment Stability and Extraction Yield Enhancement via Utilization of Appropriate Pretreatment and Extraction Methods.

    PubMed

    Ngamwonglumlert, Luxsika; Devahastin, Sakamon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn

    2015-10-30

    Natural colorants from plant-based materials have gained increasing popularity due to health consciousness of consumers. Among the many steps involved in the production of natural colorants, pigment extraction is one of the most important. Soxhlet extraction, maceration and hydrodistillation are conventional methods that have widely been used in industry and laboratory for such a purpose. Recently, various non-conventional methods such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed-electric field extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction have emerged as alternatives to the conventional methods due to the advantages of the former in such terms as smaller solvent consumption, shorter extraction time and more environmental friendliness. Prior to the extraction step, pretreatment of plant materials to enhance the stability of natural pigments is another important step that must be carefully taken care of. In this article, a comprehensive review of appropriate pretreatment and extraction methods for chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains and anthocyanins, which are major classes of plant pigments, is provided by using the pigment stability and extraction yield as the assessment criteria.

  5. Investigation on the co-precipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Krot, N.; Shilov, V.; Bessonov, A.; Budantseva, N.; Charushnikova, I.; Perminov, V.; Astafurova, L.

    1996-06-06

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions originating from production of plutonium for military purposes are stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The purification of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium is important in the treatment and disposal of these wastes. This report describes scoping tests with sodium hydroxide solutions, where precipitation techniques were investigated to perform the separation. Hydroxides of iron (III), manganese (II), cobalt (II, III), and chromium (III); manganese (IV) oxide, and sodium uranate were investigated as carriers. The report describes the optimum conditions that were identified to precipitate these carriers homogeneously throughout the solution by reductive, hydrolytic, or catalytic decomposition of alkali-soluble precursor compounds by a technique called the Method of Appearing Reagents. The coprecipitation of pentavalent and hexavalent neptunium and plutonium was investigated for the candidate agents under optimum conditions and is described in this report along with the following results. Plutonium coprecipitated well with all tested materials except manganese (IV) oxide. Neptunium only coprecipitated well with uranate. The report presents a hypothesis to explain these behaviors. Further tests with more complex solution matrices must be performed.

  6. Quantification and comparison of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase with two methods in normal and paget’s specimens

    PubMed Central

    Masrour Roudsari, Jila; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is synthesized by the osteoblasts and is presumed to be involved in the calcification of bone matrix, though its precise role in the formation process is unknown. The aim of the present study was to measure the BAP activity in Paget's and normal specimens by two different techniques. Methods: Total ALP (TAP) as well as BAP activity-measuring tests were repeatedly undertaken at different times during the day and different days on the serum samples (inter and intra assay). Precision and repeatability of the phenylalanine inhibition (PHI) and heat inactivation (HI) techniques were approved during ten times repetition of all the tests on two normal samples besides one sample from Paget's disease of bone. The measurement of TAP and BAP activities was also carried out on 50 serum samples from normal adults using the standard IFCC-AACC and the established methods, respectively. Results: Coefficients of Variation (CV) for intra-assay of BAP were 2.33% and 3.16% by HI and PHI methods, respectively. Also, the inter-assay CV of BAP was 2.87% and 3.49% for mentioned methods in Paget's sample, respectively. In addition, the correlation of HI and PHI methods was found to be r= +0.873 for bone-specific isoenzyme. Conclusion: Regarding the appropriate precision, repeatability and correlation of HI and PHI techniques, as well as their cost effectiveness can be of use in the quantification of bone alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme activity, especially when bone is involved. PMID:24009918

  7. Different methods to select the best extraction system for solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The optimization methods for planning a solid-phase extraction experiment are presented. These methods are based on a study of interactions between different parts of an extraction system. Determination of the type and strength of interaction depends on the physicochemical properties of the individual components of the system. The main parameters that determine the extraction properties are described in this work. The influence of sorbents' and solvents' polarity on extraction efficiency, Hansen solubility parameters and breakthrough volume determination on sorption and desorption extraction step are discussed.

  8. Method for contour extraction for object representation

    DOEpatents

    Skourikhine, Alexei N.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2005-08-30

    Contours are extracted for representing a pixelated object in a background pixel field. An object pixel is located that is the start of a new contour for the object and identifying that pixel as the first pixel of the new contour. A first contour point is then located on the mid-point of a transition edge of the first pixel. A tracing direction from the first contour point is determined for tracing the new contour. Contour points on mid-points of pixel transition edges are sequentially located along the tracing direction until the first contour point is again encountered to complete tracing the new contour. The new contour is then added to a list of extracted contours that represent the object. The contour extraction process associates regions and contours by labeling all the contours belonging to the same object with the same label.

  9. A continuous-flow method for the determination of the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase in diethanolamine buffer.

    PubMed

    Viitala, A J; Jokela, H A; Penttilä, I M; Nummi, S

    1975-05-01

    A procedure for determination of serum alkaline phosphatase activity (EC 3.1.3.1) in diethanolamine (DEA) buffer with an AutoAnalyzer II apparatus was designed. The buffer used was 1.0 mol/l DEA-HC buffer, pH 9.8 at 37 degree C, containing 0.5 mmol/l of MgCl2 and 10 mmol/l of substrate 4-nitrophenyl-phosphate. The reaction time was about 3 min at 37 degree C. The enzyme activity (U/l) was calculated by determining the amount of 4-nitrophenol formed in reaction. A sampling rate of 70 samples per hour can be used with good linearity up to 1000 U/l. The results obtained by the new continuous-flow system were compared with those measured by the kinetic method according to the Scandinavian recommendation (10). A close correlation between the two methods was observed.

  10. An Improved Protein Surface Extraction Method Using Rotating Cylinder Probe.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kalpana; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2017-03-01

    For extraction of information on binding sites of a protein, the commonly known geometry-based methods utilize the corresponding PDB file to extract its surface as a first step. Finally, the surface is used to find the binding site atoms. As shown in this paper work, since none of the mostly used surface extraction methods can retrieve a sizeable percentage of the binding site atoms, the scope of development of a better method remains. In this direction, this paper presents a new benchmarking criteria based on utilization of binding site information to compare performance of these surface extraction methods. Also, a new surface extraction method is introduced based on the use of a rotating cylinder probe adapting from the work of Weisel et al. (Chem Cent J 1:7-23, 2007. doi: 10.1186/1752-153X-1-7 ). The result of the new method shows a significant improvement of performance in comparison to the existing methods.

  11. Extraction of Roots of Quintics by Division Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method to extract roots of a reducible quintic over the real field, which makes use of a simple division. A procedure to synthesize such quintics is given and a numerical example is solved to extract the roots of quintic with the proposed method.

  12. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR EXTRACTING BOUND PESTICIDES FROM AVIAN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed to extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from avian serum. In this method, a 1-mL serum sample fortified with two levels of OCs or POPs was treated with 8M urea or 4M urea and 4...

  13. Amniotic Membrane Extract Preparation: What is the Best Method?

    PubMed Central

    Mahbod, Mirgholamreza; Shahhoseini, Saied; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Beheshtnejad, Amir-Houshang; Bakhshandeh, Haleh; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Hashemi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare different preparation methods for a suitable amniotic membrane (AM) extract containing a given amount of growth factors. Methods: In this interventional case series, we dissected the AM from eight placentas within 24 hours after delivery, under clean conditions. After washing and mixing, AM extracts (AMEs) were prepared using pulverization and homogenization methods, and different processing and storing conditions. Main outcome measures were the amount of added protease inhibitor (PI), the relative centrifugal force (g), in-process temperature, repeated extraction times, drying percentage, repeated pulverization times, and the effect of filtering with 0.2 μm filters. Extract samples were preserved at different temperature and time parameters, and analyzed for hepatic growth factor (HGF) and total protein using ELISA and calorimetric methods, respectively. Results: The extracted HGF was 20% higher with pulverization as compared to homogenization, and increased by increasing the PI to 5.0 μl/g of dried AM. Repeating centrifugation up to 3 times almost doubled the extracted HGF and protein. Storing the AME at −170° for 6 months caused a 50% drop in the level of HGF and protein. Other studied parameters showed no significant effect on the extracted amount of HGF or total protein. Conclusion: Appropriate extraction methods with an adequate amount of PI increases the level of extractable components from harvested AMs. To achieve the maximal therapeutic effects of AMEs, it is necessary to consider the half-life of its bioactive components. PMID:25667731

  14. New extraction method for the analysis of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in marine organisms. Pressurized liquid extraction versus Soxhlet extraction.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Muñoz, D; Sáez, M; Lara-Martin, P A; Gómez-Parra, A; González-Mazo, E

    2004-10-15

    A new method has been developed for the determination of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) from various marine organisms, and compared with Soxhlet extraction. The technique applied includes the use of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for the extraction stage, preconcentration of the samples, purification by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The spiked concentrations were added to the samples (wet mass of the organisms: Solea senegalensis and Ruditapes semidecussatus), which were homogenized and agitated continuously for 25 h. The samples were extracted by pressurized hot solvent extraction using two different extraction temperatures (100 and 150 degrees C) and by traditional Soxhlet extraction. The best recoveries were obtained employing pressurized hot solvent extraction at 100 degrees C and varied in the range from 66.1 to 101.3% with a standard deviation of between 2 and 13. Detection limit was between 5 and 15 microg kg(-1) wet mass using HPLC-fluorescence detection. The analytical method developed in this paper has been applied for LAS determination in samples from a Flow-through exposure system with the objective of measuring the bioconcentration of this surfactant.

  15. Stability-indicating methods for the determination of famciclovir in the presence of its alkaline-induced degradation product.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Abd El-Moneim Abosen, Mona M; El-Bardicy, Mohamed Galal

    2010-04-01

    Five sensitive, selective and precise stability-indicating methods are presented for the determination of famciclovir (FCV) in the presence of its alkaline-induced degradation product. Method A utilizes the first derivative spectrophotometry at 321 nm. Method B depends on using the first derivative of the ratio spectrophotometry (DD(1)) by measurement of the amplitude at 256 nm. Method C is based on the reaction of FCV with hydroxylamine to form hydroxamic acid, causing the hydroxamic acid to react with triferric ion to form ferric hydroxamate that is measured at 503 nm. Method D is based on the separation of FCV from its degradation product followed by densitometric measurement of the bands at 304 nm. The separation was carried out on silica gel 60 F(254), using chloroform: methanol (70:30, v/v) as a mobile phase. Method E is based on a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation of FCV from its degradation product using an ODS column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-50 mM dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (25:75, v/v, pH 3.0)with UV detection at 304 nm. Regression analysis showed good correlation in the concentration ranges 16-72 microg/ml, 40-240 microg/ml, 40-240 microg/ml, 0.75-5.25 microg/band and 20-240 microg/ml with percentage recoveries of 99.65 +/- 0.85, 100.27 +/- 0.91, 99.72 +/- 0.84, 100.65 +/- 1.52 and 99.88 +/- 0.50 for methods A, B, C, D and E, respectively. These methods are suitable as stability-indicating methods for the determination of FCV in the presence of its degradation product either in bulk powder or in pharmaceutical formulation. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision.

  16. Development of an extraction method for perchlorate in soils.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Jaclyn E; Patel, Rashila; Tian, Kang; Anderson, Todd A

    2006-03-01

    Perchlorate originates as a contaminant in the environment from its use in solid rocket fuels and munitions. The current US EPA methods for perchlorate determination via ion chromatography using conductivity detection do not include recommendations for the extraction of perchlorate from soil. This study evaluated and identified appropriate conditions for the extraction of perchlorate from clay loam, loamy sand, and sandy soils. Based on the results of this evaluation, soils should be extracted in a dry, ground (mortar and pestle) state with Milli-Q water in a 1 ratio 1 soil ratio water ratio and diluted no more than 5-fold before analysis. When sandy soils were extracted in this manner, the calculated method detection limit was 3.5 microg kg(-1). The findings of this study have aided in the establishment of a standardized extraction method for perchlorate in soil.

  17. AN OVERVIEW OF ENTERIC VIRUS EXTRACTION AND ASSAY METHODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric viruses, particularly norovirus and hepatitis A virus, are major contaminants of molluscan shellfish, leading to outbreaks of viral illness. A host of procedures have been developed for the extraction and assay of viruses from shellfish. Early extraction and assay methods focused on the de...

  18. A comparison of DNA extraction methods using Petunia hybrida tissues.

    PubMed

    Tamari, Farshad; Hinkley, Craig S; Ramprashad, Naderia

    2013-09-01

    Extraction of DNA from plant tissue is often problematic, as many plants contain high levels of secondary metabolites that can interfere with downstream applications, such as the PCR. Removal of these secondary metabolites usually requires further purification of the DNA using organic solvents or other toxic substances. In this study, we have compared two methods of DNA purification: the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method that uses the ionic detergent hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and chloroform-isoamyl alcohol and the Edwards method that uses the anionic detergent SDS and isopropyl alcohol. Our results show that the Edwards method works better than the CTAB method for extracting DNA from tissues of Petunia hybrida. For six of the eight tissues, the Edwards method yielded more DNA than the CTAB method. In four of the tissues, this difference was statistically significant, and the Edwards method yielded 27-80% more DNA than the CTAB method. Among the different tissues tested, we found that buds, 4 days before anthesis, had the highest DNA concentrations and that buds and reproductive tissue, in general, yielded higher DNA concentrations than other tissues. In addition, DNA extracted using the Edwards method was more consistently PCR-amplified than that of CTAB-extracted DNA. Based on these results, we recommend using the Edwards method to extract DNA from plant tissues and to use buds and reproductive structures for highest DNA yields.

  19. A novel fluorescence detection method for in situ hybridization, based on the alkaline phosphatase-fast red reaction.

    PubMed

    Speel, E J; Schutte, B; Wiegant, J; Ramaekers, F C; Hopman, A H

    1992-09-01

    We have used naphthol-ASMX-phosphate and Fast Red TR in combination with alkaline phosphatase (APase) to produce fluorescent precipitated reaction products in a non-radioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) method. To obtain optimal and discrete localization of the strongly red fluorescent ISH signals, the enzyme precipitation procedure was optimized. The optimal reaction time and the concentrations of substrate and capture agent were determined. Furthermore, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used to increase the viscosity of the reaction mixture and thus to reduce diffusion of the reaction product. Our results show that the APase-Fast Red detection method has at least the same sensitivity as currently observed in other immunofluorescent detection systems. A single copy DNA sequence of 15.8 KB could be localized with high efficiency in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei. Double labeling procedures, in which the FITC- and azo-dye fluorescence are combined, are also feasible. The red fluorescent ISH signals showed hardly any fading as compared with FITC fluorescence on exposure to either light from the mercury-arc lamp or laser light. Therefore, these red fluorescent signals with a virtually permanent character allow a better analysis and three-dimensional localization of such cytochemically detected genomic fractions by means of confocal scanning laser microscopy as compared with the use of FITC, TRITC, or Texas Red as label.

  20. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The...

  3. SOLIEX: A Novel Solid-Liquid Method of Radionuclides Extraction from Radioactive Waste Solutions - 13486

    SciTech Connect

    Shilova, E.; Viel, P.; Huc, V.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes recent developments in new solid-liquid extraction method, called SOLIEX, to remove cesium from alkaline solutions. SOLIEX relies on the use of a reversible complexing system comprising a carbon felt bearing molecular traps (calixarenes). This complexing system exhibits a high selectivity for Cs, and is thus expected to be helpful for the treatment of highly diluted cesium wastes even with a high concentration of competing alkali metal cations. As additional advantage, this complexing system can be adapted by molecular engineering to capture other radionuclides, such as Sr, Eu, Am. Finally, this complexing system can be easily and efficiently regenerated by using a cost effective stripping procedure, which limits further generation of waste to meet 'zero liquid' discharge requirements for nuclear facilities. (authors)

  4. Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An Exploratory Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-22

    M T R 1 4 0 4 4 3 R 2 M I T R E T E C H N I C A L R E P O R T Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Text extraction

  5. Development of Alkaline Oxidative Dissolution Methods for Chromium (III) Compounds Present in Hanford Site Tank Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    NN Krot; VP Shilov; AM Fedoseev; NA Budantseva; MV Nikonov; AB Yusov; AYu Garnov; IA Charushnikova; VP Perminov; LN Astafurova; TS Lapitskaya; VI Makarenkov

    1999-07-02

    The high-level radioactive waste sludge in the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site contains various chromium(III)solid phases. Dissolution and removal of chromium from tank waste sludges is desirable prior to high-level waste vitrification because increased volume is required to incorporate the residual chromium. Unfortunately, dissolution of chromium from the sludge to form Cr(OH){sub 4}{sup {minus}} through treatment with heated NaOH solution (also used to dissolve aluminum phases and metathesize phosphates to sodium salts) generally has been unsuccessful in tests with both simulated and genuine Hanford waste sludges. Oxidative dissolution of the Cr(III) compounds to form soluble chromate has been proposed as an alternative chromium solid phase dissolution method and results of limited prior testing have been reported.

  6. Parallel computer methods for eigenvalue extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akl, Fred

    1988-01-01

    A new numerical algorithm for the solution of large-order eigenproblems typically encountered in linear elastic finite element systems is presented. The architecture of parallel processing is used in the algorithm to achieve increased speed and efficiency of calculations. The algorithm is based on the frontal technique for the solution of linear simultaneous equations and the modified subspace eigenanalysis method for the solution of the eigenproblem. The advantages of this new algorithm in parallel computer architecture are discussed.

  7. A rapid DNA extraction method suitable for human papillomavirus detection.

    PubMed

    Brestovac, Brian; Wong, Michelle E; Costantino, Paul S; Groth, David

    2014-04-01

    Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes is necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Testing for HPV DNA from liquid based cervical samples can be used as an adjunct to traditional cytological screening. In addition there are ongoing viral load, genotyping, and prevalence studies. Therefore, a sensitive DNA extraction method is needed to maximize the efficiency of HPV DNA detection. The XytXtract Tissue kit is a DNA extraction kit that is rapid and so could be useful for HPV testing, particularly in screening protocols. This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of this method for HPV detection. DNA extraction from HeLa and Caski cell lines containing HPV 18 and 16 respectively together with DNA from five liquid based cervical samples were used in a HPV PCR assay. DNA was also extracted using the QIAamp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) as a comparison. DNA extracts were serially diluted and assayed. HPV DNA was successfully detected in cell lines and cervical samples using the XytXtract Tissue kit. In addition, the XytXtract method was found to be more sensitive than the QIAmp method as determined by a dilution series of the extracted DNA. While the XytXtract method is a closed, the QIAamp method uses a spin column with possible loss of DNA through DNA binding competition of the matrix, which could impact on the final extraction efficiency. The XytXtract is a cheap, rapid and efficient method for extracting HPV DNA from both cell lines and liquid based cervical samples.

  8. Method for 3D Airway Topology Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Grothausmann, Roman; Kellner, Manuela; Heidrich, Marko; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko; Kuehnel, Mark P.; Ochs, Matthias; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    In lungs the number of conducting airway generations as well as bifurcation patterns varies across species and shows specific characteristics relating to illnesses or gene variations. A method to characterize the topology of the mouse airway tree using scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) tomograms is presented in this paper. It is used to test discrimination between two types of mice based on detected differences in their conducting airway pattern. Based on segmentations of the airways in these tomograms, the main spanning tree of the volume skeleton is computed. The resulting graph structure is used to distinguish between wild type and surfactant protein (SP-D) deficient knock-out mice. PMID:25767561

  9. [Extraction method of the visual graphical feature from biomedical data].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Jinjia; Hong, Wenxue

    2011-10-01

    The vector space transformations such as principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), independent component analysis (ICA) or the kernel-based methods may be applied on the extracted feature from the field, which could improve the classification performance. A barycentre graphical feature extraction method of the star plot was proposed in the present study based on the graphical representation of multi-dimensional data. The feature order question of the graphical representation methods affecting the star plot was investigated and the feature order method was proposed based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA). For some biomedical datasets, such as breast cancer and diabetes, the obtained classification error of barycentre graphical feature of star plot in the GA based optimal feature order is very promising compared to the previously reported classification methods, and is superior to that of traditional feature extraction method.

  10. Method for rapid, high sensitivity tritiated water extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R.; Belovodsky, L.; Gaevoy, V.; Golubev, A.

    1997-04-20

    We have developed a thermal vacuum desorption process to rapidly extract water from environmental samples for tritium analysis. Thermal vacuum desorption allows for extraction of the moisture from the sample within a few hours in a form and quantity suitable for liquid scintillation counting and allows detection of tritium at the levels of <2 Bq/L of milk, <0.5 Bq/gm of vegetation, and < 0.5 Bq/gin of soil. We developed a prototype unit that can process batches of twenty or more samples within 24 hours. Early data shows that a high percentage of water is extracted reproducibly without enrichment or depletion of the tritium content. The quench coefficient of the extracted water is low allowing for accurate, direct liquid scintillation counting. Excellent comparison has been observed with results using freeze-dry lypholization as the water extraction method.

  11. Extract interaction detection methods from the biological literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongning; Huang, Minlie; Zhu, Xiaoyan

    2009-01-01

    Background Considerable efforts have been made to extract protein-protein interactions from the biological literature, but little work has been done on the extraction of interaction detection methods. It is crucial to annotate the detection methods in the literature, since different detection methods shed different degrees of reliability on the reported interactions. However, the diversity of method mentions in the literature makes the automatic extraction quite challenging. Results In this article, we develop a generative topic model, the Correlated Method-Word model (CMW model) to extract the detection methods from the literature. In the CMW model, we formulate the correlation between the different methods and related words in a probabilistic framework in order to infer the potential methods from the given document. By applying the model on a corpus of 5319 full text documents annotated by the MINT and IntAct databases, we observe promising results, which outperform the best result reported in the BioCreative II challenge evaluation. Conclusion From the promising experiment results, we can see that the CMW model overcomes the issues caused by the diversity in the method mentions and properly captures the in-depth correlations between the detection methods and related words. The performance outperforming the baseline methods confirms that the dependence assumptions of the model are reasonable and the model is competent for the practical processing. PMID:19208158

  12. Method and apparatus for back-extracting metal chelates

    DOEpatents

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-08-11

    A method is described for extracting metal and metalloid species from a solid or liquid substrate using a supercritical fluid solvent containing one or more chelating agents followed by back-extracting the metal and metalloid species from the metal and metalloid chelates formed thereby. The back-extraction acidic solution is performed utilizing an acidic solution. Upon sufficient exposure of the metal and metalloid chelates to the acidic solution, the metal and metalloid species are released from the chelates into the acid solution, while the chelating agent remains in the supercritical fluid solvent. The chelating agent is thereby regenerated and the metal and metalloid species recovered. 3 figs.

  13. Method and apparatus for back-extracting metal chelates

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metal and metalloid species from a solid or liquid substrate using a supercritical fluid solvent containing one or more chelating agents followed by back-extracting the metal and metalloid species from the metal and metalloid chelates formed thereby. The back-extraction acidic solution is performed utilizing an acidic solution. Upon sufficient exposure of the metal and metalloid chelates to the acidic solution, the metal and metalloid species are released from the chelates into the acid solution, while the chelating agent remains in the supercritical fluid solvent. The chelating agent is thereby regenerated and the metal and metalloid species recovered.

  14. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  15. Accuracy of the evaluation method for alkaline agents’ bactericidal efficacies in solid, and the required time of bacterial inactivation

    PubMed Central

    HAKIM, Hakimullah; TOYOFUKU, Chiharu; OTA, Mari; SUZUKI, Mayuko; KOMURA, Miyuki; YAMADA, Masashi; ALAM, Md. Shahin; SANGSRIRATANAKUL, Natthanan; SHOHAM, Dany; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    An alkaline agent, namely food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa (OH)2) in the powder form, was evaluated for its bactericidal efficacies in chicken feces at pH 13. The point for this evaluation was neutralization of the alkaline agent’s pH at the time of bacterial recovery, since otherwise the results are substantially misleading. Without neutralization of the FdCa (OH)2 pH, the spiked bacteria were killed within min at the time of recovery in aqueous phase, but not in the solid form in feces, hence, it has been demonstrated that when bacteria were in solid, it took longer time than in liquid for the alkaline agent to inactivate them down to the acceptable level (≥3 log10 CFU/ml). PMID:27890906

  16. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozlowski, C.P.; Bauman, J.E.; Hahn, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl.

  17. A simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Corinne P; Bauman, Joan E; Hahn, D Caldwell

    2009-03-01

    Female birds deposit significant amounts of steroid hormones into the yolks of their eggs. Studies have demonstrated that these hormones, particularly androgens, affect nestling growth and development. In order to measure androgen concentrations in avian egg yolks, most authors follow the extraction methods outlined by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). We describe a simplified method for extracting androgens from avian egg yolks. Our method, which has been validated through recovery and linearity experiments, consists of a single ethanol precipitation that produces substantially higher recoveries than those reported by Schwabl (1993. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 90:11446-11450). Zoo Biol 28:137-143, 2009.

  18. Inorganic arsenic in seafood: does the extraction method matter?

    PubMed

    Pétursdóttir, Ásta H; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Nine different extraction methods were evaluated for three seafood samples to test whether the concentration of inorganic arsenic (iAs) determined in seafood is dependent on the extraction method. Certified reference materials (CRM) DOLT-4 (Dogfish Liver) and TORT-2 (Lobster Hepatopancreas), and a commercial herring fish meal were evaluated. All experimental work described here was carried out by the same operator using the same instrumentation, thus eliminating possible differences in results caused by laboratory related factors. Low concentrations of iAs were found in CRM DOLT-4 (0.012±0.003mgkg(-1)) and the herring fish meal sample (0.007±0.002mgkg(-1)) for all extraction methods. When comparing the concentration of iAs in CRM TORT-2 found in this study and in the literature dilute acids, HNO3 and HCl, showed the highest extracted iAs wheras dilute NaOH (in 50% ethanol) showed significantly lower extracted iAs. However, most other extraction solvents were not statistically different from one another.

  19. Evaluation of anti-cancer activity of Acanthester planci extracts obtained by different methods of extraction.

    PubMed

    Mutee, Ahmed Faisal; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Ghazali, Farid Che; Aisha, Abdalrahim Fa; Lim, Chung Pin; Ibrahim, Kamarruddin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2012-10-01

    Acanthaster planci, the crown-of-thorns starfish, naturally endowed with the numerous toxic spines around the dorsal area of its body. Scientific investigations demonstrated several toxico-pharmacological efficacies of A. planci such as, myonecrotic activity, hemorrhagic activity, hemolytic activity, mouse lethality, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, capillary permeability-increasing activity, edema-forming activity, anticoagulant activity and histamine-releasing activity from mast cells. The present study was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of A. planci extracts obtained by different methods of extraction on MCF-7 and HCT-116, human breast and colon cancer cell lines, respectively. Results of the cell proliferation assay showed that PBS extract exhibited very potent cytotoxic activity against both MCF-7 and HCT-116 cell lines with IC(50) of 13.48 μg/mL and 28.78 μg/mL, respectively, while the extracts prepared by Bligh and Dyer method showed moderate cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7 and HCT-116 cell lines, for chloroform extract, IC(50) = 121.37 μg/mL (MCF-7) and 77.65 μg/mL (HCT-116), and for methanol extract, IC(50) = 46.11 μg/mL (MCF-7) and 59.29 μg/mL (HCT-116). However, the extracts prepared by sequential extraction procedure from dried starfish found to be ineffective. This study paves the way for further investigation on the peptide composition in the PBS extract of the starfish to discover potential chemotherapeutic agents.

  20. A silica gel based method for extracting insect surface hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Ramírez, Santiago R; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2012-02-01

    Here, we describe a novel method for the extraction of insect cuticular hydrocarbons using silica gel, herein referred to as "silica-rubbing". This method permits the selective sampling of external hydrocarbons from insect cuticle surfaces for subsequent analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The cuticular hydrocarbons are first adsorbed to silica gel particles by rubbing the cuticle of insect specimens with the materials, and then are subsequently eluted using organic solvents. We compared the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that resulted from extractions using silica-rubbing and solvent-soaking methods in four ant and one bee species: Linepithema humile, Azteca instabilis, Camponotus floridanus, Pogonomyrmex barbatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Euglossa dilemma (Hymenoptera: Apidae). We also compared the hydrocarbon profiles of Euglossa dilemma obtained via silica-rubbing and solid phase microextraction (SPME). Comparison of hydrocarbon profiles obtained by different extraction methods indicates that silica rubbing selectively extracts the hydrocarbons that are present on the surface of the cuticular wax layer, without extracting hydrocarbons from internal glands and tissues. Due to its surface specificity, efficiency, and low cost, this new method may be useful for studying the biology of insect cuticular hydrocarbons.

  1. Ambient formic acid in southern California air: A comparison of two methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and alkaline trap-liquid chromatography with UV detection

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. ); Tuazon, E.C. ); Fujita, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Formic acid is an ubiquitous component of urban smog. Sources of formic acid in urban air include direct emissions from vehicles and in situ reaction of ozone with olefins. Ambient levels of formic acid in southern California air were first measured some 15 years ago by Hanst et al. using long-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All subsequent studies of formic acid in the Los Angeles area have involved the use of two methods, either FTIR or collection on alkaline traps followed by gas chromatography, ion chromatography, or liquid chromatography analysis with UV detection, ATLC-UV. The Carbon Species Methods Comparison Study (CSMCS), a multilaboratory air quality study carried out in August 1986 at a southern California smog receptor site, provided an opportunity for direct field comparison of the FTIR and alkaline trap methods. The results of the comparison are presented in this brief report.

  2. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  3. A rapid solid-phase extraction fluorometric method for thiamine and riboflavin in salmonid eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, James L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Brown, Scott B.; Brown, Lisa R.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed and successfully applied to the selective measurement of thiamine (nonphosphorylated), total thiamine (sum of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate [TMP], thiamine diphosphate [TDP], and thiamine triphosphate [TTP]), and potentially interfering riboflavin in acidic (2% trichloroacetic acid) extracts of selected salmonid and walleye egg samples. Acidic extracts of eggs were applied directly to end-capped C18, reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns and separated into three fractions by elution with mixtures of PO4 buffer (pH 2), methanol (10%), and acetonitrile (20%). All thiamine compounds recovered in the first two fractions were oxidized to their corresponding thiochromes with alkaline potassium hexacyanoferrate, and we measured the thiochrome fluorescence (excitation at 360 nm, emission at 460 nm) in a 96-well microplate reader. Riboflavin, recovered in third fraction (eluted with pH 2, 20% acetonitrile), was analyzed directly by measuring the fluorescence of this fraction (excitation at 450 nm, emission at 530 nm). Significant portions of the phosphate esters of thiamine (TMP, TDP, and presumably TTP), when present at low concentrations (< 10 nmol of total -thiamine per gram of egg), were not retained by the 100-mg SPE column, and were collected directly during sample loading and in a subsequent phosphoric acid rinse as fraction 1. Free thiamine (nonphosphorylated) and remaining portions of the TDP and TMP were then eluted in the second fraction with 10% methanol/PO4 buffer, whereas the un-ionized, relatively nonpolar riboflavin was eluted in the third fraction with 20% acetonitrile. This new method uses a traditional sample homogenization of egg tissue to extract thiamine compounds into 2% trichlororacetic acid solution; an inexpensive, commercially available SPE column; small amounts of sample (0.5-1 g); microliter volumes of solvents per sample; a traditional, relatively nonhazardous, oxidation of thiamine compounds to

  4. Simultaneous HPTLC and RP-HPLC methods for determination of bumadizone in the presence of its alkaline-induced degradation product.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nouruddin W; ZaaZaa, Hala A; Abdelkawy, M; Magdy, Maimana A

    2012-10-01

    Accurate, selective, sensitive and precise HPTLC-densitometric and RP-HPLC methods were developed and validated for determination of bumadizone calcium semi-hydrate in the presence of its alkaline-induced degradation product and in pharmaceutical formulation. Method A uses HPTLC-densitometry, depending on separation and quantitation of bumadizone and its alkaline-induced degradation product on TLC silica gel 60 F(254) plates, using hexane-ethyl acetate-glacial acetic acid (8:2:0.2, v/v/v) as a mobile phase followed by densitometric measurement of the bands at 240 nm. Method B comprises RP-HPLC separation of bumadizone and its alkaline-induced degradation product using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-acetonitrile (20:30:50, v/v/v) on a Phenomenex C(18) column at a flow-rate of 2 mL/min and UV detection at 235 nm. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of bumadizone either in bulk powder or in pharmaceutical formulation without interference from other dosage form additives, and the results were statistically compared with the established method.

  5. A rapid, simple method for determining formaldehyde in drinking water using colorimetric-solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Hill, April A; Lipert, Robert J; Fritz, James S; Porter, Marc D

    2009-02-15

    Formaldehyde has been detected in drinking water supplies across the globe and on board NASA spacecraft. A rapid, simple, microgravity-compatible technique for measuring this contaminant in water supplies using colorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE) is described. This method involves collecting a water sample into a syringe by passage through a cartridge that contains sodium hydroxide, to adjust pH, and Purpald, which is a well-established colorimetric reagent for aldehydes. After completing the reaction in the syringe by agitating for 2 min on a shaker at 400 rpm, the 1.0-mL alkaline sample is passed through an extraction disk that retains the purple product. The amount of concentrated product is then measured on-disk using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and compared to a calibration plot generated from Kubelka-Munk transformations of the reflectance data at 700 nm to determine the formaldehyde concentration. This method is capable of determining formaldehyde concentrations from 0.08 to 20 ppm with a total work-up time of less than 3 min using only 1-mL samples.

  6. BMAA extraction of cyanobacteria samples: which method to choose?

    PubMed

    Lage, Sandra; Burian, Alfred; Rasmussen, Ulla; Costa, Pedro Reis; Annadotter, Heléne; Godhe, Anna; Rydberg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin reportedly produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, is proposed to be linked to the development of neurological diseases. BMAA has been found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, both in its phytoplankton producers and in several invertebrate and vertebrate organisms that bioaccumulate it. LC-MS/MS is the most frequently used analytical technique in BMAA research due to its high selectivity, though consensus is lacking as to the best extraction method to apply. This study accordingly surveys the efficiency of three extraction methods regularly used in BMAA research to extract BMAA from cyanobacteria samples. The results obtained provide insights into possible reasons for the BMAA concentration discrepancies in previous publications. In addition and according to the method validation guidelines for analysing cyanotoxins, the TCA protein precipitation method, followed by AQC derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis, is now validated for extracting protein-bound (after protein hydrolysis) and free BMAA from cyanobacteria matrix. BMAA biological variability was also tested through the extraction of diatom and cyanobacteria species, revealing a high variance in BMAA levels (0.0080-2.5797 μg g(-1) DW).

  7. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    PubMed

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves.

  8. Extraction method for parasitic capacitances and inductances of HEMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, HengShuang; Ma, PeiJun; Lu, Yang; Zhao, BoChao; Zheng, JiaXin; Ma, XiaoHua; Hao, Yue

    2017-03-01

    A new method to extract parasitic capacitances and inductances for high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) is proposed in this paper. Compared with the conventional extraction method, the depletion layer is modeled as a physically significant capacitance model and the extrinsic values obtained are much closer to the actual results. In order to simulate the high frequency behaviour with higher precision, series parasitic inductances are introduced into the cold pinch-off model which is used to extract capacitances at low frequency and the reactive elements can be determined simultaneously over the measured frequency range. The values obtained by this method can be used to establish a 16-elements small-signal equivalent circuit model under different bias conditions. The results show good agreements between the simulated and measured scattering parameters up to 30 GHz.

  9. A novel method of genomic DNA extraction for Cactaceae1

    PubMed Central

    Fehlberg, Shannon D.; Allen, Jessica M.; Church, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Genetic studies of Cactaceae can at times be impeded by difficult sampling logistics and/or high mucilage content in tissues. Simplifying sampling and DNA isolation through the use of cactus spines has not previously been investigated. • Methods and Results: Several protocols for extracting DNA from spines were tested and modified to maximize yield, amplification, and sequencing. Sampling of and extraction from spines resulted in a simplified protocol overall and complete avoidance of mucilage as compared to typical tissue extractions. Sequences from one nuclear and three plastid regions were obtained across eight genera and 20 species of cacti using DNA extracted from spines. • Conclusions: Genomic DNA useful for amplification and sequencing can be obtained from cactus spines. The protocols described here are valuable for any cactus species, but are particularly useful for investigators interested in sampling living collections, extensive field sampling, and/or conservation genetic studies. PMID:25202521

  10. Comparison between sample disruption methods and solid-liquid extraction (SLE) to extract phenolic compounds from Ficus carica leaves.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, D Martins; Patão, R Ferreira; Coelho, A Varela; da Costa, C Teixeira

    2006-01-20

    Sea sand disruption method (SSDM) and matrix solid phase disruption (MSPD) were compared to solid-liquid extraction (SLE) for extraction of phenolic compounds from the Ficus carica leaves. Statistical treatment, ANOVA-single factor, was used to compare the extraction yields obtained by these methods, and for the majority of the extracted compounds, significantly higher yields were obtained by the solid disruption methods. Both solid disruption methods are faster and ecologically friendly, but the sea sand method was more reproducible (RSD < 5% for most compounds), and was also the least expensive method. Recoveries above 85% were obtained for chlorogenic acid, rutin, and psoralen using the sea sand extraction method.

  11. An improved shape shifting method of critical area extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiaojiao, Zhu; Xiaohua, Luo; Lisheng, Chen; Yi, Ye; Xiaolang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    As die size and complexity increase, accurate and efficient extraction of the critical area is essential for yield prediction. Aiming at eliminating the potential integration errors of the traditional shape shifting method, an improved shape shifting method is proposed for Manhattan layouts. By mathematical analyses of the relevance of critical areas to defect sizes, the critical area for all defect sizes is modeled as a piecewise quadratic polynomial function of defect size, which can be obtained by extracting critical area for some certain defect sizes. Because the improved method calculates critical areas for all defect sizes instead of several discrete values with traditional shape shifting method, it eliminates the integration error of the average critical area. Experiments on industrial layouts show that the improved shape shifting method can improve the accuracy of the average critical area calculation by 24.3% or reduce about 59.7% computational expense compared with the traditional method.

  12. Development of chemiluminescence method for determination of 10-hydroxycamptothecin based on luminol-[Ag(HIO₆)₂]⁵⁻ reaction in alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanwen; Chen, Peiyun; Shi, Shasha; Li, Liqing

    2011-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for the determination of 10-hydroxycamptothecin(HCPT) based on the CL reaction between [Ag(HIO₆)₂]⁵⁻ and luminol in alkaline solution. CL emission of Ag(III) complex-luminol in alkaline medium was very different from that in acidic medium. A possible mechanism of enhanced CL emission was suggested. The enhanced effect of HCPT on CL emission of the [Ag(HIO₆)₂]⁵⁻-luminol system was found. The enhanced degree of CL emission was proportional to HCPT concentration. The effect of the reaction conditions on CL emission was examined. Under optimal conditions, the limit of detection was 6.5 × 10⁻⁹ g mL⁻¹. The proposed method was applied for the determination of HCPT in real samples with the recoveries of 93.2-109% with the RSD of 1.7-3.3%.

  13. Correction method for line extraction in vision measurement.

    PubMed

    Shao, Mingwei; Wei, Zhenzhong; Hu, Mengjie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-01-01

    Over-exposure and perspective distortion are two of the main factors underlying inaccurate feature extraction. First, based on Steger's method, we propose a method for correcting curvilinear structures (lines) extracted from over-exposed images. A new line model based on the Gaussian line profile is developed, and its description in the scale space is provided. The line position is analytically determined by the zero crossing of its first-order derivative, and the bias due to convolution with the normal Gaussian kernel function is eliminated on the basis of the related description. The model considers over-exposure features and is capable of detecting the line position in an over-exposed image. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method is not significantly affected by the exposure level and is suitable for correcting lines extracted from an over-exposed image. In our experiments, the corrected result is found to be more precise than the uncorrected result by around 45.5%. Second, we analyze perspective distortion, which is inevitable during line extraction owing to the projective camera model. The perspective distortion can be rectified on the basis of the bias introduced as a function of related parameters. The properties of the proposed model and its application to vision measurement are discussed. In practice, the proposed model can be adopted to correct line extraction according to specific requirements by employing suitable parameters.

  14. Correction Method for Line Extraction in Vision Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Mingwei; Wei, Zhenzhong; Hu, Mengjie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-01-01

    Over-exposure and perspective distortion are two of the main factors underlying inaccurate feature extraction. First, based on Steger’s method, we propose a method for correcting curvilinear structures (lines) extracted from over-exposed images. A new line model based on the Gaussian line profile is developed, and its description in the scale space is provided. The line position is analytically determined by the zero crossing of its first-order derivative, and the bias due to convolution with the normal Gaussian kernel function is eliminated on the basis of the related description. The model considers over-exposure features and is capable of detecting the line position in an over-exposed image. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method is not significantly affected by the exposure level and is suitable for correcting lines extracted from an over-exposed image. In our experiments, the corrected result is found to be more precise than the uncorrected result by around 45.5%. Second, we analyze perspective distortion, which is inevitable during line extraction owing to the projective camera model. The perspective distortion can be rectified on the basis of the bias introduced as a function of related parameters. The properties of the proposed model and its application to vision measurement are discussed. In practice, the proposed model can be adopted to correct line extraction according to specific requirements by employing suitable parameters. PMID:25984762

  15. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies.

  16. Comparison of in vitro antioxidant activities and bioactive components of green tea extracts by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Jun, Xi; Deji, Shen; Ye, Li; Rui, Zhang

    2011-04-15

    In this study, in vitro antioxidant activities and bioactive components of green tea extracts (GTE) by ultrahigh pressure extraction and conventional extraction methods (microwave extraction, ultrasonic extraction, Soxhlet extraction and heat reflux extraction) were investigated. DPPH radical-scavenging and FTC method were applied to test the antioxidant activities. The bioactive components were determined by chemical methods. The results indicated that the GTE by ultrahigh pressure extraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities. The contents of polyphenols and catechins in the GTE by ultrahigh pressure extraction were significantly higher than those by other extraction methods, which was possibly responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of the GTE by ultrahigh pressure extraction. From the results we can draw the conclusion that not only the more bioactive components are obtained but also the extract has better free radical and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities through ultrahigh pressure extraction method. These findings further illustrate that ultrahigh pressure extraction has a bright prospect for extracting active ingredients from plant materials.

  17. Effects of Low Level Water-soluble Pentosans, Alkaline-extractable Pentosans, and Xylanase on the Growth and Development of Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Q K; Yang, L Q; Zhao, H B; Wang, X L; Wang, K

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of low levels of water-soluble pentosans (WSP), alkaline-extractable pentosans (AEP), and xylanase on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. Three hundred and fifty 1-d-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into seven experimental groups of five pen replicates, with ten chicks per replicate. The control group consumed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Six dietary treatment groups consumed the basal diet supplemented with one of the following: WSP at 50 mg/kg (WSP50) or 100 mg/kg (WSP100); AEP at 50 mg/kg (AEP50) or 100 mg/kg (AEP100); or xylanase at 3 mg/kg (Xase3) or 6 mg/kg (Xase6). Data including the body weight, digestive organ weights, gut length, rectal digesta viscosity, and gut microflora and pH were collected on d 5, 10, and 15. When compared to the control group, WSP50 promoted body weight gain and organ growth throughout the study, calculated as 3-d averages (p<0.05). WSP100 increased weight gain and enhanced organ development (proventriculus, gizzard, and gut) on d 10 (p<0.05), but the 3-d averages were not different from the control group except for the weight of gizzard. Both Xase3 and Xase6 increased the 3-d average weight gain and the growth of the gizzard (p<0.05). WSP50 increased the digesta viscosity compared to Xase3 on d 10 and 15 (p<0.05). WSP50, Xase3, and Xase6 increased the concentration of Lactobacillus in the rectum when compared to the control group (p<0.05), but only Xase3 lowered the digesta pH in the ileum and cecum on d 10 and 15. AEP had minimal influence on the growth and organ development of broilers. The results showed that low levels of WSP, AEP, and xylanase had different effects and underlying mechanisms on the growth and organ development of broiler chicks. WSP50 could increase the growth performance of broilers fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet.

  18. Efficient extraction method to collect sugar from sweet sorghum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sweet sorghum is a domesticated grass containing a sugar-rich juice that can be readily utilized for ethanol production. Most of the sugar is stored inside the cells of the stalk tissue and can be difficult to release, a necessary step before conventional fermentation. While this crop holds much promise as an arid land sugar source for biofuel production, a number of challenges must be overcome. One lies in the inherent labile nature of the sugars in the stalks leading to a short usable storage time. Also, collection of sugars from the sweet sorghum stalks is usually accomplished by mechanical squeezing, but generally does not collect all of the available sugars. Results In this paper, we present two methods that address these challenges for utilization of sweet sorghum for biofuel production. The first method demonstrates a means to store sweet sorghum stalks in the field under semi-arid conditions. The second provides an efficient water extraction method that can collect as much of the available sugar as feasible. Operating parameters investigated include temperature, stalk size, and solid–liquid ratio that impact both the rate of sugar release and the maximal amount recovered with a goal of low water use. The most desirable conditions include 30°C, 0.6 ratio of solid to liquid (w/w), which collects 90 % of the available sugar. Variations in extraction methods did not alter the efficiency of the eventual ethanol fermentation. Conclusions The water extraction method has the potential to be used for sugar extraction from both fresh sweet sorghum stalks and dried ones. When combined with current sugar extraction methods, the overall ethanol production efficiency would increase compared to current field practices. PMID:23305036

  19. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to…

  20. Single corn kernel aflatoxin B1 extraction and analysis method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic compounds produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus is a phytopathogenic fungus that commonly infects crops such as cotton, peanuts, and maize. The goal was to design an effective sample preparation method and analysis for the extraction of afla...

  1. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  2. Development of a capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis in alkaline media as polyoxoanions of two strategic metals: Niobium and tantalum.

    PubMed

    Deblonde, Gauthier J-P; Chagnes, Alexandre; Cote, Gérard; Vial, Jérôme; Rivals, Isabelle; Delaunay, Nathalie

    2016-03-11

    Tantalum (Ta) and niobium (Nb) are two strategic metals essential to several key sectors, like the aerospace, gas and oil, nuclear and electronic industries, but their separation is really difficult due to their almost identical chemical properties. Whereas they are currently produced by hydrometallurgical processes using fluoride-based solutions, efforts are being made to develop cleaner processes by replacing the fluoride media by alkaline ones. However, methods to analyze Nb and Ta simultaneously in alkaline samples are lacking. In this work, we developed a capillary zone electrophoresis (CE) method able to separate and quantify Nb and Ta directly in alkaline media. This method takes advantage of the hexaniobate and hexatantalate ions which are naturally formed at pH>9 and absorb in the UV domain. First, the detection conditions, the background electrolyte (BGE) pH, the nature of the BGE co-ion and the internal standard (IS) were optimized by a systematic approach. As the BGE counter-ion nature modified the speciation of both ions, sodium- and lithium-based BGE were tested. For each alkaline cation, the BGE ionic strength and separation temperature were optimized using experimental designs. Since changes in the migration order of IS, Nb and Ta were observed within the experimental domain, the resolution was not a monotonic function of ionic strength and separation temperature. This forced us to develop an original data treatment for the prediction of the optimum separation conditions. Depending on the consideration of either peak widths or peak symmetries, with or without additional robustness constraints, four optima were predicted for each tested alkaline cation. The eight predicted optima were tested experimentally and the best experimental optimum was selected considering analysis time, resolution and robustness. The best separation was obtained at 31.0°C and in a BGE containing 10mM LiOH and 35mM LiCH3COO.The separation voltage was finally optimized

  3. Spindle extraction method for ISAR image based on Radon transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xia; Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xu, Gaogui

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a method of spindle extraction of target in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image is proposed which depends on Radon Transform. Firstly, utilizing Radon Transform to detect all straight lines which are collinear with these line segments in image. Then, using Sobel operator to detect image contour. Finally, finding all intersections of each straight line and image contour, the two intersections which have maximum distance between them is the two ends of this line segment and the longest line segment of all line segments is spindle of target. According to the proposed spindle extraction method, one hundred simulated ISAR images which are respectively rotated 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees in counterclockwise are used to do experiment and the proposed method and the detection results are more close to the real spindle of target than the method based on Hough Transform .

  4. System and method for extracting a sample from a surface

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary; Covey, Thomas

    2015-06-23

    A system and method is disclosed for extracting a sample from a sample surface. A sample is provided and a sample surface receives the sample which is deposited on the sample surface. A hydrophobic material is applied to the sample surface, and one or more devices are configured to dispense a liquid on the sample, the liquid dissolving the sample to form a dissolved sample material, and the one or more devices are configured to extract the dissolved sample material from the sample surface.

  5. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  6. A simple-potentiometric method for determination of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymes in biological fluids and dairy products using a nitrophenylphosphate plastic membrane sensor.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Saad S M; Sayour, Hossam E M; Kamel, Ayman H

    2009-04-27

    A novel poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membrane sensor responsive to 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) substrate is described, characterized and used for the potentiometric assay of acid (ACP) and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase enzymes. The sensor is based on the use of the ion-association complex of 4-NPP anion with nickel(II)-bathophenanthroline cation as an electroactive material and nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as a solvent mediator. The sensor displays good selectivity and stability and demonstrates a near-Nernstian response for 4-NPP over the concentration range 9.6x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-2) M with an anionic slope of 28.6+/-0.3 mV decade(-1) and a detection limit of 6.3x10(-6) M over the pH range 4.5-10. The sensor is used to measure the decrease of a fixed concentration of 4-NPP substrate as a function of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities at optimized conditions of pH and temperature. A linear relationship between the initial rate of 4-NPP substrate hydrolysis and enzyme activity holds over 0.05-3.0 and 0.03-3.4 IU L(-1) of ACP and ALP enzymes, respectively. Validation of the method by measuring the lower detection limit, range, accuracy, precision, within-day repeatability and between-day-variability reveals good performance characteristics of the proposed sensor. The sensor is used for the determination of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities in biological fluids of some patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis, acute myelocytic leukemia, pre-eclampsia and prostatic cancer. The sensor is also utilized for assessment of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in milk and dairy products. The results obtained agree fairly well with data obtained by the standard spectrophotometric methods.

  7. Functional properties of protein isolates from Caragana korshinskii Kom. extracted by three different methods.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Zhao; Jia, Shi-Ru; Tan, Zhi-Lei; Han, Pei-Pei

    2012-10-17

    Seeking cheap, sustainable protein sources greatly facilitates in alleviating the dependence upon expensive animal-based protein in many developing countries. Caragana korshinskii Kom. offers a good alternative feedstock because of its high-content of protein, low fertilizer and pesticide requirements, excellent stress (high salty and less water) tolerance, wide adaptability, etc. The functional properties of C. korshinskii Kom. protein isolates by three different extraction methods were investigated. The extraction processes greatly influenced the physiological characteristics of protein isolates. C. korshinskii Kom. protein isolate by traditional alkaline extraction (Al-CPI) exhibited good performance on emulsifying activity index, oil and water absorption capacity, and foaming property compared to A-CPI ( C. korshinskii Kom. protein isolate by the acetone precipitation method) and TCA-CPI ( C. korshinskii Kom. protein isolate by trichloroacetic acid-acetone precipitation). The water and oil adsorption capacities of Al-CPI were observed at 4.99 and 3.45 g/g, respectively, even much higher than those of soy protein isolate (SPI) (3.94 and 2.95 g/g, respectively). The highest foaming capacity was observed by Al-CPI at 185.0%, followed by A-CPI (177.5%), TCA-CPI (142.5%), and SPI (141.9%), respectively. It has to be noted that A-CPI showed good solubility at acidic pH and excellent in vitro digestibility. After sequential pepsin-trypsin digestion, the percentage of N release of A-CPI reached up to 83.7%, which was 1.63 times that of Al-CPI (51.2%), 1.19 times that of TCA-CPI (70.1%), and slightly higher than that of the commercial SPI (82.5%). These results indicate that C. korshinskii Kom. holds great potential for application in the animal feed and food additive industry.

  8. [Influence of extraction methods on the composition of essential oils].

    PubMed

    Lemberkovics, Eva; Kéry, Agnes; Simándi, Béla; Kakasy, András; Balázs, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate our results on comparison of composition of essential oil fractions obtained by traditional steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction. The plant materials for the various extraction methods were selected from the Lamiaceae, Apiaceae and Asteraceae families. For the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) carbon dioxide was used as supercritical solvent. The extracts were collected by stage wise precipitation in two separators. The waxy product and extract rich in essential oil were collected in the 1st and in the 2nd separator respectively. The traditional water steam distillation (SD) was carried out in the special apparatus of the Hungarian Pharmacopoea (7th ed.). GC analysis was carried out on capillary silica fused columns coated with DB-1701 and the specific chiral columns coated with Rt-beta DEX m or Rt-beta DEX sm. Comparing the composition of steam distilled oils with that of volatile SFE fractions the following general characteristics were established. The SFE fractions were richer in monoterpene-esters and poorer in alcohols than the traditional essential oils (clary sage, lavander, moldavian dragonhead). Regarding the distribution of the monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds, the SFE fractions contained sesquiterpenes in higher percentage than the distilled oils (Salvia fruticosa). Furthermore, the proportion of sesquiterpenes increased in SFE fractions collected successively with time (Salvia officinalis) similar to the ratio of oxygenated monoterpenes to monoterpene hydrocarbons (Rosmarinus officinalis). The phtalides of lovage (Satureja hortensis) did not show regular change during the supercritical extraction. In other cases it was verified that part of the mono- and sesquiterpenes were present originally in bound form (glycosides) in plants. Thus they appeared only in essential oil fractions after previous acidic treatment (Thymus, Origanum, Satureja species). During the super-critical extraction the

  9. Sensitive spectrophotometric determination of Co(II) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Hasanpour, Foroozan; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Taei, Masoumeh; Nekouei, Mohsen; Mozafari, Elmira

    2016-05-01

    Analytical performance of conventional spectrophotometer was developed by coupling of effective dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction method with spectrophotometric determination for ultra-trace determination of cobalt. The method was based on the formation of Co(II)-alpha-benzoin oxime complex and its extraction using a dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction technique. During the present work, several important variables such as pH, ligand concentration, amount and type of dispersive, and extracting solvent were optimized. It was found that the crucial factor for the Co(II)-alpha benzoin oxime complex formation is the pH of the alkaline alcoholic medium. Under the optimized condition, the calibration graph was linear in the ranges of 1.0-110 μg L(-1) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.5 μg L(-1). The preconcentration operation of 25 mL of sample gave enhancement factor of 75. The proposed method was applied for determination of Co(II) in soil samples.

  10. Mobility of as, Cu, Cr, and Zn from tailings covered with sealing materials using alkaline industrial residues: a comparison between two leaching methods.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yu; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Different alkaline residue materials (fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud) generated from the pulp and paper industry as sealing materials were evaluated to cover aged mine waste tailings (<1% sulfur content, primarily pyrite). The mobility of four selected trace elements (Cr, Cu, Zn, and As) was compared based on batch and column leaching studies to assess the effectiveness of these alkaline materials as sealing agents. Based on the leaching results, Cr, Cu, and Zn were immobilized by the alkaline amendments. In the amended tailings in the batch system only As dramatically exceeded the limit values at L/S 10 L/kg. The leaching results showed similar patterns to the batch results, though leached Cr, Cu, and Zn showed higher levels in the column tests than in the batch tests. However, when the columns were compared with the batches, the trend for Cu was opposite for the unamended tailings. By contrast, both batch and column results showed that the amendment caused mobilization of As compared with the unamended tailings in the ash-amended tailings. The amount of As released was greatest in the ash column and decreased from the dregs to the lime columns. The leaching of As at high levels can be a potential problem whenever alkaline materials (especially for fly ash) are used as sealing materials over tailings. The column test was considered by the authors to be a more informative method in remediation of the aged tailings with low sulfur content, since it mimics better actual situation in a field.

  11. Chemical analysis and study of immunoenhancing and antioxidant property of a glucan isolated from an alkaline extract of a somatic hybrid mushroom of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica variety APK2.

    PubMed

    Maity, Kousik; Kar Mandal, Eshita; Maity, Saikat; Gantait, Sanjoy K; Das, Debsankar; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2011-11-01

    A water-soluble glucan isolated from an alkaline extract of fruit bodies of a somatic hybrid mushroom PCH9FB of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica var. APK2 strains showed antioxidant properties with immune activation of macrophage, splenocyte, and thymocyte. On the basis of acid hydrolysis, methylation, periodate oxidation and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC) the structure of the repeating unit of the glucan was established as: [structure: see text].

  12. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOEpatents

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  13. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  14. Method of, and apparatus for, extracting energy from waves

    SciTech Connect

    Laithwaite, E.R.; Salter, S.H.

    1981-11-17

    In a method of, and apparatus for, extracting energy from waves on a liquid, the precession of a gyroscope in response to angular motion of a member in response to waves performs useful work by operating a hydraulic pump. Advantageously, pairs of gyroscopes having their rotors spinning in opposite directions are mounted in the member so as to balance the output torques of the gyroscopes.

  15. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet extraction

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Michael J.; Shepherd, Jason F.

    2007-02-20

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet extraction. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of determining a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, generating nodes for merging, and merging the nodes to delete the sheet of hexahedral mesh elements and modify the volume mesh.

  16. Methods for extracting social network data from chatroom logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osesina, O. Isaac; McIntire, John P.; Havig, Paul R.; Geiselman, Eric E.; Bartley, Cecilia; Tudoreanu, M. Eduard

    2012-06-01

    Identifying social network (SN) links within computer-mediated communication platforms without explicit relations among users poses challenges to researchers. Our research aims to extract SN links in internet chat with multiple users engaging in synchronous overlapping conversations all displayed in a single stream. We approached this problem using three methods which build on previous research. Response-time analysis builds on temporal proximity of chat messages; word context usage builds on keywords analysis and direct addressing which infers links by identifying the intended message recipient from the screen name (nickname) referenced in the message [1]. Our analysis of word usage within the chat stream also provides contexts for the extracted SN links. To test the capability of our methods, we used publicly available data from Internet Relay Chat (IRC), a real-time computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool used by millions of people around the world. The extraction performances of individual methods and their hybrids were assessed relative to a ground truth (determined a priori via manual scoring).

  17. Preparing Silica Aerogel Monoliths via a Rapid Supercritical Extraction Method

    PubMed Central

    Gorka, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10-3 molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes. PMID:24637334

  18. Mechanomyographic parameter extraction methods: an appraisal for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Zuniga, Jorge M; Hasnan, Nazirah; Wahab, Ahmad Khairi Abdul

    2014-12-03

    The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG) parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity.

  19. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-02-28

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes.

  20. Texture feature extraction methods for microcalcification classification in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Pourabdollah-Nezhad, Siamak; Rafiee Rad, Farshid

    2000-06-01

    We present development, application, and performance evaluation of three different texture feature extraction methods for classification of benign and malignant microcalcifications in mammograms. The steps of the work accomplished are as follows. (1) A total of 103 regions containing microcalcifications were selected from a mammographic database. (2) For each region, texture features were extracted using three approaches: co-occurrence based method of Haralick; wavelet transformations; and multi-wavelet transformations. (3) For each set of texture features, most discriminating features and their optimal weights were found using a real-valued genetic algorithm (GA) and a training set. For each set of features and weights, a KNN classifier and a malignancy criterion were used to generate the corresponding ROC curve. The malignancy of a given sample was defined as the number of malignant neighbors among its K nearest neighbors. The GA found a population with the largest area under the ROC curve. (4) The best results obtained using each set of features were compared. The best set of features generated areas under the ROC curve ranging from 0.82 to 0.91. The multi-wavelet method outperformed the other two methods, and the wavelet features were superior to the Haralick features. Among the multi-wavelet methods, redundant initialization generated superior results compared to non-redundant initialization. For the best method, a true positive fraction larger than 0.85 and a false positive fraction smaller than 0.1 were obtained.

  1. A hybrid method for pancreas extraction from CT image based on level set methods.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huiyan; Tan, Hanqing; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel semiautomatic method to extract the pancreas from abdominal CT images. Traditional level set and region growing methods that request locating initial contour near the final boundary of object have problem of leakage to nearby tissues of pancreas region. The proposed method consists of a customized fast-marching level set method which generates an optimal initial pancreas region to solve the problem that the level set method is sensitive to the initial contour location and a modified distance regularized level set method which extracts accurate pancreas. The novelty in our method is the proper selection and combination of level set methods, furthermore an energy-decrement algorithm and an energy-tune algorithm are proposed to reduce the negative impact of bonding force caused by connected tissue whose intensity is similar with pancreas. As a result, our method overcomes the shortages of oversegmentation at weak boundary and can accurately extract pancreas from CT images. The proposed method is compared to other five state-of-the-art medical image segmentation methods based on a CT image dataset which contains abdominal images from 10 patients. The evaluated results demonstrate that our method outperforms other methods by achieving higher accuracy and making less false segmentation in pancreas extraction.

  2. A moving foreground objects extraction method under camouflage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen-zhen; Li, Jing-yue; Yang, Si-si; Zhou, Hong

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the problem of segmenting foreground objects with apertures or discontinuities under camouflage effect and the optical physics model is introduced into foreground detection. A moving foreground objects extraction method based on color invariants is proposed in which color invariants are used as descriptors to model the background and do the foreground segmentation. It makes full use of the color spectral information and spatial configuration. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well in various situations of color similarity and meets the demand of real-time performance.

  3. Free radical scavenging and anti-acne activities of mangosteen fruit rind extracts prepared by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Pothitirat, Werayut; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2010-02-01

    The ethanol extracts of mangosteen fruit rinds prepared by several extraction methods were examined for their contents of bioactive compounds, DPPH-scavenging activity, and anti-acne producing bacteria against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The dried powder of the fruit rind was extracted with 95% ethanol by maceration, percolation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and extraction using a magnetic stirrer. Soxhlet extraction promoted the maximum contents of crude extract (26.60% dry weight) and alpha-mangostin (13.51%, w/w of crude extract), and also gave the highest anti-acne activity with MIC 7.81 and 15.63 microg/mL and MBC 15.53 and 31.25 microg/mL against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. Ethanol 70% and 50% (v/v) were also compared in Soxhlet extraction. Ethanol 50% promoted the extract with maximum amounts of total phenolic compounds (26.96 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g extract) and total tannins (46.83 g tannic acid equivalents/100 g extract), and also exhibited the most effective DPPH-scavenging activity (EC(50) 12.84 microg/mL). Considering various factors involved in the process, Soxhlet extraction carried a low cost in terms of reagents and extraction time. It appears to be the recommended extraction method for mangosteen fruit rind. Ethanol 50% should be the appropriate solvent for extracting free radical-scavenging components, phenolic compounds, and tannins, while 95% ethanol is recommended for extraction of alpha-mangostin, a major anti-acne component from this plant.

  4. Methods of sperm DNA extraction for genetic and epigenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    High quality DNA extractions developed for mammalian somatic cells are ineffective for sperm, due mainly to the high degree of nuclear compaction in sperm. The highly specialized nuclear proteins in sperm create a chromatin structure that is at least six times denser than histone bound DNA. Unlike somatic cells, sperm DNA is highly compacted by the replacement of histones with sperm-specific low molecular weight proteins called protamines. Both the protamines and the disulfide bridges formed within and between protamines inhibit the extraction of sperm DNA by standard techniques used for somatic cells. Here we describe the guanidine thiocyanate method reported by Hossain with additional modifications resulting in high molecular weight DNA of high quality with an A260/280 ratio ranging between 1.8 and 2.0 and an A260/230 ratio of 2.0 and greater. The DNA is efficiently digested with restriction enzymes and amplified by PCR.

  5. Improved gas chromatographic method for determination of daminozide by alkaline hydrolysis and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde derivatization and survey results of daminozide in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, K; Saxton, W L; Oehler, G A

    1990-01-01

    An improved method was developed for the quantitative determination of daminozide. This new method combines the alkaline hydrolysis and distillation steps of the PAM II method for daminozide with the derivatization, cleanup, and gas chromatographic determination steps of the Wright method for unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). The minimum detectable level is 0.05 ppm. Recoveries range from 85 to 110% when daminozide is added at 0.1 to 1.0 ppm, and are generally 40% at the 0.05 ppm level. A variety of domestic and imported products were analyzed by this improved method and daminozide was detected in 33 of the 98 samples analyzed. Levels detected ranged from a trace amount to 0.80 ppm. The identity of UDMH hydrazone was confirmed by mass spectrometry in many samples, thus confirming the presence of daminozide. Two samples containing daminozide were analyzed independently by a second laboratory and the findings were closely duplicated.

  6. A fast, simple and green method for the extraction of carbamate pesticides from rice by microwave assisted steam extraction coupled with solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Song, Weitao; Zhang, Yiqun; Li, Guijie; Chen, Haiyan; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Qi; He, Dong; Zhao, Chun; Ding, Lan

    2014-01-15

    This paper presented a fast, simple and green sample pretreatment method for the extraction of 8 carbamate pesticides in rice. The carbamate pesticides were extracted by microwave assisted water steam extraction method, and the extract obtained was immediately applied on a C18 solid phase extraction cartridge for clean-up and concentration. The eluate containing target compounds was finally analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimised. The limits of detection ranging from 1.1 to 4.2ngg(-1) were obtained. The recoveries of 8 carbamate pesticides ranged from 66% to 117% at three spiked levels, and the inter- and intra-day relative standard deviation values were less than 9.1%. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method cost less extraction time and organic solvent.

  7. Evaluation of two methods for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Wong, Chi-Chun; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chen, Feng

    2007-05-01

    The efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods used in Chinese medicine (the decoction method and the maceration method) were evaluated for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants. A group of medicinal plants possessing nutritious and tonic functions were chosen as model plants. A commonly used extraction method was used as a reference method. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays as well as the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the two traditional extraction methods could effectively extract antioxidants from medicinal plants. These extraction methods can be applied to the analysis and purification of antioxidants in plants, respectively. At home, people can use these methods to extract antioxidants from plants for consumption. In the food industry, these methods could be utilized to prepare crude extracts from plants containing antioxidants for use as food additives.

  8. A method for quickly and exactly extracting hepatic vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qing; Yuan, Rong; Wang, Luyao; Wang, Yanchun; Li, Zhen; Hu, Daoyu; Xie, Qingguo

    2013-02-01

    It is of vital importance that providing detailed and accurate information about hepatic vein (HV) for liver surgery planning, such as pre-operative planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Due to the different blood flow rate of intra-hepatic vascular systems and the restrictions of CT scan, it is common that HV and hepatic portal vein (HPV) are both filled with contrast medium during the scan and in high intensity in the hepatic venous phase images. As a result, the HV segmentation result obtained from the hepatic venous phase images is always contaminated by HPV which makes accurate HV modeling difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method for quick and accurate HV extraction. Based on the topological structure of intra-hepatic vessels, we analyzed the anatomical features of HV and HPV. According to the analysis, three conditions were presented to identify the nodes that connect HV with HPV in the topological structure, and thus to distinguish HV from HPV. The method costs less than one minute to extract HV and provides a correct and detailed HV model even with variations in vessels. Evaluated by two experienced radiologists, the accuracy of the HV model obtained from our method is over 97%. In the following work, we will extend our work to a comprehensive clinical evaluation and apply this method to actual LDLT surgical planning.

  9. Spectroflourometric and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of sitagliptin in binary mixture with metformin and ternary mixture with metformin and sitagliptin alkaline degradation product.

    PubMed

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I; Elkady, Ehab F; Ayoub, Bassam M

    2011-03-01

    Simple, accurate and precise spectroflourometric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (STG) and metformin HCL (MET). Zero order, first derivative, ratio derivative spectrophotometric methods and flourometric methods have been developed. The zero order spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of STG in the range of 50-300 μg mL(-1). The first derivative spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of MET in the range of 2-12 μg mL(-1) and STG in the range of 50-300 μg mL(-1) by measuring the peak amplitude at 246.5 nm and 275 nm, respectively. The first derivative of ratio spectra spectrophotometric method used the peak amplitudes at 232 nm and 239 nm for the determination of MET in the range of 2-12 μg mL(-1). The flourometric method was used for the determination of STG in the range of 0.25-110 μg mL(-1). The proposed methods used to determine each drug in binary mixture with metformin and ternary mixture with metformin and sitagliptin alkaline degradation product that is obtained after alkaline hydrolysis of sitagliptin. The results were statistically compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The methods developed were satisfactorily applied to the analysis of the pharmaceutical formulations and proved to be specific and accurate for the quality control of the cited drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  10. Spectroflourometric and Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Sitagliptin in Binary Mixture with Metformin and Ternary Mixture with Metformin and Sitagliptin Alkaline Degradation Product

    PubMed Central

    El-Bagary, Ramzia I.; Elkady, Ehab F.; Ayoub, Bassam M.

    2011-01-01

    Simple, accurate and precise spectroflourometric and spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate (STG) and metformin HCL (MET). Zero order, first derivative, ratio derivative spectrophotometric methods and flourometric methods have been developed. The zero order spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of STG in the range of 50-300 μg mL-1. The first derivative spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of MET in the range of 2–12 μg mL-1 and STG in the range of 50-300 μg mL-1 by measuring the peak amplitude at 246.5 nm and 275 nm, respectively. The first derivative of ratio spectra spectrophotometric method used the peak amplitudes at 232 nm and 239 nm for the determination of MET in the range of 2–12 μg mL-1. The flourometric method was used for the determination of STG in the range of 0.25-110 μg mL-1. The proposed methods used to determine each drug in binary mixture with metformin and ternary mixture with metformin and sitagliptin alkaline degradation product that is obtained after alkaline hydrolysis of sitagliptin. The results were statistically compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The methods developed were satisfactorily applied to the analysis of the pharmaceutical formulations and proved to be specific and accurate for the quality control of the cited drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:23675222

  11. Comparison of methods for proanthocyanidin extraction from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles and biological activities of the extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Young; Jang, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Geun; Yu, Ki Hwan; Jang, Hyeji; Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Sung Gu; Yoo, Byung Hong; Lee, Sang-Hyeon

    2010-02-01

    Flavonoids are known to be effective scavengers of free radicals. In particular, proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that possess cardiovascular protection, antioxidative activities, and immunomodulatory activities. Here, we evaluated proanthocyanidin contents in the total polyphenolic compounds of pine needle extracts prepared by hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE). Analysis of each extract indicated that the ethanol extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. The HWH and hexane extracts also contained relatively high concentrations of proanthocyanidin. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin content analyses out of the total polyphenolic compounds indicated that the HWH extract contained the highest content. These results suggest that HWH extraction is a suitable method to obtain an extract with a high level of pure proanthocyanidins and a relatively high yield. The HWH extract possessed superior activity in diverse antioxidative analyses such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) assays. In addition, upon assessing the effects of the pine needle extracts on macrophages (Raw 264.7 cell), the HWH extract exhibited the highest activity. In this study, we discerned an efficient extraction method to achieve relatively pure proanthocyanidins from pine needles and evaluated the biological functions of the resulting extract, which could potentially be used for its efficacious components in functional food products.

  12. Comparison of methods for proanthocyanidin extraction from pine (Pinus densiflora) needles and biological activities of the extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Young; Jang, Min-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Geun; Yu, Ki Hwan; Jang, HyeJi; Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Sung Gu; Yoo, Byung Hong

    2010-01-01

    Flavonoids are known to be effective scavengers of free radicals. In particular, proanthocyanidins are flavonoids that possess cardiovascular protection, antioxidative activities, and immunomodulatory activities. Here, we evaluated proanthocyanidin contents in the total polyphenolic compounds of pine needle extracts prepared by hot water, ethanol, hexane, hot water-hexane (HWH), and hot water-ethanol (HWE). Analysis of each extract indicated that the ethanol extract contained the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. The HWH and hexane extracts also contained relatively high concentrations of proanthocyanidin. On the other hand, proanthocyanidin content analyses out of the total polyphenolic compounds indicated that the HWH extract contained the highest content. These results suggest that HWH extraction is a suitable method to obtain an extract with a high level of pure proanthocyanidins and a relatively high yield. The HWH extract possessed superior activity in diverse antioxidative analyses such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferrous ion chelating (FIC), and ferric-ion reducing power (FRAP) assays. In addition, upon assessing the effects of the pine needle extracts on macrophages (Raw 264.7 cell), the HWH extract exhibited the highest activity. In this study, we discerned an efficient extraction method to achieve relatively pure proanthocyanidins from pine needles and evaluated the biological functions of the resulting extract, which could potentially be used for its efficacious components in functional food products. PMID:20198204

  13. Multi-wavelength photoplethysmography method for skin arterial pulse extraction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Yan, Bryan Ping-Yen; Dai, Wen-Xuan; Ding, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Zhao, Ni

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a multi-wavelength (MW) PPG method exploiting the wavelength dependence of light penetration in skin tissue to provide depth resolution of skin blood pulsation. The MW PPG system requires two to three light sources in different wavelengths and extracts the arterial blood pulsation through a multi-wavelength multi-layer light-skin interaction model, which removes the capillary pulsation (determined from the short-wavelength PPG signal) from the long-wavelength PPG signal using absorption weighting factors that are quasi-analytically calibrated. The extracted pulsations are used to calculate blood pressure (BP) through pulse transit time (PTT), and the results are compared with those obtained from the single wavelength PPG method. The comparative study is clinically performed on 20 subjects including 10 patients diagnosed with cardiovascular diseases and 10 healthy subjects. The result demonstrates that the MW PPG method significantly improves the measurement accuracy of systolic BP (SBP), reducing the mean absolute difference between the reference and the estimated SBP values from 5.7 mmHg (for single-wavelength PPG) to 2.9 mmHg (for three-wavelength PPG). PMID:27867733

  14. A method of ECG template extraction for biometrics applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Meng; Bao, Shu-Di; Miao, Fen

    2014-01-01

    ECG has attracted widespread attention as one of the most important non-invasive physiological signals in healthcare-system related biometrics for its characteristics like ease-of-monitoring, individual uniqueness as well as important clinical value. This study proposes a method of dynamic threshold setting to extract the most stable ECG waveform as the template for the consequent ECG identification process. With the proposed method, the accuracy of ECG biometrics using the dynamic time wraping for difference measures has been significantly improved. Analysis results with the self-built electrocardiogram database show that the deployment of the proposed method was able to reduce the half total error rate of the ECG biometric system from 3.35% to 1.45%. Its average running time on the platform of android mobile terminal was around 0.06 seconds, and thus demonstrates acceptable real-time performance.

  15. Method of extracting heat from dry geothermal reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Potter, R.M.; Robinson, E.S.; Smith, M.C.

    1974-01-22

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to interconnect two or more holes that penetrate a previously dry geothermal reservoir, and to produce within the reservoir a sufficiently large heat-transfer surface so that heat can be extracted from the reservoir at a usefully high rate by a fluid entering it through one hole and leaving it through another. Introduction of a fluid into the reservoir to remove heat from it and establishment of natural (unpumped) convective circulation through the reservoir to accomplish continuous heat removal are important and novel features of the method. (auth)

  16. Comparative study of two extraction methods for enteric virus recovery from sewage sludge by molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Schlindwein, A D; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two nucleic acid extraction methods for the recovery of enteric viruses from activated sludge. Test samples were inoculated with human adenovirus (AdV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), poliovirus (PV) and rotavirus (RV) and were then processed by an adsorption-elution-precipitation method. Two extraction methods were used: an organic solvent-based method and a silica method. The organic-based method was able to recoup 20% of the AdV, 90% of the RV and 100% of both the PV and HAV from seeded samples. The silica method was able to recoup 1.8% of the AdV and 90% of the RV. These results indicate that the organic-based method is more suitable for detecting viruses in sewage sludge.

  17. Method Specific Calibration Corrects for DNA Extraction Method Effects on Relative Telomere Length Measurements by Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Seeker, Luise A; Holland, Rebecca; Underwood, Sarah; Fairlie, Jennifer; Psifidi, Androniki; Ilska, Joanna J; Bagnall, Ainsley; Whitelaw, Bruce; Coffey, Mike; Banos, Georgios; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in epidemiological, biomedical and ecological studies. A wide range of DNA extraction techniques have been used in telomere experiments and recent quantitative PCR (qPCR) based studies suggest that the choice of DNA extraction method may influence average relative TL (RTL) measurements. Such extraction method effects may limit the use of historically collected DNA samples extracted with different methods. However, if extraction method effects are systematic an extraction method specific (MS) calibrator might be able to correct for them, because systematic effects would influence the calibrator sample in the same way as all other samples. In the present study we tested whether leukocyte RTL in blood samples from Holstein Friesian cattle and Soay sheep measured by qPCR was influenced by DNA extraction method and whether MS calibration could account for any observed differences. We compared two silica membrane-based DNA extraction kits and a salting out method. All extraction methods were optimized to yield enough high quality DNA for TL measurement. In both species we found that silica membrane-based DNA extraction methods produced shorter RTL measurements than the non-membrane-based method when calibrated against an identical calibrator. However, these differences were not statistically detectable when a MS calibrator was used to calculate RTL. This approach produced RTL measurements that were highly correlated across extraction methods (r > 0.76) and had coefficients of variation lower than 10% across plates of identical samples extracted by different methods. Our results are consistent with previous findings that popular membrane-based DNA extraction methods may lead to shorter RTL measurements than non-membrane-based methods. However, we also demonstrate that these differences can be accounted for by using an extraction method-specific calibrator, offering researchers a simple means of accounting for

  18. Method Specific Calibration Corrects for DNA Extraction Method Effects on Relative Telomere Length Measurements by Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Rebecca; Underwood, Sarah; Fairlie, Jennifer; Psifidi, Androniki; Ilska, Joanna J.; Bagnall, Ainsley; Whitelaw, Bruce; Coffey, Mike; Banos, Georgios; Nussey, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in epidemiological, biomedical and ecological studies. A wide range of DNA extraction techniques have been used in telomere experiments and recent quantitative PCR (qPCR) based studies suggest that the choice of DNA extraction method may influence average relative TL (RTL) measurements. Such extraction method effects may limit the use of historically collected DNA samples extracted with different methods. However, if extraction method effects are systematic an extraction method specific (MS) calibrator might be able to correct for them, because systematic effects would influence the calibrator sample in the same way as all other samples. In the present study we tested whether leukocyte RTL in blood samples from Holstein Friesian cattle and Soay sheep measured by qPCR was influenced by DNA extraction method and whether MS calibration could account for any observed differences. We compared two silica membrane-based DNA extraction kits and a salting out method. All extraction methods were optimized to yield enough high quality DNA for TL measurement. In both species we found that silica membrane-based DNA extraction methods produced shorter RTL measurements than the non-membrane-based method when calibrated against an identical calibrator. However, these differences were not statistically detectable when a MS calibrator was used to calculate RTL. This approach produced RTL measurements that were highly correlated across extraction methods (r > 0.76) and had coefficients of variation lower than 10% across plates of identical samples extracted by different methods. Our results are consistent with previous findings that popular membrane-based DNA extraction methods may lead to shorter RTL measurements than non-membrane-based methods. However, we also demonstrate that these differences can be accounted for by using an extraction method-specific calibrator, offering researchers a simple means of accounting for

  19. Rapid new methods for paint collection and lead extraction.

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L; Winstead, Wayne; Sorrell, Kristen; Binstock, David A; Salmons, Cynthia A; Haas, Curtis; McCombs, Michelle; Studabaker, William; Wall, Constance V; Moore, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure of children to lead can result in permanent physiological impairment. In adults, it can cause irritability, poor muscle coordination, and nerve damage to the sense organs and nerves controlling the body. Surfaces coated with lead-containing paints are potential sources of exposure to lead. In April 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized new requirements that would reduce exposure to lead hazards created by renovation, repair, and painting activities, which disturb lead-based paint. On-site, inexpensive identification of lead-based paint is required. Two steps have been taken to meet this challenge. First, this paper presents a new, highly efficient method for paint collection that is based on the use of a modified wood drill bit. Second, this paper presents a novel, one-step approach for quantitatively grinding and extracting lead from paint samples for subsequent lead determination. This latter method is based on the use of a high-revolutions per minute rotor with stator to break up the paint into approximately 50 micron-size particles. Nitric acid (25%, v/v) is used to extract the lead in <3 minutes. Recoveries are consistently >95% for real-world paints, National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference materials, and audit samples from the American Industrial Hygiene Association's Environmental Lead Proficiency Analytical Testing Program. This quantitative extraction procedure, when paired with quantitative paint sample collection and lead determination, may enable the development of a lead paint test kit that will meet the specifications of the final EPA rule.

  20. Chloroform extraction of iodine in seawater: method development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidler, H. B.; Glimme, A.; Tumey, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    While 129I poses little to no radiological health hazard, the isotopic ratio of 129I to stable iodine is very useful as a nearly conservative tracer for ocean mixing processes. The unfortunate disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant released many radioactive materials into the environment, including 129I. The release allows the studying of oceanic processes through the tracking of 129I. However, with such a low iodine (~0.5 micromolar) and 129I concentrations (<10-11) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is needed for accurate measurements. In order to prepare the samples of ocean water for analysis by AMS, the iodine needs to be separated from the various other salts in the seawater. Solvent extraction is the preferred method for preparation of seawater for AMS analysis of 129I. However, given the relatively low background 129I concentrations in the Pacific Ocean, we sought to optimize recovery of thismethod, which would minimize both the sample size and the carrier addition required for analysis. We started from a base method described in other research and worked towards maximum efficiency of the process while boosting the recovery of iodine. During development, we assessed each methodological change qualitatively using a color scale (I2 in CHCl3) and quantitatively using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The "optimized method" yielded a 20-40% increase in recovery of the iodine compared to the base method (80-85% recovery vs. 60%). Lastly, the "optimized method" was tested by AMS for fractionation of the extracted iodine.

  1. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  2. Selection of a suitable extraction method for mutagenic activity from woodsmoke-impacted air particles

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.; Pasley, T.; Warren, S.; Zweidinger, R.; Watts, R.

    1988-01-01

    Extraction methods were evaluated for recovery of mutagneic activity from woodsmoke-impacted air particles. Soxhlet and sonication techniques were utilized with a variety of solvents to ascertain the effect of solvent choice, extraction methods, or dissolved gases in extraction solvents on the recovery of mutagenicity. Sonication extraction gave slightly less mass recovery than the Soxhlet method. Methanol extracted more mass than the other solvents with dichloromethane recovering the least. Dissolved gases were not found to have any effect, while mutagenicity was shown to be dependent upon solvent and extraction method. Soxhlet extraction with acetone and toluene/ethanol yielded the highest recovery of mutagenic activity; however, results indicated a solvent/solute interaction which chemically altered one or more extract components. Extraction employing dichloromethane and sonication was selected as a suitable method since this treatment appeared not to alter extracted compounds, and good recovery of mutagenicity was obtained. (Copyright (c) 1988 Gordon and Breach Science Publishers Inc.)

  3. Surfactant- and oxidant-stable alkaline proteases from Bacillus invictae: Characterization and potential applications in chitin extraction and as a detergent additive.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Amal; Hamdi, Marwa; Abdelhedi, Ola; Jridi, Mourad; Nasri, Moncef; Bayoudh, Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    A newly alkaline proteases producing strain was isolated from sea water. The strain was identified as Bacillus invictae on the basis of biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The crude protease activity showed an optimal activity at approximately 60°C and in wide pH interval ranging from 9.0 to 11.0. At least six clear caseinolytic protease bands were observed in a zymogram. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), a serine-protease inhibitor, was found to inhibit completely the protease activity. The crude alkaline proteases showed high stability toward solid and liquid detergents. Furthermore, wash performance analysis revealed that the crude enzyme could effectively remove blood stain when added to commercial detergent. In addition, the crude proteases were found to be effective in the deproteinization of shrimp shell waste. The percent of protein removal after 3h of hydrolysis at 50°C with an E/S ratio of 10U/mg of protein or after fermentation by the strain were about 76% and 82%, respectively. Thus, the results of the present study showed that the crude proteases of B. invectae could be effectively used in several industrial applications, as an eco-friendly agent.

  4. [Optimization of extraction process for tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2 method].

    PubMed

    Xie, Song; Tong, Zhi-Ping; Tan, Rui; Liu, Xiao-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    In order to optimize extraction process conditions of tannins from Geranium orientali-tibeticum by supercritical CO2, the content of tannins was determined by phosphomolybdium tungsten acid-casein reaction, with extraction pressure, extraction temper- ature and extraction time as factors, the content of tannins from extract of G. orientali-tibeticum as index, technology conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. Optimum technology conditions were as follows: extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 50 °C, extracted 1.5 h. The content of tannins in extract was 12.91 mg x g(-1), extract rate was 3.67%. The method established could be used for assay the contents of tannin in G. orientali-tibeticum. The circulated extraction was an effective extraction process that was stable and feasible, and that provides a way of the extraction process conditions of tannin from G. orientali-tibeticum.

  5. Extraction, chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods for lipid analysis.

    PubMed

    Pati, Sumitra; Nie, Ben; Arnold, Robert D; Cummings, Brian S

    2016-05-01

    Lipids make up a diverse subset of biomolecules that are responsible for mediating a variety of structural and functional properties as well as modulating cellular functions such as trafficking, regulation of membrane proteins and subcellular compartmentalization. In particular, phospholipids are the main constituents of biological membranes and play major roles in cellular processes like transmembrane signaling and structural dynamics. The chemical and structural variety of lipids makes analysis using a single experimental approach quite challenging. Research in the field relies on the use of multiple techniques to detect and quantify components of cellular lipidomes as well as determine structural features and cellular organization. Understanding these features can allow researchers to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms by which lipid-lipid and/or lipid-protein interactions take place within the conditions of study. Herein, we provide an overview of essential methods for the examination of lipids, including extraction methods, chromatographic techniques and approaches for mass spectrometric analysis.

  6. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane Schafer; Marron, Lisa C.; Salton, Jonathan R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  7. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  8. A method to extract soil water for stable isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revesz, K.; Woods, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    A method has been developed to extract soil water for determination of deuterium (D) and 18O content. The principle of this method is based on the observation that water and toluene form an azeotropic mixture at 84.1??C, but are completely immiscible at ambient temperature. In a specially designed distillation apparatus, the soil water is distilled at 84.1??C with toluene and is separated quantitatively in the collecting funnel at ambient temperature. Traces of toluene are removed and the sample can be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Kerosene may be substituted for toluene. The accuracy of this technique is ?? 2 and ?? 0.2???, respectively, for ??D and ??18O. Reduced accuracy is obtained at low water contents. ?? 1990.

  9. Purification of alkaline solutions and wastes from actinides and technetium by coprecipitation with some carriers using the method of appearing reagents: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peretrukhin, V.F.; Silin, V.I.; Kareta, A.V.; Gelis, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; German, K.E.; Firsova, E.V.; Maslennikov, A.G.; Trushina, V.E.

    1998-09-01

    The coprecipitation of transuranium elements (TRU) and technetium from alkaline solutions and from simulants of Hanford Site tank wastes has been studied in reducing and oxidizing conditions on uranium(IV,VI) hydroxocompounds, tetraalkylammonium perrhenate and perchlorate, and on hydroxides of Fe(III), Co(III), Mn(II), and Cr(III) using the method of appearing reagents (MAR). Coprecipitations in alkaline solution have been shown to give high decontamination factors (DF) at low content of carrier and in the presence of high salt concentrations. Uranium(IV) hydroxide in concentrations higher than 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M coprecipitates Pu and Cm in any oxidation state from 0.2 to 4 M NaOH with DFs of 110 to 1000 and Np and Tc with DFs of 51 to 176. Technetium (VII) coprecipitates with (5 to 8) {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M tetrabutylammonium (TBA) perrhenate in 0.01 to 0.02 M TBA hydroxide from 0.5 to 1.5 M NaOH to give DFs of 150 to 200. Coprecipitations of Np and Pu with Co(OH){sub 3}, Fe(OH){sub 3}, Cr(OH){sub 3}, and Mn(OH){sub 2} obtained by the MAR from precursors in the range from pH 10.5 to 0.4 M NaOH give DFs from 80 to 400.

  10. CEMS using hot wet extractive method based on DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Changku

    2011-11-01

    A continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) using hot wet extractive method based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is designed. The developed system is applied to retrieving the concentration of SO2 and NOx in flue gas on-site. The flue gas is carried along a heated sample line into the sample pool at a constant temperature above the dew point. In this case, the adverse impact of water vapor on measurement accuracy is reduced greatly, and the on-line calibration is implemented. And then the flue gas is discharged from the sample pool after the measuring process is complete. The on-site applicability of the system is enhanced by using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control each valve in the system during the measuring and on-line calibration process. The concentration retrieving method used in the system is based on the partial least squares (PLS) regression nonlinear method. The relationship between the known concentration and the differential absorption feature gathered by the PLS nonlinear method can be figured out after the on-line calibration process. Then the concentration measurement of SO2 and NOx can be easily implemented according to the definite relationship. The concentration retrieving method can identify the information and noise effectively, which improves the measuring accuracy of the system. SO2 with four different concentrations are measured by the system under laboratory conditions. The results proved that the full-scale error of this system is less than 2%FS.

  11. A semi-micro Soxhlet extraction method for the determination of extractable particulate organic matter and selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Gundel, L.A.; Wang, L.

    1989-02-01

    A semi-micro-Soxhlet extraction method has been developed for the determination of extractable particulate organic matter and selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in samples of particulate matter collected in homes in which concentrations are about 10 ..mu..g-m/sup /minus/3/ or more. The method involves a sequential extraction in a micro-Soxhlet apparatus with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by an optimal extraction with acetone (ACE). The extracts are then filtered in a specially developed semi-micro filtration/evaporation apparatus and brought to a final volume of 1.0 ml for extract weight determination. An aliquot of the DCM fraction is then analyzed for selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using fluorescence detection for high sensitivity. 7 refs.

  12. Evaluation of hexavalent chromium extraction method EPA method 3060A for soils using XANES spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Malherbe, Julien; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Séby, Fabienne; Watson, Russell P; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Stutzman, Paul E; Davis, Clay W; Maurizio, Chiara; Unceta, Nora; Sieber, John R; Long, Stephen E; Donard, Olivier F X

    2011-12-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) occurrence in soils is generally determined using an extraction step to transfer it to the liquid phase where it is more easily detected and quantified. In this work, the performance of the most common extraction procedure (EPA Method 3060A) using NaOH-Na(2)CO(3) solutions is evaluated using X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), which enables the quantification of Cr(VI) directly in the solid state. Results obtained with both methods were compared for three solid samples with different matrices: a soil containing chromite ore processing residue (COPR), a loamy soil, and a paint sludge. Results showed that Cr(VI) contents determined by the two methods differ significantly, and that the EPA Method 3060A procedure underestimated the Cr(VI) content in all studied samples. The underestimation is particularly pronounced for COPR. Low extraction yield for EPA Method 3060A was found to be the main reason. The Cr(VI) present in COPR was found to be more concentrated in magnetic phases. This work provides new XANES analyses of SRM 2701 and its extraction residues for the purpose of benchmarking EPA 3060A performance.

  13. An efficient and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil using a newly formulated cell extraction buffer.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Avinash; Jain, Kunal; Shah, Amita R; Madamwar, Datta

    2016-06-01

    The present study describes the rapid and efficient indirect lysis method for environmental DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil by newly formulated cell extraction buffer. The available methods are mostly based on direct lysis which leads to DNA shearing and co-extraction of extra cellular DNA that influences the community and functional analysis. Moreover, during extraction of DNA by direct lysis from athalassohaline soil, it was observed that, upon addition of poly ethylene glycol (PEG), isopropanol or absolute ethanol for precipitation of DNA, salt precipitates out and affecting DNA yield significantly. Therefore, indirect lysis method was optimized for extraction of environmental DNA from such soil containing high salts and low microbial biomass (CFU 4.3 × 10(4) per gram soil) using newly formulated cell extraction buffer in combination with low and high speed centrifugation. The cell extraction buffer composition and its concentration were optimized and PEG 8000 (1 %; w/v) and 1 M NaCl gave maximum cell mass for DNA extraction. The cell extraction efficiency was assessed with acridine orange staining of soil samples before and after cell extraction. The efficiency, reproducibility and purity of extracted DNA by newly developed procedure were compared with previously recognized methods and kits having different protocols including indirect lysis. The extracted environmental DNA showed better yield (5.6 ± 0.7 μg g(-1)) along with high purity ratios. The purity of DNA was validated by assessing its usability in various molecular techniques like restriction enzyme digestion, amplification of 16S rRNA gene using PCR and UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis.

  14. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : evaluation of alkaline persulfate digestion as an alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for determination of total and dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

    2003-01-01

    Alkaline persulfate digestion was evaluated and validated as a more sensitive, accurate, and less toxic alternative to Kjeldahl digestion for routine determination of nitrogen and phosphorus in surface- and ground-water samples in a large-scale and geographically diverse study conducted by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) between October 1, 2001, and September 30, 2002. Data for this study were obtained from about 2,100 surface- and ground-water samples that were analyzed for Kjeldahl nitrogen and Kjeldahl phosphorus in the course of routine operations at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL). These samples were analyzed independently for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using an alkaline persulfate digestion method developed by the NWQL Methods Research and Development Program. About half of these samples were collected during nominally high-flow (April-June) conditions and the other half were collected during nominally low-flow (August-September) conditions. The number of filtered and whole-water samples analyzed from each flow regime was about equal.By operational definition, Kjeldahl nitrogen (ammonium + organic nitrogen) and alkaline persulfate digestion total nitrogen (ammonium + nitrite + nitrate + organic nitrogen) are not equivalent. It was necessary, therefore, to reconcile this operational difference by subtracting nitrate + nitrite concentra-tions from alkaline persulfate dissolved and total nitrogen concentrations prior to graphical and statistical comparisons with dissolved and total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations. On the basis of two-population paired t-test statistics, the means of all nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen and Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations (2,066 paired results) were significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level. Statistically, the means of Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations were greater than those of nitrate-corrected alkaline persulfate nitrogen concentrations. Experimental evidence strongly

  15. Enhancing the various solvent extraction method via microwave irradiation for extraction of lipids from marine microalgae in biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Teo, Chee Loong; Idris, Ani

    2014-11-01

    The types of microalgae strains and the method used in lipid extraction have become crucial factors which influence the productivity of crude oil. In this paper, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp. were chosen as the strains and four different methods were used to extract the lipids: Hara and Radin, Folch, Chen and Bligh and Dyer. These methods were performed by using conventional heating and microwave irradiation methods. Results revealed that highest lipid yield from the different species was obtained using different extraction methods; both under microwave irradiation. The lipid yield for Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. was highest when Hara and Radin (8.19%), and Folch (8.47%) methods were used respectively under microwave irradiation. The lipids extracted were then transesterified to biodiesel and the quality of the biodiesel was analyzed using the gas chromatography.

  16. Comparison of eight methods of genomic DNA extraction from babassu.

    PubMed

    Viana, J P G; Borges, A N C; Lopes, A C A; Gomes, R L F; Britto, F B; Lima, P S C; Valente, S E S

    2015-12-22

    Babassu (Orbignya phalerata Martius) is one of the most important palms in Brazil because of the largest morphological variation, wide geographic distribution, and high socio-economic importance. The diversity present in babassu germplasm should be protected against loss to ensure their use with high productivity. Study of the available variability in populations of babassu is necessary to develop conservation strategies. The study of genetic variability can be conducted using molecular markers and many of these studies require significant quantity of high-quality DNA. The present study aimed to effect comparison among eight DNA extraction methods in case of O. phalerata. The quality and concentration of nucleic acids were analyzed by spectrophotometry and integrity of DNA was ascertained by agarose gel electrophoresis. The spectrophotometry revealed that some methods resulted in high levels of concentration of nucleic acids, in which values of the ratio A260/280 and A260/230 were outside the range of purity. The agarose gel electrophoresis established the concentration and integrity of DNA. The methods of Murray and Thompson (1980) and Ferreira and Grattapaglia (1998) did not result in satisfactory quantities of DNA. Conversely, the method proposed by Khanuja et al. (1999) resulted in DNA of adequate quality and quantity that could be satisfactorily used for amplification reactions performed with two ISSR primers.

  17. A novel protein extraction method for identification of mycobacteria using MALDI-ToF MS.

    PubMed

    Adams, La'Tonzia L; Salee, Parichat; Dionne, Kim; Carroll, Karen; Parrish, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Commercial extraction methods for identification of mycobacteria using MALDI-ToF MS are laborious and time consuming. We have developed a novel extraction method which utilizes a bead beater and zirconia/silica beads to significantly shorten the existing protocol. This novel method provides a more rapid extraction of mycobacteria versus the commercial standard.

  18. System and method for preparing near-surface heavy oil for extraction using microbial degradation

    DOEpatents

    Busche, Frederick D.; Rollins, John B.; Noyes, Harold J.; Bush, James G.

    2011-04-12

    A system and method for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil in an oil extraction environment by feeding nutrients to a preferred microbial species (bacteria and/or fungi). A method is described that includes the steps of: sampling and identifying microbial species that reside in the oil extraction environment; collecting fluid property data from the oil extraction environment; collecting nutrient data from the oil extraction environment; identifying a preferred microbial species from the oil extraction environment that can transform the heavy oil into a lighter oil; identifying a nutrient from the oil extraction environment that promotes a proliferation of the preferred microbial species; and introducing the nutrient into the oil extraction environment.

  19. A proposed method for enhanced eigen-pair extraction using finite element methods: Theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jara-Almonte, J.; Mitchell, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    The paper covers two distinct parts: theory and application. The goal of this work was the reduction of model size with an increase in eigenvalue/vector accuracy. This method is ideal for the condensation of large truss- or beam-type structures. The theoretical approach involves the conversion of a continuum transfer matrix beam element into an 'Exact' dynamic stiffness element. This formulation is implemented in a finite element environment. This results in the need to solve a transcendental eigenvalue problem. Once the eigenvalue is determined the eigenvectors can be reconstructed with any desired spatial precision. No discretization limitations are imposed on the reconstruction. The results of such a combined finite element and transfer matrix formulation is a much smaller FEM eigenvalue problem. This formulation has the ability to extract higher eigenvalues as easily and as accurately as lower eigenvalues. Moreover, one can extract many more eigenvalues/vectors from the model than the number of degrees of freedom in the FEM formulation. Typically, the number of eigenvalues accurately extractable via the 'Exact' element method are at least 8 times the number of degrees of freedom. In contrast, the FEM usually extracts one accurate (within 5 percent) eigenvalue for each 3-4 degrees of freedom. The 'Exact' element results in a 20-30 improvement in the number of accurately extractable eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

  20. Method for improving the extraction properties of a tributyl phosphate solution

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Earl C.; Bruns, Lester E.

    1976-01-01

    A method for improving the extraction properties of a tributyl phosphate extractant used for reprocessing irradiated nuclear reactor fuel (Purex Process) containing degradation products of tributyl phosphate by contacting the extractant with diazomethane in a suitable solvent whereby the degradation products are esterified to triester phosphates which have extraction properties similar to those of tributyl phosphate.

  1. Free nitrous acid serving as a pretreatment method for alkaline fermentation to enhance short-chain fatty acid production from waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Chen, Hongbo; Zhong, Yu; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-07-01

    Alkaline condition (especially pH 10) has been demonstrated to be a promising method for short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production from waste activated sludge anaerobic fermentation, because it can effectively inhibit the activities of methanogens. However, due to the limit of sludge solubilization rate, long fermentation time is required but SCFA yield is still limited. This paper reports a new pretreatment method for alkaline fermentation, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) to pretreat sludge for 2 d, by which the fermentation time is remarkably shortened and meanwhile the SCFA production is significantly enhanced. Experimental results showed the highest SCFA production of 370.1 mg COD/g VSS (volatile suspended solids) was achieved at 1.54 mg FNA/L pretreatment integration with 2 d of pH 10 fermentation, which was 4.7- and 1.5-fold of that in the blank (uncontrolled) and sole pH 10 systems, respectively. The total time of this integration system was only 4 d, whereas the corresponding time was 15 d in the blank and 8 d in the sole pH 10 systems. The mechanism study showed that compared with pH 10, FNA pretreatment accelerated disruption of both extracellular polymeric substances and cell envelope. After FNA pretreatment, pH 10 treatment (1 d) caused 38.0% higher substrate solubilization than the sole FNA, which indicated that FNA integration with pH 10 could cause positive synergy on sludge solubilization. It was also observed that this integration method benefited hydrolysis and acidification processes. Therefore, more SCFA was produced, but less fermentation time was required in the integrated system.

  2. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of Dezful sesame cake extracts obtained by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Mohsenzadeh, Fatereh; Amiri, Zeinab Raftani

    2014-01-01

    Sesame cake is a by-product of sesame oil industry. In this study, the effect of extraction methods (maceration and sonication) and solvents (ethanol, methanol, ethanol/water (50:50), methanol/water (50:50), and water) on the antioxidant properties of sesame cake extracts are evaluated to determine the most suitable extraction method for optimal use of this product. Total phenolic content is measured according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of each extract are evaluated with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The highest amount of total phenolic compounds is observed in ethanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.89 mg/g gallic acid equivalent. Methanol-ultrasonic extract with the amount of 88.475% indicates the highest activity in scavenging DPPH free radicals. In β-carotene-linoleic acid system, ethanol-ultrasonic extract indicates the highest inhibition percent of 45.64. In FRAP assay, ethanol/water (50:50)-maceration and ethanol/water (50:50)-ultrasonic extracts with the absorption of 1.132 and 1.0745 nm indicate the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:25473500

  3. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research. PMID:24456581

  4. Four different methods comparison for extraction of astaxanthin from green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shengzhao; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Shihui; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is one of the potent organisms for production of astaxanthin. Up to now, no efficient method has been achieved due to its thick cell wall hindering solvent extraction of astaxanthin. In this study, four different methods, hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by acetone extraction (HCl-ACE), hexane/isopropanol (6:4, v/v) mixture solvents extraction (HEX-IPA), methanol extraction followed by acetone extraction (MET-ACE, 2-step extraction), and soy-oil extraction, were intensively evaluated for extraction of astaxanthin from H. pluvialis. Results showed that HCl-ACE method could obtain the highest oil yield (33.3±1.1%) and astaxanthin content (19.8±1.1%). Quantitative NMR analysis provided the fatty acid chain profiles of total lipid extracts. In all cases, oleyl chains were predominant, and high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid chains were observed and the major fatty acid components were oleic acid (13-35%), linoleic acid (37-43%), linolenic acid (20-31%), and total saturated acid (17-28%). DPPH radical scavenging activity of extract obtained by HCl-ACE was 73.2±1.0%, which is the highest amongst the four methods. The reducing power of extract obtained by four extraction methods was also examined. It was concluded that the proposed extraction method of HCl-ACE in this work allowed efficient astaxanthin extractability with high antioxidant properties.

  5. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method: easyMag DNA extraction compared to QIAamp DNA stool mini kit extraction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). Findings In this study, a semi-automatic DNA extraction system (easyMag®, BioMérieux, Marcy I’Etoile, France) and a manual one (QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) were tested on stool samples collected from 3 patients with Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) and 5 healthy individuals. DNA extracts obtained by the QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit yield a higher amount of DNA compared to DNA extracts obtained by easyMag® from the same fecal samples. Furthermore, DNA extracts obtained using easyMag® seemed to contain inhibitory compounds, since in order to perform a successful PCR-analysis, the sample should be diluted at least 10 times. DGGE performed on PCR from DNA extracted by QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit DNA was very successful. Conclusion QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit DNA extracts are optimal for DGGE runs and this extraction method yields a higher amount of DNA compared to easyMag®. PMID:24447346

  6. PSO based Gabor wavelet feature extraction and tracking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongguang; Bu, Qian; Zhang, Huijie

    2008-12-01

    The paper is the study of 2D Gabor wavelet and its application in grey image target recognition and tracking. The new optimization algorithms and technologies in the system realization are studied and discussed in theory and practice. Optimization of Gabor wavelet's parameters of translation, orientation, and scale is used to make it approximates a local image contour region. The method of Sobel edge detection is used to get the initial position and orientation value of optimization in order to improve the convergence speed. In the wavelet characteristic space, we adopt PSO (particle swarm optimization) algorithm to identify points on the security border of the system, it can ensure reliable convergence of the target, which can improve convergence speed; the time of feature extraction is shorter. By test in low contrast image, the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm are demonstrated by VC++ simulation platform in experiments. Adopting improve Gabor wavelet method in target tracking and making up its frame of tracking, which realize moving target tracking used algorithm, and realize steady target tracking in circumrotate affine distortion.

  7. Improved method to extract nucleon helicity distributions using event weighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretz, J.

    2017-02-01

    An improved analysis method to extract quark helicity distributions in leading order (LO) QCD from semi-inclusive double spin asymmetries in deep inelastic scattering is presented. The method relies on the fact that fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a quark into a hadron, have a strong dependence on the energy fraction z of the observed hadron. Hadrons with large z contain more information about the struck quark. This can be used in a weighting procedure to improve the figure of merit (= inverse of variance). In numerical examples it is shown that one could gain 15–39% depending on the quark flavor and cut on z. Mathematically the problem can be described as finding an optimal solution in terms of the figure of merit for parameters Θ determined from a system of linear equations B(x) Θ =Y(x), where the measured input vector Y(x) is given as event distributions depending on a random variable x, the coefficients of the matrix B(x) depend as well on x, whereas the parameter vector Θ to be determined does not.

  8. A rapid direct solvent extraction method for the extraction of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone from irradiated ground beef patties using acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Hijaz, Faraj; Kumar, Amit; Smith, J Scott

    2010-08-01

    The amount of irradiated beef in the U.S. market is growing, and a reliable, rapid method is needed to detect irradiated beef and quantify the irradiation dose. The official analytical method (BS EN 1785 2003) that has been adopted by the European Union is time consuming. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid method for the analysis of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) in irradiated beef. A 5 g sample of commercially irradiated ground beef patty (90/10) was extracted with n-hexane using a Soxhlet apparatus or with acetonitrile via direct solvent extraction. The Soxhlet hexane extract was evaporated to dryness, and the sample was dissolved in a mixture of ethyl acetate and acetonitrile (1:1). The defatted extract was purified with a 1 g silica cartridge. Another 5 g aliquot of the same patty was mixed with 50 mL acetonitrile and either blended for 1 min with a hand blender or crushed for 10 min with a glass rod. The extraction procedure was repeated 3 times, and the acetonitrile was collected and evaporated to dryness. Eluants from both methods were concentrated under nitrogen and injected into a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The 2-DCB concentration in the commercial samples was 0.031 +/- 0.0026 ppm (n = 5) for the Soxhlet method and 0.031 +/- 0.0025 ppm (n = 10) for direct solvent extraction. Recovery of 2-DCB from spiked beef samples in the direct solvent extraction method was 93.2 +/- 9.0% (n = 7). This study showed that the direct solvent extraction method is simple and as efficient and reproducible as the Soxhlet method.

  9. Extraction of molybdenum by a supported liquid membrane method.

    PubMed

    Basualto, Carlos; Marchese, José; Valenzuela, Fernando; Acosta, Adolfo

    2003-04-10

    This is a report on the extraction of molybdenum(VI) ions using a supported liquid membrane, prepared by dissolving in kerosene, the extractant Alamine 336 (a long-chain tertiary amine) employed as mobile carrier. A flat hydrophobic microporous membrane was utilised as solid support. Appropriate conditions for Mo(VI) extraction through the liquid membrane were obtained from the results of liquid-liquid extraction and stripping partition experiments. The influence of feed solution acidity, the carrier extractant concentration in the organic liquid film and the content of strip agent on the metal flux through membrane were investigated. It was established that maximal extraction of metal is achieved at a pH 2.0 if sulphuric acid is used in the feed solution and at a pH value over 11.0 if Na(2)CO(3) is used as strip agent. Moreover, the molybdenum extraction through membrane is enhanced when a 0.02 mol l(-1) content of the amine carrier in the organic phase is used. The present paper deals with an equilibrium investigation of the extraction of Mo(VI) by Alamine 336 and its permeation conditions through the liquid membrane, and examines a possible mechanism of extraction.

  10. A Simplified Method for the Microscale Extraction of Pigments from Spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Kimberley R.; Pierson, Kathleen M.

    1998-10-01

    A method is presented for microscale sample preparation for the thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the pigments in spinach. A commercial vegetable juicer is used for the initial extraction from spinach. This is followed by filtration, liquid/liquid extraction, centrifugation, and evaporation. The new sample preparation technique is significantly more efficient than present methods and minimizes solvents used for extraction.

  11. Extraction and Enrichment of Protein from Red and Green Macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Harnedy, Pádraigín A; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Macroalgae, in particular red and green species, are gaining interest as protein-rich foods for human consumption and sources of proteinaceous biofunctional peptide ingredients. During protein extraction the starting raw material, the cell disruption method utilized and the reagents employed have a major effect on the yield of protein recovered. A method is described herein for extraction and semi-purification of food-grade aqueous and alkaline soluble proteins from red and green macroalgae. Dried milled macroalgae are disrupted by osmotic shock with subsequent removal of aqueous soluble proteins by centrifugation. Alkaline soluble proteins are removed following consecutive treatment of the resultant pellet with an alkaline solution. Aqueous and alkaline soluble proteins are then enriched from the crude extracts by isoelectric precipitation.

  12. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; McDowell, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  13. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1987-10-23

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  14. Effects of extraction methods on the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Feng; Liu, Yong; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Wu, Songhai

    2013-11-01

    Five polysaccharides were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) through different extraction methods including hot water extraction, single enzyme extraction (pectinase, cellulase or papain) and compound enzymes extraction (cellulase:pectinase:papain). Their characteristics such as the polysaccharide yield, polysaccharide content, protein content, infrared spectra were determined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical, DPPH free radical, ABTS free radical and reducing power. The results showed that five extracts exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with other methods, the compound enzymes extraction method was found to present the highest polysaccharides yield (17.44%). Moreover, compound enzymes extracts exhibited the strongest reducing power and highest scavenging rates on hydroxyl radicals, DPPH radicals and ABTS radicals. On the contrary, hot water extraction method had the lowest polysaccharides yield of 11.95%, whose extracts also exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities. Overall, the available data obtained in vitro models suggested that ABM extracts were natural antioxidants and compound enzymes extraction was an appropriate, mild and effective extracting method for obtaining the polysaccharide extracts from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM).

  15. A new method for extraction of pectin from cell walls

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, N.O.; Mort, A.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Pectin is often extracted from plant tissues using the Ca{sup ++} chelators ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) or cyclohexane-trans-1,2 diamine tetraacetate (CDTA). While these chelators are effective in solubilizing pectin, even after extensive dialysis against distilled water, EDTA or CDTA remains associated with the pectin. The authors have found that if 500 mM imidazole buffer, pH 7.0 is substituted for 50 mM CDTA, pH 6.5, and for equivalent extraction periods, an equivalent amount of pectin with the same sugar composition is extracted. But, the imidazole buffer can be dialyzed away completely into distilled water. Their alternative procedure for extraction of pectin from cell walls will be presented. Utilization of the procedure for extraction of whole cell walls or cell walls pretreated with liquid hydrogen fluoride is discussed.

  16. SW-846 Test Method 3200: Mercury Species Fractionation and Quantification by Microwave Assisted Extraction, Selective Solvent Extraction and/or Solid Phase Extraction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    a sequential extraction and separation procedure that maybe used in conjunction with a determinative method to differentiate mercury species that arepresent in soils and sediments. provides information on both total mercury andvarious mercury species.

  17. Estimates of evapotranspiration in alkaline scrub and meadow communities of Owens Valley, California, using the Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, L. F. W.

    1988-01-01

    In Owens Valley, evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the largest components of outflow in the hydrologic budget and the least understood. ET estimates for December 1983 through October 1985 were made for seven representative locations selected on the basis of geohydrology and the characteristics of phreatophytic alkaline scrub and meadow communities. The Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods were used to estimate ET. The results of the analyses appear satisfactory when compared to other estimates of ET. Results by the eddy-correlation method are for a direct and a residual latent-heat flux that is based on sensible-heat flux and energy budget measurements. Penman-combination potential ET estimates were determined to be unusable because they overestimated actual ET. Modification in the psychrometer constant of this method to account for differences between heat-diffusion resistance and vapor-diffusion resistance permitted actual ET to be estimated. The methods may be used for studies in similar semiarid and arid rangeland areas in the Western United States. Meteorological data for three field sites are included in the appendix. Simple linear regression analysis indicates that ET estimates are correlated to air temperature, vapor-density deficit, and net radiation. Estimates of annual ET range from 300 mm at a low-density scrub site to 1,100 mm at a high-density meadow site. The monthly percentage of annual ET was determined to be similar for all sites studied. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Assessment of extraction methods with fowl manure for the production of liquid organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Gross, A; Arusi, R; Fine, P; Nejidat, A

    2008-01-01

    Supplementary nitrogen (N) side-dressing via the irrigation system is needed in organic cropping. The aim here was to improve N-extraction efficiency, by testing five extraction protocols with guano, layer and broiler manures. The manure-N released by the different methods and manures was mainly in the form of ammonia and ranged from 50% to 85% with no differences among extraction methods. Volatilised ammonia from the extract solution was trapped. At the end of the extraction period, the pH of the extract solution was raised and the rest of the volatilised ammonia was trapped. In the case of guano, about 89% of the manure-N that was mineralised to the extract solution volatilised (after a pH increase), whereas in the layer and broiler manures, 59% and 54% were volatilised, respectively. Extraction of ammonia, its volatilisation and entrapment could provide a significantly more efficient N source than using the extract solution as currently recommended.

  19. An effective placental cotyledons proteins extraction method for 2D gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Niu J; Daim, Leona D J; Jamil, Amilia A M; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Thilakavathy, Karuppiah

    2017-03-01

    Effective protein extraction is essential especially in producing a well-resolved proteome on 2D gels. A well-resolved placental cotyledon proteome, with good reproducibility, have allowed researchers to study the proteins underlying the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy. The aim of this study is to determine the best protein extraction protocol for the extraction of protein from placental cotyledons tissues for a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE). Based on widely used protein extraction strategies, 12 different extraction methodologies were carefully selected, which included one chemical extraction, two mechanical extraction coupled protein precipitations, and nine chemical extraction coupled protein precipitations. Extracted proteins were resolved in a one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and 2D-GE; then, it was compared with set criteria: extraction efficacy, protein resolution, reproducibility, and recovery efficiency. Our results revealed that a better profile was obtained by chemical extraction in comparison to mechanical extraction. We further compared chemical extraction coupled protein precipitation methodologies, where the DNase/lithium chloride-dense sucrose homogenization coupled dichloromethane-methanol precipitation (DNase/LiCl-DSH-D/MPE) method showed good protein extraction efficiency. This, however, was carried out with the best protein resolution and proteome reproducibility on 2D-gels. DNase/LiCl-DSH-D/MPE was efficient in the extraction of proteins from placental cotyledons tissues. In addition, this methodology could hypothetically allow the protein extraction of any tissue that contains highly abundant lipid and glycogen.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  2. The effects of different extraction methods on composition and storage stability of sturgeon oil.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shuxian; Wei, Ya; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Cen, Jianwei; Huang, Hui; Lin, Wanling; Yuan, Xiaomin

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different extraction methods on oil yield, colour attributes, oxidative stability, fatty acids composition and production of volatile compounds in sturgeon oil during storage. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method with carbon dioxide resulted in higher oil yields, better colour attributes, and higher oxidative stability compared to other traditional extraction methods such as enzymatic extraction, amino, and wet reduction. After storage at 4 °C for 33 days, the aldehyde content in oil extracted by the enzymatic extraction and wet reduction methods was twice as high as that obtained by the other methods. There was a significant reduction in the content of total acids in oils extracted by the enzymatic extraction and wet reduction methods (p<0.05), whereas amine compounds were mainly detected in oil extracted by the amino method. The oil extracted by SFE exhibited higher UFA and lower SFA. Significant diffidence among PUFA with C above 20 was observed in oil extracted with SFE.

  3. Investigation of the repair of single-strand breaks in human DNA using alkaline gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, E.; Langemann, H. )

    1990-11-01

    Unstimulated lymphocytes from eight healthy persons were exposed to 10-, 30-, and 100-Gy doses of 60Co gamma radiation. The repair of damaged DNA was measured by (1) alkaline gel electrophoresis (extracted DNA loaded on 0.25% agarose gel, run at 1 V/cm for 39-44 h) at 0, 1, and 2 h after exposure and (2) incorporation of (3H)thymidine into unstimulated lymphocytes in the presence of 2 mM hydroxyurea 1 and 2 h after exposure. Both methods--alkaline gel electrophoresis and thymidine incorporation--showed that repair was completed within 2 h.

  4. Evaluation of efficient extraction methods for recovery of photosynthetic pigments from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Ilavarasi, A; Pandiaraj, D; Mubarakali, D; Ilyas, M H Mohammed; Thajuddin, N

    2012-09-15

    Microalgal species are known to have pigments in their cellular constitute at the maximum and are valuable bioactive products. In the present study focused was on the evaluation of efficient extraction methods for photosynthetic pigments from microalgal species. They are, Chlorella sp., Acrochaete sp., Phormidium chlorinum, Jaaginema pseudogeminatum and Chroococcus sp. There are four different extraction methods were adopted for active recovery and are economically feasible such as direct extraction, mechanical grinding, heating and preheated solvent method. It was found that mechanical grinding method has extract two fold increased amount than the other methods. Additionally, this methods is inexpensive, less laborious and active extraction. It is suggested that this method could be used for the extraction of photosynthetic pigments from microalgae for pharmaceutical to biotechnological purpose.

  5. Effect of soil contaminant extraction method in determining toxicity using the Microtox{reg_sign} assay

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A.; Young, T.M.

    2000-02-01

    This project examined the influence of different extraction methods on the measured toxicity of contaminated soils collected from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites differing in soil composition and contaminant concentration. Aged soils from a number of MGP sites were extracted using a saline solution, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and Soxhlet extraction. Toxicity was assessed using two forms of Microtox tests: acute aqueous tests on saline and SFE soil extracts and solid-phase tests (SPTs) on soil particles. Microtox SPTs were performed on soils before and after SFE to determine resulting toxicity reduction. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) Toxicity of soil extracts is related to contaminant concentrations of the extracts, (2) measured toxicity significantly decreases with less vigorous methods of extraction, and (3) supercritical fluid extractability correlates with measured toxicity. The EC50s for SPTs performed before and after SFE were not different for some soils but were significantly greater after extraction for other soils tested. The most significant toxicity reductions were observed for soils exhibiting the highest toxicity in both preextraction SPTs and acute aqueous tests. Acute Microtox tests performed on SFE extracts showed significantly lower EC50s than those reported from saline-based extraction procedures. Toxicity of the soils measured by Microtox SPTs was strongly correlated with both SFE efficiency and measures of contaminant aging. Data from this project provide evidence of sequestration and reduced availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils extracted via physiologically based procedures compared to vigorous physical extraction protocols.

  6. An efficient extraction method for quantitation of adenosine triphosphate in mammalian tissues and cells.

    PubMed

    Chida, Junji; Yamane, Kazuhiko; Takei, Tunetomo; Kido, Hiroshi

    2012-05-21

    Firefly bioluminescence is widely used in the measurement of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels in biological materials. For such assays in tissues and cells, ATP must be extracted away from protein in the initial step and extraction efficacy is the main determinant of the assay accuracy. Extraction reagents recommended in the commercially available ATP assay kits are chaotropic reagents, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), perchloric acid (PCA), and ethylene glycol (EG), which extract nucleotides through protein precipitation and/or nucleotidase inactivation. We found that these reagents are particularly useful for measuring ATP levels in materials with relatively low protein concentrations such as blood cells, cultured cells, and bacteria. However, these methods are not suitable for ATP extraction from tissues with high protein concentrations, because some ATP may be co-precipitated with the insolubilized protein during homogenization and extraction, and it could also be precipitated by neutralization in the acid extracts. Here we found that a phenol-based extraction method markedly increased the ATP and other nucleotides extracted from tissues. In addition, phenol extraction does not require neutralization before the luciferin-luciferase assay step. ATP levels analyzed by luciferase assay in various tissues extracted by Tris-EDTA-saturated phenol (phenol-TE) were over 17.8-fold higher than those extracted by TCA and over 550-fold higher than those in EG extracts. Here we report a simple, rapid, and reliable phenol-TE extraction procedure for ATP measurement in tissues and cells by luciferase assay.

  7. A novel chemiluminescence quenching method for determination of sulfonamides in pharmaceutical and biological fluid based on luminol-Ag(III) complex reaction in alkaline solution.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanwen; Chen, Peiyun; Li, Liqing; Cheng, Peng

    2011-05-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) quenching method for the determination of sulfonamides is proposed. The CL reaction between Ag(III) complex [Ag(HIO₆)₂]⁵⁻ and luminol in alkaline solution was investigated. The quenching effect of sulfonamides on CL emission of [Ag(HIO₆)₂]⁵⁻-luminol system was found. Quenching degree of CL emission was proportional to sulfonamide concentration. The effects of the reaction conditions on CL emission and quenching were examined. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits (s/n = 3) were 7.2, 17 and 8.3 ng/mL for sulfadiazine, sulfameter, and sulfadimethoxine, respectively. The recoveries of the three drugs were in the range of 91.3-110% with RSDs of 1.9-2.7% for urine samples, and 106-112% with RSDs of 1.6-2.8% for serum samples. The proposed method was used for the determination of sulfadiazine at clinically relevant concentrations in real urine and serum samples with satisfactory results.

  8. Exploitation of phosphorescent labelling reagent of fullerol-fluorescein isothiocyanate and new method for the determination of trace alkaline phosphatase as well as forecast of human diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Huang, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Zhen-Bo; Lin, Shao-Qin; Li, Fei-Ming; Gao, Fei; Li, Zhi-Ming; Zeng, Li-Qing; Li, Lian-Ying; Ouyang, Ying

    2009-08-26

    A new phosphorescent labelling reagent consisting of fullerol, fluorescein isothiocyanate and N,N-dimethylaniline (F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA) was developed. The mode of action is based on the reactivity of the active -OH group in F-ol with the -COOH group of FITC to form an F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA complex containing several FITC molecules. F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA increased the number of luminescent molecules in the biological target of WGA-AP-WGA-F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA (WGA and AP are wheat germ agglutinin and alkaline phosphatase, respectively) which improved the sensitivity using solid substrate room temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) detection. The proposed method provided high sensitivity and strong specificity for WGA-AP. The limit of detection (LD) was 0.15 ag AP spot(-1) for F-ol and 0.097 ag AP spot(-1) for FITC in F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA, which was lower than the method using single luminescent molecules of F-ol-DMA and FITC-DMA to label WGA (0.20 ag AP spot(-1) for F-ol-DMA and 0.22 ag AP spot(-1) for FITC-DMA). Results for the determination of AP in human serum were in good agreement with those obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mechanism of F-ol-(FITC)(n)-DMA labelling of WGA was discussed.

  9. Comparison of nucleic acid extraction methods for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Kathleen A; Cowart, Kelley C; Winchell, Jonas M

    2009-12-01

    Four nucleic acid extraction procedures (2 automated and 2 manual) were compared for their efficiency at isolating Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA. Oropharyngeal swabs from healthy volunteers were spiked with varying amounts of M. pneumoniae, extracted, and tested using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our data indicate that both automated extraction methods consistently outperform the manual procedures.

  10. Solventless extraction methods for immature fruits: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytoprotective activities.

    PubMed

    Heng, Ming Yuan; Katayama, Shigeru; Mitani, Takakazu; Ong, Eng Shi; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2017-04-15

    In this study, extraction of immature fruits using an environmentally friendly pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) method was compared with the traditional reflux method. Extracts were tested for their polyphenol content using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and for their antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The highest amount of polyphenol was extracted from grape (stem) using PHWE at 100°C, or reflux extraction. This was followed by reflux extraction of grape (fruit). The results were similar for the ORAC assay. All samples extracted using PHWE at 100°C showed cytoprotective activity against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Crandell-Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. This study demonstrated that beneficial compounds can be extracted from immature fruits without the use of organic solvents. The utilization of beneficial compounds present in immature fruits can also contribute to the reduction in agriculture waste generated.

  11. Rapid, Effective DNA Isolation from Osmanthus via Modified Alkaline Lysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Variability of leaf structure and presence of secondary metabolites in mature leaf tissue present a challenge for reliable DNA extraction from Osmanthus species and cultivars. The objective of this study was to develop a universal rapid, effective, and cost-efficient method of DNA isolation for Osmanthus mature leaf tissue. Four different methods were used to isolate DNA from 8 cultivars of Osmanthus. Absorbance spectra, DNA concentration, appearance on agarose gel, and performance in PCR were used to analyze quality, quantity, and integrity of isolated DNA. Methods were ranked in order, based on total quantity, quality, and performance points as the following: 1) solid-phase extraction (SPE), 2) modified alkaline lysis (SDS), 3) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with chloroform (CHL), and 4) CTAB with phenol/chloroform (PHE). Total DNA, isolated via SPE, showed the least contamination but the lowest mean quantity (9.6 ± 3.4 μg) and highest cost. The highest quantity of DNA was isolated via SDS (117 ± 54.1 μg). SPE and SDS resolved the most individuals on agarose gel, whereas the 2 CTAB methods had poorly resolved gels. All methods except PHE performed well in PCR. Additions to the modified alkaline lysis method increased A260:A230 by up to 59% without affecting yield. With the use of SDS, an average of 1000 μg/g DNA was isolated from fresh leaf tissue of 18 samples in ∼1.5 h at a cost of 0.74 U.S. dollars (USD)/sample. We recommend improved alkaline lysis as a rapid, effective, and cost-efficient method of isolating DNA from Osmanthus species. PMID:26816495

  12. Rapid, Effective DNA Isolation from Osmanthus via Modified Alkaline Lysis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Variability of leaf structure and presence of secondary metabolites in mature leaf tissue present a challenge for reliable DNA extraction from Osmanthus species and cultivars. The objective of this study was to develop a universal rapid, effective, and cost-efficient method of DNA isolation for Osmanthus mature leaf tissue. Four different methods were used to isolate DNA from 8 cultivars of Osmanthus. Absorbance spectra, DNA concentration, appearance on agarose gel, and performance in PCR were used to analyze quality, quantity, and integrity of isolated DNA. Methods were ranked in order, based on total quantity, quality, and performance points as the following: 1) solid-phase extraction (SPE), 2) modified alkaline lysis (SDS), 3) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with chloroform (CHL), and 4) CTAB with phenol/chloroform (PHE). Total DNA, isolated via SPE, showed the least contamination but the lowest mean quantity (9.6 ± 3.4 μg) and highest cost. The highest quantity of DNA was isolated via SDS (117 ± 54.1 μg). SPE and SDS resolved the most individuals on agarose gel, whereas the 2 CTAB methods had poorly resolved gels. All methods except PHE performed well in PCR. Additions to the modified alkaline lysis method increased A260:A230 by up to 59% without affecting yield. With the use of SDS, an average of 1000 μg/g DNA was isolated from fresh leaf tissue of 18 samples in ∼1.5 h at a cost of 0.74 U.S. dollars (USD)/sample. We recommend improved alkaline lysis as a rapid, effective, and cost-efficient method of isolating DNA from Osmanthus species.

  13. Innovative method for boron extraction from iron ore containing boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang; Wang, Jing-song; Yu, Xin-yun; Shen, Ying-feng; Zuo, Hai-bin; Xue, Qing-guo

    2016-03-01

    A novel process for boron enrichment and extraction from ludwigite based on iron nugget technology was proposed. The key steps of this novel process, which include boron and iron separation, crystallization of boron-rich slag, and elucidation of the boron extraction behavior of boron-rich slag by acid leaching, were performed at the laboratory. The results indicated that 95.7% of the total boron could be enriched into the slag phase, thereby forming a boron-rich slag during the iron and slag melting separation process. Suanite and kotoite were observed to be the boron-containing crystalline phases, and the boron extraction properties of the boron-rich slag depended on the amounts and grain sizes of these minerals. When the boron-rich slag was slowly cooled to 1100°C, the slag crystallized well and the efficiency of extraction of boron (EEB) of the slag was the highest observed in the present study. The boron extraction property of the slow-cooled boron-rich slag obtained in this study was much better than that of szaibelyite ore under the conditions of 80% of theoretical sulfuric acid amount, leaching time of 30 min, leaching temperature of 40°C, and liquid-to-solid ratio of 8 mL/g.

  14. Evaluation of a chemiluminescence method for measuring alkaline phosphatase activity in whole milk of multiple species and bovine dairy drinks: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Salter, Robert S; Fitchen, John

    2006-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a ubiquitous enzyme in milk with time-temperature destruction similar to that of certain pathogens destroyed in pasteurization. Measurement of ALP to indicate proper pasteurization is a common practice. Recently the public health level for ALP was decreased to 350 mU/L, a level below the sensitivity of older colorimetric ALP methods. This study was conducted within the structure of the International Dairy Federation and the International Organization for Standardization to evaluate the reproducibility of the chemiluminescence method (Charm PasLite) for ALP at 50, 100, 350, and 500 mU/L in whole milk of multiple species to meet new regulations in the United States and proposed regulations in the European Union (EU). Fifteen laboratories from 8 countries evaluated bovine, goat, sheep, and buffalo milk, bovine skim milk, 20% fat cream, and 2% fat chocolate milk. At ALP levels of 350 and 500 mU/L, the average relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) was 7.5%, and the average relative standard deviation of reproducibility was (RSDR) 15%. For ALP at 100 and 50 mU/L, the average RSDr values were 10.5 and 12.6%, respectively, and the average RSDR values were 18 and 25%, respectively. The limit of detection was 20 mU/L. Results are comparable to those obtained with other enzymatic photo-activated system methods such as the fluorometric method. Results indicate that the method is suitable for measuring ALP in the milk of multiple species and in dairy drinks at U.S. and proposed EU levels.

  15. [Research advances on DNA extraction methods from peripheral blood mononuclear cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Chen-Xi

    2014-10-01

    DNA extraction is a basic technology of molecular biology. The purity and the integrality of DNA structure are necessary for different experiments of gene engineering. As commonly used materials in the clinical detection, the fast, efficient isolation and extraction of genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells is very important for the inspection and analysis of clinical blood. At present, there are many methods for extracting DNA, such as phenol-chloroform method, salting out method, centrifugal adsorption column chromatography method (artificial methods), magnetic beads (semi-automatic method) and DNA extraction kit. In this article, a brief review of the principle for existing DNA blood extraction method, the specific steps and the assessment of the specific methods briefly are summarized.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural... Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11...

  17. Characterization of activated sludge exocellular polymers using several cation-associated extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul; Novak, John T

    2007-04-01

    Evaluation of prior research and preliminary investigations in our laboratory led to the development of an extraction strategy that can be used to target different cations in activated sludge floc and extract their associated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The methods we used were the cation exchange resin (CER) procedure, base extraction, and sulfide addition to extract EPS linked with divalent cations, Al, and Fe, respectively. A comparison of sludge cations before and after CER extraction revealed that most of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were removed while Fe and Al remained intact, suggesting that this method is highly selective for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)-bound EPS. The correlation between sludge Fe and sulfide-extracted EPS was indicative of selectivity of this method for Fe-bound EPS. The base extraction was less specific than the other methods but it was the method releasing the largest amount of Al into the extract, indicating that the method extracted Al-bound EPS. Concomitantly, the composition of extracted EPS and the amino acid composition differed for the three methods, indicating that EPS associated with different metals were not the same. The change in EPS following anaerobic and aerobic digestion was also characterized by the three extraction methods. CER-extracted EPS were reduced after aerobic digestion while they changed little by anaerobic digestion. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion was associated with the decrease in sulfide-extracted EPS. These results suggest that different types of cation-EPS binding mechanisms exist in activated sludge and that each cation-associated EPS fraction imparts unique digestion characteristics to activated sludge.

  18. Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from human bones with different degrees of degradation.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Joanna; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Pawłowski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    There is a necessity for deceased identification as a result of many accidents and sometimes bones are the only accessible source of DNA. So far, a universal method that allows for extraction of DNA from materials at different stages of degradation does not exist. The aims of this study were: the comparison of three methods of DNA extraction from bones with different degree of degradation and an evaluation of the usefulness of these methods in forensic genetics. The efficiency of DNA extraction, the degree of extract contamination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors and the possibility of determining the STR loci profile were especially being compared. Nuclear DNA from bones at different states of degradation was isolated using three methods: classical, organic phenol-chloroform extraction, DNA extraction from crystal aggregates and extraction by total demineralisation. Total demineralisation is the best method for most cases of DNA extraction from bones, although it does not provide pure DNA. DNA extraction from aggregates removes inhibitors much better and is also a good method of choice when identity determination of exhumed remains is necessary. In the case of not buried bones (remains found outside) total demineralisation or phenol-chloroform protocols are more efficient for successful DNA extraction.

  19. Estimates of evapotranspiration in alkaline scrub and meadow communities of Owens Valley, California, using the Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and penman-combination methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duell, Lowell F. W.

    1990-01-01

    In Owens Valley, evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the largest components of outflow in the hydrologic budget and the least understood. ET estimates for December 1983 through October 1985 were made for seven representative locations selected on the basis of geohydrology and the characteristics of phreatophytic alkaline scrub and meadow communities. The Bowen-ratio, eddy-correlation, and Penman-combination methods were used to estimate ET. The results of the analyses appear satisfactory when compared with other estimates of ET. Results by the eddy-correlation method are for a direct and a residual latent-heat flux that is based on sensible-heat flux and energy-budget measurements. Penman-combination potential-ET estimates were determined to be unusable because they overestimated actual ET. Modification of the psychrometer constant of this method to account for differences between heat-diffusion resistance and vapor-diffusion resistance permitted actual ET to be estimated. The methods described in this report may be used for studies in similar semiarid and arid rangeland areas in the Western United States. Meteorological data for three field sites are included in the appendix of this report. Simple linear regression analysis indicates that ET estimates are correlated to air temperature, vapor-density deficit, and net radiation. Estimates of annual ET range from 301 millimeters at a low-density scrub site to 1,137 millimeters at a high-density meadow site. The monthly percentage of annual ET was determined to be similar for all sites studied.

  20. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    DOEpatents

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  1. Ball mill assisted rapid mechanochemical extraction method for natural products from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Bi, Wentao; Huang, Xiaohua; Chen, David Da Yong

    2016-06-03

    A ball mill assisted mechanochemical extraction method was developed to extract compounds of natural product (NP) from plant using ionic liquid (IL). A small volume ball mill, also known as PastPrep(®) Homogenizer, which is often used for high-speed lysis of biological samples and for other applications, was used to dramatically increase the speed, completeness and reproducibility of the extraction process at room temperature to preserve the chemical integrity of the extracted compounds. In this study, tanshinones were selected as target compounds to evaluate the performance of this extraction method. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the duration, IL concentration and solid/liquid ratio were systematically optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the described method was more efficient and much faster than the conventional extraction methods such as methanol based ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and heat reflux extraction (HRE) that consumes a lot more organic solvent. In addition, the natural products of interest were enriched by anion metathesis of ionic liquids, combining extraction and preconcentration in the same process. The extractant was analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS. The reproducibility (RSD, n=5), correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curve, and the limit of detection, were determined to be in the range of 4.7-5.2%, 0.9992-0.9995, and 20-51ng/mL, respectively.

  2. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  3. A Method for Group Extraction in Complex Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bródka, Piotr; Musial, Katarzyna; Kazienko, Przemysław

    The extraction of social groups from social networks existing among employees in the company, its customers or users of various computer systems became one of the research areas of growing importance. Once we have discovered the groups, we can utilise them, in different kinds of recommender systems or in the analysis of the team structure and communication within a given population.

  4. Accelerated, microwave-assisted, and conventional solvent extraction methods affect anthocyanin composition from colored grains.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona; Bryan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Anthocyanins are important dietary components with diverse positive functions in human health. This study investigates effects of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) on anthocyanin composition and extraction efficiency from blue wheat, purple corn, and black rice in comparison with the commonly used solvent extraction (CSE). Factorial experimental design was employed to study effects of ASE and MAE variables, and anthocyanin extracts were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (DAD), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatography. The extraction efficiency of ASE and MAE was comparable with CSE at the optimal conditions. The greatest extraction by ASE was achieved at 50 °C, 2500 psi, 10 min using 5 cycles, and 100% flush. For MAE, a combination of 70 °C, 300 W, and 10 min in MAE was the most effective in extracting anthocyanins from blue wheat and purple corn compared with 50 °C, 1200 W, and 20 min for black rice. The anthocyanin composition of grain extracts was influenced by the extraction method. The ASE extraction method seems to be more appropriate in extracting anthocyanins from the colored grains as being comparable with the CSE method based on changes in anthocyanin composition. The method caused lower structural changes in anthocaynins compared with the MAE method. Changes in blue wheat anthocyanins were lower in comparison with purple corn or black rice perhaps due to the absence of acylated anthocyanin compounds in blue wheat. The results show significant differences in anthocyanins among the 3 extraction methods, which indicate a need to standardize a method for valid comparisons among studies and for quality assurance purposes.

  5. Evidence of non-extractable florfenicol residues: development and validation of a confirmatory method for total florfenicol content in kidney by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Dermot; Cantley, Margaret; Walker, Matthew; Crooks, Steven; Kennedy, David; Elliott, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The parent compound florfenicol (FF) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial compound licensed in the UK for use in cattle, pigs and the aquaculture industry. The analysis of porcine tissues in this study demonstrates that significant amounts of solvent non-extractable FF-related residues are present in incurred tissues (kidney and muscle) from treated animals. The results indicate that methods based on solvent extraction alone may carry a significant risk of reporting false-negative results. The use of a strong acid hydrolysis step prior to solvent extraction of tissue samples is necessary for an accurate estimate of the total tissue FF content. A robust and sensitive method for the determination of total FF residue content in kidney samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. This method covers the synthetic amphenicol drug FF and its metabolites, measured as the marker residue florfenicol amine (FFA) as per Commission Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010. Non-extractable and intermediate metabolites are converted to the hydrolysis product FFA, and then partitioned into ethyl acetate. Extracts are solvent exchanged prior to a dispersive solid-phase extraction step, then analysed using an alkaline reverse-phase gradient separation by UPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated around the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set out in Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010 for bovine kidney in accordance with Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. The following method performance characteristics were assessed during a single laboratory validation study: selectivity, specificity, sensitivity, linearity, matrix effects, accuracy and precision (decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were determined).

  6. Evaluating DNA Extraction Methods for Community Profiling of Pig Hindgut Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Hugenholtz, Philip; Batstone, Damien John

    2015-01-01

    Recovery of high quality PCR-amplifiable DNA has been the general minimal requirement for DNA extraction methods for bulk molecular analysis. However, modern high through-put community profiling technologies are more sensitive to representativeness and reproducibility of DNA extraction method. Here, we assess the impact of three DNA extraction methods (with different levels of extraction harshness) for assessing hindgut microbiomes from pigs fed with different diets (with different physical properties). DNA extraction from each sample was performed in three technical replicates for each extraction method and sequenced by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Host was the primary driver of molecular sequencing outcomes, particularly on samples analysed by wheat based diets, but higher variability, with one failed extraction occurred on samples from a barley fed pig. Based on these results, an effective method will enable reproducible and quality outcomes on a range of samples, whereas an ineffective method will fail to generate extract, but host (rather than extraction method) remains the primary factor.

  7. A Simple Method to Extract DNA from Hair Shafts Using Enzymatic Laundry Powder

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinchuan; Jiang, Xiaoling; Li, Sicong; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

    2013-01-01

    A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts was developed by using enzymatic laundry powder at the first step of the process. The whole extraction can be finished in less than 2 hours. The simple extraction reagent proposed here contains only two cheap components: ordinary enzymatic laundry powder and PCR buffer. After extraction, an ultra sensitive fluorescent nucleic acid stain, PicoGreen, was used for quantifying trace amount of double-stranded DNA in the solution extracted. For further validation of DNA extraction, four primers were employed to amplify DNA microsatellite loci. Both fluorescence spectroscopy and PCR results suggested that this method can extract DNA from hair shafts with good efficiency and repeatability. The study will greatly facilitate the use of hair shafts in future for DNA analyses on genome-wide scale. PMID:23922747

  8. An alternate method for DNA and RNA extraction from clotted blood.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Z; Umi, S H; Mokhtar, S S; Mokhtar, U; Zaiharina, M Z; Aziz, A T A; Hoh, B P

    2013-02-04

    We developed an alternative method to extract DNA and RNA from clotted blood for genomic and molecular investigations. A combination of the TRIzol method and the QIAamp spin column were used to extract RNA from frozen clotted blood. Clotted blood was sonicated and then the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit was used for DNA extraction. Extracted DNA and RNA were adequate for gene expression analysis and copy number variation (CNV) genotyping, respectively. The purity of the extracted RNA and DNA was in the range of 1.8-2.0, determined by absorbance ratios of A(260):A(280). Good DNA and RNA integrity were confirmed using gel electrophoresis and automated electrophoresis. The extracted DNA was suitable for qPCR and microarrays for CNV genotyping, while the extracted RNA was adequate for gene analysis using RT-qPCR.

  9. A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts using enzymatic laundry powder.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Jinchuan; Jiang, Xiaoling; Li, Sicong; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

    2013-01-01

    A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts was developed by using enzymatic laundry powder at the first step of the process. The whole extraction can be finished in less than 2 hours. The simple extraction reagent proposed here contains only two cheap components: ordinary enzymatic laundry powder and PCR buffer. After extraction, an ultra sensitive fluorescent nucleic acid stain, PicoGreen, was used for quantifying trace amount of double-stranded DNA in the solution extracted. For further validation of DNA extraction, four primers were employed to amplify DNA microsatellite loci. Both fluorescence spectroscopy and PCR results suggested that this method can extract DNA from hair shafts with good efficiency and repeatability. The study will greatly facilitate the use of hair shafts in future for DNA analyses on genome-wide scale.

  10. Bridging the gap between comprehensive extraction protocols in plant metabolomics studies and method validation.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Foubert, Kenn; Voorspoels, Stefan; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-09-07

    It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation. Validation of an extraction protocol in untargeted plant metabolomics should ideally be accomplished by validating the protocol for all possible outcomes, i.e. for all secondary metabolites potentially present in the plant. In an effort to approach this ideal validation scenario, two plant matrices were selected based on their wide versatility of phytochemicals: meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) for its polyphenols content, and spicy paprika powder (from the genus Capsicum) for its apolar phytochemicals content (carotenoids, phytosterols, capsaicinoids). These matrices were extracted with comprehensive extraction protocols adapted from literature and analysed with a generic LC-PDA-amMS characterization platform that was previously validated for broad range phytochemical analysis. The performance of the comprehensive sample preparation protocols was assessed based on extraction efficiency, repeatability and intermediate precision and on ionization suppression/enhancement evaluation. The manuscript elaborates on the finding that none of the extraction methods allowed to exhaustively extract the metabolites. Furthermore, it is shown that depending on the extraction conditions enzymatic degradation mechanisms can occur. Investigation of the fractions obtained with the different extraction methods

  11. A novel microalgal lipid extraction method using biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) as an extractant.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Can; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2017-02-01

    Although microalgae are considered promising renewable sources of biodiesel, the high cost of the downstream process is a significant obstacle in large-scale biodiesel production. In this study, a novel approach for microalgal biodiesel production was developed by using the biodiesel as an extractant. First, wet microalgae with 70% water content were incubated with a mixture of biodiesel/methanol and penetration of the mixture through the cell membrane and swelling of the lipids contained in microalgae was confirmed. Significant increases of lipid droplets were observed by confocal microscopy. Second, the swelled lipid droplets in microalgae were squeezed out using mechanical stress across the cell membrane and washed with methanol. The lipid extraction efficiency reached 68%. This process does not require drying of microalgae or solvent recovery, which the most energy-intensive step in solvent-based biodiesel production.

  12. Vesselness-guided Active Contour: A Coronary Vessel Extraction Method

    PubMed Central

    Dehkordi, Maryam Taghizadeh; Jalalat, Morteza; Sadri, Saeed; Doosthoseini, Alimohamad; Ahmadzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Amirfattahi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    Vessel extraction is a critical task in clinical practice. In this paper, we propose a new approach for vessel extraction using an active contour model by defining a novel vesselness-based term, based on accurate analysis of the vessel structure in the image. To achieve the novel term, a simple and fast directional filter bank is proposed, which does not employ down sampling and resampling used in earlier versions of directional filter banks. The proposed model not only preserves the performance of the existing models on images with intensity inhomogeneity, but also overcomes their inability both to segment low contrast vessels and to omit non-vessel structures. Experimental results for synthetic images and coronary X-ray angiograms show desirable performance of our model. PMID:24761379

  13. An evaluation of extraction techniques for arsenic in staple diets (fish and rice) utilising both classical and enzymatic extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic extraction methods were evaluated with classical extraction approaches for the determination of arsenic in food. The extraction efficiency for total arsenic was determined by analysing CRM materials DORM-3 fish protein, NIES 106 rice flour and GBW10015 spinach. These were compared with total arsenic concentration determined using microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICP-MS. The total arsenic concentrations in the CRM materials were in good agreement with the certified values. Enzymatic hydrolysis using trypsin has been successfully employed to extract arsenic species in DORM-3 and fish samples. Whilst this method of hydrolysing the proteins worked well for the fish samples, an alternative approach was required to facilitate the digestion of cellulose in plant materials. However, enzymatic extraction using cellulase was found to give unsatisfactory results for both the NIES and GBW10015 CRM materials. Dilute nitric acid (1% HNO3) was found to give a more efficient extraction for arsenic species in the same CRM materials and rice samples. The study was extended to evaluate a range of real samples. Total arsenic concentrations in 13 different types of fish tissue were determined following microwave-assisted acid digestion using nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide, followed by measurement using HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. The results obtained for fish were in the range of 3.53-98.80 µg g(-1) As (dry weight). Similarly, the results of 17 rice samples were in the range of 0.054-0.823 µg g(-1). This study demonstrates the importance of selecting an appropriate extraction technique for the quantitative measurement of arsenic species in food.

  14. Selective leaching of Zn from spent alkaline batteries using environmentally friendly approaches.

    PubMed

    Maryam Sadeghi, S; Vanpeteghem, Guillaumme; Neto, Isabel F F; Soares, Helena M V M

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using microwave or ultrasound to assist the efficient and selective leaching of Zn from spent alkaline batteries and compare the results with those obtained using the conventional method. Two different strategies were applied: acid leaching of a washed residue and alkaline leaching of the original residue. In both (acid and alkaline) approaches, the use of microwave- or ultrasound-assisted leaching increased the extraction of Zn compared with the best results obtained using conventional leaching [acid leaching (1.5mol/L H2SO4, 3h, 80°C), 90% of Zn extracted; alkaline leaching (6mol/L NaOH, 3h, 80°C), 42% of Zn extracted]. With acid leaching, 94% of the Zn was extracted using microwave-assisted leaching (1 cycle, 30s, 1mol/L H2SO4), and 92% of the Zn was extracted using ultrasound-assisted leaching (2min, 0.1p, 20% amplitude, 1mol/L H2SO4). Ultrasound-assisted leaching resulted in a more selective (Zn/Mn ratio of 5.1) Zn extraction than microwave-assisted leaching (Zn/Mn ratio of 3.5); both processes generated a concentrated Zn solution (⩾18.7g/L) with a purity (83.3% and 77.7%, respectively) that was suitable for electrowinning. With alkaline leaching, microwave- (1 cycle, 3 min, 4mol/L NaOH) and ultrasound-assisted (14min, 0.1p, 20% amplitude, 4mol/L NaOH) leaching extracted about 80% of the Zn and less than 0.01% of the Mn, which resulted in lesser concentrated Zn solutions (approximately 16.5g/L) but with high purity (>99.5%) that was suitable for the recovery of Zn by precipitation. The microwave- and ultrasound-assisted leaching strategies used in this work proved to be efficient and environmentally-friendly approaches for the extraction of Zn from spent alkaline residues since a concentrated Zn solution with adequate purity for subsequent Zn recovery was obtained using significantly decreased leaching times and concentrations of chemicals.

  15. Comparison of methods and optimisation of the analysis of fumonisins B₁ and B₂ in masa flour, an alkaline cooked corn product.

    PubMed

    De Girolamo, A; Pascale, M; Visconti, A

    2011-05-01

    A comparison study of different extraction and clean-up procedures for the liquid chromatographic analysis of fumonisins B(1) (FB(1)) and B(2) (FB(2)) in corn masa flour was performed. The procedures included extraction (heat or room temperature) with acidic conditions or EDTA-containing solvents, and clean-up by immunoaffinity or C18 solid-phase extraction columns. Thereafter an analytical method was optimised using extraction with an acidic mixture of methanol-acetonitrile-citrate/phosphate buffer, clean-up through the immunoaffinity column and determination of fumonisins by liquid chromatography with automated pre-column derivatisation with o-phthaldialdehyde reagent. Recovery experiments performed on yellow, white and blue masa flours at spiking levels of 400, 800 and 1200 µg kg(-1) FB(1) and of 100, 200 and 300 µg kg(-1) FB(2) gave overall mean recoveries of 99% (±6%) for FB(1) and 88% (±6%) for FB(2). Good recoveries (higher than 90% for both FB(1) and FB(2)) were also obtained with corn tortilla chips. The limits of quantification of the method (signal-to-noise ratio of 10) were 25 µg kg(-1) for FB(1) and 17 µg kg(-1) for FB(2). The method was tested on different commercial corn masa flours as well as on white and yellow corn tortilla chips, showing fumonisin contamination levels (FB(1) + FB(2)) up to 1800 µg kg(-1) (FB(1) + FB(2)) in masa flour and 960 µg kg(-1) in tortilla chips. Over 30% of masa flours originating from Mexico exceeded the European Union maximum permitted level.

  16. Evaluation of DNA extraction methods for the analysis of microbial community in biological activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lu; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to isolate DNA from biological activated carbon (BAC) samples used in water treatment plants, owing to the scarcity of microorganisms in BAC samples. The aim of this study was to identify DNA extraction methods suitable for a long-term, comprehensive ecological analysis of BAC microbial communities. To identify a procedure that can produce high molecular weight DNA, maximizes detectable diversity and is relatively free from contaminants, the microwave extraction method, the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) extraction method, a commercial DNA extraction kit, and the ultrasonic extraction method were used for the extraction of DNA from BAC samples. Spectrophotometry, agarose gel electrophoresis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) analysis were conducted to compare the yield and quality of DNA obtained using these methods. The results showed that the CTAB method produce the highest yield and genetic diversity of DNA from BAC samples, but DNA purity was slightly less than that obtained with the DNA extraction-kit method. This study provides a theoretical basis for establishing and selecting DNA extraction methods for BAC samples.

  17. A SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    John E. Rogers and Dragoslav Marcovich. Submitted. Simple Method for the Extraction and Quantification of Photopigments from Symbiodinium spp.. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods. 19 p. (ERL,GB 1192).

    We have developed a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol which, when...

  18. A novel cobalt tetranitrophthalocyanine/graphene composite assembled by an in situ solvothermal synthesis method as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guojun; Cui, Lili; Wu, Yanying; Liu, Ying; Pu, Tao; He, Xingquan

    2013-08-21

    A novel micro/nano-composite, based on cobalt(II) tetranitrophthalocyanine (CoTNPc) grown on poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) modified graphene (PGr), as a non-noble-metal catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), is fabricated by an in situ solvothermal synthesis method. The CoTNPc/PGr is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of the CoTNPc/PGr composite toward the ORR is evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry methods. The CoTNPc/PGr composite exhibits an unexpected, surprisingly high ORR activity compared to CoTNPc or PGr. The onset potential for ORR on CoTNPc/PGr is found to be around -0.10 V vs. SCE in 0.1 M NaOH solution, which is 30 mV and 70 mV more positive than that on PGr and CoTNPc, respectively. The peak current density on CoTNPc/PGr is about 2 times than that on PGr and CoTNPc, respectively. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements reveal that the ORR mechanism is nearly via a four-electron pathway on CoTNPc/PGr. The current density for ORR on CoTNPc/PGr still remains 69.9% of its initial value after chronoamperometric measurements for 24 h. Pt/C catalyst, on the other hand, only retains 13.3% of its initial current. The peak potential shifts slightly and current barely changes when 3 M methanol is added. The fabricated composite catalyst for ORR displays high activity, good stability and excellent tolerance to the crossover effect, which may be used as a promising Pt-free catalyst in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

  19. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  20. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method. PMID:27282822

  1. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Fasahat Ullah; Teng, Shyh Wei; Awrangjeb, Mohammad; Lu, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE) method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality). Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state-of-the-art building

  2. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Fasahat Ullah; Teng, Shyh Wei; Awrangjeb, Mohammad; Lu, Guojun

    2016-07-19

    Existing automatic building extraction methods are not effective in extracting buildings which are small in size and have transparent roofs. The application of large area threshold prohibits detection of small buildings and the use of ground points in generating the building mask prevents detection of transparent buildings. In addition, the existing methods use numerous parameters to extract buildings in complex environments, e.g., hilly area and high vegetation. However, the empirical tuning of large number of parameters reduces the robustness of building extraction methods. This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE) method to address these limitations. The proposed method transforms the Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) height information into intensity image without interpolation of point heights and then analyses the gradient information in the image. Generally, building roof planes have a constant height change along the slope of a roof plane whereas trees have a random height change. With such an analysis, buildings of a greater range of sizes with a transparent or opaque roof can be extracted. In addition, a local colour matching approach is introduced as a post-processing stage to eliminate trees. This stage of our proposed method does not require any manual setting and all parameters are set automatically from the data. The other post processing stages including variance, point density and shadow elimination are also applied to verify the extracted buildings, where comparatively fewer empirically set parameters are used. The performance of the proposed GBE method is evaluated on two benchmark data sets by using the object and pixel based metrics (completeness, correctness and quality). Our experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating trees, extracting buildings of all sizes, and extracting buildings with and without transparent roof. When compared with current state-of-the-art building

  3. Simple salting-out method for DNA extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Elena R C; Neves, Adriana C; Silva-Valenzuela, Maria G; Sousa, Suzana O M; Nunes, Fabio D

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize a method of DNA extraction from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues (PETs) using a salt solution to precipitate protein and isopropanol to precipitate DNA. The samples were submitted to a DNA extraction method in which two different concentrations of ammonium acetate (2 and 4M) were compared with a phenol-chloroform extraction method and with a commercial DNA isolation kit. DNA was qualified and quantified by spectrophotometer analysis, electrophoresis, and amplification by PCR. The 167 and 268bp fragments of APC and beta-globin genes, respectively, were amplified equally from DNA extracted by all tested methods and in all cases. However, the 536bp fragment of beta-globin gene was not amplified in all cases. According to our results, the extraction method using ammonium acetate proved to be simple and suitable for obtaining DNA of good quality, which can be easily amplified by PCR.

  4. Comparison of different methods for extraction from Tetraclinis articulata: yield, chemical composition and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Herzi, Nejia; Bouajila, Jalloul; Camy, Séverine; Romdhane, Mehrez; Condoret, Jean-Stéphane

    2013-12-15

    In the present study, three techniques of extraction: hydrodistillation (HD), solvent extraction (conventional 'Soxhlet' technique) and an innovative technique, i.e., the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), were applied to ground Tetraclinis articulata leaves and compared for extraction duration, extraction yield, and chemical composition of the extracts as well as their antioxidant activities. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antioxidant activity was measured using two methods: ABTS(•+) and DPPH(•). The yield obtained using HD, SFE, hexane and ethanol Soxhlet extractions were found to be 0.6, 1.6, 40.4 and 21.2-27.4 g/kg respectively. An original result of this study is that the best antioxidant activity was obtained with an SFE extract (41 mg/L). The SFE method offers some noteworthy advantages over traditional alternatives, such as shorter extraction times, low environmental impact, and a clean, non-thermally-degraded final product. Also, a good correlation between the phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity was observed with extracts obtained by SFE at 9 MPa.

  5. Optimization of Method to Extract Collagen from "Emperor" Tissue of Soft-shelled Turtles.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Sawashi, Yuki; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) are widely distributed in some Asian countries, and parts of this turtle contain abundant collagen. In this study, we optimized a method for extracting collagen from the soft-shelled turtle. We used three types of solvent and four extraction conditions to determine an effective collagen extraction method, which was extraction at 37°C with acetic acid after hydrochloric acid pretreatment. Next, we extracted collagen from three regions in the soft-shelled turtle: muscle, skin, and an area of soft tissue in the periphery of the turtle shell known in Japan and China as the "emperor." We determined that emperor tissue yielded the highest concentration and purity of collagen. We then optimized the pretreatment method for extraction from emperor tissue by using formic acid instead of hydrochloric acid, and the amount of extracted collagen increased by approximately 1.3-fold. Finally, we identified the optimal solvent out of four types of organic acid for collagen extraction from emperor tissue; the amount of extracted collagen from emperor tissue increased approximately 3-fold when citric acid was used as the extraction solvent instead of acetic acid. Emperor tissue can regenerate; thus, it is possible to obtain collagen from the emperor repeatedly without killing the turtle. Our findings suggest that the emperor tissue of softshelled turtles may be a good source of collagen for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications.

  6. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  7. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  8. A High Accuracy Method for Semi-supervised Information Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Tratz, Stephen C.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2007-04-22

    Customization to specific domains of dis-course and/or user requirements is one of the greatest challenges for today’s Information Extraction (IE) systems. While demonstrably effective, both rule-based and supervised machine learning approaches to IE customization pose too high a burden on the user. Semi-supervised learning approaches may in principle offer a more resource effective solution but are still insufficiently accurate to grant realistic application. We demonstrate that this limitation can be overcome by integrating fully-supervised learning techniques within a semi-supervised IE approach, without increasing resource requirements.

  9. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Billa, Nanditha; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Lahren, Tylor; Burkhard, Lawrence P

    2014-02-01

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [2] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo (2006) [1]. With the accelerated solvent extraction method using chloroform:methanol solvent and the colorimetric lipid determination method, 28 of 30 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%, determined using standard additions) and 1 of 30 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%, determined using Youden Blank measurements). With sonic extraction, 0 of 6 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%) and 1 of 6 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%). These demonstrate that the accelerated solvent extraction method with chloroform:methanol solvent system creates an interference with the colorimetric assay method, and without accounting for the bias in the analysis, inaccurate measurements would be obtained.

  10. Novel DNA Extraction Method Unveiled the Ancient Hot Deep Biosphere Concealed in Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouduka, M.; Suko, T.; Okuzawa, K.; Fukuda, A.; Nanba, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It has been proposed that the hot deep biosphere is distributed deeply in the crust of the Earth. Below the upper limit of life, prokaryotic habitats extend at a depth of 4 km within a typical range of thermal gradients (2.5-3°C/100m). In contrary, large geothermal gradients allow the hot deep biosphere approaching to the Earth’s surface. We conducted aseptic and deoxygenated drilling targeting Miocene marine siliceous rocks in a tectonically stable inland fore-arc basin in central Japan. Although the in-situ groundwater temperature was 30.2°C at a maximum drilling depth of 352 mbgl, opal-CT and clinoptilolite, which commonly form as a result of progressive burial at 30-60°C and over 70°C, respectively, were detected by XRD analysis. However, burial-driven degradation and transformation of sterols (sterene to sterane) was not evident in the core samples. As presented by Y. Suzuki et al. in this meeting, extant microbial populations were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. and Flavobacterium spp. with cell numbers ranging ~107-108 cells/cm3 rock. Despite the abundance of microbial cells, DNA were not extracted from the core samples by conventional methods. We developed a DNA extraction method to avoid binding of DNA onto the siliceous mineral matrix by heating under alkaline conditions, which resulted in the successful retrieval of PCR-amplifiable DNA. Unexpectedly, 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Thermus thermophilus were dominant in the clone libraries from 300- and 350-m deep core samples, while those almost identical to the Pseudomonas spp. were minor. Based on the correlation between the GC contents of 16S rRNA gene sequences and growth temperatures of prokaryotes, the estimated growth temperatures were 90.0°C (G+C=66.3%) and 67.5°C (G+C=61.3%) for G. stearothermophilus and T. thermophilus, respectively. From these results, it is implied that temperature rise in the past led to the colonization of

  11. Methods for extracting climate indicator data from social media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuka, M. Z.; Fuka, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    This paper shows how we've used the R software suite to extract climate indicator data from Twitter. In the course of this research we've collected extensive data sets of unsolicited observations ("tweets") for hundreds of climate-related phenological, biological, epidemiological and meteorological effects. R has proved itself in our work as a useful tool for manipulating those large data sets. Our experience from this effort has yielded a variety of insights on using R to extract geophysics-specific information from publicly accessible social media sources. We illustrate our methodology by mapping tweeted US armadillo sightings to explore the impact of climate variability on the extent of the animal's range. This example usefully demonstrates R's technical capabilities in collecting, time-stamping, geolocating, analyzing, visualizing and otherwise processing climate-related data derived from unsolicited social media postings. We also "mash-up" the data sets with those acquired by more traditional means, for example, temperature and precipitation data across the armadillo's US range. Our data-handling practice is extendable to social sharing services other than Twitter, providing the environmental modeling community an opportunity to access largely untapped resources of non-traditional climate indicator data to better understand the effects of climate change at local, regional and global scales.

  12. Comparison of accelerated methods for the extraction of phenolic compounds from different vine-shoot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Torre, M Pilar; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Pérez-Juan, Pedro M; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2012-03-28

    Most research on the extraction of high-priced compounds from vineyard/wine byproducts has traditionally been focused on grape seeds and skins as raw materials. Vine-shoots can represent an additional source to those materials, the characteristics of which could depend on the cultivar. A comparative study of hydroalcoholic extracts from 18 different vineyard cultivars obtained by superheated liquid extraction (SHLE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) is here presented. The optimal working conditions for each type of extraction have been investigated by using multivariate experimental designs to maximize the yield of total phenolic compounds, measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and control hydroxymethylfurfural because of the organoleptic properties of furanic derivatives and toxicity at given levels. The best values found for the influential variables on each extraction method were 80% (v/v) aqueous ethanol at pH 3, 180 °C, and 60 min for SHLE; 140 W and 5 min microwave irradiation for MAE; and 280 W, 50% duty cycle, and 7.5 min extraction for USAE. SHLE reported better extraction efficiencies as compared to the other two approaches, supporting the utility of SHLE for scaling-up the process. The extracts were dried in a rotary evaporator, reconstituted in 5 mL of methanol, and finally subjected to liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane to remove nonpolar compounds that could complicate chromatographic separation. The methanolic fractions were analyzed by both LC-DAD and LC-TOF/MS, and the differences in composition according to the extraction conditions were studied. Compounds usually present in commercial wood extracts (mainly benzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids and aldehydes) were detected in vine-shoot extracts.

  13. A review of the extraction and chromatographic determination methods for the analysis of parabens.

    PubMed

    Piao, Chunying; Chen, Ligang; Wang, Yu

    2014-10-15

    Parabens are a family of most widely used antimicrobial preservatives in food ingredients, cosmetic consumer products and pharmaceutical preparations. But several recent studies have cautioned that exposure to parabens may have more harmful consequences on animal and human health than what we realized previously, which made the analysis of parabens necessary. In this paper, we reviewed main sample preparation methods and chromatographic analysis methods proposed in formerly published works dealing with the analysis of parabens in different matrices. The sample preparation methods included ultrasonic assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, solid phase extraction, solid phase microextraction, liquid phase microextraction, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, stir bar sorptive extraction and matrix solid phase dispersion. The chromatographic analysis methods involved liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis.

  14. Evaluation of protein assay methods for pollen and fungal spore extracts.

    PubMed

    Singh, B P; Sridhara, S; Arora, N; Gangal, S V

    1992-07-01

    The usual procedures available for protein estimation of biological extracts often give variable results due to presence of many peptides and coloured materials. To identify a suitable method for allergenic extracts, protein was estimated from common pollen and fungal antigens by modified Lowry's (ML), Bradford (B), micro-Kjeldahl (MK), Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) and modified BCA (MBCA) assays. Bradford assay resulted in low protein values, whereas BCA method gave very high values in general. Statistical analysis of the results revealed similarity between protein values quantitated by MK, ML and MBCA methods for most of the extracts. Graded volumes of the extracts on subjecting to protein estimation by these three methods showed linear response, while recovery of a protein (bovine serum albumin) added to the extracts was greater than 90%.

  15. Extraction of lycopene from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid using the selective inclusion complex method.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Mahmoud; Seifi, Parisa; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Lycopene, a precursor of β-carotene with well-known antioxidant activity and powerful health properties, can be found in many natural products such as tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), watermelon, red pepper, and papaya. Many separation methods have been reported for extracting lycopene from its sources. The inclusion complex is an effective method for extraction and purification of organic chemicals. This procedure has 2 main components: host and guest molecules. In this study, lycopene (guest) was extracted from tomato paste by ursodeoxycholic acid, the inclusive agent (host). The molecular structure of the extracted lycopene was then confirmed by (1) HNMR and its purity was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods, in comparison with a standard product. The results indicated that the proposed separation method was very promising and could be used for the extraction and purification of lycopene from tomato paste.

  16. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods.

  17. Current Physical and SDS Extraction Methods Do Not Efficiently Remove Exosporium Proteins from Bacillus anthracis spores

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Brian M.; Binkley, Jana M.; Stewart, George C.

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical studies of the outermost spore layers of the Bacillus cereus family are hindered by difficulties in efficient dispersal of the external spore layers and difficulties in dissociating protein complexes that comprise the exosporium layer. Detergent and physical methods have been utilized to disrupt the exosporium layer. Herein we compare commonly used SDS extraction buffers used to extract spore proteins and demonstrate the incomplete extractability of the exosporium layer by these methods. Sonication and bead beating methods for exosporium layer removal were also examined. A combination of genetic and physical methods is the most effective for isolating proteins found in the spore exosporium. PMID:21338631

  18. Development and validation of an extraction method for the analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in human hair.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Hye; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2017-05-01

    Human hair has many advantages as a non-invasive sample; however, analytical methods for detecting perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human hair are still in the development stage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for monitoring 11 PFASs in human hair. Solid-phase extraction (SPE), ion-pairing extraction (IPE), a combined method (SPE+IPE) and solvent extraction with ENVI-carb clean-up were compared to develop an optimal extraction method using two types of hair sample (powder and piece forms). Analysis of PFASs was performed using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Among the four different extraction procedures, the SPE method using powdered hair showed the best extraction efficiency and recoveries ranged from 85.8 to 102%. The method detection limits for the SPE method were 0.114-0.796 ng/g and good precision (below 10%) and accuracy (66.4-110%) were obtained. In light of these results, SPE is considered the optimal method for PFAS extraction from hair. It was also successfully used to detect PFASs in human hair samples.

  19. Chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis): a study of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Assis Jacques, Rosângela; dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Flores Peres, Valéria; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Bastos Caramão, Elina

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by means of three extraction techniques: pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, also called accelerated solvent extraction--ASE), maceration, and sonication. Samples of mate tea leaves were collected from an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Indfistria e Comércio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. Six solvents with increasing polarities (n-hexane, toluene, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) were used in this investigation. Chemical analysis of the extracts was performed by GC coupled with a mass spectrometer detector. The identification and quantification were accomplished by coinjections of certified standards. The results showed that no significant differences in the qualities of the extracts were noticed regarding the extraction methods. On the other hand, the PLE technique was found to be more effective for the extractions of caffeine, phytol, palmitic, and stearic acid. The use of PLE led to a significant decrease in the total extraction time, amount of solvent consumption, and manipulation of samples compared to maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

  20. Optimization of cloud point extraction and solid phase extraction methods for speciation of arsenic in natural water using multivariate technique.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jameel A; Kazi, Tasneem G; Shah, Abdul Q; Arain, Mohammad B; Afridi, Hassan I; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Khan, Sumaira

    2009-09-28

    The simple and rapid pre-concentration techniques viz. cloud point extraction (CPE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) were applied for the determination of As(3+) and total inorganic arsenic (iAs) in surface and ground water samples. The As(3+) was formed complex with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114, after centrifugation the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.1 mol L(-1) HNO(3) in methanol. While total iAs in water samples was adsorbed on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)); after centrifugation, the solid phase was prepared to be slurry for determination. The extracted As species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors for the recovery of As(3+) and total iAs by CPE and SPE. The standard addition method was used to validate the optimized methods. The obtained result showed sufficient recoveries for As(3+) and iAs (>98.0%). The concentration factor in both cases was found to be 40.

  1. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for sweet corn and processed sweet corns.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Noritake, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    DNA was extracted from sweet corn and its processed products using four DNA extraction methods: the CTAB method, the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G. DNA was successfully extracted from raw sweet corn and baby corn samples using all four methods. Meanwhile, from frozen, canned, and dry pack products, DNA was well extracted using the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G, but not enough with the CTAB method. The highest yield of DNA was obtained with Genomic-tip 20/G. The degree of degradation of extracted DNA was observed to increase in the order of raw, frozen, canned, dry pack, and baby corn samples. To evaluate the quality of extracted DNA, real-time PCR analyses were conducted using three maize endogenous genes. The DNAs extracted using GM Quicker 3 had high purity, suggesting that GM Quicker 3 would be the most suitable method for DNA extraction from processed sweet corn products.

  2. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhisheng; Liu, Qundi; Liang, Zhikun; Zhao, Mingqian; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Depo; Xu, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and solvent extraction (SE). A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD), 56 (HS-SPME), and 48 (SE) compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81%) were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level.

  3. The GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Components Extracted by Different Methods from Exocarpium Citri Grandis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qundi; Liang, Zhikun; Zhao, Mingqian; Yu, Xiaoxue; Yang, Depo; Xu, Xinjun

    2013-01-01

    Volatile components from Exocarpium Citri Grandis (ECG) were, respectively, extracted by three methods, that is, steam distillation (SD), headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and solvent extraction (SE). A total of 81 compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry including 77 (SD), 56 (HS-SPME), and 48 (SE) compounds, respectively. Despite of the extraction method, terpenes (39.98~57.81%) were the main volatile components of ECG, mainly germacrene-D, limonene, 2,6,8,10,14-hexadecapentaene, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl-, (E,E,E)-, and trans-caryophyllene. Comparison was made among the three methods in terms of extraction profile and property. SD relatively gave an entire profile of volatile in ECG by long-time extraction; SE enabled the analysis of low volatility and high molecular weight compounds but lost some volatiles components; HS-SPME generated satisfactory extraction efficiency and gave similar results to those of SD at analytical level when consuming less sample amount, shorter extraction time, and simpler procedure. Although SD and SE were treated as traditionally preparative extractive techniques for volatiles in both small batches and large scale, HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS could be useful and appropriative for the rapid extraction and qualitative analysis of volatile components from medicinal plants at analytical level. PMID:24349825

  4. An unsupervised text mining method for relation extraction from biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Quan, Changqin; Wang, Meng; Ren, Fuji

    2014-01-01

    The wealth of interaction information provided in biomedical articles motivated the implementation of text mining approaches to automatically extract biomedical relations. This paper presents an unsupervised method based on pattern clustering and sentence parsing to deal with biomedical relation extraction. Pattern clustering algorithm is based on Polynomial Kernel method, which identifies interaction words from unlabeled data; these interaction words are then used in relation extraction between entity pairs. Dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing are combined for relation extraction. Based on the semi-supervised KNN algorithm, we extend the proposed unsupervised approach to a semi-supervised approach by combining pattern clustering, dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing rules. We evaluated the approaches on two different tasks: (1) Protein-protein interactions extraction, and (2) Gene-suicide association extraction. The evaluation of task (1) on the benchmark dataset (AImed corpus) showed that our proposed unsupervised approach outperformed three supervised methods. The three supervised methods are rule based, SVM based, and Kernel based separately. The proposed semi-supervised approach is superior to the existing semi-supervised methods. The evaluation on gene-suicide association extraction on a smaller dataset from Genetic Association Database and a larger dataset from publicly available PubMed showed that the proposed unsupervised and semi-supervised methods achieved much higher F-scores than co-occurrence based method.

  5. Review of methods used in lunar organic analysis - Extraction and hydrolysis techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Extraction, hydrolysis, and crushing procedures have been useful in discovering some of the carbon compounds in lunar samples from the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. The nonaqueous solvent system used mostly in lunar sample work has been benzene:methanol. Two methods of extraction have been sonication and Soxhlet extraction, sonication appearing to be the preferred method. Extraction of lunar samples with water and acid hydrolysis of the water extract has proved to be the best method in the search for amino acids or their precursors. Direct acid hydrolysis of lunar samples provided evidence for the presence of carbides or carbide-like materials in lunar surface samples. Hydrolysis of lunar samples with DF, DC1, and NaOD has shown that methane and ethane are indigenous to the moon.

  6. A study of different analytical extraction methods for nondetrital heavy metals in aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Agemian, H; Chau, A S

    1977-01-01

    4.0 N HNO3-0.7 N HCl, 0.5 N HCl, 1 N hydroxylamine hydrochloride-25% acetic acid and 0.05 N EDTA were investiagted as extractants of nondetrital heavy metals from the sediments of the Rideau River. A comparison of these partial extraction methods with a total extraction method, showed that the 4.0 N HNO3-0.7 N HCl attacks the silicate crystal lattice considerably. 1 N hydroxylamine hydrochloride-25% acetic acid was found to be unsuitable for copper extraction. Both of the other two methods were suitable for the simultaneous extraction of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, Fe, and Al from the organic adsorbed and precipitated phases of sediments. They both gave a measure of nondetrital heavy metals in sediments and are thus useful to environmental contamination studies.

  7. Lipid profiling and corresponding biodiesel quality of Mortierella isabellina using different drying and extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Ruan, Zhenhua; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Liu, Yan; Liao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Four lipid extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer, hexane & isopropanol, dichloromethane & methanol, and hexane) were evaluated to extract lipid from freeze- and oven-dried fungus Mortierella isabellina ATCC42613. The highest lipid yield (41.8%) was obtained from Bligh & Dyer extraction on the oven-dried fungal biomass with a methanol:chloroform:water ratio of 2:1:0.8. Other lipid extraction methods on both freeze- and oven-dried samples had lipid yields ranging from 20.7% to 35.9%. Non-polar lipid was the main lipid class (more than 90% of total lipid) in M. isabellina. Regarding fatty acid profile, there was no significant difference on fatty acid concentration between different drying and extraction methods. Estimation of biodiesel fuel properties using correlative models further demonstrated that the fungal biodiesel is a good alternative to fossil diesel.

  8. An Efficient Method for Genomic DNA Extraction from Different Molluscs Species

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Jorge C.; Chaves, Raquel; Bastos, Estela; Leitão, Alexandra; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2011-01-01

    The selection of a DNA extraction method is a critical step when subsequent analysis depends on the DNA quality and quantity. Unlike mammals, for which several capable DNA extraction methods have been developed, for molluscs the availability of optimized genomic DNA extraction protocols is clearly insufficient. Several aspects such as animal physiology, the type (e.g., adductor muscle or gills) or quantity of tissue, can explain the lack of efficiency (quality and yield) in molluscs genomic DNA extraction procedure. In an attempt to overcome these aspects, this work describes an efficient method for molluscs genomic DNA extraction that was tested in several species from different orders: Veneridae, Ostreidae, Anomiidae, Cardiidae (Bivalvia) and Muricidae (Gastropoda), with different weight sample tissues. The isolated DNA was of high molecular weight with high yield and purity, even with reduced quantities of tissue. Moreover, the genomic DNA isolated, demonstrated to be suitable for several downstream molecular techniques, such as PCR sequencing among others. PMID:22174651

  9. Evaluation of DNA Extraction Methods for Use in Combination with SYBR Green I Real-Time PCR To Detect Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    De Medici, Dario; Croci, Luciana; Delibato, Elisabetta; Di Pasquale, Simona; Filetici, Emma; Toti, Laura

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, reproducible, and robust method for detecting Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in poultry samples. First, for the extraction and purification of DNA from the preenrichment culture, four methods (boiling, alkaline lysis, Nucleospin, and Dynabeads DNA Direct System I) were compared. The most effective method was then combined with a real-time PCR method based on the double-stranded DNA binding dye SYBR Green I used with the ABI Prism 7700 system. The specificity of the reaction was determined by the melting temperature (Tm) of the amplicon obtained. The experiments were conducted both on samples of chicken experimentally contaminated with serotype Enteritidis and on commercially available poultry samples, which were also used for comparisons with the standard cultural method (i.e., ISO 6579/2001). The results of comparisons among the four DNA extraction methods showed significant differences except for the results from the boiling and Nucleospin methods (the two methods that produced the lowest threshold cycles). Boiling was selected as the preferred extraction method because it is the simplest and most rapid. This method was then combined with SYBR Green I real-time PCR, using primers SEFA-1 and SEFA-2. The specificity of the reaction was confirmed by the Tm, which was consistently specific for the amplicon obtained; the mean peak Tm obtained with curves specific for serotype Enteritidis was 82.56 ± 0.22°C. The standard curve constructed using the mean threshold cycle and various concentrations of serotype Enteritidis (ranging from 103 to 108 CFU/ml) showed good linearity (R2 = 0.9767) and a sensitivity limit of less than 103 CFU/ml. The results of this study demonstrate that the SYBR Green I real-time PCR constitutes an effective and easy-to-perform method for detecting serotype Enteritidis in poultry samples. PMID:12788750

  10. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD FOR PCR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGAL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following air sampling, fungal DNA needs to be extracted and purified to a state suitable for laboratory use. Our laboratory has developed a simple method of extraction and purification of fungal DNA appropriate for enzymatic manipulation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) appli...

  11. METHOD OF LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION OF BLOOD SURROGATES FOR ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO JET FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline method of liquid?liquid extraction for assessing human exposure to JP-8 jet fuel was established by extracting several representative compounds ranging from very volatile to semi-volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, nonane, decane, undecane, tridec...

  12. New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, Philip John

    1996-04-23

    This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

  13. Establishment and application of an efficient, economic, and rapid rice DNA extraction method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, economic, and efficient method for DNA extraction from rice leaf, root and seed was developed, and the extracted DNA was used as a template to successfully amplify the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta. Profiles of Pi-ta in 165 breeding lines detected by DNA markers were verified using diff...

  14. Monitoring of four DNA extraction methods upstream of high-throughput sequencing of Anisakidae nematodes.

    PubMed

    Seesao, Y; Audebert, C; Verrez-Bagnis, V; Merlin, S; Jérôme, M; Viscogliosi, E; Dei-Cas, E; Aliouat-Denis, C M; Gay, M

    2014-07-01

    Different methods were evaluated to extract DNA from pooled nematodes belonging to Anisakis, Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova and Hysterothylacium genera isolated from edible fish. Pooled DNA extraction is the first and compulsory step to allow the identification of a large number of samples through high-throughput DNA sequencing with drastic time and cost reductions.

  15. Method and system for extraction of chemicals from aquifer remediation effluent water

    DOEpatents

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Moor, Kenneth S.; Shook, G. Michael; Barker, Donna L.

    2003-01-01

    A method and system for extraction of chemicals from an groundwater remediation aqueous effluent are provided. The extraction method utilizes a critical fluid for separation and recovery of chemicals employed in remediating groundwater contaminated with hazardous organic substances, and is particularly suited for separation and recovery of organic contaminants and process chemicals used in surfactant-based remediation technologies. The extraction method separates and recovers high-value chemicals from the remediation effluent and minimizes the volume of generated hazardous waste. The recovered chemicals can be recycled to the remediation process or stored for later use.

  16. Apparatus and method for extraction of chemicals from aquifer remediation effluent water

    DOEpatents

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Moor, Kenneth S.; Shook, G. Michael; Moses, John M.; Barker, Donna L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for extraction of chemicals from an aquifer remediation aqueous effluent are provided. The extraction method utilizes a critical fluid for separation and recovery of chemicals employed in remediating aquifers contaminated with hazardous organic substances, and is particularly suited for separation and recovery of organic contaminants and process chemicals used in surfactant-based remediation technologies. The extraction method separates and recovers high-value chemicals from the remediation effluent and minimizes the volume of generated hazardous waste. The recovered chemicals can be recycled to the remediation process or stored for later use.

  17. Obstacle regions extraction method for unmanned aerial vehicles based on space-time tensor descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhenglong; Li, Jie; Guan, Zhenyu; Yang, Huan

    2016-09-01

    Obstacle avoidance is an important and challenging task for the autonomous flight of unmanned aerial vehicles. Obstacle regions extraction from image sequences is a critical prerequisite in obstacle avoidance. We propose an obstacle regions extraction method based on space-time tensor descriptor. In our method, first, the space-time tensor descriptor is defined and a criterion function based on the descriptor of extracting space-time interest points (STIPs) is designed. Then a self-adaptive clustering of STIPs approach is presented to locate the possible obstacle regions. Finally, an improved level set algorithm is applied with the result of clustering to extract the obstacle regions. We demonstrate the experiments of obstacle regions extraction by our method on image sequences. Sequences are captured in indoor simulative obstacle avoidance environments and outdoor real flight obstacle avoidance environments. Experimental results validate that our method can effectively complete extraction and segmentation of obstacle region with captured images. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, our method performs well to extract the contours of obstacle regions on the whole and significantly improves segmentation speed.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of peptide-extraction methods by HPLC-triple-quad MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Wu, Dapeng; Wu, Qian; Guan, Yafeng

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the efficiency of five peptide-extraction methods—acetonitrile (ACN) precipitation, ultrafiltration, C18 solid-phase extraction (SPE), dispersed SPE with mesoporous carbon CMK-3, and mesoporous silica MCM-41—was quantitatively investigated. With 28 tryptic peptides as target analytes, these methods were evaluated on the basis of recovery and reproducibility by using high-performance liquid chromatography-triple-quad tandem mass spectrometry in selected-reaction-monitoring mode. Because of the distinct extraction mechanisms of the methods, their preferences for extracting peptides of different properties were revealed to be quite different, usually depending on the pI values or hydrophobicity of peptides. When target peptides were spiked in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution, the extraction efficiency of all the methods except ACN precipitation changed significantly. The binding of BSA with target peptides and nonspecific adsorption on adsorbents were believed to be the ways through which BSA affected the extraction behavior. When spiked in plasma, the performance of all five methods deteriorated substantially, with the number of peptides having recoveries exceeding 70% being 15 for ACN precipitation, and none for the other methods. Finally, the methods were evaluated in terms of the number of identified peptides for extraction of endogenous plasma peptides. Only ultrafiltration and CMK-3 dispersed SPE performed differently from the quantitative results with target peptides, and the wider distribution of the properties of endogenous peptides was believed to be the main reason.

  19. Comparison of three DNA extraction methods for recovery of soil protist DNA.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana S; Nielsen, Tue Kjærgaard; Hansen, Lars H; Winding, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The use of molecular methods to investigate protist communities in soil is in rapid development this decade. Molecular analysis of soil protist communities is usually dependant on direct genomic DNA extraction from soil and inefficient or differential DNA extraction of protist DNA can lead to bias in downstream community analysis. Three commonly used soil DNA extraction methods have been tested on soil samples from three European Long-Term Observatories (LTOs) with different land-use and three protist cultures belonging to different phylogenetic groups in different growth stages. The methods tested were: ISOm-11063 (a version of the ISO-11063 method modified to include a FastPrep ®-24 mechanical lysis step), GnS-GII (developed by the GenoSol platform to extract soil DNA in large-scale soil surveys) and a commercial DNA extraction kit - Power Lyzer™ PowerSoil® DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio). DNA yield and quality were evaluated along with DNA suitability for amplification of 18S rDNA fragments by PCR. On soil samples, ISOm-11063 yields significantly higher DNA for two of the three soil samples, however, MoBio extraction favors DNA quality. This method was also more effective to recover copies of 18S rDNA numbers from all soil types. In addition and despite the lower yields, higher DNA quality was observed with DNA extracted from protist cultures with the MoBio method. Likewise, a bead-beating step shows to be a good solution for DNA extraction of soil protists, since the recovery of DNA from protist cultures and from the different soil samples with the ISOm method proved to be efficient in recovering PCR-amplifiable DNA. This study showed that soil DNA extraction methods provide biased results towards the cyst stages of protist organism.

  20. Propagation source wavelet phase extraction using multi-taper method coherence estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2017-02-01

    It is possible to use statistical methods to extract the propagation source wavelet phase from seismic data without getting information from a well log. Using kurtosis as a high-order statistics can preserve the phase of the signal but it is highly sensitive to outliers. A new method is introduced here called the multi-taper method coherence estimation. Two steps are required: first, a cosine function that includes the dominant frequency and maximum amplitude of signal is chosen. Secondly, the maximum coherence in the frequency band of the signal, which shows the best phase matching between the time series is determined. To validate this new method real data sets were chosen and the extracted wavelet phases for noise free and noisy data sets were compared with data extracted from a well log. Extracted wavelets using Kurtosis were also generated for comparison, and demonstrate the improved results using the new method.

  1. Efficient extraction of olive pulp and stone proteins by using an enzyme-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Barberán, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2014-07-01

    An efficient protein extraction protocol for proteins from olive pulp and stone by using enzymes was developed. For this purpose, different parameters that affect the extraction process, such as enzyme type and content, pH, and extraction temperature and time, were tested. The influence of these factors on protein recovery was examined using the standard Bradford assay, while the extracted proteins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The best extraction conditions were achieved at pH 7.0 and 5% (v/v) Palatase® 20000 L (lipase) for pulp and Lecitase® Ultra (phospholipase) for stone proteins. The optimal extraction temperature and time were 30 and 40 °C for 15 min for pulp and stone tissues, respectively. Under these conditions, several protein extracts coming from olive fruits of different genetic variety were analyzed, their profiles being compared by SDS-PAGE. The developed enzyme-assisted extraction method showed faster extraction, higher recovery, and reduced solvent usage than the nonenzymatic methods previously described in the literature. In the case of stone proteins, different electrophoretic profiles and band intensities were obtained that could be helpful to distinguish samples according to their genetic variety.

  2. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method...

  3. ALKALINE CARBONATE LEACHING PROCESS FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbitts, A.T.

    1957-11-12

    A process for the leaching of uranium from high carbonate ores is presented. According to the process, the ore is leached at a temperature of about 200 deg C and a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. with a solution containing alkali carbonate, alkali permanganate, and bicarbonate ion, the bicarbonate ion functionlng to prevent premature formation of alkali hydroxide and consequent precipitation of a diuranate. After the leaching is complete, the uranium present is recovered by precipitation with NaOH.

  4. Evaluation of Five Methods for Total DNA Extraction from Western Corn Rootworm Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Tan, Sek Yee; Wang, Haichuan; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2010-01-01

    Background DNA extraction is a routine step in many insect molecular studies. A variety of methods have been used to isolate DNA molecules from insects, and many commercial kits are available. Extraction methods need to be evaluated for their efficiency, cost, and side effects such as DNA degradation during extraction. Methodology/Principal Findings From individual western corn rootworm beetles, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, DNA extractions by the SDS method, CTAB method, DNAzol® reagent, Puregene® solutions and DNeasy® column were compared in terms of DNA quantity and quality, cost of materials, and time consumed. Although all five methods resulted in acceptable DNA concentrations and absorbance ratios, the SDS and CTAB methods resulted in higher DNA yield (ng DNA vs. mg tissue) at much lower cost and less degradation as revealed on agarose gels. The DNeasy® kit was most time-efficient but was the costliest among the methods tested. The effects of ethanol volume, temperature and incubation time on precipitation of DNA were also investigated. The DNA samples obtained by the five methods were tested in PCR for six microsatellites located in various positions of the beetle's genome, and all samples showed successful amplifications. Conclusion/Significance These evaluations provide a guide for choosing methods of DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles based on expected DNA yield and quality, extraction time, cost, and waste control. The extraction conditions for this mid-size insect were optimized. The DNA extracted by the five methods was suitable for further molecular applications such as PCR and sequencing by synthesis. PMID:20730102

  5. Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Solvent Extraction Method of Fat Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    these products hydrolysing and releasing bound fat, but the milk arrowroot biscuits are sweetened and would also provide sugar for furfural formation...Comparison of Fat results in biscuits [6]J Method Milk Arrowroot Sao A B C D S 0 All Methods 10.9±0.6 lO.6±0.8 15.5±1.0 14.7±0.9 Pooled Mojonnier 11.3±0.4

  6. Critical assessment of extracellular polymeric substances extraction methods from mixed culture biomass.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Domingo-Félez, Carlos; Mutlu, A Gizem; Smets, Barth F

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have a presumed determinant role in the structure, architecture, strength, filterability, and settling behaviour of microbial solids in biological wastewater treatment processes. Consequently, numerous EPS extraction protocols have recently been published that aim to optimize the trade off between high EPS recovery and low cell lysis. Despite extensive efforts, the obtained results are often contradictory, even when analysing similar biomass samples and using similar experimental conditions, which greatly complicates the selection of an extraction protocol. This study presents a rigorous and critical assessment of existing physical and chemical EPS extraction methods applied to mixed-culture biomass samples (nitrifying, nitritation-anammox, and activated sludge biomass). A novel fluorescence-based method was developed and calibrated to quantify the lysis potential of different EPS extraction protocols. We concluded that commonly used methods to assess cell lysis (DNA concentrations or G6PDH activities in EPS extracts) do not correlate with cell viability. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of certain chemicals in EPS extracts results in severe underestimation of protein and carbohydrate concentrations by using standard analytical methods. Keeping both maximum EPS extraction yields and minimal biomass lysis as criteria, it was identified a sonication-based extraction method as the best to determine and compare tightly-bound EPS fractions in different biomass samples. Protein was consistently the main EPS component in all analysed samples. However, EPS from nitrifying enrichments was richer in DNA, the activated sludge EPS had a higher content in humic acids and carbohydrates, and the nitritation-anammox EPS, while similar in composition to the nitrifier EPS, had a lower fraction of hydrophobic biopolymers. In general, the easily-extractable EPS fraction was more abundant in carbohydrates and humic substances, while

  7. A new method for fast chitin extraction from shells of crab, crayfish and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Baran, Talat; Karaarslan, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    A new method for quick chitin isolation from the shells of crab, crayfish and shrimp is described. The main difference between the new method and the conventional method is two sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatments for 10 min each before the processes of demineralisation and deproteinisation. After the NaClO treatment, only 15 min is adequate for the demineralisation and 20 min for the deproteinisation processes. Newly extracted chitin from crab, crayfish and shrimp shells and commercial chitin were characterised using FT-IR, TGA, X-ray diffractometry and elemental analysis. From the results, it was observed that the chitins isolated with the new method and the commercial chitin had almost the same physicochemical properties. The advantage of the new method compared to traditional methods is the relatively rapid chitin extraction. When compared to the traditional chitin extraction method, the proposed method appears to be promising regarding its time and energy saving nature.

  8. Optimization of a single phase method for lipid extraction from milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Rochfort, Simone; Cocks, Benjamin G

    2016-08-05

    For LC-MS-based lipidomic analysis of milk, total lipid extraction from raw milk is generally conducted with Folch or Bligh and Dyer methods; both methods are based on two-phase partition of lipids, and thus time-consuming. In this work, three solvent systems for one-phase extraction of milk lipids were compared with the standard Folch method. Two of the solvent systems (butanol/methanol, 3:1 and 1:1) previously tested for lipid extraction from plasma were found to provide adequate extraction for polar lipids, but incomplete extraction for triglycerides, especially highly lipophilic species. By contrast, our newly designed solvent mix composed of butanol, methanol and chloroform (at a 3:5:4 ratio) provided similar extraction efficiency for triglycerides and higher yield for some of the phospholipids, as compared to the Folch method. This new one-phase extraction method is very simple yet comprehensive and thus suitable for high throughput lipid analysis of milk samples.

  9. Evaluation of methods for the extraction of DNA from drinking water distribution system biofilms.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chiachi; Ling, Fangqiong; Andersen, Gary L; LeChevallier, Mark W; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2012-01-01

    While drinking water biofilms have been characterized in various drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), little is known about the impact of different DNA extraction methods on the subsequent analysis of microbial communities in drinking water biofilms. Since different DNA extraction methods have been shown to affect the outcome of microbial community analysis in other environments, it is necessary to select a DNA extraction method prior to the application of molecular tools to characterize the complex microbial ecology of the DWDS. This study compared the quantity and quality of DNA yields from selected DWDS bacteria with different cell wall properties using five widely used DNA extraction methods. These were further selected and evaluated for their efficiency and reproducibility of DNA extraction from DWDS samples. Terminal restriction fragment length analysis and the 454 pyrosequencing technique were used to interpret the differences in microbial community structure and composition, respectively, from extracted DNA. Such assessments serve as a concrete step towards the determination of an optimal DNA extraction method for drinking water biofilms, which can then provide a reliable comparison of the meta-analysis results obtained in different laboratories.

  10. A novel method of protein extraction from perennial Bupleurum root for 2-DE.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Pan, Shengli; Liu, Shufen; Ye, Kan; Huo, Keke

    2007-03-01

    The perennial Bupleurum root is thick and woody and contains high levels of interfering compounds. Common protein extraction methods have proved refractory towards the isolation of proteins suitable for 2-DE, due to the presence of interfering compounds. A novel method for extracting proteins suitable for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems. The main characteristic of this protocol is the partitioning of the proteins into the aqueous (fraction A-2), chloroform and isoamyl alcohol phases (A-3), and the interphase (A-1). The proteins are then extracted from each of these phases. From A-1, 85% (extracted protein against total proteins) proteins could be extracted and purified. For fraction A-2, a novel phenol extraction step is employed for the extraction of proteins. Based on the well-resolved 2-DE patterns, our protein preparation is free of interfering compounds. Using these methods (A-1, A-2, and A-3-3), a total of 3662 (1526 + 1128 + 1008) spots could be separated, and a protein yield of about 1.41 mg per 1.0 g fresh root material was obtained. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a protocol for protein extraction from perennial Bupleurum root has been reported that gives reproducible results. The protocol is expected to be applicable to other recalcitrant plant tissues as well.

  11. [Study on the extraction of total flavonoids from Mentha spicata by ultrasonic method].

    PubMed

    Ke, Shao-Ying; Liu, Dong-Lian; Ma, Zuo-Dong; Liu, Yu-Jun

    2009-08-01

    The optimal conditions of total flavonoids extraction from Mentha spicata were identified by orthogonal test. The results showed that the ethanol concentration and the ultrasonic time had significant effect on the extraction of total flavonoids and the optimum conditions of extraction were A3B3C1D1, which were as follows: the ethanol concentration was 50%, the ultrasonic time was 40 min, the solid-liquid ratio was 1 g: 50 mL and the temperature of extraction was 60 degrees C, On the basis of the extracting method above, the content of total flavonoids in Mentha spicata was 0.0951 mg/mg. The linear equation was A = 11.51143C - 0.00029, r = 0.9999. This method is simple, quick and accurate with good prosperity.

  12. An efficient DNA extraction method for desert Calligonum species.

    PubMed

    Abdellaoui, Raoudha; Gouja, Hassen; Sayah, Amel; Neffati, Mohamed

    2011-12-01

    Genetic conservation programs in arid environments rely on molecular methods for diversity assessments. DNA-based molecular profiling will aid in conservation and protection of species from genetic erosion. Obtaining intact genomic DNA from Calligonum species, of sufficiently high-quality that is readily amplifiable using PCR, is challenging because of the presence of the exceptionally large amount of oxidized polyphenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and other secondary metabolites. The present method involves a modification of the available CTAB method employing higher concentrations of NaCl and CTAB, and incorporating PEG 6000 (1%) and glucose. The yield of DNA was 60-670 μg g(-1) of fresh tissue. The protocol has been tested with two species from the arid region. The DNA isolated was successfully amplified by two ITS primer pairs. PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region among and within Calligonum species followed by sequencing is under way.

  13. A method for fast feature extraction in threshold scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Marius C.; Ritman, James

    2014-01-01

    We present a fast, analytical method to calculate the threshold and noise parameters from a threshold scan. This is usually done by fitting a response function to the data which is computationally very intensive. The runtime can be minimized by a hardware implementation, e.g. using an FPGA, which in turn requires to minimize the mathematical complexity of the algorithm in order to fit into the available resources on the FPGA. The systematic errors of the method are analyzed and reasonable choices of the parameters for use in practice are given.

  14. Comparison of manual and automated nucleic acid extraction methods from clinical specimens for microbial diagnosis purposes.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Aniela; Geoffroy, Enrique; Miranda, Carolina; Castillo, Claudia; Sanhueza, Francia; García, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    The choice of nucleic acids (NAs) extraction method for molecular diagnosis in microbiology is of major importance because of the low microbial load, different nature of microorganisms, and clinical specimens. The NA yield of different extraction methods has been mostly studied using spiked samples. However, information from real human clinical specimens is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a manual low-cost extraction method (Qiagen kit or salting-out extraction method) with the automated high-cost MagNAPure Compact method. According to cycle threshold values for different pathogens, MagNAPure is as efficient as Qiagen for NA extraction from noncomplex clinical specimens (nasopharyngeal swab, skin swab, plasma, respiratory specimens). In contrast, according to cycle threshold values for RNAseP, MagNAPure method may not be an appropriate method for NA extraction from blood. We believe that MagNAPure versatility reduced risk of cross-contamination and reduced hands-on time compensates its high cost.

  15. A high yield multi-method extraction protocol for protein quantification in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Monique, Ras; Elisabeth, Girbal-Neuhauser; Etienne, Paul; Dominique, Lefebvre

    2008-11-01

    A multi-method extraction protocol based on mechanical, ionic and hydrophobic methods was investigated on two types of activated sludge samples. Extraction methods were chosen with regards to optimal protein yield without cell disruption. Sonication, EDTA and Tween extraction methods were selected and combined. The total amount of protein released by the multi-method protocol sums up to 191 and 264 mg equiv. BSA/g VSS for the two different sludge samples. Protocol repetition on the same sample showed that protein yield after each successive protocol fitted an exponential curve model. The total amount of extractable proteins was evaluated by model predictions, 423 and 516 mg equiv. BSA/g VSS for the two sludge samples. The multi-method extraction protocol appears relevant for harvesting a representative quantity of proteins from the original sample (45-49%), moreover the multi-method criterion of the protocol also offers a heterogeneous pool of proteins. Thus, further qualitative studies may not be biased by the extraction protocol.

  16. Study of burn scar extraction automatically based on level set method using remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Dai, Qin; Liu, Jianbo; Liu, ShiBin; Yang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Burn scar extraction using remote sensing data is an efficient way to precisely evaluate burn area and measure vegetation recovery. Traditional burn scar extraction methodologies have no well effect on burn scar image with blurred and irregular edges. To address these issues, this paper proposes an automatic method to extract burn scar based on Level Set Method (LSM). This method utilizes the advantages of the different features in remote sensing images, as well as considers the practical needs of extracting the burn scar rapidly and automatically. This approach integrates Change Vector Analysis (CVA), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) to obtain difference image and modifies conventional Level Set Method Chan-Vese (C-V) model with a new initial curve which results from a binary image applying K-means method on fitting errors of two near-infrared band images. Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI data sets are used to validate the proposed method. Comparison with conventional C-V model, OSTU algorithm, Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm are made to show that the proposed approach can extract the outline curve of fire burn scar effectively and exactly. The method has higher extraction accuracy and less algorithm complexity than that of the conventional C-V model.

  17. Conventional and modified hydrodistillation method for the extraction of glucosinolate hydrolytic products: a comparative account.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rohit; Singh, Bikram; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Arora, Saroj

    2016-01-01

    Eruca sativa is extensively used as raw and its oil is also used for cooking due to its exceptional flavour. The volatile nature of the hydrolytic products of glucosinolates makes the extraction difficult. The hydrodistillation method used previously yield very less amount of the extract as well as the absence of stirring in the round bottom flask causes burning of both the crushed seeds and the flask. To overcome these drawbacks, a method has been developed using magnetic stirrer and hot plate. The yield and composition of hydrolytic products in the extract with the modified method was increased along with an increase in the amount of major hydrolytic products as seen by GC-MS. This method thus has immense potential in pharmaceutical industries, due to the ease of extraction and isolation.

  18. A simple, effective, and low-cost extraction method for environmental soil analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tiehong; Shan, Yonggui; Kupferle, M.; Zhou, Qin; Zhu, Huajie

    1996-12-31

    The Soxhlet extraction method is a EPA standard method for extracting organic environmental contaminants from solid matrices such as soils. Using this method, a soil sample is repeatedly washed with distilled warm solvent for 18 hours in a specially designed blown glass apparatus. This extraction step is followed by a concentration step, which is particularly useful for samples with low levels of contamination. However, for samples with moderate or high levels of contaminants, the Soxhlet method is less advantageous because the concentration step is tedious and unnecessary Furthermore, sample load and the degree of replication are frequently constrained by the availability of Soxhlet equipment. As a result, other extraction techniques with the capacity to handle a more flexible sample load were investigated.

  19. Development and Validation of an RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Vinpocetine and Folic Acid in the Presence of a Vinpocetine Alkaline Degradation Product in Bulk and in Capsule Form.

    PubMed

    Elkady, Ehab F; Tammam, Marwa H; Mohamed, Ayman A

    2017-01-11

    An alkaline-forced degradation hydrolytic product of vinpocetine was prepared and characterized by 1H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and MS. Subsequently, a simple, selective, and validated reversed-phase HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of vinpocetine and folic acid in the presence of a vinpocetine alkaline degradation product. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0.02 M KH2PO4 [containing 0.2% (v/v) triethylamine and adjusted to pH 6 with orthophosphoric acid; (80 + 20, v/v)] at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min at ambient temperature on a Eurospher II C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column, with UV detection at 280 nm for folic acid and 230 nm for vinpocetine and its alkaline hydrolytic product. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were found to be acceptable over a concentration range of 12.5-200 μg/mL for vinpocetine and 1-16 μg/mL for folic acid. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of both drugs and a vinpocetine hydrolysis product in a laboratory-prepared mixture and in a capsule containing both drugs.

  20. Rapid methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds in citrus rinds.

    PubMed

    Magwaza, Lembe Samukelo; Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Cronje, Paul J R; Landahl, Sandra; Ortiz, Jose Ordaz; Terry, Leon A

    2016-01-01

    Conventional methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds in citrus rinds are time consuming. Rapid methods for extracting and quantifying phenolic compounds were developed by comparing three extraction solvent combinations (80:20 v/v ethanol:H2O; 70:29.5:0.5 v/v/v methanol:H2O:HCl; and 50:50 v/v dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO):methanol) for effectiveness. Freeze-dried, rind powder was extracted in an ultrasonic water bath at 35°C for 10, 20, and 30 min. Phenolic compound quantification was done with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with diode array detector. Extracting with methanol:H2O:HCl for 30 min resulted in the optimum yield of targeted phenolic acids. Seven phenolic acids and three flavanone glycosides (FGs) were quantified. The dominant phenolic compound was hesperidin, with concentrations ranging from 7500 to 32,000 μg/g DW. The highest yield of FGs was observed in samples extracted, using DMSO:methanol for 10 min. Compared to other extraction methods, methanol:H2O:HCl was efficient in optimum extraction of phenolic acids. The limit of detection and quantification for all analytes were small, ranging from 1.35 to 5.02 and 4.51 to 16.72 μg/g DW, respectively, demonstrating HPLC quantification method sensitivity. The extraction and quantification methods developed in this study are faster and more efficient. Where speed and effectiveness are required, these methods are recommended.

  1. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  2. Extraction of human genomic DNA from whole blood using a magnetic microsphere method.

    PubMed

    Gong, Rui; Li, Shengying

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of molecular biology and the life sciences, magnetic extraction is a simple, automatic, and highly efficient method for separating biological molecules, performing immunoassays, and other applications. Human blood is an ideal source of human genomic DNA. Extracting genomic DNA by traditional methods is time-consuming, and phenol and chloroform are toxic reagents that endanger health. Therefore, it is necessary to find a more convenient and efficient method for obtaining human genomic DNA. In this study, we developed urea-formaldehyde resin magnetic microspheres and magnetic silica microspheres for extraction of human genomic DNA. First, a magnetic microsphere suspension was prepared and used to extract genomic DNA from fresh whole blood, frozen blood, dried blood, and trace blood. Second, DNA content and purity were measured by agarose electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The human genomic DNA extracted from whole blood was then subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis to further confirm its quality. The results of this study lay a good foundation for future research and development of a high-throughput and rapid extraction method for extracting genomic DNA from various types of blood samples.

  3. A review of extraction and analytical methods for the determination of Tartrazine (E 102) in foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Rovina, Kobun; Siddiquee, Shafiquzzaman; Shaarani, Sharifudin Md

    2017-01-27

    Tartrazine is an azo food dye, orange-coloured and water soluble that usually used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and textiles. Tartrazine possess adverse health effect to human such as hyperactivity in children, allergy and asthma. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive (JECFA) and EU Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) standardized the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for Tartrazine is at 7.5 mg kg(-1) body weight. Many researchers have been detected the presence of Tartrazine for monitoring the quality and safety of food products. In this review paper highlighted various detection and extraction methods of Tartrazine. Some of the analytical methods are available such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrochemical sensor, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). As extraction steps are discussed: liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), membrane filtration, cloud point extraction and other extraction method. Also, brief overview explained the synthesis process and metabolism of Tartrazine and the maximum permitted level in different countries. This review paper will give insight scenario on different extraction and analytical methods for determination of Tartrazine on healthy food among public attract attention on food safety and quality which can provide incalculable interest to food industry and government bodies.

  4. Extraction efficiency of chloroethenes from contaminated dry cleaner's sludge with three different methods

    SciTech Connect

    Paaso, N.; Peuravuori, J.; Pihlaja, K.

    2000-07-01

    The three most easily available extraction methods were compared to study the binding effect of chloroethenes (chloroethylenes) to a sludge sample. First, the chlorinated ethenes were extracted from the sludge sample with a Soxhlet method using either an acetone-hexane mixture or tetrahydrofuran (THF). Second, simultaneous distillation-extraction with an iso-octane-water mixture was applied. Finally, the influence of basic hydrolysis on the release of organic chlorines by the simultaneous distillation-extraction procedure was investigated. The identified composition of the extractable organic chlorine (EOCl) was tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethene and cis-1,2-dichloroethene. Total chlorine contents of the different samples were determined by a burning method in a steel container with excess oxygen pressure. The recovery of the samples treated with the simultaneous distillation-extraction method was definitely greater than that of the Soxhlet. The results proved that a significant part of chloroethenes was unusually strongly bound to the sludge matrix and basic hydrolysis was required to release the bound chloroethenes from the matrix almost completely. However, the operation with a too high base concentration leads to unwanted side-reactions causing analytical difficulties. It is recommended to use THF as a solvent by applying the Soxhlet extraction to obtain better recoveries.

  5. Pseudophasic extraction method for the separation of ultra-fine minerals

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2002-01-01

    An improved aqueous-based extraction method for the separation and recovery of ultra-fine mineral particles. The process operates within the pseudophase region of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system where a low-molecular-weight, water soluble polymer alone is used in combination with a salt and operates within the pseudo-biphase regime of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system. A combination of low molecular weight, mutually immiscible polymers are used with or without a salt. This method is especially suited for the purification of clays that are useful as rheological control agents and for the preparation of nanocomposites.

  6. Utilization of phosphorus loaded alkaline residue to immobilize lead in a shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yubo; Qi, Fangjie; Seshadri, Balaji; Xu, Yilu; Hou, Jiexi; Ok, Yong Sik; Dong, Xiaoli; Li, Qiao; Sun, Xiuyun; Wang, Lianjun; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-11-01

    The alkaline residue generated from the production of soda ash using the ammonia-soda method has been successfully used in removing phosphorus (P) from aqueous solution. But the accumulation of P-containing solid after P removal is an undesirable menace to the environment. To achieve the goal of recycling, this study explored the feasibility of reusing the P loaded alkaline residue as an amendment for immobilization of lead (Pb) in a shooting range soil. The main crystalline phase and micromorphology of amendments were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), sequential extraction procedure, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of Pb immobilization in soil after 45 d incubation. Treatment with P loaded alkaline residue was significantly effective in reducing the TCLP and PBET extractable Pb concentrations in contrast to the untreated soil. Moreover, a positive change in the distribution of Pb fractions was observed in the treated soil, i.e., more than 60% of soil-Pb was transformed to the residual fraction compared to the original soil. On the other hand, P loaded amendments also resulted in a drastic reduction in phytoavailable Pb to the winter wheat and a mild release of P as a nutrient in treated soil, which also confirmed the improvement of soil quality.

  7. Comparison of extraction methods for quantifying vitamin E from animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhimin

    2008-12-01

    Four extraction methods: (1) solvent (SOL), (2) ultrasound assisted solvent (UA), (3) saponification and solvent (SP), and (4) saponification and ultrasound assisted solvent (SP-UA), were used in sample preparation for quantifying vitamin E (tocopherols) in chicken liver and plasma samples. The extraction yields of SOL, UA, SP, and SP-UA methods obtained by adding delta-tocopherol as internal reference were 95%, 104%, 65%, and 62% for liver and 98%, 103%, 97%, and 94% for plasma, respectively. The methods with saponification significantly affected the stabilities of tocopherols in liver samples. The measured values of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols using the solvent only extraction (SOL) method were much lower than that using any of the other extraction methods. This indicated that less of the tocopherols in those samples were in a form that could be extracted directly by solvent. The measured value of alpha-tocopherol in the liver sample using the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method was 1.5-2.5 times of that obtained from the saponification and solvent (SP) method. The differences in measured values of tocopherols in the plasma samples by using the two methods were not significant. However, the measured value of the saponification and ultrasound assisted solvent (SP-UA) method was lower than either the saponification and solvent (SP) or the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method. Also, the reproducibility of the ultrasound assisted solvent (UA) method was greater than any of the saponification methods. Compared with the traditional saponification method, the ultrasound assisted solvent method could effectively extract tocopherols from sample matrix without any chemical degradation reactions, especially for complex animal tissue such as liver.

  8. Method and apparatus for iterative lysis and extraction of algae

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Geoffrey; Boggs, Tabitha; Dykes, Jr., H. Waite H.; Doherty, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    A method and system for processing algae involves the use of an ionic liquid-containing clarified cell lysate to lyse algae cells. The resulting crude cell lysate may be clarified and subsequently used to lyse algae cells. The process may be repeated a number of times before a clarified lysate is separated into lipid and aqueous phases for further processing and/or purification of desired products.

  9. Method for solvent extraction with near-equal density solutions

    DOEpatents

    Birdwell, Joseph F.; Randolph, John D.; Singh, S. Paul

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a modified centrifugal contactor for separating solutions of near equal density. The modified contactor has a pressure differential establishing means that allows the application of a pressure differential across fluid in the rotor of the contactor. The pressure differential is such that it causes the boundary between solutions of near-equal density to shift, thereby facilitating separation of the phases. Also disclosed is a method of separating solutions of near-equal density.

  10. A chelating ion exchanger for gallium recovery from alkaline solution using 5-palmitoyl-8-hydroxyquinoline immobilized on a nonpolar adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Filik, H.; Apak, R.

    1998-06-01

    The recently developed method of gallium recovery from alkaline solution by alkanoyl oxine/chloroform extraction has been improved by immobilizing palmitoyl oxine on hydrophobic macroporous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer Amberlite XAD-2 and passing the GA-containing alkaline solution of pH 13.5 through the synthesized resin column. The developed column showed reasonable efficiency after successive passages, and the selectivity of Ga over Al was very high, suggesting the utilizibility of the method in Ga recovery from the basic aluminate liquor of the Bayer process. The Ga capacity of the oxine-based resin was 3.94 {micro}mol/g. Two mg Ga retained on 10 g resin could be eluted with 25 mL of 2 N HCl at a throughput rate of 2 mL/min. The developed process has prospective use in Ga separation from Al in a strongly alkaline solution.

  11. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    PubMed

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-03-04

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material.

  12. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-04-08

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  13. Transient signal analysis based on Levenberg-Marquardt method for fault feature extraction of rotating machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shibin; Cai, Gaigai; Zhu, Zhongkui; Huang, Weiguo; Zhang, Xingwu

    2015-03-01

    Localized faults in rotating machines tend to result in shocks and thus excite transient components in vibration signals. An iterative extraction method is proposed for transient signal analysis based on transient modeling and parameter identification through Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method, and eventually for fault feature extraction. For each iteration, a double-side asymmetric transient model is firstly built based on parametric Morlet wavelet, and then the LM method is introduced to identify the parameters of the model. With the implementation of the iterative procedure, transients are extracted from vibration signals one by one, and Wigner-Ville Distribution is applied to obtain time-frequency representation with satisfactory energy concentration but without cross-term. A simulation signal is used to test the performance of the proposed method in transient extraction, and the comparison study shows that the proposed method outperforms ensemble empirical mode decomposition and spectral kurtosis in extracting transient feature. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by the applications in transient analysis for bearing and gear fault feature extraction.

  14. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances. PMID:27138987

  15. Influence of DNA extraction methods on relative telomere length measurements and its impact on epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Raschenberger, Julia; Lamina, Claudia; Haun, Margot; Kollerits, Barbara; Coassin, Stefan; Boes, Eva; Kedenko, Ludmilla; Köttgen, Anna; Kronenberg, Florian

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of telomere length is widely used in epidemiologic studies. Insufficient standardization of the measurements processes has, however, complicated the comparison of results between studies. We aimed to investigate whether DNA extraction methods have an influence on measured values of relative telomere length (RTL) and whether this has consequences for epidemiological studies. We performed four experiments with RTL measurement in quadruplicate by qPCR using DNA extracted with different methods: 1) a standardized validation experiment including three extraction methods (magnetic-particle-method EZ1, salting-out-method INV, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl-alcohol PCI) each in the same 20 samples demonstrated pronounced differences in RTL with lowest values with EZ1 followed by INV and PCI-isolated DNA; 2) a comparison of 307 samples from an epidemiological study showing EZ1-measurements 40% lower than INV-measurements; 3) a matching-approach of two similar non-diseased control groups including 143 pairs of subjects revealed significantly shorter RTL in EZ1 than INV-extracted DNA (0.844 ± 0.157 vs. 1.357 ± 0.242); 4) an association analysis of RTL with prevalent cardiovascular disease detected a stronger association with INV than with EZ1-extracted DNA. In summary, DNA extraction methods have a pronounced influence on the measured RTL-values. This might result in spurious or lost associations in epidemiological studies under certain circumstances.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative identification of adulteration of milk powder using DNA extracted with a novel method.

    PubMed

    Liao, J; Liu, Y F; Ku, T; Liu, M H; Huang, Y

    2017-03-01

    The extraction of high-quality DNA from processed dairy products is often the crucial step in an authentication process by PCR-based methods. In this study, we optimized a novel DNA extraction method for milk powder and used the extracted DNA for identification of milk powder based on PCR analysis. The DNA quality was assessed by amplifying target sequences from mitochondrial genes, as well as by monitoring the yield, purity, and integrity of the extracted DNA. In addition, a laboratory adulteration model of milk powder was detected by PCR-based methods (PCR and real-time PCR) using primers targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Results showed that a sufficient amount and quality of DNA could be isolated from milk powder with this method. Both PCR and real-time PCR detection of cow milk compositions in goat milk powder further confirmed the DNA extracted with this extraction method could be widely used in addressing milk powder adulterant by a PCR-based method.

  17. A high volume extraction and purification method for recovering DNA from human bone.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Pamela L; Stoljarova, Monika; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    DNA recovery, purity and overall extraction efficiency of a protocol employing a novel silica-based column, Hi-Flow(®) (Generon Ltd., Maidenhead, UK), were compared with that of a standard organic DNA extraction methodology. The quantities of DNA recovered by each method were compared by real-time PCR and quality of DNA by STR typing using the PowerPlex(®) ESI 17 Pro System (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI) on DNA from 10 human bone samples. Overall, the Hi-Flow method recovered comparable quantities of DNA ranging from 0.8ng±1 to 900ng±159 of DNA compared with the organic method ranging from 0.5ng±0.9 to 855ng±156 of DNA. Complete profiles (17/17 loci tested) were obtained for at least one of three replicates for 3/10 samples using the Hi-Flow method and from 2/10 samples with the organic method. All remaining bone samples yielded partial profiles for all replicates with both methods. Compared with a standard organic DNA isolation method, the results indicated that the Hi-Flow method provided equal or improved recovery and quality of DNA without the harmful effects of organic extraction. Moreover, larger extraction volumes (up to 20mL) can be employed with the Hi-Flow method which enabled more bone sample to be extracted at one time.

  18. High-throughput preparation methods of crude extract for robust cell-free protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong-Chan; Jewett, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Crude extract based cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful technology platform for high-throughput protein production and genetic part characterization. Unfortunately, robust preparation of highly active extracts generally requires specialized and costly equipment and can be labor and time intensive. Moreover, cell lysis procedures can be hard to standardize, leading to different extract performance across laboratories. These challenges limit new entrants to the field and new applications, such as comprehensive genome engineering programs to improve extract performance. To address these challenges, we developed a generalizable and easily accessible high-throughput crude extract preparation method for CFPS based on sonication. To validate our approach, we investigated two Escherichia coli strains: BL21 Star™ (DE3) and a K12 MG1655 variant, achieving similar productivity (defined as CFPS yield in g/L) by varying only a few parameters. In addition, we observed identical productivity of cell extracts generated from culture volumes spanning three orders of magnitude (10 mL culture tubes to 10 L fermentation). We anticipate that our rapid and robust extract preparation method will speed-up screening of genomically engineered strains for CFPS applications, make possible highly active extracts from non-model organisms, and promote a more general use of CFPS in synthetic biology and biotechnology. PMID:25727242

  19. Use of an enzyme-assisted method to improve protein extraction from olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Barberán, M; Lerma-García, M J; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F

    2015-02-15

    The improvement of protein extraction from olive leaves using an enzyme-assisted protocol has been investigated. Using a cellulase enzyme (Celluclast® 1.5L), different parameters that affect the extraction process, such as the influence and amount of organic solvent, enzyme amount, pH and extraction temperature and time, were optimised. The influence of these factors was examined using the standard Bradford assay and the extracted proteins were characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The optimum extraction parameters were: 30% acetonitrile, 5% (v/v) Celluclast® 1.5L at pH 5.0 and 55°C for 15min. Under these conditions, several protein extracts from olive leaves of different genetic variety (with a total protein amount comprised between 1.87 and 6.64mgg(-1)) were analysed and compared by SDS-PAGE, showing differences in their electrophoretic protein profiles. The developed enzyme-assisted extraction method has shown a faster extraction, higher recovery and reduced solvent usage with respect to the use of the non-enzymatic methods described in literature.

  20. Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Klancnik, Anja; Piskernik, Sasa; Jersek, Barbara; Mozina, Sonja Smole

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate diffusion and dilution methods for determining the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their mixtures. Several methods for measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a plant extract are available, but there is no standard procedure as there is for antibiotics. We tested different plant extracts, their mixtures and phenolic acids on selected gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Infantis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli) with the disk diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and macrodilution methods. The disk diffusion method was appropriate only as a preliminary screening test prior to quantitative MIC determination with dilution methods. A comparison of the results for MIC obtained by agar dilution and broth microdilution was possible only for gram-positive bacteria, and indicated the latter as the most accurate way of assessing the antimicrobial effect. The microdilution method with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) or INT (2-p-iodophenyl-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride) to indicate the viability of aerobic bacteria was found to be the best alternative approach, while only ATP determination was appropriate for microaerophilic Campylobacter spp. Using survival curves the kinetics of bacterial inactivation on plant extract exposure was followed for 24h and in this way the MIC values determined by the microdilution method were confirmed as the concentrations of extracts that inhibited bacterial growth. We suggest evaluation of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts using the broth microdilution method as a fast screening method for MIC determination and the macrodilution method at selected MIC values to confirm bacterial inactivation. Campylobacter spp. showed a similar sensitivity to plant extracts as the tested gram-positive bacteria, but S

  1. Text-in-Context: A Method for Extracting Findings in Mixed-Methods Mixed Research Synthesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. Background International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. Data source The data extraction challenges described here were encountered and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011–2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. Discussion To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. Implications for nursing The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. Conclusion This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. PMID:22924808

  2. A simple and efficient solar cell parameter extraction method from a single current-voltage curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunfu; Zhang, Jincheng; Hao, Yue; Lin, Zhenhua; Zhu, Chunxiang

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient method for the extraction of all the parameters of a solar cell from a single current-voltage (I-V) curve under the constant illumination level is proposed. With the help of the Lambert W function, the explicit analytic expression for I is obtained. By reducing the number of the parameters, the expression for I only depends on the ideality factor n, the series resistance Rs, and the shunt resistance Rsh. This analytic expression is directly used to fit the experimental data and extract the device parameters. This simple solar cell parameter extraction method can be directly applied for all kinds of solar cells whose I-V characteristics follow the single-diode model. The parameters of various solar devices including silicon solar cells, silicon solar modules, dye-sensitized solar cells, and organic solar cells with standalone, tandem, and multi-junction structures have been successfully extracted by using our proposed method.

  3. Extraction of Roof Lines from High-Resolution Images by a Grouping Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Poz, A. P.; Fernandes, V. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a method for extracting groups of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines from highresolution aerial images using corresponding Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) roof polyhedrons as initial approximations. The proposed method is based on two main steps. First, straight lines that are candidates to represent roof ridgelines and roof boundaries of a building are extracted from the aerial image. Second, a group of straight lines that represent roof boundaries and roof ridgelines of a selected building is obtained through the optimization of a Markov Random Field (MRF)-based energy function using the genetic algorithm optimization method. The formulation of this energy function considers several attributes, such as the proximity of the extracted straight lines to the corresponding projected ALS-derived roof polyhedron and the rectangularity (extracted straight lines that intersect at nearly 90°). Experimental results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  4. A method for extracting urban built-up area based on RS indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ruijiao; Li, Jiansong; Tang, Huijun

    2016-10-01

    Within administrative regions, urban built-up areas are vast stretches of constructed areas equipped with basic public facilit ies. Human act ivit ies most frequently take place within urban regions and the dynamic evolution of urbanization has caused profound variations in urban spatial structures. Conventional boundary extraction methods are complicated and require human intervention. This article innovatively proposes a vector method that combines a data-dimension compression index known as an Index-based Built -up Index (IBI) with aggregate analysis to extract vector boundaries of urban built-up areas automatically by setting a threshold value and the parameters for aggregate analysis. Datadimension compression technology is used to extract urban built-up areas using thematic bands (rather than original bands) to build indexes, which improves the precision of extraction. Areas ext racted by the methods above contains urban built-up areas, rural built-up areas, independent houses and fully bare areas. Aggregate analysis aggregates a certain range of non-adjacent plots into a new polygon section. This method has made it easy to analyze the spatial expansion of Wuhan city from 2003 to 2013. This method avoids cumbersome process es of outlining vector boundaries by artificial visual interpretation with a better working efficiency and reduced costs than other methods, which cannot accurately determine vector boundaries to an accurate degree by manual vector quantizat ion without depending on other data or expert knowledge. Compared with t raditional boundary extraction methods, this vector method is more efficient, precise, objective, and exquisite.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS...

  6. Biosensor method and system based on feature vector extraction

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Qi, Hairong [Knoxville, TN; Wang, Xiaoling [San Jose, CA

    2012-04-17

    A method of biosensor-based detection of toxins comprises the steps of providing at least one time-dependent control signal generated by a biosensor in a gas or liquid medium, and obtaining a time-dependent biosensor signal from the biosensor in the gas or liquid medium to be monitored or analyzed for the presence of one or more toxins selected from chemical, biological or radiological agents. The time-dependent biosensor signal is processed to obtain a plurality of feature vectors using at least one of amplitude statistics and a time-frequency analysis. At least one parameter relating to toxicity of the gas or liquid medium is then determined from the feature vectors based on reference to the control signal.

  7. DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Jany, Klaus Dieter

    2011-06-15

    The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels (without treatment), maize flour (mechanical treatment), canned maize (sweet corn), frozen maize (sweet corn), maize starch, extruded maize, popcorn, corn flacks, maize snacks, and bread made from corn flour (mechanical and thermal treatments). The quality and quantity of the DNA extracted from the standards, containing known percentages of GMO material and from the different food products were evaluated. For qualitative detection of the GMO varieties in foods, the GMOScreen 35S/NOS test kit was used, to screen the genetic modification in the samples. The positive samples for the 35S promoter and/or the NOS terminator were identified by the standard methods adopted by EU. All of the used methods extracted yielded good DNA quality. However, we noted that the purest DNA extract were obtained using the DNA extraction kit (Roche) and this generally was the best method for extracting DNA from most of the maize-derived foods. We have noted that the yield of DNA extracted from maize-derived foods was generally lower in the processed products. The results indicated that 17 samples were positive for the presence of 35S promoter, while 34% from the samples were positive for the genetically modified maize line Bt-176.

  8. Investigation on the coprecipitation of transuranium elements from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents. Study of the effects of waste components on decontamination from Np(IV) and Pu(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Bessonov, A.A.; Budantseva, N.A.; Gelis, A.V.; Nikonov, M.V.; Shilov, V.P.

    1997-09-01

    The third stage of the study on the homogeneous coprecipitation of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline high-level radioactive waste solutions by the Method of Appearing Reagents has been completed. Alkaline radioactive wastes exist at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The recent studies investigated the effects of neptunium chemical reductants, plutonium(IV) concentration, and the presence of bulk tank waste solution components on the decontamination from tetravalent neptunium and plutonium achieved by homogeneous coprecipitation. Data on neptunium reduction to its tetravalent state in alkaline solution of different NaOH concentrations are given. Eleven reductants were tested to find those most suited to remove neptunium, through chemical reduction, from alkaline solution by homogeneous coprecipitation. Hydrazine, VOSO{sub 4}, and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4} were found to be the most effective reductants. The rates of reduction with these reductants were comparable with the kinetics of carrier formation. Solution decontamination factors of about 400 were attained for 10{sup -6}M neptunium. Coprecipitation of plutonium(IV) with carriers obtained as products of thermal hydrolysis, redox transformations, and catalytic decomposition of [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+}, [Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]{sup 2-}, Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, KMnO{sub 4}, and Li{sub 4}UO{sub 2}(O{sub 2}){sub 3} was studied and results are described. Under optimum conditions, a 100-fold decrease of plutonium concentration was possible with each of these reagents.

  9. Review and assessment of technologies for the separation of strontium from alkaline and acidic media

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Kurath, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A literature survey has been conducted to identify and evaluate methods for the separation of strontium from acidic and alkaline media as applied to Hanford tank waste. The most promising methods of solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange are described. The following criteria were used for evaluating the separation methods: Appreciable strontium removal must be demonstrated; Strontium selectivity over bulk components must be demonstrated; The method must show promise for evolving into a practical and fairly simple process; The process should be safe to operate; The method must be robust (i.e., capable of separating strontium from various waste types); Secondary waste generation must be minimized; and The method must show resistance to radiation damage. The methods discussed did not necessarily satisfy all of the above criteria; thus, key areas requiring further development are also given for each method. Less promising solvent extraction, precipitation, and ion exchange methods were also identified; areas for potential development are included in this report.

  10. Effect of different extracting methods on quality of Chrysanthemum Morifolium Ramat. Infusion.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qian; Liang, Yuerong; Lu, Jianliang

    2007-01-01

    The flower of Chrysanthemum Morifolium Ramat. (CM) is a useful food and folk medicine in China. Effects of Chrysanthemum Morifolium extracting (CME) conditions, including extraction temperature, extraction time and the ratio of flower to water on infusion quality were investigated. The extractability, liquor color differences and the major flavonoids of luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside and luteolin of various CME methods were evaluated. The results indicated that CME temperature was the most important factors affecting quality of CM infusion. Based on the extractability and chemical compositions, the best CME conditions were the 90 to approximately 100 degrees C, 20-30 min and the ratio of flower to water of 1:40 (w/v). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of Chrysanthemum Morifolium chemical compositions including luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside and luteolin was also discussed in the present paper.

  11. Differential efficiency among DNA extraction methods influences detection of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Bletz, M C; Rebollar, E A; Harris, R N

    2015-02-10

    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is responsible for massive declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide. The most common method for detecting Bd is quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR is a highly sensitive detection technique, but its ability to determine the presence and accurately quantify the amount of Bd is also contingent on the efficiency of the DNA extraction method used prior to PCR. Using qPCR, we compared the extraction efficiency of 3 different extraction methods commonly used for Bd detection across a range of zoospore quantities: PrepMan Ultra Reagent, Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue Kit, and Mobio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. We show that not all extraction methods led to successful detection of Bd for the low zoospore quantities and that there was variation in the estimated zoospore equivalents among the methods, which demonstrates that these methods have different extraction efficiencies. These results highlight the importance of considering the extraction method when comparing across studies. The Qiagen DNeasy kit had the highest efficiency. We also show that replicated estimates of less than 1 zoospore can result from known zoospore concentrations; therefore, such results should be considered when obtained from field data. Additionally, we discuss the implications of our findings for interpreting previous studies and for conducting future Bd surveys. It is imperative to use the most efficient DNA extraction method in tandem with the highly sensitive qPCR technique in order to accurately diagnose the presence of Bd as well as other pathogens.

  12. A standardized method for sampling and extraction methods for quantifying microplastics in beach sand.

    PubMed

    Besley, Aiken; Vijver, Martina G; Behrens, Paul; Bosker, Thijs

    2017-01-15

    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the environment, are frequently ingested by organisms, and may potentially cause harm. A range of studies have found significant levels of microplastics in beach sand. However, there is a considerable amount of methodological variability among these studies. Methodological variation currently limits comparisons as there is no standard procedure for sampling or extraction of microplastics. We identify key sampling and extraction procedures across the literature through a detailed review. We find that sampling depth, sampling location, number of repeat extractions, and settling times are the critical parameters of variation. Next, using a case-study we determine whether and to what extent these differences impact study outcomes. By investigating the common practices identified in the literature with the case-study, we provide a standard operating procedure for sampling and extracting microplastics from beach sand.

  13. GC-MS evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-10-15

    Bioactive compounds of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil, using different media have been tentatively identified with the aid of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrodistillation was complemented using weakly acidic and alkaline media for the oil extraction. Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was also used. Analyses of the oils revealed the presence of 7, 16, 22, and 15 compounds in the water-distilled (WD), microwave-distilled (MD), acid-distilled (AD), and base-distilled (BD), essential oils, respectively. Total yield of the volatile fractions was 0.73%, 0.64%, 0.70%, and 0.45%, respectively. Citral was found to be the major component, the base extraction having the highest content. This was followed by 2-isopropenyl-5-methylhex-4-enal, p-cymene, and 2-thujene. The antimicrobial, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities and assessment of medicinal/nutritional uses of the essential oils are subjects of future studies.

  14. Comparison study of feature extraction methods in structural damage pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjia; Chen, Bo; Swartz, R. Andrew

    2011-04-01

    This paper compares the performance of various feature extraction methods applied to structural sensor measurements acquired in-situ, from a decommissioned bridge under realistic damage scenarios. Three feature extraction methods are applied to sensor data to generate feature vectors for normal and damaged structure data patterns. The investigated feature extraction methods include identification of both time domain methods as well as frequency domain methods. The evaluation of the feature extraction methods is performed by examining distance values among different patterns, distance values among feature vectors in the same pattern, and pattern recognition success rate. The test data used in the comparison study are from the System Identification to Monitor Civil Engineering Structures (SIMCES) Z24 Bridge damage detection tests, a rigorous instrumentation campaign that recorded the dynamic performance of a concrete box-girder bridge under progressively increasing damage scenarios. A number of progressive damage test case data sets, including undamaged cases and pier settlement cases (different depths), are used to test the separation of feature vectors among different patterns and the pattern recognition success rate for different feature extraction methods is reported.

  15. A method of building information extraction based on mathematical morphology and multiscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing-wen; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Zi-ping; Xue, Long-li; Yin, Shou-qiang; Zhou, Song

    2015-12-01

    In view of monitoring the changes of buildings on Earth's surface ,by analyzing the distribution characteristics of building in remote sensing image, combined with multi-scale in image segmentation and the advantages of mathematical morphology, this paper proposes a multi-scale combined with mathematical morphology of high resolution remote sensing image segmentation method, and uses the multiple fuzzy classification method and the shadow of auxiliary method to extract information building, With the comparison of k-means classification, and the traditional maximum likelihood classification method, the results of experiment object based on multi-scale combined with mathematical morphology of image segmentation and extraction method, can accurately extract the structure of the information is more clear classification data, provide the basis for the intelligent monitoring of earth data and theoretical support.

  16. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

  17. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, N.; Torikai, E.; Kawami, Y.; Takenaka, H.

    Results are presented of experimental studies of possible separators and electrodes for use in advanced, high-temperature, high-pressure alkaline water electrolyzers. Material evaluations in alkaline water electrolyzers at temperatures from 100 to 120 C have shown a new type polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with potassium titanate to be the most promising when the separator is prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of a porous PFTE membrane impregnated with hydrated titanium oxide. Measurements of cell voltages in 30% KOH at current densities from 5 to 100 A/sq dm at temperatures up to 120 C with nickel electrodes of various structures have shown the foamed nickel electrode, with an average pore size of 1-1.5 mm, to have the best performance. When the foamed nickel is coated by fine powdered nickel, carbonyl nickel or Raney nickel to increase electrode surface areas, even lower cell voltages were found, indicating better performance.

  18. Procyanidin composition of selected fruits and fruit byproducts is affected by extraction method and variety.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2009-10-14

    Fruits and fruit byproducts are rich sources of polyphenols, including procyanidins, which are known to have numerous potential health benefits. This study investigated if varietal differences existed in the procyanidin composition of grape seed and if soaking in extraction solvent overnight prior to extraction improved the recovery of procyanidins from grape seed, grape pomace, and blueberry and cranberry powders. Riesling contained the highest amount of procyanidins, including the lower molecular weight monomers and dimers, followed by Chardonnay (60%), whereas Merlot contained much lower levels (14%) of individual and total procyanidins. A modified method of extraction whereby selected fruits and fruit byproducts were soaked in the extraction solvent overnight before the extraction process was begun increased procyanidins extracted by 24-100% from grape seeds and by 0-30% with berry procyanidin sources. The results indicate a wide variation in the procyanidin contents among different varieties of grape seeds that could have implications in the selection of procyanidin-rich germplasm. Soaking samples in the extraction solvent for 16 h resulted in increased procyanidins extracted and thus higher calculated concentrations in the food samples tested.

  19. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water

    PubMed Central

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants. PMID:27366749

  20. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants.

  1. An Efficient Extraction Method for Fragrant Volatiles from Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiuping; Jin, Xinyi; Zhu, Xinliang; Lin, Tongxiang; Hao, Zhilong; Yang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The sweet smell of aroma of Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. is releasing while the flowers are blooming. Although components of volatile oil have been extensively studied, there are problematic issues, such as low efficiency of yield, flavour distortion. Here, the subcritical fluid extraction (SFE) was performed to extract fragrant volatiles from activated carbon that had absorbed the aroma of jasmine flowers. This novel method could effectively obtain main aromatic compounds with quality significantly better than solvent extraction (SE). Based on the analysis data with response surface methodology (RSM), we optimized the extraction conditions which consisted of a temperature of 44°C, a solvent-to-material ratio of 3.5:1, and an extraction time of 53 min. Under these conditions, the extraction yield was 4.91%. Furthermore, the key jasmine essence oil components, benzyl acetate and linalool, increase 7 fold and 2 fold respectively which lead to strong typical smell of the jasmine oil. The new method can reduce spicy components which lead to the essential oils smelling sweeter. Thus, the quality of the jasmine essence oil was dramatically improved and yields based on the key component increased dramatically. Our results provide a new effective technique for extracting fragrant volatiles from jasmine flowers.

  2. Extraction methods for recovery of volatile organic compounds from fortified dry soils

    SciTech Connect

    Minnich, M.M.; Zimmerman, J.H.; Schumacher, B.A.

    1996-09-01

    Recovery of 8 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dry soils, each fortified at 800 ng/g soil, was studied in relation to the extraction method and time of extraction. Extraction procedures studied on 2 desiccator-dried soils were modifications of EPA low- and high-level purge-and-trap extractions (SW-846 Method 5030A): treatment 1, unmodified low-level procedure; treatment 2, 18 h water presoak followed by low-level procedure; treatment 3, 24 h methanol extract at room temperature followed by high-level procedure; and treatment 4, 24 h methanol extract at 65{degrees}C followed by high-level procedure. VOC recoveries from replicate soil samples increased in the treatment order 1 through 4. With Charleston soil (8% clay and 3.8% organic carbon), highly significant differences (p {le} 0.001) in recoveries among treatments were observed for trichloroethene (TCE), tetrachloroethene (PCE), toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-xylene, with 2- to 3-fold increased recoveries between treatments 1 and 3. With Hayesville soil (32% clay and 0.2% organic carbon), significant improvements (p{le}0.05) in recoveries of toluene, ethylbenzene, o-oxylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, TCE, and PCE were observed for heated methanol (treatment 4) rather than water extraction (treatment 1), but the increases were less than 2-fold. 19 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Engineering challenges of ocean alkalinity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, T.; Renforth, P.

    2012-04-01

    The addition of calcium oxide (CaO) to the ocean as a means of enhancing the capacity of the ocean as a carbon sink was first proposed by Haroon Kheshgi in 1995. Calcium oxide is created by heating high purity limestone in a kiln to temperatures of approximately 1000°C. Addition of this material to the ocean draws carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere (approximately 1 tonne of CaO could sequester 1.3 tonnes of CO2). Abiotic carbonate precipitation is inhibited in the surface ocean. This is a carbon and energy expensive process, where approximately 0.8 tonnes of CO2 are produced at a point source for every tonne sequestered. The feasibility of ocean alkalinity enhancement requires capture and storage of the point source of CO2. We present details of a feasibility study of the engineering challenges of Kheshgi's method focusing on the potential scalability and costs of the proposed process. To draw down a PgC per year would require the extraction and processing of ~6Pg of limestone per year, which is similar in scale to the current coal industry. Costs are estimated at ~USD30-40 per tonne of CO2 sequestered through the process, which is favourable to comparative processes. Kheshgi, H. (1995) Energy 20 (9) 915-922

  4. New method to enhance the extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica using a novel ultrasonic extraction system by determining optimum ultrasonic frequency.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jianqing; Qu, Baida; Liu, Da; Zheng, Naiqin

    2015-11-01

    A new method has been proposed for enhancing extraction yield of rutin from Sophora japonica, in which a novel ultrasonic extraction system has been developed to perform the determination of optimum ultrasonic frequency by a two-step procedure. This study has systematically investigated the influence of a continuous frequency range of 20-92 kHz on rutin yields. The effects of different operating conditions on rutin yields have also been studied in detail such as solvent concentration, solvent to solid ratio, ultrasound power, temperature and particle size. A higher extraction yield was obtained at the ultrasonic frequency of 60-62 kHz which was little affected under other extraction conditions. Comparative studies between existing methods and the present method were done to verify the effectiveness of this method. Results indicated that the new extraction method gave a higher extraction yield compared with existing ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and soxhlet extraction (SE). Thus, the potential use of this method may be promising for extraction of natural materials on an industrial scale in the future.

  5. Comparison of QIAGEN automated nucleic acid extraction methods for CMV quantitative PCR testing.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steve; Seet, Henrietta; Khan, Yasmeen; Wright, Carolyn; Nadarajah, Rohan

    2010-04-01

    We examined the effect of nucleic acid extraction methods on the analytic characteristics of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for cytomegalovirus (CMV). Human serum samples were extracted with 2 automated instruments (BioRobot EZ1 and QIAsymphony SP, QIAGEN, Valencia, CA) and CMV PCR results compared with those of pp65 antigenemia testing. Both extraction methods yielded results that were comparably linear and precise, whereas the QIAsymphony SP had a slightly lower limit of detection (1.92 log(10) copies/mL vs 2.26 log(10) copies/mL). In both cases, PCR was more sensitive than CMV antigen detection, detecting CMV viremia in 12% (EZ1) and 21% (QIAsymphony) of antigen-negative specimens. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using 2 different extraction techniques to yield results within 0.5 log(10) copies/mL of the mean value, a level that would allow for clinical comparison between different laboratory assays.

  6. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  7. Comparison and optimization of methods for the simultaneous extraction of DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vorreiter, Fränze; Richter, Silke; Peter, Michel; Baumann, Sven; von Bergen, Martin; Tomm, Janina M

    2016-09-01

    The challenge of performing a time-resolved comprehensive analysis of molecular systems has led to the quest to optimize extraction methods. When the size of a biological sample is limited, there is demand for the simultaneous extraction of molecules representing the four areas of "omics": genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we optimized a protocol for the simultaneous extraction of DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites and compared it with two existing protocols. Our optimization comprised the addition of a methanol/chloroform metabolite purification before the separation of DNA/RNA and proteins. Extracted DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites were quantitatively and/or qualitatively analyzed. Of the three methods, only the newly developed protocol yielded all biomolecule classes of adequate quantity and quality.

  8. A method for the extraction and quantitation of phycoerythrin from algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of a new technique for the extraction and quantitation of phycoerythrin (PHE) from algal samples is described. Results of analysis of four extracts representing three PHE types from algae including cryptomonad and cyanophyte types are presented. The method of extraction and an equation for quantitation are given. A graph showing the relationship of concentration and fluorescence units that may be used with samples fluorescing around 575-580 nm (probably dominated by cryptophytes in estuarine waters) and 560 nm (dominated by cyanophytes characteristics of the open ocean) is provided.

  9. Selective enrichment of phenols from coal liquefaction oil by solid phase extraction method

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, M.; Feng, J.

    2009-07-01

    This study focuses on the solid phase extraction method for the enrichment and separation of phenol from coal liquefaction oil. The phenols' separation efficiency was compared on different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, and the effect of solvents with different polarity and solubility parameter on amino-bonded silica was compared for selection of optimal elution solution. The result showed that amino-bonded silica has the highest selectivity and best extraction capability due to two factors, weak anion exchange adsorption and polar attraction adsorption.

  10. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

  11. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-03-07

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

  12. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid--liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers.

  13. Evaluation of extraction methods for hexavalent chromium determination in dusts, ashes, and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the difficulties in performing speciation analyses on solid samples is finding a suitable extraction method. Traditional methods for extraction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in soils, such as SW846 Method 3060A, can be tedious and are not always compatible with some determination methods. For example, the phosphate and high levels of carbonate and magnesium present in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 3060A digestion for Cr(VI) were found to be incompatible with the High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) detection method used by our laboratory. Modification of Method 3060A by eliminating the use of the phosphate buffer provided improved performance with the detection method, however dilutions are still necessary to achieve good chromatographic separation and detection of Cr(VI). An ultrasonic extraction method using a 1 mM Na2CO3 - 9 mM NaHCO3 buffer solution, adapted from Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Method ID215, has been used with good results for the determination of Cr(VI) in air filters. The average recovery obtained for BCR-545 - Welding Dust Loaded on Filter (IRMM, Belgium) using this method was 99 percent (1.2 percent relative standard deviation) with no conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during the extraction process. This ultrasonic method has the potential for use with other sample matrices, such as ashes and soils. Preliminary investigations using NIST 2701 (Hexavalent Chromium in Contaminated Soil) loaded onto quartz filters showed promising results with approximately 90 percent recovery of the certified Cr(VI) value. Additional testing has been done using NIST 2701 and NIST 2700 using different presentation methods. Extraction efficiency of bulk presentation, where small portions of the sample are added to the bottom of the extraction vessel, will be compared with supported presentation, where small portions of the sample are loaded onto a

  14. Simple method for refining arabinan polysaccharides by alcohol extraction of the prune, Prunus domestica L.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yukari; Mizukawa, Hitomi; Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Ikami, Takao; Kato, Koji; Yabe, Tomio

    2013-01-01

    L-Arabinose is a useful sugar in the food industry. We demonstrate here simple methods for refining arabinan polysaccharides by alcohol extraction from prune, Prunus domestica L., as a source of L-arabinose. Alcohol-soluble polysaccharides were purified from a solution of prune extracted by 80% ethanol. After fractionating the polysaccharides by ion-exchange chromatography, arabinans were identified as mainly constituted by (1→5)-linked arabinofuranosyl units.

  15. A simple digestion method with a Lefort aqua regia solution for diatom extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huipin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Sunlin; Wang, Yuzhong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yanji

    2015-01-01

    Presence of diatoms in tissues has been considered as a significant sign of drowning. However, there are limitations in the present extraction methods. We developed a new digestion method using the Lefort aqua regia solution (3:1 nitric acid to hydrochloric acid) for diatom extraction and evaluated the digestive capability, diatom destruction, and diatoms' recovery of this new method. The kidney tissues from rabbit mixed with water rich in diatoms were treated by the Lefort aqua regia digestion method (n = 10) and the conventional acid digestion method (n = 10). The results showed that the digestive capability of Lefort aqua regia digestion method was superior to conventional acid digestion method (p < 0.01); the structure of diatom remained almost intact; and the recovery of diatom was comparable to the conventional acid digestion method (p > 0.05). The Lefort aqua regia reagent is an improvement over the conventional acid digestion for recovery of diatoms from tissue samples.

  16. Pressurized liquid extraction as a sample preparation method for the analysis of isoflavones in pulses.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Zamarreño, María Milagros; Pérez-Martín, Lara; Bustamante-Rangel, Myriam; Carabias-Martínez, Rita

    2012-08-01

    In this work, we describe a rapid and simple analytical method that exploits pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and liquid chromatography with diode array detection for the determination of isoflavones in samples of Spanish pulses. Confirmation of the analytes present was performed using ion-trap mass spectrometry. To optimize the PLE extraction, variables such as the dispersing agent, type of solvent and sample amount, and the experimental parameters, such as temperature and the number of extraction cycles, were studied. Separation was carried out using a reverse-phase C18 with polar endcapping as the stationary phase and acetonitrile/water with 0.2 % of formic acid, under a gradient regime, as the mobile phase. Optimal extraction of formononetin and biochanin-A from chickpeas with PLE was achieved using Hydromatrix as a dispersant agent, methanol/water (50:50), a temperature of 90 °C, and three cycles. The same optimal conditions-except methanol/water (75:25)-for solvent extraction were obtained for the extraction of daidzin, genistin, and formononetin from lentils. Recoveries ranged from 97 to 110 %, and standard deviations lower than 20 % were obtained. The contents obtained for daidzin in lentils using the proposed method were not significantly different from those obtained using another official method of analysis.

  17. Optimizing of a protein extraction method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteome analysis using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rabodoarivelo, Marie Sylvianne; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Rasolofo, Voahangy; Martin, Anandi

    2016-10-27

    A critical step in proteomic analyses comprises the implementation of a reliable cell lysis method with high yields of qualitative proteins. In Mycobacteria, the protein extraction step is often hampered by the thick waxy cell wall which is rich in mycolic acids. Harsh disruption techniques to release proteins from the cells are thus required. Here, we demonstrate an optimized protein extraction procedure for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mbt) that results in protein extracts that are useful for all currently used proteomics platforms, including gel and LC-MS based strategies. We compared the effectiveness of using both thiourea and urea and/or SDS and DTT in the solubilization buffer, in combination or not with sonication and/or bead beating. After some preliminary optimization steps on fast-growing Mbt-like organisms, namely Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium fortuitum, the final protein extraction protocol was tested on M. tuberculosis. Based on the concentrations of the proteins recovered from each of the tested methods and on the quality of the extracted proteins as evaluated by SDS PAGE, we propose a lysis buffer that contains both thiourea and urea, in combination with two mechanical cell disruption methods: sonication and bead beating. The optimized protocol results in protein extracts that are useful in M. tuberculosis proteomics studies based on any proteomics strategy or platform.

  18. Evaluation of four different DNA extraction methods in coagulase-negative staphylococci clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Caio Fernando de; Paim, Thiago Galvão da Silva; Reiter, Keli Cristine; Rieger, Alexandre; D'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2014-01-01

    Currently there are several methods to extract bacterial DNA based on different principles. However, the amount and the quality of the DNA obtained by each one of those methods is highly variable and microorganism dependent, as illustrated by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) which have a thick cell wall that is difficult to lyse. This study was designed to compare the quality and the amount of CoNS DNA, extracted by four different techniques: two in-house protocols and two commercial kits. DNA amount and quality determination was performed through spectrophotometry. The extracted DNA was also analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and by PCR. 267 isolates of CoNS were used in this study. The column method and thermal lyses showed better results with regard to DNA quality (mean ratio of A260/280 = 1.95) and average concentration of DNA (), respectively. All four methods tested provided appropriate DNA for PCR amplification, but with different yields. DNA quality is important since it allows the application of a large number of molecular biology techniques, and also it's storage for a longer period of time. In this sense the extraction method based on an extraction column presented the best results for CoNS.

  19. Comparison of Different Protein Extraction Methods for Gel-Based Proteomic Analysis of Ganoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R; Saidi, Noor Baity; Usuldin, Siti Rokhiyah Ahmad; Hussin, Siti Nahdatul Isnaini Said; Yusoff, Noornabeela Md; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-04-01

    Ganoderma species are a group of fungi that have the ability to degrade lignin polymers and cause severe diseases such as stem and root rot and can infect economically important plants and perennial crops such as oil palm, especially in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Unfortunately, very little is known about the complex interplay between oil palm and Ganoderma in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Proteomic technologies are simple yet powerful tools in comparing protein profile and have been widely used to study plant-fungus interaction. A critical step to perform a good proteome research is to establish a method that gives the best quality and a wide coverage of total proteins. Despite the availability of various protein extraction protocols from pathogenic fungi in the literature, no single extraction method was found suitable for all types of pathogenic fungi. To develop an optimized protein extraction protocol for 2-DE gel analysis of Ganoderma spp., three previously reported protein extraction protocols were compared: trichloroacetic acid, sucrose and phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol. The third method was found to give the most reproducible gels and highest protein concentration. Using the later method, a total of 10 protein spots (5 from each species) were successfully identified. Hence, the results from this study propose phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol as the most effective protein extraction method for 2-DE proteomic studies of Ganoderma spp.

  20. Lipid nutritional value of legumes: Evaluation of different extraction methods and determination of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Giusti, Federica; Ballini, Roberto; Sagratini, Gianni; Vila-Donat, Pilar; Vittori, Sauro; Fiorini, Dennis

    2016-02-01

    This study sought to contribute to the assessment of the nutritional properties of legumes by determining the fatty acid (FA) composition of 29 legume samples after the evaluation of nine extraction methods. The Folch method and liquid-solid extraction with hexane/isopropanol or with hexane/acetone were investigated, as was the effect of previous hydration of samples. Soxhlet extractions were also evaluated with different solvent mixtures. Results on FA composition using the hexane/isopropanol extraction method were the same in terms of FA composition of the Folch method, but the extraction yield was only around 20-40% of that of the Folch method preceded by hydration. Some types of legumes showed particularly interesting values for the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) n-6/n-3, such as lentils, with the value of 4.0, and Azuki beans, at 3.2. In lentils, the PUFAs% ranged from 42.0% to 57.4%, while in Azuki beans it was 57.5%.

  1. Exploring microbial diversity in volcanic environments: a review of methods in DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Aude; Cockell, Charles S

    2007-07-01

    The last decade has been marked by a large number of studies focused on understanding the distribution of microorganisms in volcanic environments. These studies are motivated by the desire to elucidate how the geochemically extreme conditions of such environments can influence microbial diversity both on the surface and in the subsurface of the Earth. The exploration of microbial community diversity has generally not relied on culture-dependent methods, but has been carried out using environmental DNA extraction. Because of the large diversity of chemically and physically complex samples, extracting DNA from volcanic environments is technically challenging. In view of the emerging literature, and our own experience in the optimisation of methods for DNA extraction from volcanic materials, it is timely to provide a methodological comparison. This review highlights and discusses new insights and methods published on DNA extraction methods from volcanic samples, considering the different volcanic environments. A description of a recent method for DNA extraction from basalt and obsidian glass rock samples from Iceland is included. Finally, we discuss these approaches in the wider context of modern work to understand the microbial diversity of volcanic environments.

  2. Comments on “A new method for phase extraction from a single fringe pattern”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, José A.

    2007-02-01

    We comment on the recent paper by Tay et al. [Opt. Commun. 239 (2004) 251], in which a phase extraction method from a single fringe pattern is proposed. Their claimed "new method" is based on a couple of assumptions on the behavior of the fringe pattern, which are closely related to the well-known Fourier-transform technique.

  3. Development of a Simultaneous Extraction and Cleanup Method for Pyrethroid Pesticides from Indoor House Dust Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    An efficient and reliable analytical method was developed for the sensitive and selective quantification of pyrethroid pesticides (PYRs) in house dust samples. The method is based on selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) of the dust-bound PYRs into dichloromethane (DCM) wi...

  4. Comparison of six simple methods for extracting ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA from Toxocara and Toxascaris nematodes.

    PubMed

    Mikaeili, F; Kia, E B; Sharbatkhori, M; Sharifdini, M; Jalalizand, N; Heidari, Z; Zarei, Z; Stensvold, C R; Mirhendi, H

    2013-06-01

    Six simple methods for extraction of ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA from Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina were compared by evaluating the presence, appearance and intensity of PCR products visualized on agarose gels and amplified from DNA extracted by each of the methods. For each species, two isolates were obtained from the intestines of their respective hosts: T. canis and T. leonina from dogs, and T. cati from cats. For all isolates, total DNA was extracted using six different methods, including grinding, boiling, crushing, beating, freeze-thawing and the use of a commercial kit. To evaluate the efficacy of each method, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene were chosen as representative markers for ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA, respectively. Among the six DNA extraction methods, the beating method was the most cost effective for all three species, followed by the commercial kit. Both methods produced high intensity bands on agarose gels and were characterized by no or minimal smear formation, depending on gene target; however, beating was less expensive. We therefore recommend the beating method for studies where costs need to be kept at low levels.

  5. COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION/LARGE VOLUME INJECTION PROCEDURES FOR METHOD 8270

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two solid phase (SPE) and one traditional continuous liquid-liquid extraction method are compared for analysis of Method 8270 SVOCs. Productivity parameters include data quality, sample volume, analysis time and solvent waste.

    One SPE system, unique in the U.S., uses aut...

  6. Review Paper on Cell Membrane Electroporation of Microalgae using Electric Field Treatment Method for Microalgae Lipid Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannes, C.; Sipaut, C. S.; Dayou, J.; Yasir, S. M.; Mansa, R. F.

    2015-04-01

    The paper reviews the recent studies on the lipid extraction of microalgae that mainly highlighted on the cell disruption method using variety of microalgae species. Selection of cell disruption method and devices are crucial in order to achieve the highest extraction percentage of lipid and other valuable intracellular (proteins, carotenoids and chlorophylls) from microalgae cell. Pulsed electric field (PEF) and electrochemical lysis methods were found to be potential for enhancing the extraction efficiencies either conducted in single step extraction or used as pre-treatment followed by conventional extraction method. The PEF technology capable to extract lipid as high as 75%. While, electrochemical lysis treatment capable to extract lipid approximately 93% using Stainless Steel (SS) and Ti/IrO2 as the cathode and anode electrode respectively. PEF technology and electrochemical lysis are still considered to be a new method for microalgae lipid extraction and further investigation can still be done for better improvement of the system.

  7. A single-step method for rapid extraction of total lipids from green microalgae.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Martin; Gentili, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae produce a wide range of lipid compounds of potential commercial interest. Total lipid extraction performed by conventional extraction methods, relying on the chloroform-methanol solvent system are too laborious and time consuming for screening large numbers of samples. In this study, three previous extraction methods devised by Folch et al. (1957), Bligh and Dyer (1959) and Selstam and Öquist (1985) were compared and a faster single-step procedure was developed for extraction of total lipids from green microalgae. In the single-step procedure, 8 ml of a 2∶1 chloroform-methanol (v/v) mixture was added to fresh or frozen microalgal paste or pulverized dry algal biomass contained in a glass centrifuge tube. The biomass was manually suspended by vigorously shaking the tube for a few seconds and 2 ml of a 0.73% NaCl water solution was added. Phase separation was facilitated by 2 min of centrifugation at 350 g and the lower phase was recovered for analysis. An uncharacterized microalgal polyculture and the green microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus, Selenastrum minutum, and Chlorella protothecoides were subjected to the different extraction methods and various techniques of biomass homogenization. The less labour intensive single-step procedure presented here allowed simultaneous recovery of total lipid extracts from multiple samples of green microalgae with quantitative yields and fatty acid profiles comparable to those of the previous methods. While the single-step procedure is highly correlated in lipid extractability (r² = 0.985) to the previous method of Folch et al. (1957), it allowed at least five times higher sample throughput.

  8. Comparing DNA extraction methods for analysis of botanical materials found in anti-diabetic supplements.

    PubMed

    Llongueras, Jose P; Nair, Saraswathy; Salas-Leiva, Dayana; Schwarzbach, Andrea E

    2013-03-01

    A comparative performance evaluation of DNA extraction methods from anti-diabetic botanical supplements using various commercial kits was conducted, to determine which produces the best quality DNA suitable for PCR amplification, sequencing and species identification. All plant materials involved were of suboptimal quality showing various levels of degradation and therefore representing real conditions for testing herbal supplements. Eight different DNA extraction methods were used to isolate genomic DNA from 13 medicinal plant products. Two methods for evaluation, DNA concentration measurements that included absorbance ratios as well as PCR amplifiability, were used to determine quantity and quality of extracted DNA. We found that neither DNA concentrations nor commonly used UV absorbance ratio measurements at A(260)/A(280) between 1.7 and 1.9 are suitable for globally predicting PCR success in these plant samples, and that PCR amplifiablity itself was the best indicator of extracted product quality. However, our results suggest that A(260)/A(280) ratios below about 1.3 and above 2.3 indicated a DNA quality too poor to amplify. Therefore, A(260)/A(280) measurements are not useful to identify samples that likely will amplify but can be used to exclude samples that likely will not amplify reducing the cost for unnecessarily subjecting samples to PCR. The two Nucleospin(®) plant II kit extraction methods produced the most pure and amplifiable genomic DNA extracts. Our results suggest that there are clear, discernable differences between extraction methods for low quality plant samples in terms of producing contamination-free, high-quality genomic DNA to be used for further analysis.

  9. An Enhanced Method Using MODFLOW to simulate Groundwater Extraction/Injection through Wells Penetrating Multiple Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teasdale, E.; Zhang, J.; Parrish, K.

    2007-12-01

    In a MODFLOW simulation of groundwater extraction and/or injection through a well penetrating multiple aquifers, the conventional method is to represent this type of well with a group of single-layer wells, each open to one of the model layers penetrated by the multi-layer wells Each of the single-layer wells have an individual rate specified for each stress period. Using this method, the total extraction and/or injection rate must be allocated among the individual layers. A common method of doing this is to divide the extraction and/or injection rates in proportion to the layer transmissivities. This partitioning has to be implemented by the user externally to MODFLOW for each multi-layer well and for each stress period in the MODFLOW well package. This approach fails to take into account the interconnection between various layers penetrated by the well, and is thus an incomplete solution to the problem. In both theory and practice, the extraction and/or injection rates through those well-penetrated aquifers also depend on the storativity and hydraulic head. Using transmissivity alone to partition the extraction and/or injection rates is only appropriate if both storativity and hydraulic head are very close for all well-penetrated aquifers. In cases where the top well-penetrated aquifer is unconfined, this method does not work because the storativity in an unconfined aquifer is often much higher than that of a confined aquifer. In addition, for transient flow simulations, the transmissivity of an unconfined aquifer changes with time due to the groundwater table variations resulting from extraction and/or injection (induced by constant or time-variable extraction/injection rates) or other time-variable boundary conditions such as seasonal groundwater recharge. This paper presents an enhanced method to resolve the above problem. With the new method, only the total extraction and/or injection rate of the well needs to be specified, and MODFLOW automatically allocates

  10. Rose hip (Rosa canina L.) oil obtained from waste hip seeds by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Szentmihályi, Klára; Vinkler, Péter; Lakatos, Béla; Illés, Vendel; Then, Mária

    2002-04-01

    From the rose hip seed, which is generally a waste material, valuable oil can be obtained for medicinal use. Various extraction methods have been compared: traditional solvent extraction with ultrasound-, microwave-, sub- and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA: oleic-, linoleic- and linolenic acid; 16.25-22.11%, 35.94-54.75%, 20.29-26.48%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA:linoleic- and linolenic acid) content were over 90% and 60% in the recovered oils. The oils contained different amounts of metals. The concentration of some metals, particularly iron in microwave oil (27.11 microg g(-1)) is undesirable from the aspect of stability. By traditional solvent extraction, oil was obtained in 4.85 wt/wt%. Subcritical FE appeared to be the best method for the recovery of rose hip oil with highest oil yield (6.68 wt/wt%), carotene- (145.3 microg g(-1)) and linoleic acid content (54.75%). Supercritical FE without organic solvent is suitable for mild recovery of oil. The oil was rich in UFA and PUFA (92.7% and 76.25%) and contained the lowest amount of carotene and pheophytin (36.3 and 45.8 microg g(-1)). Oil yield in most new extraction methods (microwave extraction, super- and subcritical FE) was higher than in the case of traditional Soxhlet extraction. The main benefit of supercritical FE with CO2 is the solvent free oil while in the case of other extractions evaporation of the solvent is needed. Although the content of bioactive compounds in oils was different, all oils may be appropriate for medicinal use.

  11. Comparison of methods for high quantity and quality genomic DNA extraction from raw cow milk.

    PubMed

    Usman, T; Yu, Y; Liu, C; Fan, Z; Wang, Y

    2014-04-29

    Isolation of sufficient quantities of high quality DNA is a prerequisite for molecular studies. Milk somatic cells can be used; however, inhibitors such as fats and proteins make milk a difficult medium for extracting large amounts of quality DNA. We optimized, evaluated and compared three methods, Modified Nucleospin Blood Kit method, Modified TianGen Kit method and Phenol-Chloroform method for genomic DNA extraction from bovine milk. Individual cows' milk and bulk milk samples were collected from a China agricultural university dairy farm. Genomic DNA extracted from each milk sample by the three methods was evaluated for quantity and purity by spectrophotometry and gel electrophoresis, as well as PCR and sequencing. All the three methods were found suitable for genomic DNA isolation from bovine milk, PCR applications, and sequencing. Comparing the three methods, we found that the Modified Nucleospin Blood Kit method was significantly better than the Phenol-Chloroform method in terms of quantity as well as quality (amount, concentration, 260/280 nm and 260/230 nm absorbance ratio), whereas, the Modified TianGen Kit method was more efficient than the Phenol-Chloroform method and cheaper than the Modified Nucleospine Blood Kit method; it yielded reasonably good quantities of good quality DNA and would be suitable for large-scale genotyping of lactating cows.

  12. Influence of Leaf Litter Moisture on the Efficiency of the Winkler Method for Extracting Ants

    PubMed Central

    Delsinne, Thibaut D.; Arias-Penna, Tania M.

    2012-01-01

    The Winkler extraction is one of the two fundamental sampling techniques of the standardized “Ants of the Leaf Litter” protocol, which aims to allow qualitative and quantitative comparisons of ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) assemblages. To achieve this objective, it is essential that the standard 48—hour extraction provides a reliable picture of the assemblages under study. Here, we tested to what extent the efficiency of the ant extraction is affected by the initial moisture content of the leaf litter sample. In an Ecuadorian mountain rainforest, the leaf litter present under rainfall—excluded and rainfall—allowed plots was collected, its moisture content measured, and its ant fauna extracted with a mini—Winkler apparatus for a 48—hour and a 96—hour period. The efficiency of the Winkler method to extract ant individuals over a 48—hour period decreased with the moisture content of the leaf litter sample. However, doubling the extraction time did not improve the estimations of the ant species richness, composition, and relative abundance. Although the moisture content of the leaf litter slightly affected the ant sampling, our results indicated that a 48—hour Winkler extraction, as recommended by the “Ants of the Leaf Litter” protocol, is sufficient to allow reliable comparisons of ant assemblages. PMID:22962850

  13. Prediction of methylmercury accumulation in rice grains by chemical extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dai-Wen; Zhong, Huan; Zeng, Qi-Long; Yin, Ying

    2015-04-01

    To explore the possibility of using chemical extraction methods to predict phytoavailability/bioaccumulation of soil-bound MeHg, MeHg extractions by three widely-used extractants (CaCl2, DTPA, and (NH4)2S2O3) were compared with MeHg accumulation in rice grains. Despite of variations in characteristics of different soils, MeHg extracted by (NH4)2S2O3 (highly affinitive to MeHg) correlated well with grain MeHg levels. Thus (NH4)2S2O3 extraction, solubilizing not only weakly-bound and but also strongly-bound MeHg, may provide a measure of 'phytoavailable MeHg pool' for rice plants. Besides, a better prediction of grain MeHg levels was obtained when growing condition of rice plants was also considered. However, MeHg extracted by CaCl2 or DTPA, possibly quantifying 'exchangeable MeHg pool' or 'weakly-complexed MeHg pool' in soils, may not indicate phytoavailable MeHg or predict grain MeHg levels. Our results provided the possibility of predicting MeHg phytoavailability/bioaccumulation by (NH4)2S2O3 extraction, which could be useful in screening soils for rice cultivation in contaminated areas.

  14. Methods for extraction and determination of phenolic acids in medicinal plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Konieczynski, Pawel

    2013-12-01

    Phenolic acids constitute a group of potentially immunostimulating compounds. They occur in all medicinal plants and are widely used in phytotherapy and foods of plant origin. In recent years, phenolic acids have attracted much interest owing to their biological functions. This paper reviews the extraction and determination methods of phenolic acids in medicinal plants over the last 10 years. Although Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) are commonly used for the extraction of phenolic acids from plant materials, alternative techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) can also be used. After extraction, phenolic acids are determined usually by liquid chromatography (LC) owing to the recent developments in this technique, especially when it is coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Also detection systems are discussed, including UV-Vis, diode array, electrochemical and fluorimetric. Other popular techniques for the analysis of this group of secondary metabolites are gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE).

  15. Comparing the effect of sub-critical water extraction with conventional extraction methods on the chemical composition of Lavandula stoechas.

    PubMed

    Giray, E Sultan; Kirici, Saliha; Kaya, D Alpaslan; Türk, Murat; Sönmez, Ozgür; Inan, Memet

    2008-01-15

    The volatile extract composition of Lavandula stoechas flowers obtained by hydrodistillation (HD), subcrtical water extraction (SbCWE) and organic solvent extraction under ultrasonic irradiation (USE) were estimated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). One hundred and twenty four components were detected in SbCWE extracts while 94 and 65 signals were gained from HD and USE extracts, respectively. Most of the constituents were identified. The major compounds in all three extracts were fenchon, camphor, myrtenyl acetate, myrtenol and 1,8-cineol, but they differ in quantitatively. The total monoterpene hydrocarbons are higher in HD and USE extracts than those of SbCWE extract. However, SbCWE extract had higher concentration of light oxygenated compounds which contributes to the fragrance of the oil in a major extension. Heavy-oxygenated compounds was also in higher abundance in SbCWE extract (9.90%) than those of HD and USE extracts (3.19 and 4.78%, respectively). Effect of temperature on the extraction yield of SbCWE was investigated and while oil yield was increasing with an increase in temperature, a decrease in the extraction ability of sub-critical water toward the more polar compounds such as, 1,8-cineol, camphor and fenchon, was observed. Kinetic studies shown that SbCWE is clearly quicker than conventional alternatives. Most of components of volatile compounds were extracted at 15min.

  16. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Seth W.; Lin, Yupo J.; Hestekin' Jamie A.; Henry, Michael P.; Pujado, Peter; Oroskar, Anil; Kulprathipanja, Santi; Randhava, Sarabjit

    2010-09-21

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  17. Alkaline phosphatase of Physarum polycephalum is insoluble.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-01

    The plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum grow as multinucleated cells in the presence of sufficient humidity and nutriment. Under non-illuminating conditions, stresses such as low temperature or high concentrations of salts transform the plasmodia into spherules whereas dehydration induces sclerotization. Some phosphatases including protein phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been purified from the plasmodia, but alkaline phosphatase remains to be elucidated. Phosphatase of the plasmodia, spherules and sclerotia was visualized by electrophoresis gel-staining assay using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate. Insoluble fractions of the sclerotia were abundant in phosphatase activity. The phosphatase which was extracted by nonionic detergent was subjected to column chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. Purified phosphatase showed the highest activity at pH 8.8, indicating that this enzyme belongs to alkaline phosphatase. The apparent molecular mass from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing condition was estimated to be 100 kDa whereas that under reducing was 105 kDa. An amount of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate or 0.5 M NaCl had no effects on the activity although the phosphatase showed heat instability, Mg(2+)-dependency and sensitivity to 2-glycerophosphate or NaF. The extracting conditions and enzymatic properties suggest that this alkaline phosphatase which is in a membrane-bound form plays important roles in phosphate metabolism.

  18. Mercury analysis of various types of coal using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jae Young Park; Jong Hyun Won; Tai Gyu Lee

    2006-12-15

    The mercury contents of various types of coal currently consumed in Korea were analyzed using acid extraction and pyrolysis methods. The results of analysis by acid extraction and pyrolysis methods were compared and discussed. Generally, high mercury concentrations of 105.6 to 434.5 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 125.7 to 475.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis) were obtained for tested anthracite coals in this study. For bituminous coals, the mercury contents were 11.5-48 ng/g (by acid extraction) and 12.5-52.4 ng/g (by pyrolysis). For coal samples, much simpler and far less time-consuming pyrolysis method tends to give higher values for the Hg concentration than the acid extraction method (by less than 10%) because of the interference from a UV absorption by SOx generated during thermal destruction of coal matrix. Also, further analysis shows that coals with higher densities have higher mercury contents and that the sulfur and mercury contents of coals are positively correlated with each other. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. An effective modified water extraction method for Landsat-8 OLI imagery of mountainous plateau regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Wang, L.; Jing, L.; Xu, J.

    2016-04-01

    Water body extraction from remote sensing imagery is an efficient way to investigate and monitor water resources. In the study area of this research, a mountainous plateau near Kashgar, China, sparse vegetation and seasonal rivers affect water body extraction. In order to extract water bodies, a modified water body extraction method is proposed in this paper and tested using Landsat-8 OLI imagery. Following this method, binary images are first generated using a classification, a Tasseled Cap transform, and a normalized difference water index, respectively, and then combined to yield a mask. Next, water bodies are delineated by masking the Landsat-8 OLI imagery and then refined by eliminating false areas using a supervised classification. It is demonstrated from the resulting water body maps that terrain related shadows in imagery were effectively eliminated and river tributaries and artificial ditches were precisely delineated, with accuracy up to 94%. Compared with several current water body extraction methods, the modified method yielded water body maps with better visualization and slightly improved accuracy.

  20. An Efficient Method for Automatic Road Extraction Based on Multiple Features from LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Hu, X.; Guan, H.; Liu, P.

    2016-06-01

    The road extraction in urban areas is difficult task due to the complicated patterns and many contextual objects. LiDAR data directly provides three dimensional (3D) points with less occlusions and smaller shadows. The elevation information and surface roughness are distinguishing features to separate roads. However, LiDAR data has some disadvantages are not beneficial to object extraction, such as the irregular distribution of point clouds and lack of clear edges of roads. For these problems, this paper proposes an automatic road centerlines extraction method which has three major steps: (1) road center point detection based on multiple feature spatial clustering for separating road points from ground points, (2) local principal component analysis with least squares fitting for extracting the primitives of road centerlines, and (3) hierarchical grouping for connecting primitives into complete roads network. Compared with MTH (consist of Mean shift algorithm, Tensor voting, and Hough transform) proposed in our previous article, this method greatly reduced the computational cost. To evaluate the proposed method, the Vaihingen data set, a benchmark testing data provided by ISPRS for "Urban Classification and 3D Building Reconstruction" project, was selected. The experimental results show that our method achieve the same performance by less time in road extraction using LiDAR data.

  1. Combined effect of tissue stabilization and protein extraction methods on phosphoprotein analysis.

    PubMed

    Kofanova, Olga A; Fack, Fred; Niclou, Simone P; Betsou, Fay

    2013-06-01

    Preanalytical conditions applied during sample collection and processing can affect the detection or quantification of unstable phosphoprotein biomarkers. We evaluated the consequences of tissue stabilization and protein extraction methods on phosphoprotein analysis. The effects of stabilization techniques (heat stabilization, snap-freezing) and time on the levels of phosphoproteins, including phospho-Akt, p-ERK 1/2, p-IkBα, p-JNK, and p38 MAPK, were evaluated using a BioPlex phosphoprotein assay. Additionally, two different protein extraction protocols, using different extraction buffers (8 M urea buffer, or Bio-Rad buffer without urea) were tested. For snap-frozen samples, protein extraction yields were comparable with the two buffer systems. For heat-stabilized samples, total protein yields were significantly lower following extraction in non-urea buffer. However, the concentrations of specific phosphoproteins were significantly higher in heat-stabilized samples than in the corresponding snap-frozen samples, indicating that this tissue processing method better preserved phosphoproteins. Significant differences were found between the measured phosphoprotein levels in heat-stabilized and snap-frozen tissue, suggesting that alterations occur very rapidly after tissue excision. Our results suggest that heat stabilization can be used as a tissue processing method for subsequent phosphoprotein analyses, but also suggest that the BioPlex phosphoprotein assay could be used as a possible quality control method to assess tissue sample integrity.

  2. [Comparative assessment of DNA extraction methods for identification of glanders and melioidosis etiological agents by PCR].

    PubMed

    Zinchenko, O V; Antonov, V A; Tkachenko, G A; Altukhova, V V; Zamaraev, V S; Piven', N N; Goloseev, Iu A; Vasil'ev, V P; Lomova, L V; Alekseev, V V

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic Burkholderia are considered as a cause of dangerous infections and potential agents of bioterrorism. Comparative assessment of different methods of extraction and purification of DNA for PCR analysis of pure cultures and samples contaminated by etiological agents of glanders and melioidosis was performed. Samples of soil and food artificially contaminated by pathogenic Burkholderia as well as organs of infected animals were tested. DNA was extracted by methods of boiling, nucleosorption with presence of guanidine thiocyanate, guanidine thiocyanatephenol extraction, guanidine thiocyanate-phenol extraction with additional purification of DNA by nucleosorption. Amplification was performed by "Flash" technique and detector of fluorescence was used for analysis of PCR products. Utilization of the recommended methods of preparation depending on the nature of sample let to detect by the "Flash" technique the etiological agents of glanders and melioidosis in concentration =10(3) microbial cells per ml. Choice of DNA extraction and purification methods is determined by type of a sample and presence in it of admixtures inhibiting PCR.

  3. LEACHING OF URANIUM ORES USING ALKALINE CARBONATES AND BICARBONATES AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbits, A.T.; Simard, R.; Herbst, H.J.

    1961-07-18

    A method of leaching uranium ores containing sulfides is described. The method consists of adding a leach solution containing alkaline carbonate and alkaline bicarbonate to the ore to form a slurry, passing the slurry through a series of agitators, passing an oxygen containing gas through the slurry in the last agitator in the series, passing the same gas enriched with carbon dioxide formed by the decomposition of bicarbonates in the slurry through the penultimate agitator and in the same manner passing the same gas increasingly enriched with carbon dioxide through the other agitators in the series. The conditions of agitation is such that the extraction of the uranium content will be substantially complete before the slurry reaches the last agitator.

  4. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Method for DNA Extraction from Archival Herbarium Specimens.

    PubMed

    Krinitsina, A A; Sizova, T V; Zaika, M A; Speranskaya, A S; Sukhorukov, A P

    2015-11-01

    Here we report a rapid and cost-effective method for the extraction of total DNA from herbarium specimens up to 50-90-year-old. The method takes about 2 h, uses AMPure XP magnetic beads diluted by PEG-8000- containing buffer, and does not require use of traditional volatile components like chloroform, phenol, and liquid nitrogen. It yields up to 4 µg of total nucleic acid with high purity from about 30 mg of dry material. The quality of the extracted DNA was tested by PCR amplification of 5S rRNA and rbcL genes (nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers) and compared against the traditional chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. Our results demonstrate that the use of the magnetic beads is crucial for extraction of DNA suitable for subsequent PCR from herbarium samples due to the decreasing inhibitor concentrations, reducing short fragments of degraded DNA, and increasing median DNA fragment sizes.

  5. Assessment of metal bioavailability in the vineyard soil-grapevine system using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Vázquez Vázquez, Francisco A; Pérez Cid, Benita; Río Segade, Susana

    2016-10-01

    This study was focused on the assessment of single and sequential extraction methods to predict the bioavailability of metals in the vineyard soil-grapevine system. The modified BCR sequential extraction method and two single-step extraction methods based on the use of EDTA and acetic acid were applied to differently amended vineyard soils. The variety effect was studied on the uptake of metals by leaves and grapes. Most of the elements studied (Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb) were weakly mobilized from vineyard soils, with the exception of Cu and Mn. The determination of total metal content in leaves and grapes showed a different accumulation pattern in the two parts of the vine. A significant relationship was observed, for all the elements studied except for Fe, between the content bioavailable in the soil and the accumulated in both leaves and grapes (R=0.602-0.775, p<0.01).

  6. Comparison of seven methods for extraction of bacterial DNA from fecal and cecal samples of mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Janina; Patron, Kevin; Legrand-Frossi, Christine; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Merlin, Christophe; Alauzet, Corentine; Lozniewski, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of bacterial DNA from fecal samples of mice is commonly performed in experimental studies. Although DNA extraction is a critical step in various molecular approaches, the efficiency of methods that may be used for DNA extraction from mice fecal samples has never been evaluated. We compared the efficiencies of six widely used commercial kits (MasterPure™ Gram Positive DNA Purification Kit, QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit; NucliSENS® easyMAG®, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep™, FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Feces and FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil) and a non-commercial method for DNA isolation from mice feces and cecal contents. DNA quantity and quality were assessed by fluorometry, spectrophotometry, gel electrophoresis and qPCR. Cell lysis efficiencies were evaluated by qPCR targeting three relevant bacteria in spiked specimens. For both feces and intestinal contents, the most efficient extraction method was the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil.

  7. Radial-searching contour extraction method based on a modified active contour model for mammographic masses.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi; Horita, Katsuhei; Iwase, Takuji; Endo, Tokiko

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we developed an automatic extraction scheme for the precise recognition of the contours of masses on digital mammograms in order to improve a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. We propose a radial-searching contour extraction method based on a modified active contour model (ACM). In this technique, after determining the central point of a mass by searching for the direction of the density gradient, we arranged an initial contour at the central point, and the movement of a control point was limited to directions radiating from the central point. Moreover, it became possible to increase the extraction accuracy by sorting out the pixel used for processing and using two images-an edge-intensity image and a degree-of-separation image defined based on the pixel-value histogram-for calculation of the image forces used for constraints on deformation of the ACM. We investigated the accuracy of the automated extraction method by using 53 masses with several "difficult contours" on 53 digitized mammograms. The extraction results were compared quantitatively with the "correct segmentation" represented by an experienced physician's sketches. The numbers of cases in which the extracted region corresponded to the correct region with overlap ratios of more than 81 and 61% were 30 and 45, respectively. The initial results obtained with this technique show that it will be useful for the segmentation of masses in CAD schemes.

  8. A multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction method: getsources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men'shchikov, A.; André, Ph.; Didelon, P.; Motte, F.; Hennemann, M.; Schneider, N.

    2012-06-01

    We present a multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm called getsources. Although it has been designed primarily for use in the far-infrared surveys of Galactic star-forming regions with Herschel, the method can be applied to many other astronomical images. Instead of the traditional approach of extracting sources in the observed images, the new method analyzes fine spatial decompositions of original images across a wide range of scales and across all wavebands. It cleans those single-scale images of noise and background, and constructs wavelength-independent single-scale detection images that preserve information in both spatial and wavelength dimensions. Sources are detected in the combined detection images by following the evolution of their segmentation masks across all spatial scales. Measurements of the source properties are done in the original background-subtracted images at each wavelength; the background is estimated by interpolation under the source footprints and overlapping sources are deblended in an iterative procedure. In addition to the main catalog of sources, various catalogs and images are produced that aid scientific exploitation of the extraction results. We illustrate the performance of getsources on Herschel images by extracting sources in sub-fields of the Aquila and Rosette star-forming regions. The source extraction code and validation images with a reference extraction catalog are freely available.

  9. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [E. Van Handel, J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 1(1985) 302] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo ...

  10. Extraction methods and bioautography for evaluation of medicinal plant antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Nostro, A; Germanò, M P; D'angelo, V; Marino, A; Cannatelli, M A

    2000-05-01

    A comparative study on the antimicrobial properties of extracts from medicinal plants obtained by two different methods was carried out. The screening of the antimicrobial activity of extracts from six plants was conducted by a disc diffusion test against Gram-positive, -negative and fungal organisms. The most active extracts (inhibition diameter >/=12 mm) were assayed for the minimum inhibitory concentration and submitted to phytochemical screening by thin-layer chromatography and bioautography. The results obtained indicate that the diethyl ether extracts were the most efficient antimicrobial compounds. The activity was more pronounced against Gram-positive and fungal organisms than against Gram-negative bacteria. Bioautography showed that the antimicrobial activity was probably due to flavonoids and terpenes.

  11. New feature extraction method for classification of agricultural products from x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Casasent, David P.; Lee, Ha-Woon; Keagy, Pamela M.; Schatzki, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Classification of real-time x-ray images of randomly oriented touching pistachio nuts is discussed. The ultimate objective is the development of a system for automated non- invasive detection of defective product items on a conveyor belt. We discuss the extraction of new features that allow better discrimination between damaged and clean items. This feature extraction and classification stage is the new aspect of this paper; our new maximum representation and discrimination between damaged and clean items. This feature extraction and classification stage is the new aspect of this paper; our new maximum representation and discriminating feature (MRDF) extraction method computes nonlinear features that are used as inputs to a new modified k nearest neighbor classifier. In this work the MRDF is applied to standard features. The MRDF is robust to various probability distributions of the input class and is shown to provide good classification and new ROC data.

  12. Synthesis of silica particles from rice straw waste using a simple extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Rahman, T.; Fadhlulloh, M. A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Hamidah, I.; Mulyanti, B.

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize silica particles from rice straw waste using a simple extraction method. The experiment was conducted by heating and extracting rice straw waste into basic solution. To get silica particles, the extracted solution was then put into acid solution and heated to remove the remained solvent. The experimental results showed that the aggregated silica particles with sizes of about 200 nm were successfully produced. The XRD and FTIR analysis showed that the final product was silica and free of graphite. However, we found that some KCl component in the final product in which this was possibly from the use of KOH as the extraction agent. Therefore, further studies are still required to synthesize high purity silica particles from rice straw waste.

  13. Chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong Min; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2012-12-01

    The chemical properties and oxidative stability of perilla oils obtained from roasted perilla seeds as affected by extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide [SC-CO(2)], mechanical press, and solvent extraction) were studied. The SC-CO(2) extraction at 420 bar and 50 °C and hexane extraction showed significantly higher oil yield than mechanical press extraction (P < 0.05). The fatty acid compositions in the oils were virtually identical regardless of the extraction methods. The contents of tocopherol, sterol, policosanol, and phosphorus in the perilla oils greatly varied with the extraction methods. The SC-CO(2) -extracted perilla oils contained significantly higher contents of tocopherols, sterols, and policosanols than the mechanical press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils (P < 0.05). The SC-CO(2) -extracted oil showed the greatly lower oxidative stability than press-extracted and hexane-extracted oils during the storage in the oven under dark at 60 °C. However, the photooxidative stabilities of the oils were not considerably different with extraction methods.

  14. SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS AND MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS (MAAS) FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous extraction methods have been developed and used in the quantitation of both photopigments and mycosporine amino acids (MAAs) found in Symbiodinium sp. and zooanthellate metazoans. We have development of a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol, which when coupl...

  15. Extraction of mismatch negativity using a resampling-based spatial filtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yanfei; Wu, Wei; Wu, Chaohua; Liu, Baolin; Gao, Xiaorong

    2013-04-01

    Objective. It is currently a challenge to extract the mismatch negativity (MMN) waveform on the basis of a small number of EEG trials, which are typically unbalanced between conditions. Approach. In order to address this issue, a method combining the techniques of resampling and spatial filtering is proposed in this paper. Specifically, the first step of the method, termed ‘resampling difference’, randomly samples the standard and deviant sweeps, and then subtracts standard sweeps from deviant sweeps. The second step of the method employs the spatial filters designed by a signal-to-noise ratio maximizer (SIM) to extract the MMN component. The SIM algorithm can maximize the signal-to-noise ratio for event-related potentials (ERPs) to improve extraction. Simulation data were used to evaluate the influence of three parameters (i.e. trial number, repeated-SIM times and sampling times) on the performance of the proposed method. Main results. Results demonstrated that it was feasible and reliable to extract the MMN waveform using the method. Finally, an oddball paradigm with auditory stimuli of different frequencies was employed to record a few trials (50 trials of deviant sweeps and 250 trials of standard sweeps) of EEG data from 11 adult subjects. Results showed that the method could effectively extract the MMN using the EEG data of each individual subject. Significance. The extracted MMN waveform has a significantly larger peak amplitude and shorter latencies in response to the more deviant stimuli than in response to the less deviant stimuli, which agreed with the MMN properties reported in previous literature using grand-averaged EEG data of multi-subjects.

  16. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), Soxhlet and shaking methods for pendimethalin extraction from soils: effect of soil properties and water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spack, Lionel; Alvarez, Cristina; Martins, Jean M. F.; Tarradellas, Joseph

    1998-09-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction with CO 2 was applied to the analysis of traces of pendimethalin, a herbicide of the dinitroanilines group, in four different natural soils. The Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method was compared with the classical Soxhlet and shaking methods in terms of ease to run, extraction efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility. The influence of the physico-chemical properties of the soil matrix on herbicide extraction was then evaluated with the SFE method. The supercritical fluid extraction system used in the present study was found to be much easier to run than the other two methods, less time consuming and requires fewer operations as it was optimized for on-line sample clean up. SFE is the most selective of the three tested methods as fewer co-extracts are obtained in the final samples. SFE with CO 2 is particularly powerful because pendimethalin is highly hydrophobic. However, this makes pendimethalin a poor choice for a selectivity study of SFE as it is very rapidly extracted at any CO 2 density. Pendimethalin extraction with supercritical CO 2 was found to be almost complete with average recoveries of 96-99%, similarly to Soxhlet but with a much lower standard deviation (8-10%). The performance of SFE was shown to be unaffected by soil parameters except soil water content. It is demonstrated indeed that extraction efficiency is not linearly related to soil water content, and optimal recovery was found for water contents ranging from 2 to 15% depending on the type of soil. Soil water increases extraction efficiency because water acts as a modifier of the supercritical fluid and increases the penetration of the fluid inside the soil particles (clay swelling). In contrast to SFE and Soxhlet, the efficiency of the shaking method appeared to be partial and strongly dependent on soil properties. Although initial developments should be needed, the various benefits of SFE-CO 2 make this method attractive compared to traditional methods.

  17. Identification and analysis of exosomes secreted from macrophages extracted by different methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Yao, Yongliang; Wu, Jianhong; Li, Guangxin

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes were small vesicles secreted by many cells, and they can play an important role in cell signal transductions. Because the diameter of exosomes is about 30-100 nm, it is so difficult to collection them. In this paper, three kinds of exosomes purifying methods (density gradient ultracentrifugation method, the ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration method, ExoQuick™ Extraction kit method) were used to collected exosomes in culture supernatants of macrophages. The morphologies of three kinds of exosomes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the characteristic molecules such as CD86, LAMP-1, HSP-70 on exosomes were analyzed with Western blot. In addition, the biological activities of exosomes purified by three kinds of methods in vitro were analyzed by ELISA and flow cytometry methods. All experimental results show that the purity and quality of exosomes collected by ExoQuick™ extraction kit and ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration method were better, and they could enhance the expression of MHC-I in macrophages and promote cells to secrete more TNF-α to cause inflammatory response of macrophages. The analysis pointed out that the advantages and disadvantages of the three methods by biological activities or components of exosomes. Therefore, the ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration method or the ExoQuick™ Extraction kit method were more suitable to be applied in the scientific research.

  18. Influence of Extraction Method on Quality and Functionality of Broccoli Juice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Gyu; Kim, Jin-Hee; Son, Min-Jung; Lee, Eun-Ju; Park, Woo-Dong; Kim, Jong-Boo; Lee, Sam-Pin; Lee, In-Seon

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the quality and functionality of broccoli juice as affected by extraction method. Broccoli juice was extracted using method I (NUC Kuvings silent juicer), method II (NUC centrifugal juicer), and method III (NUC mixer), and the quality properties of the broccoli juices were analyzed using three different methods. Additionally, the antioxidative, anticancer, and anti-hyperglycemic activities of broccoli juice prepared by the three different methods were investigated in vitro. The broccoli juice made by method I contained the highest polyphenol and flavonoid contents at 1,226.24 mg/L and 1,018.32 mg/L, respectively. Particularly, broccoli juice prepared by method I showed higher DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities than those of the other samples. Additionally, broccoli juice made by method I showed the highest growth inhibitory effects against HeLa, A549, AGS, and HT-29 cancer cells. Broccoli juice prepared by method I had the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. These results indicate that there are important differences in chemical and functional qualities between juice extraction techniques. PMID:24471122

  19. Identification and analysis of exosomes secreted from macrophages extracted by different methods

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjun; Yao, Yongliang; Wu, Jianhong; Li, Guangxin

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes were small vesicles secreted by many cells, and they can play an important role in cell signal transductions. Because the diameter of exosomes is about 30-100 nm, it is so difficult to collection them. In this paper, three kinds of exosomes purifying methods (density gradient ultracentrifugation method, the ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration method, ExoQuick™ Extraction kit method) were used to collected exosomes in culture supernatants of macrophages. The morphologies of three kinds of exosomes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the characteristic molecules such as CD86, LAMP-1, HSP-70 on exosomes were analyzed with Western blot. In addition, the biological activities of exosomes purified by three kinds of methods in vitro were analyzed by ELISA and flow cytometry methods. All experimental results show that the purity and quality of exosomes collected by ExoQuick™ extraction kit and ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration method were better, and they could enhance the expression of MHC-I in macrophages and promote cells to secrete more TNF-α to cause inflammatory response of macrophages. The analysis pointed out that the advantages and disadvantages of the three methods by biological activities or components of exosomes. Therefore, the ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration method or the ExoQuick™ Extraction kit method were more suitable to be applied in the scientific research. PMID:26261491

  20. An optimal control method for maximizing the efficiency of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability.

  1. Comparison of five DNA extraction methods for molecular analysis of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus).

    PubMed

    Mornkham, T; Wangsomnuk, P P; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Pattanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2012-03-08

    DNA extraction is an essential step for molecular analysis of an organism, but it is difficult to acquire a sufficient amount of pure DNA from plant tissue with high levels of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, proteins, and secondary metabolites. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) has high levels of such substances. We compared five commonly used methods of extracting genomic DNA in tests made with leaves and seed of four Jerusalem artichoke genotypes: 1) modified method of Tai and Tanksley, 2) method of Doyle and Doyle, 3) method of Porebski, 4) modified method of Štorchová, and 5) Plant DNA Kit of Omega Bio-tek. The quality and quantity of extracted DNAs were assessed by photometric assay, electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel and a PCR-based technique. The modified method of Tai and Tanksley was found to be superior for both young leaves and seed. The quality of the extracted DNA was confirmed by sequence-related amplified polymorphism. This information will be useful for molecular analyses of Jerusalem artichoke and other related Helianthus species.

  2. An Optimal Control Method for Maximizing the Efficiency of Direct Drive Ocean Wave Energy Extraction System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability. PMID:25152913

  3. Comparison of three extraction methods used to evaluate phenolic ripening in red grapes.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Sandra; Mestres, Montserrat; Busto, Olga; Guasch, Josep

    2010-04-14

    Because there is not a single method for carrying out phenolic ripening analysis, it is very difficult to compare the results obtained by different researchers. In this study, the three most widely used extraction methods of polyphenols (Glories, AWRI, and ITV) have been analytically compared by evaluating two of the most important parameters for the wine industry: total polyphenols and total anthocyanins. Samples from different grape varieties (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Carinena, Syrah, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon), from three different vintages (2006, 2007, and 2008), and at different ripening states (from the beginning of ripeness until harvest) were analyzed to obtain a wide range of representative phenolic contents. To avoid external interferences on the comparisons, the same grape puree was used to make the maceration assays using the different solvents according to each extraction method. Although every extraction method exhibits a different extraction efficiency, the correlation between the results obtained with each one was very good both for total anthocyanins and for total polyphenols. Thus, after having determined a parameter value of the phenolic ripeness using a specific method, the relationship found can be used to predict the parameter value of the phenolic ripeness provided by the other two methods.

  4. An optimized DNA extraction and purification method from dairy manure compost for genetic diversity analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Zhang, Zhenhua; Liu, Dongyang; Zhou, Tiantian; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

    2013-05-01

    An unbiased DNA extraction protocol is necessary for analysis of genetic diversity, particularly, of genes in complex environmental samples by nucleic acid techniques. In the present study, three manual extraction methods and two commonly used commercial kits, which were accompanied by two DNA purification strategies, were compared based on cell lysis efficiency, DNA and humic acid yields, PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The results show that in spite of higher cell lysis efficiencies of the two commercial kits, the purified DNA yields were only one-third of that obtained by the two manual methods of FTSP (Freeze-thaw-SDS-Protein K) and FTSPP (Freeze-thaw-SDS-Protein K-Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone). The purified DNA from all five methods was pure enough for successful PCR and real-time PCR amplifications in the presence of 1 μg μL(-1) BSA. However, the FTSPP extraction method with DNA purification by a Wizard(®) kit yielded the largest number of 16S rRNA gene copies and ribotypes or bands in DGGE profiles, which indicated a superiority over the other four methods. The development of this optimized DNA extraction and purification method may provide a valuable tool for further molecular analysis of compost.

  5. High Throughput Method of Extracting and Counting Strontium-90 in Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, I.; Kaminski, M.; Mertz, C.; Hawkins, C.; Dietz, M.; Tisch, A.

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for the rapid extraction of Sr-90 from the urine of individuals exposed to radiation in a terrorist attack. The method employs two chromatographic ion-exchange materials: Diphonix resin and Sr resin, both of which are commercially available. The Diphonix resin reduces the alkali ion concentrations below 10 mM, and the Sr resin concentrates and decontaminates strontium-90. Experimental and calculational data are given for a variety of test conditions. On the basis of these results, a flowsheet has been developed for the rapid concentration and extraction of Sr-90 from human urine samples for subsequent beta-counting.

  6. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour).

  7. Development of a novel chemiluminescence method for the determination of cefazolin sodium in injectable powder and human urine based on a luminol-Cu(III) complex reaction in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanwen; Wang, Juan; Wang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) method was developed for the determination of cefazolin sodium based on the CL reaction between the [Cu(HIO6)2](5-) Cu(III) complex and luminol in alkaline solution. Results showed that CL emission of Cu(III) complex-luminol in alkaline medium was significantly different from that in acidic medium. A possible mechanism of the enhanced effect of cefazolin on CL emission of the [Cu(HIO6)2](5-)-luminol system was proposed. The effect of the reaction conditions on CL emissions was examined. Under optimized conditions, a good linear relationship was obtained between CL intensity and concentrations of cefazolin sodium in the range of 2.0 x 10(-8) to 2.0 x 10(-6) g/mL with a correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.9978. The limit of detection was 4.58 x 10(-9) g/mL. The proposed method was applied for the determination of cefazolin sodium in real samples with recoveries of 82.0-109% with an RSD of 0.7-2.1%. The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of cefazolin sodium in injectable powder preparations and human urine with satisfactory results.

  8. Separation and purification of the alkaline phosphatase and a phosphodiesterase from Halobacterium cutirubrum.

    PubMed Central

    Fitt, P S; Baddoo, P

    1979-01-01

    1. Halobacterium cutirubrum alkaline phosphatase is associated in crude extracts with a phosphodiesterase. 2. The enzymes were stabilized in buffers containing both (NH4)2SO4 and 10 mM-Mn2+. 3. Adsorption chromatography on Sepharose 6B/agarose-gel columns in the presence of 1.4M-(NH4)2SO4 gave a phosphatase-free phosphodiesterase and the alkaline phosphatase associated with some phosphodiesterase activity. 4. Further chromatography of the separated enzymes gave a good recovery of greater than 600-fold purified phosphodiesterase and greater than 3000-fold purified alkaline phosphatase. 5. The requirements of these enzymes and their relationship to each other was examined. 6. A detailed study showed that the alkaline phosphatase was adsorbed at least partially to agarose and dextran columns at all (NH4)2SO4 concentrations from 0.25 to 2M. 7. In contrast, no adsorption of the enzyme or protein standards was evident in 2.5M-KCl/l M-NaCl or 0.25 M-KCl/0.1 M-NaCl, in agreement with previous studies by Louis, Peterkin & Fitt [(1971) Biochem. J. 121, 635-641], thus confirming the validity of gel filtration in 2.5 M-KCl/1 M-NaCl as a method for determining the approximate molecular weights of extremehalophile proteins. PMID:227360

  9. Fatty acid profile and elemental content of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) oil--effect of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mageshni; Moodley, Roshila; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in vegetable oil extracted from idioblast cells of avocado fruit is growing. In this study, five extraction methods to produce avocado oil have been compared: traditional solvent extraction using a Soxhlet or ultrasound, Soxhlet extraction combined with microwave or ultra-turrax treatment and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Traditional Soxhlet extraction produced the most reproducible results, 64.76 ± 0.24 g oil/100 g dry weight (DW) and 63.67 ± 0.20 g oil/100 g DW for Hass and Fuerte varieties, respectively. Microwave extraction gave the highest yield of oil (69.94%) from the Hass variety. Oils from microwave extraction had the highest fatty acid content; oils from SFE had wider range of fatty acids. Oils from Fuerte variety had a higher monounsaturated: saturated FA ratio (3.45-3.70). SFE and microwave extraction produced the best quality oil, better than traditional Soxhlet extraction, with the least amount of oxidizing metals present.

  10. Study Unveils New Method for Universal Extraction and PCR Amplification of Fungal DNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    rare or hard to identify fungal infections. The new extraction and amplification method can be universally applied to fungi , according to the...best treatments. In addition, rare fungi , or species with phenotypic doppelgangers, can stump medical mycologists, so molecular methods are critical...However, isolating DNA from fungi can be problematic, and an inexpensive method to isolate and amplify nucleic acids from all types of pathogenic fungi

  11. Methods for pore water extraction from unsaturated zone tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scofield, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing the performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires an understanding of the chemistry of the water that moves through the host rock. The uniaxial compression method used to extract pore water from samples of tuffaceous borehole core was successful only for nonwelded tuff. An ultracentrifugation method was adopted to extract pore water from samples of the densely welded tuff of the proposed repository horizon. Tests were performed using both methods to determine the efficiency of pore water extraction and the potential effects on pore water chemistry. Test results indicate that uniaxial compression is most efficient for extracting pore water from nonwelded tuff, while ultracentrifugation is more successful in extracting pore water from densely welded tuff. Pore water splits collected from a single nonwelded tuff core during uniaxial compression tests have shown changes in pore water chemistry with increasing pressure for calcium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. Pore water samples collected from the intermediate pressure ranges should prevent the influence of re-dissolved, evaporative salts and the addition of ion-deficient water from clays and zeolites. Chemistry of pore water splits from welded and nonwelded tuffs using ultracentrifugation indicates that there is no substantial fractionation of solutes.

  12. Evaluation of four protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

    PubMed

    Liao, D J; Lu, X P; Chen, H S; Lu, Y; Mo, Z Y

    2016-08-30

    The peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a special plant tissue that contains many compounds that interfere with protein extraction. A successful separation with Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is the key step for proteomic analysis. To evaluate the efficiencies of mango peel protein extraction for 2-DE, four extraction methods were tested: 1) 2-D clean-up kit, 2) trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation, 3) phenol extraction, 4) phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation. The results showed that the phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation produced the best quality protein extraction and separation. Proteins were separated in 30-70 and >70 kDa ranges better than with the other methods. Acidic proteins had better resolution with fewer horizontal and vertical streaks. Sixteen proteins were identified by maxtrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS/MS). The result demonstrated that each of these four methods can be used to prepare mango peel proteins. The phenol with methanol/ ammonium acetate precipitation was the best choice for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

  13. A validated method for halquinol extraction from chicken liver matrix for residual HPLC studies.

    PubMed

    Mushigeri, Sadanand; Ganesh, M; Radhakrishna, P M

    2006-01-01

    Extraction is the key step in the analysis of food samples, from either plant or animal sources for residues of veterinary drugs and pesticides. Such residues pose an unacceptable risk to the consumer and information is insufficient to allow a full assessment. This paper presents a method for extracting and determining Halquinol, a veterinary drug in liver of chicken. The first step of the study was to establish and validate a method for determination of Halquinol, which was achieved using HPLC equipped with a C18 reversed-phase, monomeric column and a MWD-UV detector. In the second step, we extracted and purified the liver samples. Liver samples were homogenized in buffer, extracted with ethyl acetate, and cleaned up using a solid-phase extraction column. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.1 microg/l mL, and detection limit was 0.01 microg/l mL. Mean recoveries in chicken liver ranged from 57% to 91%.

  14. MIT extraction method for measuring average subchannel axial velocities in reactor assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, J.T.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    The MIT extraction method for obtaining flow split data for individual subchannels is described in detail. An analysis of the method is presented which shows that isokinetic values of the subchannel flow rates are obtained directly even though the method is non-isokinetic. Time saving methods are discussed for obtaining the average value of the interior region flow split parameter. An analysis of the method at low bundle flow rates indicates that there is no inherent low flow rate limitation on the method and suggests a way to obtain laminar flow split data.

  15. A NEW METHOD FOR EXTRACTING SPIN-DEPENDENT NEUTRON STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS FROM NUCLEAR DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Y.F.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2009-01-01

    High-energy electrons are currently the best probes of the internal structure of nucleons (protons and neutrons). By collecting data on electrons scattering off light nuclei, such as deuterium and helium, one can extract structure functions (SFs), which encode information about the quarks that make up the nucleon. Spin-dependent SFs, which depend on the relative polarization of the electron beam and the target nucleus, encode quark spins. Proton SFs can be measured directly from electron-proton scattering, but those of the neutron must be extracted from proton data and deuterium or helium-3 data because free neutron targets do not exist. At present, there is no reliable method for accurately determining spin-dependent neutron SFs in the low-momentum-transfer regime, where nucleon resonances are prominent and the functions are not smooth. The focus of this study was to develop a new method for extracting spin-dependent neutron SFs from nuclear data. An approximate convolution formula for nuclear SFs reduces the problem to an integral equation, for which a recursive solution method was designed. The method was then applied to recent data from proton and deuterium scattering experiments to perform a preliminary extraction of spin-dependent neutron SFs in the resonance region. The extraction method was found to reliably converge for arbitrary test functions, and the validity of the extraction from data was verifi ed using a Bjorken integral, which relates integrals of SFs to a known quantity. This new information on neutron structure could be used to assess quark-hadron duality for the neutron, which requires detailed knowledge of SFs in all kinematic regimes.

  16. New Method for Simultaneous Quantification of 12 Ginsenosides in Red Ginseng Powder and Extract: In-house Method Validation.

    PubMed

    In, Gyo; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Bae, Bong-Seok; Han, Sung-Tai; Noh, Kil-Bong; Kim, Cheon-Suk

    2012-04-01

    For quality control of components in Korean red ginseng powder and extract, a new method for simultaneous quantification of 12 ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rf, Rh1, Rg2[S], Rg2[R], Rb1, Rc, Rb2, Rd, Rg3[S], and Rg3[R]) was studied. Compared to the official method for quantification of marker substances (ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1), the proposed methods were guaranteed by in-house method validation. Several criteria such as linearity, specificity, precision and accuracy were evaluated. For red ginseng powder, recovery (averaging 95% to 105%) was calculated, and analysis of variance was carried out to estimate the relative standard deviation (0.20% to 2.12%). For red ginseng extract, the average recovery rate was 90% to 99% and the relative standard deviation was 0.39% to 2.40%. These results indicate that the proposed method could be used in the laboratory for determination of 12 ginsenosides in red ginseng powder and extract. In addition, this method was found to be suitable for quality control of ginseng products and potentially offer time and cost benefits.

  17. DNA-based determination of microbial biomass suitable for frozen and alkaline soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Blagodatskaya, Evgeniya; Kogut, Boris; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Microbial biomass is a sensitive indicator of changes due to soil management, long before other basic soil measures such as Corg or Ntot. Improvement of methods for determination of microbial biomass still remains relevant, and these methods should be correctly applicable for the soil samples being in various state. This study was designed to demonstrate the applicability of DNA-based determination of microbial biomass under conditions when the common basic approaches, namely chloroform fumigation-extraction (CFE) and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), are restricted by certain soil properties, experimental designs or research needs, e.g. in frozen, alkaline or carbonaceous soils. We compared microbial biomass determined by CFE, SIR and by DNA approaches in the range of neutral and slightly alkaline Chernozem and alkaline Calcisol of semi-arid climate. The samples of natural and agricultural ecosystems were taken throughout the soil profile from long-term static field experiments in the European part of Russia. Extraction and subsequent quantification of dsDNA revealed a strong agreement with SIR and CFE when analyzing the microbial biomass content in soils with pH below 8. The conversion factors (FDNA) from dsDNA to SIR-Cmic (5.10) and CFE-Cmic (4.41) were obtained by testing a range of the soil samples down to 1.5 m depth and indicated a good reproducibility of DNA-based estimations. In alkaline soils (pH > 8), CO2 retention due to alkaline pH and exchange with carbonates resulted in a strong underestimation of soil microbial biomass by SIR or even in the absence of any CO2 emission, especially at low absolute values of microbial biomass in subsoil. Correction of CO2 efflux by theoretical retention pH-dependent factors caused overestimation of SIR-biomass. In alkaline conditions, DNA extraction proved to be a reliable alternative for microbial biomass determination. Moreover, the DNA-based approach can serve as an excellent alternative enabling correct

  18. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) as an alternative general method for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed.

    PubMed

    Pihlström, Tuija; Isaac, Giorgis; Waldebäck, Monica; Osterdahl, Bengt-Göran; Markides, Karin E

    2002-04-01

    A pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) multi-method has been developed for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed. The method was validated for 25 different pesticides and metabolites. The reliability and efficiency of PFE for extracting pesticide residues from rape seed was investigated. The traditional extraction solvent, hexane saturated with acetonitrile, was used at elevated temperature and pressure. With increased temperature, the extraction kinetics were improved but at the same time more co-extractives were obtained in the form of lipids. When 1 g of rape seed was extracted at temperatures from 60 degrees C to 150 degrees C, the lipid content extracted was found to be as high as 17-26%. An additional clean-up step was therefore required and lipid co-extractives were effectively removed by gel permeation chromatography. The interpretation of the chromatograms and the quantification of the results were satisfactorily improved by the removal of interfering lipids. The developed method was used to extract vinclozolin and iprodione from incurred samples, resulting in a concentration in accordance with the results using conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) between hexane and acetonitrile and also supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide. The results of the present study suggest that PEE is a good alternative extraction technique for the determination of pesticide residues in oil seed. Despite the necessity for a lipid-removal clean-up step, the PFE technique facilitated the extraction process by faster extractions and the possibility of automated analysis.

  19. Comparison between several methods of total lipid extraction from Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Moreira, Daniel Mendonça; Kunigami, Claudete Norie; Aranda, Donato Alexandre Gomes; Teixeira, Cláudia Maria Luz Lapa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lipids obtained from microalgae biomass has been described as a promising alternative for production of biodiesel to replace petro-diesel. It involves steps such as the cultivation of microalgae, biomass harvesting, extraction and transesterification of lipids. The purpose of the present study was to compare different methods of extracting total lipids. These methods were tested in biomass of Chlorella vulgaris with the solvents ethanol, hexane and a mixture of chloroform:methanol in ratios 1:2 and 2:1. The solvents were associated with other mechanisms of cell disruption such as use of a Potter homogenizer and ultrasound treatment. The percentage of triglycerides in the total lipids was determinated by the glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase-p-chlorophenol method (triglycerides monoreagent K117; Bioclin). Among the tested methods, the mixture of chloroform:methanol (2:1) assisted by ultrasound was most efficient, extracting an average of 19% of total lipids, of which 55% were triglycerides. The gas chromatographic analysis did not show differences in methyl ester profiles of oils extracted under the different methods.

  20. A Rapid and Economical Method for Efficient DNA Extraction from Diverse Soils Suitable for Metagenomic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Radha, Sudhakar; Arunraj, Rex; Curtis, Wayne R.; Ramya, Mohandass

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost effective method of metagenomic DNA extraction from soil is a useful tool for environmental microbiology. The present work describes an improved method of DNA extraction namely “powdered glass method” from diverse soils. The method involves the use of sterile glass powder for cell lysis followed by addition of 1% powdered activated charcoal (PAC) as purifying agent to remove humic substances. The method yielded substantial DNA (5.87 ± 0.04 μg/g of soil) with high purity (A260/280: 1.76 ± 0.05) and reduced humic substances (A340: 0.047 ± 0.03). The quality of the extracted DNA was compared against five different methods based on 16S rDNA PCR amplification, BamHI digestion and validated using quantitative PCR. The digested DNA was used for a metagenomic library construction with the transformation efficiency of 4 X 106 CFU mL-1. Besides providing rapid, efficient and economical extraction of metgenomic DNA from diverse soils, this method’s applicability is also demonstrated for cultivated organisms (Gram positive B. subtilis NRRL-B-201, Gram negative E. coli MTCC40, and a microalgae C. sorokiniana UTEX#1666). PMID:26167854

  1. Micro-scale methods for characterization of supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation processes. [Trichothecene mycotoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1984-11-01

    The development of new supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation processes requires exploration of wide ranges of fluid temperature and pressure. As the fluid phase becomes more complex, conventional methods become inadequate unless augmented by increasingly sophisticated analytical instrumentation. In addition to chemical complexity, analysis is often hindered by characteristics of the analyte which makes supercritical fluid extraction desirable (e.g., thermal lability). Micro-scale methods are described which address these problems while providing the additional benefits of speed, reduced cost, greatly reduced sample and solvent consumption, and safety. Techniques are described in which the fluid phase from micro-scale (0.005 to 5 ml) high pressure cells is sampled and analyzed in either continuous or periodic modes. The methods developed in our laboratory utilize capillary supercritical fluid chromatography and direct fluid injection-mass spectrometry (or their combination), in addition to conventional analytical techniques, for the characterization of complex supercritical fluid mixtures. The application of these methods to various extraction and fractionation processes involving CO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/, solubility studies of simple and complex mixtures, and the study of rapid chemical processes in supercritical water is described. New methods for the automated examination of extraction processes using capillary chromatography are also described and their initial application illustrated.

  2. A novel figure panel classification and extraction method for document image understanding.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaohui; Ang, Dongyu

    2014-01-01

    With the availability of full-text documents in many online databases, the paradigm of biomedical literature mining and document understanding has shifted to analysis of both text and figures to derive implicit messages that are unforeseen with text mining only. To enable automatic, massive processing, a key step is to extract and parse figures embedded in papers. In this paper, we present a novel model-driven, hierarchical method to classify and extract panels from figures in scientific papers. Our method consists of two integrated components: figure (or panel) classification and panel segmentation. Figure classification evaluates each panel and decides the existence of photographs and drawings. Mixtures of photographs and non-photographs are divided into subfigures. The splitting process repeats until no further panel collage can be identified. Detection of highlighted views is addressed with Hough space analysis. Using reconstruction from Hough peaks, enclosed panels are retrieved and saved into separate files. Experiments were conducted with a total of 360 figures extracted from two sets of papers that are retrieved with difference sets of keywords. Experimental results demonstrated that our method successfully segmented figures and extracted photographs and non-photographs with high accuracy and robustness. In addition, our method was able to identify zoom-in views that are superimposed on the original photographs. The efficiency of our method allows online implementation.

  3. Developing an Intelligent Automatic Appendix Extraction Method from Ultrasonography Based on Fuzzy ART and Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Doo Heon; Han, Sang-suk

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound examination (US) does a key role in the diagnosis and management of the patients with clinically suspected appendicitis which is the most common abdominal surgical emergency. Among the various sonographic findings of appendicitis, outer diameter of the appendix is most important. Therefore, clear delineation of the appendix on US images is essential. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent method to extract appendix automatically from abdominal sonographic images as a basic building block of developing such an intelligent tool for medical practitioners. Knowing that the appendix is located at the lower organ area below the bottom fascia line, we conduct a series of image processing techniques to find the fascia line correctly. And then we apply fuzzy ART learning algorithm to the organ area in order to extract appendix accurately. The experiment verifies that the proposed method is highly accurate (successful in 38 out of 40 cases) in extracting appendix. PMID:26089963

  4. A method for the solvent extraction of low-boiling-point plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Gruber, Margaret; Westcott, Neil; Soroka, Julie; Parkin, Isobel; Hegedus, Dwayne

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the extraction of volatiles from plant materials and tested on seedling tissue and mature leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, pine needles and commercial mixtures of plant volatiles. Volatiles were extracted with n-pentane and then subjected to quick distillation at a moderate temperature. Under these conditions, compounds such as pigments, waxes and non-volatile compounds remained undistilled, while short-chain volatile compounds were distilled into a receiving flask using a high-efficiency condenser. Removal of the n-pentane and concentration of the volatiles in the receiving flask was carried out using a Vigreux column condenser prior to GC-MS. The method is ideal for the rapid extraction of low-boiling-point volatiles from small amounts of plant material, such as is required when conducting metabolic profiling or defining biological properties of volatile components from large numbers of mutant lines.

  5. Methods of extracting hydrogen from lunar soil. Final technical report, 1 April-31 October 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bustin, R.

    1988-10-01

    Increasing interest in establishing a lunar base has generated considerable study on the utilization of lunar resources. Because of its importance in producing water, reducing oxides, and serving as a fuel for orbital tranfer vehicles, hydrogen is of prime importance as a resource. Lowman (1985) states that hydrogen would greatly facilitate the establishment of an autonomous permanent colony, and he calls hydrogen the most valuable lunar resource. Through the centuries, hydrogen has been embedded in lunar soil by the solar wind. The hydrogen can be extracted by heating the soil to 900 C (Carr et al, 1987). In order to obtain hydrogen on the lunar surface, an extraction method must be developed which will not only be reliable but also economically feasible. Three heating methods are examined for possible use in extracting hydrogen from lunar soil.

  6. Design Space Development for the Extraction Process of Danhong Injection Using a Monte Carlo Simulation Method

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Chen, Huali; Qu, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio) were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs). Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes. PMID:26020778

  7. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Chen, Huali; Qu, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio) were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs). Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes.

  8. Adaptive iteration method for star centroid extraction under highly dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yushan; Qin, Shiqiao; Wang, Xingshu

    2016-10-01

    Star centroiding accuracy decreases significantly when star sensor works under highly dynamic conditions or star images are corrupted by severe noise, reducing the output attitude precision. Herein, an adaptive iteration method is proposed to solve this problem. Firstly, initial star centroids are predicted by traditional method, and then based on initial reported star centroids and angular velocities of the star sensor, adaptive centroiding windows are generated to cover the star area and then an iterative method optimizing the location of centroiding window is used to obtain the final star spot extraction results. Simulation results shows that, compared with traditional star image restoration method and Iteratively Weighted Center of Gravity method, AWI algorithm maintains higher extraction accuracy when rotation velocities or noise level increases.

  9. Comparative assessment of genomic DNA extraction processes for Plasmodium: Identifying the appropriate method.

    PubMed

    Mann, Riti; Sharma, Supriya; Mishra, Neelima; Valecha, Neena; Anvikar, Anupkumar R

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium DNA, in addition to being used for molecular diagnosis of malaria, find utility in monitoring patient responses to antimalarial drugs, drug resistance studies, genotyping and sequencing purposes. Over the years, numerous protocols have been proposed for extracting Plasmodium DNA from a variety of sources. Given that DNA isolation is fundamental to successful molecular studies, here we review the most commonly used methods for Plasmodium genomic DNA isolation, emphasizing their pros and cons. A comparison of these existing methods has been made, to evaluate their appropriateness for use in different applications and identify the method suitable for a particular laboratory based study. Selection of a suitable and accessible DNA extraction method for Plasmodium requires consideration of many factors, the most important being sensitivity, cost-effectiveness and, purity and stability of isolated DNA. Need of the hour is to accentuate on the development of a method that upholds well on all these parameters.

  10. A method for automatically extracting infectious disease-related primers and probes from the literature

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primer and probe sequences are the main components of nucleic acid-based detection systems. Biologists use primers and probes for different tasks, some related to the diagnosis and prescription of infectious diseases. The biological literature is the main information source for empirically validated primer and probe sequences. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important for researchers to navigate this important information. In this paper, we present a four-phase method for extracting and annotating primer/probe sequences from the literature. These phases are: (1) convert each document into a tree of paper sections, (2) detect the candidate sequences using a set of finite state machine-based recognizers, (3) refine problem sequences using a rule-based expert system, and (4) annotate the extracted sequences with their related organism/gene information. Results We tested our approach using a test set composed of 297 manuscripts. The extracted sequences and their organism/gene annotations were manually evaluated by a panel of molecular biologists. The results of the evaluation show that our approach is suitable for automatically extracting DNA sequences, achieving precision/recall rates of 97.98% and 95.77%, respectively. In addition, 76.66% of the detected sequences were correctly annotated with their organism name. The system also provided correct gene-related information for 46.18% of the sequences assigned a correct organism name. Conclusions We believe that the proposed method can facilitate routine tasks for biomedical researchers using molecular methods to diagnose and prescribe different infectious diseases. In addition, the proposed method can be expanded to detect and extract other biological sequences from the literature. The extracted information can also be used to readily update available primer/probe databases or to create new databases from scratch. PMID:20682041

  11. [Extraction method suitable for detection of unheated crustaceans including cephalothorax by ELISA].

    PubMed

    Shibahara, Yusuke; Yamada, Itta; Uesaka, Yoshihiko; Uneo, Noriko; Abe, Akihisa; Ohashi, Eiji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2009-08-01

    When unheated whole samples of crustaceans (shrimp, prawn and crab) were analyzed with our ELISA kit (FA test EIA-Crustacean 'Nissui') using anti-tropomyosin antibodies, a remarkable reduction in reactivity was recognized. This reduction in activity was found to be due to the digestion of tropomyosin during the extraction process by proteases contained in cephalothorax. To avoid the digestion of tropomyosin by proteases, we developed an extraction method (heating method) suitable for the detection of tropomyosin in unheated crustaceans including cephalothorax. Experiments with unheated whole samples of various species of crustaceans confirmed that the heating method greatly improved the low reactivity in the standard method; the heating method gave extraction efficiencies of as high as 93-107%. Various processed crustaceans with cephalothorax, such as dry products (unheated or weakly heated products) and pickles in soy sauce (unheated products), that showed low reactivity with the standard method were confirmed to give superior results with the heating method. These results indicated that the developed heating method is suitable for detecting unheated crustaceans with cephalothorax by means of the ELISA kit.

  12. Arch width changes in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first premolar extraction and non-extraction method

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Sajjad; Kachoei, Mojgan; Shahvaghar-Asl, Naiemeh; Shirazi, Samaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine arch width changes during maxillary first premolars extraction and non-extraction treatment in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion. Material and Methods Dental casts of 91 Class II division 1 patients (36 males and 55 females) were evaluated. The minimum age of the subjects at the beginning of treatment was above 16 years. 48 patients were treated with extraction of the maxillary first premolars and 43 patients were treated without extraction. Pre- and post-treatment maxillary and mandibular inter-canine and inter-molar arch widths were measured. Results At the end of treatment, maxillary and mandibular inter-canine widths of both groups increased significantly. The maxillary inter-molar width decreased in the extraction group and increased in the non-extraction group. The mandibular inter-molar width increased significantly in both groups. No significant differences were observed between males and females. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that there was a tendency for an increase in arch width during both the extraction and non-extraction treatment except maxillary inter-molar width in the extraction cases. Key words:Dental arch, malocclusion, angle Class II, tooth movement, extraction. PMID:27703608

  13. Validation of a three-dimensional hand scanning and dimension extraction method with dimension data.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhizhong; Chang, Chien-Chi; Dempsey, Patrick G; Ouyang, Lusha; Duan, Jiyang

    2008-11-01

    A three-level experiment was developed to validate a 3-D hand scanning and dimension extraction method with dimension data. At the first level, a resin hand model of a participant was fabricated to test the repeatability of the dimension data obtained by the 3-D method. At the second level, the actual hand of that participant was measured repeatedly using both the 3-D method and the traditional manual measurement method. The repeatability for both methods was investigated and compared. The influence of posture keeping, surface deformation and other human issues were also examined on the second level. At the third level, a group of participants were recruited and their hands were measured using both methods to examine any differences between the two methods on statistical descriptives. Significant differences, which varied among dimension types (length, depth/breadth, and circumference), were found between the 3-D method and the traditional method. 3-D anthropometric measurement and dimension extraction has become a prospective technology. The proposed three-level experiment provides a systematic method for validation of the repeatability of a 3-D method and compatibility between dimension data from a 3-D method and a traditional method.

  14. An improved extraction method for the HPLC determination of morphine and its metabolites in plasma.

    PubMed

    Pawula, M; Barrett, D A; Shaw, P N

    1993-01-01

    A new, simple and rapid extraction procedure coupled with a combined coulometric-fluorescence HPLC assay is described for the simultaneous determination of morphine (M) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), and normorphine (NM) in plasma. The effect of concentration and pH of selected ion-pairing agents on the extraction of these compounds from plasma by solid-phase extraction was investigated. The extraction procedure was optimized in terms of recovery, reproducibility and lack of interference from endogenous materials. The optimized method uses tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate (TBAHS) at pH 10 followed by separation on a single C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. For routine analysis the procedure provides high and reproducible recoveries over a concentration range of 1.0-1000 ng ml-1 for morphine, M6G and normorphine and 20-1000 ng ml-1 for M3G. The method was used successfully to analyse plasma samples from a pharmacokinetic study in which sheep had received an intravenous dose of 0.015 mg kg-1 of M6G.

  15. Food-compatible method for the efficient extraction and stabilization of cranberry pomace polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Roopchand, Diana E; Krueger, Christian G; Moskal, Kristin; Fridlender, Bertold; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-12-15

    Cranberry pomace is a byproduct of cranberry processing and is comprised of seeds, skins and stems of the cranberry fruit. While cranberry pomace contains beneficial polyphenols, including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, it is not a palatable source of these compounds and is typically discarded. In this study, we have developed and optimized a method to extract polyphenols from cranberry pomace using aqueous ethanol, a food grade solvent. Biochemical characterization of the pomace extract showed the presence of a broad range of polyphenols also present in cranberry juice concentrate. By co-drying cranberry pomace extract with a protein-rich food matrix, such as soy protein isolate (SPI), we have developed a method to produce a cranberry polyphenol-SPI complex (CBP-SPI) containing 10% cranberry polyphenols. Unlike dried cranberry pomace extract alone, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and total polyphenols were found to be highly stable at 37 °C in the CBP-SPI powder. The extraction and stabilization of cranberry pomace polyphenols using SPI provides an innovative approach for utilizing pomace in the development of novel food ingredients.

  16. A Scalable Method for Extracting Soiling Rates from PV Production Data

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Muller, Matthew; Defreitas, Zoe; Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-11-21

    We present a method for analyzing time series production data from photovoltaic systems to extract the rate at which energy yield is affected by the accumulation of dust, dirt, and other forms of soiling. We describe an approach that is based on prevailing methods which consider the change in energy production during dry periods. The method described here builds upon these methods by considering a statistical sample of soiling intervals from each site under consideration. The method enables straightforward application to a large number of sites with minimal parameterization of data-filtering requirements. Furthermore, it enables statistical confidence intervals and comparisons between sites.

  17. Scalable Method for Extracting Soiling Rates from PV Production Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Muller, Matthew; Kurtz, Sarah; Defreitas, Zoe

    2016-06-21

    We present a method for analyzing time series production data from photovoltaic systems to extract the rate at which energy yield is affected by the accumulation of dust, dirt, and other forms of soiling. We describe an approach that is based on prevailing methods which consider the change in energy production during dry periods. The method described here builds upon these methods by considering a statistical sample of soiling intervals from each site under consideration. The method enables straightforward application to a large number of sites with minimal parameterization of data-filtering requirements. Furthermore, it enables statistical confidence intervals and comparisons between sites.

  18. Comparative evaluation of different extraction and quantification methods for forensic RNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Grabmüller, Melanie; Madea, Burkhard; Courts, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Since about 2005, there is increasing interest in forensic RNA analysis whose versatility may very favorably complement traditional DNA profiling in forensic casework. There is, however, no method available specifically dedicated for extraction of RNA from forensically relevant sample material. In this study we compared five commercially available and commonly used RNA extraction kits and methods (mirVana™ miRNA Isolation Kit Ambion; Trizol® Reagent, Invitrogen; NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit Macherey-Nagel; AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and RNeasy® Mini Kit both Qiagen) to assess their relative effectiveness of yielding RNA of good quality and their compatibility with co-extraction of DNA amenable to STR profiling. We set up samples of small amounts of dried blood, liquid saliva, semen and buccal mucosa that were aged for different time intervals for co-extraction of RNA and DNA. RNA quality was assessed by determination of 'RNA integrity number' (RIN) and quantitative PCR based expression analysis. DNA quality was assessed via monitoring STR typing success rates. By comparison, the different methods exhibited considerable differences between RNA and DNA yields, RNA quality values and expression levels, and STR profiling success, with the AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and the NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit excelling at DNA co-extraction and RNA results, respectively. Overall, there was no 'best' method to satisfy all demands of comprehensible co-analysis of RNA and DNA and it appears that each method has specific merits and flaws. We recommend to cautiously choose from available methods and align its characteristics with the needs of the experimental setting at hand.

  19. An improved high-throughput lipid extraction method for the analysis of human brain lipids.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sarah K; Jenner, Andrew M; Mitchell, Todd W; Brown, Simon H J; Halliday, Glenda M; Garner, Brett

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a protocol suitable for high-throughput lipidomic analysis of human brain samples. The traditional Folch extraction (using chloroform and glass-glass homogenization) was compared to a high-throughput method combining methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) extraction with mechanical homogenization utilizing ceramic beads. This high-throughput method significantly reduced sample handling time and increased efficiency compared to glass-glass homogenizing. Furthermore, replacing chloroform with MTBE is safer (less carcinogenic/toxic), with lipids dissolving in the upper phase, allowing for easier pipetting and the potential for automation (i.e., robotics). Both methods were applied to the analysis of human occipital cortex. Lipid species (including ceramides, sphingomyelins, choline glycerophospholipids, ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylserines) were analyzed via electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and sterol species were analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. No differences in lipid species composition were evident when the lipid extraction protocols were compared, indicating that MTBE extraction with mechanical bead homogenization provides an improved method for the lipidomic profiling of human brain tissue.

  20. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...