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Sample records for alkaline flooding field

  1. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    The Tucker sand of Helper (KS) field is a candidate for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The geology of the Helper site is typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. The Tucker sand of Helper field was deposited in a fluvial dominated deltaic environment. Helper oil can be mobilized with either chemical system 2 or chemical system 3, as described in this report. Oil fields in the Gulf Coast region are also good candidates for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The results from laboratory tests conducted in Berea sandstone cores with oil brine from Helper (KS) field are encouraging. The crude oil is viscous and non-acidic and, yet, was mobilized by the chemical formulations described in this report. Significant amounts of the oil were mobilized under simulated reservoir conditions. The results in Berea sandstone cores were encouraging and should be verified by tests with field core. Consumption of alkali, measured with field core, was very low. Surfactant loss appeared to be acceptable. Despite the good potential for mobilization of Helper oil, certain reservoir characteristics such as low permeability, compartmentalization, and shallow depth place constraints on applications of any chemical system in the Tucker sand. These constraints are typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. Although Hepler field is not a perfect reservoir in which to apply surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding, Hepler oil is particularly amenable to mobilization by surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. A field test is recommended, dependent upon final evaluation of well logs and cores from the proposed pilot area. 14 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project. Annual report, Revision

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    The Tucker sand of Helper (KS) field is a candidate for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The geology of the Helper site is typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. The Tucker sand of Helper field was deposited in a fluvial dominated deltaic environment. Helper oil can be mobilized with either chemical system 2 or chemical system 3, as described in this report. Oil fields in the Gulf Coast region are also good candidates for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The results from laboratory tests conducted in Berea sandstone cores with oil brine from Helper (KS) field are encouraging. The crude oil is viscous and non-acidic and, yet, was mobilized by the chemical formulations described in this report. Significant amounts of the oil were mobilized under simulated reservoir conditions. The results in Berea sandstone cores were encouraging and should be verified by tests with field core. Consumption of alkali, measured with field core, was very low. Surfactant loss appeared to be acceptable. Despite the good potential for mobilization of Helper oil, certain reservoir characteristics such as low permeability, compartmentalization, and shallow depth place constraints on applications of any chemical system in the Tucker sand. These constraints are typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. Although Hepler field is not a perfect reservoir in which to apply surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding, Hepler oil is particularly amenable to mobilization by surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. A field test is recommended, dependent upon final evaluation of well logs and cores from the proposed pilot area. 14 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  4. ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOODING AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRIDGEPORT AND CYPRESS RESERVOIRS OF THE LAWRENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Ron Damm; Bev Seyler

    2003-03-01

    Feasibility of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood for the Lawrence Field in Lawrence County, Illinois is being studied. Two injected formulations are being designed; one for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs and one for Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. Fluid-fluid and coreflood evaluations have developed a chemical solution that produces incremental oil in the laboratory from the Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. A chemical formulation for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs is being developed. A reservoir characterization study is being done on the Bridgeport A, B, & D sandstones, and on the Cypress sandstone. The study covers the pilot flood area and the Lawrence Field.

  5. ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOODING AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRIDGEPORT AND CYPRESS RESERVOIRS OF THE LAWRENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Ron Damm; Bev Seyler

    2003-04-01

    Feasibility of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood for the Lawrence Field in Lawrence County, Illinois is being studied. Two injected formulations are being designed; one for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs and one for Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. Fluid-fluid and coreflood evaluations have developed a chemical solution that produces incremental oil in the laboratory from the Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. A chemical formulation for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs is being developed. A reservoir characterization study is being done on the Bridgeport A, B, & D sandstones, and on the Cypress sandstone. The study covers the pilot flood area and the Lawrence Field.

  6. Alkaline flooding for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gittler, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    There are over 12 active projects of varying size using one of 3 major types of alkaline agents. These include sodium silicate, caustic soda, and soda ash. Among the largest pilots currently is the THUMS project in the Wilmington field, California. Plans called for the injection of a 4% weight concentration of sodium orthosilicate over a 60% PV. Through the first 3 yr, over 27 million bbl of chemicals have been injected. Gulf Oil is operating several alkaline floods, one of which is located off shore in the Quarantine Bay field, Louisiana. In this pilot, sodium hydroxide in a weight concentration of 5 to 12% is being injected. Belco Petroleum Corp. has reported that their pilot operating in the Isenhour Unit in Wyoming is using a .5% weight concentration of soda ash in conjunction with a polymer. Other uses for alkaline agents in chemical flooding include the use of silicate as a preflush or sacrificial agent in micellar/polymer and surfactant recovery systems. In addition, caustic has been tested in the surface-mixed caustic emulsion process while orthosilicate has been tested in a recovery method known as mobility-controlled caustic floods.

  7. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21

    Within the Illinois Basin, most of the oilfields are mature and have been extensively waterflooded with water cuts that range up to 99% in many of the larger fields. In order to maximize production of significant remaining mobile oil from these fields, new recovery techniques need to be researched and applied. The purpose of this project was to conduct reservoir characterization studies supporting Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods in two distinct sandstone reservoirs in Lawrence Field, Lawrence County, Illinois. A project using alkaline-surfactantpolymer (ASP) has been established in the century old Lawrence Field in southeastern Illinois where original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at over a billion barrels and 400 million barrels have been recovered leaving more than 600 million barrels as an EOR target. Radial core flood analysis using core from the field demonstrated recoveries greater than 20% of OOIP. While the lab results are likely optimistic to actual field performance, the ASP tests indicate that substantial reserves could be recovered even if the field results are 5 to 10% of OOIP. Reservoir characterization is a key factor in the success of any EOR application. Reservoirs within the Illinois Basin are frequently characterized as being highly compartmentalized resulting in multiple flow unit configurations. The research conducted on Lawrence Field focused on characteristics that define reservoir compartmentalization in order to delineate preferred target areas so that the chemical flood can be designed and implemented for the greatest recovery potential. Along with traditional facies mapping, core analyses and petrographic analyses, conceptual geological models were constructed and used to develop 3D geocellular models, a valuable tool for visualizing reservoir architecture and also a prerequisite for reservoir simulation modeling. Cores were described and potential permeability barriers were correlated using geophysical logs. Petrographic analyses

  8. Critical factors in the design of cost-effective alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, P.B.; Peru, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    A review of major alkaline flooding projects highlights the recognized fact that alkali consumption and scale formation are serious deterrents when strong alkalis are used. The review also confirms that there are several mechanisms of oil mobilization besides reducing interfacial tension. Even oils of low acid number may be amenable to alkaline flooding. Moreover, alkalis in a lower pH range - which have minimal reaction with reservoir minerals - can often mobilize oil, especially when enhanced with a low concentration of surfactant. However, the future of alkaline flooding depends critically on improved reservoir analysis, which includes factors that have often been neglected: (1) thorough mineralogical analysis; (2) evaluation of ion-exchange properties; and (3) assessment of carbon dioxide content. An evaluation of high-pH alkaline flooding field tests over the past 60 years shows that the majority of tests did not produce encouraging results. Laboratory and limited field experience with lower pH alkalis suggests that they may be more feasible in selected cases. Alkaline flooding should be rejected if there is as much as 1% gypsum in the rock or as much as 1 mol % CO{sub 2} in the fluid. Otherwise, a flood at moderate pH (around 10) can be considered for low-kaolinite reservoirs. For low-montmorillonite reservoirs with less than 5 meq divalent exchange ions per kg of rock, a very low pH (around 8.5) may be effective when enhanced with surfactant. 55 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Performed surfactant-optimized aqueous alkaline flood

    SciTech Connect

    Thigpen, D.R.; Lawson, J.B.; Nelson, R.C.

    1991-11-26

    This paper describes improvement in a process for recovering oil from an acidic oil reservoir by injecting an aqueous alkaline solution comprising water, sodium chloride, and alkaline material for reacting with the reservoir oil forming a petroleum acid soap to form an in-situ surfactant system. The improvement comprises: selecting a preformed cosurfactant which is soluble in both the aqueous solution and the reservoir oil and has a solubility ratio which is grater than the solubility ratio of the petroleum acid soap where the solubility ratio is the ratio of solubility in the aqueous alkaline solution to the solubility in the reservoir oil; combining with the alkaline solution an amount of the preformed cosurfactant which will result in the in-situ surfacant system having a salinity about equal to a salinity which results in minimal interfacial tension between the oil in the reservoir and the in-situ surfactant system at reservoir temperature, wherein the amount of the preformed cosurfactant is about 0.3 percent by weight in the aqueous alkaline solution; and injecting the cosurfactant-aqueous alkaline solution mixture into the reservoir to displace oil toward a fluid production location.

  10. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding with weak alkalis

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of Project BE4B in FY90 was to develop cost-effective and efficient chemical flooding formulations using surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemical systems. Chemical systems were studied that mitigate the deleterious effects of divalent ions. The experiments were conducted with carbonate mixtures and carbonate/phosphate mixtures of pH 10.5, where most of the phosphate ions exist as the monohydrogen phosphate species. Orthophosphate did not further reduce the deleterious effect of divalent ions on interfacial tension behavior in carbonate solutions, where the deleterious effect of the divalent ions is already very low. When added to a carbonate mixture, orthophosphate did substantially reduce the adsorption of an atomic surfactant, which was an expected result; however, there was no correlation between the amount of reduction and the divalent ion levels. For acidic oils, a variety of surfactants are available commercially that have potential for use between pH 8.3 and pH 9.5. Several of these surfactants were tested with oil from Wilmington (CA) field and found to be suitable for use in that field. Two low-acid crude oils, with acid numbers of 0.01 and 0.27 mg KOH/g of oil, were studied. It was shown that surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding does have merit for use with these low-acid crude oils. However, each low-acid oil tested was found to behave differently, and it was concluded that the applicability of the method must be experimentally determined for any given low-acid crude oil. 19 refs., 10 figs. 4 tabs.

  11. Surfactant-enhanced low-pH alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A. and Co., Columbia, MD . Research Div.); Lorenz, P.B. )

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports sodium bicarbonate investigated as a potential alkaline agent in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding because it has very little tendency to dissolve silicate minerals. In experiments performed with Wilmington, CA, crude oil and three types of surfactants, the bicarbonate/surfactant combination caused a marked lowering of interfacial tension (IFT). Bicarbonate protected the surfactant against divalent cations and reduced adsorption of surfactant and polymer on various minerals. Coreflood test confirm that sodium bicarbonate plus surfactant can be an effective alternative to the high-pH flooding process.

  12. Interfacial activity in alkaline flooding enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization of long-chained organic acids in the crude oil to form soaps was shown to be primarily responsible for the lowering of oil-water interfacial tension at alkaline pH. These active acids can be concentrated by silica gel chromatography into a minor polar fraction. An equilibrium chemical model was proposed based on 2 competing reactions: the ionization of acids to form active anions, and the formation of undissociated soap between acid anions and sodium ions. It correlates the interfacial activity with the interfacial concentration of active acid anions which is expressed in terms of the concentrations of the chemical species in the system. The model successfully predicts the observed oil-alkaline solution interfacial phenomenon, including its dependence on pH, alkali and salt concentrations, type of acid present and type of soap formed. Flooding at different alkali concentrations to activate different acid species present in the crude was shown to give better recovery than flooding at a single high alkali concentration. Treating the crude oil with a dilute solution of mineral acids liberates additional free active acids and yields better interfacial activity during subsequent alkali contact.

  13. Process, mechanism and impacts of scale formation in alkaline flooding by a variable porosity and permeability model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jiachun

    2016-06-01

    In spite of the role of alkali in enhancing oil recovery (EOR), the formation of precipitation during alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding can severely do harm to the stratum of oil reservoirs, which has been observed in situ tests of oil fields such as scale deposits found in oil stratum and at the bottom of oil wells. On the other hand, remarkable variation of stratum parameters, e.g., pore radius, porosity, and permeability due to scale formation considerably affects seepage flow and alkaline flooding process in return. The objective of this study is to firstly examine these mutual influential phenomena and corresponding mechanisms along with EOR during alkaline flooding when the effects of precipitation are no longer negligible. The chemical kinetic theory is applied for the specific fundamental reactions to describe the process of rock dissolution in silica-based reservoirs. The solubility product principle is used to analyze the mechanism of alkali scale formation in flooding. Then a 3D alkaline flooding coupling model accounting for the variation of porosity and permeability is established to quantitatively estimate the impact of alkali scales on reservoir stratum. The reliability of the present model is verified in comparison with indoor experiments and field tests of the Daqing oil field. Then, the numerical simulations on a 1/4 well group in a 5-spot pattern show that the precipitation grows with alkali concentration, temperature, and injection pressure and, thus, reduces reservoir permeability and oil recovery correspondingly. As a result, the selection of alkali with a weak base is preferable in ASP flooding by tradeoff strategy.

  14. An update of the polymer-augmented alkaline flood at the Isenhour unit, Sublette County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, T.E.

    1988-05-01

    An Almy sand polymer-augmented alkaline flood at the Isenhour Unit, Sublette County, WY, is reviewed. This paper updates process technology, including the use of clay stabilization, sweep improvement, soda ash alkaline agent (to reduce interfacial tension (IFT) and mobilize residual oil), and anionic-polymer-blend mobility buffer. Oil production has been increasing at 20%/yr since the process start.

  15. Surfactant adsorption at fluid-fluid interfaces with applications to alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Borwankar, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Adsorption of surfactants at fluid-fluid interfaces is studied with respect to equilibrium and dynamic behavior. An equilibrium model is developed wherein the surface concentration of ionic surfactants is distinguished from their surface excess concentration by the contribution from the electrical double layer. A consistent treatment of adsorption dynamics is formulated using a continuum approach. Surfactant transport in the bulk is assumed to consist of diffusion (and convection) with constant transport coefficients. Activation energy barriers to solute exchange between the bulk and the dividing surface are represented by means of kinetics of interphase reactions. This treatment is used to develop diffusion-kinetic models for gas-liquid systems under stagnant batch conditions and for liquid-liquid systems under gyrostatic conditions of the spinning drop tensiometer. In the liquid-liquid case, the acidic oil/caustic system of alkaline flooding for enhanced oil recovery is investigated. A continuous flow model is developed to assess the role of dynamic effects in alkaline flooding processes. Axial dispersion of caustic and its uptake by the reservoir rock are taken into account. An unsteady state solution is obtained when a linear isotherm governs the caustic uptake by the reservoir rock while a steady state solution is obtained for a Langmuir isotherm. Predictions of interfacial tension behavior are made for Wilmington Field crude oil.

  16. POISON SPIDER FIELD CHEMICAL FLOOD PROJECT, WYOMING

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Arnell; Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi

    2004-11-01

    -rock compatibility, polymer injectivity, dynamic chemical retention by rock, and recommended injected polymer concentration. Average initial oil saturation was 0.796 Vp. Produced water injection recovered 53% OOIP leaving an average residual oil saturation of 0.375 Vp. Poison Spider rock was strongly water-wet with a mobility ratio for produced water displacing the 280 cp crude oil of 8.6. Core was not sensitive to either alkali or surfactant injection. Injectivity increased 60 to 80% with alkali plus surfactant injection. Low and medium molecular weight polyacrylamide polymers (Flopaam 3330S and Flopaam 3430S) dissolved in either an alkaline-surfactant solution or softened produced water injected and flowed through Poison Spider rock. Recommended injected polyacrylamide concentration is 2,100 mg/L for both polymers for a unit mobility ratio. Radial corefloods were performed to evaluate oil recovery efficiency of different chemical solutions. Waterflood oil recovery averaged 46.4 OOIP and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery averaged an additional 18.1% OIP for a total of 64.6% OOIP. Oil cut change due to injection of a 1.5 wt% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} plus 0.05 wt% Petrostep B-100 plus 0.05 wt% Stepantan AS1216 plus 2100 mg/L Flopaam 3430S was from 2% to a peak of 23.5%. Additional study might determine the impact on oil recovery of a lower polymer concentration. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood field implementation outline report was written.

  17. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. [Annual report], 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-03-01

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (2) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (3) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are presented.

  18. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Annual report, 1992--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-08-01

    In this report, the authors present the results of experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties.

  19. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report 1994--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01

    In this report, the authors present the results of their experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, the authors have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil, and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are summarized.

  20. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1996-05-01

    In this report, we present the results of our experimental and theoretical studies in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. The overall objective of this work is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12. 0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultralow interfacial tension. In addition, we have (1) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, (2) investigated the mechanisms for spontaneous emulsification, (3) developed a technique to monitor low water content in oil and (4) developed a technique to study water-in-oil emulsion film properties, (5) investigated the effect of surfactant on the equilibrium and transient interfacial tension, (6) investigated the kinetics of oil removal from a silica surface, and (7) developed a theoretical interfacial activity model for determining equilibrium interfacial tension, accounting for added surfactant. The results of the studies conducted during the course of this project are discussed.

  1. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-06-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested. Last quarter we investigated the phase behavior and the regions where in the middle phase occurs. The optimum phase was found to go through a maximum with pH, sodium concentration and surfactant concentration. The optimum pH is about 12.0 to 13.5, the optimum sodium concentration is about 0.513 mol/liter, and the optimum surfactant concentration is about 0.2%. The effect of surfactant type was also investigated. Petrostep B-105 was found to give the most middle phase production. This quarter, we investigated the contact angle of Long Beach oil, Adena oil, and a model oil on a solid glass surface in contact with an aqueous alkaline solution both with and without added preformed surfactant. The contact angle with Long Beach and Adena oils showed oil-wet conditions, whereas the model oil showed both oil-wet and water-wet conditions depending on the pH of the aqueous phase. The addition of surfactant to the alkaline solution resulted in making the system less oil-wet. Spreading of the oil on the glass surface was observed in all three systems investigated.

  2. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Quarterly report, October 1--December 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested. The problem of characterizing emulsions in porous media is very important in enhanced oil recovery applications. This is usually accomplished by externally added or insitu generated surfactants that sweep the oil out of the reservoir. Emulsification of the trapped oil is one of the mechanisms of recovery. The ability to detect emulsions in the porous medium is therefore crucial to designing profitable flood systems. The capability of microwave dielectric techniques to detect emulsions in porous medium is demonstrated by mathematical modelling and by experiments. This quarter the dielectric properties of porous media are shown to be predicted adequately by treating it an an O/W type dispersion of sand grains in water. Dielectric measurements of emulsion flow in porous media show that dielectric techniques may be applied to determine emulsion characteristics in porous media. The experimental observations were confirmed by theoretical analysis.

  3. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested.

  4. Field measurement of alkalinity and pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan

    1964-01-01

    The behavior of electrometric pH equipment under field conditions departs from the behavior predicted from Nernst's law. The response is a linear function of pH, and hence measured pH values may be corrected to true pH if the instrument is calibrated with two reference solutions for each measurement. Alkalinity titrations may also be made in terms of true pH. Standard methods, such as colorimetric titrations, were rejected as unreliable or too cumbersome for rapid field use. The true pH of the end point of the alkalinity titration as a function of temperature, ionic strength, and total alkalinity has been calculated. Total alkalinity in potable waters is the most important factor influencing the end point pH, which varies from 5.38 (0 ? C, 5 ppm (parts per million) HC0a-) to 4.32 (300 ppm HC0a-,35 ? C), for the ranges of variables considered. With proper precautions, the pH may be determined to =i:0.02 pH and the alkalinity to =i:0.6 ppm HCO3- for many naturally occurring bodies of fresh water.

  5. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. [Quarterly] report, March 31--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1993-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost- effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested. Last quarter we have investigated the mechanisms responsible for spontaneous emulsification in alkali/acidic crude oil systems with and without added surfactant. We have observed that the roll cell size and formation time depend strongly on the pH and ionic strength of the alkaline solution. For a particular roll cell size, the addition of surfactant causes the cells to take longer to form, causing an interfacial resistance to mass transfer and making the interface more rigid. We have shown that interfacial turbulence is a necessary but not sufficient condition for spontaneous emulsification. Low interfacial tension is also a necessary condition. This quarter a microwave interferometric procedure was developed for the determination of low water content (0. 5 to 10 vol%) of water-in-oil macroemulsions. The apparatus operates at a frequency of 23.48 GHz in the K-band microwave region. The procedure is based on the large differences in dielectric properties between water and oil, and it utilizes the variation in phase shift as sample path length is varied. Measurements are accurate to within 0.5 vol% water.

  6. Speciation and Release Kinetics of Cadmium in an Alkaline Paddy Soil Under Various Flooding Periods and Draining Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    S Khaokaew; R Chaney; G Landrot; M Ginder-Vogel; D Sparks

    2011-12-31

    This study determined Cd speciation and release kinetics in a Cd-Zn cocontaminated alkaline paddy soil, under various flooding periods and draining conditions, by employing synchrotron-based techniques, and a stirred-flow kinetic method. Results revealed that varying flooding periods and draining conditions affected Cd speciation and its release kinetics. Linear least-squares fitting (LLSF) of bulk X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of the air-dried, and the 1 day-flooded soil samples, showed that at least 50% of Cd was bound to humic acid. Cadmium carbonates were found as the major species at most flooding periods, while a small amount of cadmium sulfide was found after the soils were flooded for longer periods. Under all flooding and draining conditions, at least 14 mg/kg Cd was desorbed from the soil after a 2-hour desorption experiment. The results obtained by micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) spectroscopy showed that Cd was less associated with Zn than Ca, in most soil samples. Therefore, it is more likely that Cd and Ca will be present in the same mineral phases rather than Cd and Zn, although the source of these two latter elements may originate from the same surrounding Zn mines in the Mae Sot district.

  7. Chemical composition profiles during alkaline flooding at different temperatures and extended residence times

    SciTech Connect

    Aflaki, R.; Handy, L.L.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate whether or not caustic sweeps the major portion of the reservoir efficiently during an alkaline flood process. It was also the objective of this work to study the state of final equilibrium during a caustic flood through determination of the pH and chemical composition profiles along the porous medium. For this purpose, a long porous medium which provided extended residence times was required. It was necessary to set up the porous medium such that the changes in the pH and chemical composition of the solution could be monitored. Four Berea sandstone cores (8 in. length and1 in. diameter) placed in series provided the desired length and the opportunity for sampling in-between cores. This enabled establishment of pH and chemical composition profiles. The experiments were run at, temperatures up.to 180{degrees}C, and the flow rates varied from 4.8 to 0.2 ft/day. The samples were analyzed for pH and for Si and Al concentrations.The results show that caustic consumption is insignificant for temperatures up to 100{degrees}C. Above 100{degrees}C consumption increases and is accompanied by a significant decrease in pH. The sharp decline in pH also coincides with a sharp decline in concentration of silica in solution. The results also show that alumina is removed from the solution and solubility of alumina ultimately reaches zero. Sharp silica and pH declines take place even in the absence of any alumina in solution. As a result, removal of silica from solution is attributed to the irreversible caustic/rock interaction. This interaction is in the form of chemisorption reactions in which silica is adsorbed onto the rock surface consuming hydroxyl ion. Once these reactions were satisfied, caustic breakthrough occurs at a high pH. However, significant pore volumes of caustic must be injected for completion of the chemisorption.

  8. Chemical composition profiles during alkaline flooding at different temperatures and extended residence times

    SciTech Connect

    Aflaki, R.; Handy, L.L.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate whether or not caustic sweeps the major portion of the reservoir efficiently during an alkaline flood process. It was also the objective of this work to study the state of final equilibrium during a caustic flood through determination of the pH and chemical composition profiles along the porous medium. For this purpose, a long porous medium which provided extended residence times was required. It was necessary to set up the porous medium such that the changes in the pH and chemical composition of the solution could be monitored. Four Berea sandstone cores (8 in. length and1 in. diameter) placed in series provided the desired length and the opportunity for sampling in-between cores. This enabled establishment of pH and chemical composition profiles. The experiments were run at, temperatures up.to 180[degrees]C, and the flow rates varied from 4.8 to 0.2 ft/day. The samples were analyzed for pH and for Si and Al concentrations.The results show that caustic consumption is insignificant for temperatures up to 100[degrees]C. Above 100[degrees]C consumption increases and is accompanied by a significant decrease in pH. The sharp decline in pH also coincides with a sharp decline in concentration of silica in solution. The results also show that alumina is removed from the solution and solubility of alumina ultimately reaches zero. Sharp silica and pH declines take place even in the absence of any alumina in solution. As a result, removal of silica from solution is attributed to the irreversible caustic/rock interaction. This interaction is in the form of chemisorption reactions in which silica is adsorbed onto the rock surface consuming hydroxyl ion. Once these reactions were satisfied, caustic breakthrough occurs at a high pH. However, significant pore volumes of caustic must be injected for completion of the chemisorption.

  9. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and its application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Annual report for the period January 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.; Surkalo, H.; Mundorf, W.R.

    1994-11-01

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the most advanced application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. A preliminary analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil of 20% of the original stock tank oil in place will be produced above waterflooding. The cost of the incremental oil will be less than $2.50 per incremental barrel. A statistical analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 200 million barrels. {open_quotes}Detailed Evaluation of the West Kiehl Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Field Project and Its Application to Mature Minnelusa Waterfloods{close_quotes} objective is to evaluate both the field performance of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer enhanced oil recovery technology as well as its potential application to other Minnelusa oil fields.

  10. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and its application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.; Surkalo, H.

    1995-03-01

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the first application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. The following analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil greater than waterflooding was produced at a cost of less than $2.00 per incremental barrel. A analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the total original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 130 million barrels. The goals of ``Detailed Evaluation of the West Kield Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Field Project and It`s Application to Mature Minnelusa Waterfloods`` are to evaluate both the field performance of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer enhanced oil recovery technology as well as its potential application to other Minnelusa oil fields.

  11. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and it`s application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Annual technical report, January 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-02-01

    The combination of an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent has the potential to produce additional oil beyond a waterflood. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project is the most advanced application of this chemical enhanced oil recovery technique. The West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood was initiated in September 1987 as a secondary application after primary recovery. A preliminary analysis of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood indicates that incremental oil of 20% of the original stock tank oil in place will be produced above waterflooding. The cost of the incremental oil will be less than $2.50 per incremental barrel. A statistical analysis of approximately 120 Minnelusa oil fields in the Powder River Basin indicates that the original stock tank oil in place exceeds one billion barrels. If the enhanced oil recovery technology implemented at West Kiehl field could be successfully applied to these fields, the potential incremental oil recovery would approach 200 million barrels. This project (1) evaluates the geological deposition environment of West Kiehl and adjacent Minneluse sand reservoirs; (2) compares the production performance results of the best geologic and reservoir performance analogs and select two fields for future study; (3) compares the two best field analogs to the west Kiehl field using numerical simulation; (4) predict results of applying the enhancement technology on two mature Minneluse waterflood analog units using engineering and numerical simulation; (5) predict waterflood and polymer flood performance of the West Kiehl field using numerical simulation.

  12. Flooding

    MedlinePlus

    ... flooding Prepare for flooding For communities, companies, or water and wastewater facilities: Suggested activities to help facilities ... con monóxido de carbono. Limit contact with flood water. Flood water may have high levels of raw ...

  13. Two mantle sources, two plumbing systems: Tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism of the Maymecha River basin, Siberian flood volcanic province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arndt, N.; Chauvel, C.; Czamanske, G.; Fedorenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    Rocks of two distinctly different magma series are found in a ???4000-m-thick sequence of lavas and tuffs in the Maymecha River basin which is part of the Siberian flood-volcanic province. The tholeiites are typical low-Ti continental flood basalts with remarkably restricted, petrologically evolved compositions. They have basaltic MgO contents, moderate concentrations of incompatible trace elements, moderate fractionation of incompatible from compatible elements, distinct negative Ta(Nb) anomalies, and ??Nd values of 0 to + 2. The primary magmas were derived from a relatively shallow mantle source, and evolved in large crustal magma chambers where they acquired their relatively uniform compositions and became contaminated with continental crust. An alkaline series, in contrast, contains a wide range of rock types, from meymechite and picrite to trachytes, with a wide range of compositions (MgO from 0.7 to 38 wt%, SiO2 from 40 to 69 wt%, Ce from 14 to 320 ppm), high concentrations of incompatible elements and extreme fractionation of incompatible from compatible elements (Al2O3/TiO2 ??? 1; Sm/Yb up to 11). These rocks lack Ta(Nb) anomalies and have a broad range of ??Nd values, from -2 to +5. The parental magmas are believed to have formed by low-degree melting at extreme mantle depths (>200 km). They bypassed the large crustal magma chambers and ascended rapidly to the surface, a consequence, perhaps, of high volatile contents in the primary magmas. The tholeiitic series dominates the lower part of the sequence and the alkaline series the upper part; at the interface, the two types are interlayered. The succession thus provides evidence of a radical change in the site of mantle melting, and the simultaneous operation of two very different crustal plumbing systems, during the evolution of this flood-volcanic province. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

  14. Changes in the bacterial populations of the highly alkaline saline soil of the former lake Texcoco (Mexico) following flooding.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Neria-González, Isabel; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Dendooven, Luc; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    Flooding an extreme alkaline-saline soil decreased alkalinity and salinity, which will change the bacterial populations. Bacterial 16S rDNA libraries were generated of three soils with different electrolytic conductivity (EC), i.e. soil with EC 1.7 dS m(-1) and pH 7.80 (LOW soil), with EC 56 dS m(-1) and pH 10.11 (MEDIUM soil) and with EC 159 dS m(-1) and pH 10.02 (HIGH soil), using universal bacterial oligonucleotide primers, and 463 clone 16S rDNA sequences were analyzed phylogenetically. Library proportions and clone identification of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi showed that the bacterial communities were different. Species and genera of the Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales and Xanthomonadales orders of the alpha- and gamma-subdivision of Proteobacteria were found at the three sites. Species and genera of the Rhodospirillales, Sphingobacteriales, Clostridiales, Oscillatoriales and Caldilineales were found only in the HIGH soil, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales and Pseudomonadales in the MEDIUM soil, Myxococcales in the LOW soil, and Actinomycetales in the MEDIUM and LOW soils. It was found that the largest diversity at the order and species level was found in the MEDIUM soil as bacteria of both the HIGH and LOW soils were found in it.

  15. The effect of polymer-surfactant interaction on the rheological properties of surfactant enhanced alkaline flooding formulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1993-02-01

    Surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemicals are effective for mobilizing residual oil. Polymer is used for mobility control because if mobility control is lost, then oil recovery is reduced. The ability to maintain mobility control during surfactant-alkaline flooding can be adversely affected by chemical interaction. In this work, interaction between polymers and surfactants was shown to be affected by pH, ionic strength, crude oil, and the properties of the polymers and surfactants. Polymer-surfactant interaction (phase separation, precipitation, and viscosity loss) occurred between most of the polymers and surfactants that were tested. Polymer-surfactant interaction is difficult to eliminate, and no method was found for completely eliminating interaction. Polymer-surfactant interaction occurred at optimal salinity and below optimal salinity. Polymer-surfactant interaction had an adverse effect on polymer rheology; however, the adverse effect of interaction on polymer rheology was lessened when oil was present. Increasing the pH of chemical systems further reduced the adverse effects of interaction on polymer rheology.

  16. Field screening of cowpea cultivars for alkaline soil tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  17. Flood control and loss estimation for paddy field at midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cham, T. C.; Mitani, Y.

    2015-09-01

    2011 Thailand flood has brought serious impact to downstream of Chao Phraya River Basin. The flood peak period started from August, 2011 to the end of October, 2011. This research focuses on midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, which is Nakhon Sawan area includes confluence of Nan River and Yom River, also confluence of Ping River and Nan River. The main purpose of this research is to understand the flood generation, estimate the flood volume and loss of paddy field, also recommends applicable flood counter measurement to ease the flood condition at downstream of Chao Phraya River Basin. In order to understand the flood condition, post-analysis is conducted at Nakhon Sawan. The post-analysis consists of field survey to measure the flood marks remained and interview with residents to understand living condition during flood. The 2011 Thailand flood generation at midstream is simulated using coupling of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic model to understand the flood generation during flood peak period. It is calibrated and validated using flood marks measured and streamflow data received from Royal Irrigation Department (RID). Validation of results shows good agreement between simulated result and actual condition. Subsequently, 3 scenarios of flood control are simulated and Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to assess the spatial distribution of flood extent and reduction of loss estimation at paddy field. In addition, loss estimation for paddy field at midstream is evaluated using GIS with the calculated inundation depth. Results show the proposed flood control at midstream able to minimize 5% of the loss of paddy field in 26 provinces.

  18. Passive aerobic treatment of net-alkaline, iron-laden drainage from a flooded underground anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the results of a continuous 4.5-day laboratory aeration experiment and the first year of passive, aerobic treatment of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) from a typical flooded underground anthracite mine in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. During 1991-2006, the AMD source, locally known as the Otto Discharge, had flows from 20 to 270 L/s (median 92 L/s) and water quality that was consistently suboxic (median 0.9 mg/L O2) and circumneutral (pH ??? 6.0; net alkalinity >10) with moderate concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese and low concentrations of dissolved aluminum (medians of 11, 2.2, and <0.2 mg/L, respectively). In 2001, the laboratory aeration experiment demonstrated rapid oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe 2+) without supplemental alkalinity; the initial Fe2+ concentration of 16.4 mg/L decreased to less than 0.5 mg/L within 24 h; pH values increased rapidly from 5.8 to 7.2, ultimately attaining a steady-state value of 7.5. The increased pH coincided with a rapid decrease in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) from an initial value of 10 -1.1atm to a steady-state value of 10-3.1atm. From these results, a staged aerobic treatment system was conceptualized consisting of a 2 m deep pond with innovative aeration and recirculation to promote rapid oxidation of Fe2+, two 0.3 m deep wetlands to facilitate iron solids removal, and a supplemental oxic limestone drain for dissolved manganese and trace-metal removal. The system was constructed, but without the aeration mechanism, and began operation in June 2005. During the first 12 months of operation, estimated detention times in the treatment system ranged from 9 to 38 h. However, in contrast with 80-100% removal of Fe2+ over similar elapsed times during the laboratory aeration experiment, the treatment system typically removed less than 35% of the influent Fe2+. Although concentrations of dissolved CO2 decreased progressively within the treatment system, the PCO2 values for treated effluent

  19. Flood-Fighting Structures Demonstration and Evaluation Program: Laboratory and Field Testing in Vicksburg, Mississippi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and Field Testing in Vicksburg, Mississippi Fred Pinkard, Thad Pratt, Donald Ward Tina Holmes, Julie Kelley, Landris T. Lee, George Sills...July 2007 Flood-Fighting Structures Demonstration and Evaluation Program: Laboratory and Field Testing in Vicksburg, Mississippi Fred Pinkard, Thad...real-world testing procedures for Rapid De- ployment Flood Wall (RDFW) and other promising alternative flood-fighting technologies. In response to

  20. Seed deterioration in flooded agricultural fields during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    We determined rate of seed deterioration for 3 crops (corn, rice, and soybean) and 8 weeds commonly found in agricultural fields and moist-soil management units in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The weeds were broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), junglerice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa colonum), morningglory (Ipomoea sp.), panic grass (Panicum sp.), bull paspalum (Paspalum boscianum), red rice (Oryza sativa), hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), and bristlegrass (Setaria sp.). Weed seeds, except morningglory, deteriorated slower than corn and soybean, whereas rice decomposed slower than all weed seeds except red rice and bull paspalum. For land managers desiring to provide plant food for wintering waterfowl, rice is clearly the most persistent small grain crop in the MAV. Persistence of weed seeds under flooded conditions throughout winter makes them a cost-effective alternative to traditional crops on land managed for waterfowl.

  1. Floods

    MedlinePlus

    ... quickly, often have a dangerous wall of roaring water. The wall carries rocks, mud, and rubble and can sweep away most things in its path. Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live in a low-lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Although there are ...

  2. Field Experiments Aimed To The Analysis of Flood Generation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriero, D.; Iacobellis, V.; Oliveto, G.; Romano, N.; Telesca, V.; Fiorentino, M.

    The study of the soil moisture dynamics and of the climate-soil-vegetation interac- tion is essential for the comprehension of possible climatic change phenomena, as well as for the analysis of occurrence of extreme hydrological events. In this trend the theoretically-based distribution of floods recently derived by Fiorentino and Ia- cobellis, [ŞNew insights about the climatic and geologic control on the probability distribution of floodsT, Water Resources Research, 2001, 37: 721-730] demonstrated, by an application in some Southern Italy basins, that processes at the hillslope scale strongly influence the basin response by means of the different mechanisms of runoff generation produced by various distributions of partial area contributing. This area is considered as a stochastic variable whose pdf position parameter showed strong de- pendence on the climate as it can seen in the studied basins behavior: in dry zones, where there is the prevalence of the infiltration excess (Horton) mechanism, the basin water loss parameter decreases as basin area increases and the flood peak source area depends on the permeability of soils; in humid zones, with the prevalence of satu- ration excess (Dunne) process, the loss parameter seems independent from the basin area and very sensitive to simple climatic index while only small portion of the area invested by the storm contributes to floods. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consistency of those interpretations by means of field experiments at the hillslope scale to establish a parameterization accounting for soil physical and hydraulic prop- erties, vegetation characteristics and land-use. The research site is the catchment of River Fiumarella di Corleto, which is located in Basilicata Region, Italy, and has a drainage area of approximately 32 km2. The environment has a rather dynamic geo- morphology and very interesting features from the soil-landscape modeling viewpoint [Santini A., A. Coppola, N. Romano, and

  3. Quantifying Nitrogen Loss From Flooded Hawaiian Taro Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Bruland, G. L.; Popp, B. N.; Engstrom, P.; Mueller, J. A.; Tiedje, J.

    2010-12-01

    In 2004 a field fertilization experiment showed that approximately 80% of the fertilizer nitrogen (N) added to flooded Hawaiian taro (Colocasia esculenta) fields could not be accounted for using classic N balance calculations. To quantify N loss through denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathways in these taro systems we utilized a slurry-based isotope pairing technique (IPT). Measured nitrification rates and porewater N profiles were also used to model ammonium and nitrate fluxes through the top 10 cm of soil. Quantitative PCR of nitrogen cycling functional genes was used to correlate porewater N dynamics with potential microbial activity. Rates of denitrification calculated using porewater profiles were compared to those obtained using the slurry method. Potential denitrification rates of surficial sediments obtained with the slurry method were found to drastically overestimate the calculated in-situ rates. The largest discrepancies were present in fields greater than one month after initial fertilization, reflecting a microbial community poised to denitrify the initial N pulse. Potential surficial nitrification rates varied between 1.3% of the slurry-measured denitrification potential in a heavily-fertilized site to 100% in an unfertilized site. Compared to the use of urea, fish bone meal fertilizer use resulted in decreased N loss through denitrification in the surface sediment, according to both porewater modeling and IPT measurements. In addition, sub-surface porewater profiles point to root-mediated coupled nitrification/denitrification as a potential N loss pathway that is not captured in surface-based incubations. Profile-based surface plus subsurface coupled nitrification/denitrification estimates were between 1.1 and 12.7 times denitrification estimates from the surface only. These results suggest that the use of a ‘classic’ isotope pairing technique that employs 15NO3- in fertilized agricultural systems can lead to a drastic

  4. Reduced Dependence of Crested Ibis on Winter-Flooded Rice Fields: Implications for Their Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yiwen; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Wang, Tiejun; van Gils, Hein A. M. J.; Wang, Qi; Qing, Baoping; Ding, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    The Crested Ibis Nipponia nippon was once thought to be extinct in the wild until seven birds were discovered in a remote mountain village in China in 1981. Studies suggested that winter-flooded rice fields play an essential role in nest site selection by the Crested Ibis and hence in their survival. Considerable efforts were therefore made to conserve the winter-flooded rice fields, but these have caused conflicts between the agricultural and conservation communities. The population and geographical range of the wild Crested Ibis has expanded greatly since 1981, but there is no spatial information on the winter-flooded rice fields, nor on the current association of nest sites and winter-flooded rice fields. We mapped winter-flooded rice fields across the entire current range of Crested Ibis using innovative remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) techniques. The spatial relationships between the nest site clusters and winter-flooded rice fields were quantified using Ward's hierarchical clustering method and Ripley's K-function. We show that both have significantly clumped distribution patterns and that they are positively associated. However, the dependence of Crested Ibis on the winter-flooded rice fields varied significantly among the nest site clusters and has decreased over the years, indicating the absence of winter-flooded rice fields is not constraining their recovery and population expansion. We therefore recommend that efforts should be made to protect the existing winter-flooded rice fields and to restore the functionality of natural and semi-natural wetlands, to encourage both in-situ conservation and the re-introduction of the Crested Ibis. In addition, we recommend that caution should be exercised when interpreting the habitat requirements of species with a narrow distribution, particularly when that interpretation is based only on their current habitat. PMID:24874870

  5. Seasonal dynamics of bacterial and archaeal methanogenic communities in flooded rice fields and effect of drainage

    PubMed Central

    Breidenbach, Björn; Conrad, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    We studied the resident (16S rDNA) and the active (16S rRNA) members of soil archaeal and bacterial communities during rice plant development by sampling three growth stages (vegetative, reproductive and maturity) under field conditions. Additionally, the microbial community was investigated in two non-flooded fields (unplanted, cultivated with upland maize) in order to monitor the reaction of the microbial communities to non-flooded, dry conditions. The abundance of Bacteria and Archaea was monitored by quantitative PCR showing an increase in 16S rDNA during reproductive stage and stable 16S rRNA copies throughout the growth season. Community profiling by T-RFLP indicated a relatively stable composition during rice plant growth whereas pyrosequencing revealed minor changes in relative abundance of a few bacterial groups. Comparison of the two non-flooded fields with flooded rice fields showed that the community composition of the Bacteria was slightly different, while that of the Archaea was almost the same. Only the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae and Soil Crenarchaeotic Group increased in non-flooded vs. flooded soil. The abundance of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA copies was highest in flooded rice fields, followed by non-flooded maize and unplanted fields. However, the abundance of ribosomal RNA (active microbes) was similar indicating maintenance of a high level of ribosomal RNA under the non-flooded conditions, which were unfavorable for anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. This maintenance possibly serves as preparedness for activity when conditions improve. In summary, the analyses showed that the bacterial and archaeal communities inhabiting Philippine rice field soil were relatively stable over the season but reacted upon change in field management. PMID:25620960

  6. Flood frequency analysis using radar rainfall fields and stochastic storm transposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Daniel B.; Smith, James A.; Baeck, Mary Lynn

    2014-02-01

    Flooding is the product of complex interactions among spatially and temporally varying rainfall, heterogeneous land surface properties, and drainage network structure. Conventional approaches to flood frequency analysis rely on assumptions regarding these interactions across a range of scales. The impacts of these assumptions on flood risk estimates are poorly understood. In this study, we present an alternative flood frequency analysis framework based on stochastic storm transposition (SST). We use SST to synthesize long records of rainfall over the Charlotte, North Carolina, USA metropolitan area by "reshuffling" radar rainfall fields, within a probabilistic framework, from a 10 year (2001-2010) high-resolution (15 min, 1 km2) radar data set. We use these resampled fields to drive a physics-based distributed hydrologic model for a heavily urbanized watershed in Charlotte. The approach makes it possible to estimate discharge return periods for all points along the drainage network without the assumptions regarding rainfall structure and its interactions with watershed features that are required using conventional methods. We develop discharge estimates for return periods from 10 to 1000 years for a range of watershed scales up to 110 km2. SST reveals that flood risk in the larger subwatersheds is dominated by tropical storms, while organized thunderstorm systems dominate flood risk in the smaller subwatersheds. We contrast these analyses with examples of potential problems that can arise from conventional frequency analysis approaches. SST provides an approach for examining the spatial extent of flooding and for incorporating nonstationarities in rainfall or land use into flood risk estimates.

  7. Formation of electroactive colloids via in situ coprecipitation under electric field: erbium chloride alkaline aqueous pseudocapacitor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2014-09-15

    For the first time, a new ErCl3 alkaline aqueous pseudocapacitor system was demonstrated by designing commercial ErCl3 salt electrode in alkaline aqueous electrolyte, where the materials synthesis and subsequently integrating into practical electrode structures occur at the same spatial and temporal scale. Highly electroactive ErOOH colloids were in-situ crystallized via electric field assisted chemical coprecipitation of ErCl3 in KOH aqueous electrolyte. These electroactive ErOOH colloids absorbed by carbon black and PVDF matrix were highly redox-reactive with higher cation utilization ratio of 86 % and specific capacitance values of 1811F/g, exceeding the one-electron redox theoretical capacitance (Er(3+)↔Er(2+)). We believe that additional two-electron (Er(2+)↔Er) or three-electron (Er(3+)↔Er) reactions can occur in our designed ErCl3 alkaline aqueous pseudocapacitor system. The specific electrode configuration with ErOOH colloids grown among the carbon black/PVDF matrix can create short ion diffusion and electron transfer length to enable the fast and reversible Faradaic reactions. This work shows promising for finding high-performance electrical energy storage systems via designing the colloidal state of electroactive cations with the utilization of in-situ crystallization route.

  8. The effect of polymer-surfactant interaction on the rheological properties of surfactant enhanced alkaline flooding formulations. [Phase separation, precipitation and viscosity loss

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1993-02-01

    Surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemicals are effective for mobilizing residual oil. Polymer is used for mobility control because if mobility control is lost, then oil recovery is reduced. The ability to maintain mobility control during surfactant-alkaline flooding can be adversely affected by chemical interaction. In this work, interaction between polymers and surfactants was shown to be affected by pH, ionic strength, crude oil, and the properties of the polymers and surfactants. Polymer-surfactant interaction (phase separation, precipitation, and viscosity loss) occurred between most of the polymers and surfactants that were tested. Polymer-surfactant interaction is difficult to eliminate, and no method was found for completely eliminating interaction. Polymer-surfactant interaction occurred at optimal salinity and below optimal salinity. Polymer-surfactant interaction had an adverse effect on polymer rheology; however, the adverse effect of interaction on polymer rheology was lessened when oil was present. Increasing the pH of chemical systems further reduced the adverse effects of interaction on polymer rheology.

  9. Emergent insect production in post-harvest flooded agricultural fields used by waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Richard C.; Blumenshine, Steven C.; Yee, Julie; Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    California’s Tulare Lake Basin (TLB) is one of the most important waterbird areas in North America even though most wetlands there have been converted to cropland. To guide management programs promoting waterbird beneficial agriculture, which includes flooding fields between growing periods, we measured emergence rates of insects, an important waterbird food, in three crop types (tomato, wheat, alfalfa) in the TLB relative to water depth and days flooded during August–October, 2003 and 2004. We used corrected Akaike’s Information Criterion values to compare a set of models that accounted for our repeated measured data. The best model included crop type and crop type interacting with days flooded and depth flooded. Emergence rates (mg m−2 day−1) were greater in tomato than wheat or alfalfa fields, increased with days flooded in alfalfa and tomato but not wheat fields, and increased with water depth in alfalfa and wheat but not tomato fields. To investigate the relationship between the range of diel water temperatures and insect emergence rates, we rearedChironomus dilutus larvae in environmental chambers under high (15–32°C) and low fluctuation (20–26°C) temperature regimes that were associated with shallow and deep (respectively) sampling sites in our fields. Larval survival (4×) and biomass (2×) were greater in the low thermal fluctuation treatment suggesting that deeply flooded areas would support greater insect production.

  10. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  11. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  12. Bird use of fields treated postharvest with two types of flooding in Tulare Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Skalos, Daniel A.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed birds on grain and non-grain fields in the Tulare Basin of California treated post-harvest with two types of flooding that varied in duration and depth of water applied (Flooded-type fields [FLD]: 1 week; Irrigated-type fields [IRG]: 1 week) flooding increased waterbird use of grain fields in the Tulare Basin more than in the northern Central Valley. Thus, even though water costs are high in the Tulare Basin, if net benefit to waterbirds is considered, management programs that increase availability of FLD-type fields (especially grain) in the Tulare Basin may be a cost-effective option to help meet waterbird habitat conservation goals in the Central Valley of California.

  13. Rainfall and Flood Frequency Analysis Using High-Resolution Radar Rainfall Fields and Stochastic Storm Transposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Daniel; Smith, James; Baeck, Mary Lynn

    2013-04-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall fields, and their interactions with surface, subsurface, and drainage network properties, are important drivers of flood response. 'Design storms,' which are commonly used for flood risk assessment, however, are assumed to be uniform in space and either uniform or highly idealized in time. The impacts of these and other common assumptions on estimates of flood risk are poorly understood. We present an alternative framework for flood risk assessment based on stochastic storm transposition (SST). In this framework, "storm catalogs" are derived from a ten-year high-resolution (15-minute, 1 km2) bias-corrected radar rainfall dataset for the region surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. SST-based rainfall frequency analyses are developed by resampling from these storm catalogs to synthesize the regional climatology of extreme rainfall. SST-based intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) estimates are driven by the spatial and temporal rainfall variability from weather radar observations, are specifically tailored to the chosen catchment, and do not require simplifying assumptions of storm structure. We are able to use the SST procedure to reproduce IFD estimates from conventional methods for small urban catchments in Charlotte. We further demonstrate that extreme rainfall can vary substantially in time and in space, with important flood risk implications that cannot be assessed using conventional techniques. When coupled with a physics-based distributed hydrologic model, the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) model, SST enables us to examine the full impact of spatial and temporal rainfall variability on flood response and flood frequency. The interactions of extreme rainfall with spatially distributed land use, soil properties, and stormwater management infrastructure are assessed for several nested urban catchments in Charlotte. Results suggest that these interactions, which cannot be fully accounted for

  14. Interpolation of observed rainfall fields for flood forecasting in data poor areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis Prada, M. C.; Werner, M. G. F.

    2010-09-01

    Observed rainfall fields constitute a crucial input for operational flood forecasting, providing boundary conditions to hydrological models for prediction of flows and levels in relevant forecast points. Such observed fields are derived through interpolation from available observed data from rain gauges. The reliability of the derived rainfall field depends on the density of the gauge network within the basin, as well as on the variability of the rainfall itself, and the interpolation method. In this paper interpolation methods to estimate rainfall fields under data- poor environments are researched, with the derived rainfall fields being used in operational flood warnings. Methods are applied in a small catchment in Bogotá, Colombia. This catchment has a complex climatology, which is strongly influenced by the inter-tropical convergence zone and orographic enhancement. As is common in such catchments in developing countries, the rainfall gauging network is sparse, while the need for reliable rainfall in flood forecasting is high. The extensive high flood risk zones in the lower areas of the catchment, where urbanization processes are characterized by unplanned occupation of areas close to rivers, is common in developing countries. Results show the sensitivity of interpolated rainfall fields to the interpolation methods chosen, and the importance of the use of indicator variables for improving the spatial distribution of interpolated rainfall. The value of these methods in establishing optimal new gauging sites for augmenting the sparse gauge network is demonstrated.

  15. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 1. Body of report

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Comparative core flood testing of preserved Ranger Zone core rock samples was completed; the past year's results were discouraging. In contrast, Ranger sand pack alkaline flood tests gave encouraging results. New insights were gained on in-situ alkaline consumption. Dehydration of sodium orthosilicate water-produced water-crude oil systems does not appear to create any operational problems. The alkaline injection facilities were completed and placed in operation on March 27, 1980. The preflush injection, which was composed of 11.5 million barrels of softened fresh water with an average 0.96% of salt, was completed at that time. The total preflush amounted to approximately 10 pore volume percent. The 0.4% sodium orthosilicate-1.0% salt-soft fresh water injection started at the end of the preflush. A loss of injectivity began at the same time as alkaline injection, which is attributed to divalent ions in the salt brine. Salt was removed temporarily from the system on May 30, 1980. No injection wells were redrilled during the year. Other than plug back of one injector and one producer because of bad liners and repair of one injection well with an inner liner, well work was routine and minor in nature. Dual injection strings were transferred from one well to another. One of the injection wells whose injectivity was damaged by the alkaline-salt injection was successfully stimulated. The pilot was self certified under the tertiary incentive program and cost recoupments obtained. Preparations are underway for making the alkaline flood simulator performance prediction for the pilot. Laboratory testing is actively underway in an attempt to quickly find a remedy for the floc formation that occurs on mixing the salt brine and dilute alkaline solution. Volume 1 describes the activities for this period. Volumes 2 and 3 contain appendices.

  16. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly

  17. Changes in types and area of postharvest flooded fields available to waterbirds in Tulare Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Skalos, Daniel A.; Farinha, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts to restore historic waterbird distribution and abundance in the Central Valley of California require information on current and historic areas of waterbird habitat. To provide this information, we mapped the area of agricultural fields in the vicinity of the historic Tulare Lake Bed in the Tulare Basin, California, that were treated postharvest with two different flooding regimes that varied in depth and duration of water applied (, 1 cm to 1.5 m water for longer than 1 wk [FLD]; , 1 to 15 cm water for 1 wk or less [IRG]) during August–March 1991–1994 and 2005–2006. We compared our results with published estimates for 1976–1980 and 1981–1987. Area and crops treated postharvest with FLD or IRG flooding differed among years and months. Overall for August through March, weekly area of FLD fields averaged 1,671 ha in 1976–1980 but declined to about half that in later years; the decline was most severe during January–March. Cotton was primarily treated with IRG flooding and comprised 47–95% of the total IRG field area. Other crops were primarily treated with FLD flooding; tomato replaced safflower in 2005–2006. These documented declines since the 1970s in area of FLD fields and changes in crops being flooded postharvest reduce the carrying capacity of the Tulare Basin for waterbirds, a situation that will need to be reversed for restoration of historic waterbird distribution in the Central Valley to be viable. If maintaining agricultural production is a priority and agricultural drainage waters can be disposed of safely, then increasing the extent of FLD grain fields would provide the most benefit for wintering waterbirds; otherwise, restoring and providing adequate water supplies to managed wetlands would most benefit waterbirds

  18. Water treatment by aquatic ecosystem: Nutrient removal by reservoirs and flooded fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. R.; Sacco, P. D.; Graetz, D. A.; Campbell, K. L.; Sinclair, L. R.

    1982-05-01

    Potential use of reservoirs and flooded fields stocked with aquatic plants for reduction of the nutrient levels of organic soil drainage water was evaluated. The treatment systems include 1) a large single reservoir (R1) stocked with waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes), elodea ( Egeria densa), and cattails ( Typha sp.) in series; 2) three small reservoirs in series with waterhyacinth (R2), elodea (R3), and cattails (R4), grown in independent reservoirs; 3) a control reservoir (R5) with no cultivated plants; 4) a large single flooded field planted to cattails; 5) three small flooded fields in a series planted to cattails; and 6) a flooded field with no cultivated plants. Drainage water was pumped daily (6 hours a day, and 6 days a week) into these systems for a period of 27 months at predetermined constant flow rates. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of each treatment system and analyzed for N and P forms. The series of reservoirs stocked with aquatic plants functioned effectively in the removal of N and P from agricultural drainage water, compared to a single large reservoir. Allowing the water to flow through the reservoir stocked with waterhyacinth plants with a residence time of 3.6 days was adequate to remove about 50% of the incoming inorganic N. Allowing the water to flow through a series of two small reservoirs, R2 and R3, with a residence time of 7.3 days was necessary to remove about 60% of the incoming ortho-P. Flooded fields were effective in the removal of inorganic N, but showed poor efficiency in the removal of ortho-P.

  19. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-06-30

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2004, 6.26 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 250 MCFD. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May. The amount of carbon dioxide produced was small during this period. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.5 B/D in May and June. Operational problems encountered during the initial stages of the flood were identified and resolved.

  20. CP(N - 1) quantum field theories with alkaline-earth atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflamme, C.; Evans, W.; Dalmonte, M.; Gerber, U.; Mejía-Díaz, H.; Bietenholz, W.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a cold atom implementation to attain the continuum limit of (1 + 1) -d CP(N - 1) quantum field theories. These theories share important features with (3 + 1) -d QCD, such as asymptotic freedom and θ-vacua. Moreover, their continuum limit can be accessed via the mechanism of dimensional reduction. In our scheme, the CP(N - 1) degrees of freedom emerge at low energies from a ladder system of SU(N) quantum spins, where the N spin states are embodied by the nuclear Zeeman states of alkaline-earth atoms, trapped in an optical lattice. Based on Monte Carlo results, we establish that the continuum limit can be demonstrated by an atomic quantum simulation by employing the feature of asymptotic freedom. We discuss a protocol for the adiabatic preparation of the ground state of the system, the real-time evolution of a false θ-vacuum state after a quench, and we propose experiments to unravel the phase diagram at non-zero density.

  1. Feedbacks among Floods, Pioneer Woody Vegetation, and Channel Change in Sand-Bed Rivers: Insights from Field Studies of Controlled Flood Releases and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Shafroth, P. B.; Lightbody, A.; Stella, J. C.; Bywater-Reyes, S.; Kiu, L.; Skorko, K.

    2012-04-01

    To investigate feedbacks between flow, geomorphic processes, and pioneer riparian vegetation in sand-bed rivers, we are combining field, hydraulic modeling, and laboratory simulations. Field studies have examined the response of woody riparian seedlings and channel morphology to prescribed dam-released floods that have been designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Through monitoring of floods over a 7-year period, we have observed temporal and spatial variations in channel response. Floods have produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach with greater sediment supply. We also have observed that as vegetation grows beyond the seedling stage, its stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increases, such that floods of similar sizes but at different times may produce markedly different downstream responses as a function of vegetation characteristics. We also observed greater mortality among nonnative Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) seedlings than among native Salix gooddingii (Goodding's willow) seedlings, likely as a result of the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. Combining field observations with modeling predictions of local hydraulics for the flood events we have studied is being used to draw linkages between hydraulics, channel change, and plant response at the patch and bar scale. In addition, mechanistic linkages are being examined using a field-scale laboratory stream channel, where seedlings of Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) and Populus fremontii (cottonwood) were planted and subjected to floods with varying sediment feed rate and plant configurations. The floods conveyed by our model channel were generally insufficient to scour the woody seedlings we planted, but changes in bar size and

  2. Microwave Backscatter and Attenuation Dependence of Leaf Area Index for Flooded Rice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, Stephen L.; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Livingston, Gerald P.

    1995-01-01

    Wetlands are important for their role in global climate as a source of methane and other reduced trace gases. As part of an effort to determine whether radar is suitable for wetland vegetation monitoring, we have studied the dependence of microwave backscatter and attenuation on leaf area index (LAI) for flooded rice fields. We find that the radar return from a flooded rice field does show dependence on LAI. In particular, the C-band VV cross section per unit area decreases with increasing LAI. A simple model for scattering from rice fields is derived and fit to the observed HH and VV data. The model fit provides insight into the relation of backscatter to LAI and is also used to calculate the canopy path attenuation as a function of LAI.

  3. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic community structure in field and cultured microbialites from the alkaline Lake Alchichica (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Couradeau, Estelle; Benzerara, Karim; Moreira, David; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Kaźmierczak, Józef; Tavera, Rosaluz; López-García, Purificación

    2011-01-01

    The geomicrobiology of crater lake microbialites remains largely unknown despite their evolutionary interest due to their resemblance to some Archaean analogs in the dominance of in situ carbonate precipitation over accretion. Here, we studied the diversity of archaea, bacteria and protists in microbialites of the alkaline Lake Alchichica from both field samples collected along a depth gradient (0-14 m depth) and long-term-maintained laboratory aquaria. Using small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene libraries and fingerprinting methods, we detected a wide diversity of bacteria and protists contrasting with a minor fraction of archaea. Oxygenic photosynthesizers were dominated by cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms. Cyanobacterial diversity varied with depth, Oscillatoriales dominating shallow and intermediate microbialites and Pleurocapsales the deepest samples. The early-branching Gloeobacterales represented significant proportions in aquaria microbialites. Anoxygenic photosynthesizers were also diverse, comprising members of Alphaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Although photosynthetic microorganisms dominated in biomass, heterotrophic lineages were more diverse. We detected members of up to 21 bacterial phyla or candidate divisions, including lineages possibly involved in microbialite formation, such as sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria but also Firmicutes and very diverse taxa likely able to degrade complex polymeric substances, such as Planctomycetales, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia. Heterotrophic eukaryotes were dominated by Fungi (including members of the basal Rozellida or Cryptomycota), Choanoflagellida, Nucleariida, Amoebozoa, Alveolata and Stramenopiles. The diversity and relative abundance of many eukaryotic lineages suggest an unforeseen role for protists in microbialite ecology. Many lineages from lake microbialites were successfully maintained in aquaria. Interestingly, the diversity detected in aquarium microbialites was higher than in field samples

  4. Remote-Sensing-Based Evaluation of Relative Consumptive Use Between Flood- and Drip-Irrigated Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Baquero, G. F.; Jordan, D. L.; Whittaker, A. T.; Allen, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    Governments and water authorities are compelled to evaluate the impacts of agricultural irrigation on economic development and sustainability as water supply shortages continue to increase in many communities. One of the strategies commonly used to reduce such impacts is the conversion of traditional irrigation methods towards more water-efficient practices. As part of a larger effort by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission to understand the environmental and economic impact of converting from flood irrigation to drip irrigation, this study evaluates the water-saving effectiveness of drip irrigation in Deming, New Mexico, using a remote-sensing-based technique combined with ground data collection. The remote-sensing-based technique used relative temperature differences as a proxy for water use to show relative differences in crop consumptive use between flood- and drip-irrigated fields. Temperature analysis showed that, on average, drip-irrigated fields were cooler than flood-irrigated fields, indicating higher water use. The higher consumption of water by drip-irrigated fields was supported by a determination of evapotranspiration (ET) from all fields using the METRIC Landsat-based surface energy balance model. METRIC analysis yielded higher instantaneous ET for drip-irrigated fields when compared to flood-irrigated fields and confirmed that drip-irrigated fields consumed more water than flood-irrigated fields planted with the same crop. More water use generally results in more biomass and hence higher crop yield, and this too was confirmed by greater relative Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for the drip irrigated fields. Results from this study confirm previous estimates regarding the impacts of increased efficiency of drip irrigation on higher water consumption in the area (Ward and Pulido-Velazquez, 2008). The higher water consumption occurs with drip because, with the limited water supplies and regulated maximum limits on pumping amounts, the

  5. Mantle xenocrysts of Chompolo field of the alkaline volcanics, Aldan shield, South Yakutia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolenko, Evgeny; Tychkov, Nikolay; Afanasiev, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    New mineralogical and chemical constraints for 10 dikes, veins (360-800m) and pipes (60-110 m) of Chompolo field discovered in 1957-1958 are discussed. Feld is located within Central Aldan Archean and Paleoproterozoic granulite-orthogneiss superterrane of Aldan-Stanovoy Shield, with peak of metamorphism - 2.1-1.9 Ga (Smelov, Timofeev, 2007). Originally (Shilina and Zeitlin 1959) and later (Kostrovitsky and Garanin 1992, Ashchepkov, Vladykin et al. 2001) these rocks were classified as kimberlites by mineralogy including pyrope, Cr spinel, and Cr diopside. Panina and Vladykin (1994), Davies et al, (2006) identified them as lamprophyres and lamproites. The age of Chompolo rocks is pre-Jurassic (Vladimirov et. al., 1989) dated by 40Ar/39Ar as 164.7±1 Ma (233.7±2.2 next plato)(unpublished Ashchepkov). The Rb-Sr isochron for lamprophyre "intrusions 104" indicate later age of 131±4 Ma (Zaitsev, Smelov, 2010). Magmatic bodies (Aldanskaya, Sputnik, Gornaya, Ogonek, Perevalnaya, Kilier-E) were studied during 2012-2013 fieldworks. Most of igneous rocks occur as inequigranular volcanic breccias with micro- or crypto-crystalline groundmass of K feldspar (up to 16.3 wt.% K2O, up to 3.2 wt.% FeO), chlorite, opaque minerals, melanocratic xenocrysts and phenocrysts (garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, Cr spinel, apatite, zircon, mica), and abundant xenogenic fragments of wallrock and crystalline basement. Garnet chemistry records the presence of mantle and crustal material. Mantle garnets lack the common megacryst, wehrlite, and high-temperature lherzolite varieties. Mantle mineralization prevails in the Aldan dike and the Sputnik, Gornaya, and Ogonek pipes, while crustal and elcogitic material is in the Perevalnaya and Kilier-E pipes. The Cr spinel consists of (in wt%) 3.5 to 50.9 Al2O3, 18.6-63.5 wt% Cr2O3, 6.1 to 19.1 MgO, and 0 to 1.61 TiO2. Al and Cr in spinels are in inverse proportion. The Chompolo alkaline volcanic rocks are most similar to the Central Aldan lamproites in trace

  6. Constraining the onset of flood volcanism in Isle of Skye Lava Field, British Paleogene Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angkasa, Syahreza; Jerram, Dougal. A.; Svensen, Henrik; Millet, John M.; Taylor, Ross; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    In order to constrain eruption styles at the onset of flood volcanism, field observations were undertaken on basal sections of the Isle of Skye Lava Field, British Paleogene Volcanic Province. This study investigates three specific sections; Camus Ban, Neist Point and Soay Sound which sample a large area about 1500 km2 and can be used to help explain the variability in palaeo-environments at the onset of flood volcanism. Petrological analysis is coupled with petrophysical lab data and photogrammetry data to create detailed facies models for the different styles of initiating flood basalt volcanism. Photogrammetry is used to create Ortho-rectified 3D models which, along with photomontage images, allow detailed geological observations to be mapped spatially. Petrographic analyses are combined with petrophysical lab data to identify key textural variation, mineral compositions and physical properties of the volcanic rocks emplaced during the initial eruptions. Volcanism initiated with effusive eruptions in either subaerial or subaqueous environments resulting in tuff/hyaloclastite materials or lava flow facies lying directly on the older Mesozoic strata. Volcanic facies indicative of lava-water interactions vary significantly in thickness between different sections suggesting a strong accommodation space control on the style of volcanism. Camus Ban shows hyaloclastite deposits with a thickness of 25m, whereas the Soay Sound area has tuffaceous sediments of under 0.1m in thickness. Subaerial lavas overly these variable deposits in all studied areas. The flood basalt eruptions took place in mixed wet and dry environments with some significant locally developed water bodies (e.g. Camus Ban). More explosive eruptions were promoted in some cases by interaction of lavas with these water bodies and possibly by local interaction with water - saturated sediments. We record key examples of how palaeotopography imparts a primary control on the style of volcanism during the

  7. Crop Uptake of Arsenic from Flooded Paddy Fields in the Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, K.; Boye, K.

    2014-12-01

    Arsenic is found naturally in the soils in the Mekong delta in Vietnam and Cambodia. It originates from erosion in the Himalayas. When similar levels of arsenic are present in well aerated soil, it is not dangerous, because it is strongly bound to soil particles and not readily plant available. Arsenic is released when the soil is saturated with water, and therefore contaminates crops grown in flooded fields. This results in people being exposed to unsafe levels of arsenic from their food, such as rice and lotus, which are normally grown under flooded conditions. Rice is a staple food in these regions, so the transfer of arsenic from soil, to water, and ultimately into the grain, poses a threat to human health. We have conducted a limited, preliminary field survey of arsenic levels in soil, flood water, and crops from distinctly different paddy fields in the lower Mekong delta in Vietnam and Cambodia. The purpose of the study was to identify soils and crops (or specific plant parts) that are especially prone to arsenic transfer from soil to crop, and vice versa (i.e. arsenic uptake is prevented in spite of being present in the soil). In addition to arsenic concentration in soil, plant and water, we are examining other elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and iron, which give us clues about what chemical and microbial processes that control the overall arsenic uptake.

  8. Petrology of the alkaline rocks of the Macau Volcanic Field, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngonge, Emmanuel Donald; de Hollanda, Maria Helena Bezerra Maia; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; de Oliveira, Diógenes Custódio

    2016-12-01

    The Macau Volcanic Field (MVF) in the Borborema Province, NE Brazil, contains multiple centres of volcanic activity of Early to Late Cenozoic ages. We present element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemical data for four of the few most prominent basalt types of this volcanic field: Serrote Preto-type, Serra Aguda-type, Pico do Cabugi-type and Serra Preta-type, in order to assess their magmatic history from source to crystallization and the evolution of the mantle beneath the Borborema Province. The basalts are basically sodic nephelinitic-basanitic-alkali olivine basalts enriched in LILE and in Nb-Ta. The Serra Preta, Cabugi and Serra Aguda types demonstrate compositions close to primitive characteristics with 10% < MgO < 15 wt.% and 200 ppm < Ni < 500 ppm, and experienced limited fractional crystallization of olivine-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-oxides with negligible wall-rock assimilation. Rb/Sr and Ba/Rb constraints support the generation of SiO2-undersaturated magmas from mantle melting of amphibole-bearing peridotites with minor phlogopite. The source for the basanites and alkali basalts is estimated to be a garnet-bearing domain around the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (80-93 km deep), while the nephelinites are derived from the adiabatic asthenosphere at 105 km with temperatures of 1480 °C. Their incompatible trace element patterns and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions are similar to FOZO and EM-type OIB magmas. From the comparison of data with those of the Ceará-Mirim dyke swarm we propose that there is a ubiquitous FOZO reservoir in the SCLM beneath the Borborema Province. This FOZO signature characterized the upwelling asthenosphere during the lithospheric extension and thinning at the opening of the Equatorial Atlantic and is clearly represented in the Mesozoic olivine tholeiites of Ceará-Mirim. The upwelled asthenosphere cooled as a rigid SCLM since the Cretaceous and has preserved its FOZO signature evident in the Macau Cenozoic basalts. The EM signatures

  9. An integrated approach to flood hazard assessment on alluvial fans using numerical modeling, field mapping, and remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelletier, J.D.; Mayer, L.; Pearthree, P.A.; House, P.K.; Demsey, K.A.; Klawon, J.K.; Vincent, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Millions of people in the western United States live near the dynamic, distributary channel networks of alluvial fans where flood behavior is complex and poorly constrained. Here we test a new comprehensive approach to alluvial-fan flood hazard assessment that uses four complementary methods: two-dimensional raster-based hydraulic modeling, satellite-image change detection, fieldbased mapping of recent flood inundation, and surficial geologic mapping. Each of these methods provides spatial detail lacking in the standard method and each provides critical information for a comprehensive assessment. Our numerical model simultaneously solves the continuity equation and Manning's equation (Chow, 1959) using an implicit numerical method. It provides a robust numerical tool for predicting flood flows using the large, high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) necessary to resolve the numerous small channels on the typical alluvial fan. Inundation extents and flow depths of historic floods can be reconstructed with the numerical model and validated against field- and satellite-based flood maps. A probabilistic flood hazard map can also be constructed by modeling multiple flood events with a range of specified discharges. This map can be used in conjunction with a surficial geologic map to further refine floodplain delineation on fans. To test the accuracy of the numerical model, we compared model predictions of flood inundation and flow depths against field- and satellite-based flood maps for two recent extreme events on the southern Tortolita and Harquahala piedmonts in Arizona. Model predictions match the field- and satellite-based maps closely. Probabilistic flood hazard maps based on the 10 yr, 100 yr, and maximum floods were also constructed for the study areas using stream gage records and paleoflood deposits. The resulting maps predict spatially complex flood hazards that strongly reflect small-scale topography and are consistent with surficial geology. In

  10. A Further Investigation of the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields on Alkaline Phosphatase and Acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Silkstone, Gary; Wilson, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Using a custom build spectrophotometer equipped with Helmholtz coils and designed to study the effects of magnetic fields on enzyme reactions in real-time we have investigated the influence of fields, from 100 μT to 10 mT and at a variety of field frequencies, on the membrane bound enzymes alkaline phosphatase and acetylcholinesterase. We have also employed other methods to apply a magnetic field, e.g. Biostim. In contrast to earlier reports we have been unable to detect any field effects on these enzymes under any field/frequency regime. We discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy between this and earlier work and note the particularly complex influence of small temperature changes that may confound analysis. PMID:26963611

  11. Recent developments in the field of organic heterobimetallic compounds of the alkaline-earth metals.

    PubMed

    Westerhausen, Matthias

    2006-10-28

    Heterobimetallic compounds of the alkaline-earth metals show a wide structural variety with strongly differing reactivity patterns. The combination of magnesium and alkali metal amides yields cyclic molecules with an extreme high reactivity which often are considered as "inverse crowns" with the metal atoms as coordination sites for Lewis bases. In other metallates of the alkaline-earth metals an activation of alkyl groups succeeds. In alkaline-earth metal zincates an inverse coordination of the type M(2)[(mu-R)(2)ZnR](2) is observed and the alkyl groups are in bridging positions between zinc and the s-block metals thus forming a very reactive M-C-Zn three-center-two-electron bond. Furthermore, the metals of the carbon group form alkaline-earth metal-silicon, -germanium and -tin bonds or, in the presence of very strong Lewis bases, even solvent-separated ion pairs. For electronegative substituents at tin an inverse coordination mode such as M[(mu-R)(2)SnR](2) is observed.

  12. Soil carbon cycle of different saline and alkaline soils under cotton fields in Tarim River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoning; Zhao, Chengyi; Stahr, Karl; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Calcium carbonate is the most common form of carbon (C) in semiarid and arid soils. Depending on pH and salinity changes, soils can act as sink or source of atmospheric CO2 as well as contribute to C exchange between CO2 and CaCO3 leading to formation of pedogenic carbonates. However, the rates of these processes and the effects of environmental factors remains unknown. 14CO2 was used to assess carbonate recrystallization in 4 saline and alkaline soils (Aksu alkaline, Aksu saline, Yingbazar alkaline, Yingbazar saline) (EC = 0.32, 1.35, 1.72, 3.67 (1:20) mS cm-1, pH = 8.5, 8.2, 8.9, 7.9 respectively) and to trace the C exchange in the soils of the Tarim River basin depending on CO2 concentrations in soils (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 4%). 14C was traced in soil water and air as well as in carbonates. The highest 14C in 14CO2 (95% of the 14C input) was observed in Aksu alkaline soil and the highest 14C incorporation in CaCO3 (54%) was observed in Yingbazar saline soil. There were close negative linear relationships between initial CO2 concentrations (0.04%, 0.4% and 4%) and the 14C in Ca14CO3 and in 14CO2. The carbonate recrystallization rate increased with the CO2 concentration and were depended on the recrystalliztion period. The average carbonate recrystallization rate was highest at 4% CO2 concentration for Yingbazar saline soil (6.59×10-4 % per day) and the lowest at 0.04% CO2 concentration for Aksu alkaline soil (0.03×10-4 % per day). The carbonate recrystallization rate linearly increased with the soil EC and with 0.04% and 0.4% CO2 concentration , whereas the carbonate recrystallization rate decreased with pH. The highest CO2 concentration of 4% can 10 to 100 times shorten the full carbonate recrystallization of the remaining primary carbonates compared to lower CO2 concentrations 0.4% and 0.04% for complete (95%) recrystallization of soil carbonate. We conclude that microbial and root respiration affecting CO2 concentration in soil is the most important

  13. Some learnings from post-event field investigations after the june 2013 floods in the Pyrenees region in France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payrastre, Olivier; Bonnifait, Laurent; Gaume, Eric; Le Boursicaut, Raphael

    2014-05-01

    In June 2013 catastrophic floods occurred in south of France in the Pyrenees mountainous area. These floods were due to the combination of a high initial discharge due to snowmelt with a significant rainfall event (up to 200mm rainfall), which effects may have been enhanced by an increase of snowmelt. Although the dynamics of this flood are not really similar, some of its features clearly remind what may be observed in the case of flash floods: significant contribution of relatively small watersheds, high solid transport, very limited information on the reality of flood magnitudes due to the small size of catchments contributing to the flood and the destruction of a significant part of the gauging network. This contribution presents the results of a post event field survey conducted in July 2013 in order to document this flood in terms of intensities of hydrologic reactions. The methods used are those described in Gaume et al. [2008, 2009], with a specific focus on the exploitation of videos from weatnesses. The dataset builded includes 31 peak discharge estimates, illustrating the relatively limited intensity of hydrologic reactions if compared to flash floods, but also providing some interesting complements for the consolidation of the methodology used for post-event field investigations: - several opportunities of comparison of the peak discharge estimates obtained from post event field investigations and from the gauging network, showing an overall good coherence - possibility of very significant flow velocities (up to 6 m/s-2) in the specific context observed here (slopes reaching up to 5%). - possibility to get information on flow surface velocities fields from videos provided by weatnesses. - significant influence of space-time rainfall distribution on the features of the flood, stressing the importance of a detailed information on the contribution of the sub-catchments. Gaume E., Borga M., 2008. Post flood field investigations after major flash floods

  14. The Infectious and Noninfectious Dermatological Consequences of Flooding: A Field Manual for the Responding Provider.

    PubMed

    Bandino, Justin P; Hang, Anna; Norton, Scott A

    2015-10-01

    Meteorological data show that disastrous floods are increasingly frequent and more severe in recent years, perhaps due to climatic changes such as global warming. During and after a flood disaster, traumatic injuries, communicable diseases, chemical exposures, malnutrition, decreased access to care, and even mental health disorders dramatically increase, and many of these have dermatological manifestations. Numerous case reports document typical and atypical cutaneous infections, percutaneous trauma, immersion injuries, noninfectious contact exposures, exposure to wildlife, and exacerbation of underlying skin diseases after such disasters as the 2004 Asian tsunami, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and the 2010 Pakistan floods. This review attempts to provide a basic field manual of sorts to providers who are engaged in care after a flooding event, with particular focus on the infectious consequences. Bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are still common causes of skin infections after floods, with atypical bacteria also greatly increased. Vibrio vulnificus is classically associated with exposure to saltwater or brackish water. It may present as necrotizing fasciitis with hemorrhagic bullae, and treatment consists of doxycycline or a quinolone, plus a third-generation cephalosporin and surgical debridement. Atypical mycobacterial infections typically produce indolent cutaneous infections, possibly showing sporotrichoid spread. A unique nontuberculous infection called spam has recently been identified in Satowan Pacific Islanders; combination antibiotic therapy is recommended. Aeromonas infection is typically associated with freshwater exposure and, like Vibrio infections, immunocompromised or cirrhotic patients are at highest risk for severe disease, such as necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis. Various antibiotics can be used to treat Aeromonas infections. Melioidosis is seen mainly in Southeast Asia and Australia, particularly in rice farmers, and

  15. Precipitation Datasets for the GPM Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, Witold; Seo, Bong Chul; Goska, Radoslaw; Demir, Ibrahim; Elsaadani, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    In the spring of 2013 NASA will launch a field experiment called Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) as a part of the Ground Validation (GV) program for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. The purpose of IFloodS is to enhance the understanding of flood-related precipitation processes in events worldwide. While a number of scientific instruments such as ground-based radars, rain gauges, and disdrometers will be deployed to monitor upcoming rainfall events in Iowa, various precipitation datasets from weather radars, satellites, and rain gauges have been collected over past several years (up to eleven years) and processed to support validation and flood-related rainfall-runoff modeling studies. These historical datasets include TMPA (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis), PERSIANN (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network), and CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center morphing method) products for satellite estimates; Stage IV, Hydro-NEXRAD, NMQ (National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor QPE), and IFC (Iowa Flood Center) products for radar estimates; ASOS (Automated Surface Observing System), NWS COOP (Cooperative Observer Program), and IFC research network for rain gauge data. These datasets have all different temporal and spatial resolutions as well as uncertainty characteristics, and this provides benefits for product validation using multi-scale data as well as hydrologic modeling where different models require different scale of rainfall inputs. The datasets are organized in a database and available via a web browser-based interface, allowing the users to specify time and space domain of interest. The database connects users' requests with data storage and information and also assists them in finding significant rainfall events with ease and speed by showing basic rainfall statistics for the domain defined by users.

  16. Intermittent spring flooding of agricultural fields will increase net global-warming potential of greenhouse gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. F.; Smyth, E. M.; Smith, C. M.; Kantola, I. B.; Krichels, A.; Yang, W. H.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt is currently a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous dioxide to the atmosphere but is also a weak sink for methane. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and duration of spring precipitation in the North American Midwest, resulting in intermittent flooding and ponding in agricultural fields. Inundation changes the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of the soil, especially by promoting methanogenesis under anoxic conditions. DNA and 16S cDNA sequencing results of earlier, similar experiments confirmed the presence of methanogens in soil samples, albeit in low abundance (representing <0.01% of reads per sample). We installed collars into bare ground of a central Illinois research field to experiment with flooding conditions and observe changes in gas fluxes, microbial community, and soil chemistry. We established three treatments of five replicates—control, continuously flooded, and intermittently flooded—each with separate collars for gas flux measurements, soil sample collection, and soil probe measurements. A drip irrigation system flooded the headspaces of the collars to produce flooding events. The continuously flooded collars were maintained in a flooded condition for the duration of the experiment, and the intermittently flooded collars were flooded for 72 hours per flooding event and then kept dry for at least 5 days before the next flooding event. We measured net concentrations of N2O, CH4, and CO2 in situ using a static chamber connected to a cavity ringdown spectrometer. We found that the periodicity of wetting and drying events induces hysteresis effects that push GHG shifts to occur rapidly (< 1 hr). Integrating fluxes across the period of the experiment, the intermittently flooded collars showed 88.7% higher global-warming potential of GHG fluxes at the 100-year horizon versus control, with most of change driven by increased net CO2 flux (87.1% higher) and net methane flux (29 times higher). These data indicate that

  17. Reducing Salinity by Flooding an Extremely Alkaline and Saline Soil Changes the Bacterial Community but Its Effect on the Archaeal Community Is Limited.

    PubMed

    de León-Lorenzana, Arit S; Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Domínguez-Mendoza, Cristina; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Luna-Guido, Marco; Dendooven, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Regular flooding of the soil to reduce salinity will change soil characteristics, but also the microbial community structure. Soil of the former lake Texcoco with electrolytic conductivity (EC) 157.4 dS m-1 and pH 10.3 was flooded monthly in the laboratory under controlled conditions for 10 months while soil characteristics were determined and the archaeal and bacterial community structure monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The EC of the soil dropped from 157.8 to 1.7 dS m-1 and the clay content decreased from 430 to 270 g kg-1 after ten floodings, but the pH (10.3) did not change significantly over time. Flooding the soil had a limited effect on the archaeal community structure and only the relative abundance of Haloferax-like 16S rRNA phylotypes changed significantly. Differences in archaeal population structure were more defined by the initial physicochemical properties of the soil sample than by a reduction in salinity. Flooding, however, had a stronger effect on bacterial community structure than on the archaeal community structure. A wide range of bacterial taxa was affected significantly by changes in the soil characteristics, i.e., four phyla, nine classes, 17 orders, and 28 families. The most marked change occurred after only one flooding characterized by a sharp decrease in the relative abundance of bacterial groups belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, e.g., Halomonadaceae (Oceanospirillales), Pseudomonadaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae and an increase in that of the [Rhodothermales] (Bacteroidetes), Nitriliruptorales (Actinobacteria), and unassigned Bacteria. It was found that flooding the soil sharply reduced the EC, but also the soil clay content. Flooding the soil had a limited effect on the archaeal community structure, but altered the bacterial community structure significantly.

  18. Reducing Salinity by Flooding an Extremely Alkaline and Saline Soil Changes the Bacterial Community but Its Effect on the Archaeal Community Is Limited

    PubMed Central

    de León-Lorenzana, Arit S.; Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Domínguez-Mendoza, Cristina; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Luna-Guido, Marco; Dendooven, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Regular flooding of the soil to reduce salinity will change soil characteristics, but also the microbial community structure. Soil of the former lake Texcoco with electrolytic conductivity (EC) 157.4 dS m-1 and pH 10.3 was flooded monthly in the laboratory under controlled conditions for 10 months while soil characteristics were determined and the archaeal and bacterial community structure monitored by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The EC of the soil dropped from 157.8 to 1.7 dS m-1 and the clay content decreased from 430 to 270 g kg-1 after ten floodings, but the pH (10.3) did not change significantly over time. Flooding the soil had a limited effect on the archaeal community structure and only the relative abundance of Haloferax-like 16S rRNA phylotypes changed significantly. Differences in archaeal population structure were more defined by the initial physicochemical properties of the soil sample than by a reduction in salinity. Flooding, however, had a stronger effect on bacterial community structure than on the archaeal community structure. A wide range of bacterial taxa was affected significantly by changes in the soil characteristics, i.e., four phyla, nine classes, 17 orders, and 28 families. The most marked change occurred after only one flooding characterized by a sharp decrease in the relative abundance of bacterial groups belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, e.g., Halomonadaceae (Oceanospirillales), Pseudomonadaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae and an increase in that of the [Rhodothermales] (Bacteroidetes), Nitriliruptorales (Actinobacteria), and unassigned Bacteria. It was found that flooding the soil sharply reduced the EC, but also the soil clay content. Flooding the soil had a limited effect on the archaeal community structure, but altered the bacterial community structure significantly.

  19. Floods and Flash Flooding

    MedlinePlus

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  20. Effects of flooding on field populations of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Osbrink, Weste L A; Cornelius, Mary L; Lax, Alan R

    2008-08-01

    Hurricane Katrina (2005) resulted in extensive flooding in the city of New Orleans, LA. Periodic sampling of monitors before the flood, and of different monitors in the same areas after the flood, was used to evaluate the effects of long-term flooding on populations of Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Monitors were located adjacent to buildings and in urban forests. Significant population reductions occurred in areas that flooded 2-3 wk with brackish water, with termite populations associated with pine (Pinus spp.) trees and buildings slower to recover than populations associated with oak trees. Alate production in flooded areas showed no reduction from previous years.

  1. Experience of malaria in children of a flood affected area: a field hospital study.

    PubMed

    Afzal, M F; Sultan, M A

    2013-07-01

    ABSTRACT To determine the frequency of malaria among children presenting with fever in a flood affected area, and the frequency of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum among cases, this cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 September 2010 to 15 January 2011 in the Australian Field Camp and Ehsas Field Hospital, Kot Addu, Muzaffargarh District, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Each febrile child aged < or = 15 years fulfilling the clinical case definition of suspected uncomplicated malaria was investigated by rapid diagnostic test. Of 20 288 children examined, 3198 (16%) febrile patients fulfilled the clinical case definition and 2406 (75%) cases were positive for malaria. P. vivax, P. falciparum, and co-infection were present in 1562 (65%), 759 (31%) and 85(4%) cases respectively. P. vivax was the most prevalent species followed by P. falciparum. Twenty seven (4%) cases of P. falciparum fulfilled the case definition of cerebral malaria. The age group most affected was 5-9 years (41%)

  2. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfn; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-12-31

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of December 2004, 11.39 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 242 MCFD. Vent losses were excessive during June as ambient temperatures increased. Installation of smaller plungers in the carbon dioxide injection pump reduced the recycle and vent loss substantially. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May and in the second production well in August. No channeling of carbon dioxide was observed. The GOR has remained within the range of 3000-4000 for most the last six months. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.35 B/D for the six month period between July 1 and December 31. Cumulative oil production was 814 bbls. Neither well has experienced increased oil production rates expected from the arrival of the oil bank generated by carbon dioxide injection.

  3. Flooding and Flood Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  4. Faith in floods: Field and theory in landscape evolution before geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, David R.

    2013-10-01

    Opinions about the origin of topography have long marked the frontier between science and religion. The creation of the world we know is central to religious and secular world views; and until recently the power to shape landscapes lay beyond the reach of mortals, inviting speculation as to a role for divine intervention. For centuries, Christians framed rational inquiry into the origin of topography around theories for how Noah's Flood shaped mountains and carved valleys. Only as geologists learned how to decipher Earth history and read the signature of Earth surface processes did naturalists come to understand the forces that shaped the world. In this sense, the historical roots of geomorphology lie in the tension between faith in theories and the compelling power of field observations—issues that remain relevant to the practice of geomorphology today.

  5. Oligocene caldera complex and calc-alkaline tuffs and lavas of the Indian Peak volcanic field, Nevada and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, M.G.; Christiansen, E.H.; Blank, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Indian Peak volcanic field is representative of the more than 50 000 km3 of ashflow tuff and tens of calderas in the Great Basin that formed during the Oligocene-early Miocene "ignimbrite flareup' in southwestern North America. These dominantly high-K calc-alkaline rocks are a record of the birth, maturation, and death of a large, open, continental magma system that was probably initiated and sustained by influx of mafic magma derived from a southward-migrating locus of magma production in the mantle. Recurrent production of very large batches (some greater than 3000 km3) of quite uniform dacite magmas appears to have required combination of andesite magma and crustal silicic material in vigorously convecting chambers. Compositional data indicate that rhyolites are polygenetic. As the main locus of mantle magma production shifted southward, trachydacite magma could have been produced by fractionation of andesitic magma within the crust. -from Author

  6. Field experiment determinations of distribution coefficients of actinide elements in alkaline lake environments

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, H.J.; Trier, R.M.; Li, Y.-H.; Anderson, R.F.; Herczeg, A.L.

    1984-08-01

    Measurements of the radioisotope concentrations of a number of elements (Am, Pu, U, Pa, Th, Ac, Ra, Po, Pb, Cs, and Sr) in the water and sediments of a group of alkaline (pH = 9-10), saline lakes demonstrate greatly enhanced soluble-phase concentrations of elements with oxidation states of (III)-(VI) as the result of complexing by carbonate ion. Ratios of soluble radionuclide concentrations in Mono Lake to those in seawater ((CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/) in Mono Lake = 200 times that of seawater) were: Pu(approx. =10), /sup 238/U(approx. =150), /sup 231/Pa, /sup 228/Th, /sup 230/Th(approx. =10/sup 3/), and /sup 232/Th(approx. =10/sup 5/). Effective distribution coefficients of these radionuclides in high CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ environments are several orders of magnitude lower (i.e., less particle reactive) than in most other natural waters. The importance of CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ion on effective K/sub d/ values was also strongly suggested by laboratory experiments in which most of the dissolved actinide elements became adsorbed to particles after a water sample normally at a pH of 10 was acidified, stripped of all CO/sub 2/, and then returned to pH 10 by adding NH/sub 4/OH. Furthermore, the effect of complexation by organic ligands is of secondary importance in the presence of appreciable carbonate ion concentration. Neither pure phase solubility calculations nor laboratory scale K/sub d/ determinations accurately predicted the measured natural system concentrations. Therefore, measurements of the distribution of radionuclides in natural systems are essential for assessment of the likely fate of potential releases from high level waste repositories to groundwater. 50 references, 31 figures, 43 tables.

  7. Architecture and emplacement of flood basalt flow fields: case studies from the Columbia River Basalt Group, NW USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vye-Brown, C.; Self, S.; Barry, T. L.

    2013-03-01

    The physical features and morphologies of collections of lava bodies emplaced during single eruptions (known as flow fields) can be used to understand flood basalt emplacement mechanisms. Characteristics and internal features of lava lobes and whole flow field morphologies result from the forward propagation, radial spread, and cooling of individual lobes and are used as a tool to understand the architecture of extensive flood basalt lavas. The features of three flood basalt flow fields from the Columbia River Basalt Group are presented, including the Palouse Falls flow field, a small (8,890 km2, ˜190 km3) unit by common flood basalt proportions, and visualized in three dimensions. The architecture of the Palouse Falls flow field is compared to the complex Ginkgo and more extensive Sand Hollow flow fields to investigate the degree to which simple emplacement models represent the style, as well as the spatial and temporal developments, of flow fields. Evidence from each flow field supports emplacement by inflation as the predominant mechanism producing thick lobes. Inflation enables existing lobes to transmit lava to form new lobes, thus extending the advance and spread of lava flow fields. Minimum emplacement timescales calculated for each flow field are 19.3 years for Palouse Falls, 8.3 years for Ginkgo, and 16.9 years for Sand Hollow. Simple flow fields can be traced from vent to distal areas and an emplacement sequence visualized, but those with multiple-layered lobes present a degree of complexity that make lava pathways and emplacement sequences more difficult to identify.

  8. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested

  9. Aquatic Insect Emergence in Post-Harvest Flooded Agricultural Fields in the Southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, R. C.; Blumenshine, S.; Fleskes, J.

    2005-05-01

    California's Southern San Joaquin Valley is one of the most important waterbird areas in North America, but has suffered a disproportionate loss of wetlands when compared to other California regions. This project analyzes the habitat value of post-harvest flooded cropland by measuring the emergence of aquatic insects across multiple crop types. Aquatic insect emergence was sampled from post-harvest flooded fields of four crop types (alfalfa, corn, tomato, wheat), August-October, 2003-2004. Emergence was measured using traps deployed with a stratified random distribution to sample between and within field variation. Emergence rate and emergent biomass was significantly higher in flooded tomato fields. Results from corn fields indicate that flooding depth was correlated (r=0.095) with both diel temperature fluctuation and emergence rate. Chironomus dilutus larvae were grown in environmental chambers, under two thermal treatments with the same mean but different amplitudes (high: 15°-32°C, low: 20°-26°C) to investigate thermal fluctuation effects on survival and biomass. Larval survival (4x) and biomass (2x) were significantly greater in the low versus high temperature fluctuation treatment. This research has the potential to affect agricultural management throughout the 12,600 km2 region, increase aquatic insect production and aid in the recovery of declining bird populations.

  10. Field observations of particle impacts by debris flows and debris floods on instrumented rock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McArdell, B. W.; Hsu, L.; Fritschi, B.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2011-12-01

    Bedrock incision and sediment entrainment by debris flows are important processes in torrent channels. As part of our effort to gain a better understanding of these processes, we installed instrumented rock samples in the bed of the Illgraben channel. Three rock samples, 0.4 m long (in the flow direction), 0.3 m wide, and 0.2 m thick, were installed in steel frames which were mounted on the upslope side of a concrete check dam, with the surface of the stones flush with the channel bed. Accelerometer sensors were installed on the bottom of one rock sample, with a range of up to 500 g (vertical) and 200 g (horizontal, parallel to the channel axis), where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Elastomer elements, typically used in the field as overload protection for load sensors, were placed between the rock samples and the steel frames. Data were sampled at 2 kHz and stored on a computer outside of the channel. The sensors provided data for 4 debris floods and part of one debris flow. For all of the events, the vertical acceleration data indicate a large background noise in the range of ±10 g, punctuated by very short duration impulses of up to several hundred g. The large accelerations are interpreted to represent hard impacts of cobbles or boulders in the flow with the rock tablet. Using a value of >20 g to define the occurrence of a large particle impact, it is possible to differentiate between debris floods (which have on the order of 0.1 impact per second) and the debris flow (on the order of 1 impact per second). The frequency of the sampling is too small to resolve details about the impacts, so it is not possible to precisely determine the maximum accelerations. However the peak recorded values are larger for debris flows, with values up to the measurement limit of the sensors, whereas for floods the maximum accelerations are typically less than 100 g. The results for the accelerometer which measures accelerations in the downstream direction generally mirror

  11. Contemporaneous trachyandesitic and calc-alkaline volcanism of the Huerto Andesite, San Juan Volcanic Field, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parat, F.; Dungan, M.A.; Lipman, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Locally, voluminous andesitic volcanism both preceded and followed large eruptions of silicic ash-flow tuff from many calderas in the San Juan volcanic field. The most voluminous post-collapse lava suite of the central San Juan caldera cluster is the 28 Ma Huerto Andesite, a diverse assemblage erupted from at least 5-6 volcanic centres that were active around the southern margins of the La Garita caldera shortly after eruption of the Fish Canyon Tuff. These andesitic centres are inferred, in part, to represent eruptions of magma that ponded and differentiated within the crust below the La Garita caldera, thereby providing the thermal energy necessary for rejuvenation and remobilization of the Fish Canyon magma body. The multiple Huerto eruptive centres produced two magmatic series that differ in phenocryst mineralogy (hydrous vs anhydrous assemblages), whole-rock major and trace element chemistry and isotopic compositions. Hornblende-bearing lavas from three volcanic centres located close to the southeastern margin of the La Garita caldera (Eagle Mountain - Fourmile Creek, West Fork of the San Juan River, Table Mountain) define a high-K calc-alkaline series (57-65 wt % SiO2) that is oxidized, hydrous and sulphur rich. Trachyandesitic lavas from widely separated centres at Baldy Mountain-Red Lake (western margin), Sugarloaf Mountain (southern margin) and Ribbon Mesa (20 km east of the La Garita caldera) are mutually indistinguishable (55-61 wt % SiO2); they are characterized by higher and more variable concentrations of alkalis and many incompatible trace elements (e.g. Zr, Nb, heavy rare earth elements), and they contain anhydrous phenocryst assemblages (including olivine). These mildly alkaline magmas were less water rich and oxidized than the hornblende-bearing calc-alkaline suite. The same distinctions characterize the voluminous precaldera andesitic lavas of the Conejos Formation, indicating that these contrasting suites are long-term manifestations of San Juan

  12. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  13. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2007-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By December 31, 2006, 79,072 bbls of water were injected into CO2 I-1 and 3,923 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Water injection rates into CO2 I-1, CO2 No.10 and CO2 No.18 were stabilized during this period. Oil production rates increased from 4.7 B/D to 5.5 to 6 B/D confirming the arrival of an oil bank at CO2 No.12. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver No.7, Colliver No.3 and possibly Graham A4 located on an adjacent property. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Our management plan is to continue water injection maintaining oil displacement by displacing the carbon dioxide remaining in the C zone,. If the decline rate of production from the Colliver Lease remains as estimated and the oil rate from the pilot region remains constant, we estimate that the oil production attributed to carbon dioxide injection will be about 12,000 bbl by December 31, 2007. Oil recovery would be equivalent to 12 MCF/bbl, which is consistent with field experience in

  14. Results of the clean-up operation to reduce pollution on flooded agricultural fields after the red mud spill in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Uzinger, Nikolett; Anton, Áron Dániel; Ötvös, Károly; Tamás, Péter; Anton, Attila

    2015-07-01

    In Hungary, the dam of a red mud reservoir breached shortly after noon on October 4, 2010. Approximately 0.7-1 million m(3) highly alkaline red mud with very low dry matter content flowed into the Torna Creek and the surrounding area, covering 1017 ha of agricultural land. Results of the risk assessment of the accident indicated that the red mud should be removed from the surface of fields where it formed a continuous layer of more than 5 cm. After the removal, samples were taken manually from depths of 0.0-0.2 m and 0.2-0.4 m in a sampling grid and background samples unaffected by red mud from the depth of 0.0-0.3 m. Total element contents (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn, and Na) and pH values were measured, and the results were analysed using correlation analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis probe. Dependence of the measured variables from elevation above sea level was studied using a 10 m by 10 m digital elevation model. Only ∼6.5% of the flooded area was temporarily designated as unsuitable for the production of food and fodder crops. In summary, the clean-up operation can be said to have been a success.

  15. Selection of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes by female northern pintails wintering in Tulare Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Gilmer, David S.

    2003-01-01

    Habitat selection and use are measures of relative importance of habitats to wildlife and necessary information for effective wildlife conservation. To measure the relative impor- tance of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes to northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in Tulare Basin (TB), California, we radiotagged female pintails during late August-early October, 1991-1993 in TB and other San Joaquin Valley areas and deter- mined use and selection of these TB landscapes through March each year. Availability of landscape and field types in TB changed within and among years. Pintail use and selec- tion (based upon use-to-availability log ratios) of landscape and field types differed among seasons, years, and diel periods. Fields flooded after harvest and before planting (i.e., pre-irrigated) were the most available, used, and selected landscape type before the hunting season (Prehunt). Safflower was the most available, used, and-except in 1993, when pre-irrigated fallow was available-selected pre-irrigated field type during Prehunt. Pre-irrigated barley-wheat received 19-22% of use before hunting season, but selection varied greatly among years and diel periods. During and after hunting season, managed marsh was the most available, used, and, along with floodwater areas, selected landscape type; pre-irrigated cotton and alfalfa were the least selected field types and accounted for <13% of pintail use. Agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds, sewage treatment ponds, and reservoirs accounted for 42-48% of flooded landscape available but were lit- tle used and least selected. Exodus of pintails from TB coincided with drying of pre-irri- gated fallow, safflower, and barley-wheat fields early in winter, indicating that preferred habitats were lacking in TB during late winter. Agriculture conservation programs could improve TB for pintails by increasing flooding of fallow and harvested safflower and grain fields. Conservation of remaining wetlands should

  16. Polymer flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Littmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past, polymer flooding was mainly the subject of research. The results of this research are spread over a vast number of single publications, making it difficult for someone who has not kept up-to-date with developments during the last 10-15 years to judge the suitability of polymer flooding to a particular field case. This book tries to fill that gap. An indispensable book for reservoir engineers, production engineers and lab. technicians within the petroleum industry.

  17. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2006-06-30

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By June 30, 2006, 41,566 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,726 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. Oil rates increased from about 3.3 B/D for the period from January through March to about 4.7 B/D for the period from April through June. If the oil rate is sustained, this may be the first indication of the arrival of the oil bank mobilized by carbon dioxide injection. A sustained fluid withdrawal rate of about 200 B/D from CO2 No.12 and CO2 No.13 appears to be necessary to obtain higher oil rates. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has

  18. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2005-12-31

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and two production wells on about 10 acre spacing. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide has been injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February 2004, increasing to an average of about 3.78 B/D for the six month period between January 1 and June 30, 2005 before declining. By the end of December 2005, 14,115 bbls of water were injected into CO2I-1 and 2,091 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Injection rates into CO2I-1 declined with time, dropping to an unacceptable level for the project. The injection pressure was increased to reach a stable water injection rate of 100 B/D. However, the injection rate continued to decline with time, suggesting that water was being injected into a region with limited leakoff and production. Oil production rates remained in the range of 3-3.5 B/D following conversion to water injection. There is no evidence that the oil bank generated by injection of carbon dioxide has reached either production well. Continued injection of water is planned to displace oil mobilized by carbon dioxide to the production wells and to maintain the pressure in the PPV region at a level that supports continued miscible displacement as the carbon dioxide is displaced by the injected water.

  19. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Microbiological Contamination in New York State Produce Fields following Extensive Flooding from Hurricane Irene, August 2011.

    PubMed

    Bergholz, Peter W; Strawn, Laura K; Ryan, Gina T; Warchocki, Steven; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Although flooding introduces microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards onto croplands, few data are available on the spatial extent, patterns, and development of contamination over time postflooding. To address this paucity of information, we conducted a spatially explicit study of Escherichia coli and Salmonella contamination prevalence and genetic diversity in produce fields after the catastrophic flooding that occurred in New England during 2011. Although no significant differences were detected between the two participating farms, both random forest and logistic regression revealed changes in the spatial pattern of E. coli contamination in drag swab samples over time. Analyses also indicated that E. coli detection was associated with changes in farm management to remediate the land after flooding. In particular, E. coli was widespread in drag swab samples at 21 days postflooding, but the spatial pattern changed by 238 days postflooding such that E. coli was then most prevalent in close proximity to surface water features. The combined results of several population genetics analyses indicated that over time postflooding E. coli populations on the farms (i) changed in composition and (ii) declined overall. Salmonella was primarily detected in surface water features, but some Salmonella strains were isolated from soil and drag swab samples at 21 and 44 days postflooding. Although postflood contamination and land management responses should always be evaluated in the context of each unique farm landscape, our results provide quantitative data on the general patterns of contamination after flooding and support the practice of establishing buffer zones between flood-contaminated cropland and harvestable crops in produce fields.

  20. Post flash flood field investigations and analysis: the event on 22 November 2011 in Longano catchment, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Cavalli, Marco; Gaume, Eric; Marchi, Lorenzo; Naso, Susanna; Borga, Marco

    2013-04-01

    On 22 November 2011, an exceptional rainstorm hit the North-East part of Sicily (Italy) producing local heavy rainfall, mud-debris flow and flash flooding. The storm was concentrated on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast near the city of Barcellona within the Longano catchment. The estimated flood peak discharge of the Longano river in the city of Barcellona (about 230 m3/s for 26 km2) is close to the highest values reported in Europe for similar watershed areas. Rainfall data from raingauge and meteorological radar were analysed and a detailed study of the hydrological response of the catchment was performed by means of rainfall-runoff modelling and flood frequency analysis. The results of the rainfall-runoff model were compared with peak discharges estimated from field observations (cross-sections survey, water marks, witnesses interviews and video recordings). Flood inundation and propagation in the city were modelled using an hydraulic model based on De Saint Venant equation equations calibrated using the data collected (water depths and flow velocities). A geomorphological survey was also conducted to ascertain the evolution of the phenomenon and related sediment processes analysis.

  1. Increasing Interaction of Alkaline Magmas with Lower Crustal Gabbroic Cumulates over the Evolution of Mt. Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Schrader, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field at the southeastern edge of the Colorado Plateau, New Mexico erupted diverse alkaline magmas from ~3.8 to 1.5 Ma (Crumpler, 1980; Perry et al., 1990). The earliest eruptions include high silica topaz rhyolites of Grants Ridge (plagioclase, quartz, biotite) and Si-under saturated basanites and trachytes at Mt Taylor stratovolcano. Mt. Taylor was later constructed of stacks of thick, trachyandesitic to rhyolitic lava flows that were subsequently eroded into a ~4-km across amphitheatre opening toward the southeast. Early Mt. Taylor rhyolitic lavas exposed within the amphitheatre contain quartz, plagioclase, hornblende, and biotite (± sanidine) phenocrysts. Later cone-building trachydacite to trachyandesite lavas are crystal-rich with plagioclase and augite megacrysts (± hornblende, ± quartz) and record an overall trend of decreasing SiO2 with time. The last eruptions ~1.5 Ma from the stratovolcano (Perry et al. 1990) produced thick (>70 m), viscous lava flows that contain up to 50% zoned plagioclase phenocrysts. While SiO2 decreased among the silicic magmas, the degree of silica saturation increased among peripheral basaltic magmas from basanite to ne-normative hawaiite to hy-normative basalts. Evidence of increasing crustal contamination within the basalts includes zoned plagioclase megacrysts, augite and plagioclase cumulate texture xenoliths with accompanying xenocrysts. These textures within the basalts combined with abundant, complex plagioclase among the cone-building silicic magmas imply interaction and mixing with gabbroic cumulate mush in the lower crust beneath Mt. Taylor Volcano. Contemporaneous basanitic to trachytitc volcanism in the northern part of the volcanic field at Mesa Chivato (Crumpler, 1980) was more widely distributed, smaller volume, and produced mainly aphyric magmas. The lower crustal gabbroic cumulates either do not extend northward beneath Mesa Chivato, or they were not accessed by lower magma flux rate

  2. EVALUATION OF THE FLOOD POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTH HOUSE (BLINEBRY) FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    L. Stephen Melzer

    2000-12-01

    /11 respectively. Production of oil and gas has been established with several months of production now available to make a reserve analysis. Production histories and reserves estimation are provided. An assessment of the flood potential for the South House project area has been completed with work concentrated on South House rock property and pay thickness characterization and analog studies. For the analogs, the North Robertson area, located twenty miles to the northeast, and the Teague Field, located 20 miles to the south, have been utilized due to their readily available database and previous waterflood studies. The South House area does appear to merit further examination as the rock quality compares favorably with both analog Fields; however, current well spacings of 40-acres will provide only marginal economics based upon $23.00/barrel oil prices. Permeability and porosity relationships are provided as a conditional demonstration that rock quality may be sufficient for successful waterflooding of the project area. Further rock property work and pay continuity studies are recommended.

  3. Quantification of deep percolation from two flood-irrigated alfalfa field, Roswell Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roark, D. Michael; Healy, D.F.

    1998-01-01

    For many years water management in the Roswell ground-water basin (Roswell Basin) and other declared basins in New Mexico has been the responsibility of the State of New Mexico. One of the water management issues requiring better quantification is the amount of deep percolation from applied irrigation water. Two adjacent fields, planted in alfalfa, were studied to determine deep percolation by the water-budget, volumetric-moisture, and chloride mass-balance methods. Components of the water-budget method were measured, in study plots called borders, for both fields during the 1996 irrigation season. The amount of irrigation water applied in the west border was 95.8 centimeters and in the east border was 169.8 centimeters. The total amount of precipitation that fell during the irrigation season was 21.9 centimeters. The increase in soil-moisture storage from the beginning to the end of the irrigation season was 3.2 centimeters in the west border and 8.8 centimeters in the east border. Evapotranspiration, as estimated by the Bowen ratio energy balance technique, in the west border was 97.8 centimeters and in the east border was 101.0 centimeters. Deep percolation determined using the water-budget method was 16.4 centimeters in the west border and 81.6 centimeters in the east border. An average deep percolation of 22.3 centimeters in the west border and 31.6 centimeters in the east border was determined using the volumetric-moisture method. The chloride mass-balance method determined the multiyear deep percolation to be 15.0 centimeters in the west border and 38.0 centimeters in the east border. Large differences in the amount of deep percolation between the two borders calculated by the water-budget method are due to differences in the amount of water that was applied to each border. More water was required to flood the east border because of the greater permeability of the soils in that field and the smaller rate at which water could be applied.

  4. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-04-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent

  5. Combining ALOS-PALSAR imagery with field water level measurements for flood mapping of a tropical floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Hidayat; Hoekman, D. H.; Vissers, M. A. M.; Hoitink, A. J. F.

    2011-10-01

    Radar imagery is potentially useful for the identification, mapping, and measurement of streams, lakes, and wetlands. Many studies showed that comparison of two consecutive radar images is useful for determining flood extent. However, the use of radar data series for flood mapping is still rarely reported. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of ALOS-PALSAR imagery for observing the dynamics of the Mahakam River floodplain in Kalimantan, Indonesia, by incorporating field water level measurements. Water level measurements were carried out along the river, lakes and at two peatland locations, using arrays of pressure transducers. The first peatland (P1) is part of the Mahakam floodplain, representing open peat area dominated by shrub and reed. The second peatland (P2) represents a forest covered peatland. A series of PALSAR imagery (polarity: HH; pixel spacing: 50 m) covering the middle and lower Mahakam area in the years 2007 and 2008 was collected. A land use/land cover map was available from a previous analysis of PALSAR imagery. To analyze Radar backscatter behavior for different land cover types, several regions of interest were selected, based on the land cover classes. A number of land cover classes (medium shrub, high shrub, fern/grass, and secondary forest) were found to be sensitive to flooding, whereas in some other classes (peat forest, riverine forest and tree plantation) backscatter signatures remained almost unchanged with flood inundation. Correlations between water level and radar backscatter of the regions of interest were used to distinguish between three types of flooding signal, viz. flooding of low vegetation, flooding of high vegetation, and the boundary shift of lakes. An analysis of the relationship between radar backscatter and water levels was carried out in each of the regions of interest. For lakes and shrub covered peatland in P1, where the range of water level variation was high, a good water level-backscatter correlation was

  6. Managing land application of coal seam water: A field study of land amendment irrigation using saline-sodic and alkaline water on a Red Vertisol.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Marchuk, A; Raine, S R; Dalzell, S A; Macfarlane, D C

    2016-12-15

    Coal seam (CS) gas operations coproduce water with gas from confined CS aquifers. This CS water represents a potential agricultural resource if the water is able to be chemically amended to comply with management guidelines. Stoichiometric quantities of sulphur and gypsum amendments can be used to neutralise the alkalinity and reduce the sodicity of CS water respectively. These amendments can either be mixed in-line at a water treatment plant or applied directly to land prior to the application of CS water (a practice termed land amendment irrigation - LAI). This study compared the efficacy of LAI with in-line chemical amendment of CS water and irrigation with non-saline, non-sodic and non-alkaline (good quality) water under field conditions in southern Queensland. Soil chemical properties, soluble Ca, Mg, K, Na, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, chloride and alkalinity, as well as saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured to determine the impact of the irrigation treatments on soil chemical and physical conditions. Irrigation of lucerne pasture using solid-set sprinklers applied a total of 6.7 ML/ha of each treatment irrigation water to the experimental plots over a 10-month period. Alkalinity was neutralised using LAI, with no increase in soil alkalinity observed. Soil sodicity did not exceed threshold electrolyte concentration values under either CS water irrigation treatment. Soil chemical and physical properties were comparable for both LAI and in-line chemical amendment of CS water. Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity was maintained under all irrigation treatments. Results showed that the constrained capacity of the irrigation system was unable to meet crop evapotranspiration demand. This resulted in accumulation of salt within the root-zone under the CS water treatments compared to the good quality water treatment. LAI successfully chemically amended Bowen Basin CS water facilitating its beneficial use for agricultural irrigation.

  7. HyMeX-SOP1, the field campaign dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in Northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducrocq, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash-floods, landslides and mudslides each year that cost several billions of dollars in damage and causing too often casualties. Within the framework of the 10-year international HyMeX program dedicated to the hydrological cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean (http://www.hymex.org), a major field campaign has been dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-floods from September to November 2012. The 2-month field campaign took place over the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea and its surrounding coastal regions in France, Italy and Spain. The observation strategy aimed at documenting four key components leading to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in that region: (i) the marine atmospheric flow that transport moist and conditionaly unstable air towards the coasts; (ii) the Mediterranean Sea as a moisture and energy source; (iii) the dynamics and microphysics of the convective systems; (iv) the hydrological processes during flash-floods. During the field campaign about twenty precipitation events were monitored, including mesoscale convective systems, Mediterranean cyclogenesis, shallow-convection orographic precipitation. Three aircraft performed about 250 flight hours for a survey of the upstream flow, the air-sea fluxes and the convective systems. About 700 additional radiosoundings were launched either from HyMeX sites or from operational RS sites in Europe, as well as about 20 boundary layer balloons were launched to monitor the low-level flow over the Mediterranean Sea and the ambient atmospheric conditions. Gliders, Argo floats, drifting buoys and ocean soundings from vessels monitored the Mediterranean Sea during the field campaign. Atmospheric and hydrological instruments such as radars, LIDARS, radiometers, wind profilers, lightning sensors, were deployed over 5 regions in France, Italy and Spain. The presentation will present the general

  8. Origin of metaluminous and alkaline volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field, northern Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.M.; Lipman, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field evolved in an open system by crystal fractionation, magma mixing, and crustal assimilation. Early high-SiO2 rhyolites (28.5 Ma) fractionated from intermediate compositionmagmas that did not reach the surface. Most precaldera lavas have intermediate-compositions, from olivine basaltic-andesite (53% SiO2) to quartz latite (67% SiO2). The precaldera intermediate-composition lavas have anomalously high Ni and MgO contents and reversely zoned hornblende and augite phenocrysts, indicating mixing between primitive basalts and fractionated magmas. Isotopic data indicate that all of the intermediate-composition rocks studied contain large crustal components, although xenocrysts are found only in one unit. Inception of alkaline magmatism (alkalic dacite to high-SiO2 peralkaline rhyolite) correlates with, initiation of regional extension approximately 26 Ma ago. The Questa caldera formed 26.5 Ma ago upon eruption of the >500 km3 high-SiO2 peralkaline Amalia Tuff. Phenocryst compositions preserved in the cogenetic peralkaline granite suggest that the Amalia Tuff magma initially formed from a trace element-enriched, high-alkali metaluminous magma; isotopic data suggest that the parental magmas contain a large crustal component. Degassing of water- and halogen-rich alkali basalts may have provided sufficient volatile transport of alkalis and other elements into the overlying silicic magma chamber to drive the Amalia Tuff magma to peralkaline compositions. Trace element variations within the Amalia Tuff itself may be explained solely by 75% crystal fractionation of the observed phenocrysts. Crystal settling, however, is inconsistent with mineralogical variations in the tuff, and crystallization is thought to have occurred at a level below that tapped by the eruption. Spatially associated Miocene (15-11 Ma) lavas did not assimilate large amounts of crust or mix with primitive basaltic magmas. Both mixing and crustal assimilation processes

  9. Near Constant Composition of Calc-Alkaline Parental Magmas Over Approximately 600,000 Years, Santorini Volcanic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, S. T.; Barton, M.

    2006-05-01

    The island of Santorini is located along the Hellenic volcanic arc, which results from northeasterly subduction of the African plate beneath the Aegean micro plate at a rate > 4 cm/yr. Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanism has occurred over the past 600,000 years. During this time the Aegean has been one of the most tectonically complex and rapidly deforming regions of continental crust on Earth. Specifically, the interaction between northeasterly subduction and westerly protrusion of Anatolia along the North Anatolian Transform fault has resulted in varying degrees and directions of both compression and extension in the Aegean. Lavas from the Akrotiri, Micro Profitis Ilias, Megalo Vouno, and Skaros volcanic centers span the age of the volcanic field and range in composition from basalt to rhyodacite. This compositional spectrum was produced by fractional crystallization combined with assimilation and magma mixing in intra-crustal magma chambers located at depths of approximately 7-14 km. Plots of K2O versus SiO2 for samples from the four volcanic centers define linear arrays reflecting the important role of mixing in magma evolution. The arrays can be described by first order polynomials that intersect at tightly constrained ranges of SiO2 (50.4-51.2 wt %) and K2O (0.49-0.60 wt %). These ranges are about equal to values expected from analytical uncertainty. The concentrations of representative LILE, HFSE, and REE calculated from the intersections of regressions versus SiO2 and/or K2O also fall within a narrow range. This indicates that evolved magmas erupted from four volcanic centers on Santorini were derived from parental magmas of virtually identical composition. Some primitive basalts erupted on Santorini have compositions similar to those of the calculated parental magmas, and it is concluded that the latter have remained essentially constant in composition over 600,000 years. This implies that the magmas produced in the mantle wedge have near invariant

  10. Low pH alkaline chemical formulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Peru, D.A.; Thornton, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of a surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding system that is applicable to specific reservoir conditions in Wilmington (California) field. The cost of the chemicals for an ASP (alkali/surfactant/polymer) flood is calculated to be $3.90/bbl of oil produced, with 78% of that cost attributable to polymer. This research included phase behavior tests, oil displacement tests, mineral dissolution tests, and adsorption measurements. It was discovered that consumption of low pH alkalis is low enough in the Wilmington field to be acceptable. In addition, alkali dramatically reduced surfactant adsorption and precipitation. A mixture of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 was recommended for use as a preflush and in the ASP formulation. Research was also conducted on the synergistic effect that occurs when a mixture of alkali and synthetic surfactant contacts crude oil. It appears that very low IFT is predominantly a result of the activation of the natural surfactants present in the Wilmington oil, and the sustained low IFT is primarily the result of the synthetic surfactant. It also appears that removal of acids from the crude oil by the alkali renders the oil more interfacially reactive to synthetic surfactant. These phenomena help to explain the synergism that results from combining alkali and synthetic surfactant into a single oil recovery formulation. 19 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Field verification of reconstructed dam-break flood, Laurel Run, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Cheng-lung; Armbruster, Jeffrey T.

    1979-01-01

    A one-dimensional dam-break flood routing model is verified by using observed data on the flash flood resulting from the failure of Laurel Run Reservoir Dam near Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The model has been developed on the basis of an explicit scheme of the characteristics method with specified time intervals. The model combines one of the characteristic equations with the Rankine-Hugoniot shock equations to trace the corresponding characteristic backward to the known state for solving the depth and velocity of flow at the wave front. The previous version of the model has called for a modification of the method of solution to overcome the computational difficulty at the narrow breach and at any geomorphological constraints where channel geometry changes rapidly. The large reduction in the computational inaccuracies and oscillations was achieved by introducing the actual "storage width" in the equation of continuity and the imaginary "conveyance width" in the equation of motion. Close agreement between observed and computed peak stages at several stations downstream of the dam strongly suggests the validity and applicability of the model. However, small numerical noise appearing in the computed stage and discharge hydrographs at the dam site as well as discrepancy of attenuated peaks in the discharge hydrographs indicate the need for further model improvement.

  12. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  13. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent

  14. Field and flume applications of RFID and accelerometer-embedded gravel and cobble tracers to constrain transport during floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. P.; Olinde, L.; Goodwin, K.

    2014-12-01

    Individually identifiable tracer particles and instrumented clasts provide a wealth of information about coarse bedload transport during floods. The dispersive nature of sediment transport means that tracer methods may constrain effects of spatial variability in the underlying topography of the channel, and effects of temporal variability in discharge (e.g., hydrographs). We highlight results from recent field and flume work that employed both radio frequency identification (RFID) and accelerometer tracers. The overall goal is to demonstrate that a broad range of quantitative constraints on sediment transport can be pulled from these unique datasets. In the field, tracer transport was monitored along ~11 km of Reynolds Creek, Idaho, a snowmelt-dominated gravel-bedded stream with local reach slopes of roughly 0.5% to 7%. Three antennas were installed on the channel bed near a gauging station to measure the exact times that RFID tracers passed the antennas during high flows. The combination of transport data, discharge and flow modeling allows us to calculate a hiding function that quantifies size-dependent thresholds of motion in this particular reach. During transport, RFID and accelerometer tracers became distributed along ~11 and ~2 km of the channel, respectively. The timing of individual particle movements was measured in 10 minute intervals by the accelerometers. These data constrained transport probabilities and bedload hysteresis as a function of changing discharge. Additionally, cumulative travel distances of the accelerometers allow us to put bounds on particle velocities and average individual step lengths. We find that average tracer transport distances are well correlated with cumulative discharge. Using flood magnitude-frequency relations based on the >50 year discharge record of Reynolds creek, the seasonal flow with an ~10 year recurrence interval likely transports coarse gravel the farthest average distance. Finally, in flume experiments on gravel

  15. The effect of alkaline agents on retention of EOR chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, P.B.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes a literature survey on how alkaline agents reduce losses of surfactants and polymers in oil recovery by chemical injection. Data are reviewed for crude sulfonates, clean anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, and anionic and nonionic polymers. The role of mineral chemistry is briefly described. Specific effects of various alkaline anions are discussed. Investigations needed to improve the design of alkaline-surfactant-polymer floods are suggested. 62 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. The Spokane flood controversy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    An enormous plexus of proglacial channels that eroded into the loess and basalt of the Columbia Plateau, eastern Washington is studied. This channeled scabland contained erosional and depositional features that were unique among fluvial phenomena. Documentation of the field relationships of the region explains the landforms as the product of a relatively brief, but enormous flood, then so-called the Spokane flood.

  17. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  18. Kamafugitic diatremes: their textures and field relationships with examples from the Goiás alkaline province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira-Brod, Tereza Cristina; Gaspar, José Carlos; Brod, José Affonso; Kafino, Camilla Vasconcelos

    2005-03-01

    Kamafugitic rocks intruded the Precambrian basement and Phanerozoic sediments at the northeast border of the Paraná basin as part of the Late Cretaceous Goiás alkaline province (GAP). Plutonic complexes dominate the north of the province, whereas lavas and pyroclastic rocks prevail in the south. The central GAP is characterized by kamafugitic diatremes, which may crop out continuously for up to 850 m and consist of a central breccia body, surrounded and overlain by lava flows and crosscut by dykes. The breccias contain some special spheroidal juvenile fragments—namely, accretionary and armored lapilli, frozen droplets, spinning droplets, and wrapped fragments—whose textural and mineralogical aspects are described in detail. Irregularly shaped tuff pockets that occur within the breccias contain textures and structures similar to those of subaerial surge deposits and formed in confined, high gas to solid+liquid ratio domains in the conduit. Diatreme emplacement affected the country rock through thermal metamorphism, development of columnar jointing, and formation of peperite-like mixtures. There is no evidence of phreatomagmatic activity in the diatremes, and CO 2, rather than H 2O, seems to have been the major volatile component of the kamafugitic magmas. This finding implies that features such as accretionary lapilli and peperites are not exclusively associated with H 2O-dominated processes.

  19. Calibration of a 1D/1D urban flood model using 1D/2D model results in the absence of field data.

    PubMed

    Leandro, J; Djordjević, S; Chen, A S; Savić, D A; Stanić, M

    2011-01-01

    Recently increased flood events have been prompting researchers to improve existing coupled flood-models such as one-dimensional (1D)/1D and 1D/two-dimensional (2D) models. While 1D/1D models simulate sewer and surface networks using a one-dimensional approach, 1D/2D models represent the surface network by a two-dimensional surface grid. However their application raises two issues to urban flood modellers: (1) stormwater systems planning/emergency or risk analysis demands for fast models, and the 1D/2D computational time is prohibitive, (2) and the recognized lack of field data (e.g. Hunter et al. (2008)) causes difficulties for the calibration/validation of 1D/1D models. In this paper we propose to overcome these issues by calibrating a 1D/1D model with the results of a 1D/2D model. The flood-inundation results show that: (1) 1D/2D results can be used to calibrate faster 1D/1D models, (2) the 1D/1D model is able to map the 1D/2D flood maximum extent well, and the flooding limits satisfactorily in each time-step, (3) the 1D/1D model major differences are the instantaneous flow propagation and overestimation of the flood-depths within surface-ponds, (4) the agreement in the volume surcharged by both models is a necessary condition for the 1D surface-network validation and (5) the agreement of the manholes discharge shapes measures the fitness of the calibrated 1D surface-network.

  20. Monitoring the clean-up operation of agricultural fields flooded with red mud in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Uzinger, Nikolett; Rékási, Márk; Anton, Áron D; Koós, Sándor; László, Péter; Anton, Attila

    2016-12-01

    In the course of the clean-up operation after the red mud inundation in 2010, red mud was removed from the soil surface in places where the layer was more than 5 cm deep. Before its removal, the red mud seeped into the soil. In 2012, soil samples were taken from depths of 0 to 20 and 20 to 40 cm on some of the affected areas. The parameters investigated were pH, organic matter, salt%, and the total and mobile fractions of various elements. The values recorded in 2012 were compared with those measured immediately after the removal of the red mud in 2010 and with the background and clean-up target concentrations. The pH values remained below the designated limit, while the salt content only exhibited values in the weakly salty range on areas at the greatest distance from the dam. In the central part of the inundated area, total Na contents above the 900 mg/kg target value were observed, but the Na content in the 0-20-cm layer generally exhibited a decrease due to leaching. The pH and As concentration also showed a decline on several areas compared with the values recorded in 2010. Total As and Co contents in excess of the target values were recorded on the lowest-lying part of the flooded area, probably because the finest red mud particles were deposited the furthest from the dam, where they seeped into the soil. Nevertheless, the mobility and plant availability of both elements remained moderate. The total contents of both Co and Mo, however, exhibited a significant rise compared with both the background value and the 2010 data. The monitoring of the cleaned-up areas showed that after a 2-year period element concentrations that exceeded the target values and could be attributed to the red mud pollution were only detectable on the lowest-lying areas.

  1. The Size of Winter-Flooded Paddy Fields No Longer Limits the Foraging Habitat Use of the Endangered Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon) in Winter.

    PubMed

    Hu, Can-Shi; Song, Xiao; Ding, Chang-Qing; Ye, Yuan-Xing; Qing, Bao-Ping; Wang, Chao

    2016-08-01

    Paddy fields have traditionally been viewed as the key foraging habitats for the endangered crested ibis (Nipponia nippon). With the population of this species now increasing, its distribution has expanded to both lowland areas and outside the nature reserve. However, little is known about the current foraging habitat preferences of these birds, especially during winter. In this research, a total of 54 used sites and 50 unused sites were investigated during winter from December 2011 to January 2012. The results of logistic regression analysis indicate that soil softness, human disturbance, and distance to the nearest road were important factors. For the site plots of winter-flooded paddy fields, the birds prefer the paddy fields with higher coverage of vegetation, except softer foraging sites and lower human-related disturbance. In lowland areas, the size of winter-flooded paddy fields was not a limiting factor, due to the availability of other wetlands capable of providing abundant food. The micro-habitat characteristics were important indicators of foraging habitat quality rather than the size of winter-flooded paddy fields, and the food accessibility may play an important role in the process of foraging habitat use. We suggest the improvement of the foraging micro-habitat and environmental characteristics would be effective in ensuring the availability of food in the dispersed lowland areas. The local people still needed to be encouraged and compensated by their single-cropping cultivation, ploughed the paddy fields after harvesting and irrigated them with shallow water flooded in the original core areas of the nature reserve.

  2. Effects of increased flooding on riparian vegetation: field experiments simulating climate change along five European lowland streams.

    PubMed

    Garssen, Annemarie G; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Riis, Tenna; Raven, Bart M; Hoffman, Carl Christian; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Soons, Merel B

    2017-03-13

    In many parts of the world, the magnitude and frequency of cold-season precipitation are expected to increase in the near future. This will result in an increased magnitude and duration of winter and spring flooding by rain-fed streams and rivers. Such climate-driven increases in flooding are likely to affect riparian plant communities, but future vegetation changes are hard to predict due to current lack of data. To fill this knowledge gap, we experimentally modified the hydrology of five streams across three countries in North-Western Europe during late winter/early spring over a period of three years. We assessed the responses in riparian plant species richness, biomass, plant-available nitrogen and phosphorus and seed deposition to increased flooding depth (+18 cm on average at the lowest positions along the riparian gradient) and prolonged flooding duration (six weeks on average). After three years of increased flooding, there was an overall decline in riparian species richness, while riparian plant biomass increased. Extractable soil nitrogen and phosphorus also increased, and are likely to have contributed to the increased biomass. Increased flooding resulted in the arrival of more seeds of additional species to the riparian zone, thereby potentially facilitating the shifts in riparian plant species composition we observed. The results of our concerted experimental effort demonstrate that changes in stream riparian plant communities can occur rapidly following increased winter flooding, leading to strong reductions in plant species diversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of miscible flood performance, intisar ''D'' field, socialist people's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

    SciTech Connect

    Des Brisay, C.L.; Elghussein, B.F.; Holst, P.H.; Misellati, A.

    1982-08-01

    One of the largest miscible gas injection projects in the world is in its 12th year in the Intisar ''D'' field in the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. As of March 31, 1981, cumulative oil production totaled 890 MMbbl (141.4 X 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/) of oil, or 56% recovery of the estimated stock-tank original oil in place (OOIP). This past performance and recent simulation studies indicate a final recovery efficiency on the order of 70%.

  4. Alkaline Basalts of The Quaternary Buffalo Valley Volcanic Field, NW Fish Creek Mountains, North-central Nevada, Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousens, B.; Henry, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Buffalo Valley volcanic field, 5 km southwest of Battle Mountain, consists of approximately 11 cinder cones and associated flows. Youthful volcanoes are rare in the region, and thus this field offers the opportunity to investigate mantle sources currently beneath the central Great Basin. Most of the eruptive centers are distributed along the northwestern margin of the Fish Creek Mountains, a mid-Tertiary caldera complex, along a 13-km-long northeasterly trend that is perpendicular to the regional stress field (or GPS velocity field), suggesting fault control or eruption from a now-buried fissure. The cones are geomorphologically youthful, with well-defined, commonly breached craters. At least one cone, situated slightly east of the main trend, consists of only a thin mantle of scoria and bombs overlying grey Paleozoic limestone. Previous K-Ar and Ar-Ar dating indicate that the cones are between 1.29 and 0.95 Ma in age. Two other nearby Quaternary volcanic centers lie northeast of the Fish Creek Mountains (K-Ar date of 3.3 Ma) and in the center of the Fish Creek caldera (age unknown). Rare Tertiary basalts and more common Tertiary andesites lie around the margin of the caldera. Lavas from the Buffalo Valley cones have vesicular flow tops and more massive interiors. All Quaternary centers are similar petrographically, including 1-2% olivine phenocrysts and megacrysts up to 1 cm in size, and characteristic plagioclase megacrysts that are rarely up to 4 cm long, commonly in a glassy matrix. Two cone samples are alkalic basalt and tephrite with Mg numbers of 0.55, high TiO2 (2.4%), K2O (2.0%), light REE, Nb (60 ppm), but low Cr and Ni (80 ppm), Pb (2 ppm), Ba (450 ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70375) compared to Late Pliocene/Quaternary volcanic rocks from the western Great Basin near Reno/Carson City/Fallon. The Buffalo Valley cones are similar chemically to lavas from the Pliocene-Quaternary Lunar Craters volcanic field in central Nevada, and are melts of mantle that is

  5. Evolution of coarse gravel bed forms; field measurements at flood stage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinehart, Randy L.

    1992-01-01

    Field measurements to investigate the origin and growth of mesoscale gravel bed forms in deep flows were made in the North Fork Toutle River, Washington. Sonar observations of the gravel streambed at a stationary point were recorded during two storm flows in December 1989 and January 1990 with concurrent bed load sampling and continuous velocity measurements. Mean diameter of bed load was about 3 cm, flow depths were 1.4–2.4 m, and bed shear stresses were 2–5 times the critical stress of mean bed load diameter, as computed from the depth-slope product. These records document the hydrodynamic conditions under which dunelike coarse gravel bed forms were observed. Coarse gravel dunes (height, 20 cm; length, 6–15 m) evolved more than 24 hours after peak stage, primarily by accretion, as inferred from bed form changes revealed in dual sonar records. Dune heights increased to 40 cm as mean trough elevation rose about 50 cm over several hours. Smaller dunes (wavelength, 1–3 m), transitional from bed load sheets, migrated on the backs of the large dunes. The superposed dunes finally became indistinguishable from the large dunes, which diminished in height by increasing the mean level of troughs. Gravel deposition occurred at the observation point in conjunction with migration of gravel dunes. The direct comparison of known bed form regimes and gravel bar facies provides alternative interpretations of gravelly deposits.

  6. Water budget and simulation of one-dimensional unsaturated flow for a flood- and a sprinkler-irrigated field near Milford, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susong, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water recharge to basin-fill aquifers from unconsumed irrigation water in the western United States is being reduced as irrigators convert to more efficient irrigation systems. In some areas, these changes in irrigation methods may be contributing to ground-water-level declines and reducing the quantity of water available to downgradient users. The components of the water budget were measured or calculated for each field for the 1992 and 1993 irrigation seasons. Precipitation was about 6.5 cm (2.6 inches) both years. The flood-irrigated field received 182 and 156 centimeters (71.6 and 61.4 inches) of irrigation water in 1992 and 1993, and the sprinkler-irrigated field received 52.8 and 87.2 centimeters (20.8 and 34.3 inches) of water, respectively. Evapotrans- piration for alfalfa was calculated using the Penman-Monteith combination equation and was 95.4 and 84.3 centimeters (37.2 and 33.2 inches) for 1992 and 1993, respectively. No runoff and no signifi- cant change in soil moisture in storage was observed from either field. Recharge to the aquifer from the flood-irrigated field was 93.3 and 78.1 centimeters (36.7 and 30.7 inches) in 1992 and 1993 and from the sprinkler-irrigated field was -35.9 and 9.3 centimeters (-14.1 and 3.7 inches), respectively. The daily water budget and soil-moisture profiles in the upper 6.4 meters (21 feet) of the unsaturated zone were simulated with an unsaturated flow model for average climate conditions. Simulated recharge was 57.4 and 50.5 percent of the quantity of irrigation water applied to the flood-irrigated field during 1992 and 1993, respectively, and was 8.7 and 13.8 percent of the quantity of irrigation water applied to the sprinkler-irrigated field.

  7. Water budget and simulation of one-dimensional unsaturated flow for a flood- and a sprinkler-irrigated field near Milford, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Susong, David D.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water recharge to basin-fill aquifers from unconsumed irrigation water in the western United States is being reduced as irrigators convert to more efficient irrigation systems. In some areas, these changes in irrigation methods may be contributing to ground-water-level declines and reducing the quantity of water available to downgradient users. The components of the water budget were measured or calculated for each field for the 1992 and 1993 irrigation seasons. Precipitation was about 6.5 cm (2.6 inches) both years. The flood-irrigated field received 182 and 156 centimeters (71.6 and 61.4 inches) of irrigation water in 1992 and 1993, and the sprinkler-irrigated field received 52.8 and 87.2 centimeters (20.8 and 34.3 inches) of water, respectively. Evapotranspiration for alfalfa was calculated using the Penman-Monteith combination equation and was 95.4 and 84.3 centimeters (37.2 and 33.2 inches) for 1992 and 1993, respectively. No runoff and no significant change in soil moisture in storage was observed from either field. Recharge to the aquifer from the flood-irrigated field was 93.3 and 78.1 centimeters (36.7 and 30.7 inches) in 1992 and 1993 and from the sprinkler-irrigated field was -35.9 and 9.3 centimeters (-14.1 and 3.7 inches), respectively. The daily water budget and soil-moisture profiles in the upper 6.4 meters (21 feet) of the unsaturated zone were simulated with an unsaturated flow model for average climate conditions. Simulated recharge was 57.4 and 50.5 percent of the quantity of irrigation water applied to the flood-irrigated field during 1992 and 1993, respectively, and was 8.7 and 13.8 percent of the quantity of irrigation water applied to the sprinkler- irrigated field.

  8. Spatial distribution of microbial communities in the shallow submarine alkaline hydrothermal field of the Prony Bay, New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Postec, Anne; Mei, Nan; Hamelin, Jérôme; Monnin, Christophe; Chavagnac, Valérie; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Gérard, Martine; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Ménez, Bénédicte; Ollivier, Bernard; Erauso, Gaël

    2014-12-01

    The shallow submarine hydrothermal field of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) discharges hydrogen- and methane-rich fluids with low salinity, temperature (< 40°C) and high pH (11) produced by the serpentinization reactions of the ultramafic basement into the lagoon seawater. They are responsible for the formation of carbonate chimneys at the lagoon seafloor. Capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed changes in microbial community structure, abundance and diversity depending on the location, water depth, and structure of the carbonate chimneys. The low archaeal diversity was dominated by few uncultured Methanosarcinales similar to those found in other serpentinization-driven submarine and subterrestrial ecosystems (e.g. Lost City, The Cedars). The most abundant and diverse bacterial communities were mainly composed of Chloroflexi, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Functional gene analysis revealed similar abundance and diversity of both Methanosarcinales methanoarchaea, and Desulfovibrionales and Desulfobacterales sulfate-reducers in the studied sites. Molecular studies suggest that redox reactions involving hydrogen, methane and sulfur compounds (e.g. sulfate) are the energy driving forces of the microbial communities inhabiting the Prony hydrothermal system.

  9. Monitoring, field experiments, and geochemical modeling of Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in a stream dominated by net-alkaline coal-mine drainage, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Watershed-scale monitoring, field aeration experiments, and geochemical equilibrium and kinetic modeling were conducted to evaluate interdependent changes in pH, dissolved CO2, O2, and Fe(II) concentrations that typically take place downstream of net-alkaline, circumneutral coal-mine drainage (CMD) outfalls and during aerobic treatment of such CMD. The kinetic modeling approach, using PHREEQC, accurately simulates observed variations in pH, Fe(II) oxidation, alkalinity consumption, and associated dissolved gas concentrations during transport downstream of the CMD outfalls (natural attenuation) and during 6-h batch aeration tests on the CMD using bubble diffusers (enhanced attenuation). The batch aeration experiments demonstrated that aeration promoted CO2 outgassing, thereby increasing pH and the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was accurately estimated by the abiotic homogeneous oxidation rate law −d[Fe(II)]/dt = k1·[O2]·[H+]−2·[Fe(II)] that indicates an increase in pH by 1 unit at pH 5–8 and at constant dissolved O2 (DO) concentration results in a 100-fold increase in the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. Adjusting for sample temperature, a narrow range of values for the apparent homogeneous Fe(II) oxidation rate constant (k1′) of 0.5–1.7 times the reference value of k1 = 3 × 10−12 mol/L/min (for pH 5–8 and 20 °C), reported by Stumm and Morgan (1996), was indicated by the calibrated models for the 5-km stream reach below the CMD outfalls and the aerated CMD. The rates of CO2 outgassing and O2ingassing in the model were estimated with first-order asymptotic functions, whereby the driving force is the gradient of the dissolved gas concentration relative to equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere. Although the progressive increase in DO concentration to saturation could be accurately modeled as a kinetic function for the conditions evaluated, the simulation of DO as an instantaneous equilibrium process did not affect the

  10. Flooded area and plant zonation in isolated wetlands in well fields in the Northern Tampa Bay Region, Florida, following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haag, Kim H.; Pfeiffer, William R.

    2012-01-01

    WAP scores and weighted average scores for wetland vegetation were generally consistent with the results of the flooded area analysis. The WAP scores and weighted average scores were higher overall and did not decline with time at four wetlands in well fields (W-33, W-56, Starkey N, and Starkey 108) during the years following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates. These four wetlands also had increases in the extent and duration of the flooded area during the post-reduction period. Scores for trees were more consistent than scores for shrubs and groundcover. WAP scores remained relatively low or generally declined at five well-field wetlands (Q-1, W-17, W-41, Starkey D, and Starkey E) during the years following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates, and weighted average scores either declined over time or remained low. These five wetlands either did not have an increase in the extent and duration of the flooded area, or if there was an increase, it was small.

  11. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  12. Introduction to the Special Issue: Electrons, water and rice fields: plant response and adaptation to flooding and submergence stress

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Michael B.; Ismail, Abdelbagi M.

    2015-01-01

    Flooding and submergence impose widespread and unpredictable environmental stresses on plants and depress the yield of most food crops. The problem is increasing, as is the need for greater food production from an expanding human population. The incompatibility of these opposing trends creates an urgent need to improve crop resilience to flooding in its multifarious forms. This Special Issue brings together research findings from diverse plant species to address the challenge of enhancing adaptation to flooding in major crops and learning from tactics of wetland plants. Here we provide an overview of the articles, with attempts to summarize how recent research results are being used to produce varieties of crop plants with greater flooding tolerance, notably in rice. The progress is considerable and based firmly on molecular and physiological research findings. The article also sets out how next-generation improvements in crop tolerance are likely to be achieved and highlights some of the new research that is guiding the development of improved varieties. The potential for non-model species from the indigenous riparian flora to uncover and explain novel adaptive mechanisms of flooding tolerance that may be introduced into crop species is also explored. The article begins by considering how, despite the essential role of water in sustaining plant life, floodwater can threaten its existence unless appropriate adaptations are present. Central to resolving the contradiction is the distinction between the essential role of cellular water as the source of electrons and protons used to build and operate the plant after combining with CO2 and O2 and the damaging role of extracellular water that, in excess, interferes with the union of these gases with photosynthetic or respiratory electrons and protons. PMID:26174144

  13. The Volatile Element Evolution of Intra-plate Alkaline Rocks as Recorded by Apatite: An Example from the Hegau Volcanic Field (Southwest Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Der Handt, A.; Rahn, M. K. W.; Wang, L. X.; Marks, M. A. W.

    2014-12-01

    The role of volatiles in the petrogenesis of alkaline intra-plate magmas has been the subject of an increasing number of experimental studies. The study of naturally occurring rocks and their volatile contents is often complicated by syn- and post-eruptive degassing and alteration processes. Minerals that incorporate volatiles into their structure such as apatites are often more faithful recorders of the pre-eruptive volatile budget. The Hegau volcanic field in Southwest Germany is part of the Central European Volcanic Province, lies around 60-70 km to the east of the Upper Rhine graben and of Miocene age. Three main lithological units can be distinguished (1) olivine melilites (2) phonolites and (3) the "Deckentuff" series referring to a series of diatreme-filling pipe breccias and lapilli tuff layers. Carbonatites occur subordinately in the Hegau province. Earlier radiometric age dating suggested distinct phases of volcanic activity of Deckentuffs, melilites and phonolites with little overlap, but new apatite fission-track and (U-Th)/He age data suggest a synchronous activity. Apatite is an abundant accessory phase in the Deckentuff and phonolite series and we investigated its major, trace and volatile element composition by EPMA, SIMS and cathodoluminescence imaging. Pronounced core-rim zoning of apatite in places attests that diffusional equilibration was very limited and they likely retained their primary compositions. This allows us to trace the entire magmatic evolution of the Hegau province from its most primitive to most evolved products as well as resolve it in time by combining age dating with compositional analysis. Apatite compositions fall along the OH-F join with low Cl-contents (<0.5 wt%). Volatile contents (Cl, OH, S) are highest in most primitive compositions and decrease with further evolution while F increases. Multiple magmatic cycles can be discerned with a general trend to the more evolved phonolite compositions toward the end of volcanic

  14. Floods at Mount Clemens, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiitala, S.W.; Ash, Arlington D.

    1962-01-01

    The approximate areas inundated during the flood of April 5-6, 1947, by Clinton River, North Branch and Middle Branch of Clinton River, and Harrington Drain, in Clinton Township, Macomb County, Mich., are shown on a topographic map base to record the flood hazard in graphical form. The flood of April 1947 is the highest known since 1934 and probably since 1902. Greater floods are possible, but no attempt was made to define their probable overflow limits.The Clinton River Cut-Off Canal, a flood-relief channel which diverts flow directly into Lake St. Clair from a point about 1500 feet downstream from Gratiot Avenue (about 9 miles upstream from the mouth) has been in operation since October 1951. The approximate limits of overflow that would results from a flood equivalent in discharge to that of April 1947, and occurring with the Cut-Off Canal in operation, are also shown. Although the Cut-Off Canal may reduce the frequency and depth of flooding it will not necessarily eliminate future flooding in the area. Improvements and additions to the drainage systems in the basin, expanding urbanization, new highways, and other cultural changes may influence the inundation pattern of future floods.The preparation of this flood inundation map was financed through a cooperative agreement between Clinton Township, Macomb County, Mich., and the U.S. Geological Survey.Backwater curves used to define the profile for a hypothetical flood on the Clinton River downstream from Moravian Drive, equivalent in discharge to the 1947 flood, but occurring with the present Cut-Off Canal in operation; flood stage established at the gaging station on Clinton River at Mount Clemens; and supplementary floodmark elevations were furnished by the Corps of Engineers.Bench-mark elevations and field survey data, used in the analysis of floods on Harrington Drain, were furnished by the Macomb County Drain Commission.

  15. [Effects of tillage-cropping systems on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from permanently flooded rice fields in a central Sichuan hilly area of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chang-sheng; Wang, Yue-si; Zheng, Xun-hua; Zhu, Bo; Huang, Yao

    2006-02-01

    Using the static opaque chamber method, a field experiment was conducted in situ for two years to study the effects of three cultivation systems on CH4 and N2O emissions from permanently flooded rice fields in a hilly area in Southwest China. The results show that the average CH4 fluxes from a permanently flooded rice field with a single middle rice crop and flooded with no winter crop (PF) were (21.44 +/- 1.77) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) and (3.77 +/- 0.99) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) during rice-growing and non-rice growing periods, respectively, where both values were much lower than many previous reports from similar regions in Southwest China. The annual CH4 emission was mainly occurred in the rice growing period, being only 23.2% of the total annual CH4 flux emitted from the non-rice growing period, though the latter occupied two thirds of a year. The annual average flux of nitrous oxide was (0.051 +/- 0.008) mg x (m2 x h)(-1) and the N2O emission also intensive in the rice growing period. However, being only 8.1% of total annual N2O flux emitted from the non-rice growing period. After implementing the rice-wheat rotation (RW) and rice oil-seed rape rotation (RR), the CH4 emissions were reduced substantially, only 43.8% and 40.6% of those of PF, respectively. However, the N2O emissions were increased after conducting RW and RR systems, which were 3.7 and 4.5 times larger than those of PF. The global warming potentials (GWPs) of the CH4 and N2O emissions under the three tillage-cropping systems were assessed in an integrated way. The results show that the integrated GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions are in the following sequence: PF>RR approximately equal to RR. Within 20, 100 and 500 years spans, the GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions of PF were 2.6, 2.1 and 1.7 times larger than those of RW (or RR), respectively. After introducing rice-wheat or rice oil-seed rape rotation systems into the permanently flooded rice fields, the integrated GWPs of the CH4 and N2O emissions were

  16. Geology of the Mid-Miocene Rooster Comb Caldera and Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field, eastern Oregon: Silicic volcanism associated with Grande Ronde flood basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Thomas R.; Mahood, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    The Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field (LOVF) of eastern Oregon consists of rhyolitic caldera centers and lava fields contemporaneous with and spatially related to Mid-Miocene Columbia River flood basalt volcanism. Previous studies delineated two calderas in the southeastern part of LOVF near Owyhee Reservoir, the result of eruptions of two ignimbrites, the Tuff of Leslie Gulch and the Tuff of Spring Creek. Our new interpretation is that these two map units are differentially altered parts of a single ignimbrite produced in a major phreatomagmatic eruption at ~ 15.8 Ma. Areas previously mapped as Tuff of Spring Creek are locations where the ignimbrite contains abundant clinoptilolite ± mordenite, which made it susceptible to erosion. The resistant intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch has an alteration assemblage of albite ± quartz, indicative of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. Our new mapping of caldera lake sediments and pre- and post-caldera rhyolitic lavas and intrusions that are chemically similar to intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch point to a single ~ 20 × 25 km caldera, which we name the Rooster Comb Caldera. Erosion of the resurgently uplifted southern half of the caldera created dramatic exposures of intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch cut by post-caldera rhyolite dikes and intrusions that are the deeper-level equivalents of lava domes and flows that erupted into the caldera lake preserved in exposures to the northeast. The Rooster Comb Caldera has features in common with more southerly Mid-Miocene calderas of the McDermitt Volcanic Field and High Rock Caldera Complex, including formation in a basinal setting shortly after flood basalt eruptions ceased in the region, and forming on eruption of peralkaline ignimbrite. The volcanism at Rooster Comb Caldera postdates the main activity at McDermitt and High Rock, but, like it, begins ~ 300 ky after flood basalt volcanism begins in the area, and while flood basalts don't erupt through the silicic focus, are

  17. Effects of co-exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields and xenobiotics determined in vitro by the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Villarini, Milena; Moretti, Massimo; Scassellati-Sforzolini, Giuseppina; Boccioli, Bruno; Pasquini, Rossana

    2006-05-15

    In the present study, we used human peripheral blood leukocytes from 4 different donors, to investigate in vitro the possible genotoxic and/or co-genotoxic activity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) at 3 mT intensity. Two model mutagens were used to study the possible interaction between ELF-MF and xenobiotics: N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (4NQO). Primary DNA damage was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel-electrophoresis ("comet") assay. Control cells (leukocytes not exposed to ELF-MF, nor treated with genotoxins) from the different blood donors showed a comparable level of basal DNA damage, whereas the contribution of individual susceptibility toward ELF-MF and the tested genotoxic compounds led to differences in the extent of DNA damage observed following exposure to the genotoxins, both in the presence and in the absence of an applied ELF-MF. A 3 mT ELF-MF alone was unable to cause direct primary DNA damage. In leukocytes exposed to ELF-MF and genotoxins, the extent of MNNG-induced DNA damage increased with exposure duration compared to sham-exposed cells. The opposite was observed in cells treated with 4NQO. In this case the extent of 4NQO-induced DNA damage was somewhat reduced in leukocytes exposed to ELF-MF compared to sham-exposed cells. Moreover, in cells exposed to ELF-MF an increased concentration of GSH was always observed, compared to sham-exposed cells. Since following GSH conjugation the genotoxic pattern of MNNG and 4NQO is quite different, an influence of ELF-MF on the activity of the enzyme involved in the synthesis of GSH leading to different activation/deactivation of the model mutagens used was hypothesized to explain the different trends observed in MNNG and 4NQO genotoxic activity in the presence of an applied ELF-MF. The possibility that ELF-MF might interfere with the genotoxic activity of xenobiotics has important implications, since human populations are likely to be

  18. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  19. Multifractal Flood Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrology and more generally sciences involved in water resources management, researches and technological or operational development face a fundamental difficulty: the extreme variability of hydrological fields. It clearly appears today that this variability is a function of the observation scale and yield natural hazards such as floods or droughts. The estimation of return periods for extreme precipitation and flooding events requires a model of the natural (unperturbed) statistical behaviour of the probability tails and the possible clustering (including possible long-range dependencies) of the extremes. Appropriate approaches for handling such non classical variability over wide ranges of time and space scale do exist. They are based on a fundamental property of the non-linear equations: scale invariance. Its specific framework is that of multifractals. In this framework hydrological variability builds up scale by scale leading to non-classical statistics; this provides the key element needed to better understand and predict floods. Scaling is a verifiable physical principle which can be exploited to model hydrological processes and estimate their statistics over wide ranges of space-time scales. We first present the Multifractal Flood Frequency Analysis (MFFA) tool and illustrate some results of its application to a large database (for more than 16000 selected stations over USA and Canada). We then discuss its efficiency by showing how the mean flow information - coupled with universal multifractal parametrizations with power law tails - can be used to estimate return times for extreme flood events.

  20. Flood variability over 1871-2012 in Northern Québec: comparison of hydrological reconstructions based on tree-rings and on geopotential height field reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigode, Pierre; Brissette, François; Caya, Daniel; Nicault, Antoine; Perreault, Luc; Kuentz, Anna; Mathevet, Thibault; Gailhard, Joël

    2015-04-01

    For the next couple of decades, the impacts of climate change on hydrological extremes are likely to be masked by climate natural variability. Thus, a better understanding and quantification of natural climate variability on hydrological extremes would be helpful for short-term adaptation. However, studying natural variability requires long instrumental records, which are inexistant in remote regions such as Northern Québec. Different methods have been proposed to extend observed hydroclimatic time-series, based on other data sources such as tree rings or sedimentological datasets. For example, tree ring multi-proxies have been studied for the Caniapiscau Reservoir in Northern Québec (Canada), leading to the reconstruction of spring flood series (Boucher et al., 2011) and of annual and seasonal mean flow series (Nicault et al., 2014), for the last 150 years. Here, we apply a different reconstruction method on the same catchment, using historical reanalysis of geopotential height fields, to compare the flood series obtained and study the observed flood variability over the 1871-2012 period. The applied method, named ANATEM (Kuentz et al., 2013), aims firstly at producing climatic time series (temperature and precipitation) which are then used as inputs to one or several hydrological model previously calibrated in order to obtain streamflow time series. The climatic reconstruction is based on the analog method, using the link between atmospheric pressure situations and local climatic variables and thus requires (i) a geopotential height field reanalysis (here the NOAA reanalysis, available over the 1871-2012 period (Compo et al., 2011)), and (ii) the available observed temperature and precipitation time series (here available over the 1960-2012 period). The hypothesis of the analog method is that two different days having similar atmospheric circulations are expected to produce similar temperature and precipitation patterns. Using this hypothesis, the method

  1. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1991-02-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

  2. Strange Floods: The Upper Tail of Flood Peaks in the Conterminous US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Baeck, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The strangest flood in US history is arguably the 14 June 1903 flood that devastated Heppner, Oregon. The notion of strange floods is based on the assumption that there are flood agents that dominate the upper tail of flood distributions for a region (severe thunderstorms in complex terrain in the case of the Heppner flood) and are exceedingly poorly characterized by conventional flood records. The orographic thunderstorm systems in the central Appalachians that dominate envelope curves of flood peaks in the eastern US for basin areas less than 1,000 sq. km. and control portions of the global envelope curve of rainfall accumulations at time scales shorter than 6 hours) provide a well-documented example of strange floods. Despite extensive evidence of their occurrence, principally from field-based case studies, they are poorly represented in conventional USGS flood records. We develop methods for examining strange floods based on analyses of the complete record of USGS annual peak observations and on hydrometeorological analyses of the most extreme floods in the US flood record. The methods we present are grounded in extreme value theory and designed to enhance our understanding of extreme floods and improve methods for estimating extreme flood magnitudes.

  3. Scientific developments within the Global Flood Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groeve, Tom; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    More than 90 scientists, end users, and decision makers in the field of flood forecasting, remote sensing, hazard and risk assessment and emergency management collaborate in the Global Flood Partnership (GFP). The Partnership, launched in 2014, aims at the development of flood observational and modelling infrastructure, leveraging on existing initiatives for better predicting and managing flood disaster impacts and flood risk globally. Scientists collaborate in the GFP in different pillars, respectively focused on (1) development of tools and systems for global flood monitoring (Flood Toolbox), (2) applying the tools for publishing near real-time impact-based flood awareness information (Flood Observatory), and (3) collecting flood maps and impact information in a distributed database (Flood Record). The talk will focus on concrete collaboration results in 2014 and 2015, showing the added value of collaborating under a partnership. These include an overview of 10 services, 5 tools (algorithms or software) and 4 datasets related to global flood forecasting and observation. Through the various results (on interoperability, standards, visualization, integration and system design of integrated systems), it will be shown that a user-centric approach can lead to effective uptake of research results, rapid prototype development and experimental services that fill a gap in global flood response.

  4. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  5. Evaluation of micellar-polymer flood projects in a highly saline environment in the El Dorado field

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, H.H.; Easterly, R.A.; Murphy, T.B.; Kennedy, J.E.

    1987-12-01

    Two different micellar processes were conducted in the El Dorado Field in an effort to develop an EOR method for reducing the high oil saturation after waterflooding. Each process was field tested on adjacent 25 acre blocks of four 5-spot patterns. This report reviews the field performance, geology, formation evaluation, and laboratory support tests for the field tests. Both processes failed to recover additional oil, primarily because of unavoidable exposure to and mixing with divalent ions. An unusual oil saturation distribution also contributed to the failure. Unfortunately, these conditions could have been predicted from study of previous air, water, and steam injection projects in the field. 35 refs., 46 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Flood information for flood-plain planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bue, Conrad D.

    1967-01-01

    Floods are natural and normal phenomena. They are catastrophic simply because man occupies the flood plain, the highwater channel of a river. Man occupies flood plains because it is convenient and profitable to do so, but he must purchase his occupancy at a price-either sustain flood damage, or provide flood-control facilities. Although large sums of money have been, and are being, spent for flood control, flood damage continues to mount. However, neither complete flood control nor abandonment of the flood plain is practicable. Flood plains are a valuable resource and will continue to be occupied, but the nature and degree of occupancy should be compatible with the risk involved and with the degree of protection that is practicable to provide. It is primarily to meet the needs for defining the risk that the flood-inundation maps of the U.S. Geological Survey are prepared.

  7. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    flood but also to restart as fast as possible (for example, the clearing of roads is a prerequisite for electricity's restoration which is a vital network for territory's functioning). While the waste management is a main stage of post crisis, these questions are still without answer. The extend of this network influence also leads us to think about the means to prevent from waste production and service's dysfunction. How to develop the territory to limit the floods' impact on the waste management network? Are there techniques or equipments allowing stakeholders to limit these impacts? How to increase population's, entrepreneur's or farmer's awareness to get ready to face floods, to limit the waste production, but also to react well during and after the floods? Throughout means of prevention and thanks to actor's technical and organizational adaptations towards the waste network, or by raising population's awareness and preparation, economic and institutional actors of urban territories might improve the waste's network flood resilience, and thus, cities' flood resilience. Through experience feedbacks about countries recently affected by large-extended floods and field reflection with local actors, the stakes of this PhD research are thus to think about means (1) to maintain the activity out of flood plains during a flood, (2) to increase the waste management network's activity in post crisis period in order to be able to deal with a new waste production both by its quality and its quantity, but also (3) to study the means to prevent this new production. This work will use the concept of urban system to describe urban territory because it allows us to study both its behaviour and functioning. The interest of this methodological choice is to take into account the impacts of the disruption of waste management networks on cities' functioning, and thus, on cities' flood resilience.

  8. A field study on heavy metals phytoattenuation potential of monocropping and intercropping of maize and/or legumes in weakly alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Saiyong; Ma, Xinwang; Guo, Rui; Ai, Shiwei; Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-10-02

    The study focused on the phytoattenuation effects of monocropping and intercropping of maize (Zea mays) and/or legumes on Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in weakly alkaline soils. Nine growth stages of monocropping maize were chosen to study the dynamic process of extraction of heavy metals. The total content of heavy metals extracted by the aerial part of monocropped maize increased in a sigmoidal pattern over the effective accumulative temperature. The biggest biomass, highest extraction content, and lowest heavy metals bioaccumulation level occurred at physiological maturity. Among the different planting patterns, including monocropping and intercropping of maize and/or soybean (Glycine max), pea (Pisum sativum), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), the extraction efficiency of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd varied greatly. Only intercropping of maize and soybean yielded relatively higher extraction efficiency for the four metals with no significant difference in the total biomass. Moreover, the heavy metals concentrations in dry biomass from all the planting patterns in the present study were within China's national legal thresholds for fodder use. Therefore, slightly polluted alkaline soils can be safely used through monocropping and intercropping of maize and/or legumes for a range of purposes. In particular, this study indicated that intercropping improves soil ecosystems polluted by heavy metals compared with monocropping.

  9. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOEpatents

    Peru, Deborah A.

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  10. Field, Laboratory and Imaging spectroscopic Analysis of Landslide, Debris Flow and Flood Hazards in Lacustrine, Aeolian and Alluvial Fan Deposits Surrounding the Salton Sea, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Hooper, D. M.; Mars, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution satellite imagery, field spectral measurements using a portable ASD spectrometer, and 2013 hyperspectral AVIRIS imagery were used to evaluate the age of the Martinez Mountain Landslide (MML) near the Salton Sea, in order to determine the relative ages of adjacent alluvial fan surfaces and the potential for additional landslides, debris flows, and floods. The Salton Sea (SS) occupies a pluvial lake basin, with ancient shorelines ranging from 81 meters to 113 meters above the modern lake level. The highest shoreline overlaps the toe of the 0.24 - 0.38 km3 MML deposit derived from hydrothermally altered granites exposed near the summit of Martinez Mountain. The MML was originally believed to be of early Holocene age. However, AVIRIS mineral maps show abundant desert varnish on the top and toe of the landslide. Desert varnish can provide a means of relative dating of alluvial fan (AF) or landslide surfaces, as it accumulates at determinable rates over time. Based on the 1) highest levels of desert varnish accumulation mapped within the basin, 2) abundant evaporite playa minerals on top of the toe of the landslide, and 3) the highest shoreline of the ancestral lake overtopping the toe of the landslide with gastropod and bivalve shells, we conclude that the MML predates the oldest alluvial fan terraces and lake sediments exposed in the Coachella and Imperial valleys and must be older than early Holocene (i.e. Late Pleistocene?). Thus, the MML landslide has the potential to be used as a spectral endmember for desert varnish thickness and thus proxy for age discrimination of active AF washes versus desert pavements. Given the older age of the MML landslide and low water levels in the modern SS, the risk from future rockslides of this size and related seiches is rather low. However, catastrophic floods and debris flows do occur along the most active AF channels; and the aftermath of such flows can be identified spectrally by montmorillonite crusts forming in

  11. Tsunami flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

  12. Using field data and HSR imagery to downscale vulnerability assessment of buildings and local infrastructure facing hazards from floods and hyperconcentrated flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettinger, Susanne; Manrique Llerena, Nélida Victoria; Thouret, Jean-Claude

    2014-05-01

    The focus of this study is the analysis of post-flood conditions along the Venezuela channel in the large city of Arequipa, south Peru, in order to identify the parameters determining vulnerability of buildings and infrastructure. Two tributaries draining a c. 11.9 km2 large catchment feed the Venezuela channel. Before joining the main Rio Chili valley to the West, it crosses the city from NE to SW. Over a total length of 5.2 km, channel depth ranges from 1.3 to 6.3 m and c. 40% of the channel sections do not exceed 5 m in width. On 8 February 2013, 123 mm of rainfall within 3 hours (monthly mean: 29.3 mm) triggered a flashflood inundating at least 0.4 km2 of urban settlements along the channel. The flood damaged 14 buildings, 23 among 53 bridges, and led to the partial collapse of main road sections paralyzing central parts of the city for at least one week. This research relies on (1) analyzing post-flood conditions and assessing damage types caused by the 8 February 2013 flood; (2) mapping of the channel characteristics (slope, wetted section, sinuosity, type of river banks, bed roughness, etc.) and buildings, bridges, and contention walls potentially exposed to inundation. Data collection and analysis have been based on high spatial resolution (HSR) images (SPOT5 2007, Google Earth Pro and BINGMAP 2012, PLEIADES 2012-2013). Field measurements (GPS, laser and geomorphologic mapping) were used to ground truth channel width, depth, as well as building outlines, contention walls and bridge characteristics (construction material, opening size, etc.). An inventory of 25 city blocks (1500 to 20000 m2; 6 to 157 houses per block) has been created in a GIS database in order to estimate their physical vulnerability. As many as 717 buildings have been surveyed along the affected drainage and classified according to four building types based on their structural characteristics. Output vulnerability maps show that the varying channel characteristics, i.e. bank type, bed

  13. Alkaline assisted thermal oil recovery: Kinetic and displacement studies

    SciTech Connect

    Saneie, S.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-06-01

    This report deals with two major issues of chemical assisted flooding - the interaction of caustic, one of the proposed additives to steam flood, with the reservoir rock, and the displacement of oil by a chemical flood at elevated temperatures. A mathematical model simulating the kinetics of silica dissolution and hydroxyl ion consumption in a typical alkaline flooding environment is first developed. The model is based on the premise that dissolution occurs via hydrolysis of active sites through the formation of an intermediate complex, which is in equilibrium with the silicic acid in solution. Both static (batch) and dynamic (core flood) processes are simulated to examine the sensitivity of caustic consumption and silica dissolution to process parameters, and to determine rates of propagation of pH values. The model presented provides a quantitative description of the quartz-alkali interaction in terms of pH, salinity, ion exchange properties, temperature and contact time, which are of significant importance in the design of soluble silicate flooding processes. The modeling of an adiabatic hot waterflood assisted by the simultaneous injection of a chemical additive is next presented. The model is also applicable to the hot alkaline flooding under conditions of negligible adsorption of the generated anionic surfactant and of hydroxide adsorption being Langmuirian. The theory of generalized simple waves (coherence ) is used to develop solutions for the temperature, concentration, and oil saturation profiles, as well as the oil recovery curves. It is shown that, for Langmuir adsorption kinetics, the chemical resides in the heated region of the reservoir if its injection concentration is below a critical value, and in the unheated region if its concentration exceeds this critical value. Results for a chemical slug injection in a tertiary recovery process indicate recovery performance is maximized when chemical resides in the heated region of the reservior.

  14. A field study on the dynamic uptake and transfer of heavy metals in Chinese cabbage and radish in weak alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Ai, Shiwei; Guo, Rui; Liu, Bailin; Ren, Liang; Naeem, Sajid; Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-10-01

    Vegetables and crops can take up heavy metals when grown on polluted lands. The concentrations and dynamic uptake of heavy metals vary at different growth points for different vegetables. In order to assess the safe consumption of vegetables in weak alkaline farmlands, Chinese cabbage and radish were planted on the farmlands of Baiyin (polluted site) and Liujiaxia (relatively unpolluted site). Firstly, the growth processes of two vegetables were recorded. The growth curves of the two vegetables observed a slow growth at the beginning, an exponential growth period, and a plateau towards the end. Maximum concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) were presented at the slow growth period and showed a downtrend except the radish shoot. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Cd) in vegetables of Baiyin were higher than those of Liujiaxia. In the meanwhile, the uptake contents continued to increase during the growth or halted at maximum at a certain stage. The maximum uptake rates were found on the maturity except for the shoot of radish which took place at the exponential growth stages of root. The sigmoid model could simulate the dynamic processes of growth and heavy metals uptake of Chinese cabbage and radish. Conclusively, heavy metals have higher bioaccumulation tendency for roots in Chinese cabbage and for shoots in radish.

  15. A binary A(x)B(1-x) ionic alkaline pseudocapacitor system involving manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel: formation of electroactive colloids via in situ electric field assisted coprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunfeng; Yin, Shu; Xue, Dongfeng

    2015-01-21

    A new "combinatorial transition-metal cation pseudocapacitor" was demonstrated by designing combinatorial transition-metal cation pseudocapacitors with binary AxB1-x salt electrodes involving manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel cations in an alkaline aqueous electrolyte. Binary multi-valence cations were crystallized in the colloidal state through an in situ coprecipitation under an electric field. These electroactive colloids absorbed by carbon black and the PVDF matrix are highly redox-reactive with high specific capacitance values, where the specific electrode configuration can create short ion diffusion paths to enable fast and reversible Faradaic reactions. This work shows huge promise for developing high-performance electrical energy storage systems via designing the colloidal state of electroactive cations. Multiple redox cations in the colloidal state can show high redox activities, making them more suitable for potential application in pseudocapacitor systems.

  16. Nitrogen isotope evidence for alkaline lakes on late Archean continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüeken, E. E.; Buick, R.; Schauer, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios in ancient sedimentary rocks are generally interpreted as a proxy for metabolic nitrogen pathways and the redox state of the water column. Fractionation processes occurring under anoxic, alkaline conditions during the dissociation of NH4+ to H+ and volatile NH3 are frequently overlooked, although this mechanism imparts large isotopic fractionations. Here we propose that NH3 volatilization is largely responsible for δ15N values of up to + 50 ‰ at high C/N ratios in the late Archean Tumbiana Formation. This sequence of sedimentary rocks represents a system of lakes that formed on subaerial flood basalts and were partly filled by basaltic volcanic ash. Aqueous alteration of volcanic glass followed by evaporative concentration of ions should have led to the development of high alkalinity with a pH of 9 or higher, as in modern analogues. In this sedimentologically unusual setting, nitrogen isotope ratios thus provide indirect evidence for the oldest alkaline lake system in the rock record. These very heavy lacustrine δ15N values contrast markedly with those of Archean marine sedimentary rocks, making a Precambrian "soda ocean" unlikely. Today, alkaline lakes are among the most productive ecosystems on Earth. Some nutrients, in particular molybdenum, are more soluble at high pH, and certain prebiotic reactions would likely have been favored under alkaline conditions in similar settings earlier in Earth's history. Hence alkaline lakes in the Archean could have been significant for the origin and early evolution of life.

  17. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Texas Pacific Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310, Wasson (San Andres) Field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.; McCoy, R.L.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Glascock, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The coring, logging and testing of Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310 was a cooperative effort between Texas Pacific, owner of the well, and Gruy Federal, Inc. The requirements of the contract, which are summarized in Enclosure 1, Appendix A, include drilling and coring activities. The pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs in selected wells are intended to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report presents detailed information on the first such project. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood. The engineering of tests and analysis of such experimental data requires original thinking, but the reliability of the results is higher than data derived from conventional tests.

  18. Local Flood Proofing Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    100-year flood. Selecting an appropriate flood protection level is discussed on page 63. Human Intervention: the need for one or more people to be...this publication, communities were asked “Why did your community select flood proofing as a damage reduction measure?” Six broad reasons were cited...Flood Proofing Programs – 10 – February 2005 External impact: Sometimes flood proofing is selected because the other flood protection measures

  19. Surfactant mixing rules applied to surfactant enhanced alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.C. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses surfactant mixing rules which have been used to describe crude oil/alkali/surfactant phase behavior, using David Lloydminster crude oil and the surfactant Neodol 25-3S. It was found that at a fixed salinity and alkali concentration, a specific mole fraction of synthetic surfactant to petroleum soap was required to produce optimal phase behavior as the water-to-oil ratio varied. This methodology is useful in understanding the relationship between the variables of water-to-oil ratio and synthetic surfactant concentration in phase behavior systems that produce a petroleum soap.

  20. Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2000-01-01

    Bottomland plant communities are typically dominated by the effects of floods. Floods create the surfaces on which plants become established, transport seeds and nutrients, and remove establish plants. Floods provide a moisture subsidy that allows development of bottomland forests in arid regions and produce anoxic soils, which can control bottomland plant distribution in humid regions. Repeated flooding produces a mosaic of patches of different age, sediment texture, and inundation duration; this mosaic fosters high species richness.

  1. Visual Sensing for Urban Flood Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing climatic extremes, the frequency and severity of urban flood events have intensified worldwide. In this study, image-based automated monitoring of flood formation and analyses of water level fluctuation were proposed as value-added intelligent sensing applications to turn a passive monitoring camera into a visual sensor. Combined with the proposed visual sensing method, traditional hydrological monitoring cameras have the ability to sense and analyze the local situation of flood events. This can solve the current problem that image-based flood monitoring heavily relies on continuous manned monitoring. Conventional sensing networks can only offer one-dimensional physical parameters measured by gauge sensors, whereas visual sensors can acquire dynamic image information of monitored sites and provide disaster prevention agencies with actual field information for decision-making to relieve flood hazards. The visual sensing method established in this study provides spatiotemporal information that can be used for automated remote analysis for monitoring urban floods. This paper focuses on the determination of flood formation based on image-processing techniques. The experimental results suggest that the visual sensing approach may be a reliable way for determining the water fluctuation and measuring its elevation and flood intrusion with respect to real-world coordinates. The performance of the proposed method has been confirmed; it has the capability to monitor and analyze the flood status, and therefore, it can serve as an active flood warning system. PMID:26287201

  2. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

  3. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, N.; Torikai, E.; Kawami, Y.; Takenaka, H.

    Results are presented of experimental studies of possible separators and electrodes for use in advanced, high-temperature, high-pressure alkaline water electrolyzers. Material evaluations in alkaline water electrolyzers at temperatures from 100 to 120 C have shown a new type polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with potassium titanate to be the most promising when the separator is prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of a porous PFTE membrane impregnated with hydrated titanium oxide. Measurements of cell voltages in 30% KOH at current densities from 5 to 100 A/sq dm at temperatures up to 120 C with nickel electrodes of various structures have shown the foamed nickel electrode, with an average pore size of 1-1.5 mm, to have the best performance. When the foamed nickel is coated by fine powdered nickel, carbonyl nickel or Raney nickel to increase electrode surface areas, even lower cell voltages were found, indicating better performance.

  4. Scales of Natural Flood Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Alex; Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; Hetherington, David; Piedra Lara, Miguel; O'Donnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The scientific field of Natural flood Management (NFM) is receiving much attention and is now widely seen as a valid solution to sustainably manage flood risk whilst offering significant multiple benefits. However, few examples exist looking at NFM on a large scale (>10km2). Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. Although certain NFM interventions may appear distant and disconnected from main stem waterbodies, they will undoubtedly be contributing to WFD at the catchment waterbody scale. This paper offers examples of NFM, and explains how they can be maximised through practical design across many scales (from feature up to the whole catchment). New tools to assist in the selection of measures and their location, and to appreciate firstly, the flooding benefit at the local catchment scale and then show a Flood Impact Model that can best reflect the impacts of local changes further downstream. The tools will be discussed in the context of our most recent experiences on NFM projects including river catchments in the north east of England and in Scotland. This work has encouraged a more integrated approach to flood management planning that can use both traditional and novel NFM strategies in an effective and convincing way.

  5. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-22

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  6. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective. PMID:25621609

  7. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1989-04-04

    A method is described for flooding of a subterranean petroleum bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery, comprising the steps of providing at least one production well having at least one inlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, and at least one injection well having at least one outlet within the subterranean petroleum bearing formation, injecting into the petroleum bearing formation through the injection well, a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution having a pH in the range of from about 8.25 to about 9.25 comprising from about 0.25 to about 5 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 weight percent of petroleum recovery surfactant, and from about 1 to about 20 weight percent of sodium chloride, based on the total weight of the aqueous flooding solution, withdrawing through at least one inlet of the production wells, an oil and water mixture comprising petroleum from the subterranean petroleum bearing formation and at least a portion of the low alkaline pH sodium bicarbonate aqueous flooding solution, and separating the oil from the aqueous oil and water mixture.

  8. Large-scale Flood Monitoring: Where is the most exposed to large flood in Asia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; PARK, J.; Iwami, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flood mapping and monitoring (particularly flood areas, locations, and durations) are an imperative process and are the fundamental part of risk management as well as emergency response. We have found that Bangladesh is the highest risk country among 14 Asian developing countries from flood risk assessment under climate change scenarios because of its largest vulnerable population to cyclic 50-year flood events. This study shows a methodological possibility to be used as a standard approach for continental-scale flood hazard and risk assessment with the use of multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), a big contributor to progress in real-time hazard mapping. The purpose of this study is to detect flood inundation areas considering the flood propagation even with limitations of optical and multispectral images. We improved a water detection algorithm to achieve a better discrimination capacity to discern flood areas by using amodified land surface water index (MLSWI), and estimated flood extent areas, coupled with the water level and an optimal threshold ofMLSWI based on the spectral characteristics. In Bangladesh, the FFWC warns people that floods occur when the water level exceeds the danger level. We clearly confirmed that the flood propagation was in good agreement with the timing of the water level exceeding the water danger level in the case of the cyclic 10-year flood event. The flooding was also found to be proportional to theflood extent (areas) and duration. The results showed the novel approach's capability of providing instant,comprehensive nationwide flood mapping over the entire Bangladesh by using multi-temporal MODIS data. The ambiguities of rapid flood mapping from satellite-derived products were verified in the Brahmaputra River by using high-resolution images (ALOS AVNIR2, spatial resolution 10m), ground truth and field survey data.

  9. Flooding and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  10. Emplacement dynamics and lava field evolution of the flood basalt eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland: Observations from field and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Gro; Höskuldsson, Armann; Riishuus, Morten S.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Thórdarson, Thorvaldur; Dürig, Tobias; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Durmont, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    The Holuhraun eruption (Aug 2014- Feb 2015) is the largest effusive eruption in Iceland since the Laki eruption in 1783-84, with an estimated lava volume of ~1.6 km3 covering an area of ~83 km2. The eruption provides an unprecedented opportunity to study i) lava morphologies and their emplacement styles, ii) Morphological transitions iii) the transition from open to closed lava pathways and iv) the implication of lava pond formation. This study is based on three different categories of data; field data, airborne data and satellite data. The field data include tracking of the lava advancement by Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements and georeferenced GoPro cameras allowing classification of the lava margin morphology. Furthermore, video footage on-site documented lava emplacement. Complimentary observations have been provided from aircraft platforms and by satellite data. Of particular importance for lava morphology observations are 1-12 m/pixel airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images (x-band), as well as SAR data from TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed satellites. The Holuhraun lava field comprises a continuum of morphologies from pāhoehoe to 'a'ā, which have varied temporally and spatially. Shelly pāhoehoe lava was the first morphology to be observed (08-29). Spatially, this lava type was not widely distributed, but was emplaced throughout the eruption close to the vent area and the lava channels. Slabby pāhoehoe lava was initially observed the 08-31 and was observed throughout most of the eruption during the high-lava-flux phase of new lava lobe emplacement. 'A'ā lavas were the dominating morphology the first three months of the eruption and was first observed 09-01 like Rubbly pāhoehoe lava. Finally, Spiny pāhoehoe lava was first observed the 09-05 as a few marginal outbreaks along the fairly inactive parts of the 'a'ā lava lobe. However, throughout the eruption this morphology became more important and from mid-November/beginning of December the

  11. The Hydroclimatology of Extreme Flooding in the Lower Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James; Baeck, Mary Lynn

    2015-04-01

    The 1927 flood in the lower Mississippi River was the most destructive flood in American history, inundating more than 68,000 square kilometers of land, resulting in approximately 500 fatalities and leaving more than 700,000 people homeless. Despite the prominence of the 1927 flood, hard details on the flood, and the storms that produced the flood, are sparse. We examine the hydrometeorology, hydroclimatolgy and hydrology of the 1927 flood in the lower Mississippi River through empirical analyses of rainfall and streamflow records and through downscaling simulations of the storms that were responsible for cata-strophic flooding. We use 20th Century Reanalysis fields as boundary conditions and initial conditions for downscaling simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We place the hydrometeorological analyses of the 1927 storms in a hydroclimatolog-ical context through analyses of the 20th Century Reanalysis fields. Analyses are designed to assess the physical processes that control the upper tail of flooding in the lower Missis-sippi River. We compare the 1927 flood in the Lower Mississippi River to floods in 2011, 1937 and 1973 that represent the most extreme flooding in the Lower Mississippi River. Our results show that extreme flooding is tied to anomalous water vapor transport linked to strength and position of the North Atlantic Subtropical High. More generally, the results are designed to provide insights to the hydroclimatology of flooding in large rivers.

  12. Laboratory and field evaluation of a flushable oxic limestone drain for treatment of net-acidic drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of dissolution-rate data obtained in the laboratory to indicate the potential quality of effluent from a field-scale oxic limestone drain (OLD) treatment system for neutralization of dilute acidic mine drainage (AMD). Effluent from the Reevesdale Mine South Dip Tunnel, a large source of AMD and base flow to the Wabash Creek and Little Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield of east-central Pennsylvania, is representative of AMD with low concentrations but high loadings of dissolved Fe, Al and other metals because of a high flow rate. In January 2003, rapid neutralization of the AMD from the Reevesdale Mine was achieved in laboratory tests of its reaction rate with crushed limestone in closed, collapsible containers (Cubitainers). The tests showed that net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with retention times greater than 3 h and that effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for Fe(OH)3-coated and uncoated limestone. On the basis of the laboratory results, a flushable OLD containing 1450 metric tons of high-purity calcitic limestone followed by two 0.7-m deep wetlands were constructed at the Reevesdale Mine. During the first year of operation, monthly data at the inflow, outflow and intermediate points within the treatment system were collected (April 2006-2007). The inflow to the treatment system ranged from 6.8 to 27.4 L/s, with median pH of 4.7, net acidity of 9.1 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of 1.0, 1.9 and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The corresponding effluent from the OLD had computed void-volume retention times of 4.5-18 h, with median pH of 6.6, net acidity of -93.2 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of <0.1, 0.08 and 0.52 mg/L, respectively. The wetlands below the OLD were effective for retaining metal-rich solids flushed at monthly or more frequent intervals from the OLD, but otherwise had little effect on the effluent quality

  13. Notes from the Field: Ebola Virus Disease Response Activities During a Mass Displacement Event After Flooding--Freetown, Sierra Leone, September-November, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ratto, Jeffrey; Ivy, Wade; Purfield, Anne; Bangura, James; Omoko, Anthony; Boateng, Isaac; Duffy, Nadia; Sims, George; Beamer, Bryan; Pi-Sunyer, Teresa; Kamara, Sarian; Conteh, Sulaiman; Redd, John

    2016-02-26

    Since the start of the Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa, Sierra Leone has reported 8,706 confirmed Ebola cases and 3,956 deaths. During September 15-16, 2015, heavy rains flooded the capital, Freetown, resulting in eight deaths, home and property destruction, and thousands of persons in need of assistance. By September 27, approximately 13,000 flood-affected persons registered for flood relief services from the government. On September 17, two stadiums in Freetown were opened to provide shelter and assistance to flood-affected residents; a total of approximately 3,000 persons stayed overnight in both stadiums (Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, personal communication, September 2015). On the same day the stadiums were opened to flood-affected persons, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS) and Western Area Ebola Response Center (WAERC) staff members from CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the African Union evaluated the layout, logistics, and services at both stadiums and identified an immediate need to establish Ebola response activities. The patient in the last Ebola case in the Western Area, which includes Freetown, had died 37 days earlier, on August 11; however, transmission elsewhere in Sierra Leone was ongoing, and movement of persons throughout the country was common.

  14. Extensive Floods in United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rain continues to fall in the United Kingdom, bringing more water to an already water-logged landscape. Some rivers there are experiencing their worst flooding in more than 50 years. Of particular note, Britain's River Ouse reached its highest levels on record since 1625. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes since October 30, when a large low-pressure system brought torrential rains and hurricane-force winds, placing regions around more than 40 rivers across the country on flood alert. Since then, the rains have persisted, keeping water levels high and causing additional rivers to overrun their banks. In all, at least 12 people have been killed and more than 5,000 properties flooded. Some officials estimate damages could reach 500 million pounds (roughly $715 million). These Landsat 7 scenes show a comparison of the region surrounding Exeter, England, before and after the floods. The top image was acquired September 28 and the bottom image was acquired October 30, 2000. Note the extensive flooding along the River Exe in the bottom image (blue pixels). The light bluish-white pixels in the top image are clouds, and the black splotches on the landscape are the clouds' shadows. The reddish-brown shapes are agricultural fields. Image by Robert Simmon and Brian Montgomery, NASA GSFC. Data provided by Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center.

  15. Transient DNA damage induced by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1.8 GHz) in the human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell line evaluated with the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Franzellitti, Silvia; Valbonesi, Paola; Ciancaglini, Nicola; Biondi, Carla; Contin, Andrea; Bersani, Ferdinando; Fabbri, Elena

    2010-01-05

    One of the most controversial issue regarding high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) is their putative capacity to affect DNA integrity. This is of particular concern due to the increasing use of HF-EMF in communication technologies, including mobile phones. Although epidemiological studies report no detrimental effects on human health, the possible disturbance generated by HF-EMF on cell physiology remains controversial. In addition, the question remains as to whether cells are able to compensate their potential effects. We have previously reported that a 1-h exposure to amplitude-modulated 1.8 GHz sinusoidal waves (GSM-217 Hz, SAR=2 W/kg) largely used in mobile telephony did not cause increased levels of primary DNA damage in human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells. Nevertheless, further investigations on trophoblast cell responses after exposure to GSM signals of different types and durations were considered of interest. In the present work, HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed for 4, 16 or 24h to 1.8 GHz continuous wave (CW) and different GSM signals, namely GSM-217 Hz and GSM-Talk (intermittent exposure: 5 min field on, 10 min field off). The alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate primary DNA damages and/or strand breaks due to uncompleted repair processes in HF-EMF exposed samples. The amplitude-modulated signals GSM-217 Hz and GSM-Talk induced a significant increase in comet parameters in trophoblast cells after 16 and 24h of exposure, while the un-modulated CW was ineffective. However, alterations were rapidly recovered and the DNA integrity of HF-EMF exposed cells was similar to that of sham-exposed cells within 2h of recovery in the absence irradiation. Our data suggest that HF-EMF with a carrier frequency and modulation scheme typical of the GSM signal may affect the DNA integrity.

  16. Field-Evolved Mode 1 Resistance of the Fall Armyworm to Transgenic Cry1Fa-Expressing Corn Associated with Reduced Cry1Fa Toxin Binding and Midgut Alkaline Phosphatase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jakka, Siva R. K.; Gong, Liang; Hasler, James; Banerjee, Rahul; Sheets, Joel J.; Narva, Kenneth; Blanco, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal protein genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are expressed by transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops) for effective and environmentally safe pest control. The development of resistance to these insecticidal proteins is considered the most serious threat to the sustainability of Bt crops. Resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Puerto Rico to transgenic corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein resulted, for the first time in the United States, in practical resistance, and Bt corn was withdrawn from the local market. In this study, we used a field-collected Cry1Fa corn-resistant strain (456) of S. frugiperda to identify the mechanism responsible for field-evolved resistance. Binding assays detected reduced Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Ca toxin binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the larvae of strain 456 compared to that from the larvae of a susceptible (Ben) strain. This binding phenotype is descriptive of the mode 1 type of resistance to Bt toxins. A comparison of the transcript levels for putative Cry1 toxin receptor genes identified a significant downregulation (>90%) of a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which translated to reduced ALP protein levels and a 75% reduction in ALP activity in BBMV from 456 compared to that of Ben larvae. We cloned and heterologously expressed this ALP from susceptible S. frugiperda larvae and demonstrated that it specifically binds with Cry1Fa toxin. This study provides a thorough mechanistic description of field-evolved resistance to a transgenic Bt crop and supports an association between resistance and reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and levels of a putative Cry1Fa toxin receptor, ALP, in the midguts of S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:26637593

  17. The effect of alkaline additives on the performance of surfactant systems designed to recover light oils

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.; Evans, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    Surfactant flooding is flexible because of the ability to optimize formulations for a wide range of reservoir conditions and crude oil types. The objective for this work was to determine if the addition of alkaline additives will allow the design of surfactant formulations that are effective for the recovery of crude oil, while, at the same time, maintaining the surfactant concentration at a much lower level than has previously been used for micellar flooding. Specifically, the focus of the work was on light, midcontinent crudes that typically have very low acid contents. These oils are typical of much of the midcontinent resource. The positive effect of alkaline additives on the phase behavior of the surfactant formulations and acidic crude oils is well known. The extension to nonacidic and slightly acidic oils is not obvious. Three crude oils, a variety of commercial surfactants, and several alkaline additives were tested. The oils had acid numbers that ranged from 0.13, which is quite low, to less than 0.01 mg KOH/g of oil. Alkaline additives were found to be very effective in recovering Delaware-Childers (OK) oil at elevated temperatures, but much less effective at reservoir temperatures. Alkaline additives were very effective with Teapot Dome (WY) oil. With Teapot Dome oil, surfactant/alkali systems produced ultralow IFT values and recovered 60% of the residual oil that remained after waterflooding. The effect of alkaline additives on recovering Hepler (KS) oil was minimal. The results of this work indicate that alkaline additives do have merit for use in surfactant flooding of low acid crude oils; however, no universal statement about applicability can be made. Each oil behaves differently, with this treatment, and the effect of alkaline additives must be determined (at reservoir conditions) for each oil. 23 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The alkaline earth intercalates of molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.; Samson, S.; Woollam, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide has been intercalated with calcium and strontium by means of the liquid ammonia technique. Chemical, X-ray, and superconductivity data are presented. The X-ray data reveal a lowering of crystal symmetry and increase of complexity of the structure upon intercalation with the alkaline earth metals. The Ca and Sr intercalates start to superconduct at 4 and 5.6 K, respectively, and show considerable anisotropy regarding the critical magnetic field.

  19. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  20. Eu(2+)-Activated Alkaline-Earth Halophosphates, M5(PO4)3X:Eu(2+) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; X = F, Cl, Br) for NUV-LEDs: Site-Selective Crystal Field Effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyeon; Kim, Sung-Chul; Bae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Sungyun; Kim, Seung-Joo; Park, Jung-Chul

    2016-09-06

    Eu(2+)-activated M5(PO4)3X (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; X = F, Cl, Br) compounds providing different alkaline-earth metal and halide ions were successfully synthesized and characterized. The emission peak maxima of the M5(PO4)3Cl:Eu(2+) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds were blue-shifted from Ca to Ba (454 nm for Ca, 444 nm for Sr, and 434 nm for Ba), and those of the Sr5(PO4)3X:Eu(2+) (X = F, Cl, Br) compounds were red-shifted along the series of halides, F → Cl → Br (437 nm for F, 444 nm for Cl, and 448 nm for Br). The site selectivity and occupancy of the activator ions (Eu(2+)) in the M5(PO4)3X:Eu(2+) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; X = F, Cl, Br) crystal lattices were estimated based on theoretical calculation of the 5d → 4f transition energies of Eu(2+) using LCAO. In combination with the photoluminescence measurements and theoretical calculation, it was elucidated that the Eu(2+) ions preferably enter the fully oxygen-coordinated sites in the M5(PO4)3X:Eu(2+) (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; X = F, Cl, Br) compounds. This trend can be well explained by "Pauling's rules". These compounds may provide a platform for modeling a new phosphor and application in the solid-state lighting field.

  1. Simplicity and complexity of bed load response during flash floods in a gravel bed ephemeral river: A 10 year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Hai; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Reid, Ian

    2010-11-01

    A decade of data for the Nahal Eshtemoa, an unarmored, gravel bed, ephemeral river, reveals that bed load flux during rain-fed flash floods is a simple function of channel average boundary shear stress. However, the relation is inadequately described by a power function of the type commonly used in predictive bed load equations, and a linear function gives a much better fit. The success of a linear function is related to the unarmored nature of the bed material, typical of ephemeral gravel bed rivers, and the ready availability of sediment at all levels of transport stage. Bed load response to changing shear stress is largely undifferentiated as flash floods wax or wane. However, while most data conform to a simple relation between bed load and hydraulic stress, some for individual floods or flood segments do not, reflecting variability in sediment supply and texture. Three type behaviors are identified that assist in explaining both the general, simple pattern and the limited scatter of the bed load-shear stress plot. Type 1 provides the majority of the data, giving the general linear relation between bed load flux and boundary shear stress. Type 2 is rare, given the flashy nature of the hydrograph, but represents comparatively steady flows well above the entrainment threshold, during which bed load sheets or the breakup of grain clusters lead to spasmodic changes in bed load flux. Type 3 shows a weak relation between shear stress and bed load flux, representing flow conditions just above the entrainment threshold.

  2. Flavobacterium oryzae sp. nov., isolated from a flooded rice field, and emended descriptions of Flavobacterium flevense, Flavobacterium yonginense and Flavobacterium myungsuense.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Chen, Jhen-Ci; Sheu, Shih-Yi

    2014-11-01

    A bacterial strain, designated Jyi-05(T), was isolated from a flooded rice field and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells of strain Jyi-05(T) were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, bright-yellow-pigmented rods that were motile by gliding. Growth occurred at 10-30 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6.5-7.5 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0-2% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 1%, w/v, NaCl). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Jyi-05(T) belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and was most closely related to Flavobacterium flevense DSM 1076(T) with sequence similarity of 97.6%. Strain Jyi-05(T) contained iso-C(15:0) (16.6%), anteiso-C(15:0) (10.8%), summed feature 3 (C(16:1)ω7c and/or C(16:1)ω6c; 10.3%), iso-C((17:0) 3-OH (9.2%), C(16:0) (7.3%) and iso-C(15:0) 3-OH (7.2%) as the predominant fatty acids. The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine and several uncharacterized aminophospholipids and phospholipids. The major polyamine was homospermidine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain Jyi-05(T) was 34.2 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness of strain Jyi-05(T) with respect to recognized species of the genus Flavobacterium was less than 70%. On the basis of the phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data, strain Jyi-05(T) should be classified as a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Jyi-05(T) ( = BCRC 80522(T) =LMG 27292(T) =KCTC 32240(T)). Emended descriptions of Flavobacterium flevense, Flavobacterium yonginense and Flavobacterium myungsuense are also presented.

  3. Social media for disaster response during floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilander, D.; van de Vries, C.; Baart, F.; van Swol, R.; Wagemaker, J.; van Loenen, A.

    2015-12-01

    During floods it is difficult to obtain real-time accurate information about the extent and severity of the hazard. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. Currently, real-time information is derived from few sources such as field reports, traffic camera's, satellite images and areal images. However, getting a real-time and accurate picture of the situation on the ground remains difficult. At the same time, people affected by natural hazards increasingly share their observations and their needs through digital media. Unlike conventional monitoring systems, Twitter data contains a relatively large number of real-time ground truth observations representing both physical hazard characteristics and hazard impacts. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at almost 900 tweets per minute during floods in early 2015. Flood events around the world in 2014/2015 yielded large numbers of flood related tweets: from Philippines (85.000) to Pakistan (82.000) to South-Korea (50.000) to Detroit (20.000). The challenge here is to filter out useful content from this cloud of data, validate these observations and convert them to readily usable information. In Jakarta, flood related tweets often contain information about the flood depth. In a pilot we showed that this type of information can be used for real-time mapping of the flood extent by plotting these observations on a Digital Elevation Model. Uncertainties in the observations were taken into account by assigning a probability to each observation indicating its likelihood to be correct based on statistical analysis of the total population of tweets. The resulting flood maps proved to be correct for about 75% of the neighborhoods in Jakarta. Further cross-validation of flood related tweets against (hydro-) meteorological data is to likely improve the skill of the method.

  4. Development of a flood-warning network and flood-inundation mapping for the Blanchard River in Ottawa, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, Matthew T.

    2011-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps of the Blanchard River in Ottawa, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Village of Ottawa, Ohio. The maps, which correspond to water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Ottawa (USGS streamgage site number 04189260), were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning Network that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. Flood profiles were computed by means of a step-backwater model calibrated to recent field measurements of streamflow. The step-backwater model was then used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 12 flood stages with corresponding streamflows ranging from less than the 2-year and up to nearly the 500-year recurrence-interval flood. The computed flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate flood-inundation areas. Maps of the Village of Ottawa showing flood-inundation areas overlain on digital orthophotographs are presented for the selected floods. As part of this flood-warning network, the USGS upgraded one streamgage and added two new streamgages, one on the Blanchard River and one on Riley Creek, which is tributary to the Blanchard River. The streamgage sites were equipped with both satellite and telephone telemetry. The telephone telemetry provides dual functionality, allowing village officials and the public to monitor current stage conditions and enabling the streamgage to call village officials with automated warnings regarding flood stage and/or predetermined rates of stage increase. Data from the streamgages serve as a flood warning that emergency management personnel can use in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps by to determine a course of action when flooding is imminent.

  5. Analysis of the flood extent extraction model and the natural flood influencing factors: A GIS-based and remote sensing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawal, D. U.; Matori, A. N.; Yusuf, K. W.; Hashim, A. M.; Balogun, A. L.

    2014-02-01

    Serious floods have hit the State of Perlis in 2005, 2010, as well as 2011. Perlis is situated in the northern part of Peninsula Malaysia. The floods caused great damage to properties and human lives. There are various methods used in an attempt to provide the most reliable ways to reduce the flood risk and damage to the optimum level by identifying the flood vulnerable zones. The purpose of this paper is to develop a flood extent extraction model based on Minimum Distance Algorithm and to overlay with the natural flood influencing factors considered herein in order to examine the effect of each factor in flood generation. GIS spatial database was created from a geological map, SPOT satellite image, and the topographical map. An attribute database was equally created from field investigations and historical flood areas reports of the study area. The results show a great correlation between the flood extent extraction model and the flood factors.

  6. [Research on compatibility chemistry of acid-alkaline pair medicines in formulas of traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Pei, Miaorong; Duan, Xiujun; Pei, Xiangping; Xuan, Chunsheng; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Shurong; Liu, Bingchen; Wang, Shimin

    2009-08-01

    Compatibility chemistry of acid-alkaline pair medicines in formulas of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important research field which should merit to pay attention. The ideas and methods in prescription compatibility research on formulas containing alkaline-acid pair medicines were summarized from the aspect of chemical groups of alkaline and acid ingredients; the research results were introduced and analyzed; the research meaning was elaborated; and the expectation of the field was viewed.

  7. Farms adaptation to changes in flood risk: a management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivot, Jean-Marc; Martin, Philippe

    2002-10-01

    Creating flood expansion areas e.g. for the protection of urban areas from flooding involves a localised increase in risk which may require farmers to be compensated for crop damage or other losses. With this in mind, the paper sets out the approach used to study the problem and gives results obtained from a survey of farms liable to flooding in central France. The approach is based on a study of decisions made by farmers in situations of uncertainty, using the concept of 'model of action'. The results show that damage caused to farming areas by flooding should be considered both at field level and at farm level. The damage caused to the field depends on the flood itself, the fixed characteristics of the field, and the plant species cultivated. However, the losses to the farm taken as a whole can differ considerably from those for the flooded field, due to 'knock-on' effects on farm operations which depend on the internal organization, the availability of production resources, and the farmer's objectives, both for the farm as a whole and for its individual enterprises. Three main strategies regarding possible flood events were identified. Reasons for choosing one of these include the way the farmer perceives the risk and the size of the area liable to flooding. Finally, the formalisation of farm system management in the face of uncertainty, especially due to flooding, enables compensation to be calculated for farmers whose land is affected by the creation of flood expansion areas.

  8. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  9. Sugarcane Flood Tolerance: Current Limits and Future Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Glaz, Barry; Gilbert, Robert

    2010-01-08

    Sugarcane flood tolerance is discussed in this presentation. Related issues are looked at from four perspectives – various limits, physiological and morphological changes, future gains speculations and possible ecological and hydrological applications. Sugarcane flood tolerance and yield changes are presented on several field experiments during the crop various growth phases – (1) after planting with furrow open and with furrow closed, (2) during summer growth and (3) prior to harvest. It is documented that flood or shallow water-table depth do not affect photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. It is also documented that roots of all 40 sugarcane genotypes tested in Florida had aerenchyma, while stalks form aerenchyma after being flooded. However, only some genotypes form aerenchyma in stalks without exposure to flood; this provides extra flood tolerance. While it is still a theory, it seems that sugarcane root growth is decreased when roots must grow into water. However, sugarcane roots appear to meet the needs of the plant when flooded for up to 2 weeks. It is concluded that most commercial sugarcane cultivars in Florida can tolerate floods for 1 to 2 weeks and that sugarcane has physiological and morphological traits that allow it to respond well to short-duration floods, while continuous shallow water tables are more harmful to sugarcane than periodic flooding. Given these facts, new strategy of storing water on sugarcane fields is proposed - field A could be flooded for 1-2 weeks, then drained to the field B which would be flooded for 1-2 weeks, then drained to the field C, etc. Research should focus on extending this flood period duration, so new strategies for ecological and hydrological application could be pursued further.

  10. Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Louise J.; Bliss Singer, Michael; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is a major threat to lives and infrastructure, yet trends in flood hazard are poorly understood. The capacity of river channels to convey flood flows is typically assumed to be stationary, so changes in flood frequency are thought to be driven primarily by trends in streamflow. However, changes in channel capacity will also modify flood hazard, even if the flow frequency distribution does not change. We developed new methods for separately quantifying how trends in both streamflow and channel capacity have affected flood frequency at gauging sites across the United States. Using daily discharge records and manual field measurements of channel cross-sectional geometry for USGS gauging stations that have defined flood stages (water levels), we present novel methods for measuring long-term trends in channel capacity of gauged rivers, and for quantifying how they affect overbank flood frequency. We apply these methods to 401 U.S. rivers and detect measurable trends in flood hazard linked to changes in channel capacity and/or the frequency of high flows. Flood frequency is generally nonstationary across these 401 U.S. rivers, with increasing flood hazard at a statistically significant majority of sites. Changes in flood hazard driven by channel capacity are smaller, but more numerous, than those driven by streamflow, with a slight tendency to compensate for streamflow changes. Our results demonstrate that accurately quantifying changes in flood hazard requires accounting separately for trends in both streamflow and channel capacity, or using water levels directly. They also show that channel capacity trends may have unforeseen consequences for flood management and for estimating flood insurance costs. Slater, L. J., M. B. Singer, and J. W. Kirchner (2015), Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 370-376, doi:10.1002/2014GL062482.

  11. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  12. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

  13. "Prophetic vision, vivid imagination": The 1927 Mississippi River flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James A.; Baeck, Mary Lynn

    2015-12-01

    The 1927 flood in the Lower Mississippi River was the most destructive flood in American history, inundating more than 70,000 km2 of land, resulting in approximately 500 fatalities and leaving more than 700,000 people homeless. Despite the prominence of the 1927 flood, details on the flood, and the storms that produced the flood, are sparse. We examine the hydrometeorology and hydroclimatology of the 1927 flood in the Lower Mississippi River through downscaling simulations of the storms that were responsible for catastrophic flooding and through empirical analyses of rainfall and streamflow records. We use Twentieth Century Reanalysis fields as boundary conditions and initial conditions for downscaling simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We place the hydrometeorological analyses of the 1927 storms in a hydroclimatological context through analyses of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis fields. Analyses are designed to assess the physical processes that control the upper tail of flooding in the Lower Mississippi River. We compare the 1927 flood in the Lower Mississippi River to floods in 1937 and 2011 that represent the most extreme flooding in the Lower Mississippi River.

  14. Collecting a multi-disciplinary field dataset to model the interactions between a flood control reservoir and the underlying porous aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgatti, L.; Corsini, A.; Chiapponi, L.; D'Oria, M.; Giuffredi, F.; Lancellotta, R.; Mignosa, P.; Moretti, G.; Orlandini, S.; Pellegrini, M.; Remitti, F.; Ronchetti, F.; Tanda, M.; Zanini, A.

    2008-12-01

    During the last decades, a large number of flood control reservoirs were developed in Northern Italy, in order to mitigate flood risk in urban areas. The city of Parma, located on the large alluvial fan of the Parma River, is served by a flood control reservoir (i.e., dry dam), completed in 2004. The reservoir can store a volume of 12·106 m3 over an area of 1.2 km2 surrounded by about 4 km of artificial levees and closed downstream by a concrete dam 15 m high, equipped with 3 movable floodgates. The structure has the purpose to store the excess water in the case of high return period flood events, releasing it downstream at a controlled rate. A stilling basin is located downstream the dam in order to dissipate the kinetic energy of the discharged flow. The stilling basin is made up of 2 m thick concrete slabs, on which 3 dissipating blocks are located. The deposits below the stilling basin are surrounded by a grout wall (20 m deep) with the aim of realizing a confined "box". Groundwater levels inside the box are controlled by a 110 m long drainage trench located upstream the stilling basin, 3 m below its floor. In the perspective of a long-term management of the reservoir, after the completion of the works, a phase of investigation, control and monitoring of the efficiency of the entire system has been carried out, mainly to highlight the interactions between the reservoir and the underlying aquifer. This task was accomplished filling the reservoir at the maximum retaining level by means of capturing the tails of spring 2008 flood events. The aquifer beneath and surrounding the structure has been investigated by means of several tests, such analysis. Moreover, a groundwater monitoring system made up by 44 piezometers with dataloggers and real- time data transmission to a dedicated website has been set up. Monitoring data before, during, and after the infilling of the reservoir show that the aquifer below the structure is multilayered, with prevailing silty gravels

  15. Past and present floods in South Moravia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Chromá, Kateřina; Řezníčková, Ladislava; Valášek, Hubert; Dolák, Lukáš; Stachoň, Zdeněk; Soukalová, Eva; Dobrovolný, Petr

    2015-04-01

    Floods represent the most destructive natural phenomena in the Czech Republic, often causing great material damage or loss of human life. Systematic instrumental measurements of water levels in Moravia (the eastern part of the Czech Republic) started mainly in the 1880s-1890s, while for discharges it was in the 1910s-1920s. Different documentary evidence allows extension of our knowledge about floods prior the instrumental period. The paper presents long-term flood chronologies for four South Moravian rivers: the Jihlava, the Svratka, the Dyje and the Morava. Different documentary data are used to extract floods. Taxation records are of particular importance among them. Since the mid-17th century, damage to property and land (fields, meadows, pastures or gardens) entitled farmers and landowners to request a tax relief. Related documents of this administration process kept mainly in Moravian Land Archives in Brno allow to obtain detail information about floods and their impacts. Selection of floods in the instrumental period is based on calculation of N-year return period of peak water levels and/or peak discharges for selected hydrological stations of the corresponding rivers (with return period of two years and more). Final flood chronologies combine floods derived from both documentary data and hydrological measurements. Despite greater inter-decadal variability, periods of higher flood frequency are c. 1821-1850 and 1921-1950 for all four rivers; for the Dyje and Morava rivers also 1891-1900. Flood frequency fluctuations are further compared with other Central European rivers. Uncertainties in created chronologies with respect to data and methods used for compilation of long-term series and anthropogenic changes in river catchments are discussed. The study is a part of the research project "Hydrometeorological extremes in Southern Moravia derived from documentary evidence" supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, reg. no. 13-19831S.

  16. Floods in mountain environments: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffel, Markus; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Marston, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    of mountain rivers, but morphological changes of rivers can also affect hydrological properties of floods and the associated risk for societies. This paper provides a review of research in the field of floods in mountain environments and puts the papers of this special issue dedicated to the same topic into context. It also provides insight into innovative studies, methods, or emerging aspects of the relations between environmental changes, geomorphic processes, and the occurrence of floods in mountain rivers.

  17. Flood Hazard Mapping Assessment for Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; Darwich, Talal; Hamze, Mouin; Zaarour, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Of all natural disasters, floods affect the greatest number of people worldwide and have the greatest potential to cause damage. In fact, floods are responsible for over one third of people affected by natural disasters; almost 190 million people in more than 90 countries are exposed to catastrophic floods every year. Nowadays, with the emerging global warming phenomenon, this number is expected to increase, therefore, flood prediction and prevention has become a necessity in many places around the globe to decrease damages caused by flooding. Available evidence hints at an increasing frequency of flooding disasters being witnessed in the last 25 years in Lebanon. The consequences of such events are tragic including annual financial losses of around 15 million dollars. In this work, a hydrologic-hydraulic modeling framework for flood hazard mapping over Lebanon covering 19 watershed was introduced. Several empirical, statistical and stochastic methods to calculate the flood magnitude and its related return periods, where rainfall and river gauge data are neither continuous nor available on a long term basis with an absence of proper river sections that under estimate flows during flood events. TRMM weather satellite information, automated drainage networks, curve numbers and other geometrical characteristics for each basin was prepared using WMS-software and then exported into HMS files to implement the hydrologic modeling (rainfall-runoff) for single designed storm of uniformly distributed depth along each basin. The obtained flow hydrographs were implemented in the hydraulic model (HEC-RAS) where relative water surface profiles are calculated and flood plains are delineated. The model was calibrated using the last flood event of January 2013, field investigation, and high resolution satellite images. Flow results proved to have an accuracy ranging between 83-87% when compared to the computed statistical and stochastic methods. Results included the generation of

  18. SERVIR-Africa: Developing an Integrated Platform for Floods Disaster Management in Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macharia, Daniel; Korme, Tesfaye; Policelli, Fritz; Irwin, Dan; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    SERVIR-Africa is an ambitious regional visualization and monitoring system that integrates remotely sensed data with predictive models and field-based data to monitor ecological processes and respond to natural disasters. It aims addressing societal benefits including floods and turning data into actionable information for decision-makers. Floods are exogenous disasters that affect many parts of Africa, probably second only to drought in terms of social-economic losses. This paper looks at SERVIR-Africa's approach to floods disaster management through establishment of an integrated platform, floods prediction models, post-event flood mapping and monitoring as well as flood maps dissemination in support of flood disaster management.

  19. Flash Flood Nowcasting in an Urban Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H.; Yates, D.; Roberts, R.; Brandes, E.

    2003-04-01

    Flash floods occur when particular meteorological events are combined with certain hydrologic conditions. Several approaches to nowcast flash floods are being developed,> However, predictions of the magnitude and timing of flash flood events is a major challenge. Nowcasts of convective storm events need to be linked with robust hydrologic modeling and analysis in order to produce useful flash flood predictions in terms of timing, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the runoff. Advances in radar-rainfall estimation and two-dimensional physically based runoff modeling offer tools to improve flash flooding forecasting and to reduce the potential for loss of life and property damage in urban catchments. The ability to model extreme hydrologic events in detail was demonstrated using the physically based distributed-parameter hydrologic model GSSHA (Downer and Ogden, 2002) on an urban watershed in Denver, Colorado (Sharif et al., 2002). The study addressed the necessary detail in urban topography and drainage characteristics needed for accurate simulations of urban flood events. With this kind of detailed hydrologic model, accurate short-range meteorological nowcasts (30 60 minutes) would prove useful. Such a nowcast is available from the National Center for Atmospheric Research’s (NCAR) Autonowcaster, a data fusion system that combines several predictor fields with membership functions and weighting schemes to produce automated time and place specific nowcasts of convective rainfall. Predictor fields are derived from characteristics of boundary layer convergence regions, storm characteristics, and dynamic and kinematic attributes of the boundary layer. Simple extrapolations are also used as benchmark nowcasts. The GSSHA model was coupled with the Autonowcaster to produce distributed, physics-based hydrologic predictions in the urban setting. Flash flood predictions of the coupled system are compared to predictions computed using traditional approaches and

  20. The effect of riparian forest management on flood risk and flood hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, S.; Sear, D.

    2012-04-01

    Riparian forests are a source of in-stream Large Wood. In-stream Large Wood has been shown to produce complex in-stream hydraulic patterns which can act to dissipate flood energy and attenuate flood peaks. Furthermore riparian forest are also commonly characterised by a complex flood plain surface which acts to slow overbank flow. Increased channel and floodplain flow resistance in forested catchments has the effect of increasing the duration and height of overbank inundation locally, but also, and significantly, can potentially increase flood wave travel time and reduce flood peak magnitude at downstream locations. River restoration programmes can include riparian afforestation of headwater stream and increases to in-stream hydraulic roughness; there is a need for research to quantify the effect of such changes on flood hydrology. This study uses a loosely coupled modelling approach to investigate the response of flood behaviour to catchment wide forest management strategies. A USDA Riparian Forest growth model (NE-CWD) calibrated for UK forests using Forestry Commission Biometrics data is used to deliver predictions of in-stream wood loads under different forest management scenarios over time. Scenarios include continuation of plantation management with harvesting/thinning, hands-off management with no harvesting and reforestation of cleared areas of the catchment. Wood load predictions from NE-CWD are translated into predictions of logjam frequency and values for channel hydraulic roughness based on field data collected over two field seasons. Flood modelling is conducted using OVERFLOW, a model developed for the simulation of flood events where the magnitude and travel time of a flood peak to a downstream location are of interest. Predictions linking land use to flood behaviour can be delivered by varying the forest management scenarios within NE-CWD and the associated channel and floodplain roughness. The output of OVERFLOW includes individual contributions

  1. Flood of May 5 and 6, 1981, Mobile, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ming, C.O.; Nelson, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy and intense rainfall in the late evening and early morning hours, May 5 and 6, 1981, caused widespread flooding along streams and low-lying areas in the port city of Mobile, Ala. More than 12 inches of rain fell between 6 p.m. May 5, and 3 a.m. May 6. Damage caused by flooding was estimated by the Mobile Department of Public Works to be millions of dollars. Maximum water surface elevations on streams in the area were 2 to 3 feet higher than those that occurred during a similar flood in April 1980. The approximate extent of flooding delineated on maps using flood profiles obtained by field surveys will provide a basis for formulating effective flood plain zoning that could minimize existing and future flood problems. (USGS)

  2. Are flood basalt eruptions monogenetic or polygenetic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Cañón-Tapia, Edgardo

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental classification of volcanoes divides them into "monogenetic" and "polygenetic." We discuss whether flood basalt fields, the largest volcanic provinces, are monogenetic or polygenetic. A polygenetic volcano, whether a shield volcano or a stratovolcano, erupts from the same dominant conduit for millions of years (excepting volumetrically small flank eruptions). A flood basalt province, built from different eruptive fissures dispersed over wide areas, can be considered a polygenetic volcano without any dominant vent. However, in the same characteristic, a flood basalt province resembles a monogenetic volcanic field, with only the difference that individual eruptions in the latter are much smaller. This leads to the question how a flood basalt province can be two very different phenomena at the same time. Individual flood basalt eruptions have previously been considered monogenetic, contrasted by only their high magma output (and lava fluidity) with typical "small-volume monogenetic" volcanoes. Field data from Hawaiian shield volcanoes, Iceland, and the Deccan Traps show that whereas many feeder dykes were single magma injections, and the eruptions can be considered "large monogenetic" eruptions, multiple dykes are equally abundant. They indicate that the same dyke fissure repeatedly transported separate magma batches, feeding an eruption which was thus polygenetic by even the restricted definition (the same magma conduit). This recognition helps in understanding the volcanological, stratigraphic, and geochemical complexity of flood basalts. The need for clear concepts and terminology is, however, strong. We give reasons for replacing "monogenetic volcanic fields" with "diffuse volcanic fields" and for dropping the term "polygenetic" and describing such volcanoes simply and specifically as "shield volcanoes," "stratovolcanoes," and "flood basalt fields."

  3. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH < 6.3 after oxidation had positive Hot Acidity. Samples with similar pH values before oxidation had dissimilar Hot Acidities due to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the

  4. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  5. Flooding: A unique year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Floods have been and continue to be one of the most destructive hazards facing the people of the United States. Of all the natural hazards, floods are the most widespread and the most ruinous to life and property. Today, floods are a greater menace to our welfare than ever before because we live in large numbers near water and have developed a complex reliance upon it. From large rivers to country creeks, from mountain rills to the trickles that occasionally dampen otherwise arid wastelands, every stream in the United States is subject to flooding at some time. Floods strike in myriad forms, including sea surges driven by wild winds or tsunamis churned into fury by seismic activity. By far the most frequent, however, standing in a class by themselves, are the inland, freshwater floods that are caused by rain, by melting snow and ice, or by the bursting of structures that man has erected to protect himself and his belongings from angry waters.

  6. Hydrologic and geomorphic drivers of changing flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, L. J.; Singer, M. B.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a major hazard to lives and infrastructure, but trends in flood hazard are poorly understood. In flood risk analysis and channel design engineering, channel capacity is generally assumed to be constant, and changes in flood frequency are assumed to be driven primarily by changes in streamflow. However, trends in channel capacity will also modify flood hazard, even if the flow frequency distribution does not change. Using daily discharge records and manual field measurements of channel cross-sectional geometry for USGS gauging stations that have defined flood stages (water levels), we present novel methods for measuring long-term trends in channel capacity of gauged rivers, and for quantifying how they affect flood frequency. We apply these methods to 401 U.S. rivers and detect measurable trends in flood hazard linked to changes in channel capacity or the frequency of high flows. We found increases in flood frequency at a statistically significant majority of sites. Trends in channel capacity were smaller, but more numerous, than those in streamflow, with a slight tendency to compensate for streamflow changes. Recognizing and quantifying the joint influence of trends in channel capacity and streamflow on flood frequency is necessary to determine changes in flood hazard accurately.

  7. Remediation of Former Manufactured Gas Plant Tars Using Alkaline Flushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauswirth, S.; Rylander, S.; Birak, P. S.; Miller, C. T.

    2010-12-01

    The remediation of former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) tars in the subsurface is particularly difficult due to the wetting behavior and high viscosities of these dense non-aqueous liquids (DNAPLs). Alkaline flooding is a technique which has proven effective in improving the recovery of crude oils, which share some characteristics with FMGP tars. For this study, we measured the effect of NaOH solutions on interfacial tension and conducted column experiments to investigate the feasibility of applying this technique to FMGP tars. The pendant drop technique was used to measure interfacial tensions for solutions ranging from 0-1% NaOH. Column experiments were conducted by contaminating sands with tars recovered from a FMGP then flushing the columns with NaOH solutions. A final, 70% v/v ethanol cosolvent flush was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a two-stage remediation approach. The mass removal of tar, as well as 26 individual PAHs, was measured, along with the aqueous phase mass flux of PAHs after each flushing stage. The interfacial tension was reduced from about 20 mN/m with pure water to a minimum of 0.05 mN/m at a concentration of 0.1% NaOH. In the column experiments, alkaline flushing resulted in a 50% reduction of the residual saturation. Aqueous phase PAH concentrations, however, were similar before and after the alkaline flushing stage. The combination of alkaline and cosolvent flushing resulted in an overall reduction of 95% of the total mass of the 16 EPA PAHs. Final aqueous phase concentrations were reduced significantly for lower molecular weight PAHs, but increased slightly for the higher molecular weight compounds, likely due to their increased mole fraction within the remaining tar. Additional work is being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the alkaline flushing through the use of surfactants and polymers.

  8. RASOR flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  9. Mobility control in oil recovery by chemical flooding: State-of-the-art review: Topical report. [177 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    Mobility control in oil recovery by chemical flooding (polymer, micellar-polymer, and alkaline-polymer) can be achieved through the use of low-concentration water-soluble polymers in water or in chemical slugs. Since the late 1950's, water-soluble polymers have been studied extensively in laboratories by many researchers and widely used in many chemical flooding projects to improve sweep efficiency and increase ultimate oil recovery. Effective use of polymers as mobility control agents requires the understanding of the stability of polymers and their rheological behavior in reservoirs. An overview of the scientific literature on the application of water-soluble polymers in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is presented. The processes, factors, and mechanisms that influence the stability of polymers and those that cause a reduction in water mobility are discussed. Existing knowledge of polymer flow behavior in porous media, and of surfactant-polymer interactions is reviewed. Also discussed are the case histories of 23 chemical flooding field projects. 177 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Mesozoic mafic alkaline magmatism of southern Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappe, Sebastian

    2004-11-01

    More than 100 volcanic necks in central Scania (southern Sweden) are the product of Jurassic continental rift-related mafic alkaline magmatism at the southwest margin of the Baltic Shield. They are mainly basanites, with rarer melanephelinites. Both rock groups display overlapping primitive Mg-numbers, Cr and Ni contents, steep chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns (LaN /YbN = 17 27) and an overall enrichment in incompatible elements. However, the melanephelinites are more alkaline and have stronger high field strength element enrichment than the basanites. The existence of distinct primary magmas is also indicated by heterogeneity in highly incompatible element ratios (e.g. Zr/Nb, La/Nb). Trace element modelling indicates that the magmas were generated by comparably low degrees of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source. Such a source can best be explained by a metasomatic overprint of the mantle lithosphere by percolating evolved melts. The former existence of such alkaline trace element-enriched melts can be demonstrated by inversion of the trace element content of green-core clinopyroxenes and anorthoclase which occur as xenocrysts in the melanephelinites and are interpreted as being derived from crystallization of evolved mantle melts. Jurassic magmatic activity in Scania was coeval with the generation of nephelinites in the nearby Egersund Basin (Norwegian North Sea). Both Scanian and North Sea alkaline magmas share similar trace element characteristics. Mantle enrichment processes at the southwest margin of the Baltic Shield and the North Sea Basin generated trace element signatures similar to those of ocean island basalts (e.g. low Zr/Nb and La/Nb) but there are no indications of plume activity during the Mesozoic in this area. On the contrary, the short duration of rifting, absence of extensive lithospheric thinning, and low magma volumes argue against a Mesozoic mantle plume. It seems likely that the metasomatic imprint resulted from the

  11. Glacier generated floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; Fountain, A.G.; ,

    1997-01-01

    Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.

  12. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  13. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  14. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  15. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  16. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  17. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  18. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  19. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  20. Iowa Flood Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities

  1. Flooding as “spring cleaning” for insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2011, a large-scale field study was undertaken to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (550-700 DDs) would affect key insect populations, as well as the cranberry plant. A total of 46 beds were included in the study (23 pairs of flooded/unflooded beds across 11 marshes in central Wisconsin), foc...

  2. Early-season flooding for insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

  3. Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

  4. Effectiveness of Water Infrastructure for River Flood Management: Part 2 - Flood Risk Assessment and Its Changes in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Gusyev, M.; Arifuzzaman, B.; Khairul, I.; Iwami, Y.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    A case study of Bangladesh presents a methodological possibility based on a global approach for assessing river flood risk and its changes considering flood hazard, exposure, basic vulnerability and coping capacity. This study consists of two parts in the issue of flood change: hazard assessment (Part 1) and risk assessment (Part 2). In Part 1, a hazard modeling technology was introduced and applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) basin to quantify the change of 50- and 100-year flood hazards in Bangladesh under the present (1979-2003) and future (2075-2099) climates. Part 2 focuses on estimating nationwide flood risk in terms of affected people and rice crop damage due to a 50-year flood hazard identified in Part 1, and quantifying flood risk changes between the presence and absence of existing water infrastructure (i.e., embankments). To assess flood risk in terms of rice crop damage, rice paddy fields were extracted and flood stage-damage curves were created for maximum risk scenarios as a demonstration of risk change in the present and future climates. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a tendency of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure and vulnerability such as distributed population and effectiveness of water infrastructure, which suggests that the proposed methodology is applicable anywhere in the world.

  5. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  6. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    PubMed

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  7. Modeling of Flood Risk for the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, D.; Li, S.; Katz, B.; Goteti, G.; Kaheil, Y. H.; Vojjala, R.

    2011-12-01

    The science of catastrophic risk modeling helps people to understand the physical and financial implications of natural catastrophes (hurricanes, flood, earthquakes, etc.), terrorism, and the risks associated with changes in life expectancy. As such it depends on simulation techniques that integrate multiple disciplines such as meteorology, hydrology, structural engineering, statistics, computer science, financial engineering, actuarial science, and more in virtually every field of technology. In this talk we will explain the techniques and underlying assumptions of building the RMS US flood risk model. We especially will pay attention to correlation (spatial and temporal), simulation and uncertainty in each of the various components in the development process. Recent extreme floods (e.g. US Midwest flood 2008, US Northeast flood, 2010) have increased the concern of flood risk. Consequently, there are growing needs to adequately assess the flood risk. The RMS flood hazard model is mainly comprised of three major components. (1) Stochastic precipitation simulation module based on a Monte-Carlo analogue technique, which is capable of producing correlated rainfall events for the continental US. (2) Rainfall-runoff and routing module. A semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model was developed to properly assess the antecedent conditions, determine the saturation area and runoff. The runoff is further routed downstream along the rivers by a routing model. Combined with the precipitation model, it allows us to correlate the streamflow and hence flooding from different rivers, as well as low and high return-periods across the continental US. (3) Flood inundation module. It transforms the discharge (output from the flow routing) into water level, which is further combined with a two-dimensional off-floodplain inundation model to produce comprehensive flood hazard map. The performance of the model is demonstrated by comparing to the observation and published data. Output from

  8. Path dependencies and path change in complex fields of action: climate adaptation policies in Germany in the realm of flood risk management.

    PubMed

    Garrelts, Heiko; Lange, Hellmuth

    2011-03-01

    The spatial and temporal repercussions of climate change are of an extremely complex nature. Coping with climate change is, first and foremost, a challenge to political decision making and, considering the long-term effects of the climate system, to planning. However, there have never been more doubts that the political-administrative system is able to meet these requirements. Although much evidence has been put forward in favor of such skepticism, sometimes, it is dangerous to overstate the existing limits. Drawing on two case studies in the area of flood risk management in Germany, the article illustrates how and why significant path change came about. In both cases, the state proved to still being a pivotal actor, due to a number of functions that cannot be assumed by other actors. However, other actor groups-such as actors from science, the media, NGOs, and citizen groups-play a significant role as well by providing relevant expertise and influencing the public discourse, thus mobilizing significant political pressure.

  9. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  10. Nogales flood detention study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  11. Flood Response Along a Drainage Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.; Baeck, M.

    2007-12-01

    Flooding in urban areas is complex. As water overtops stream banks, it comes into contact with structural obstacles on the land surface, such as bridge constrictions, that dominate flow pathways. Furthermore, at small, or local, spatial scales, other hydraulic controls such as pipe surcharge and stormwater management ponds play a significant role in flood response. A major obstacle towards a better understanding of how these controls impact flood response is the scarcity of data available to characterize them. One watershed where both hydraulic and hydrologic data is available is the Dead Run watershed in Metropolitan Baltimore, Maryland. Dead Run is a research watershed of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), part of the Long Term Ecological Research network established by the National Science Foundation. Dead Run geospatial data is available through the BES and Baltimore County; hydrologic data was collected by the authors during field campaigns in the 2003-2005 field seasons; and hydraulic information including storm drain pipes, stormwater management ponds, and bridge constrictions was digitized by the author. The availability of this data in Dead Run allows us to detail not only the impact of impervious surfaces and hydrologic forcing on flood response, but also structural aspects of the urban drainage network. In this study, we integrate the three types of observations - geospatial, hydrologic, and hydraulic - to characterize drainage network structure along Dead Run's tributaries. We use these characterizations and the Environmental Protection Agency's Stormwater Management Model (EPA SWMM) to estimate the 10- and 100-year floods over the drainage network. Analyses focus on two extreme floods in Dead Run: the 7 July 2004 and 28 June 2005 events. Results highlight the importance of incorporating drainage network structure into the models we use to predict flooding in urban environments.

  12. Peculiarities of Environment Pollution as a Special Type of Radioactive Waste: Field Means for Comprehensive Characterization of Soil and Bottom Sediments and their Application in the Survey at the Flood plain of Techa River - 13172

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Oleg; Danilovich, Alexey; Potapov, Victor; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Sergey; Volkovich, Anatoly

    2013-07-01

    Contamination of natural objects - zone alarm fallout, zones and flood plains near production sites (the result of technological accidents and resource extraction) occupy large areas. Large area and volume of contaminated matter, moderate specific activity (as low - medium-level wastes) make such objects specific types of radioactive waste. These objects exist for a long time, now they are characterized by a bound state of nuclides with the matrix. There is no cost-effective ways to remove these waste, the only solution for the rehabilitation of such areas is their isolation and regular monitoring through direct and indirect measurements. The complex of instruments was developed to field mapping of contamination. It consists of a portable spectrometric collimated detector, collimated spectrometric borehole detector, underwater spectrometer detector, spectrometer for field measurements of the specific activity of Sr-90, connected to a portable MCA 'Colibry (Hummingbird)'. The complex was used in settlements of Bryansk region, rivers Techa and Yenisei. The effectiveness of the developed complex considered by the example of characterization of the reservoir 10 (artificial lake) in Techinsky cascade containing a huge amount of radioactive waste. The developed field means for comprehensive characterization of soil and bottom sediments contamination are very effective for mapping and monitoring of environment contamination after accidents. Especially in case of high non-uniformity of fallout and may be very actual in Fukushima area. (authors)

  13. Achieving Natural Flood Management through collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Alex; Byers, Samantha; Thomas, Ted; Welton, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Recent flooding in the UK has brought much attention to the field of Natural flood Management (NFM) as a means of helping to reduce flood risk to communities. Key questions exist in the field, which include quantifying the impact of NFM and maintaining it. In addition, agencies and at-risk communities look for ways of delivering NFM in a tightly stretched financial climate. Well-implemented NFM has the effect of restoring more natural catchment hydrological and sedimentological processes, which in turn can have significant flood risk and WFD benefits for catchment waterbodies. These catchment scale improvements in-turn allow more 'natural' processes to be returned to rivers and streams, creating a more resilient system. NFM can tick many boxes and target many funding opportunities. This paper discusses the NFM component of the Lustrum Beck Flood Alleviation Scheme (Stockton-On-Tees, UK), and explains how a multi-agency approach had to be considered to allow elements of the scheme to be delivered. A startling 70 different landowners and agencies manage the land in the Lustrum Beck catchment (~40km2). A partnership between the Environment Agency and the Forestry Commission is planning to work on a demonstration site in the centre of the catchment. The paper goes on to explain the importance of this demonstration area in the context of the wider scheme.

  14. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  15. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  16. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  17. Flooding the market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane; McShane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    A flood insurance market with risk-based prices in the UK will only stimulate climate change adaptation if it is part of a wider strategy that includes land-use planning, building regulations and water management.

  18. Floods and Mold Growth

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mold growth may be a problem after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for pests, molds and other microorganisms.

  19. Localized Flood Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    practitioners will cover a range of practices that can help communities build flood resilience, from small scale interventions such as rain gardens and permeable pavement to coordinated open space and floodplain preservation

  20. Japan: Tsunami Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Lingering Floods from Tohoku-oki Earthquake Tsunami     View Larger Image The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake triggered a deadly and destructive tsunami whose impacts were felt ...

  1. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions.

  2. Union soluble oil flood in El Dorado cores

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, C.S.

    1983-02-01

    Results are presented of laboratory experiments using Union's soluble oil flood process in El Dorado cores. The core flood is to provide complete information on fluid compositions and phase behavior of the effluents such that adequate core flood match using the chemical flood simulator can be made. This step is essential for evaluating reservoir performance on the South Pattern of the El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Project. The results show the caustic preflush in the flood process causes face plugging of the field cores. The problem was controlled by using chelating agents along with the caustic fluid to keep divalent cations in solution. The required amount of chelating agent was determined to be ca 25 times as strong as the original design for the field test. Liquid chromatography analysis of sulfonate provides valuable information on selective fractionation of monosulfonate in the micellar fluid. 10 references.

  3. Improvement in the solid-state alkaline fuel cell performance through efficient water management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiba, Yuhei; Hiura, Junya; Suzuki, Yuto; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2017-03-01

    In solid-state alkaline fuel cells (SAFCs), water is generated at the anode and is reacted at the cathode; as such, flooding occurs much more easily at the anode than it does in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Anode flooding is a reason for the low performance of SAFCs, and so it is important that this flooding phenomenon is mitigated. In this study, we control water transport to suppress anode flooding. We do this through two approaches: changing the thickness of the anion exchange membrane (AEM) and changing the anode flow rate. Among two AEMs with two different thicknesses (27 μm and 6 μm) prepared, thinner AEM shows improved fuel cell performance. Increasing the anode flow rate also improved the performance of SAFCs. To find out what caused this, the water transport inside the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was analyzed. The flooding region was estimated using calculated relative humidity at anode outlet. On the basis of our experimental and calculation approaches, flooding can be suppressed by using thin AEMs and increasing the anode flow rate.

  4. Fuel cell flooding detection and correction

    DOEpatents

    DiPierno Bosco, Andrew; Fronk, Matthew Howard

    2000-08-15

    Method and apparatus for monitoring an H.sub.2 -O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells to detect and correct flooding. The pressure drop across a given H.sub.2 or O.sub.2 flow field is monitored and compared to predetermined thresholds of unacceptability. If the pressure drop exists a threshold of unacceptability corrective measures are automatically initiated.

  5. Preparing for floods: flood forecasting and early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloke, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Flood forecasting and early warning has continued to stride ahead in strengthening the preparedness phases of disaster risk management, saving lives and property and reducing the overall impact of severe flood events. For example, continental and global scale flood forecasting systems such as the European Flood Awareness System and the Global Flood Awareness System provide early information about upcoming floods in real time to various decisionmakers. Studies have found that there are monetary benefits to implementing these early flood warning systems, and with the science also in place to provide evidence of benefit and hydrometeorological institutional outlooks warming to the use of probabilistic forecasts, the uptake over the last decade has been rapid and sustained. However, there are many further challenges that lie ahead to improve the science supporting flood early warning and to ensure that appropriate decisions are made to maximise flood preparedness.

  6. Flood resilience and uncertainty in flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beven, K.; Leedal, D.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.; Hunter, N.; Lamb, R.; Keef, C.

    2012-04-01

    Flood risk assessments do not normally take account of the uncertainty in assessing flood risk. There is no requirement in the EU Floods Directive to do so. But given the generally short series (and potential non-stationarity) of flood discharges, the extrapolation to smaller exceedance potentials may be highly uncertain. This means that flood risk mapping may also be highly uncertainty, with additional uncertainties introduced by the representation of flood plain and channel geometry, conveyance and infrastructure. This suggests that decisions about flood plain management should be based on exceedance probability of risk rather than the deterministic hazard maps that are common in most EU countries. Some examples are given from 2 case studies in the UK where a framework for good practice in assessing uncertainty in flood risk mapping has been produced as part of the Flood Risk Management Research Consortium and Catchment Change Network Projects. This framework provides a structure for the communication and audit of assumptions about uncertainties.

  7. A Methodology For Flood Vulnerability Analysis In Complex Flood Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, R.; Martina, M. L. V.; Dottori, F.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, flood risk management is gaining importance in order to mitigate and prevent flood disasters, and consequently the analysis of flood vulnerability is becoming a key research topic. In this paper, we propose a methodology for large-scale analysis of flood vulnerability. The methodology is based on a GIS-based index, which considers local topography, terrain roughness and basic information about the flood scenario to reproduce the diffusive behaviour of floodplain flow. The methodology synthetizes the spatial distribution of index values into maps and curves, used to represent the vulnerability in the area of interest. Its application allows for considering different levels of complexity of flood scenarios, from localized flood defence failures to complex hazard scenarios involving river reaches. The components of the methodology are applied and tested in two floodplain areas in Northern Italy recently affected by floods. The results show that the methodology can provide an original and valuable insight of flood vulnerability variables and processes.

  8. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  9. Geomorphologic flood-hazard assessment of alluvial fans and piedmonts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, J.J.; Pearthree, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Geomorphologic studies are an excellent means of flood-hazard assessment on alluvial fans and piedmonts in the southwestern United States. Inactive, flood-free, alluvial fans display well developed soils, desert pavement, rock varnish, and tributary drainage networks. These areas are easily distinguished from flood-prone active alluvial fans on aerial photographs and in the field. The distribution of flood-prone areas associated with alluvial fans is strongly controlled by fanhead trenches dissecting the surface. Where fanhead trenches are permanent features cut in response to long-term conditions such as tectonic quiescence, flood-prone surfaces are situated down-slope from the mountain front and their positions are stable for thousands of years. Since the length and permanency of fanhead trenches can vary greatly between adjacent drainages, it is not appropriate to use regional generalizations to evaluate the distribution and stability of flood-hazard zones. Site-specific geomorphologic studies must be carried out if piedmont areas with a high risk of flooding are to be correctly identified and losses due to alluvial-fan flooding minimized. To meet the growing demand for trained professionals to complete geomorphologic maps of desert piedmonts, undergraduate and graduate geomorphology courses should adopt an instructional unit on alluvial-fan flood hazards that includes: 1) a review of geomorphologic characteristics that vary with surface age; 2) a basic mapping exercise; and 3) a discussion of the causes of fanhead trenching.

  10. Priming effect of abscisic acid on alkaline stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-Xing; Lv, Bing-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Ming; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Yang, Hao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Saline-alkaline stress is characterized by high salinity and high alkalinity (high pH); alkaline stress has been shown to be the primary factor inhibiting rice seedling growth. In this study, we investigated the potential priming effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on tolerance of rice seedlings to alkaline stress simulated by Na2CO3. Seedlings were pretreated with ABA at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, and 50 μM by root-drench for 24 h and then transferred to a Na2CO3 solution that did not contain ABA. Compared to control treatment, pretreatment with ABA substantially improved the survival rate of rice seedlings and increased biomass accumulation after 7 days under the alkaline condition. ABA application at 10 μM also alleviated the inhibitory effects of alkaline stress on the total root length and root surface area. Physiologically, ABA increased relative water content (RWC) and decreased cell membrane injury degree (MI) and Na(+)/K(+) ratios. In contrast, fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) decreased the RWC and increased MI in shoots under the alkaline conditions. These data suggest that ABA has a potent priming effect on the adaptive response to alkaline stress in rice and may be useful for improving rice growth in saline-alkaline paddy fields.

  11. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  12. Mitigating flood exposure

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  13. Assessing flood damage to agriculture using color infrared aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1977-01-01

    The rationale for using color-infrared (CIR) film to assist in assessing flood damage to agriculture is demonstrated using examples prepared from photographs acquired of the 1975 flood in the Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota. Information concerning flood inundation boundaries, crop damage, soil erosion, sedimentation, and other similar general features and conditions was obtained through the interpretation of CIR aerial photographs. CIR aerial photographs can be used to help improve the estimates of potential remaining production on a field by field basis, owing to the increased accuracy obtained in determining the area component of crop production as compared to conventional ground sketching methods.

  14. Rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesh, K.; Weissenbacher, M.

    The rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc MnO 2/Zn) system, long established commercial as a primay battery, has reached a high level of performance as a secondary battery system. The operating principles are presented and the technological achievements are surveyed by referencing the recent publications and patent literature. A review is also given of the improvements obtained with newly formulated cathodes and anodes and specially designed batteries. Supported by modelling of the cathode and anode processes and by statistical evidence during cycling of parallel/series-connected modules, the envisioned performance of the next generation of these batteries is described. The possibility of extending the practical use of the improved rechargeable MnO 2/Zn system beyond the field of small electronics into the area of power tools, and even to kW-sized power sources, is demonstrated. Finally, the commercial development in comparison with other rechargeable battery systems is examined.

  15. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  16. Floods in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

    1948-01-01

    The first records of floods in Colorado antedated the settlement of the State by about 30 years. These were records of floods on the Arkansas and Republican Rivers in 1826. Other floods noted by traders, hunters and emigrants, some of whom were on their way to the Far West, occurred in 1844 on the Arkansas River, and by inference on the South Platte River. Other early floods were those on the Purgatoire, the Lower Arkansas, and the San Juan Rivers about 1859. The most serious flood since settlement began was that on the Arkansas River during June 1921, which caused the loss of about 100 lives and an estimated property loss of $19,000,000. Many floods of lesser magnitude have occurred, and some of these have caused loss of life and very considerable property damage. Topography is the chief factor in determining the location of storms and resulting floods. These occur most frequently on the eastern slope of the Front Range. In the mountains farther west precipitation is insufficient to cause floods except during periods of melting snow, in June. In the southwestern part of the State, where precipitation during periods of melting snow is insufficient to cause floods, the severest floods yet experienced resulted from heavy rains in September 1909 and October 1911. In the eastern foothills region, usually below an altitude of about 7,500 feet and extending for a distance of about 50 miles east of the mountains, is a zone subject to rainfalls of great intensity known as cloudbursts. These cloudbursts are of short duration and are confined to very small areas. At times the intensity is so great as to make breathing difficult for those exposed to a storm. The areas of intense rainfall are so small that Weather Bureau precipitation stations have not been located in them. Local residents, being cloudburst conscious, frequently measure the rainfall in receptacles in their yards, and such records constitute the only source of information regarding the intensity. A flood

  17. Diclofenac salts. III. Alkaline and earth alkaline salts.

    PubMed

    Fini, Adamo; Fazio, Giuseppe; Rosetti, Francesca; Angeles Holgado, M; Iruín, Ana; Alvarez-Fuentes, Josefa

    2005-11-01

    Diclofenac salts containing the alkaline and two earth alkaline cations have been prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX spectroscopy; and by thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA): all of them crystallize as hydrate when precipitated from water. The salts dehydrate at room temperature and more easily on heating, but recovery the hydration, when placed in a humid environment. X-ray diffraction spectra suggest that on dehydration new peaks appear on diffractograms and the lattice of the salts partially looses crystallinity. This phenomenon is readily visible in the case of the calcium and magnesium salts, whose thermograms display a crystallization exotherm, before melting or decomposing at temperatures near or above 200 degrees C; these last salts appear to form solvates, when prepared from methanol. The thermogram of each salt shows a complex endotherm of dehydration about 100 degrees C; the calcium salt displays two endotherms, well separated at about 120 and 160 degrees C, which disappear after prolonged heating. Decomposition exotherms, before or soon after the melting, appear below 300 degrees C. The ammonium salt is thermally unstable and, when heated to start dehydration, dissociates and leaves acidic diclofenac.

  18. Was Global Warming at the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary Terminated by Flood Volcanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, C.; Larsen, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) has recently been attributed to greenhouse gases released from sedimentary basins in the Northeast Atlantic due to interaction with continental flood basalt magmatism. In the marine section in Denmark the alkaline Ash-17 has been dated at 55.1 plus minus 0.1 Ma and the PETM at 55.6-55.4 Ma. A similar alkaline tephra deposit in the uppermost part of the East Greenland flood basalt succession has also been dated at 55.1 plus minus 0.1 Ma and provides a linkage to Ash-17. Our recent results on the pressure of the coeval Skaergaard intrusion indicate that the majority of flood basalts erupted in less than 300,000 years. It is therefore possible to correlate the main flood basalt event with the interval immediately postdating PETM (55.4-55.1 Ma). This is consistent with a report of a small dinoflagellate cyst assemblage with a high proportion of Apectodinium homomorphum in one productive sample from sediments within the lower volcanics underlying the main flood basalt succession. The Apectodinium genus is usually abundant in the PETM interval. A scarcity of ash layers within the PETM interval also supports a correlation of the main flood basalt event with the overlying marine section including more abundant ash layers. The high eruption rate of the main flood basalts is likely to have resulted in atmospheric cooling caused by sulfuric acid aerosols produced from volcanic sulfur dioxide. Available estimates for volume and composition of the Northeast Atlantic flood basalts indicate that at least 36 teratonnes of sulfur dioxide was pumped into the atmosphere. This average 120 megatonnes per year over 300,000 years. For comparison, the historic Laki eruption in Iceland is estimated to have released 120 megatonnes sulfur dioxide over 5 months. We suggest that flood volcanism of the Northeast Atlantic terminated the global warming event at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary.

  19. 77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 78 FR 5824 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  8. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  9. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 77 FR 18841 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  14. Flooding in counter-current two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ragland, W.A.; Ganic, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Flooding is a phenomenon which is best described as the transition from counter-current to co-current flow. Early notice was taken of this phenomenon in the chemical engineering industry. Flooding also plays an important role in the field of two-phase heat transfer since it is a limit for many systems involving counter-current flow. Practical applications of flooding limited processes include wickless thermosyphons and the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) of pressurized water nuclear reactors. The phenomenon of flooding also is involved in the behavior of nuclear reactor core materials during severe accident conditions where flooding is one of the mechanisms governing the motion of the molten fuel pin cladding.

  15. How useful are Swiss flood insurance data for flood vulnerability assessments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röthlisberger, Veronika; Bernet, Daniel; Zischg, Andreas; Keiler, Margreth

    2015-04-01

    vulnerability and resilience assessments. For instance, the collation of insurance loss data with event documentations containing information on flood intensity allows to develop damage curves. Flood damage curves are fundamental for many risk analysis methodologies but to date only few are published and the spatial and temporal scope of their applicability is subject of discussion. Another possibility of using insurance data lies in the field of assessment exposure, where the analysis of comprehensive insurance portfolio data can improve the understanding of the physical but also the socio-economical vulnerability of a society. The poster spotlights key opportunities and challenges scientists are facing when using insurance data for flood vulnerability assessments.

  16. The Global Flood Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  17. Upper limits of flash flood stream power in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Marco; Amponsah, William; Borga, Marco; Crema, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Flash floods are characterized by strong spatial gradients of rainfall inputs that hit different parts of a river basin with different intensity. Stream power values associated with flash floods therefore show spatial variations that depend on geological controls on channel geometry and sediment characteristics, as well as on the variations of flood intensity: this stresses the need for a field approach that takes into account the variability of the controlling factors. Post-flood assessment of peak discharge after major floods makes it possible to analyse stream power in fluvial systems affected by flash floods. This study analyses the stream power of seven intense (return period of rainfall > 100 years at least in some sectors of the river basin) flash floods that occurred in mountainous basins of central and southern Europe from 2007 to 2014. In most of the analysed cross sections, high values of unit stream power were observed; this is consistent with the high severity of the studied floods. The highest values of cross-sectional stream power and unit stream power usually occur in Mediterranean regions. This is mainly ascribed to the larger peak discharges that characterize flash floods in these regions. The variability of unit stream power with catchment area is clearly nonlinear and has been represented by log-quadratic relations. The values of catchment area at which maximum values of unit stream power occur show relevant differences among the studied floods and are linked to the spatial scale of the events. Values of stream power are generally consistent with observed geomorphic changes in the studied cross sections: bedrock channels show the highest values of unit stream power but no visible erosion, whereas major erosion has been observed in alluvial channels. Exceptions to this general pattern, which mostly occur in semi-alluvial cross sections, urge the recognition of local or event-specific conditions that increase the resistance of channel bed and

  18. Pahoehoe-a‧a transitions in the lava flow fields of the western Deccan Traps, India-implications for emplacement dynamics, flood basalt architecture and volcanic stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Gadpallu, Purva; Shaikh, Tahira N.; Cardin, Neha

    2014-04-01

    Unlike pahoehoe, documentation of true a‧a lavas from a modern volcanological perspective is a relatively recent phenomenon in the Deccan Trap (e.g. Brown et al., 2011, Bull. Volcanol. 73(6): 737-752) as most lava flows previously considered to be a‧a (e.g. GSI, 1998) have been shown to be transitional (e.g. Rajarao et al., 1978, Geol. Soc. India Mem. 43: 401-414; Duraiswami et al., 2008 J. Volcanol. Geothermal. Res. 177: 822-836). In this paper we demonstrate the co-existence of autobrecciation products such as slabby pahoehoe, rubbly pahoehoe and a‧a in scattered outcrops within the dominantly pahoehoe flow fields. Although volumetrically low in number, the pattern of occurrence of the brecciating lobes alongside intact ones suggests that these might have formed in individual lobes along marginal branches and terminal parts of compound flow fields. Complete transitions from typical pahoehoe to 'a‧a lava flow morphologies are seen on length scales of 100-1000 m within road and sea-cliff sections near Uruli and Rajpuri. We consider the complex interplay between local increase in the lava supply rates due to storage or temporary stoppage, local increase in paleo-slope, rapid cooling and localized increase in the strain rates especially in the middle and terminal parts of the compound flow field responsible for the transitional morphologies. Such transitions are seen in the Thakurwadi-, Bushe- and Poladpur Formation in the western Deccan Traps. These are similar to pahoehoe-a‧a transitions seen in Cenozoic long lava flows (Undara ˜160 km, Toomba ˜120 km, Kinrara ˜55 km) from north Queensland, Australia and Recent (1859) eruption of Mauna Loa, Hawaii (a‧a lava flow ˜51 km) suggesting that flow fields with transitional tendencies cannot travel great lengths despite strong channelisation. If these observations are true, then it arguably limits long distance flow of Deccan Traps lavas to Rajahmundry suggesting polycentric eruptions at ˜65 Ma in

  19. Flood lavas on Earth, Io and Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.; Self, S.; Thordarson, T.

    2006-01-01

    Flood lavas are major geological features on all the major rocky planetary bodies. They provide important insight into the dynamics and chemistry of the interior of these bodies. On the Earth, they appear to be associated with major and mass extinction events. It is therefore not surprising that there has been significant research on flood lavas in recent years. Initial models suggested eruption durations of days and volumetric fluxes of order 107 m3 s-1 with flows moving as turbulent floods. However, our understanding of how lava flows can be emplaced under an insulating crust was revolutionized by the observations of actively inflating pahoehoe flows in Hawaii. These new ideas led to the hypothesis that flood lavas were emplaced over many years with eruption rates of the order of 104 m3 s-1. The field evidence indicates that flood lava flows in the Columbia River Basalts, Deccan Traps, Etendeka lavas, and the Kerguelen Plateau were emplaced as inflated pahoehoe sheet flows. This was reinforced by the observation of active lava flows of ??? 100 km length on Io being formed as tube-fed flow fed by moderate eruption rates (102-103 m3 s-1). More recently it has been found that some flood lavas are also emplaced in a more rapid manner. New high-resolution images from Mars revealed 'platy-ridged' flood lava flows, named after the large rafted plates and ridges formed by compression of the flow top. A search for appropriate terrestrial analogues found an excellent example in Iceland: the 1783-1784 Laki Flow Field. The brecciated Laki flow top consists of pieces of pahoehoe, not aa clinker, leading us to call this 'rubbly pahoehoe'. Similar flows have been found in the Columbia River Basalts and the Kerguelen Plateau. We hypothesize that these flows form with a thick, insulating, but mobile crust, which is disrupted when surges in the erupted flux are too large to maintain the normal pahoehoe mode of emplacement Flood lavas emplaced in this manner could have

  20. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  1. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding.South Georgia March and April 2009 FloodsThe March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  2. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  3. Flood risk assessment and mapping for the Lebanese watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; Hdeib, Rouya

    2016-04-01

    Of all natural disasters, floods affect the greatest number of people worldwide and have the greatest potential to cause damage. Nowadays, with the emerging global warming phenomenon, this number is expected to increase. The Eastern Mediterranean area, including Lebanon (10452 Km2, 4.5 M habitant), has witnessed in the past few decades an increase frequency of flooding events. This study profoundly assess the flood risk over Lebanon covering all the 17 major watersheds and a number of small sub-catchments. It evaluate the physical direct tangible damages caused by floods. The risk assessment and evaluation process was carried out over three stages; i) Evaluating Assets at Risk, where the areas and assets vulnerable to flooding are identified, ii) Vulnerability Assessment, where the causes of vulnerability are assessed and the value of the assets are provided, iii) Risk Assessment, where damage functions are established and the consequent damages of flooding are estimated. A detailed Land CoverUse map was prepared at a scale of 1/ 1 000 using 0.4 m resolution satellite images within the flood hazard zones. The detailed field verification enabled to allocate and characterize all elements at risk, identify hotspots, interview local witnesses, and to correlate and calibrate previous flood damages with the utilized models. All filed gathered information was collected through Mobile Application and transformed to be standardized and classified under GIS environment. Consequently; the general damage evaluation and risk maps at different flood recurrence periods (10, 50, 100 years) were established. Major results showed that floods in a winter season (December, January, and February) of 10 year recurrence and of water retention ranging from 1 to 3 days can cause total damages (losses) that reach 1.14 M for crop lands and 2.30 M for green houses. Whereas, it may cause 0.2 M to losses in fruit trees for a flood retention ranging from 3 to 5 days. These numbers differs

  4. An Intense 16.5-16.0 MA Episode of Rhyolitic Volcanism Associated with Flood Basalt Dike Emplacement at Mcdermitt Caldera Field and High Rock Caldera Complex, Nevada and Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, T. R.; Mahood, G. A.; Coble, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Voluminous rhyolites erupted from three major caldera fields and multiple smaller centers contemporaneous with Steens and Columbia River flood basalts at 16.5 to 15.0 Ma (Coble and Mahood, 2012). It has long been known that ignimbrites from McDermitt Caldera Field (MCF) and High Rock Caldera Complex (HRCC) erupted at nearly the same time (e.g., Rytuba and McKee, 1984), but their relative stratigraphic relations have not been previously determined. A west-dipping section on the west flank of the Pueblo Mountains contains four ignimbrites stratigraphically above Steens basalt. A nonwelded metaluminous rhyolitic ignimbrite at the base of the section is chemically distinct from the weakly alkalic to moderately peralkaline rhyolites from MCF and HRCC. This ignimbrite is similar in composition and mineralogy to lavas from the Hawks Valley/Lone Mountain center (HV/LM), north of HRCC, for which Wypych et al. (2011) obtained 40Ar/39Ar ages between ~16.5 and 16.3 Ma. The second ignimbrite in the Pueblo Mountains section is a densely welded, moderately peralkaline, alkali rhyolite that we correlate with the Oregon Canyon Tuff from the MCF based on similar phenocryst abundance and assemblage, whole-rock composition, and an age of 16.51 Ma (FCT=28.02 Ma) from this locality, which is analytically indistinguishable from an age Jarboe et al. (2010) obtained on the tuff in the Trout Creek Mountains. Based on field appearance, mineralogy, and whole-rock composition we correlate the third ignimbrite, a crystal-rich, densely welded, alkali rhyolite, with the Tuff of Trout Creek Mountains, also from MCF. The fourth ignimbrite we identify as the crystal-rich, late-erupted part of the 16.37 Ma Idaho Canyon Tuff. It is the first major ignimbrite known to erupt from HRRC, and in its northernmost outcrops banks in against lavas of HV/LM. At both MCF and HRCC, the interval 16.5-16.0 Ma was a time of intense silicic volcanism, punctuated by the formation of the McDermitt Caldera proper at ~16

  5. Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Program to Study Flood Performance and Incidental CO2 Storage Associated with a CO2 EOR Project in the Bell Creek Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnison, S. A.; Ditty, P.; Gorecki, C. D.; Hamling, J. A.; Steadman, E. N.; Harju, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center, is working with Denbury Onshore LLC to determine the effect of a large-scale injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep clastic reservoir for the purpose of simultaneous CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and to study incidental CO2 storage at the Bell Creek oil field located in southeastern Montana. This project will reduce CO2 emissions by more than 1 million tons a year while simultaneously recovering an anticipated 30 million barrels of incremental oil. The Bell Creek project provides a unique opportunity to use and evaluate a comprehensive suite of technologies for monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of CO2 on a large-scale. The plan incorporates multiple geophysical technologies in the presence of complementary and sometimes overlapping data to create a comprehensive data set that will facilitate evaluation and comparison. The MVA plan has been divided into shallow and deep subsurface monitoring. The deep subsurface monitoring plan includes 4-D surface seismic, time-lapse 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) surveys incorporating a permanent borehole array, and baseline and subsequent carbon-oxygen logging and other well-based measurements. The goal is to track the movement of CO2 in the reservoir, evaluate the recovery/storage efficiency of the CO2 EOR program, identify fluid migration pathways, and determine the ultimate fate of injected CO2. CO2 injection at Bell Creek began in late May 2013. Prior to injection, a monitoring and characterization well near the field center was drilled and outfitted with a distributed temperature-monitoring system and three down-hole pressure gauges to provide continuous real-time data of the reservoir and overlying strata. The monitoring well allows on-demand access for time-lapse well-based measurements and borehole seismic instrumentation. A 50-level permanent borehole array of 3-component geophones was installed in a

  6. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  7. Brief communication: Observations of a glacier outburst flood from Lhotse Glacier, Everest area, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rounce, David R.; Byers, Alton C.; Byers, Elizabeth A.; McKinney, Daene C.

    2017-02-01

    Glacier outburst floods with origins from Lhotse Glacier, located in the Everest region of Nepal, occurred on 25 May 2015 and 12 June 2016. The most recent event was witnessed by investigators, which provided unique insights into the magnitude, source, and triggering mechanism of the flood. The field assessment and satellite imagery analysis following the event revealed that most of the flood water was stored englacially and that the flood was likely triggered by dam failure. The flood's peak discharge was estimated to be 210 m3 s-1.

  8. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions.

  9. The Stanford Flood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes, from the flood to the start of freeze-drying operations, the preservation efforts of Stanford University regarding books damaged by water in the Green Library in November 1978. Planning, action, and mopping-up activities are chronicled, and 20 suggestions are offered as guidance in future similar situations. (JD)

  10. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  11. After the Flood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

  12. Flooding on Elbe River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  14. Understanding cratonic flood basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Paul G.; Behn, Mark D.; Kelley, Katherine; Schmitz, Mark; Savage, Brian

    2006-05-01

    The origin of continental flood basalts has been debated for decades. These eruptions often produce millions of cubic kilometers of basalt on timescales of only a million years. Although flood basalts are found in a variety of settings, no locale is more puzzling than cratonic areas such as southern Africa or the Siberian craton, where strong, thick lithosphere is breached by these large basaltic outpourings. Conventionally, flood basalts have been interpreted as melting events produced by one of two processes: 1) elevated temperatures associated with mantle plumes and/or 2) adiabatic-decompression melting associated with lithospheric thinning. In southern Africa, however, there are severe problems with both of these mechanisms. First, the rifting circumstances of several well-known basaltic outpourings clearly reflect lithospheric control rather than the influence of a deep-seated plume. Specifically, rift timing and magmatism are correlated with stress perturbations to the lithosphere associated with the formation of collisional rifts. Second, the substantial lithospheric thinning required for adiabatic decompression melting is inconsistent with xenolith evidence for the continued survival of thick lithosphere beneath flood basalt domains. As an alternative to these models, we propose a new two-stage model that interprets cratonic flood basalts not as melting events, but as short-duration drainage events that tap previously created sublithospheric reservoirs of molten basalt formed over a longer time scale. Reservoir creation/existence (Stage I) requires long-term (e.g. ≫ 1 Ma) supersolidus conditions in the sublithospheric mantle that could be maintained by an elevated equilibrium geotherm (appropriate for the Archean), a slow thermal perturbation (e.g. thermal blanketing or large-scale mantle upwelling), or a subduction-related increase in volatile content. The drainage event (Stage II) occurs in response to an abrupt stress change in the lithosphere, which

  15. Forecast-based Integrated Flood Detection System for Emergency Response and Disaster Risk Reduction (Flood-FINDER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcorace, Mauro; Silvestro, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Dell'Oro, Luca; Bjorgo, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Most flood prone areas in the globe are mainly located in developing countries where making communities more flood resilient is a priority. Despite different flood forecasting initiatives are now available from academia and research centers, what is often missing is the connection between the timely hazard detection and the community response to warnings. In order to bridge the gap between science and decision makers, UN agencies play a key role on the dissemination of information in the field and on capacity-building to local governments. In this context, having a reliable global early warning system in the UN would concretely improve existing in house capacities for Humanitarian Response and the Disaster Risk Reduction. For those reasons, UNITAR-UNOSAT has developed together with USGS and CIMA Foundation a Global Flood EWS called "Flood-FINDER". The Flood-FINDER system is a modelling chain which includes meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic models that are accurately linked to enable the production of warnings and forecast inundation scenarios up to three weeks in advance. The system is forced with global satellite derived precipitation products and Numerical Weather Prediction outputs. The modelling chain is based on the "Continuum" hydrological model and risk assessments produced for GAR2015. In combination with existing hydraulically reconditioned SRTM data and 1D hydraulic models, flood scenarios are derived at multiple scales and resolutions. Climate and flood data are shared through a Web GIS integrated platform. First validation of the modelling chain has been conducted through a flood hindcasting test case, over the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand, using multi temporal satellite-based analysis derived for the exceptional flood event of 2011. In terms of humanitarian relief operations, the EO-based services of flood mapping in rush mode generally suffer from delays caused by the time required for their activation, programming, acquisitions and

  16. Nest sites and conservation of endangered Interior Least Terns Sterna antillarum athalassos on an alkaline flat in the south-central Great Plains (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, Brian R.; Leslie, David M.

    2003-01-01

    We monitored nest sites of endangered Interior Least Terns on a 5 095 ha alkaline flat in north-central Oklahoma, USA. After nest loss, Least Terns commonly renested and experienced 30% apparent nest success in 1995-1996 (n = 233 nests). Nest success and predation differed by location on the alkaline flat in 1995 and overall, but nest success and flooding did not differ by microhabitat type. Predation was highest at nests ??? 5 cm from debris (driftwood/hay) in 1995. No differences in nesting success, flooding, or predation were observed on comparing nests inside and outside electrified enclosures. Coyotes and Striped Skunks were confirmed nest predators, and Ring-billed Gulls were suspected nest predators. We identified one location on the alkaline flat of about 1 000 ha with consistently lower nest losses attributable to flooding and predation and the highest hatching success compared with other parts of the alkaline flat; it was typified by open ground and bisected by several creeks. Management activities that minimize flooding and predation in this area could further enhance nest success and theoretically increase overall productivity of this population of Least Terns. However, the efficacy of electrified enclosures and nest-site enhancements, as currently undertaken, is questionable because of considerable annual variation in use by and protection of Least Terns.

  17. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of

  18. Coastal flooding and storm protection program; field verification program. Mathematical modeling of three-dimensional coastal currents and sediment dispersion: model development and application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Y.P.

    1983-09-01

    A comprehensive model of Coastal currents and sediment dispersion has been formulated and applied to the Mississippi Sound and adjacent continental shelf waters. The study combines mathematical modeling of various hydrodynamic and sedimentary processes with laboratory and field experiments. Of primary importance is the development of an efficient and comprehensive three-dimensional, finite-difference model of coastal, estuarine, and lake currents (CELC3D). The model resolves currents driven by tide, wind, and density gradient. It has been applied to the Mississippi Sound, and results agree well with measured surface displacements and currents during two episodes. Rates of entrainment and deposition of the Mississippi Sound sediments have been studied in a laboratory flume. Effects of (1) bottom shear stress, (2) bed properties, (3) salinity of water, and (4) sediment type on the erodability of sediments have been examined. Results of the laboratory study have been incorporated into the bottom boundary conditions for a three-dimensional sediment dispersion model. Gravitational settling and particle size distribution of the Mississippi Sound sediments were also studied in laboratories. Bottom boundary layer dynamics and wave effect on sediment dispersion have been studied by means of a turbulent transport model and a wave model. Model simulations of sediment dispersion in the Mississippi Sound agree well available data from ship surveys.

  19. Generating precipitation ensembles for flood alert and risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caseri, Angelica; Javelle, Pierre; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Leblois, Etienne

    2015-04-01

    Floods represent one of the major natural disasters that are often responsible for fatalities and economic losses. Flood warning systems are needed to anticipate the arrival of severe events and mitigate their impacts. Flood alerts are particularly important for risk management and response in the nowcasting of flash floods. In this case, precipitation fields observed in real time play a crucial role and observational uncertainties must be taken into account. In this study, we investigate the potential of a framework which combines a geostatistical conditional simulation method that considers information from precipitation radar and rain gauges, and a distributed rainfall-runoff model to generate an ensemble of precipitation fields and produce probabilistic flood alert maps. We adapted the simulation method proposed by Leblois and Creutin (2013), based on the Turning Band Method (TBM) and a conditional simulation approach, to consider the temporal and spatial characteristics of radar data and rain gauge measurements altogether and generate precipitation ensembles. The AIGA system developed by Irstea and Météo-France for predicting flash floods in the French Mediterranean region (Javelle et al., 2014) was used to transform the generated precipitation ensembles into ensembles of discharge at the outlet of the studied catchments. Finally, discharge ensembles were translated into maps providing information on the probability of exceeding a given flood threshold. A total of 19 events that occurred between 2009 and 2013 in the Var region (southeastern France), a region prone to flash floods, was used to illustrate the approach. Results show that the proposed method is able to simulate an ensemble of realistic precipitation fields and capture peak flows of flash floods. This was shown to be particularly useful at ungauged catchments, where uncertainties on the evaluation of flood peaks are high. The results obtained also show that the approach developed can be used to

  20. Stationarity analysis of historical flood series in France and Spain (14th-20th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriendos, M.; Coeur, D.; Lang, M.; Llasat, M. C.; Naulet, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Barrera, A.

    Interdisciplinary frameworks for studying natural hazards and their temporal trends have an important potential in data generation for risk assessment, land use planning, and therefore the sustainable management of resources. This paper focuses on the adjustments required because of the wide variety of scientific fields involved in the reconstruction and characterisation of flood events for the past 1000 years. The aim of this paper is to describe various methodological aspects of the study of flood events in their historical dimension, including the critical evaluation of old documentary and instrumental sources, flood-event classification and hydraulic modelling, and homogeneity and quality control tests. Standardized criteria for flood classification have been defined and applied to the Isère and Drac floods in France, from 1600 to 1950, and to the Ter, the Llobregat and the Segre floods, in Spain, from 1300 to 1980. The analysis on the Drac and Isère data series from 1600 to the present day showed that extraordinary and catastrophic floods were not distributed uniformly in time. However, the largest floods (general catastrophic floods) were homogeneously distributed in time within the period 1600-1900. No major flood occurred during the 20th century in these rivers. From 1300 to the present day, no homogeneous behaviour was observed for extraordinary floods in the Spanish rivers. The largest floods were uniformly distributed in time within the period 1300-1900, for the Segre and Ter rivers.

  1. The use of Natural Flood Management to mitigate local flooding in the rural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Quinn, Paul; Ghimire, Sohan; Nicholson, Alex; Addy, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The past decade has seen increases in the occurrence of flood events across Europe, putting a growing number of settlements of varying sizes at risk. The issue of flooding in smaller villages is usually not well publicised. In these small communities, the cost of constructing and maintaining traditional flood defences often outweigh the potential benefits, which has led to a growing quest for more cost effective and sustainable approaches. Here we aim to provide such an approach that alongside flood risk reduction, also has multipurpose benefits of sediment control, water quality amelioration, and habitat creation. Natural flood management (NFM) aims to reduce flooding by working with natural features and characteristics to slow down or temporarily store flood waters. NFM measures include dynamic water storage ponds and wetlands, interception bunds, channel restoration and instream wood placement, and increasing soil infiltration through soil management and tree planting. Based on integrated monitoring and modelling studies, we demonstrate the potential to manage runoff locally using NFM in rural systems by effectively managing flow pathways (hill slopes and small channels) and by exploiting floodplains and buffers strips. Case studies from across the UK show that temporary storage ponds (ranging from 300 to 3000m3) and other NFM measures can reduce peak flows in small catchments (5 to 10 km2) by up to 15 to 30 percent. In addition, increasing the overall effective storage capacity by a network of NFM measures was found to be most effective for total reduction of local flood peaks. Hydraulic modelling has shown that the positioning of such features within the catchment, and how they are connected to the main channel, may also affect their effectiveness. Field evidence has shown that these ponds can collect significant accumulations of fine sediment during flood events. On the other hand, measures such as wetlands could also play an important role during low flow

  2. Closed type alkaline storage battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hayama, H.

    1980-06-10

    The alkaline storage battery employs a metallic hat shaped terminal closure which has a piercing needle as well as a puncturable metallic diaphragm positioned below the piercing needle. The needle is fixed by caulking at its peripheral edge portion to a edge of the closure. A comparatively thick and hard metal plate is placed on the inner surface of the diaphragm and is applied to an open portion of a tubular metallic container which has a battery element. A peripheral edge portion of the closure, the diaphragm and the metallic plate are clamped in airtight relationship through a packing between the caulked end portion and an inner annular step portion of the metallic container of the battery. A lead wire extends from one polarity electrode of the battery element and is connected to a central portion of the metallic plate.

  3. Effect of Depth of Flooding on the Rice Water Weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, and Yield of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Tindall, Kelly V.; Bernhardt, John L.; Stout, Michael J.; Beighley, Donn H.

    2013-01-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a semi-aquatic pest of rice and is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Adults oviposit after floods are established, and greenhouse studies have shown that plants exposed to deep floods have more eggs oviposited in leaf sheaths than plants exposed to a shallow flood. Experiments were conducted in three mid-southern states in the USA to determine if the depth of flooding would impact numbers of L. oryzophilus on rice plants under field conditions. Rice was flooded at depths of approximately 5 or 10 cm in Arkansas in 2007 and 2008 and Louisiana in 2008, and at depths between 0–20 cm in Missouri in 2008. Plants were sampled three and four weeks after floods were established in all locations, and also two weeks after flood in Missouri. On all sampling dates in four experiments over two years and at three field sites, fewer L. oryzophilus larvae were collected from rice in shallow-flooded plots than from deep-flooded plots. The number of L. oryzophilus was reduced by as much as 27% in shallow-flooded plots. However, the reduction in insect numbers did not translate to a significant increase in rice yield. We discuss how shallow floods could be used as a component of an integrated pest management program for L. oryzophilus. PMID:23906324

  4. High Survival of Lasius niger during Summer Flooding in a European Grassland.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Lionel R; Ebeling, Anne; Meyer, Sebastian T; Eisenhauer, Nico; Fischer, Christine; Hildebrandt, Anke; Wagg, Cameron; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is projected to increase the frequency of extreme events, such as flooding and droughts, which are anticipated to have negative effects on the biodiversity of primary producers and consequently the associated consumer communities. Here we assessed the effects of an extreme early summer flooding event in 2013 on ant colonies along an experimental gradient of plant species richness in a temperate grassland. We tested the effects of flood duration, plant species richness, plant cover, soil temperature, and soil porosity on ant occurrence and abundance. We found that the ant community was dominated by Lasius niger, whose presence and abundance after the flood was not significantly affected by any of the tested variables, including plant species richness. We found the same level of occupation by L. niger at the field site after the flood (surveyed in 2013) as before the flood (surveyed in 2006). Thus, there were no negative effects of the flood on the presence of L. niger in the plots. We can exclude recolonisation as a possible explanation of ant presence in the field site due to the short time period between the end of the flood and survey as well as to the absence of a spatial pattern in the occupancy data. Thus, the omnipresence of this dominant ant species 1 month after the flood indicates that the colonies were able to survive a 3-week summer flood. The observed ant species proved to be flood resistant despite experiencing such extreme climatic events very rarely.

  5. Effect of depth of flooding on the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, and yield of rice.

    PubMed

    Tindall, Kelly V; Bernhardt, John L; Stout, Michael J; Beighley, Donn H

    2013-01-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a semi-aquatic pest of rice and is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Adults oviposit after floods are established, and greenhouse studies have shown that plants exposed to deep floods have more eggs oviposited in leaf sheaths than plants exposed to a shallow flood. Experiments were conducted in three mid-southern states in the USA to determine if the depth of flooding would impact numbers of L. oryzophilus on rice plants under field conditions. Rice was flooded at depths of approximately 5 or 10 cm in Arkansas in 2007 and 2008 and Louisiana in 2008, and at depths between 0-20 cm in Missouri in 2008. Plants were sampled three and four weeks after floods were established in all locations, and also two weeks after flood in Missouri. On all sampling dates in four experiments over two years and at three field sites, fewer L. oryzophilus larvae were collected from rice in shallow-flooded plots than from deep-flooded plots. The number of L. oryzophilus was reduced by as much as 27% in shallow-flooded plots. However, the reduction in insect numbers did not translate to a significant increase in rice yield. We discuss how shallow floods could be used as a component of an integrated pest management program for L. oryzophilus.

  6. High Survival of Lasius niger during Summer Flooding in a European Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Hertzog, Lionel R.; Ebeling, Anne; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Eisenhauer, Nico; Fischer, Christine; Hildebrandt, Anke; Wagg, Cameron; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is projected to increase the frequency of extreme events, such as flooding and droughts, which are anticipated to have negative effects on the biodiversity of primary producers and consequently the associated consumer communities. Here we assessed the effects of an extreme early summer flooding event in 2013 on ant colonies along an experimental gradient of plant species richness in a temperate grassland. We tested the effects of flood duration, plant species richness, plant cover, soil temperature, and soil porosity on ant occurrence and abundance. We found that the ant community was dominated by Lasius niger, whose presence and abundance after the flood was not significantly affected by any of the tested variables, including plant species richness. We found the same level of occupation by L. niger at the field site after the flood (surveyed in 2013) as before the flood (surveyed in 2006). Thus, there were no negative effects of the flood on the presence of L. niger in the plots. We can exclude recolonisation as a possible explanation of ant presence in the field site due to the short time period between the end of the flood and survey as well as to the absence of a spatial pattern in the occupancy data. Thus, the omnipresence of this dominant ant species 1 month after the flood indicates that the colonies were able to survive a 3-week summer flood. The observed ant species proved to be flood resistant despite experiencing such extreme climatic events very rarely. PMID:27851761

  7. Flood pulsing in wetlands: Restoring the natural hydrological balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2002-01-01

    The latest cutting-edge research on flood pulsing and wetland restoration in North America.Presenting the latest research from leaders in the field of restoration ecology, Flood Pulsing in Wetlands reflects the current movement to incorporate flood pulsing into wetland restoration efforts. Emphasizing how integral flood pulsing is to successful wetland restoration, the book's contributors provide descriptions of restoration projects across North America in which flood pulsing has been primarily used to restore beneficial hydrodynamic conditions to floodplain areas, and improve or save vegetation, wildlife, and terrain.Detailing the importance and applicability of recreating flood-pulsed conditions on floodplains for successful restoration, the first chapter introduces the concept of flood pulse and its unique role in wetland restoration. The following chapters detail the strategies and results of individual projects and the impact flood pulsing had on the projects' overall goals. Case studies detail the history of each region, such as the Southwest, including the Sonoran Desert communities and the Middle Rio Grande; the Missouri River in Montana; the Illinois River Valley; and the Southeast, including Brushy Lake, Arkansas. Also documented is the most famous case of flood pulsing used in the restoration of an entire landscape, the Kissimmee River project. Approaches used to restore specific plant and animal populations, the unique ecological concerns of each region, and the future outlook for each area are fully described.Extensive bibliographies for each chapter make Flood Pulsing in Wetlands: Restoring the Natural Hydrological Balance the essential reference for restoration ecologists, consultants in wetland restoration, government and restoration agency employees, land managers, ecologists, foresters, and geologists.

  8. Petrogenesis of coeval silica-saturated and silica-undersaturated alkaline rocks: Mineralogical and geochemical evidence from the Saima alkaline complex, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu-Sheng; Yang, Jin-Hui; Sun, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Ji-Heng; Wu, Fu-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    A combined study of zircon U-Pb ages, mineral chemistry, whole-rock elements and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes was carried out for the Saima alkaline complex in the northeastern China, in order to investigate the source and petrogenesis of coeval silica-saturated and silica-undersaturated alkaline rocks. The Saima alkaline complex consists of nepheline syenites, quartz-bearing syenites and alkaline volcanic rocks (i.e., phonolite and trachyte), with minor mafic dikes and carbonatitic veins. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) zircon U-Pb dating gives consistent ages of 230-224 Ma for these rocks, suggesting that they are coeval. All alkaline rocks in the Saima complex are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs) with significant negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies. Geochemical data and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions indicate that the various alkaline rocks were all derived from partial melting of an ancient, re-enriched lithospheric mantle in the garnet stability field, but experienced variable siliceous- or carbonate-rich crustal contamination. Based on petrographic evidence, mineral compositions, and whole-rock geochemical data, two distinct magmatic evolutionary trends are proposed to explain the coeval emplacement of the various rock types within the Saima alkaline complex. The silica-undersaturated rocks (nepheline syenites and phonolites) result from alkali feldspar + apatite + titanite crystal fractionation of an alkaline mafic parental melt combined with assimilation of marine carbonate host rocks. In contrast, the generation of silica-saturated rocks (quartz-bearing syenites and trachytes) may be attributed to subsequent and continued clinopyroxene + apatite + biotite crystal fractionation coupled with assimilation of siliceous sediments.

  9. Chapter A6. Section 6.6. Alkalinity and Acid Neutralizing Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2002-01-01

    Alkalinity (determined on a filtered sample) and Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) (determined on a whole-water sample) are measures of the ability of a water sample to neutralize strong acid. Alkalinity and ANC provide information on the suitability of water for uses such as irrigation, determining the efficiency of wastewater processes, determining the presence of contamination by anthropogenic wastes, and maintaining ecosystem health. In addition, alkalinity is used to gain insights on the chemical evolution of an aqueous system. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes the USGS field protocols for alkalinity/ANC determination using either the inflection-point or Gran function plot methods, including calculation of carbonate species, and provides guidance on equipment selection.

  10. Evolution of alkaline phosphatases in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, D J; Rogers, C; Harris, H

    1982-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase [orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), EC 3.1.3.1] in placenta, intestine, liver, kidney, bone, and lung from a variety of primate species has been characterized by quantitative inhibition, thermostability, and immunological studies. Characteristic human placental-type alkaline phosphatase occurs in placentas of great apes (chimpanzee and orangutan) but not in placentas of other primates, including gibbon. It is also present in trace amounts in human lung but not in lung or other tissues of various Old and New World monkeys. However, a distinctive alkaline phosphatase resembling it occurs in substantial amounts in lungs from Old World monkeys but not New World monkeys. It appears that duplication of alkaline phosphatase genes and mutations of genetic elements controlling their tissue expression have occurred relatively recently in mammalian evolution. Images PMID:6950431

  11. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range.

  12. Mapping a flood before it happens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.

    2004-01-01

    What's missing from flood forecasts? Maps—The only maps generally available today are maps used for planning. They are maps of theoretical floods, not maps of flooding forecast for an approaching storm. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed a way to bring flood forecasting and flood mapping together, producing flood maps for tomorrow's flood today...and getting them on the Internet in time for those in harm's way to react.

  13. Earthquake and Flood Risk Assessments for Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Ward, P.; Winsemius, H.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a flood and earthquake risk assessment for 32 countries in Europe and Central Asia with a focus on how current flood and earthquake risk might evolve in the future due to changes in climate, population, and GDP. The future hazard and exposure conditions used for the risk assessment are consistent with selected IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Estimates of 2030 and 2080 population and GDP are derived using the IMAGE model forced by the socioeconomic conditions associated with the SSPs. Flood risk is modeled using the probabilistic GLOFRIS global flood risk modeling cascade which starts with meteorological fields derived from reanalysis data or climate models. For 2030 and 2080 climate conditions, the meteorological fields are generated from five climate models forced by the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Future flood risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with the SSP2 and SSP3 scenarios. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by a flood when a grid cell receives any depth of flood inundation. The earthquake hazard is quantified using a 10,000-year stochastic catalog of over 15.8 million synthetic earthquake events of at least magnitude 5. Ground motion prediction and estimates of local site conditions are used to determine PGA. Future earthquake risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with all five SSPs. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by an earthquake when a grid cell experiences ground motion equaling or exceeding MMI VI. For most countries, changes in exposure alter flood risk to a greater extent than changes in climate. For both flood and earthquake, the spread in risk grows over time. There are large uncertainties due to the methodology; however, the results are not meant to be definitive. Instead they will be used to initiate discussions with governments regarding efforts to manage disaster risk.

  14. Simulations of cataclysmic outburst floods from Pleistocene Glacial Lake Missoula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denlinger, Roger P.; O'Connell, D. R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Using a flow domain that we constructed from 30 m digital-elevation model data of western United States and Canada and a two-dimensional numerical model for shallow-water flow over rugged terrain, we simulated outburst floods from Pleistocene Glacial Lake Missoula. We modeled a large, but not the largest, flood, using initial lake elevation at 1250 m instead of 1285 m. Rupture of the ice dam, centered on modern Lake Pend Oreille, catastrophically floods eastern Washington and rapidly fills the broad Pasco, Yakima, and Umatilla Basins. Maximum flood stage is reached in Pasco and Yakima Basins 38 h after the dam break, whereas maximum flood stage in Umatilla Basin occurs 17 h later. Drainage of these basins through narrow Columbia gorge takes an additional 445 h. For this modeled flood, peak discharges in eastern Washington range from 10 to 20 × 106 m3/s. However, constrictions in Columbia gorge limit peak discharges to 6 m3/s and greatly extend the duration of flooding. We compare these model results with field observations of scabland distribution and high-water indicators. Our model predictions of the locations of maximum scour (product of bed shear stress and average flow velocity) match the distribution of existing scablands. We compare model peak stages to high-water indicators from the Rathdrum-Spokane valley, Walulla Gap, and along Columbia gorge. Though peak stages from this less-than-maximal flood model attain or exceed peak-stage indicators along Rathdrum-Spokane valley and along Columbia gorge, simulated peak stages near Walulla Gap are 10–40 m below observed peak-stage indicators. Despite this discrepancy, our match to field observations in most of the region indicates that additional sources of water other than Glacial Lake Missoula are not required to explain the Missoula floods.

  15. The geomorphic context of flood hazards in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renwick, W.; Balthazar, S. L.; Boardman, M. R.; Hillaire, J. V.; Laviolette, L. L.; Primack, A. G.; Tardieu, J. F.; Eliacin, J.

    2005-05-01

    Devastating floods struck Fonds Verrettes, Mapou, and Gonaives, Haiti in 2004, killing thousands and calling attention to the threat of catastrophic flooding in that country. That threat provides a focus for expanding collaborations in field and service learning in Haiti. Past field and service-learning collaboration with Universite Notre Dame d'Haiti (UNDH) resulted in an invitation to evaluate the flooding potential of Haiti's largest city - Port-au-Prince. High population densities, land cover change, the geomorphic setting of Port-au-Prince, combine to make that city particularly vulnerable to catastrophic flooding. Climate change and associated sea level rise are also a concern. Port-au-Prince lies at the foot of steeply sloping mountain areas of the Massif de La Selle. Much of the urban area is built on alluvial fans, coastal plains, and recent deltaic deposits. While data are rare to nonexistent, deforestation in the mountain areas upstream from the city and extensive urbanization, especially in the last few decades, is virtually certain to have increased storm runoff volumes and reduced lag times. Different flood hazards can be identified in four geomorphic zones: 1) valleys in steeply sloping areas, where channel erosion and associated slope failures threaten streamside communities; 2) alluvial fans, where rapid aggradation, mudflow deposition and channel avulsion contribute to channel instability; 3) coastal plains, where gentle slopes impede drainage of flood water; and 4) deltaic areas formed and settled in the last few decades subject to storm surge and possibly subsidence in addition to runoff-derived flooding. These zones can serve as a framework for flood hazard identification and management. With the cooperation of the Haitian government and non-profit organizations, students and faculty from Miami University and UNDH will combine talents to measure the flood potential of a single, critical watershed in Port-au-Prince and establish a community

  16. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  17. More arrows in the quiver: new pathways and old problems with heavy alkaline earth metal diphenylmethanides.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jacob S; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin

    2004-03-05

    Progress in the field of sigma-bonded alkaline earth organometallics has been handicapped by numerous complications, such as high reactivity, low solubility, and the limited availability of suitable starting materials. Here we present two synthetic methods, hydrocarbon elimination and desilylation, as alternative routes into this chemistry. A novel barium diphenylmethanide was prepared using these routes delineating that both methods provide a powerful, versatile synthetic access route to an extended library of organometallic alkaline earth derivatives.

  18. The effects of floodplain forest restoration and logjams on flood risk and flood hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Simon; Sear, David A.; Sykes, Tim; Odoni, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    Flooding is the most common natural catastrophe, accounting for around half of all natural disaster related deaths and causing economic losses in Europe estimated at over € 2bn per year. In addition flooding is expected to increase in magnitude and frequency with climate change, effectively shortening the return period for a given magnitude flood. Increasing the height and extent of hard engineered defences in response to increased risk is both unsustainable and undesirable. Thus alternative approaches to flood mitigation are needed such as harnessing vegetation processes to slow the passage of flood waves and increase local flood storage. However, our understanding of these effects at the catchment scale is limited. In this presentation we demonstrate the effects of two river restoration approaches upon catchment scale flood hydrology. The addition of large wood to river channels during river restoration projects is a popular method of attempting to improve physical and biological conditions in degraded river systems. Projects utilising large wood can involve the installation of engineered logjams (ELJs), the planting and enhancement of riparian forests, or a combination of both. Altering the wood loading of a channel through installation of ELJs and increasing floodplain surface complexity through encouraging mature woodland could be expected to increase the local hydraulic resistance, increasing the timing and duration of overbank events locally and therefore increasing the travel time of a flood wave through a reach. This reach-scale effect has been documented in models and the field; however the impacts of these local changes at a catchment scale remains to be illustrated. Furthermore there is limited knowledge of how changing successional stages of a restored riparian forest through time may affect its influence on hydromorphic processes. We present results of a novel paired numerical modelling study. We model changes in flood hydrology based on a 98km

  19. Flood risk assessment in France: comparison of extreme flood estimation methods (EXTRAFLO project, Task 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavaglia, F.; Paquet, E.; Lang, M.; Renard, B.; Arnaud, P.; Aubert, Y.; Carre, J.

    2013-12-01

    In flood risk assessment the methods can be divided in two families: deterministic methods and probabilistic methods. In the French hydrologic community the probabilistic methods are historically preferred to the deterministic ones. Presently a French research project named EXTRAFLO (RiskNat Program of the French National Research Agency, https://extraflo.cemagref.fr) deals with the design values for extreme rainfall and floods. The object of this project is to carry out a comparison of the main methods used in France for estimating extreme values of rainfall and floods, to obtain a better grasp of their respective fields of application. In this framework we present the results of Task 7 of EXTRAFLO project. Focusing on French watersheds, we compare the main extreme flood estimation methods used in French background: (i) standard flood frequency analysis (Gumbel and GEV distribution), (ii) regional flood frequency analysis (regional Gumbel and GEV distribution), (iii) local and regional flood frequency analysis improved by historical information (Naulet et al., 2005), (iv) simplify probabilistic method based on rainfall information (i.e. Gradex method (CFGB, 1994), Agregee method (Margoum, 1992) and Speed method (Cayla, 1995)), (v) flood frequency analysis by continuous simulation approach and based on rainfall information (i.e. Schadex method (Paquet et al., 2013, Garavaglia et al., 2010), Shyreg method (Lavabre et al., 2003)) and (vi) multifractal approach. The main result of this comparative study is that probabilistic methods based on additional information (i.e. regional, historical and rainfall information) provide better estimations than the standard flood frequency analysis. Another interesting result is that, the differences between the various extreme flood quantile estimations of compared methods increase with return period, staying relatively moderate up to 100-years return levels. Results and discussions are here illustrated throughout with the example

  20. Identification of flood-rich and flood-poor periods in flood series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillán, David; Garrote, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a general concern about non-stationarity of flood series has arisen, as changes in catchment response can be driven by several factors, such as climatic and land-use changes. Several studies to detect trends in flood series at either national or trans-national scales have been conducted. Trends are usually detected by the Mann-Kendall test. However, the results of this test depend on the starting and ending year of the series, which can lead to different results in terms of the period considered. The results can be conditioned to flood-poor and flood-rich periods located at the beginning or end of the series. A methodology to identify statistically significant flood-rich and flood-poor periods is developed, based on the comparison between the expected sampling variability of floods when stationarity is assumed and the observed variability of floods in a given series. The methodology is applied to a set of long series of annual maximum floods, peaks over threshold and counts of annual occurrences in peaks over threshold series observed in Spain in the period 1942-2009. Mediero et al. (2014) found a general decreasing trend in flood series in some parts of Spain that could be caused by a flood-rich period observed in 1950-1970, placed at the beginning of the flood series. The results of this study support the findings of Mediero et al. (2014), as a flood-rich period in 1950-1970 was identified in most of the selected sites. References: Mediero, L., Santillán, D., Garrote, L., Granados, A. Detection and attribution of trends in magnitude, frequency and timing of floods in Spain, Journal of Hydrology, 517, 1072-1088, 2014.

  1. Sediment characteristics of an extreme flood: 1993 upper Mississippi River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Basil; Mertes, L. A. K.; Phillips, J. D.; Magilligan, F. J.; James, L. A.

    1995-11-01

    The 1993 Mississippi River flood was notable for its high magnitude, long duration, summer occurrence, and low sediment discharge. A field survey of a 70-km-long reach in the vicinity of Quincy, Illinois, revealed that the event was characterized by <4 mm of vertical accretion on leveed and unleveed parts of the flood plain. Regional patterns of overbank suspended sediment transport and deposition were discerned from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. This >100 yr flood had remarkably little sedimentological or geomorphological impact on the flood plain within the study reach because the transport effectiveness of floods in large drainage basins is influenced by event sequencing in the same manner as floods in small watersheds, and the cohesive flood-plain soils were not susceptible to erosion.

  2. Cerberus Flood Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows streamlined landforms carved by catastrophic floods that occurred in the eastern Cerberus region, some time in the distant martian past.

    Location near: 15.1oN, 193.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  3. Groundwater flood of a river terrace in southwest Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotkowitz, Madeline B.; Attig, John W.; McDermott, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Intense rainstorms in 2008 resulted in wide-spread flooding across the Midwestern United States. In Wisconsin, floodwater inundated a 17.7-km2 area on an outwash terrace, 7.5 m above the mapped floodplain of the Wisconsin River. Surface-water runoff initiated the flooding, but results of field investigation and modeling indicate that rapid water-table rise and groundwater inundation caused the long-lasting flood far from the riparian floodplain. Local geologic and geomorphic features of the landscape lead to spatial variability in runoff and recharge to the unconfined sand and gravel aquifer, and regional hydrogeologic conditions increased groundwater discharge from the deep bedrock aquifer to the river valley. Although reports of extreme cases of groundwater flooding are uncommon, this occurrence had significant economic and social costs. Local, state and federal officials required hydrologic analysis to support emergency management and long-term flood mitigation strategies. Rapid, sustained water-table rise and the resultant flooding of this high-permeability aquifer illustrate a significant aspect of groundwater system response to an extreme precipitation event. Comprehensive land-use planning should encompass the potential for water-table rise and groundwater flooding in a variety of hydrogeologic settings, as future changes in climate may impact recharge and the water-table elevation.

  4. Flood Deposition Analysis of Northern California's Eel River (Flood- DANCER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlgren, S.; Bauman, P. D.; Dillon, R. J.; Gallagher, N.; Jamison, M. E.; King, A.; Lee, J.; Siwicke, K. A.; Harris, C. K.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Borgeld, J. C.; Goldthwait, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Characterizing and quantifying the fate of river born sediment is critical to our understanding of sediment supply and erosion in impacted coastal areas. Strata deposited in coastal zones provide an invaluable record of recent and historical environmental events. The Eel River in northern California has one of the highest sediment yields of any North American river and has preserved evidence of the impact of recent flood events. Previous research has documented sediment deposits associated with Eel River flood events in January 1995, March 1995, and January 1997. These deposits were found north of the river mouth on the mid shelf in water depths from 50-100 m. Sediment strata were up to 5-10 cm thick and were composed of fine to very fine grained silts and clays. Until recently, no model had been able to correctly reproduce the sediment deposits associated with these floods. In 2005, Harris et al. developed a model that accurately represents the volume and location of the flood deposit associated with the January 1997 event. However, rigorous assessment of the predictive capability of this model requires that a new flood of the Eel River be used as a test case. During the winter of 2005-06 the Eel River rose above flood stage reaching discharge similar to the flood of January 1995 which resulted in flood sedimentation on the Eel River shelf. A flood-related deposit 1-5 cm thick was found in water depths of 60-90 m approximately 20-35 km north of the river mouth. Flood deposits were recognized in box cores collected in the months following the flood. As in previously studied events, flood- related strata near the sediment surface were recognized in core x-radiographs, resistivity and porosity profiles, and were composed of fine to very fine grained silts and clays. In addition, surface flood sediments were associated with lower concentrations of benthic foraminifera compared with deeper sediments. The January 2006 flood deposit was similar in thickness to the

  5. Flood Hazards - A National Threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    In the late summer of 2005, the remarkable flooding brought by Hurricane Katrina, which caused more than $200 billion in losses, constituted the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history. However, even in typical years, flooding causes billions of dollars in damage and threatens lives and property in every State. Natural processes, such as hurricanes, weather systems, and snowmelt, can cause floods. Failure of levees and dams and inadequate drainage in urban areas can also result in flooding. On average, floods kill about 140 people each year and cause $6 billion in property damage. Although loss of life to floods during the past half-century has declined, mostly because of improved warning systems, economic losses have continued to rise due to increased urbanization and coastal development.

  6. Effects of climate variability on global scale flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P.; Dettinger, M. D.; Kummu, M.; Jongman, B.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.

    2013-12-01

    In this contribution we demonstrate the influence of climate variability on flood risk. Globally, flooding is one of the worst natural hazards in terms of economic damages; Munich Re estimates global losses in the last decade to be in excess of $240 billion. As a result, scientifically sound estimates of flood risk at the largest scales are increasingly needed by industry (including multinational companies and the insurance industry) and policy communities. Several assessments of global scale flood risk under current and conditions have recently become available, and this year has seen the first studies assessing how flood risk may change in the future due to global change. However, the influence of climate variability on flood risk has as yet hardly been studied, despite the fact that: (a) in other fields (drought, hurricane damage, food production) this variability is as important for policy and practice as long term change; and (b) climate variability has a strong influence in peak riverflows around the world. To address this issue, this contribution illustrates the influence of ENSO-driven climate variability on flood risk, at both the globally aggregated scale and the scale of countries and large river basins. Although it exerts significant and widespread influences on flood peak discharges in many parts of the world, we show that ENSO does not have a statistically significant influence on flood risk once aggregated to global totals. At the scale of individual countries, though, strong relationships exist over large parts of the Earth's surface. For example, we find particularly strong anomalies of flood risk in El Niño or La Niña years (compared to all years) in southern Africa, parts of western Africa, Australia, parts of Central Eurasia (especially for El Niño), the western USA (especially for La Niña), and parts of South America. These findings have large implications for both decadal climate-risk projections and long-term future climate change

  7. 76 FR 16722 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    .... Specifically, it addresses the following flooding sources: Deener Creek, Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red... following flooding sources: Gum Creek Flooding Effects, Little Red River, Overflow Creek Tributary, Red Cut... Rocky Branch confluence. Gum Creek Flooding Effects Just upstream of None +213 Unincorporated Areas...

  8. 77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... FEMA-2012-0003: Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1251] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY... flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or...

  9. Influence of rain gauge network density on flood model prediction: a statistical investigation using synthetic rainfall fields on basins of different size and a comparison with a real case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoni, Alessandro; Deidda, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    The accuracy of simulation of the catchment hydrologic response is strongly affected by the reliable representation of the spatial rainfall pattern. The present work investigates the role of rainfall sampling and network density on the performance of a lumped and a distributed rainfall-runoff model in predicting extreme floods. The analysis is conducted on a suite of 12 basins of different size ranging from 15 to 1793 km2 , located in Sardinia, Italy. In order to create a reference framework uncorrupted by errors of measure and of modelling, we assume as reference precipitation an high resolution rainfall field (1.5 km x 1.5 km x 5 min, 80 years long) derived through a downscaling procedure, and as reference discharge the corresponding hydrograph obtained by the two rainfall-runoff models. In order to investigate the sensitivity of the hydrological response to the rain gauge network density we assume that a rainfall series from a single cell (1.5 km x 1.5 km) is equivalent to a potential fictitious rain gauge record and consequently we activate a number of potential gauges ranging from 1 up to 30 (for each considered basin). Then for each fixed network size, we randomly select 100 independent spatial combinations of rain gauge positions providing the rainfall pattern scenarios which are used as input of the two rainfall-runoff models to produce an ensemble of 100 corresponding discharge scenarios. Performances are evaluated by comparing the discharge scenarios (obtained by a limited number of potential rain gauges) with the reference discharge (obtained by the entire high resolution rainfall fields) and applying different metrics. A critical analysis of the advantage of using distributed vs lumped modelling is performed considering: model performance variability related to the number of rain gauges; model performance dependence on event magnitude; minimum number of rain gauges for a satisfying model performance and its relationship with event magnitude; dependence

  10. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  11. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  12. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  13. Characterization of flooding and two-phase flow in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, G.; Jafarpour, F.; Li, X.

    A partially flooded gas diffusion layer (GDL) model is proposed and solved simultaneously with a stack flow network model to estimate the operating conditions under which water flooding could be initiated in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack. The models were applied to the cathode side of a stack, which is more sensitive to the inception of GDL flooding and/or flow channel two-phase flow. The model can predict the stack performance in terms of pressure, species concentrations, GDL flooding and quality distributions in the flow fields as well as the geometrical specifications of the PEM fuel cell stack. The simulation results have revealed that under certain operating conditions, the GDL is fully flooded and the quality is lower than one for parts of the stack flow fields. Effects of current density, operating pressure, and level of inlet humidity on flooding are investigated.

  14. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun

    2014-04-03

    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  15. Flood Risk Due to Hurricane Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivera, Francisco; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Irish, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the expected economic losses caused by hurricane inundation. We used surge response functions, which are physics-based dimensionless scaling laws that give surge elevation as a function of the hurricane's parameters (i.e., central pressure, radius, forward speed, approach angle and landfall location) at specified locations along the coast. These locations were close enough to avoid significant changes in surge elevations between consecutive points, and distant enough to minimize calculations. The probability of occurrence of a surge elevation value at a given location was estimated using a joint probability distribution of the hurricane parameters. The surge elevation, at the shoreline, was assumed to project horizontally inland within a polygon of influence. Individual parcel damage was calculated based on flood water depth and damage vs. depth curves available for different building types from the HAZUS computer application developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Parcel data, including property value and building type, were obtained from the county appraisal district offices. The expected economic losses were calculated as the sum of the products of the estimated parcel damages and their probability of occurrence for the different storms considered. Anticipated changes for future climate scenarios were considered by accounting for projected hurricane intensification, as indicated by sea surface temperature rise, and sea level rise, which modify the probability distribution of hurricane central pressure and change the baseline of the damage calculation, respectively. Maps of expected economic losses have been developed for Corpus Christi in Texas, Gulfport in Mississippi and Panama City in Florida. Specifically, for Port Aransas, in the Corpus Christi area, it was found that the expected economic losses were in the range of 1% to 4% of the property value for current climate conditions, of 1% to 8% for the 2030's and

  16. The flood of 2011 in the lower Chao Phraya valley, Thailand: Study of a long-duration flood through satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Soo Chin; Gupta, Avijit; Chia, Aik Song; Ang, Wu Chye

    2016-06-01

    The paper illustrates application of satellite images for studying the anatomy of a long-duration, extensive, and slow flood on the Chao Phraya River in 2011 that inundated Bangkok in its lower reach. The spread of floods in the valley was mapped with MODIS, month by month, from July 2011 to February 2012. A subsampled WorldView-2 mosaic was used to observe part of the valley in detail. The flood in Bangkok was studied with four higher-resolution images from Spot 4, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1 satellites. We suspect that the floodwaters jumped the banks of the Chao Phraya south of Chai Nat, and then travelled overland and along river channels. The overland passage made it difficult to protect settlements. We also studied sedimentation from the images of this shallow overland flow across the country, which was complicated by the presence of preexisting embankments, other anthropogenic structures, and smaller stream channels. This is a descriptive study but it highlights the nature of flooding that is likely to be repeated in this low flat valley from high rainfall. The pattern of flooding was similar to that of a previous large flood in 1996 recorded in a SPOT 2 image. These floods impact Bangkok periodically, a city of about 10 million people, which started on a levee in a low flat delta, then expanded into backswamps, and is marked with local depressions from groundwater extraction. These slow extensive floods can be mapped from satellite images and properly recorded as an early step in analysis of large floods. Mapping of such floods on ground is logistically impossible. Slow, extensive, and long-lasting floods affect lower valleys and deltas of a number of major rivers, impacting agricultural fields and large populations. These floods are especially disastrous for cities located on low deltas. We submit that basic exercises on satellite images provide valuable introductory information for understanding geomorphology of such floods, and also for structuring plans

  17. Temporal clustering of floods in Germany: Do flood-rich and flood-poor periods exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, Bruno; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Vorogushyn, Sergiy

    2016-10-01

    The repeated occurrence of exceptional floods within a few years, such as the Rhine floods in 1993 and 1995 and the Elbe and Danube floods in 2002 and 2013, suggests that floods in Central Europe may be organized in flood-rich and flood-poor periods. This hypothesis is studied by testing the significance of temporal clustering in flood occurrence (peak-over-threshold) time series for 68 catchments across Germany for the period 1932-2005. To assess the robustness of the results, different methods are used: Firstly, the index of dispersion, which quantifies the departure from a homogeneous Poisson process, is investigated. Further, the time-variation of the flood occurrence rate is derived by non-parametric kernel implementation and the significance of clustering is evaluated via parametric and non-parametric tests. Although the methods give consistent overall results, the specific results differ considerably. Hence, we recommend applying different methods when investigating flood clustering. For flood estimation and risk management, it is of relevance to understand whether clustering changes with flood severity and time scale. To this end, clustering is assessed for different thresholds and time scales. It is found that the majority of catchments show temporal clustering at the 5% significance level for low thresholds and time scales of one to a few years. However, clustering decreases substantially with increasing threshold and time scale. We hypothesize that flood clustering in Germany is mainly caused by catchment memory effects along with intra- to inter-annual climate variability, and that decadal climate variability plays a minor role.

  18. Flood control problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Maddock, Thomas

    1955-01-01

    Throughout the world, alluvial soils are among the most fertile and easiest cultivated. Alluvial valleys are routes for transportation either by water or by road and railroad. Rivers are sources of water, a necessity of life. But these river valleys and alluvial deposits, which have so many desirable characteristics and which have increased so greatly in population, are periodically occupied by the river in performing its task of removing the excess of precipitation from the land area and carrying away the products of erosion.How a river behaves and how the river flood plain appears depend on the relationships between water and sediment combined with the existing topography. Thus rivers and their alluvial deposits provide an endless variety of forms which are shaped, to a large extent, by the river flow during periods of rapid removal of debris and of excessive rainfall. The mechanics of river formation are such, however, that the highest discharges are not contained within a limited channel. How much water a channel will carry depends upon the frequency of occurrence of a flow. Low flows, which occur very frequently, are not important in channel formation. Neither are the infrequent discharges of very great magnitude which, although powerful, do not occur often enough to shape the channel. Channel characteristics, are dependent on those discharges of moderate size which combine power with frequency of occurrence to modify the channel from. In the highest discharges of a stream, water rises above the confines of its banks and flows over the flood plain.It must be considered, therefore, that floods are natural phenomena which are characteristic of all rivers. They perform a vital function in the maintenance of river forms and out of bank flow may be expected with a reasonable degree of regularity.

  19. 78 FR 48703 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous table. This notice.... The table provided here represents the proposed flood hazard determinations and communities...

  20. 78 FR 8175 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area.... City of Ludlow City Office, 51 Elm Street, Ludlow, KY 41016. City of Park Hills 1106 Amsterdam...

  1. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Tharsis Flood Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows channels carved by catastrophic floods in the Tharsis region of Mars. This area is located northwest of the volcano, Jovis Tholus, and east of the large martian volcano, Olympus Mons. The terrain is presently mantled with fine dust.

    Location near: 20.8oN, 118.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  3. Floods in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  4. Storage and flood routing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

    1960-01-01

    The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

  5. LiDAR and IFSAR-Based Flood Inundation Model Estimates for Flood-Prone Areas of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. C.; Goldade, M. M.; Kastens, J.; Dobbs, K. E.; Macpherson, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme flood events are not unusual in semi-arid to hyper-arid regions of the world, and Afghanistan is no exception. Recent flashfloods and flashflood-induced landslides took nearly 100 lives and destroyed or damaged nearly 2000 homes in 12 villages within Guzargah-e-Nur district of Baghlan province in northeastern Afghanistan. With available satellite imagery, flood-water inundation estimation can be accomplished remotely, thereby providing a means to reduce the impact of such flood events by improving shared situational awareness during major flood events. Satellite orbital considerations, weather, cost, data licensing restrictions, and other issues can often complicate the acquisition of appropriately timed imagery. Given the need for tools to supplement imagery where not available, complement imagery when it is available, and bridge the gap between imagery based flood mapping and traditional hydrodynamic modeling approaches, we have developed a topographic floodplain model (FLDPLN), which has been used to identify and map river valley floodplains with elevation data ranging from 90-m SRTM to 1-m LiDAR. Floodplain "depth to flood" (DTF) databases generated by FLDPLN are completely seamless and modular. FLDPLN has been applied in Afghanistan to flood-prone areas along the northern and southern flanks of the Hindu Kush mountain range to generate a continuum of 1-m increment flood-event models up to 10 m in depth. Elevation data used in this application of FLDPLN included high-resolution, drone-acquired LiDAR (~1 m) and IFSAR (5 m; INTERMAP). Validation of the model has been accomplished using the best available satellite-derived flood inundation maps, such as those issued by Unitar's Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT). Results provide a quantitative approach to evaluating the potential risk to urban/village infrastructure as well as to irrigation systems, agricultural fields and archaeological sites.

  6. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  7. Flood Risk, Flood Mitigation, and Location Choice: Evaluating the National Flood Insurance Program's Community Rating System.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qin; Davlasheridze, Meri

    2016-06-01

    Climate change is expected to worsen the negative effects of natural disasters like floods. The negative impacts, however, can be mitigated by individuals' adjustments through migration and relocation behaviors. Previous literature has identified flood risk as one significant driver in relocation decisions, but no prior study examines the effect of the National Flood Insurance Program's voluntary program-the Community Rating System (CRS)-on residential location choice. This article fills this gap and tests the hypothesis that flood risk and the CRS-creditable flood control activities affect residential location choices. We employ a two-stage sorting model to empirically estimate the effects. In the first stage, individuals' risk perception and preference heterogeneity for the CRS activities are considered, while mean effects of flood risk and the CRS activities are estimated in the second stage. We then estimate heterogeneous marginal willingness to pay (WTP) for the CRS activities by category. Results show that age, ethnicity and race, educational attainment, and prior exposure to risk explain risk perception. We find significant values for the CRS-creditable mitigation activities, which provides empirical evidence for the benefits associated with the program. The marginal WTP for an additional credit point earned for public information activities, including hazard disclosure, is found to be the highest. Results also suggest that water amenities dominate flood risk. Thus, high amenity values may increase exposure to flood risk, and flood mitigation projects should be strategized in coastal regions accordingly.

  8. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  9. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    DOEpatents

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  10. Toxicity of alkalinity to Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Reinert, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity testing and chemical analyses of sediment pore water have been suggested for use in sediment quality assessments and sediment toxicity identification evaluations. However, caution should be exercised in interpreting pore-water chemistry and toxicity due to inherent chemical characteristics and confounding relationships. High concentrations of alkalinity, which are typical of sediment pore waters from many regions, have been shown to be toxic to test animals. A series of tests were conducted to assess the significance of elevated alkalinity concentrations to Hyalella azteca, an amphipod commonly used for sediment and pore-water toxicity testing. Toxicity tests with 14-d old and 7-d old animals were conducted in serial dilutions of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions producing alkalinities ranging between 250 to 2000 mg/L as CaCO3. A sodium chloride (NaCl) toxicity test was also conducted to verify that toxicity was due to bicarbonate and not sodium. Alkalinity was toxic at concentrations frequently encountered in sediment pore water. There was also a significant difference in the toxicity of alkalinity between 14-d old and 7-d old animals. The average 96-h LC50 for alkalinity was 1212 mg/L (as CaCO3) for 14-d old animals and 662 mg/L for the younger animals. Sodium was not toxic at levels present in the NaHCO3 toxicity tests. Alkalinity should be routinely measured in pore-water toxicity tests, and interpretation of toxicity should consider alkalinity concentration and test-organism tolerance.

  11. Floods in the Raccoon River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains requires information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitude and frequency, bench mark data, and flood profiles for the Raccoon River and some of its tributaries. Ir covers the Raccoon River, the North Raccoon River to the northern boundary of Sac County and the lower reaches of the Middle and South Raccoon Rivers.

  12. Quantifying Floods of a Flood Regime in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, A. A.; Fleenor, W. E.; Viers, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Interaction between a flood hydrograph and floodplain topography results in spatially and temporally variable conditions important for ecosystem process and function. Individual floods whose frequency and dimensionality comprise a river's flood regime contribute to that variability and in aggregate are important drivers of floodplain ecosystems. Across the globe, water management actions, land use changes as well as hydroclimatic change associated with climate change have profoundly affected natural flood regimes and their expression within the floodplain landscape. Homogenization of riverscapes has degraded once highly diverse and productive ecosystems. Improved understanding of the range of flood conditions and spatial variability within floodplains, or hydrospatial conditions, is needed to improve water and land management and restoration activities to support the variable conditions under which species adapted. This research quantifies the flood regime of a floodplain site undergoing restoration through levee breaching along the lower Cosumnes River of California. One of the few lowland alluvial rivers of California with an unregulated hydrograph and regular floodplain connectivity, the Cosumnes River provides a useful test-bed for exploring river-floodplain interaction. Representative floods of the Cosumnes River are selected from previously-established flood types comprising the flood regime and applied within a 2D hydrodynamic model representing the floodplain restoration site. Model output is analyzed and synthesized to quantify and compare conditions in space and time, using metrics such as depth and velocity. This research establishes methods for quantifying a flood regime's floodplain inundation characteristics, illustrates the role of flow variability and landscape complexity in producing heterogeneous floodplain conditions, and suggests important implications for managing more ecologically functional floodplains.

  13. Predicting Flood Hazards in Systems with Multiple Flooding Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, A.; Schubert, J.; Cheng, L.; AghaKouchak, A.; Sanders, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from a single mechanism (riverine flooding) is a relatively well defined procedure with specific guidance from agencies such as FEMA and USACE. However, there is little guidance in delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from multiple mechanisms such as storm surge, waves, tidal influence, and riverine flooding. In this study, a new flood mapping method which accounts for multiple extremes occurring simultaneously is developed and exemplified. The study site in which the method is employed is the Tijuana River Estuary (TRE) located in Southern California adjacent to the U.S./Mexico border. TRE is an intertidal coastal estuary that receives freshwater flows from the Tijuana River. Extreme discharge from the Tijuana River is the primary driver of flooding within TRE, however tide level and storm surge also play a significant role in flooding extent and depth. A comparison between measured flows at the Tijuana River and ocean levels revealed a correlation between extreme discharge and ocean height. Using a novel statistical method based upon extreme value theory, ocean heights were predicted conditioned up extreme discharge occurring within the Tijuana River. This statistical technique could also be applied to other systems in which different factors are identified as the primary drivers of flooding, such as significant wave height conditioned upon tide level, for example. Using the predicted ocean levels conditioned upon varying return levels of discharge as forcing parameters for the 2D hydraulic model BreZo, the 100, 50, 20, and 10 year floodplains were delineated. The results will then be compared to floodplains delineated using the standard methods recommended by FEMA for riverine zones with a downstream ocean boundary.

  14. A new concept to study the effect of climate change on different flood types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Katrin; Nied, Manuela; Pardowitz, Tobias; Ulbrich, Uwe; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Flooding is triggered by the interaction of various processes. Especially important are the hydrological conditions prior to the event (e.g. soil saturation, snow cover) and the meteorological conditions during flood development (e.g. rainfall, temperature). Depending on these (pre-) conditions different flood types may develop such as long-rain floods, short-rain floods, flash floods, snowmelt floods and rain-on-snow floods. A new concept taking these factors into account is introduced and applied to flooding in the Elbe River basin. During the period September 1957 to August 2002, 82 flood events are identified and classified according to their flood type. The hydrological and meteorological conditions at each day during the analysis period are detemined. In case of the hydrological conditions, a soil moisture pattern classification is carried out. Soil moisture is simulated with a rainfall-runoff model driven by atmospheric observations. Days of similar soil moisture patterns are identified by a principle component analysis and a subsequent cluster analysis on the leading principal components. The meteorological conditions are identified by applying a cluster analysis to the geopotential height, temperature and humidity fields of the ERA40 reanalysis data set using the SANDRA cluster algorithm. We are able to identify specific pattern combinations of hydrological pre-conditions and meteorological conditions which favour different flood types. Based on these results it is possible to analyse the effect of climate change on different flood types. As an example we show first results obtained using an ensemble of climate scenario simulations of ECHAM5 MPIOM model, taking only the changes in the meteorological conditions into account. According to the simulations, the frequency of the meteorological patterns favouring long-rain, short-rain and flash floods will not change significantly under future climate conditions. A significant increase is, however, predicted for

  15. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study

    PubMed Central

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of “deceleration aging factor” as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models. PMID:27340414

  16. Detergent alkaline proteases: enzymatic properties, genes, and crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Katsuhisa; Ozaki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Tohru; Ito, Susumu

    2007-06-01

    Subtilisin-like serine proteases from bacilli have been used in various industrial fields worldwide, particularly in the production of laundry and automatic dishwashing detergents. They belong to family A of the subtilase superfamily, which is composed of three clans, namely, true subtilisins, high-alkaline proteases, and intracellular proteases. We succeeded in the large-scale production of a high-alkaline protease (M-protease) from alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii KSM-K16, and the enzyme has been introduced into compact heavy-duty laundry detergents. We have also succeeded in the industrial-scale production of a new alkaline protease, KP-43, which was originally resistant to chemical oxidants and to surfactants, produced by alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-KP43 and have incorporated it into laundry detergents. KP-43 and related proteases form a new clan, oxidatively stable proteases, in subtilase family A. In this review, we describe the enzymatic properties, gene sequences, and crystal structures of M-protease, KP-43, and related enzymes.

  17. Silicon improves maize photosynthesis in saline-alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiming; Song, Ri; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to determine the effects of Si application on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on saline-alkaline soil, including photosynthetic rate (P n ), stomatal conductance (g s ), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (C i ) of maize in the field with five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225 kg · ha(-1)) of Si supplying. Experimental results showed that the values of P n, g s, and C i of maize were significantly enhanced while the values of E of maize were dramatically decreased by certain doses of silicon fertilizers, which meant that Si application with proper doses significantly increased photosynthetic efficiency of maize in different growth stages under stressing environment of saline-alkaline soil. The optimal dose of Si application in this experiment was 150 kg · ha(-1) Si. It indicated that increase in maize photosynthesis under saline-alkaline stress took place by Si application with proper doses, which is helpful to improve growth and yield of maize.

  18. Silicon Improves Maize Photosynthesis in Saline-Alkaline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiming; Song, Ri; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to determine the effects of Si application on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on saline-alkaline soil, including photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of maize in the field with five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225 kg·ha−1) of Si supplying. Experimental results showed that the values of Pn, gs, and Ci of maize were significantly enhanced while the values of E of maize were dramatically decreased by certain doses of silicon fertilizers, which meant that Si application with proper doses significantly increased photosynthetic efficiency of maize in different growth stages under stressing environment of saline-alkaline soil. The optimal dose of Si application in this experiment was 150 kg·ha−1 Si. It indicated that increase in maize photosynthesis under saline-alkaline stress took place by Si application with proper doses, which is helpful to improve growth and yield of maize. PMID:25629083

  19. Carnivorous arthropods after spring flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring flooding is a common practice in Wisconsin cranberries, but flooding as insect control produces variable results among marshes. This project is aimed at figuring out why it works, and why it sometimes doesn’t. We have focused on tracking arthropod populations to explain the observed patterns ...

  20. Geomorphological factors of flash floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    Growing anthropogenic load, rise of extreme meteorological events frequency and total precipitation depth often lead to increasing danger of catastrophic fluvial processes worldwide. Flash floods are one of the most dangerous and less understood types of them. Difficulties of their study are mainly related to short duration of single events, remoteness and hard access to origin areas. Most detailed researches of flash floods focus on hydrological parameters of the flow itself and its meteorological factors. At the same time, importance of the basin geological and geomorphological structure for flash floods generation and the role they play in global sediment redistribution is yet poorly understood. However, understanding and quantitative assessment of these features is a real basis for a complete concept of factors, characteristics and dynamics of flash floods. This work is a review of published data on flash floods, and focuses on the geomorphological factors of the phenomenon. We consider both individual roles and interactions between different geomorphological features (the whole basin parameters, characteristics of the single slopes and valley bottom). Special attention is paid to critical values of certain factors. This approach also highlights the gaps or less studied factors of flash floods. Finally, all data is organized into a complex diagram that may be used for flash floods modeling. This also may help to reach a new level of flash flood predictions and risk assessment.

  1. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  2. The Origin of Life in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    PubMed

    Sojo, Victor; Herschy, Barry; Whicher, Alexandra; Camprubí, Eloi; Lane, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 70 years, prebiotic chemists have been very successful in synthesizing the molecules of life, from amino acids to nucleotides. Yet there is strikingly little resemblance between much of this chemistry and the metabolic pathways of cells, in terms of substrates, catalysts, and synthetic pathways. In contrast, alkaline hydrothermal vents offer conditions similar to those harnessed by modern autotrophs, but there has been limited experimental evidence that such conditions could drive prebiotic chemistry. In the Hadean, in the absence of oxygen, alkaline vents are proposed to have acted as electrochemical flow reactors, in which alkaline fluids saturated in H2 mixed with relatively acidic ocean waters rich in CO2, through a labyrinth of interconnected micropores with thin inorganic walls containing catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. The difference in pH across these thin barriers produced natural proton gradients with equivalent magnitude and polarity to the proton-motive force required for carbon fixation in extant bacteria and archaea. How such gradients could have powered carbon reduction or energy flux before the advent of organic protocells with genes and proteins is unknown. Work over the last decade suggests several possible hypotheses that are currently being tested in laboratory experiments, field observations, and phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral metabolism. We analyze the perplexing differences in carbon and energy metabolism in methanogenic archaea and acetogenic bacteria to propose a possible ancestral mechanism of CO2 reduction in alkaline hydrothermal vents. Based on this mechanism, we show that the evolution of active ion pumping could have driven the deep divergence of bacteria and archaea.

  3. [Alkaline phosphatase in Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2005-01-01

    In free-living Amoeba proteus (strain B), 3 phosphatase were found after disc-electrophoresis of 10 microg of protein in PAGE and using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate a pH 9.0. These phosphatases differed in their electrophoretic mobilities - "slow" (1-3 bands), "middle" (one band) and "fast" (one band). In addition to 1-naphthyl phosphate, "slow" phosphatases were able to hydrolyse 2-naphthyl phosphate and p-nitrophenyl phosphate. They were slightly activated by Mg2+, completely inhibited by 3 chelators (EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline), L-cysteine, sodium dodecyl sulfate and Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ (50 mM), considerably inactivated by orthovanadate, molybdate, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 1, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, Na2HPO4, DL-dithiothreitol and urea and partly inhibited by H2O2, DL-phenylalanine, 2-mercaptoethanol, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 2 and Ca2+. Imidazole, L-(+)-tartrate, okadaic acid, NaF and sulfhydryl reagents -p-(hydroxy-mercuri)benzoate and N-ethylmaleimide - had no influence on the activity of "slow" phosphatases. "Middle" and "fast" phosphatases, in contrast to "slow" ones, were not inactivated by 3 chelators. The "middle" phosphatase differed from the "fast" one by smaller resistance to urea, Ca2+, Mn2+, phosphates and H2O2 and greater resistance to dithiothreitol and L-(+)-tartrate. In addition, the "fast" phosphatase was inhibited by L-cysteine but the "middle" one was activated by it. Of 5 tested ions (Mg2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+), only Zn2+ reactivated "slow" phosphatases after their inactivation by EDTA treatment. The reactivation of apoenzyme was only partial (about 35 %). Thus, among phosphatases found in amoebae at pH 9.0, only "slow" ones are Zn-metalloenzymes and may be considered as alkaline phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.1). It still remains uncertain, to which particular phosphatase class "middle" and "fast" phosphatases (pH 9.0) may belong.

  4. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  5. Loudon surfactant flood pilot--overview and update

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, J.R.; Canning, J.W.; Gale, W.W.

    1983-03-01

    A successful surfactant (microemulsion) flood pilot test in a watered-out portion of the Weiler sand, Loudon Field, Illinois (USA) was completed in October, 1981. The microemulsion system tested was designed to be effective in the presence of highsalinity formation water containing 104,000 ppm (mg/1) total dissolved solids (TDS) without use of a preflush. The test was conducted in a single, 0.68acre (2752 m/sup 2/) 5-spot operated in a manner that approximated a confined pattern. The test was highly successful, recovering 60% of the oil remaining after waterflood. Cores from a post-flood well drilled within the pattern have confirmed the low final oil saturations and low surfactant retention achieved in the flood. Although oil recovery was excellent, loss of mobility control in the polymer drive bank and premature breakthrough of lower-salinity drive water were observed part-way through the test. Laboratory and field studies conducted since flood termination have confirmed that loss was caused by bacterial degradation of the xanthan biopolymer used. Several biocides were tested in the laboratory and in a field injection experiment to determine their effectiveness against the bacteria contaminating the pilot. Formaldehyde was shown to kill bacteria within the formation, have negligible absorption on reservoir rock, and permit propagation of undegraded polymer. Based on these test results, formaldehyde should protect xanthan biopolymer from bacterial degradation in future microemulsion floods at Loudon.

  6. Texas floods of 1940

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breeding, Seth D.

    1948-01-01

    Floods occurred in Texas during, June, July, and November 1940 that exceeded known stages on many small streams and at a few places on the larger streams. Stages at several stream-gaging stations exceeded the maximum known at those places since the collection of daily records began. A storm, haying its axis generally on a north-south line from Cameron to Victoria and extending across the Brazos, Colorado, Lavaca, and Guadalupe River Basins, caused heavy rainfall over a large part of south-central Texas. The maximum recorded rain of 22.7 inches for the 2-day period June 29-30 occurred at Engle. Of this amount, 17.5 inches fell in the 12-hour period between 8 p.m. June 29, and 8 a.m. June 30. Light rains fell at a number of places on June 28, and additional light rains fell at many places within the area from July 1 to 4. During the period June 28 to July 4 more than 20 inches of rain fell over an area of 300 square miles, more than 15 inches over 1,920 square miles, and more than 10 inches over 5,100 square miles. The average annual rainfall for the area experiencing the heaviest rainfall during this storm is about 35 inches. Farming is largely confined to the fertile flood plains in much of the area subjected to the record-breaking floods in June and July. Therefore these floods, coming at the height of the growing season, caused severe losses to crops. Much damage was done also to highways and railways. The city of Hallettsville suffered the greatest damage of any urban area. The Lavaca River at that place reached a stage 8 feet higher than ever known before, drowned several people, destroyed many homes, and submerged almost the entire business district. The maximum discharge there was 93,100 second-feet from a drainage area of 101 square miles. Dry Creek near Smithville produced a maximum discharge of 1,879 second-feet from an area of 1.48 square miles and a runoff of 11.3 inches in a 2-day period from a rainfall of 19.5 inches. The area in the Colorado River

  7. ANALYSIS ON RECENT FLOOD EVENTS AND TREE VEGETATION COLLAPSES IN KAKO RIVER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michioku, Kohji; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Kanda, Keiichi; Ohchi, Yohei; Aga, Kazuho; Morioka, Jyunji; Uotani, Takuya; Yoshida, Kazuaki; Yoshimura, Satoshi

    Forestation on flood plains is a world-wide engineering issue in middle to downstream reaches in many rivers. This brings not only degradation of flow conveyance capacity but also irreversible changes of ecological system in rivers. In order to obtain information on tree vegetation behavior during flood events, field data of flow fields and tree vegetation collapse were collected in Kako River, where willows are heavily vegetated on the flood plain. After starting a H-ADCP flow measurement in 2009, small to medium size flood events frequently occurred, which enables us not only to verify an analytical model to reproduce flow fields in and out of vegetations but also to examine tree vegetation collapses after flooding. The analytical solutions on velocity profiles as well as flow force acting on trees were in good agreement with the H-ADCP measurements and tree damages, respectively.

  8. Flood warnings, flood disaster assessments, and flood hazard reduction: the roles of orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Anderson, E.; Nghiem, S. V.; Caquard, S.; Shabaneh, T. B.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital remote sensing of the Earth is now poised to make three fundamental contributions towards reducing the detrimental effects of extreme floods. Effective Flood warning requires frequent radar observation of the Earth's surface through cloud cover. In contrast, both optical and radar wavelengths will increasingly be used for disaster assessment and hazard reduction.

  9. Flash Flooding and 'Muddy Floods' on Arable Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardman, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flash flooding is often associated with upland, grazed catchments. It does, however, occur in lowland arable-dominated areas. In southern England, notable examples have occurred at Rottingdean (Brighton) in 1987, at Faringdon (Oxfordshire) in 1993 and at Breaky Bottom vineyard (near Brighton) in 1987 and 2000. All resulted in damage to nearby property. Runoff was largely from recently cultivated ground. The characteristics of such floods are: Rapid runoff from bare soil surfaces. Saturated excess overland flow is likely in the early parts of storms but high intensity rainfall on loamy soils results in crusting and Hortonian overland flow; High rates of erosion; Sediment transport to downvalley sites causing property damage ('muddy flooding'). Muddy floods are known from several areas of Europe e.g. Belgium, northern France, South Limburg (Netherlands) and Slovakia (Boardman et al 2006). In other areas they occur but have gone unreported or are classified under different terms. The necessary conditions for occurrence are areas of arable land which is bare at times of the year when there is a risk of storms. For muddy floods to cause damage (and hence be reported), vulnerable property must lie downstream from such areas of arable land. In some areas the incidence of muddy floods relates to autumn and early winter rainfall and winter cereal crops (e.g. southern England). In continental Europe, flooding is more common in summer and is associated with convectional storms and land uses including sugar beet, maize and potatoes. Predictions of increased numbers of high-intensity storms with future climate change, suggest that arable areas will continue to generate both flash floods and muddy floods.

  10. Analyses of flooding tolerance of soybean varieties at emergence and varietal differences in their proteomes.

    PubMed

    Nanjo, Yohei; Jang, Hee-Young; Kim, Hong-Sig; Hiraga, Susumu; Woo, Sun-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-10-01

    Flooding of fields due to heavy and/or continuous rainfall influences soybean production. To identify soybean varieties with flooding tolerance at the seedling emergence stage, 128 soybean varieties were evaluated using a flooding tolerance index, which is based on plant survival rates, the lack of apparent damage and lateral root development, and post-flooding radicle elongation rate. The soybean varieties were ranked according to their flooding tolerance index, and it was found that the tolerance levels of soybean varieties exhibit a continuum of differences between varieties. Subsequently, tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive varieties were selected and subjected to comparative proteomic analysis to clarify the tolerance mechanism. Proteomic analysis of the radicles, combined with correlation analysis, showed that the ratios of RNA binding/processing related proteins and flooding stress indicator proteins were significantly correlated with flooding tolerance index. The RNA binding/processing related proteins were positively correlated in untreated soybeans, whereas flooding stress indicator proteins were negatively correlated in flooded soybeans. These results suggest that flooding tolerance is regulated by mechanisms through multiple factors and is associated with abundance levels of the identified proteins.

  11. Using practical and social information to influence flood adaptation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaire, Maura C.

    2016-08-01

    As the prospect for more frequent and severe extreme weather events gains scientific support, many nations are evaluating mitigation and adaptation options. Insurance and home retrofits could reduce household welfare losses due to flood events. Yet even after disasters, households often fail to take risk mitigation actions. This paper presents the first randomized field experiment that tests the effect of information provision on household uptake of flood insurance and home retrofits. A sample of 364 flood-prone households in Bangkok was randomly split into treatment and control groups. The treatment group received practical details on home retrofits and flood insurance as well as social information regarding the insurance purchase decisions of peers. Results indicate that the information intervention increased insurance purchases by about five percentage points, while no effect was detected for home retrofits. This effect is nearly equal to the increase in uptake that the national insurance program in Thailand has achieved through all other means since its establishment in 2012. If scaled up to include all uninsured, flood-prone households in Bangkok, nearly 70,000 additional households could be insured. The results suggest that well-designed information interventions could increase uptake of flood insurance, without additional premium subsidies or mandates.

  12. A GIS-based method for flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeropoulos, Kleomenis; Stathopoulos, Nikos; Psarogiannis, Athanasios; Penteris, Dimitris; Tsiakos, Chrisovalantis; Karagiannopoulou, Aikaterini; Krikigianni, Eleni; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Chalkias, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Floods are physical global hazards with negative environmental and socio-economic impacts on local and regional scale. The technological evolution during the last decades, especially in the field of geoinformatics, has offered new advantages in hydrological modelling. This study seeks to use this technology in order to quantify flood risk assessment. The study area which was used is an ungauged catchment and by using mostly GIS hydrological and geomorphological analysis together with a GIS-based distributed Unit Hydrograph model, a series of outcomes have risen. More specifically, this paper examined the behaviour of the Kladeos basin (Peloponnese, Greece) using real rainfall data, as well hypothetical storms. The hydrological analysis held using a Digital Elevation Model of 5x5m pixel size, while the quantitative drainage basin characteristics were calculated and were studied in terms of stream order and its contribution to the flood. Unit Hydrographs are, as it known, useful when there is lack of data and in this work, based on time-area method, a sequences of flood risk assessments have been made using the GIS technology. Essentially, the proposed methodology estimates parameters such as discharge, flow velocity equations etc. in order to quantify flood risk assessment. Keywords Flood Risk Assessment Quantification; GIS; hydrological analysis; geomorphological analysis.

  13. Alterations in Soluble Class III Peroxidases of Maize Shoots by Flooding Stress

    PubMed Central

    Meisrimler, Claudia-Nicole; Buck, Friedrich; Lüthje, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Due to changing climate, flooding (waterlogged soils and submergence) becomes a major problem in agriculture and crop production. In the present study, the effect of waterlogging was investigated on peroxidases of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves. The plants showed typical adaptations to flooding stress, i.e., alterations in chlorophyll a/b ratios and increased basal shoot diameter. Seven peroxidase bands could be detected by first dimension modified SDS-PAGE and 10 bands by first dimension high resolution Clear Native Electrophoresis that altered in dependence on plant development and time of waterlogging. Native isoelectric focusing revealed three acidic to neutral and four alkaline guaiacol peroxidases that could be further separated by high resolution Clear Native Electrophorese in the second dimension. One neutral peroxidase (pI 7.0) appeared to be down-regulated within four hours after flooding, whereas alkaline peroxidases (pI 9.2, 8.0 and 7.8) were up-regulated after 28 or 52 h. Second dimensions revealed molecular masses of 133 kDa and 85 kDa for peroxidases at pI 8.0 and 7.8, respectively. Size exclusion chromatography revealed native molecular masses of 30–58 kDa for peroxidases identified as class III peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidases by mass spectrometry. Possible functions of these peroxidases in flooding stress will be discussed. PMID:28250383

  14. Somerset County Flood Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the floods of August 2, 1973, September 16 and 17, 1999, and April 16, 2007, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how costly, especially in terms of human life, an unexpected flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin. Since the mid 1960's, the National Weather Service (NWS) has been able to forecast flooding on larger streams in Somerset County, such as the Raritan and Millstone Rivers. Flooding on smaller streams in urban areas was more difficult to predict. In response to this problem the NWS, in cooperation with the Green Brook Flood Control Commission, installed a precipitation gage in North Plainfield, and two flash-flood alarms, one on Green Brook at Seeley Mills and one on Stony Brook at Watchung, in the early 1970's. In 1978, New Jersey's first countywide flood-warning system was installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Somerset County. This system consisted of a network of eight stage and discharge gages equipped with precipitation gages linked by telephone telemetry and eight auxiliary precipitation gages. The gages were installed throughout the county to collect precipitation and runoff data that could be used to improve flood-monitoring capabilities and flood-frequency estimates. Recognizing the need for more detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the USGS, in cooperation with Somerset County, designed and installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. This system is part of a statewide network of stream gages, precipitation gages, weather stations, and tide gages that collect data in real time. The data provided by the SCFIS improve the flood forecasting ability of the NWS and aid Somerset County and municipal agencies in

  15. Hydroclimatology of flash flooding in Atlanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Daniel B.; Smith, James A.; Villarini, Gabriele; Baeck, Mary Lynn

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the climatology of extreme rainfall and flash flooding in Atlanta, Georgia using high-resolution land surface, rainfall, and discharge datasets. We examine nine urban watersheds in the Atlanta area that range in size from 3.7 to 225 km2 and exhibit a range of urban development and land-use characteristics. We develop a high-resolution 15 min, 1 km2 radar rainfall data set for the 2002-2010 period using the Hydro-NEXRAD system with volume scan reflectivity observations from the Atlanta WSR-88D radar and rainfall observations from a dense network of 72 U.S. Geological Survey rain gauges. Bias-corrected radar rainfall fields accurately capture the spatial and temporal structure of heavy rainfall. There is enhancement of heavy rainfall within and east of the urban core, and a rainfall minimum north and northwest of the city. There has been an increase in variability of annual flood peaks in Atlanta since the 1960s associated with urban impacts on runoff production. Flood response is dependent on a combination of basin size, drainage network structure, spatial distribution of land use, and basin storage in urban soils and storm water detention ponds. Future studies of urban rainfall modification in Atlanta and elsewhere should consider the influence of regional topography and other geographic features on the storm environment.

  16. A description of alkaline phosphatases from marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jiyuan; Jia, Hongbing; Yu, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatases (APs) are non-specific phosphohydrolases, and they are widely used in clinical diagnostics and biological studies. APs are widespread in nature and exhibit different structural formulations. Based on the diversity of biogenetic sources, APs exhibit temperature-propensity traits, and they are classified as psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic. In this article, the characteristics of psychrophilic APs from marine organisms were described, accompanied by a simple description of APs from other organisms. This review will facilitate better utilization of marine APs in the biotechnology field.

  17. Estimating flood discharge using witness movies in post-flood hydrological surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Coz, Jérôme; Hauet, Alexandre; Le Boursicaud, Raphaël; Pénard, Lionel; Bonnifait, Laurent; Dramais, Guillaume; Thollet, Fabien; Braud, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of streamflow rates based on post-flood surveys is of paramount importance for the investigation of extreme hydrological events. Major uncertainties usually arise from the absence of information on the flow velocities and from the limited spatio-temporal resolution of such surveys. Nowadays, after each flood occuring in populated areas home movies taken from bridges, river banks or even drones are shared by witnesses through Internet platforms like YouTube. Provided that some topography data and additional information are collected, image-based velocimetry techniques can be applied to some of these movie materials, in order to estimate flood discharges. As a contribution to recent post-flood surveys conducted in France, we developed and applied a method for estimating velocities and discharges based on the Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) technique. Since the seminal work of Fujita et al. (1998), LSPIV applications to river flows were reported by a number of authors and LSPIV can now be considered a mature technique. However, its application to non-professional movies taken by flood witnesses remains challenging and required some practical developments. The different steps to apply LSPIV analysis to a flood home movie are as follows: (i) select a video of interest; (ii) contact the author for agreement and extra information; (iii) conduct a field topography campaign to georeference Ground Control Points (GCPs), water level and cross-sectional profiles; (iv) preprocess the video before LSPIV analysis: correct lens distortion, align the images, etc.; (v) orthorectify the images to correct perspective effects and know the physical size of pixels; (vi) proceed with the LSPIV analysis to compute the surface velocity field; and (vii) compute discharge according to a user-defined velocity coefficient. Two case studies in French mountainous rivers during extreme floods are presented. The movies were collected on YouTube and field topography

  18. Plant defense after flooding

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fu-Chiun; Shih, Ming-Che

    2013-01-01

    Since the first study of hypoxic response in plants with cDNA microarray in 2002, the number of hypoxia-responsive genes has grown to more than 2000. However, to date, only small numbers of hypoxia-responsive genes are known to confer hypoxic resistance. Most investigations in this area have focused on identifying which genes are responsive and then characterized how these genes are induced during hypoxia, but the roles of numerous genes in hypoxic response are still unknown. In our recent study, we demonstrated that a group of genes are induced by submergence to trigger plant immunity, which is a response to protect plants against a higher probability of pathogen infection during or after flooding. This work offered a brand new perspective, i.e., that hypoxia-responsive genes can be induced for reasons other than conferring hypoxic resistance. Possible reasons why these responses were triggered are discussed herein. PMID:24300693

  19. Paleoflood Data, Extreme Floods and Frequency: Data and Models for Dam Safety Risk Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, J. F.; Godaire, J.; Klinger, R.

    2007-12-01

    Extreme floods and probability estimates are crucial components in dam safety risk analysis and scenarios for water-resources decision making. The field-based collection of paleoflood data provides needed information on the magnitude and probability of extreme floods at locations of interest in a watershed or region. The stratigraphic record present along streams in the form of terrace and floodplain deposits represent direct indicators of the magnitude of large floods on a river, and may provide 10 to 100 times longer records than conventional stream gaging records of large floods. Paleoflood data is combined with gage and historical streamflow estimates to gain insights to flood frequency scaling, model extrapolations and uncertainty, and provide input scenarios to risk analysis event trees. We illustrate current data collection and flood frequency modeling approaches via case studies in the western United States, including the American River in California and the Arkansas River in Colorado. These studies demonstrate the integration of applied field geology, hydraulics, and surface-water hydrology. Results from these studies illustrate the gains in information content on extreme floods, provide data- based means to separate flood generation processes, guide flood frequency model extrapolations, and reduce uncertainties. These data and scenarios strongly influence water resources management decisions.

  20. An Evaluation of Selected Extraordinary Floods in the United States Reported by the U.S. Geological Survey and Implications for Future Advancement of Flood Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costa, John E.; Jarrett, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty flood peak discharges determine the envelope curve of maximum floods documented in the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. These floods occurred from 1927 to 1978 and are extraordinary not just in their magnitude, but in their hydraulic and geomorphic characteristics. The reliability of the computed discharge of these extraordinary floods was reviewed and evaluated using current (2007) best practices. Of the 30 flood peak discharges investigated, only 7 were measured at daily streamflow-gaging stations that existed when the flood occurred, and 23 were measured at miscellaneous (ungaged) sites. Methods used to measure these 30 extraordinary flood peak discharges consisted of 21 slope-area measurements, 2 direct current-meter measurements, 1 culvert measurement, 1 rating-curve extension, and 1 interpolation and rating-curve extension. The remaining four peak discharges were measured using combinations of culvert, slope-area, flow-over-road, and contracted-opening measurements. The method of peak discharge determination for one flood is unknown. Changes to peak discharge or rating are recommended for 20 of the 30 flood peak discharges that were evaluated. Nine floods retained published peak discharges, but their ratings were downgraded. For two floods, both peak discharge and rating were corrected and revised. Peak discharges for five floods that are subject to significant uncertainty due to complex field and hydraulic conditions, were re-rated as estimates. This study resulted in 5 of the 30 peak discharges having revised values greater than about 10 percent different from the original published values. Peak discharges were smaller for three floods (North Fork Hubbard Creek, Texas; El Rancho Arroyo, New Mexico; South Fork Wailua River, Hawaii), and two peak discharges were revised upward (Lahontan Reservoir tributary, Nevada; Bronco Creek, Arizona). Two peak discharges were indeterminate because they were concluded to have been debris flows with peak

  1. 1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R. D.; Vandas, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

  2. Somerset County Flood Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Summer, William M.

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionThe timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the flood of August 2, 1973, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which six lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how unexpected and costly, especially in terms of human life, a flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin.Recognizing the need for detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Somerset County, installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. The availability of data provided by this system will improve the flood forecasting ability of the National Weather Service (NWS), and has assisted Somerset County and municipal agencies in planning and execution of flood-preparation and emergency evacuation procedures in the county.This fact sheet describes the Somerset County Flood Information System and identifies its benefits.

  3. Foam flooding reservoir simulation algorithm improvement and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yining; Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Ruihe; Lai, Fengpeng; Zhang, Hanhan

    2014-05-01

    As one of the important enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies, Foam flooding is being used more and more widely in the oil field development. In order to describe and predict foam flooding, experts at domestic and abroad have established a number of mathematical models of foam flooding (mechanism, empirical and semi-empirical models). Empirical models require less data and apply conveniently, but the accuracy is not enough. The aggregate equilibrium model can describe foam generation, burst and coalescence by mechanism studying, but it is very difficult to accurately describe. The research considers the effects of critical water saturation, critical concentration of foaming agent and critical oil saturation on the sealing ability of foam and considers the effect of oil saturation on the resistance factor for obtaining the gas phase relative permeability and the results were amended by laboratory test, so the accuracy rate is higher. Through the reservoir development concepts simulation and field practical application, the calculation is more accurate and higher.

  4. Decadal monitoring of the Niger Inner Delta flood dynamics using MODIS optical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Andrew; Belaud, Gilles; Delenne, Carole; Bailly, Jean-Stéphane; Bader, Jean-Claude; Oleksiak, Aurélie; Ferry, Luc; Martin, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Wetlands provide a vital resource to ecosystem services and associated rural livelihoods but their extent, geomorphological heterogeneity and flat topography make the representation of their hydrological functioning complex. A semi automated method exploiting 526 MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) 8-day 500 m resolution images was developed to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of the annual flood across the Niger Inner Delta over the period 2000-2011. A composite band ratio index exploiting the Modified Normalised Difference Water Index (MNDWI) and Normalised Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) with fixed thresholds provided the most accurate detection of flooded areas out of six commonly used band ratio indices. K-means classified Landsat images were used to calibrate the thresholds. Estimated flooded surface areas were evaluated against additional classified Landsat images, previous studies and field stage data for a range of hydrological units: river stretches, lakes, floodplains and irrigated areas. This method illustrated how large amounts of MODIS images may be exploited to monitor flood dynamics with adequate spatial and temporal resolution and good accuracy, except during the flood rise due to cloud presence. Previous correlations between flow levels and flooded areas were refined to account for the hysteresis as the flood recedes and for the varying amplitude of the flood. Peak flooded areas varied between 10 300 km2 and 20 000 km2, resulting in evaporation losses ranging between 12 km3 and 21 km3. Direct precipitation assessed over flooded areas refined the wetland's water balance and infiltration estimates. The knowledge gained on the timing, duration and extent of the flood across the wetland and in lakes, floodplains and irrigated plots may assist farmers in agricultural water management. Furthermore insights provided on the wetland's flood dynamics may be used to develop and calibrate a hydraulic model of the flood in the Niger

  5. Hydraulic Reconstructions of Outburst Floods on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Large outburst floods on Earth and Mars have carved bedrock canyons in basalt that often have steep sidewalls and amphitheater heads, suggesting erosion by waterfall retreat and block toppling. Two paleohydraulic methods are typically used to reconstruct flood discharges. The first is based on the discharge required to move sediment, which requires rare grain-size data and is necessarily a lower bound. The second assumes bedrock canyons are entirely inundated, which likely greatly overestimates the discharge of canyon carving floods. Here we explore a third hypothesis that canyon width is an indicator of flood discharge. For example, we expect that for large floods relative to the canyon width, the canyon will tend to widen as water spills over and erodes the canyon sidewalls. In contrast, small floods, relative to the canyon size will tend to focus flow into the canyon head, resulting in a narrowing canyon. To test this hypothesis, we need data on how outburst floods focus water into canyons across a wide range of canyon and flood sizes. To fill this data gap, we performed a series of numerical simulations solving the 2D depth-averaged shallow water equations for turbulent flow. We analyzed the effect of five non-dimensional parameters on the shear stress and discharge distributions around head and sidewalls of canyons of different sizes. The Froude number of the flood has the greatest effect on the distribution of shear stresses and discharges around the canyon rim; higher Froude numbers lead to less convergence of the flow towards the canyon, and thus to lower shear stresses (and discharges) on the sides of the canyon. Simulation results show that canyons of constant width were likely carved by floods within a relatively narrow range of discharges. The range of discharges is sensitive to the Froude number and size of blocks that are toppled at the canyon head, both of which can be estimated from field and remotely sensed data. Example applications on Earth and

  6. Effectiveness of trees and forests in reducing flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marapara, T. R.; Jackson, B. M.; Hartley, S.

    2013-12-01

    Trees and forests have become vital components of flood mitigation policies at national and international levels as their role in reducing flood risk has become more evident. This has led to their wide-spread use to complement traditional structural defences in flood prone landscapes. The establishment of forests and planting of trees changes surface and subsurface hydrology, often delaying peak discharge and reducing overland runoff and flood risk. There is a significant amount of research that demonstrates flood reduction by forests (plantation and native), and small strips of trees or shelterbelts established in agricultural landscapes. Studies from the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Latin America have shown that the attenuation of floods by trees and forests is circumscribed to their position in the landscape, growth season, age, root structure, canopy architecture, geology and climate. At the same time, there is research indicating a negligible impact of trees and forests when catchment scale is large and rainfall events are extreme. Flood incidences are still on the increase in regions with large areas of forested land. Much emphasis has been placed on the ability of trees and forests to reduce peak flow and mitigate floods through interception loss, high transpiration rates, and amelioration of soil properties such as infiltration, hydraulic conductivity and bulk density at the field or small catchment scale. Less emphasis has been put on identifying the climatic and geological areas where trees are likely to deliver significant flood mitigation services. Furthermore, the stand characteristics that are optimal in delivering this service where appropriate have seldom been reported. This study presents a review of the relationship between trees/forests and flooding. The investigation has focused on how the interaction is affected by different species, age, position in the landscape, scale, soils and magnitude of rainfall events under changing geology and

  7. Identification and Analysis of Storm Tracks Associated with Extreme Flood Events in Southeast and South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Carlos; Lopes, Camila

    2015-04-01

    observed flows. The storm track data built on the integrated moisture flux in the atmosphere are then classified and clustered in order to categorize the flood events and identify the common patterns and preferential modes of the storms. A composite analysis of synoptic fields of sea surface temperature (SST), surface pressure and geopotential height in the days that preceded the events is also carried out in the analysis. Preliminary results show that, for some regions, like the Parana river basin, the clusters obtained for the storm tracks are associated with distinct signatures of flood events as well as with specific anomalies in the fields of the meteorological variables analyzed, which represents a fundamental step in the development and improvement of non-stationary forecast and simulation models of flood recurrence conditional on climate states.

  8. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  9. Martian alkaline basites chemically resemble basic rocks of the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    " (syenite, granite) for Mars [5]. Actually the martian missions successively discovered andesite, dacite, low-Fe highlands. Now "Spirit" has found on a small outlier of highlands -Columbia Hills -a batch of thinly layered gently dipping light rocks that surely are not impact melts as at very short distance there is a sharp transition from light Fe-poor to ultrabasic rocks (on opposite slopes of this small hill) [6]. This layered sequence of more or less altered and weathered rocks resembles differentiated sequences of Lovozero and other alkaline and UB-alkaline massifs of Kola Peninsula (though fresh and much richer in alkalis). Here we compare compositions of alkaline basic rocks of Columbia Hills (dyke or sill [4]) with that of basic volcanics and a later dyke at Lovozero. 5 analyses in wt.%: 1-Backstay (tra1 chybasalt) & 2-Irvine (basalt) of CH, 3-augiteporphyrite, 4-essexite-porphyrite, 5- alkali- lamprophyre dyke of Lovozero. SiO2 -49.9, 47.7, 45.78, 48.09, 41.57; TiO2 - 0.93, 1.07, 7.80, 2.35, 2.92; Al2 O3 -13.2; 10.8, 8.08; 13.74; 11.77; Fe2 O3 -3.40, 7.79 (4.99), 5.90, 6.00, 4.53; FeO -10.6, 12.5 (15.0), 8.65, 7.60, 8.28; MnO -0.25, 0.37, 0.12, 0.17, 0.28; MgO -8.36, 10.8, 7.61, 7.19, 10.59; CaO -6.09, 6.12, 10.73, 8.77, 11.24; Na2 O -4.02, 2.72, 2.80, 2.84, 3.63; K2 O -1.02, 0.69, 1.97, 2.09, 1.38. Compositional similarities between basites occurring in alkaline conditions on both planets can be found. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., v. 1, # 3, 700; [2] Gellert R. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v. 111, #E2, EO2505; [3] Squyres S.W. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v.111, #E2, EO2511; [4] McSween H.Y. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, submitted ; [5] Kochemasov G. G. (1995) Golombek M.P., Edgett K.S., Rice J.W. Jr. (Eds). Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field trips to the Channeled Scabland, Washington. LPI Tech. Rpt. 95-01. Pt.1.LPI, Houston, 1995, 63 pp.; [6

  10. Using NOAA AVHRR data to assess flood damage in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quan; Watanabe, Masataka; Hayashi, Seiji; Murakami, Shogo

    2003-03-01

    The article used two NOAA-14 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) datasets to assess flood damage in the middle and lower reaches of China's Changjiang River (Yangtze River) in 1998. As the AVHRR is an optical sensor, it cannot penetrate the clouds that frequently cover the land during the flood season, and this technology is greatly limited in flood monitoring. However the widely used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) can be used to monitor flooding, since water has a much lower NDVI value than other surface features. Though many factors other than flooding (e.g. atmospheric conditions, different sun-target-satellite angles, and cloud) can change NDVI values, inundated areas can be distinguished from other types of ground cover by changes in the NDVI value before and after the flood after eliminating the effects of other factors on NDVI. AVHRR data from 26 May and 22 August, 1998 were selected to represent the ground conditions before and after flooding. After accurate geometric correction by collecting GCPs, and atmospheric and angular corrections by using the 6S code, NDVI values for both days and their differences were calculated for cloud-free pixels. The difference in the NDVI values between these two times, together with the NDVI values and a land-use map, were used to identify inundated areas and to assess the area lost to the flood. The results show a total of 358,867 ha, with 207,556 ha of cultivated fields (paddy and non-irrigated field) inundated during the flood of 1998 in the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River Catchment; comparing with the reported total of 321,000 and 197,000 ha, respectively. The discrimination accuracy of this method was tested by comparing the results from two nearly simultaneous sets of remote-sensing data (NOAA's AVHRR data from 10 September, 1998, and JERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from 11 September, 1998, with a lag of about 18.5 hr) over a representative flooded region in the

  11. Dynamics of Extreme Floods in Southeast and South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

    2015-12-01

    Many extreme floods result from a causal chain, where exceptional rain and floods in water basins from different sizes are related to large scale, anomalous and persistent patterns in atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Organized moisture plumes from oceanic sources are often implicated. One could use an Eulerian-Lagrangian climate model to test a causal chain hypothesis, but the parameterization and testing of such a model covering convection and transport continues to be a challenge. Consequently, empirical data based studies can be useful to establish the need to formally model such events using this approach. Here we consider two flood-prone regions in Southeast and South Brazil as case studies. A hypothesis of the causal chain of extreme floods in these regions is investigated by means of observed streamflow and reanalysis data and some machine learning tools. The signatures of the organization of the large scale atmospheric circulation in the days prior to the flood events are evaluated based on the integrated moisture flux and its divergence field and storm track data, so that a better understanding of the relations between the flood magnitude and duration, strength of moisture convergence and role of regional moisture recycling or teleconnected moisture is established. Persistent patterns and anomalies in the sea surface temperature (SST) field in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans that may be associated with disturbances in the atmospheric circulation and with the flood dynamics are investigated through composite analysis. Finally, machine learning algorithms for nonlinear dimension reduction are employed to visualize and understand some of the spatio-temporal patterns of the dominated climate variables in a reduced dimensional space. Prospects for prediction are discussed.

  12. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

  13. Magnitude and frequency of floods in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beckman, Emil W.

    1976-01-01

    Observed maximum flood peaks at 303 gaging stations with 13 or more years of record and significant peaks at 57 short-term stations and 31 miscellaneous sites are useful in designing flood-control works for maximum safety from flood damage. Comparison is made with maximum observed floods in the United States.

  14. 77 FR 46972 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  15. 76 FR 50446 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY..., FEMA published in the Federal Register a proposed rule that included an erroneous Base Flood Elevation...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood...

  16. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood hazard areas to the extent available and required under the National...

  17. 77 FR 3625 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  18. 76 FR 50443 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster...

  19. 76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42...

  20. 75 FR 23608 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  1. 75 FR 5894 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  2. 76 FR 43966 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster...

  3. 75 FR 78926 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  4. 75 FR 59095 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  5. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  6. 77 FR 76929 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  7. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood hazard areas to the extent available and required under the National...

  8. 77 FR 74610 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  9. 75 FR 78617 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  10. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood hazard areas to the extent available and required under the National...

  11. 76 FR 46716 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY... Base (1% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster...

  12. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  13. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  14. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  15. 77 FR 6980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  16. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood hazard areas to the extent available and required under the National...

  17. 75 FR 77762 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  18. 78 FR 33991 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  19. 77 FR 41323 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  20. 76 FR 13571 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42...

  1. 78 FR 6745 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  2. 78 FR 27 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  3. 75 FR 23600 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  4. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  5. 7 CFR 1788.3 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood insurance. 1788.3 Section 1788.3 Agriculture... Insurance Requirements § 1788.3 Flood insurance. (a) Borrowers shall purchase and maintain flood insurance for buildings in flood hazard areas to the extent available and required under the National...

  6. 75 FR 23595 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  7. 75 FR 34381 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  8. 78 FR 6743 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  9. 77 FR 46980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  10. 75 FR 5930 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

  11. 77 FR 6976 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  12. 78 FR 5738 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  13. 75 FR 43418 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Final Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). DATES: The date of issuance of the Flood...

  14. Flood Classification Using Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsen, Lieke A.; Torfs, Paul J. J.; Brauer, Claudia C.

    2013-04-01

    Lowland floods are in general considered to be less extreme than mountainous floods. In order to investigate this, seven lowland floods in the Netherlands were selected and compared to mountainous floods from the study of Marchi et al. (2010). Both a 2D and 3D approach of the statistical two-group classification method support vector machines (Cortes and Vapnik, 1995) were used to find a statistical difference between the two flood types. Support vector machines were able to draw a decision plane between the two flood types, misclassifying one out of seven lowland floods, and one out of 67 mountainous floods. The main difference between the two flood types can be found in the runoff coefficient (with lowland floods having a lower runoff coefficient than mountainous floods), the cumulative precipitation causing the flood (which was lower for lowland floods), and, obviously, the relief ratio. Support vector machines have proved to be useful for flood classification and might be applicable in future classification studies. References Cortes, C., and V. Vapnik. "Support-Vector Networks." Machine Learning 20: (1995) 273-297. Marchi, L., M. Borga, E. Preciso, and E. Gaume. "Characterisation of selected extreme flash floods in Europe and implications for flood risk management." Journal of Hydrology 394: (2010) 118-133.

  15. How extreme where the Floods of River Rhine in the pre-instrumental Period? A novel interdisciplinary approach to reconstruct and quantify pre-instrumental floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetter, O.; Pfister, C.; Weingarnter, R.; Röser, I.

    2009-04-01

    History of natural disasters has become a key topic during the last decade, not least because of the widespread impression that the world in our days is being hit by such events at more frequent intervals. The still very young scientific field of Historical Hydrology mainly concentrates on reconstructing flood events of the pre instrumental period, usually by specifying damages caused or occasionally by addressing the issue to inundation heights or meteorological reasons. This paper in contrast is going to shed light on discharge quantities of several pre instrumental floods in such a way that comparisons between instrumental measured and unmeasured pre instrumental floods can be drawn for the first time. Why Rhine floods at Basel? The evidence for this town from the Middle Ages up to the present days is well preserved, because Basel was never destroyed since the disastrous earthquake in 1356 which nearly annihilated the town. Narrative reports of several trustworthy contemporary town chroniclers are still at hand more or less without gaps from the thirteenth to the late seventeenth century. Most major events are so well documented that the maximum height of the flood as well as the size and location of inundated areas could be assessed. More recent events are documented with flood marks or with reports referring to flood-marks which were later destroyed. In 1808 a gauge was established near the (only) bridge. Daily readings are preserved up to the present overlapping with streamflow measurements after 1867. The traditional scheme of flood reporting documented in nineteenth century newspapers was compared with flood-marks and gauge readings especially from the example of the extreme flood in 18th September 1852. The intercomparison of narrative with instrumental evidence allowed calibrating flood information from the Medieval Period. Based on this calibration hydrologists attempted discharge calculations based upon software Flux/Floris2000. Moreover Baseĺs body of

  16. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  17. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-08-05

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation.

  18. Latest Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic Continental Extension and Related Alkaline Magmatism in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadioglu, Y. K.

    2009-04-01

    The Central Anatolian crystalline complex (CACC) in Turkey includes a suite of latest Mesozoic-early Cenozoic plutonic rocks intruding the metamorphic and ophiolitic basement rocks. The intrusive rocks consist of three groups of granitoid, syenitoid, and gabbroids plutons. The granitoid units occur around the periphery of the CACC as large plutonic bodies, whereas the syenitoid assemblages crop out in the inner part of the CACC as small plutons. All the felsic plutons are crosscut by the gabbroid rocks in the region. The alkaline rocks of the CACC change in composition from nordmarkite through pulaskite to lusitanite, and are made of silica-saturated and silica-undersaturated magmas. The silica under-saturated alkaline rocks have gradual contacts with the silica-saturated alkaline rocks and constitute the main component of the alkaline rocks in the CACC. Nepheline, pseudoleucite, cancrinite, nosean, melanite and arfvedsonite are the main typical mineral compositions of the silica-undersaturated alkaline rocks. The leucite- and pseudoleucite-bearing rocks have porphyritic textures intruding the other main subunits of the alkaline rocks at high topographic elevations in the region. They are mostly composed of foid syenite, monzosyenite, monzodiorite and include rare amount of monzogabbro and foidolite. Each subunit has a transitional contact with the others and is crosscut by alkali feldspar foid syenite veins. Felsic dykes intrude the alkaline rock units and fluorite-bearing hydrothermal veins, which manifest themselves as alteration zones. The alkaline rocks have an abundance of xenolithic enclaves but lack any magma mixing-mingling produced enclaves. Normalized elemental patterns of the analyzed alkaline rocks show a slight enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements relatively to high field strength elements (HFSE) and heavy rare earth elements (HREE). The less fluid mobile, LILE and LREE concentration in the alkaline rocks

  19. Intermediate range order in alkaline borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, C.; Carini, G.; Ruello, G.; D'Angelo, G.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the neutron diffraction patterns of a series of alkaline borate glasses at different metal oxide content. Strong differences are observed in the intermediate range order as a function of the specific alkaline ion and of its concentration. On these results, we propose that the first sharp diffraction peak arises from correlations of atoms of voids and show that the compositional variation of this peak intensity in alkaline borate glasses is due to changes in the distribution of void sizes within the three-dimensional network. We argue that our interpretation in terms of interstitial (empty and/or filled) voids, having different sizes, provides a general explanation for all anomalous behaviours revealed for the first sharp diffraction peak.

  20. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and <0.1 wt%, respectively, and the dolomitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 60.3 and 40.2 wt%, were used to construct a downflow treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a

  1. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    PubMed

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse.

  2. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    SciTech Connect

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Willhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmend; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  3. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  4. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  5. Laser direct write of planar alkaline microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. B.; Kim, H.; Piqué, A.

    We are developing a laser engineering approach to fabricate and optimize alkaline microbatteries in planar geometries. The laser direct-write technique enables multicapability for adding, removing and processing material and provides the ability to pattern complicated structures needed for fabricating complete microbattery assemblies. In this paper, we demonstrate the production of planar zinc-silver oxide alkaline cells under ambient conditions. The microbattery cells exhibit 1.55-V open-circuit potentials, as expected for the battery chemistry, and show a flat discharge behavior under constant-current loads. High capacities of over 450 μAhcm-2 are obtained for 5-mm2 microbatteries.

  6. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  7. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  8. Subglacial floods beneath ice sheets.

    PubMed

    Evatt, G W; Fowler, A C; Clark, C D; Hulton, N R J

    2006-07-15

    Subglacial floods (jökulhlaups) are well documented as occurring beneath present day glaciers and ice caps. In addition, it is known that massive floods have occurred from ice-dammed lakes proximal to the Laurentide ice sheet during the last ice age, and it has been suggested that at least one such flood below the waning ice sheet was responsible for a dramatic cooling event some 8000 years ago. We propose that drainage of lakes from beneath ice sheets will generally occur in a time-periodic fashion, and that such floods can be of severe magnitude. Such hydraulic eruptions are likely to have caused severe climatic disturbances in the past, and may well do so in the future.

  9. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  10. Metal bioavailability and toxicity to fish in low-alkalinity lakes - a critical-review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spry, D.J.; Wiener, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Fish in low-alkalinity lakes having ph of 6.0-6.5 Or less often have higher body or tissue burdens of mercury, cadmium, and lead than do fish in nearby lakes with higher ph. The greater bioaccumulation of these metals in such waters seems to result partly from the greater aqueous abundances of biologically available forms (ch3hg+, cd2+, and pb2+) at low ph. In addition, the low concentrations of aqueous calcium in low-alkalinity lakes increase the permeability of biological membranes to these metals, which in fish may cause greater uptake from both water and food. Fish exposed to aqueous inorganic aluminum in the laboratory and field accumulate the metal in and on the epithelial cells of the gills; however, there is little accumulation of aluminum in the blood or internal organs. In low-ph water, both sublethal and lethal toxicity of aluminum has been clearly demonstrated in both laboratory and field studies at environmental concentrations. In contrast, recently measured aqueous concentrations of total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and lead in low-alkalinity lakes are much lower than the aqueous concentrations known to cause acute or chronic toxicity in fish, although the vast majority of toxicological research has involved waters with much higher ionic strength than that in low-alkalinity lakes. Additional work with fish is needed to better assess (1) the toxicity of aqueous metals in low-alkalinity waters, and (2) the toxicological significance of dietary methylmercury and cadmium.

  11. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit V; Mustroph, Angelika; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis. PMID:24525961

  12. Flood basalts and mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, W. Jason

    1988-01-01

    There appears to be a correlation between the times of flood basalts and mass-extinction events. There is a correlation of flood basalts and hotspot tracks--flood basalts appear to mark the beginning of a new hotspot. Perhaps there is an initial instability in the mantle that bursts forth as a flood basalt but then becomes a steady trickle that persists for many tens of millions of years. Suppose that flood basalts and not impacts cause the environmental changes that lead to mass-extinctions. This is a very testable hypothesis: it predicts that the ages of the flows should agree exactly with the times of extinctions. The Deccan and K-T ages agree with this hypothesis; An iridium anomaly at extinction boundaries apparently can be explained by a scaled-up eruption of the Hawaiian type; the occurrence of shocked-quartz is more of a problem. However if the flood basalts are all well dated and their ages indeed agree with extinction times, then surely some mechanism to appropriately produce shocked-quartz will be found.

  13. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa.

    PubMed

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit; Mustroph, Angelika; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis.

  14. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine. PMID:22013455

  15. The alkaline diet: is there evidence that an alkaline pH diet benefits health?

    PubMed

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine.

  16. Hydrometeorological network for flood monitoring and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koussis, Antonis D.; Lykoudis, Spyros; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Christofides, Antonis; Karavokiros, George; Kappos, Nikos; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-08-01

    Due to its highly fragmented geomorphology, Greece comprises hundreds of small- to medium-size hydrological basins, in which often the terrain is fairly steep and the streamflow regime ephemeral. These are typically affected by flash floods, occasionally causing severe damages. Yet, the vast majority of them lack flow-gauging infrastructure providing systematic hydrometric data at fine time scales. This has obvious impacts on the quality and reliability of flood studies, which typically use simplistic approaches for ungauged basins that do not consider local peculiarities in sufficient detail. In order to provide a consistent framework for flood design and to ensure realistic predictions of the flood risk -a key issue of the 2007/60/EC Directive- it is essential to improve the monitoring infrastructures by taking advantage of modern technologies for remote control and data management. In this context and in the research project DEUCALION, we have recently installed and are operating, in four pilot river basins, a telemetry-based hydro-meteorological network that comprises automatic stations and is linked to and supported by relevant software. The hydrometric stations measure stage, using 50-kHz ultrasonic pulses or piezometric sensors, or both stage (piezometric) and velocity via acoustic Doppler radar; all measurements are being temperature-corrected. The meteorological stations record air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. Data transfer is made via GPRS or mobile telephony modems. The monitoring network is supported by a web-based application for storage, visualization and management of geographical and hydro-meteorological data (ENHYDRIS), a software tool for data analysis and processing (HYDROGNOMON), as well as an advanced model for flood simulation (HYDROGEIOS). The recorded hydro-meteorological observations are accessible over the Internet through the www-application. The system is operational and its

  17. National Flood Interoperability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Flood Interoperability Experiment is led by the academic community in collaboration with the National Weather Service through the new National Water Center recently opened on the Tuscaloosa campus of the University of Alabama. The experiment will also involve the partners in IWRSS (Integrated Water Resources Science and Services), which include the USGS, the Corps of Engineers and FEMA. The experiment will address the following questions: (1) How can near-real-time hydrologic forecasting at high spatial resolution, covering the nation, be carried out using the NHDPlus or next generation geofabric (e.g. hillslope, watershed scales)? (2) How can this lead to improved emergency response and community resilience? (3) How can improved an improved interoperability framework support the first two goals and lead to sustained innovation in the research to operations process? The experiment will run from September 2014 through August 2015, in two phases. The mobilization phase from September 2014 until May 2015 will assemble the components of the interoperability framework. A Summer Institute to integrate the components will be held from June to August 2015 at the National Water Center involving faculty and students from the University of Alabama and other institutions coordinated by CUAHSI. It is intended that the insight that arises from this experiment will help lay the foundation for a new national scale, high spatial resolution, near-real-time hydrologic simulation system for the United States.

  18. Oilfield flooding polymer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Fred D.; Hatch, Melvin J.; Shepitka, Joel S.; Donaruma, Lorraine G.

    1986-01-01

    A monomer, polymers containing the monomer, and the use of the polymer in oilfield flooding is disclosed. The subject monomer is represented by the general formula: ##STR1## wherein: n is an integer from 0 to about 4; m is an integer from 0 to about 6; a is an integer equal to at least 1 except where m is equal to 0, a must equal 0 and where m is equal to 1, a must equal 0 or 1; p is an integer from 2 to about 10; b is an integer equal to at least 1 and is of sufficient magnitude that the ratio b/p is at least 0.2; and q is an integer from 0 to 2. The number of hydroxy groups in the monomer is believed to be critical, and therefore the sum of (a+b) divided by the sum (m+p) should be at least 0.2. The moieties linked to the acrylic nitrogen can be joined to provide a ringed structure.

  19. Flood Risk and Global Change: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Llobet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global flood risk is increasing in response to population growth in flood-prone areas, human encroachment into natural flood paths (exacerbating flooding in areas formerly out of harm's way), and climate change (which alters variables driving floods). How will societies respond to and manage flood risk in coming decades? Analysis of flood policy evolution in the EU and US demonstrates that changes occurred in steps, in direct response to disasters. After the flood produced by the collapse of Tous Dam in 1982, Spain initiated a systematic assessment of areas of greatest flood risk and civil protection response. The devastating floods on the Elbe and elsewhere in central Europe in 2002 motivated adoption of the EU Floods Directive (2007), which requires member states to develop systematic flood risk maps (now due) and flood risk management plans (due in 2015). The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 resulted in a nationwide levee-safety assessment and improvements in communicating risk, but overall less fundamental change in US flood management than manifest in the EU since 2007. In the developing world, large (and increasing) concentrations of populations in low-lying floodplains, deltas, and coasts are increasingly vulnerable, and governments mostly ill-equipped to implement fundamental changes in land use to prevent future increases in exposure, nor to develop responses to the current threats. Even in the developed world, there is surprisingly little research on how well residents of flood-prone lands understand their true risk, especially when they are 'protected' by '100-year' levees. Looking ahead, researchers and decision makers should prioritize improvements in flood risk perception, river-basin-scale assessment of flood runoff processes (under current and future climate and land-use conditions) and flood management alternatives, and bridging the disconnect between national and international floodplain management policies and local land

  20. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOEpatents

    Coco, Isabelle; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  1. Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

  2. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose.

    PubMed

    Christodoulatos, C; Su, T L; Koutsospyros, A

    2001-01-01

    Cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose) is an explosive solid substance used in large quantities in various formulations of rocket and gun propellants. Safe destruction of nitrocellulose can be achieved by alkaline hydrolysis, which converts it to biodegradable products that can then be treated by conventional biological processes. The kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of munitions-grade nitrocellulose in sodium hydroxide solutions were investigated in completely mixed batch reactors. Experiments were conducted using solutions of alkaline strength ranging from 0.1 to 15% by mass and temperatures in the range of 30 to 90 degrees C. Regression analysis of the kinetic data revealed that alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose is of the order 1.0 and 1.5 with respect to nitrocellulose and hydroxide concentration, respectively. The activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction was found to be 100.9 kJ/mol with a preexponential Arrhenius constant of 4.73 x 10(13). Nitrite and nitrate, in a 3:1 ratio, were the primary nitrogen species present in the posthydrolysis solution. The kinetic information is pertinent to the development and optimization of nitrocellulose chemical-biological treatment systems.

  3. MERCURIC CHLORIDE CAPTURE BY ALKALINE SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of bench-scale mechanistic studies of mercury/sorbent reactions that showed that mercuric chloride (HgC12) is readily adsorbed by alkaline sorbents, which may offers a less expensive alternative to the use of activated carbons. A laboratory-scale, fixed-b...

  4. ISSUES WITH ALKALINE TREATMENT OF SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...

  5. Understanding the effects of past flood events and perceived and estimated flood risks on individuals' voluntary flood insurance purchase behavior.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wanyun; Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Kunreuther, Howard; Jackson, Nida; Goidel, Kirby

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the economic damage from flooding in the coastal areas has greatly increased due to rapid coastal development coupled with possible climate change impacts. One effective way to mitigate excessive economic losses from flooding is to purchase flood insurance. Only a minority of coastal residents however have taken this preventive measure. Using original survey data for all coastal counties of the United States Gulf Coast merged with contextual data, this study examines the effects of external influences and perceptions of flood-related risks on individuals' voluntary behaviors to purchase flood insurance. It is found that the estimated flood hazard conveyed through the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) flood maps, the intensities and consequences of past storms and flooding events, and perceived flood-related risks significantly affect individual's voluntary purchase of flood insurance. This behavior is also influenced by home ownership, trust in local government, education, and income. These findings have several important policy implications. First, FEMA's flood maps have been effective in conveying local flood risks to coastal residents, and correspondingly influencing their decisions to voluntarily seek flood insurance in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Flood maps therefore should be updated frequently to reflect timely and accurate information about flood hazards. Second, policy makers should design strategies to increase homeowners' trust in the local government, to better communicate flood risks with residents, to address the affordability issue for the low-income, and better inform less educated homeowners through various educational programs. Future studies should examine the voluntary flood insurance behavior across countries that are vulnerable to flooding.

  6. Three dimensional numerical modeling of flow and pollutant transport in a flooding area of 2008 US Midwest Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...

  7. Alkaline earth metal catalysts for asymmetric reactions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shū; Yamashita, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-18

    The group 2 alkaline earth metals calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) are among the most common elements on Earth, abundant in both the sea and the Earth's crust. Although they are familiar in our daily lives, their application to organic synthesis has, so far, been limited. Some particularly useful properties of these elements include (i) low electronegativity, (ii) a stable oxidation state of +2, meaning that they can potentially form two covalent bonds with anions, and (iii) the ability to occupy a variety of coordination sites due to their large ionic radius. Furthermore, the alkaline earth metals, found between the group 1 and group 3 elements, show mild but significant Lewis acidity, which can be harnessed to control coordinative molecules via a Lewis acid-base interaction. Taken together, these characteristics make the metals Ca, Sr, and Ba very promising components of highly functionalized acid-base catalysts. In this Account, we describe the development of chiral alkaline earth metal catalysts for asymmetric carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. Recently prepared chiral alkaline earth metal complexes have shown high diastereo- and enantioselectivities in fundamental and important chemical transformations. We chose chiral bisoxazoline (Box) derivatives bearing a methylene tether as a ligand for chiral modification. These molecules are very useful because they can covalently coordinate to alkaline earth metals in a bidentate fashion through deprotonation of the tether portion. It was found that chiral calcium-Box complexes could successfully promote catalytic asymmetric 1,4-addition and [3 + 2] cycloaddition reactions with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Both the calcium-Box complexes and chiral strontium-bis-sulfonamide and chiral barium-BINOLate complexes could catalyze asymmetric 1,4-addition reactions with high enantioselectivities. Furthermore, we designed a calcium-neutral coordinative ligand complex as a new type of chiral alkaline

  8. Drought responses of flood-tolerant trees in Amazonian floodplains

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Pia; Lucas, Christine; Piedade, Maria Teresa F.; Wittmann, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Background Flood-tolerant tree species of the Amazonian floodplain forests are subjected to an annual dry period of variable severity imposed when low river-water levels coincide with minimal precipitation. Although the responses of these species to flooding have been examined extensively, their responses to drought, in terms of phenology, growth and physiology, have been neglected hitherto, although some information is found in publications that focus on flooding. Scope The present review examines the dry phase of the annual flooding cycle. It consolidates existing knowledge regarding responses to drought among adult trees and seedlings of many Amazonian floodplain species. Main Findings Flood-tolerant species display variable physiological responses to dry periods and drought that indicate desiccation avoidance, such as reduced photosynthetic activity and reduced root respiration. However, tolerance and avoidance strategies for drought vary markedly among species. Drought can substantially decrease growth, biomass and photosynthetic activity among seedlings in field and laboratory studies. When compared with the responses to flooding, drought can impose higher seedling mortality and slower growth rates, especially among evergreen species. Results indicate that tolerance and avoidance strategies for drought vary markedly between species. Both seedling recruitment and photosynthetic activity are affected by drought, Conclusions For many species, the effects of drought can be as important as flooding for survival and growth, particularly at the seedling phase of establishment, ultimately influencing species composition. In the context of climate change and predicted decreases in precipitation in the Amazon Basin, the effects of drought on plant physiology and species distribution in tropical floodplain forest ecosystems should not be overlooked. PMID:19880423

  9. Coated magnetic particles in electrochemical systems: Synthesis, modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and paste electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unlu, Murat

    Magnetic field effects on electrochemical reactions have been studied and shown to influence kinetics and dynamics. Recently, our group has introduced a novel method to establish magnetic field effects by incorporating inert, magnetic microparticles onto the electrode structure. This modification improved several electrochemical systems including modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and fuel cells. This dissertation describes the applicability of magnetic microparticles and the understanding of magnetic field effects in modified electrodes, alkaline batteries, and paste electrodes. Magnetic effects are studied on electrodes that are coated with an ion exchange polymer that embeds chemically inert, commercial, magnetic microparticles. The flux (electrolysis current) of redox probe to the magnetically modified system is compared to a similar non-magnetic electrode. Flux enhancements of 60% are achieved at magnetically modified electrode as compared to non-magnetic controls. In addition to modifying electrode surfaces, the incorporation of magnetic microparticles into the electrode material itself establishes a 20% increase in flux. Possible magnetic field effects are evaluated. Study of samarium cobalt modified electrolytic manganese dioxide, EMD electrodes further establish a magnetic effect on alkaline cathode performance. Magnetic modification improves alkaline battery performance in primary and secondary applications. The reaction mechanism is examined through voltammetric methods. This work also includes coating protocols to produce inert magnetic microparticles with high magnetic content. Magnetite powders are encapsulated in a polymer matrix by dispersion polymerization. Composite particles are examined in proton exchange membrane fuel cells to study carbon monoxide tolerance.

  10. Beyond Flood Hazard Maps: Detailed Flood Characterization with Remote Sensing, GIS and 2d Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, J. R.; Marqueso, J. T.; Makinano-Santillan, M.; Serviano, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D) flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers) that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  11. Evidence for trends in UK flooding.

    PubMed

    Robson, Alice J

    2002-07-15

    Recent major flooding in the UK has raised concern that climate change is causing increases in flood frequency and flood magnitude. This paper considers whether UK flood data provide evidence of increasing trends in fluvial floods. The analysis examines both local and national flood series and investigates the effect of climate variability on trend detection. The results suggest that there have been trends towards more protracted high flows over the last 30-50 years, but that this could be accounted for as part of climatic variation rather than climate change. There is no statistical evidence of a long-term trend in flooding over the last 80-120 years. Thus, although climate change could be influencing floods, direct analysis of flood records does not yet provide proof.

  12. Crystal structure of alkaline cellulase K: insight into the alkaline adaptation of an industrial enzyme.

    PubMed

    Shirai, T; Ishida, H; Noda, J; Yamane, T; Ozaki, K; Hakamada, Y; Ito, S

    2001-07-27

    The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of alkaline cellulase K was determined at 1.9 A resolution. Because of the most alkaliphilic nature and it's highest activity at pH 9.5, it is used commercially in laundry detergents. An analysis of the structural bases of the alkaliphilic character of the enzyme suggested a mechanism similar to that previously proposed for alkaline proteases, that is, an increase in the number of Arg, His, and Gln residues, and a decrease in Asp and Lys residues. Some ion pairs were formed by the gained Arg residues, which is similar to what has been found in the alkaline proteases. Lys-Asp ion pairs are disfavored and partly replaced with Arg-Asp ion pairs. The alkaline adaptation appeared to be a remodeling of ion pairs so that the charge balance is kept in the high pH range.

  13. Socioeconomic vulnerability and adaptation to environmental risk: a case study of climate change and flooding in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Roy; Akter, Sonia; Brander, Luke; Haque, Enamul

    2007-04-01

    In this article we investigate the complex relationship between environmental risk, poverty, and vulnerability in a case study carried out in one of the poorest and most flood-prone countries in the world, focusing on household and community vulnerability and adaptive coping mechanisms. Based upon the steadily growing amount of literature in this field we develop and test our own analytical model. In a large-scale household survey carried out in southeast Bangladesh, we ask almost 700 floodplain residents living without any flood protection along the River Meghna about their flood risk exposure, flood problems, flood damage, and coping mechanisms. Novel in our study is the explicit testing of the effectiveness of adaptive coping strategies to reduce flood damage costs. We show that, households with lower income and less access to productive natural assets face higher exposure to risk of flooding. Disparity in income and asset distribution at community level furthermore tends to be higher at higher risk exposure levels, implying that individually vulnerable households are also collectively more vulnerable. Regarding the identification of coping mechanisms to deal with flood events, we look at both the ex ante household level preparedness for flood events and the ex post availability of community-level support and disaster relief. We find somewhat paradoxically that the people that face the highest risk of flooding are the least well prepared, both in terms of household-level ex ante preparedness and community-level ex post flood relief.

  14. Investigating flood susceptible areas in inaccessible regions using remote sensing and geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2017-03-01

    Every summer, North Korea (NK) suffers from floods, resulting in decreased agricultural production and huge economic loss. Besides meteorological reasons, several factors can accelerate flood damage. Environmental studies about NK are difficult because NK is inaccessible due to the division of Korea. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate flood inundated areas in inaccessible regions such as NK. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of flood susceptible areas (FSAs) using multi-temporal RS data and digital elevation model data. Such study will provide basic information to restore FSAs after reunification. Defining FSAs at the study site revealed that rice paddies with low elevation and low slope were the most susceptible areas to flood in NK. Numerous sediments from upper streams, especially streams through crop field areas on steeply sloped hills, might have been transported and deposited into stream channels, thus disturbing water flow. In conclusion, NK floods may have occurred not only due to meteorological factors but also due to inappropriate land use for flood management. In order to mitigate NK flood damage, reforestation is needed for terraced crop fields. In addition, drainage capacity for middle stream channel near rice paddies should be improved.

  15. Evolution of flood typology across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundecha, Yeshewatesfa; Parajka, Juraj; Viglione, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Following the frequent occurrence of severe flood events in different parts of Europe in the recent past, there has been a rise in interest in understanding the mechanisms by which the different events have been triggered and how they have been evolving over time. This study was carried out to establish the characteristics of observed flood events in the past across Europe in terms of their spatial extent and the processes leading up to the events using a process based hydrological model. To this end, daily discharge data from more than 750 stations of the Global Runoff Data Center were used to identify flood events at the stations based on a threshold method for the period 1961-2010. The identified events at the different stations were further analyzed to determine whether they form the same flood event, thereby delineating the spatial extent of the flood events. The pan-European hydrological model, E-HYPE, which runs at a daily time step, was employed to estimate a set of catchment hydrological and hydro-meteorological state variables that are relevant in the flood generating process for each of the identified spatially delineated flood events. A subsequent clustering of the events based on the simulated state variables, together with the spatial extent of the flood events, was used to identify the flood generating mechanism of each flood event. Four general flood generation mechanisms were identified: long-rain flood, short-rain flood, snowmelt flood, and rain-on-snow flood. A trend analysis was performed to investigate how the frequency of each of the flood types has changed over time. In order to investigate whether there is a regional and seasonal pattern in the dominant flood generating mechanisms, this analysis was performed separately for winter and summer seasons and three different regions of Europe: Northern, Western, and Eastern Europe. The results show a regional difference both in the dominant flood generating mechanism and the corresponding trends.

  16. Growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL-B523 in an alkaline medium: suboptimal pH growth inhibition of a lactic acid bacterium.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barry F; Fogler, H Scott

    2005-01-05

    Bacterial profile modification (BPM), a form of tertiary oil recovery, diverts water from the water-flooded high-permeability zone into the oil-bearing low-permeability zone. During field use, exopolymer-producing bacteria plug the high-permeability zone only in the immediate vicinity of the injection point (the near-well bore region). For effective BPM the plug must penetrate far into the formation. Slowing the specific growth rate, lengthening the lag phase, and slowing the polymerization rate are techniques that can prolong the onset of biopolymer gelation and extend the depth of the biological plug. In batch experiments, the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL-B523 was inhibited by the synergistic effects of high substrate loading and an alkaline pH. Exponential growth was delayed up to 190 h. It was observed that cell division was significantly retarded until the medium pH, reduced by the acid byproducts of fermentation, reached a critical value of 6.79 +/- 0.06. A mathematical model was developed to describe the relationship between specific growth rate, lag time, and medium pH.

  17. Alkaline Phosphatase Assay for Freshwater Sediments: Application to Perturbed Sediment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, Gary S.; Puziss, Marla; Silver, Martin

    1979-01-01

    The p-nitrophenyl phosphate hydrolysis-phosphatase assay was modified for use in freshwater sediment. Laboratory studies indicated that the recovery of purified alkaline phosphatase activity was 100% efficient in sterile freshwater sediments when optimized incubation and sonication conditions were used. Field studies of diverse freshwater sediments demonstrated the potential use of this assay for determining stream perturbation. Significant correlations between phosphatase and total viable cell counts, as well as adenosine triphosphate biomass, suggested that alkaline phosphatase activity has utility as an indicator of microbial population density and biomass in freshwater sediments. PMID:16345464

  18. Human activity and damaging landslides and floods on Madeira Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baioni, D.

    2011-11-01

    Over the last few decades, the island of Madeira has become an important offshore tourism and business center, with rapid economic and demographic development that has caused changes to the landscape due to human activity. In Madeira's recent history, there has been an increase over time in the frequency of occurrence of damaging landslide and flood events. As a result, the costs of restoration work due to damage caused by landslide and flood events have become a larger and larger component of Madeira's annual budget. Landslides and floods in Madeira deserve particular attention because they represent the most serious hazard to human life, to property, and to the natural environment and its important heritage value. The work reported on in this paper involved the analysis of historical data regarding damaging landslide and flood events on Madeira (in particular from 1941 to 1991) together with data on geological characteristics, topographic features, and climate, and from field observations. This analysis showed that the main factor triggering the occurrence of damaging landslide and flood events is rainfall, but that the increase in the number of damaging events recorded on Madeira Island, especially in recent times, seems to be related mostly to human activity, specifically to economic development and population growth, rather than to natural factors.

  19. Flood risks and willingness to purchase flood insurance.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed and the effects on the purchase of insurance of uncertainties in the parameters of the distribution were explored using response surface analysis. Results indicate that fixed coverage insurance provisions shift most of the uncertainty in the physical parameters governing natural disaster occurrences away from the insuree and onto the insurer. The results also show that the form of the damage function has little effect on the demand for flood insurance.- Authors

  20. Floods in the Skunk River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.; Wiitala, Sulo Werner

    1978-01-01

    Evaluation of flood hazards, and the planning, design, and operation of various facilities on flood plains require information on floods. This report provides information on flood stages and discharges, flood magnitudes and frequency, and flood profiles for the Skunk River and some of its tributaries. It covers the Skunk -- South Skunk Rivers to Ames, and the lower reaches of tributaries as flows: Squaw Creek, 8.2 miles; Indian Creek, 11.6 miles; North Skunk River, 83.2 miles; Cedar Creek, 55.8 miles; and Big Creek, 21.7 miles.

  1. Continental Flood Basalts of Bennett Island, East Siberian Sea: High Arctic Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, Christian; Pease, Victoria

    2014-05-01

    Volcanism provides a means of tracing mantle melting events and crustal evolution. The High Arctic includes a rich portfolio of volcanic rocks outcropping in the Circum-Arctic borderlands and imaged geophysically beneath the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge that have been lumped together as a High-Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). However, the ages (c. 440-60 Ma) and compositions (tholeiitic-alkaline-calc-alkaline) reported varies considerably and geological correlations remain elusive. One of the possible correlative events is the formation of continental flood basalts and sills in the Canadian Arctic Islands, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land and Bennett Island. These flood basalts have previously been linked to mantle plume melting and may represent a short-lived LIP event at c. 124-122 Ma. We present new data for a 350 m thick continental flood basalt succession at Bennett Island examined during fieldwork in Septemer 2013 on a joint Russian (VSEGEI) - Swedish (SWEDARCTIC) expedition to the De Long Archipelago. This volcanic succession is composed of 20 near-horisontal, undeformed flow units overlying a thin sedimentary succession of Cretaceous age (?) including coal seams and possibly volcaniclastic material that, in turn, unconformably overlies a more steeply dipping succession of Cambrian and Ordovician sediments. The flows are thinnest (c. 2-10 m) and aphyric to very-sparsely olivine-phyric in the lower portion. In contrast, the flows in the upper portion are thicker (>20 m) and aphyric to sparsely plagioclase-phyric. We will discuss new petrographic and compositional data for the Bennett Island flood basalts, possibly including new U-Pb age data. The aim is to evaluate their petrogenesis, to discuss their possible correlation to the flood basalt and sill successions of the Canadian Arctic Islands, Svalbard and Franz Josef Land and evaluate the geodynamic evolution of the High Arctic.

  2. Great Holocene floods along Jokulsa a Fjollum, north Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitt, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    Jokulsa a Fjollum, Iceland's largest glacial river, drains from Vatnajokull icecap northward to the sea along a broad low that includes an active volcanic belt. Geomorphic features along this path reveal an ancient discharge of water large enough to fill the river valley and spill among a plexus of lows in the volcanic landscape. Stratigraphy in most places reveals just one late Holocene great flood down Jokulsa a Fjollum, between 2500 and 2000 yr ago. Step-back water computation suggests its peak flow was 0.7 million m3/s or more. An early scabland-carving great flood had swept down the Asbyrgi area of lowermost Jokulsa just after deglaciation, 9000-8000 yr ago. Stratigraphy near Vesturdalur reveals at least 16 additional floods, perhaps of moderate discharge, between about 8000 and 4000 yr ago. Dispersed field evidence of the late Holocene great flood-anastomosing channels whose basalt surfaces are water fluted and half-potholed, in places plucked down to small-scale scabland replete with dry cataracts, huge boulders, long gravel bars, giant current dunes-is traced the length of Jokulsa valley. From Vatnajokull's north margin at Kverkfjoll, water anastomosed through diverse lows of a high-relief landscape. Thus swift release of meltwater from subglacial Kverkfjoll caldera must have been a source of flood. But even this catastrophic outflow was insufficient to constitute the huge discharges evident farther down-valley. Field evidence reveals a yet greater discharge directly from the large outlet glacier Dyngjujokull. There is no evidence that subglacial Baraoarbunga caldera was involved, but subglacial melting during eruption of a more eastern fissure system could be a source of flood.

  3. Hydrogeomorphic Investigation of the 2015 Atacama Floods, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Agredano, R., Jr.; Mignot, E.; Gironas, J. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Mao, L.

    2015-12-01

    In March 2015 unusual atmospheric conditions over the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, the driest area on Earth outside of Antarctica, produced many years worth of rainfall in a 24-hour period. The resulting sediment-rich floods caused dozens of deaths and/or disappearances, over $1 billion in estimated damage, and widespread geomorphic change. Here we describe the hydrologic and geomorphic drivers and responses to the 2015 Atacama floods, including characterization of the hydrologic forcing, water and sediment routing from source areas in the upper watershed to the outlet at the Pacific Ocean, and urban flooding impacts of this event. In a region where few direct measurements of precipitation and discharge during these events are available, we combined hydrologic and hydraulic modeling with field and aerial photograph interpretation of sediment sources and geomorphic change. A remarkable element of the flood, particularly with respect to its effects on urban areas, was its high sediment load. Despite widespread hillslope erosion in the form of rilling and gullying initiated by overland flow, sediment from these sources typically did not reach valley bottoms, and only limited, small-scale mass wasting was observed. Field observations indicated that the sediment load was primarily derived from dramatic erosion of channel bed, bank, and floodplain material (i.e., valley fill). In the coastal city of Chañaral, flooding of the Salado River produced maximum water depths over 6 m, meters-thick mud deposition in buildings and along city streets, flow velocities larger than 8 m/s, and coastal erosion. Broader implications of studying the Atacama flooding include hazard reduction, the history of copper mining and more than five decades of contamination in many of the affected watersheds, and the Atacama's status as a terrestrial analog for Mars.

  4. Flash floods in Europe: state of the art and research perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaume, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Flash floods, i.e. floods induced by severe rainfall events generally affecting watersheds of limited area, are the most frequent, destructive and deadly kind of natural hazard known in Europe and throughout the world. Flash floods are especially intense across the Mediterranean zone, where rainfall accumulations exceeding 500 mm within a few hours may be observed. Despite this state of facts, the study of extremes in hydrology has essentially gone unexplored until the recent past, with the exception of some rare factual reports on individual flood events, with the sporadic inclusion of isolated estimated peak discharges. Floods of extraordinary magnitude are in fact hardly ever captured by existing standard measurement networks, either because they are too heavily concentrated in space and time or because their discharges greatly exceed the design and calibration ranges of the measurement devices employed (stream gauges). This situation has gradually evolved over the last decade for two main reasons. First, the expansion and densification of weather radar networks, combined with improved radar quantitative precipitation estimates, now provide ready access to rainfall measurements at spatial and temporal scales that, while not perfectly accurate, are compatible with the study of extreme events. Heavy rainfall events no longer fail to be recorded by existing rain gauge and radar networks. Second, pioneering research efforts on extreme floods, based on precise post-flood