Science.gov

Sample records for alkaline h2o2 pretreatment

  1. [Effect of Residual Hydrogen Peroxide on Hydrolysis Acidification of Sludge Pretreated by Microwave -H2O2-Alkaline Process].

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui-lai; Liu, Ji-bao; Wei, Yuan-song; Cai, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have found that in the hydrolysis acidification process, sludge after microwave -H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2-OH, pH = 10) pretreatment had an acid production lag due to the residual hydrogen peroxide. In this study, effects of residual hydrogen peroxide after MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10 or pH = 11) pretreatment on the sludge hydrolysis acidification were investigated through batch experiments. Our results showed that catalase had a higher catalytic efficiency than manganese dioxide for hydrogen peroxide, which could completely degraded hydrogen peroxide within 10 min. During the 8 d of hydrolysis acidification time, both SCOD concentrations and the total VFAs concentrations of four groups were firstly increased and then decreased. The optimized hydrolysis times were 0.5 d for four groups, and the optimized hydrolysis acidification times were 3 d for MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) + catalase group. The optimized hydrolysis acidification time for MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) group was 4 d. Residual hydrogen peroxide inhibited acid production for sludge after MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) pretreatment, resulting in a lag in acidification stage. Compared with MW-H2O2-OH ( pH = 10) pretreatment, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11 ) pretreatment released more SCOD by 19.29% and more organic matters, which resulted in the increase of total VFAs production significantly by 84.80% at 5 d of hydrolysis acidification time and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) group could shorten the lag time slightly. Dosing catalase (100 mg x -L(-1)) after the MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10 or pH = 11) pretreatment not only significantly shortened the lag time (0.5 d) in acidification stage, but also produced more total VFAs by 23.61% and 50.12% in the MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) + catalase group, compared with MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group at 3d of hydrolysis acidification time. For MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and

  2. Enhancement of sludge anaerobic biodegradability by combined microwave-H2O2 pretreatment in acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Eswari, Parvathy; Kavitha, S; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the sludge disintegration and reduce the cost of microwave (MW) pretreatment. Thermodynamic analysis of MW hydrolysis revealed the best fit with a first-order kinetic model at a specific energy of 18,600 kJ/kg total solids (TS). Combining H2O2 with MW resulted in a significant increment in solubilization from 30 to 50 % at 18,600 kJ/kg TS. The pH of H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge (MW + H2O2) was in the alkaline range (pH 9-10), and it made the sludge unfavorable for subsequent anaerobic digestion and inhibits methane production. In order to nullify the alkaline effect caused by the MW + H2O2 combination, the addition of acid was considered for pH adjustment. H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge in acidic conditions (MW + H2O2 + acid) showed a maximum methane production of 323 mL/g volatile solids (VS) than others during anaerobic biodegradability. A cost analysis of this study reveals that MW + H2O2 + acid was the most economical method with a net profit of 59.90 €/t of sludge.

  3. Kinetics of oxidation of odorous sulfur compounds in aqueous alkaline solution with H2O2.

    PubMed

    Feliers, C; Patria, L; Morvan, J; Laplanche, A

    2001-10-01

    Sulfur species oxidation is a crucial issue wastewater treatment. The production of sulfur compounds like H2S,CH3SH, C2H5SH, disulfides and dimethyle sulfide generates odorous nuisances for the neighborhood. The oxidation of these species by H2O2 in alkaline solution has been investigated. The results showed that thiols CH3SH and C2H5SH react with H202 only in their dissociated form RS- with rate constants respectively k = 8.81 +/- 0.48 M-1s-1 and 8.37 +/- 0.63 M-1.s-1. Mercaptans oxidation produces 100 % of dimethyldisulfide or diethyldisulfide. The oxidation of disulfides shows a difference of reactivity between H2O2 and HO2- towards sulfur species. Increasing the pH accelerates significantly the reactions in the case of CH3SSCH3. The oxidation rate can be described as: r = k[RSSR][H2O2][RSSR][H2O2] + k[RSSR][HO2-] [RSSR][HO2-] with k[RSSR][H2O2] = 1.2 x 10(-4) +/- 0.2 x 10(-4) M-1s-1 and k[RSSR][HO2-] = 3.4 x 10(-4) +/- 0.6 x 10(-4) M-1.s-1 for CH3SSCH3. Dimethyl sulfide presents a reactivity different from disulfides. The oxidation rate can also be described as: r = k[CH3SCH3][H2O21][CH3SCH3][H2O2] + k[CH3SCH3][HO-] [CH3SCH3][HO2-], however, oxidation rate decreases with pH increase. k[CH3SCH3][H2O2] = 12.8 x 10(-3) +/- 0.96 x 10(-3) M-1.s-1 and k[CH3SCH3][HO2-] = 4 x 10(-3) +/- 0.3 x 10(-3) M-1.s-1.

  4. A novel near-infrared fluorescent probe for H2O2 in alkaline environment and the application for H2O2 imaging in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keyin; Shang, Huiming; Kong, Xiuqi; Ren, Mingguang; Wang, Jian-Yong; Liu, Yong; Lin, Weiying

    2016-09-01

    H2O2 as one of the most important ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) has more attack activity to biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, protein and enzyme in alkaline environment and leads to a series of disease. However, no attention has been paid to the fluorescent detection of H2O2 in alkaline environment in the past. Herein, we reported the first ratiometric near-infrared fluorescent probe based on a boric acid derivative of Changsha near-infrared dye (CSBOH) for H2O2 detection in alkaline condition and the application for H2O2 imaging in vivo. ICT (intra-molecular charge transfer) mechanism was used in CSBOH to modulate the fluorescence change. The photophysical change of CSBOH was investigated by comparison with a phenol derivative of Changsha near-infrared dye (CSOH), a structural analogue bearing phenol group. In the presence of H2O2, CSBOH exhibited remarkably different fluorescence change at 650 nm and 720 nm when excited by 560 nm and 670 nm light respectively in alkaline buffer and showed high selectivity toward H2O2. Cellular experiments demonstrate that CSBOH can image endogenously generated H2O2 in macrophages and A431 cells. In vivo experiment demonstrates that both CSOH and CSBOH can be used for bio-imaging, and CSBOH can image H2O2 in living animal successfully. PMID:27258486

  5. A novel near-infrared fluorescent probe for H2O2 in alkaline environment and the application for H2O2 imaging in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keyin; Shang, Huiming; Kong, Xiuqi; Ren, Mingguang; Wang, Jian-Yong; Liu, Yong; Lin, Weiying

    2016-09-01

    H2O2 as one of the most important ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) has more attack activity to biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, protein and enzyme in alkaline environment and leads to a series of disease. However, no attention has been paid to the fluorescent detection of H2O2 in alkaline environment in the past. Herein, we reported the first ratiometric near-infrared fluorescent probe based on a boric acid derivative of Changsha near-infrared dye (CSBOH) for H2O2 detection in alkaline condition and the application for H2O2 imaging in vivo. ICT (intra-molecular charge transfer) mechanism was used in CSBOH to modulate the fluorescence change. The photophysical change of CSBOH was investigated by comparison with a phenol derivative of Changsha near-infrared dye (CSOH), a structural analogue bearing phenol group. In the presence of H2O2, CSBOH exhibited remarkably different fluorescence change at 650 nm and 720 nm when excited by 560 nm and 670 nm light respectively in alkaline buffer and showed high selectivity toward H2O2. Cellular experiments demonstrate that CSBOH can image endogenously generated H2O2 in macrophages and A431 cells. In vivo experiment demonstrates that both CSOH and CSBOH can be used for bio-imaging, and CSBOH can image H2O2 in living animal successfully.

  6. Whiteness improvement of citric acid crosslinked cotton fabrics: H2O2 bleaching under alkaline condition.

    PubMed

    Tang, Peixin; Ji, Bolin; Sun, Gang

    2016-08-20

    Polycarboxylic acids have been employed as formaldehyde-free crosslinking agents in anti-wrinkle treatment for cotton fabrics. Cotton fabrics treated by citric acid (CA) catalyzed with effective catalysts have shown satisfactory anti-wrinkle properties. Meanwhile, CA is a natural-based and environmental friendly compound. However, the yellowing of CA treated fabrics is a stumbling block for its practical application. Due to the fact that CA firstly forms aconitic acid (AA) before forming anhydrides, the cause of the yellowing, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) bleaching was adopted to treat the CA treated fabrics in order to break the CC bond structure and reduce the yellow color but retaining the desired anti-wrinkle properties. Thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were employed to investigate the reactions. The results revealed that the H2O2 bleaching can effectively improve the whiteness and also maintain a good anti-wrinkle performance of the CA treated fabrics under an appropriate bleaching temperature and time. PMID:27178918

  7. Rheological properties of sewage sludge during enhanced anaerobic digestion with microwave-H2O2 pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Min; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Tong, Juan

    2016-07-01

    The rheological behavior of sludge is of serious concern in anaerobic digestion. This study investigated the rheological properties of sewage sludge during enhanced anaerobic digestion with microwave-H2O2 pretreatment (MW-H2O2). The results showed that MW-H2O2 pretreatment resulted in the improvement of sludge flowability and weakening of its viscoelastic properties. Further positive effects on the rheological properties of digested sludge during anaerobic digestion were observed. The flowability was improved with a low level of apparent viscosity. The decrease of the consistency index and increase of the flow behavior index indicated that the strength of the inner structures and non-Newtonian flow characteristics of digested sludge weakened. Both the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) decreased, indicating that the viscoelastic behavior became weak. These effects were possibly attributed to the changes of the digested sludge micro-structures, such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This study concluded that anaerobic digestion for treating sewage sludge combined with pretreatment is a more favorable option than single anaerobic digestion from the perspective of rheology.

  8. Impact of coagulation as a pre-treatment for UVC/H2O2-biological activated carbon treatment of a municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Umar, Muhammad; Roddick, Felicity; Fan, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    After coagulation of high salinity reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) with either alum or ferric chloride followed by UVC/H2O2 treatment, biological activated carbon (BAC) was investigated for the removal of DOC. BAC treatment mainly removed low molecular weight (LMW) neutral molecules indicating that biodegradation was the predominant mechanism of organic matter removal. Coagulation with ferric chloride gave greater DOC reductions than alum both as a stand-alone treatment and after the sequence of UVC/H2O2 and BAC treatment. However, overall reduction after the sequence of coagulation, UVC/H2O2 and BAC treatment was only marginally greater for ferric chloride (68%) than for alum (62%). Trihalomethane formation potential and N-Nitrosodimethylamine concentration decreased markedly after UVC/H2O2 treatment. UVC/H2O2 treatment of the ROC led to the generation of extreme toxicity according to the Microtox assay, but no toxicity was observed after BAC, demonstrating its advantage for enabling safe disposal of the treated ROC. Implementation of coagulation as a pre-treatment and BAC as a post-treatment markedly reduced (6-8 times) the electrical energy dose (EED) required for the UVC/H2O2 process. The sequence of coagulation, UVC/H2O2 and BAC treatment was demonstrated as a potential process for the removal of organic matter from high salinity municipal ROC.

  9. Impact of coagulation as a pre-treatment for UVC/H2O2-biological activated carbon treatment of a municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate.

    PubMed

    Umar, Muhammad; Roddick, Felicity; Fan, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    After coagulation of high salinity reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) with either alum or ferric chloride followed by UVC/H2O2 treatment, biological activated carbon (BAC) was investigated for the removal of DOC. BAC treatment mainly removed low molecular weight (LMW) neutral molecules indicating that biodegradation was the predominant mechanism of organic matter removal. Coagulation with ferric chloride gave greater DOC reductions than alum both as a stand-alone treatment and after the sequence of UVC/H2O2 and BAC treatment. However, overall reduction after the sequence of coagulation, UVC/H2O2 and BAC treatment was only marginally greater for ferric chloride (68%) than for alum (62%). Trihalomethane formation potential and N-Nitrosodimethylamine concentration decreased markedly after UVC/H2O2 treatment. UVC/H2O2 treatment of the ROC led to the generation of extreme toxicity according to the Microtox assay, but no toxicity was observed after BAC, demonstrating its advantage for enabling safe disposal of the treated ROC. Implementation of coagulation as a pre-treatment and BAC as a post-treatment markedly reduced (6-8 times) the electrical energy dose (EED) required for the UVC/H2O2 process. The sequence of coagulation, UVC/H2O2 and BAC treatment was demonstrated as a potential process for the removal of organic matter from high salinity municipal ROC. PMID:26454666

  10. Effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization of odontoblast and osteoblast cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Lim, B-S; Lee, Y-K; Yang, H-C

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), an oxidizing agent, has been widely used as a disinfectant. Recently, because of its reactive properties, H(2)O(2) has also been used as a tooth bleaching agent in dental care. This is a cause for concern because of adverse biological effects on the soft and hard tissues of the oral environment. To investigate the influence of H(2)O(2) on odontoblasts, the cells producing dentin in the pulp, we assessed cellular viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and nodule formation of an odontoblastic cell line (MDPC-23) after treatment with H(2)O(2), and compared those with the effects on preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Cytotoxic effects of H(2)O(2) began to appear at 0.3 mmol/L in both MDPC-23 and MC3T3-E1 cells. At that concentration, the accumulation of intracellular ROS was confirmed by a fluorescent probe, DCFH-DA. Although more ROS were detected in MDPC-23, the increasing pattern and rate are similar between the two cells. When the cells were treated with H(2)O(2) at concentrations below 0.3 mmol/L, MDPC-23 displayed a significant increase in ALP activity and mineralized bone matrix, while MC3T3-E1 cells showed adverse effects of H(2)O(2). It is known that ROS are generally harmful by-products of aerobic life and represent the primary cause of aging and numerous diseases. These data, however, suggest that ROS can induce in vitro cell differentiation, and that they play a more complex role in cell physiology than simply causing oxidative damage.

  11. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with NH4OH-H2O2 and ionic liquid for efficient hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhisheng; Zhu, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2012-09-01

    An efficient pretreatment method using NH(4)OH-H(2)O(2) and ionic liquid (IL) was developed for the recovery of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). The regenerated SCB from the combined pretreatment exhibited significantly enhanced enzymatic digestibility with an efficiency of 91.4% after 12h of hydrolysis, which was 64% higher than the efficiency observed for the regenerated SCB after the individual NH(4)OH-H(2)O(2) pretreatment. 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl) dissolved the cellulose from the NH(4)OH-H(2)O(2)-pretreated SCB, and the crystallinity index (CrI) detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was reduced by 42%. The recycled and fresh [Amim]Cl demonstrated the same performance on the pretreatment of SCB for the enhancement of enzymatic digestibility. The regenerated SCB was subsequently used in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SScF) for bioethanol production by cellulase and yeast. The pretreatment did not have a negative effect on bioethanol fermentation, and an ethanol yield of 0.42 g/g was achieved with a corresponding fermentation efficiency of 94.5%. PMID:22728201

  12. Internal carbon source from sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 for nutrient removal in A2/O-membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rongle; Zhang, Qing; Tong, Juan; Wei, Yuansong; Fan, Yaobo

    2015-01-01

    To improve the nutrient removal, the feasibility was studied for the organics released from sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2 process (MHP) to be used as internal carbon source in two A2/O-membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The experiments were conducted for the nutrient removal and the membrane fouling. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of TN and TP were improved by 11% and 28.34%, respectively, as C/N ratio was adjusted to 8 by adding the internal carbon source, and the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) consumed easily for denitrification was about 46% of the total sCOD in the internal carbon source. The addition of the internal carbon sources did not lead to severe membrane fouling in the experimental A2/O-MBR. It is implied that the organics released from sludge pretreated by MHP could be used as the internal carbon source to enhance the nutrient removal in A2/O-MBRs.

  13. Solar light (hv) and H2O2/hv photo-disinfection of natural alkaline water (pH 8.6) in a compound parabolic collector at different day periods in Sahelian region.

    PubMed

    Ndounla, J; Pulgarin, C

    2015-11-01

    The photo-disinfection of natural alkaline surface water (pH 8.6 ± 0.3) for drinking purposes was carried out under solar radiation treatments. The enteric bacteria studied were the wild total coliforms/Escherichia coli (10(4) CFU/ml) and Salmonella spp. (10(4) CFU/ml) naturally present in the water. The photo-disinfection of a 25-l water sample was carried out in a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) in the absence and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The addition of H2O2 (10 mg/L) to the sample water was sufficient to enhance the photo-disinfection and ensure an irreversible lethal action on the wild enteric bacteria contents of the sample. The inactivation kinetic of the system was significantly enhanced compared to the one carried out without H2O2 addition. The effect of the solar radiation parameters on the efficiency of the photo-disinfection were assessed. The pH has increased during the treatment in all the photo-disinfection processes (hv and H2O2/hv). The Salmonella spp strain has shown the best effective inactivate time in alkaline water than the one recorded under acidic or near-neutral conditions. The evolution of some physico-chemical parameters of the water (turbidity, NO2(-), NO3(-), NH4(+), HPO4(2-), and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))) was monitored during the treatment. Finally, the possible mechanistic process involved during the enteric bacteria inactivation was suggested.

  14. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of softwood: hemicellulose degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vasco, Carlos; Zhang, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated softwood hemicelluloses degradation pathways during alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment of Douglas fir. It was found that glucomannan is much more susceptible to alkaline pretreatment than xylan. Organic acids, including lactic, succinic, glycolic and formic acid are the predominant products from glucomannan degradation. At low treatment temperature (90°C), a small amount of formic acid is produced from glucomannan, whereas glucomannan degradation to lactic acid and succinic acid becomes the main reactions at 140°C and 180°C. The addition of H2O2 during alkaline pretreatment of D. fir led to a significant removal of lignin, which subsequently facilitated glucomannan solubilization. However, H2O2 has little direct effect on the glucomannan degradation reaction. The main degradation pathways involved in glucomannan conversion to organics acids are elucidated. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to optimize pretreatment conditions to maximize the value of biomass hemicellulose.

  15. H2O2: A Dynamic Neuromodulator

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intra- and intercellular signaling molecule that can influence processes from embryonic development to cell death. Most research has focused on relatively slow signaling, on the order of minutes to days, via second messenger cascades. However, H2O2 can also mediate subsecond signaling via ion channel activation. This rapid signaling has been examined most thoroughly in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, which plays a key role in facilitating movement mediated by the basal ganglia. In DA neurons of the substantia nigra, endogenously generated H2O2 activates ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels that inhibit DA neuron firing. In the striatum, H2O2 generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in medium spiny neurons acts as a diffusible messenger that inhibits axonal DA release, also via KATP channels. The source of dynamically generated H2O2 is mitochondrial respiration; thus, H2O2 provides a novel link between activity and metabolism via KATP channels. Additional targets of H2O2 include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of H2O2 acting via KATP channels, TRP channel activation is excitatory. This review describes emerging roles of H2O2 as a signaling agent in the nigrostriatal pathway and other basal ganglia neurons. PMID:21666063

  16. H2O2: a dynamic neuromodulator.

    PubMed

    Rice, Margaret E

    2011-08-01

    Increasing evidence implicates hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as an intracellular and intercellular signaling molecule that can influence processes from embryonic development to cell death. Most research has focused on relatively slow signaling, on the order of minutes to days, via second messenger cascades. However, H(2)O(2) can also mediate subsecond signaling via ion channel activation. This rapid signaling has been examined most thoroughly in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, which plays a key role in facilitating movement mediated by the basal ganglia. In DA neurons of the substantia nigra, endogenously generated H(2)O(2) activates ATP-sensitive K(+) (K-ATP) channels that inhibit DA neuron firing. In the striatum, H(2)O(2) generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in medium spiny neurons acts as a diffusible messenger that inhibits axonal DA release, also via K-ATP channels. The source of dynamically generated H(2)O(2) is mitochondrial respiration; thus, H(2)O(2) provides a novel link between activity and metabolism via K-ATP channels. Additional targets of H(2)O(2) include transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) acting via K-ATP channels, TRP channel activation is excitatory. This review describes emerging roles of H(2)O(2) as a signaling agent in the nigrostriatal pathway and basal ganglia neurons.

  17. Greywater treatment by UVC/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Chin, W H; Roddick, F A; Harris, J L

    2009-09-01

    Greywater treatment by UVC/H(2)O(2) was investigated with regard to the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A COD reduction from 225 to 30 mgl(-1) (overall removal of 87%) was achieved after settling overnight and subsequent irradiation for 3h with 10mM H(2)O(2). Most of the contaminants were removed by oxidation since only 13% COD was removed by settlement. The removal of COD in the greywater followed a second-order kinetic equation, r=0.0637[COD][H(2)O(2)], up to 10mM H(2)O(2). A slightly enhanced COD removal was observed at the initial pH of 10 compared with pH 3 and 7. This was attributed to the dissociation of H(2)O(2) to O(2)H(-). The treatment was not affected by total concentration of carbonate (c(T)) of at least 3 mM, above which operation between pH 3 and 5 was essential. The initial biodegradability of the settled greywater (as BOD(5):COD) was 0.22. After 2h UVC/H(2)O(2) treatment, a higher proportion of the residual contaminants was biodegradable (BOD(5):COD=0.41) which indicated its potential as a pre-treatment for a biological process. PMID:19656542

  18. Greywater treatment by UVC/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Chin, W H; Roddick, F A; Harris, J L

    2009-09-01

    Greywater treatment by UVC/H(2)O(2) was investigated with regard to the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). A COD reduction from 225 to 30 mgl(-1) (overall removal of 87%) was achieved after settling overnight and subsequent irradiation for 3h with 10mM H(2)O(2). Most of the contaminants were removed by oxidation since only 13% COD was removed by settlement. The removal of COD in the greywater followed a second-order kinetic equation, r=0.0637[COD][H(2)O(2)], up to 10mM H(2)O(2). A slightly enhanced COD removal was observed at the initial pH of 10 compared with pH 3 and 7. This was attributed to the dissociation of H(2)O(2) to O(2)H(-). The treatment was not affected by total concentration of carbonate (c(T)) of at least 3 mM, above which operation between pH 3 and 5 was essential. The initial biodegradability of the settled greywater (as BOD(5):COD) was 0.22. After 2h UVC/H(2)O(2) treatment, a higher proportion of the residual contaminants was biodegradable (BOD(5):COD=0.41) which indicated its potential as a pre-treatment for a biological process.

  19. Innovative pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using supercritical CO2 followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Phan, Duy The; Tan, Chung-Sung

    2014-09-01

    An innovative method for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using sequential combination of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at mild conditions is proposed. This method was found to be superior to the individual pretreatment with scCO2, ultrasound, or H2O2 and the sequential combination of scCO2 and ultrasound regarding the yield of cellulose and hemicellulose, almost twice the yield was observed. Pretreatment with scCO2 could obtain higher amount of cellulose and hemicellulose but also acid-insoluble lignin. Pretreatment with ultrasound or H2O2 could partly depolymerize lignin, however, could not separate cellulose from lignin. The analysis of liquid products via enzymatic hydrolysis by HPLC and the characterization of the solid residues by SEM revealed strong synergetic effects in the sequential combination of scCO2 and H2O2.

  20. H2O2 Release from Human Granulocytes during Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Root, Richard K.; Metcalf, Julia A.

    1977-01-01

    Normal and cytochalasin B-treated human granulocytes have been studied to determine some of the interrelationships between phagocytosis-induced respiration and superoxide and hydrogen peroxide formation and release into the extracellular medium by intact cells. By using the scopoletin fluorescent assay to continuously monitor extracellular hydrogen peroxide concentrations during contact of cells with opsonized staphylococci, it was demonstrated that the superoxide scavengers ferricytochrome c and nitroblue tetrazolium significantly reduced the amount of H2O2 released with time from normal cells but did not abolish it. This inhibitory effect was reversed by the simultaneous addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD), whereas the addition of SOD alone increased the amount of detectable H2O2 in the medium. The addition of sodium azide markedly inhibited myeloperoxidase-H2O2-dependent protein iodination and more than doubled H2O2 release, including the residual amount remaining after exposure of the cells to ferricytochrome c, suggesting its origin from an intracellular pool shared by several pathways for H2O2 catabolism. When cells were pretreated with cytochalasin B and opsonized bacteria added, reduced oxygen consumption was observed, but this was in parallel to a reduction in specific binding of organisms to the cells when compared to normal. Under the influence of inhibited phagosome formation by cytochalasin B, the cells released an increased amount of superoxide and peroxide into the extracellular medium relative to oxygen consumption, and all detectable peroxide release could be inhibited by the addition of ferricytochrome c. Decreased H2O2 production in the presence of this compound could not be ascribed to diminished bacterial binding, decreased oxidase activity, or increased H2O2 catabolism and was reversed by the simultaneous addition of SOD. Furthermore, SOD and ferricytochrome c had similar effects on another H2O2-dependent reaction, protein iodination, in

  1. Structural changes and enzymatic response of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) stem induced by alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Phitsuwan, Paripok; Sakka, Kazuo; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2016-10-01

    Napier grass is a promising energy crop in the tropical region. Feasible alkaline pretreatment technologies, including NaOH, Ca(OH)2, NH3, and alkaline H2O2 (aH2O2), were used to delignify lignocellulose with the aim of improving glucose recovery from Napier grass stem cellulose via enzymatic saccharification. The influences of the pretreatments on structural alterations were examined using SEM, FTIR, XRD, and TGA, and the relationships between these changes and the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose were addressed. The extensive removal of lignin (84%) in NaOH-pretreated fibre agreed well with the high glucan conversion rate (94%) by enzymatic hydrolysis, while the conversion rates for fibre pretreated with Ca(OH)2, NH3, and aH2O2 approached 60%, 51%, and 42%, respectively. The substantial solubilisation of lignin created porosity, allowing increased cellulose accessibility to cellulases in NaOH-pretreated fibre. In contrast, high lignin content, lignin redeposition on the surface, and residual internal lignin and hemicellulose impeded enzymatic performance in Ca(OH)2-, NH3-, and aH2O2-pretreated fibres, respectively.

  2. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  3. Activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibits H2O2-induced decreases in proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Lee, Daewoo; Cho, Eui-Sic; Heo, Jung Sun; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Ahn, Yu-Hyeon; Hwang, Jae-Won; Ji, Hyeok; Kim, Jong-Ghee; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPLFs) are exposed to oxidative stress during periodontal inflammation and dental treatments. It is hypothesized that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated oxidative stress decreases survival and osteogenic differentiation of hPLFs, whereas these decreases are prevented by activation of the Wnt pathway. However, there has been a lack of reports that define the exact roles of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in H2O2-exposed hPLFs. Treatment with H2O2 reduced viability and proliferation in hPLFs in a dose- and time-dependent manner and led to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Pretreatment with lithium chloride (LiCl) or Wnt1 inhibited the oxidative damage that occurred in H2O2-exposed hPLFs. However, knockout of β-catenin or treatment with DKK1 facilitated the H2O2-induced decreases in viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and Bcl-2 induction. Osteoblastic differentiation of hPLFs was also inhibited by combined treatment with 100 μM H2O2, as evidenced by the decreases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization. H2O2-mediated inhibition of osteoblast differentiation in hPLFs was significantly attenuated in the presence of 500 ng/ml Wnt1 or 20 mM LiCl. In particular, H2O2 stimulated the expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) at protein and mRNA levels in hPLFs, whereas the induction was almost completely suppressed in the presence of Wnt1 or LiCl. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated silencing of Nrf2 blocked H2O2-induced decreases in ALP activity and mineralization of hPLFs with the concomitant restoration of runt-related transcription factor 2 and osteocalcin mRNA expression and ALP activity. Collectively, these results suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway improves proliferation and mineralization in H2O2-exposed hPLFs by downregulating Nrf2.

  4. The thioredoxin and glutathione-dependent H2O2 consumption pathways in muscle mitochondria: Involvement in H2O2 metabolism and consequence to H2O2 efflux assays.

    PubMed

    Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Sotiri, Emianka; Tamanna, Nahid; Treberg, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    The most common methods of measuring mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production are based on the extramitochondrial oxidation of a fluorescent probe such as amplex ultra red (AUR) by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). These traditional HRP-based assays only detect H2O2 that has escaped the matrix, raising the potential for substantial underestimation of production if H2O2 is consumed by matrix antioxidant pathways. To measure this underestimation, we characterized matrix consumers of H2O2 in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria, and developed specific means to inhibit these consumers. Mitochondria removed exogenously added H2O2 (2.5µM) at rates of 4.7 and 5.0nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) when respiring on glutamate+malate and succinate+rotenone, respectively. In the absence of respiratory substrate, or after disrupting membranes by cycles of freeze-thaw, rates of H2O2 consumption were negligible. We concluded that matrix consumers are respiration-dependent (requiring respiratory substrates), suggesting the involvement of either the thioredoxin (Trx) and/or glutathione (GSH)-dependent enzymatic pathways. The Trx-reductase inhibitor auranofin (2µM), and a pre-treatment of mitochondria with 35µM of 1-chloro-2,4-dintrobenzene (CDNB) to deplete GSH specifically compromise these two consumption pathways. These inhibition approaches presented no undesirable "off-target" effects during extensive preliminary tests. These inhibition approaches independently and additively decreased the rate of consumption of H2O2 exogenously added to the medium (2.5µM). During traditional HRP-based H2O2 efflux assays, these inhibition approaches independently and additively increased apparent efflux rates. When used in combination (double inhibition), these inhibition approaches allowed accumulation of (endogenously produced) H2O2 in the medium at a comparable rate whether it was measured with an end point assay where 2.5µM H2O2 is initially added to the medium or with traditional HRP-based efflux

  5. The thioredoxin and glutathione-dependent H2O2 consumption pathways in muscle mitochondria: Involvement in H2O2 metabolism and consequence to H2O2 efflux assays.

    PubMed

    Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Sotiri, Emianka; Tamanna, Nahid; Treberg, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    The most common methods of measuring mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production are based on the extramitochondrial oxidation of a fluorescent probe such as amplex ultra red (AUR) by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). These traditional HRP-based assays only detect H2O2 that has escaped the matrix, raising the potential for substantial underestimation of production if H2O2 is consumed by matrix antioxidant pathways. To measure this underestimation, we characterized matrix consumers of H2O2 in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria, and developed specific means to inhibit these consumers. Mitochondria removed exogenously added H2O2 (2.5µM) at rates of 4.7 and 5.0nmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) when respiring on glutamate+malate and succinate+rotenone, respectively. In the absence of respiratory substrate, or after disrupting membranes by cycles of freeze-thaw, rates of H2O2 consumption were negligible. We concluded that matrix consumers are respiration-dependent (requiring respiratory substrates), suggesting the involvement of either the thioredoxin (Trx) and/or glutathione (GSH)-dependent enzymatic pathways. The Trx-reductase inhibitor auranofin (2µM), and a pre-treatment of mitochondria with 35µM of 1-chloro-2,4-dintrobenzene (CDNB) to deplete GSH specifically compromise these two consumption pathways. These inhibition approaches presented no undesirable "off-target" effects during extensive preliminary tests. These inhibition approaches independently and additively decreased the rate of consumption of H2O2 exogenously added to the medium (2.5µM). During traditional HRP-based H2O2 efflux assays, these inhibition approaches independently and additively increased apparent efflux rates. When used in combination (double inhibition), these inhibition approaches allowed accumulation of (endogenously produced) H2O2 in the medium at a comparable rate whether it was measured with an end point assay where 2.5µM H2O2 is initially added to the medium or with traditional HRP-based efflux

  6. Decrease of H2O2 plasma membrane permeability during adaptation to H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Branco, Miguel R; Marinho, H Susana; Cyrne, Luisa; Antunes, Fernando

    2004-02-20

    Contrary to what is widely believed, recent published results show that H2O2 does not freely diffuse across biomembranes. The fast removal of H2O2 by antioxidant enzymes is able to generate a gradient if H2O2 is produced in a different compartment from that containing the enzymes (Antunes, F., and Cadenas, E. (2000) FEBS Lett. 475, 121-126). In this work, we extended these studies and tested whether an active regulation of biomembranes permeability characteristics is part of the cell response to oxidative stress. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model, we showed that: (a) H2O2 gradients across the plasma membrane are formed upon exposure to external H2O2; (b) there is a correlation between the magnitude of the gradients and the resistance to H2O2; (c) there is not a correlation between the intracellular capacity to remove H2O2 and the resistance to H2O2; (d) the plasma membrane permeability to H2O2 decreases by a factor of two upon acquisition of resistance to this agent by pre-exposing cells either to nonlethal doses of H2O2 or to cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis; and (e) erg3Delta and erg6Delta mutants, which have impaired ergosterol biosynthesis pathways, show higher plasma membrane permeability to H2O2 and are more sensitive to H2O2. Altogether, the regulation of the plasma membrane permeability to H2O2 emerged as a new mechanism by which cells respond and adapt to H2O2. The consequences of the results to cellular redox compartmentalization and to the origin and evolution of the eukaryotic cell are discussed.

  7. Transcriptional response of genes involved in cell defense system in human cells stressed by H2O2 and pre-treated with (Tunisian) Rhamnus alaternus extracts: combination with polyphenolic compounds and classic in vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Rebai Ben; Bouhlel, Ines; Valenti, Kita; Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Kilani, Soumaya; Mariotte, Anne-Marie; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Geneviève; Laporte, François; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-07-20

    The ability of three Rhamnus alaternus leaves extracts on antigenotoxic and gene expression level effects was respectively investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e. the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37 and in human K562 lymphoblast cell line. Total oligomers flavonoids (TOF) enriched, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared from powdered R. alaternus leaves and characterized quantitatively for the presence of polyphenolic compounds. We explored the response to oxidative stress using the transcriptional profile of genes in K562 cells stressed with H2O2 after incubation with plant extracts. For this purpose, we used a cDNA microarrays containing 82 genes related to cell defense, essentially represented by antioxidant and DNA repair genes. Analysis revealed that SOD1, AOE 372, TXN genes involved in the antioxidant defense system and XPC, LIG4, POLD2, PCNA genes implied in the DNA repair system were among the most expressed ones in the presence of the tested extracts. These results were in accordance with those obtained when we tested the antigenotoxic and antioxidant effects of the same extracts with, respectively the SOS chromotest and the xanthine/xanthine oxidase enzymatic assay system. The effect of the tested extracts on SOS response induced by both Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1: 10 microg/assay) and nifuroxazide (20 microg/assay) showed that the TOF extract exhibited the highest antimutagenic level towards the indirect mutagen AFB1. Whereas ethyl acetate extract showed the highest antimutagenic effect towards the direct mutagen, nifuroxazide. None of the tested extracts induced mutagenic activity. However all the tested extracts exhibited xanthine oxidase inhibiting and superoxide anions scavenging effects. R. alaternus extracts contain compounds with significant antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities. These compounds modulate gene expression as detected by using cDNA arrays. PMID:17512922

  8. Heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of As(III) on nonferrous metal oxides in the presence of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-hyo; Bokare, Alok D; Koo, Min suk; Choi, Wonyong

    2015-03-17

    The oxidation of As(III) (arsenite) to As(V) (arsenate), a critical pretreatment process for total arsenic removal, is easily achieved using chemical oxidation methods. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is widely used as an environmentally benign oxidant but its practical use for the arsenite oxidation is limited by the strong pH dependence and slow oxidation kinetics. This study demonstrated that H2O2-induced oxidation of As(III) can be markedly enhanced in the presence of nonferrous metal oxides (e.g., WO3, TiO2, ZrO2) as a heterogeneous catalyst working over a wide pH range in ambient reaction conditions. In particular, TiO2 is an ideal catalyst because it is not only active and stable but also easily available and inexpensive. Although the photocatalytic oxidation of As(III) on TiO2 was intensively studied, the thermal catalytic activities of TiO2 and other nonferrous metal oxides for the arsenic oxidation have been little investigated. The heterogeneous oxidation rate increased with increasing the TiO2 surface area and [H2O2] and weakly depended on pH whereas the homogeneous oxidation by H2O2 alone was favored only at alkaline condition. The oxidation rate in the TiO2/H2O2 system was not reduced at all in the absence of dioxygen. It was not retarded at all by OH radical scavengers but markedly inhibited by hydroperoxyl radical scavengers. It is proposed that the surface complexation of H2O2 on TiO2 induces the generation of the surface hydroperoxyl radical through an inner-sphere electron transfer, which subsequently reacts with As(III). The catalytic activity of TiO2 was maintained without showing any sign of deactivation. The heterogeneous catalytic oxidation is proposed as a viable method for the preoxidation treatment of As(III)-contaminated water under ambient conditions. PMID:25695481

  9. Scavenging of H2O2 by mouse brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Andreyev, Alexander Yu; Zhang, Steven F; Starkova, Natalia N; Korneeva, Maria; Syromyatnikov, Mikhail; Popov, Vasily N

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism is unique in that mitochondria both generate and scavenge ROS. Recent estimates of ROS scavenging capacity of brain mitochondria are surprisingly high, ca. 9-12 nmol H2O2/min/mg, which is ~100 times higher than the rate of ROS generation. This raises a question whether brain mitochondria are a source or a sink of ROS. We studied the interaction between ROS generation and scavenging in mouse brain mitochondria by measuring the rate of removal of H2O2 added at a concentration of 0.4 μM, which is close to the reported physiological H2O2 concentrations in tissues, under conditions of low and high levels of mitochondrial H2O2 generation. With NAD-linked substrates, the rate of H2O2 generation by mitochondria was ~50-70 pmol/min/mg. The H2O2 scavenging dynamics was best approximated by the first order reaction equation. H2O2 scavenging was not affected by the uncoupling of mitochondria, phosphorylation of added ADP, or the genetic ablation of glutathione peroxidase 1, but decreased in the absence of respiratory substrates, in the presence of thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin, or in partially disrupted mitochondria. With succinate, the rate of H2O2 generation was ~2,200-2,900 pmol/min/mg; the scavenging of added H2O2 was masked by a significant accumulation of generated H2O2 in the assay medium. The obtained data were fitted into a simple model that reasonably well described the interaction between H2O2 scavenging and production. It showed that mitochondria are neither a sink nor a source of H2O2, but can function as both at the same time, efficiently stabilizing exogenous H2O2 concentration at a level directly proportional to the ratio of the H2O2 generation rate to the rate constant of the first order scavenging reaction.

  10. Hormetic Effect of H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Valishkevych, Bohdana V.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between target of rapamycin (TOR) and H2O2-induced hormetic response in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose or fructose. In general, our data suggest that: (1) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces hormesis in a TOR-dependent manner; (2) the H2O2-induced hormetic dose–response in yeast depends on the type of carbohydrate in growth medium; (3) the concentration-dependent effect of H2O2 on yeast colony growth positively correlates with the activity of glutathione reductase that suggests the enzyme involvement in the H2O2-induced hormetic response; and (4) both TOR1 and TOR2 are involved in the reciprocal regulation of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glyoxalase 1. PMID:27099601

  11. N-acetyl cysteine inhibits H2O2-mediated reduction in the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells by down-regulating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daewoo; Kook, Sung-Ho; Ji, Hyeok; Lee, Seung-Ah; Choi, Ki-Choon; Lee, Kyung-Yeol; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2015-11-01

    There are controversial findings regarding the roles of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway on bone metabolism under oxidative stress. We investigated how Nrf2/HO-1 pathway affects osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), or both. Exposing the cells to H2O2 decreased the alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium accumulation, and expression of osteoblast markers, such as osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor-2. In contrast, H2O2 treatment increased the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the cells. Treatment with hemin, a chemical HO-1 inducer, mimicked the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on osteoblast differentiation by increasing the HO-1 expression and decreasing the osteogenic marker genes. Pretreatment with NAC restored all changes induced by H2O2 to near normal levels in the cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that H2O2-mediated activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway negatively regulates the osteoblast differentiation, which is inhibited by NAC. PMID:26303969

  12. Evaluation of UV/H(2)O(2) treatment for the oxidation of pharmaceuticals in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L; Wert, Eric C; Snyder, Shane A

    2010-03-01

    Advanced oxidation treatment using low pressure UV light coupled with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H(2)O(2)) was evaluated for the oxidation of six pharmaceuticals in three wastewater effluents. The removal of these six pharmaceuticals (meprobamate, carbamazepine, dilantin, atenolol, primidone and trimethoprim) varied between no observed removal and >90%. The role of the water quality (i.e., alkalinity, nitrite, and specifically effluent organic matter (EfOM)) on hydroxyl radical (OH) exposure was evaluated and used to explain the differences in pharmaceutical removal between the three wastewaters. Results indicated that the efficacy of UV/H(2)O(2) treatment for the removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater was a function of not only the concentration of EfOM but also its inherent reactivity towards OH. The removal of pharmaceuticals also correlated with reductions in ultraviolet absorbance at 254nm (UV(254)), which offers utilities a surrogate to assess pharmaceutical removal efficiency during UV/H(2)O(2) treatment.

  13. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  14. Cardiovascular effects of resveratrol and atorvastatin treatments in an H2O2-induced stress model

    PubMed Central

    SONER, BURAK CEM; ŞAHIN, AYŞE SAIDE

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several types of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins are widely used to inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis and reduce the incidence of CVD. Certain over-the-counter products, including resveratrol, show similar effects to statins and may thus be used in conjunction with statins for the treatment of the majority of patients with CVD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of atorvastatin, resveratrol and resveratrol + atorvastatin (R+A) pretreatment on myocardial contractions and vascular endothelial functions in the presence of H2O2 as an experimental model of oxidative stress in rats. Four groups were established and referred to as the control, atorvastatin, resveratrol and R+A groups. Atorvastatin (40 mg/kg, per oral) and/or resveratrol (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) treatments were administered for 14 days. On the 15th day, the thoracic aortas and hearts of the rats were dissected and placed into isolated organ baths. Vascular responses to cumulative doses of H2O2 (1×10−8–1×10−4 M H2O2) with and without N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) incubation were measured. In addition, myocardial electrical stimulation (ES) responses to various H2O2 concentrations (1×10−7–1×10−5 M H2O2) were evaluated. In the control and atorvastatin groups, H2O2 application caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the ES-induced contractions in the myocardial tissue of rats. In the resveratrol and R+A groups, H2O2 application did not significantly affect myocardial contraction at any dose. In all groups, incubation with L-NAME caused a significant augmentation in the H2O2 response, revealing that this effect was mediated via the vascular endothelium. In conclusion, pretreatment with R+A for CVD appears to be superior to pretreatment with either agent alone. PMID:25289077

  15. Coupling UV-H2O2 to accelerate dimethyl phthalate (DMP) biodegradation and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Song, Jiaxiu; Yang, Lihui; Bai, Qi; Li, Rongjie; Zhang, Yongming; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-11-01

    Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), an important industrial raw material, is an endocrine disruptor of concern for human and environmental health. DMP exhibits slow biodegradation, and its coupled treatment by means of advanced oxidation may enhance its biotransformation and mineralization. We evaluated two ways of coupling UV-H2O2 advanced oxidation to biodegradation: sequential coupling and intimate coupling in an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor (ICBBR). During sequential coupling, UV-H2O2 pretreatment generated carboxylic acids that depressed the pH, and subsequent biodegradation generated phthalic acid; both factors inhibited DMP biodegradation. During intimately coupled UV-H2O2 with biodegradation, carboxylic acids and phthalic acid (PA) did not accumulate, and the biodegradation rate was 13 % faster than with biodegradation alone and 78 % faster than with biodegradation after UV-H2O2 pretreatment. Similarly, DMP oxidation with intimate coupling increased by 5 and 39 %, respectively, compared with biodegradation alone and sequential coupling. The enhancement effects during intimate coupling can be attributed to the rapid catabolism of carboxylic acids, which generated intracellular electron carriers that directly accelerated di-oxygenation of PA and relieved the inhibition effect of PA and low pH. Thus, intimate coupling optimized the impacts of energy input from UV irradiation used together with biodegradation.

  16. Progesterone amplifies oxidative stress signal and promotes NO production via H2O2 in mouse kidney arterial endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Hua; Fan, Yang-Yang; Yang, Chun-Rong; Gao, Xiao-Rui; Zhang, Li-Li; Hu, Ying; Wang, Ya-Qin; Jun, Hu

    2016-01-01

    The role of progesterone on the cardiovascular system is controversial. Our present research is to specify the effect of progesterone on arterial endothelial cells in response to oxidative stress. Our result showed that H2O2 (150 μM and 300 μM) induced cellular antioxidant response. Glutathione (GSH) production and the activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were increased in H2O2-treated group. The expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) was induced in response to H2O2. However, progesterone absolutely abolished the antioxidant response through increasing ROS level, inhibiting the activity of Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), decreasing GSH level and reducing expression of GClC and GCLM. In our study, H2O2 induced nitrogen monoxide (NO) production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, and progesterone promoted H2O2-induced NO production. Progesterone increased H2O2-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIFα) which in turn regulated eNOS expression and NO synthesis. Further study demonstrated that progesterone increased H2O2 concentration of culture medium which may contribute to NO synthesis. Exogenous GSH decreased the content of H2O2 of culture medium pretreated by progesterone combined with H2O2 or progesterone alone. GSH also inhibited expression of HIFα and eNOS, and abolished NO synthesis. Collectively, our study demonstrated for the first time that progesterone inhibited cellular antioxidant effect and increased oxidative stress, promoted NO production of arterial endothelial cells, which may be due to the increasing H2O2 concentration and amplified oxidative stress signal.

  17. Role of Metabolic H2O2 Generation

    PubMed Central

    Sies, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, the nonradical 2-electron reduction product of oxygen, is a normal aerobic metabolite occurring at about 10 nm intracellular concentration. In liver, it is produced at 50 nmol/min/g of tissue, which is about 2% of total oxygen uptake at steady state. Metabolically generated H2O2 emerged from recent research as a central hub in redox signaling and oxidative stress. Upon generation by major sources, the NADPH oxidases or Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, H2O2 is under sophisticated fine control of peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases with their backup systems as well as by catalase. Of note, H2O2 is a second messenger in insulin signaling and in several growth factor-induced signaling cascades. H2O2 transport across membranes is facilitated by aquaporins, denoted as peroxiporins. Specialized protein cysteines operate as redox switches using H2O2 as thiol oxidant, making this reactive oxygen species essential for poising the set point of the redox proteome. Major processes including proliferation, differentiation, tissue repair, inflammation, circadian rhythm, and aging use this low molecular weight oxygen metabolite as signaling compound. PMID:24515117

  18. Electrochemical, H2O2-Boosted Catalytic Oxidation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John O.; Schussel, Leonard J.

    2004-01-01

    An improved water-sterilizing aqueous-phase catalytic oxidation system (APCOS) is based partly on the electrochemical generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This H2O2-boosted system offers significant improvements over prior dissolved-oxygen water-sterilizing systems in the way in which it increases oxidation capabilities, supplies H2O2 when needed, reduces the total organic carbon (TOC) content of treated water to a low level, consumes less energy than prior systems do, reduces the risk of contamination, and costs less to operate. This system was developed as a variant of part of an improved waste-management subsystem of the life-support system of a spacecraft. Going beyond its original intended purpose, it offers the advantage of being able to produce H2O2 on demand for surface sterilization and/or decontamination: this is a major advantage inasmuch as the benign byproducts of this H2O2 system, unlike those of systems that utilize other chemical sterilants, place no additional burden of containment control on other spacecraft air- or water-reclamation systems.

  19. NASA Lewis H2-O2 MHD program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M.; Nichols, L. D.; Seikel, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Performance and power costs of H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems are estimated. Hydrogen gas is assumed to be transmitted by pipe from a remote coal gasifier into the city and converted to electricity in a steam MHD plant having an integral gaseous oxygen plant. These steam MHD systems appear to offer an attractive alternative to both in-city clean fueled conventional steam power plants and to remote coal fired power plants with underground electric transmission into the city. Status and plans are outlined for an experimental evaluation of H2-O2 combustion-driven MHD power generators at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  20. The role and synergistic effect of the light irradiation and H2O2 in photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tsz Wai; An, Taicheng; Li, Guiying; Ho, Wing Kei; Yip, Ho Yin; Zhao, Huijun; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-08-01

    Inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 was conducted by applying a continuous supplying of commercial H2O2 to mimic the H2O2 production in a photocatalytic system, and the contribution of H2O2 in photocatalytic inactivation was investigated using a modified "partition system" and five E. coli mutants. The concentration of exogenous H2O2 required for complete inactivation of bacterial cells was much higher than that produced in-situ in common photocatalytic system, indicating that H2O2 alone plays a minor role in photocatalytic inactivation. However, the concentration of exogenously produced H2O2 required for effective inactivation of E. coli K-12 was much lower when the light irradiation was applied. To further investigate the possible physiological changes, inactivation of E. coli BW25113 (the parental strain), and its corresponding isogenic single-gene deletion mutants with light pretreatment was compared. The results indicate that light irradiation increases the bacterial intracellular Fe(2+) level and favors hydroxyl radical (OH) production via the catalytic reaction of Fe(2+), leading to increase in DNA damage. Moreover, the results indicate that the properties of light source, such as intensity and major emission wavelength, may alter the physiology of bacterial cells and affect the susceptibility to in-situ resultant H2O2 in the photocatalytic inactivation processes, leading to significant influence on the photocatalytic inactivation efficiencies of E. coli K-12. PMID:26083904

  1. NiO/graphene nanocomposite for determination of H2O2 with a low detection limit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Li, Hejun; Zhang, Xinmeng; Liu, Ningkun; Zhang, Xv

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we have reported the preparation of NiO/graphene (NiO/GR) nanocomposite for determination of H2O2 via a convenient solid reaction. The electrocatalytic behaviors towards H2O2 are investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry in alkaline aqueous solution. Electrochemical results indicate that the NiO/GR nanocomposite exhibits a high peak current towards the oxidation of H2O2. Moreover, high electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of H2O2 is observed with a low detection limit of 0.7664 μM, high sensitivity of 591 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), a wide linear range of 0.25-4.75 mM (R(2)=0.9971). Besides, the sensor presents many attractive features such as high stability and reproducibility. PMID:26452784

  2. Oxidative degradation of endotoxin by advanced oxidation process (O3/H2O2 & UV/H2O2).

    PubMed

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Seo, Young-Suk; Sudhakar, Dega; Choe, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Park, Youn-Jong; Cho, Min

    2014-08-30

    The presence of endotoxin in water environments may pose a serious public health hazard. We investigated the effectiveness of advanced oxidative processes (AOP: O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) in the oxidative degradation of endotoxin. In addition, we measured the release of endotoxin from Escherichia coli following typical disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone alone and UV, and compared it with the use of AOPs. Finally, we tested the AOP-treated samples in their ability to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in mouse peritoneal macrophages. The production of hydroxyl radical in AOPs showed superior ability to degrade endotoxin in buffered solution, as well as water samples from Korean water treatment facilities, with the ozone/H2O2 being more efficient compared to UV/H2O2. In addition, the AOPs proved effective not only in eliminating E. coli in the samples, but also in endotoxin degradation, while the standard disinfection methods lead to the release of endotoxin following the bacteria destruction. Furthermore, in the experiments with macrophages, the AOPs-deactivated endotoxin lead to the smallest induction of TNF-α, which shows the loss of inflammation activity, compared to ozone treatment alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that AOPs offer an effective and mild method for endotoxin degradation in the water systems.

  3. Effect of coagulation on treatment of municipal wastewater reverse osmosis concentrate by UVC/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Umar, Muhammad; Roddick, Felicity; Fan, Linhua

    2014-02-15

    Disposal of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) is a growing concern due to potential health and ecological risks. Alum coagulation was investigated as pre-treatment for the UVC/H2O2 treatment of two high salinity ROC samples (ROC A and B) of comparable organic and inorganic content. Coagulation removed a greater fraction of the organic content for ROC B (29%) than ROC A (16%) which correlated well with the reductions of colour and A254. Although the total reductions after 60 min UVC/H2O2 treatment with and without coagulation were comparable, large differences in the trends of reduction were observed which were attributed to the different nature of the organic content (humic-like) of the samples as indicated by the LC-OCD analyses and different initial (5% and 16%) biodegradability. Coagulation and UVC/H2O2 treatment preferentially removed humic-like compounds which resulted in low reaction rates after UVC/H2O2 treatment of the coagulated samples. The improvement in biodegradability was greater (2-3-fold) during UVC/H2O2 treatment of the pre-treated samples than without pre-treatment. The target DOC residual (≤ 15 mg/L) was obtained after 30 and 20 min irradiation of pre-treated ROC A and ROC B with downstream biological treatment, corresponding to reductions of 55% and 62%, respectively.

  4. L-carnitine attenuates H2O2-induced neuron apoptosis via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ye, Junli; Han, Yantao; Chen, Xuehong; Xie, Jing; Liu, Xiaojin; Qiao, Shunhong; Wang, Chunbo

    2014-12-01

    Both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) have been linked to pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Our previous study has shown that L-carnitine may function as an antioxidant to inhibit H2O2-induced oxidative stress in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. To further explore the neuroprotection of L-carnitine, here we study the effects of L-carnitine on the ER stress response in H2O2-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury. Our results showed that L-carnitine pretreatment could increase cell viability; inhibit apoptosis and ROS accumulation caused by H2O2 or tunicamycin (TM). L-carnitine suppress the endoplasmic reticulum dilation and activation of ER stress-associated proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), JNK, Bax and Bim induced by H2O2 or TM. In addition, H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and activation of ER stress can also be attenuated by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), CHOP siRNA and the inhibitor of ER stress 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA). Taken together, our results demonstrated that H2O2 could trigger both oxidative stress and ER stress in SH-SY5Y cells, and ER stress participated in SH-SY5Y apoptosis mediated by H2O2-induced oxidative stress. CHOP/Bim or JNK/Bim-dependent ER stress signaling pathways maybe related to the neuroprotective effects of L-carnitine against H2O2-induced apoptosis and oxidative injury.

  5. Copper chloride induces antioxidant gene expression but reduces ability to mediate H2O2 toxicity in Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Sornchuer, Phornphan; Namchaiw, Poommaree; Kerdwong, Jarunee; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

    2014-02-01

    Copper (Cu)-based biocides are currently used as control measures for both fungal and bacterial diseases in agricultural fields. In this communication, we show that exposure of the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris to nonlethal concentrations of Cu(2+) ions (75 µM) enhanced expression of genes in OxyR, OhrR and IscR regulons. High levels of catalase, Ohr peroxidase and superoxide dismutase diminished Cu(2+)-induced gene expression, suggesting that the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydroperoxides is responsible for Cu(2+)-induced gene expression. Despite high expression of antioxidant genes, the CuCl2-treated cells were more susceptible to H2O2 killing treatment than the uninduced cells. This phenotype arose from lowered catalase activity in the CuCl2-pretreated cells. Thus, exposure to a nonlethal dose of Cu(2+) renders X. campestris vulnerable to H2O2, even when various genes for peroxide-metabolizing enzymes are highly expressed. Moreover, CuCl2-pretreated cells are sensitive to treatment with the redox cycling drug, menadione. No physiological cross-protection response was observed in CuCl2-treated cells in a subsequent challenge with killing concentrations of an organic hydroperoxide. As H2O2 production is an important initial plant immune response, defects in H2O2 protection are likely to reduce bacterial survival in plant hosts and enhance the usefulness of copper biocides in controlling bacterial pathogens. PMID:24385479

  6. Increasing extracellular H2O2 produces a bi-phasic response in intracellular H2O2, with peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation only triggered once the cellular H2O2-buffering capacity is overwhelmed.

    PubMed

    Tomalin, Lewis Elwood; Day, Alison Michelle; Underwood, Zoe Elizabeth; Smith, Graham Robert; Dalle Pezze, Piero; Rallis, Charalampos; Patel, Waseema; Dickinson, Bryan Craig; Bähler, Jürg; Brewer, Thomas Francis; Chang, Christopher Joh-Leung; Shanley, Daryl Pierson; Veal, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species, such as H2O2, can damage cells but also promote fundamental processes, including growth, differentiation and migration. The mechanisms allowing cells to differentially respond to toxic or signaling H2O2 levels are poorly defined. Here we reveal that increasing external H2O2 produces a bi-phasic response in intracellular H2O2. Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are abundant peroxidases which protect against genome instability, ageing and cancer. We have developed a dynamic model simulating in vivo changes in Prx oxidation. Remarkably, we show that the thioredoxin peroxidase activity of Prx does not provide any significant protection against external rises in H2O2. Instead, our model and experimental data are consistent with low levels of extracellular H2O2 being efficiently buffered by other thioredoxin-dependent activities, including H2O2-reactive cysteines in the thiol-proteome. We show that when extracellular H2O2 levels overwhelm this buffering capacity, the consequent rise in intracellular H2O2 triggers hyperoxidation of Prx to thioredoxin-resistant, peroxidase-inactive form/s. Accordingly, Prx hyperoxidation signals that H2O2 defenses are breached, diverting thioredoxin to repair damage. PMID:26944189

  7. Increasing extracellular H2O2 produces a bi-phasic response in intracellular H2O2, with peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation only triggered once the cellular H2O2-buffering capacity is overwhelmed.

    PubMed

    Tomalin, Lewis Elwood; Day, Alison Michelle; Underwood, Zoe Elizabeth; Smith, Graham Robert; Dalle Pezze, Piero; Rallis, Charalampos; Patel, Waseema; Dickinson, Bryan Craig; Bähler, Jürg; Brewer, Thomas Francis; Chang, Christopher Joh-Leung; Shanley, Daryl Pierson; Veal, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species, such as H2O2, can damage cells but also promote fundamental processes, including growth, differentiation and migration. The mechanisms allowing cells to differentially respond to toxic or signaling H2O2 levels are poorly defined. Here we reveal that increasing external H2O2 produces a bi-phasic response in intracellular H2O2. Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are abundant peroxidases which protect against genome instability, ageing and cancer. We have developed a dynamic model simulating in vivo changes in Prx oxidation. Remarkably, we show that the thioredoxin peroxidase activity of Prx does not provide any significant protection against external rises in H2O2. Instead, our model and experimental data are consistent with low levels of extracellular H2O2 being efficiently buffered by other thioredoxin-dependent activities, including H2O2-reactive cysteines in the thiol-proteome. We show that when extracellular H2O2 levels overwhelm this buffering capacity, the consequent rise in intracellular H2O2 triggers hyperoxidation of Prx to thioredoxin-resistant, peroxidase-inactive form/s. Accordingly, Prx hyperoxidation signals that H2O2 defenses are breached, diverting thioredoxin to repair damage.

  8. Vibrational Predissociation Dynamics of the (H_2O)_2 Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ch'ng, L. C.; Rocher, B. E.; Mollner, A. K.; Reisler, H.

    2011-06-01

    The state-to-state vibrational predissociation dynamics of the (H_2O)_2 dimer were studied by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and velocity-map imaging (VMI) to obtain pair-correlated product energy distributions. The 2+1 REMPI spectra of the H_2O photofragments were recorded via the tilde{C}^1B_1 (000) ← tilde{X}^1A_1 (000 and 010) transition following a vibrational excitation of the dimer's bound-OH stretch fundamental. The fragment' center-of-mass translational energy (c.m. E_T) distributions were determined from VMI of selected rotational states of the detected H_2O photofragments. The c.m. E_T distributions were then converted to pair-correlated H_2O cofragment rotational level distributions. This is the first experiment in which H_2O products with bend (ν_2) excitation were observed by REMPI. The dissociation energy of the dimer was determined from the images with spectroscopic accuracy. The predissociation mechanism of (H_2O)_2 will be discussed and compared with the corresponding hydrogen bonded dimers of an acid (HCl-H_2O) and a base (NH_3-H_2O).

  9. Removing polysaccharides-and saccharides-related coloring impurities in alkyl polyglycosides by bleaching with the H2O2/TAED/NaHCO3 system.

    PubMed

    Yanmei, Liu; Jinliang, Tao; Jiao, Sun; Wenyi, Chen

    2014-11-01

    The effect of H2O2/TAED/NaHCO3 system, namely NaHCO3 as alkaline agent with the (tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED)) TAED-activated peroxide system, bleaching of alkyl polyglycosides solution was studied by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the optimal bleaching conditions about H2O2/TAED/NaHCO3 system bleaching of alkyl polyglycosides solution were as follows: molar ratio of TAED to H2O2 was 0.06, addition of H2O2 was 8.6%, addition of NaHCO3 was 3.2%, bleaching temperature of 50-65 °C, addition of MgO was 0.13%, and bleaching time was 8h. If too much amount of NaHCO3 was added to the system and maintained alkaline pH, the bleaching effect would be greatly reduced. Fixing molar ratio of TAED to H2O2 and increasing the amount of H2O2 were beneficial to improve the whiteness of alkyl polyglycosides, but adding too much amount of H2O2 would reduce the transparency. In the TAED-activated peroxide system, NaHCO3 as alkaline agent and buffer agent, could overcome the disadvantage of producing black precipitates when NaOH as alkaline agent. PMID:25129762

  10. Sensitization of H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation and subsequent interleukin-8 (CXCL8) production by intracellular Fe(2+) in human monocytic U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Yonezawa, Ryo; Negoro, Takaharu; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Numata, Tomohiro; Ishii, Masakazu; Mori, Yasuo; Toda, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is an oxidative stress-sensitive Ca(2+)-permeable channel. In monocytes/macrophages, H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation causes cell death and/or production of chemokines that aggravate inflammatory diseases. However, relatively high concentrations of H2O2 are required for activation of TRPM2 channels in vitro. Thus, in the present study, factors that sensitize TRPM2 channels to H2O2 were identified and subsequent physiological responses were examined in U937 human monocytes. Temperature increase from 30°C to 37°C enhanced H2O2-induced TRPM2-mediated increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) in TRPM2-expressing HEK 293 cells (TRPM2/HEK cells). The H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation enhanced by the higher temperature was dramatically sensitized by intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation following pretreatment with FeSO4. Thus intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation sensitizes H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation at around body temperature. Moreover, intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation increased poly(ADP-ribose) levels in nuclei by H2O2 treatment, and the sensitization of H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation were almost completely blocked by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, suggesting that intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation enhances H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation by increase of ADP-ribose production through poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase pathway. Similarly, pretreatment with FeSO4 stimulated H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation at 37°C in U937 cells and enhanced H2O2-induced ERK phosphorylation and interleukin-8 (CXCL8) production. Although the addition of H2O2 to cells under conditions of intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation caused cell death, concentration of H2O2 required for CXCL8 production was lower than that resulting in cell death. These results indicate that intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation sensitizes TRPM2 channels to H2O2 and subsequently produces CXCL8 at around body temperature. It is possible that sensitization of H2O2-induced TRPM2

  11. Sensitization of H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation and subsequent interleukin-8 (CXCL8) production by intracellular Fe(2+) in human monocytic U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Yonezawa, Ryo; Negoro, Takaharu; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Numata, Tomohiro; Ishii, Masakazu; Mori, Yasuo; Toda, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is an oxidative stress-sensitive Ca(2+)-permeable channel. In monocytes/macrophages, H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation causes cell death and/or production of chemokines that aggravate inflammatory diseases. However, relatively high concentrations of H2O2 are required for activation of TRPM2 channels in vitro. Thus, in the present study, factors that sensitize TRPM2 channels to H2O2 were identified and subsequent physiological responses were examined in U937 human monocytes. Temperature increase from 30°C to 37°C enhanced H2O2-induced TRPM2-mediated increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) in TRPM2-expressing HEK 293 cells (TRPM2/HEK cells). The H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation enhanced by the higher temperature was dramatically sensitized by intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation following pretreatment with FeSO4. Thus intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation sensitizes H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation at around body temperature. Moreover, intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation increased poly(ADP-ribose) levels in nuclei by H2O2 treatment, and the sensitization of H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation were almost completely blocked by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, suggesting that intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation enhances H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation by increase of ADP-ribose production through poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase pathway. Similarly, pretreatment with FeSO4 stimulated H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation at 37°C in U937 cells and enhanced H2O2-induced ERK phosphorylation and interleukin-8 (CXCL8) production. Although the addition of H2O2 to cells under conditions of intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation caused cell death, concentration of H2O2 required for CXCL8 production was lower than that resulting in cell death. These results indicate that intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation sensitizes TRPM2 channels to H2O2 and subsequently produces CXCL8 at around body temperature. It is possible that sensitization of H2O2-induced TRPM2

  12. Electrocatalytic activity of LaNiO3 toward H2O2 reduction reaction: Minimization of oxygen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirfakhri, Seyed Javad; Meunier, Jean-Luc; Berk, Dimitrios

    2014-12-01

    The catalytic activity of LaNiO3 toward H2O2 reduction reaction (HPRR), with a potential application in the cathode side of fuel cells, is studied in alkaline, neutral and acidic solutions by rotating disk electrode. The LaNiO3 particles synthesised by citrate-based sol-gel method have sizes between 30 and 70 nm with an active specific surface area of 1.26 ± 0.05 m2 g-1. LaNiO3 shows high catalytic activity toward HPRR in 0.1 M KOH solution with an exchange current density based on the active surface area (j0A) of (7.4 ± 1) × 10-6 A cm-2 which is noticeably higher than the j0A of N-doped graphene. The analysis of kinetic parameters suggests that the direct reduction of H2O2, H2O2 decomposition, O2 reduction and O2 desorption occur through HPRR on this catalyst. In order to control and minimize oxygen evolution from the electrode surface, the effects of catalyst loading, bulk concentration of H2O2, and using a mixture of LaNiO3 and N-doped graphene are studied. Although the mechanism of HPRR is independent of the aforementioned operating conditions, gas evolution decreases by increasing the catalyst loading, decreasing the bulk concentration of H2O2, and addition of N-doped graphene to LaNiO3.

  13. Catalase activity is stimulated by H(2)O(2) in rich culture medium and is required for H(2)O(2) resistance and adaptation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media.

  14. Catalase activity is stimulated by H2O2 in rich culture medium and is required for H2O2 resistance and adaptation in yeast☆

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media. PMID:24563848

  15. Catalase activity is stimulated by H(2)O(2) in rich culture medium and is required for H(2)O(2) resistance and adaptation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media. PMID:24563848

  16. Experiments on H2-O2MHD power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic power generation experiments utilizing a cesium-seeded H2-O2 working fluid were carried out using a diverging area Hall duct having an entrance Mach number of 2. The experiments were conducted in a high-field strength cryomagnet facility at field strengths up to 5 tesla. The effects of power takeoff location, axial duct location within the magnetic field, generator loading, B-field strength, and electrode breakdown voltage were investigated. For the operating conditions of these experiments, it is found that the power output increases with the square of the B-field and can be limited by choking of the channel or interelectrode voltage breakdown which occurs at Hall fields greater than 50 volts/insulator. Peak power densities of greater than 100 MW/cu M were achieved.

  17. Effects of L-carnitine against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in grass carp ovary cells (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuju; Ju, Xue; Chen, Yuke; Dong, Xiaoqing; Luo, Sha; Liu, Hongjian; Zhang, Dongming

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed in vitro to investigate the effects of L-carnitine against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) ovary cell line (GCO). GCO cells were pre-treated with different concentrations of L-carnitine, followed by incubation with 2.5 mM H2O2 for 1 h to induce oxidative damage. The results indicated that adding L-carnitine at concentrations of 0.01-1 mM into the medium for 12 h significantly increased cell viability. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine at concentrations of 0.1-5 mM for 12 h significantly inhibited 2.5 mM H2O2-induced cell viability loss. The significant decreases in the level of reactive oxygen species and cell apoptosis were observed in 0.5 mM L-carnitine group compared to the H2O2 group. Malondialdehyde values of all of the L-carnitine groups were significantly lower than those of the H2O2 group, while total glutathione levels of all of the L-carnitine groups were significantly higher than of the H2O2 group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as total superoxide dismutase (0.1 and 0.5 mM L-carnitine), catalase (0.5 mM L-carnitine) and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (0.5 and 1 mM L-carnitine), was significantly increased. In addition, pre-treatment of L-carnitine in GCO cells exposed to 2.5 mM H2O2 significantly increased the mRNA expression of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase (0.5 mM L-carnitine), glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (0.1-1 mM) and glutathione peroxidase (0.1 mM L-carnitine). In conclusion, L-carnitine promotes GCO cell growth and improves antioxidant function, it plays a protective role against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in GCO cells, and the appropriate supplemental amount of L-carnitine is 0.1-1 mM.

  18. Responsive mechanism of a newly synthesized fluorescent probe for sensing H2O2, NO and H2O2/NO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Jin; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Ke; Wang, Chuan-Kui

    2016-10-01

    Optical properties of a newly synthesized fluorescent probe for H2O2, NO and H2O2/NO are investigated by employing time-dependent density functional theory. Three different sets of fluorescence signals are obtained when the probe reacts with H2O2, NO and H2O2/NO. Analysis of molecular orbitals is presented to explore responsive mechanism of the probe for the detected objects, where the fluorescent resonance energy transfer process is for H2O2 (H2O2/NO) and the intramolecular charge transfer process is for NO. Our results provide theoretical explanation of the experimental results, and importantly, suggest possibility of the probe as a two-photon fluorescent sensor.

  19. Hyperoside protects human primary melanocytes against H2O2-induced oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    YANG, BIN; YANG, QIN; YANG, XIN; YAN, HONG-BO; LU, QI-PING

    2016-01-01

    Cuscutae semen has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of vitiligo, recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, whereas the effects of its constituent compounds remains to be elucidated. Using a tetrazolium bromide assay, the present study found that hyperoside (0.5–200 µg/ml) significantly increased the viability of human melanocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The present study used a cell model of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage to examine the effect of hyperoside on human primary melanocytes. The results demonstrated that hyperoside pretreatment for 2 h decreased cell apoptosis from 54.03±9.11 to 17.46±3.10% in the H2O2-injured melanocytes. The levels of oxidative stress in the mitochondrial membrane potential of the melanocytes increased following hyperoside pretreatment. The mRNA and protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2/Bcl-2-associated X protein and caspase 3 were regulated by hyperoside, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling were also mediated by hyperoside. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that hyperoside protected the human primary melanocytes against oxidative damage. PMID:27082158

  20. Effects of equol on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiajing; Jiang, Shouqun; Jiang, Zongyong; Zheng, Chuntian; Gou, Zhongyong

    2016-06-01

    This experiment investigated the antioxidant effects of equol on oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in chicken intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). IEC, from Lingnan yellow broiler chick embryos at embryonic day 18, were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12. Cells were pretreated with 0, 10, 100, or 500 nM equol for 24 h before exposure to 300 μM H2O2 during a further 24 h. Oxidative damage was assessed by photomicrographs of cells, measuring cell proliferation, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and antioxidative capacity from cellular total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity, as well as the relative expressions of Nrf2, Bcl-2, SOD-1, GSH-Px3, Claudin-1 Treatment with 300 μM H2O2 caused serious damage to cells, with fewer normal intestinal epithelial cells, revealed by photomicroscopy. Treatment with 300 μM H2O2 significantly decreased live cell numbers compared with controls and prior treatment with equol had no effect in offsetting this action of H2O2 (P > 0.05). Compared with the cells treated just with H2O2, pre-treatment with 10, 100 and 500 nM equol significantly enhanced T-SOD activity (P < 0.05), while 10 and 100 nM equol before H2O2 significantly enhanced T-SOD activity compared with the untreated controls (P < 0.05). In cells pre-treated with 100 nM equol, the relative abundance of Nrf2 transcripts increased from the controls (P < 0.05) but expressions of Bcl-2, GSH-Px3, or SOD-1 were unaffected (P > 0.05). Pre-treatment with 10 and 100 nM equol significantly increased the transcript abundance of Claudin-1 (P < 0.05). Equol is shown here to protect IECs from oxidative damage by promoting the expression of antioxidant genes, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and by enhancing antioxidant capacity; 100 nM equol appeared to be the most effective concentration.

  1. The cellular steady-state of H2O2: latency concepts and gradients.

    PubMed

    Marinho, H Susana; Cyrne, Luísa; Cadenas, Enrique; Antunes, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is able to diffuse across biomembranes but, when cells are exposed to external H2O2, the fast consumption of H2O2 inside the cells due to H2O2-removing enzymes provides the driving force for setting up a H2O2 gradient across the plasma membrane. Knowing this gradient is fundamental to standardize studies with H2O2 as for the same extracellular H2O2 concentration cells with different H2O2 gradients may be exposed to different intracellular H2O2 concentrations. Here, we present the kinetic background behind the establishment of the H2O2 gradient and show how the gradient can be determined experimentally using the principle of enzyme latency. Furthermore, we discuss some of the caveats that may arise when determining the H2O2 gradient. Finally, we describe detailed protocols for the experimental determination of the H2O2 gradient across the plasma membrane in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and in mammalian cell lines. PMID:23830623

  2. Self-sufficing H2O2-responsive nanocarriers through tumor-specific H2O2 production for synergistic oxidation-chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Junjie; Ke, Wendong; Wang, Lei; Huang, Mingming; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Qixian; Ge, Zhishen

    2016-03-10

    One of distinct features in tumor tissues is the elevated concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during tumor immortality, proliferation and metastasis. However, ROS-responsive materials are rarely utilized in the field of in vivo tumoral ROS-responsive applications due to the fact that the intrinsic ROS level in the tumors could not escalate to an adequate level that the developed materials can possibly respond. Herein, palmitoyl ascorbate (PA) as a prooxidant for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in tumor tissue is strategically compiled into a H2O2-responsive camptothecin (CPT) polymer prodrug micelle, which endowed the nanocarriers with self-sufficing H2O2 stimuli in tumor tissues. Molecular oncology manifests the hallmarks of tumoral physiology with deteriorating propensity in eliminating hazardous ROS. H2O2 production was demonstrated to specifically sustain in tumors, which not only induced tumor cell apoptosis by elevated oxidation stress but also served as autochthonous H2O2 resource to trigger CPT release for chemotherapy. Excess H2O2 and released CPT could penetrate into cells efficiently, which showed synergistic cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. Systemic therapeutic trial revealed potent tumor suppression of the proposed formulation via synergistic oxidation-chemotherapy. This report represents a novel nanomedicine platform combining up-regulation of tumoral H2O2 level and self-sufficing H2O2-responsive drug release to achieve novel synergistic oxidation-chemotherapy.

  3. Endothelium dysfunction in LDL receptor knockout mice: a role for H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo, Luíza A; Cortes, Steyner F; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I; Lemos, Virgínia S

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the role of endogenous H2O2 as an endothelium-dependent relaxant factor was characterised in aortas from C57BL/6J and LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLR−/−). Aortic rings from LDLR−/− mice showed impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh; 0.001–100 μM) and to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (0.001–3 μM) compared with aortic rings from control mice. Endothelium-independent relaxation produced by the NO donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) was not different between strains. Pretreatment of vessels with L-NNA (100 μM) or L-NNA (100 μM) plus L-NAME (300 μM) plus haemoglobin (10 μM) markedly decreased, but did not abolish the relaxation to ACh in control mice. In the aortas from LDLR−/− mice treated with L-NNA (100 μM), ACh induced a contractile effect. Catalase (800 and 2400 U ml−1) shifted to the right the endothelium-dependent relaxation to ACh in aortas from control but not from LDLR−/− mice. Aminotriazole (50 mM), which inhibits catalase, abolished its effect on control mice. Treatment of vessels with L-NNA and catalase abolished vasorelaxation induced by ACh. Indomethacin (10 μM) did not modify the concentration–response curve to ACh. Superoxide dismutase (300 U ml−1) did not change ACh-induced relaxation in both strains. Exogenous H2O2 produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in endothelium-denuded aortic rings, which was not different between strains. It is concluded that H2O2 greatly contributes to relaxation to ACh in aorta from control mice. Endothelial-dependent relaxation to ACh is impaired in LDLR−/− mice. Reduced biosynthesis or increased inactivation of H2O2 is the possible mechanism responsible for endothelial dysfunction in aortas of atherosclerosis-susceptible LDLR−/− mice. PMID:12711621

  4. Hydroxytyrosol glucuronides protect renal tubular epithelial cells against H(2)O(2) induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Deiana, Monica; Incani, Alessandra; Rosa, Antonella; Atzeri, Angela; Loru, Debora; Cabboi, Barbara; Paola Melis, M; Lucas, Ricardo; Morales, Juan C; Assunta Dessì, M

    2011-09-30

    Hydroxytyrosol (2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol; HT), the most active ortho-diphenolic compound, present either in free or esterified form in extravirgin olive oil, is extensively metabolized in vivo mainly to O-methylated, O-sulfated and glucuronide metabolites. We investigated the capacity of three glucuronide metabolites of HT, 3'-O-β-d-glucuronide and 4'-O-β-d-glucuronide derivatives and 2-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol-1-O-β-d-glucuronide, in comparison with the parent compound, to inhibit H(2)O(2) induced oxidative damage and cell death in LLC-PK1 cells, a porcine kidney epithelial cell line. H(2)O(2) treatment exerted a toxic effect inducing cell death, interacting selectively within the pro-death extracellular-signal relate kinase (ERK 1/2) and the pro-survival Akt/PKB signaling pathways. It also produced direct oxidative damage initiating the membrane lipid peroxidation process. None of the tested glucuronides exhibited any protection against the loss in renal cell viability. They also failed to prevent the changes in the phosphorylation states of ERK and Akt, probably reflecting their inability to enter the cells, while HT was highly effective. Notably, pretreatment with glucuronides exerted a protective effect at the highest concentration tested against membrane oxidative damage, comparable to that of HT: the formation of malondialdehyde, fatty acid hydroperoxides and 7-ketocholesterol was significantly inhibited.

  5. H2O2 levels in rainwater collected in south Florida and the Bahama Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zika, R.; Saltzman, E.; Chameides, W. L.; Davis, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of H2O2 in rainwater collected in Miami, Florida, and the Bahama Islands area indicate the presence of H2O2 concentration levels ranging from 100,000 to 700,000 M. No systematic trends in H2O2 concentration were observed during an individual storm, in marked contrast to the behavior of other anions for example, NO3(-), SO4(-2), and Cl(-). The data suggest that a substantial fraction of the H2O2 found in precipitation is generated by aqueous-phase reactions within the cloudwater rather than via rainout and washout of gaseous H2O2.

  6. Decolorization of Blue CL-BR dye by AOPs using bleach wastewater as source of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Abdullah; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Aamir Amanat Ali; Yousaf, Anwer

    2007-01-01

    This research was focused on the investigation of the efficacy of advanced oxidation processes (Fenton, ozonation and UV/H2O2) for decolorization of reactive azo dye (Blue CL-BR) using bleach wastewater as possible source of H202. All the experiments were performed on the laboratory scale set-up. The results showed that colour removal efficiencies by UV or bleach (H2O2) alone were not so efficient. Fenton process with bleach wastewater was found to be the most effective at process conditions such as pH of 3 and H2O2/Fe2+ ratio of 24:1, resulting in 64% colour removal. Almost complete colour removal, i.e., 99% and 95% were achieved by UV/H2O2 and UV/bleach wastewater in 30 and 60 min, respectively. Ozonation proved an efficient method for decolorization of Blue CL-BR dye at alkaline pH. It was possible to achieve 98% colour removal with 30 min of ozonation at pH 9. The colour removal of dye was found to follow first order kinetics.

  7. Transit of H2O2 across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is not sluggish.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian; Bánhegyi, Gabor; Bogeski, Ivan; Davies, Kelvin J A; Delaunay-Moisan, Agnès; Forman, Henry Jay; Görlach, Agnes; Kietzmann, Thomas; Laurindo, Francisco; Margittai, Eva; Meyer, Andreas J; Riemer, Jan; Rützler, Michael; Simmen, Thomas; Sitia, Roberto; Toledano, Michel B; Touw, Ivo P

    2016-05-01

    Cellular metabolism provides various sources of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different organelles and compartments. The suitability of H2O2 as an intracellular signaling molecule therefore also depends on its ability to pass cellular membranes. The propensity of the membranous boundary of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to let pass H2O2 has been discussed controversially. In this essay, we challenge the recent proposal that the ER membrane constitutes a simple barrier for H2O2 diffusion and support earlier data showing that (i) ample H2O2 permeability of the ER membrane is a prerequisite for signal transduction, (ii) aquaporin channels are crucially involved in the facilitation of H2O2 permeation, and (iii) a proper experimental framework not prone to artifacts is necessary to further unravel the role of H2O2 permeation in signal transduction and organelle biology.

  8. Differential regulation of TRPV1 channels by H2O2: implications for diabetic microvascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    DelloStritto, Daniel J; Connell, Patrick J; Dick, Gregory M; Fancher, Ibra S; Klarich, Brittany; Fahmy, Joseph N; Kang, Patrick T; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Damron, Derek S; Thodeti, Charles K; Bratz, Ian N

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrated previously that TRPV1-dependent coupling of coronary blood flow (CBF) to metabolism is disrupted in diabetes. A critical amount of H2O2 contributes to CBF regulation; however, excessive H2O2 impairs responses. We sought to determine the extent to which differential regulation of TRPV1 by H2O2 modulates CBF and vascular reactivity in diabetes. We used contrast echocardiography to study TRPV1 knockout (V1KO), db/db diabetic, and wild type C57BKS/J (WT) mice. H2O2 dose-dependently increased CBF in WT mice, a response blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. H2O2-induced vasodilation was significantly inhibited in db/db and V1KO mice. H2O2 caused robust SB366791-sensitive dilation in WT coronary microvessels; however, this response was attenuated in vessels from db/db and V1KO mice, suggesting H2O2-induced vasodilation occurs, in part, via TRPV1. Acute H2O2 exposure potentiated capsaicin-induced CBF responses and capsaicin-mediated vasodilation in WT mice, whereas prolonged luminal H2O2 exposure blunted capsaicin-induced vasodilation. Electrophysiology studies re-confirms acute H2O2 exposure activated TRPV1 in HEK293A and bovine aortic endothelial cells while establishing that H2O2 potentiate capsaicin-activated TRPV1 currents, whereas prolonged H2O2 exposure attenuated TRPV1 currents. Verification of H2O2-mediated activation of intrinsic TRPV1 specific currents were found in isolated mouse coronary endothelial cells from WT mice and decreased in endothelial cells from V1KO mice. These data suggest prolonged H2O2 exposure impairs TRPV1-dependent coronary vascular signaling. This may contribute to microvascular dysfunction and tissue perfusion deficits characteristic of diabetes.

  9. Impact of UV/H2O2 pre-oxidation on the formation of haloacetamides and other nitrogenous disinfection byproducts during chlorination.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Gao, Naiyun; Yin, Daqiang; Krasner, Stuart W; Mitch, William A

    2014-10-21

    Haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogen-based disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) of health concern in drinking water, have been found in drinking waters at μg/L levels. However, there is a limited understanding about the formation, speciation, and control of halogenated HAcAms. Higher ultraviolet (UV) doses and UV advanced oxidation (UV/H2O2) processes (AOPs) are under consideration for the treatment of trace organic pollutants. The objective of this study was to examine the potential of pretreatment with UV irradiation, H2O2 oxidation, and a UV/H2O2 AOP for minimizing the formation of HAcAms, as well as other emerging N-DBPs, during postchlorination. We investigated changes in HAcAm formation and speciation attributed to UV, H2O2 or UV/H2O2 followed by the application of free chlorine to quench any excess hydrogen peroxide and to provide residual disinfection. The results showed that low-pressure UV irradiation alone (19.5-585 mJ/cm(2)) and H2O2 preoxidation alone (2-20 mg/L) did not significantly change total HAcAm formation during subsequent chlorination. However, H2O2 preoxidation alone resulted in diiodoacetamide formation in two iodide-containing waters and increased bromine utilization. Alternatively, UV/H2O2 preoxidation using UV (585 mJ/cm(2)) and H2O2 (10 mg/L) doses typically employed for trace contaminant removal controlled the formation of HAcAms and several other N-DBPs in drinking water.

  10. H2O2/UV enhanced degradation of pesticides in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, E; Janczarek, M; Hupka, J; Grynkiewicz, M

    2004-01-01

    Photodegradation of organic pesticides in industrial wastewater was examined in a UV/H2O2/air system. An experimentally determined optimal amount of hydrogen peroxide (0.008% v/v) indicates that hydrogen peroxide concentration controlled the efficiency of photodegradation. Pre-treatment operations such as sedimentation, filtration and coagulation were used to obtain better efficiency of pesticide removal and to cut down on irradiation time. Finally, scale-up experiments in the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) reactor were carried out. After 5 min irradiation of 100 dm3 industrial wastewater almost all pesticides were destroyed. Thus the ASH reactor proved to be an effective contactor for carrying out photochemical reactions.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) controls axon pathfinding during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Gauron, Carole; Meda, Francesca; Dupont, Edmond; Albadri, Shahad; Quenech'Du, Nicole; Ipendey, Eliane; Volovitch, Michel; Del Bene, Filippo; Joliot, Alain; Rampon, Christine; Vriz, Sophie

    2016-06-15

    It is now becoming evident that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is constantly produced by nearly all cells, contributes to bona fide physiological processes. However, little is known regarding the distribution and functions of H2O2 during embryonic development. To address this question, we used a dedicated genetic sensor and revealed a highly dynamic spatio-temporal pattern of H2O2 levels during zebrafish morphogenesis. The highest H2O2 levels are observed during somitogenesis and organogenesis, and these levels gradually decrease in the mature tissues. Biochemical and pharmacological approaches revealed that H2O2 distribution is mainly controlled by its enzymatic degradation. Here we show that H2O2 is enriched in different regions of the developing brain and demonstrate that it participates to axonal guidance. Retinal ganglion cell axonal projections are impaired upon H2O2 depletion and this defect is rescued by H2O2 or ectopic activation of the Hedgehog pathway. We further show that ex vivo, H2O2 directly modifies Hedgehog secretion. We propose that physiological levels of H2O2 regulate RGCs axonal growth through the modulation of Hedgehog pathway.

  12. Real-time monitoring of basal H2O2 levels with peroxiredoxin-based probes.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bruce; Van Laer, Koen; Owusu, Theresa N E; Ezeriņa, Daria; Pastor-Flores, Daniel; Amponsah, Prince Saforo; Tursch, Anja; Dick, Tobias P

    2016-06-01

    Genetically encoded probes based on the H2O2-sensing proteins OxyR and Orp1 have greatly increased the ability to detect elevated H2O2 levels in stimulated or stressed cells. However, these proteins are not sensitive enough to monitor metabolic H2O2 baseline levels. Using yeast as a platform for probe development, we developed two peroxiredoxin-based H2O2 probes, roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCR and roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCPΔCR, that afford such sensitivity. These probes are ∼50% oxidized under 'normal' unstressed conditions and are equally responsive to increases and decreases in H2O2. Hence, they permit fully dynamic, real-time measurement of basal H2O2 levels, with subcellular resolution, in living cells. We demonstrate that expression of these probes does not alter endogenous H2O2 homeostasis. The roGFP2-Tsa2ΔCR probe revealed real-time interplay between basal H2O2 levels and partial oxygen pressure. Furthermore, it exposed asymmetry in H2O2 trafficking between the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix and a strong correlation between matrix H2O2 levels and cellular growth rate.

  13. Absolute linestrengths in the H2O2 nu6 band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Randy D.

    1991-01-01

    Absolute linestrengths at 295 K have been measured for selected lines in the nu6 band of H2O2 using a tunable diode-laser spectrometer. H2O2 concentrations in a flowing gas mixture were determined by ultraviolet (uv) absorption at 254 nm using a collinear infrared (ir) and uv optical arrangement. The measured linestrengths are approx. 60 percent larger than previously reported values when absorption by hot bands in H2O2 is taken into account.

  14. Comparison of genes required for H2O2 resistance in Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifan; Itzek, Andreas; Kreth, Jens

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced by several members of the genus Streptococcus mainly through the pyruvate oxidase SpxB under aerobic growth conditions. The acute toxic nature of H2O2 raises the interesting question of how streptococci cope with intrinsically produced H2O2, which subsequently accumulates in the microenvironment and threatens the closely surrounding population. Here, we investigate the H2O2 susceptibility of oral Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis and elucidate potential mechanisms of how they protect themselves from the deleterious effect of H2O2. Both organisms are considered primary colonizers and occupy the same intraoral niche making them potential targets for H2O2 produced by other species. We demonstrate that S. gordonii produces relatively more H2O2 and has a greater ability for resistance to H2O2 stress. Functional studies show that, unlike in Streptococcus pneumoniae, H2O2 resistance is not dependent on a functional SpxB and confirms the important role of the ferritin-like DNA-binding protein Dps. However, the observed increased H2O2 resistance of S. gordonii over S. sanguinis is likely to be caused by an oxidative stress protection machinery present even under anaerobic conditions, while S. sanguinis requires a longer period of time for adaptation. The ability to produce more H2O2 and be more resistant to H2O2 might aid S. gordonii in the competitive oral biofilm environment, since it is lower in abundance yet manages to survive quite efficiently in the oral biofilm.

  15. H2O2-triggered bubble generating antioxidant polymeric nanoparticles as ischemia/reperfusion targeted nanotheranostics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changsun; Cho, Wooram; Park, Minhyung; Kim, Jinsub; Park, Sanghoon; Shin, Dongho; Song, Chulgyu; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-04-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) leads to oxidative stress, causing inflammation and cellular damages and death. H2O2 is one of the most stable and abundant ROS and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress is considered as a key mediator of cellular and tissue damages during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Therefore, H2O2 could hold tremendous potential as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for oxidative stress-associated inflammatory conditions such as I/R injury. Here, we report a novel nanotheranostic agent that can express ultrasound imaging and simultaneous therapeutic effects for hepatic I/R treatment, which is based on H2O2-triggered CO2-generating antioxidant poly(vanillin oxalate) (PVO). PVO nanoparticles generate CO2 through H2O2-triggered oxidation of peroxalate esters and release vanillin, which exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PVO nanoparticles intravenously administrated remarkably enhanced the ultrasound signal in the site of hepatic I/R injury and also effectively suppressed the liver damages by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis. To our best understanding, H2O2-responsive PVO is the first platform which generates bubbles to serve as ultrasound contrast agents and also exerts therapeutic activities. We therefore anticipate that H2O2-triggered bubble-generating antioxidant PVO nanoparticles have great potential for ultrasound imaging and therapy of H2O2-associated diseases. PMID:26874282

  16. H2O2-triggered bubble generating antioxidant polymeric nanoparticles as ischemia/reperfusion targeted nanotheranostics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changsun; Cho, Wooram; Park, Minhyung; Kim, Jinsub; Park, Sanghoon; Shin, Dongho; Song, Chulgyu; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-04-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) leads to oxidative stress, causing inflammation and cellular damages and death. H2O2 is one of the most stable and abundant ROS and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress is considered as a key mediator of cellular and tissue damages during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Therefore, H2O2 could hold tremendous potential as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for oxidative stress-associated inflammatory conditions such as I/R injury. Here, we report a novel nanotheranostic agent that can express ultrasound imaging and simultaneous therapeutic effects for hepatic I/R treatment, which is based on H2O2-triggered CO2-generating antioxidant poly(vanillin oxalate) (PVO). PVO nanoparticles generate CO2 through H2O2-triggered oxidation of peroxalate esters and release vanillin, which exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PVO nanoparticles intravenously administrated remarkably enhanced the ultrasound signal in the site of hepatic I/R injury and also effectively suppressed the liver damages by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis. To our best understanding, H2O2-responsive PVO is the first platform which generates bubbles to serve as ultrasound contrast agents and also exerts therapeutic activities. We therefore anticipate that H2O2-triggered bubble-generating antioxidant PVO nanoparticles have great potential for ultrasound imaging and therapy of H2O2-associated diseases.

  17. In situ formation of H2O2 for P450 peroxygenases.

    PubMed

    Paul, Caroline E; Churakova, Ekaterina; Maurits, Elmer; Girhard, Marco; Urlacher, Vlada B; Hollmann, Frank

    2014-10-15

    An in situ H2O2 generation approach to promote P450 peroxygenases catalysis was developed through the use of the nicotinamide cofactor analogue 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Final productivity could be enhanced due to higher enzyme stability at low H2O2 concentrations. The H2O2 generation represented the rate-limiting step, however it could be easily controlled by varying both FMN and BNAH concentrations. Further characterization can result in an optimized ratio of FMN/BNAH/O2/biocatalyst enabling high reaction rates while minimizing H2O2-related inactivation of the enzyme.

  18. Protective effects of quercetin and taraxasterol against H2O2-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell injury in vitro

    PubMed Central

    YANG, DONGWEI; LIU, XINYE; LIU, MIN; CHI, HAO; LIU, JIRONG; HAN, HUAMIN

    2015-01-01

    Due to the association between inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis, the blockage of the inflammatory process that occurs on the endothelial cells may be a useful way of preventing atherosclerosis. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to investigate the protective effects of quercetin and taraxasterol against H2O2-induced oxidative damage and inflammation. HUVECs were pretreated with quercetin or taraxasterol at concentrations ranging between 0 and 210 µM for 12 h, prior to being administered different concentrations of H2O2 for 4 h. Cell viability and levels of apoptosis were assessed through cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays, respectively, to determine the injury to the HUVECs. The viability loss in the H2O2-induced HUVECs was markedly restored in a concentration-dependent manner by pretreatment with quercetin or taraxasterol. This effect was accompanied by significantly decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and cluster of differentiation (CD)80 for taraxasterol and that of CD80 for quercetin. In conclusion, the present study showed the protective effects of quercetin and taraxasterol against cell injury and inflammation in HUVECs and indicated that the effects were mediated via the downregulation of VCAM-1 and CD80 expression. This study has therefore served as a preliminary investigation on the anti-atherosclerotic and cardiovascular protective effects of quercetin and taraxasterol as dietary supplements. PMID:26622474

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of H2O2-Treated Wheat Seedlings Reveals a H2O2-Responsive Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Participating in Powdery Mildew Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lichuan; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhu, Mingzhu; Chu, Jinfang; Sun, Xiaohong; Wei, Bo; Zhang, Xiangqi; Jia, Jizeng; Mao, Long

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays important roles in plant biotic and abiotic stress responses. However, the effect of H2O2 stress on the bread wheat transcriptome is still lacking. To investigate the cellular and metabolic responses triggered by H2O2, we performed an mRNA tag analysis of wheat seedlings under 10 mM H2O2 treatment for 6 hour in one powdery mildew (PM) resistant (PmA) and two susceptible (Cha and Han) lines. In total, 6,156, 6,875 and 3,276 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PmA, Han and Cha respectively. Among them, 260 genes exhibited consistent expression patterns in all three wheat lines and may represent a subset of basal H2O2 responsive genes that were associated with cell defense, signal transduction, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, redox homeostasis, and transport. Among genes specific to PmA, ‘transport’ activity was significantly enriched in Gene Ontology analysis. MapMan classification showed that, while both up- and down- regulations were observed for auxin, abscisic acid, and brassinolides signaling genes, the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway genes were all up-regulated, suggesting H2O2-enhanced JA/Et functions in PmA. To further study whether any of these genes were involved in wheat PM response, 19 H2O2-responsive putative defense related genes were assayed in wheat seedlings infected with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Eight of these genes were found to be co-regulated by H2O2 and Bgt, among which a fatty acid desaturase gene TaFAD was then confirmed by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) to be required for the PM resistance. Together, our data presents the first global picture of the wheat transcriptome under H2O2 stress and uncovers potential links between H2O2 and Bgt responses, hence providing important candidate genes for the PM resistance in wheat. PMID:22174904

  20. Tormentic acid inhibits H2O2-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Lun; Sun, Gen-Yi; Zhang, Ying; He, Jia-Jun; Zheng, Shen; Lin, Jing-Na

    2016-10-01

    Tormentic acid (TA) is a triterpene isolated from the stem bark of the plant Vochysia divergens and has been reported to exhibit anticancer, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑atherogenic properties. However, the functions of TA in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether TA suppressed H2O2‑induced oxidative stress and inflammation in RVSMCs, and to determine its molecular mechanisms. The present study demonstrated that TA inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, induced H2O2 in RVSMCs, and inhibited H2O2-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) in RVSMCs. In addition, TA significantly decreased the production of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interleukin 6 (IL‑6) and IL‑1β. Furthermore, TA pretreatment prevented nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) subunit p65 phosphorylation and NF‑κB inhibitor α (IκBα) degradation induced by H2O2 in RVSMCs. TA is, therefore, suggested to inhibit H2O2-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in RVSMCs via inhibition of the NF‑κB signaling pathway. TA may have potential as a pharmacological agent in the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:27572426

  1. Tormentic acid inhibits H2O2-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Lun; Sun, Gen-Yi; Zhang, Ying; He, Jia-Jun; Zheng, Shen; Lin, Jing-Na

    2016-01-01

    Tormentic acid (TA) is a triterpene isolated from the stem bark of the plant Vochysia divergens and has been reported to exhibit anticancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. However, the functions of TA in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether TA suppressed H2O2-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in RVSMCs, and to determine its molecular mechanisms. The present study demonstrated that TA inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, induced H2O2 in RVSMCs, and inhibited H2O2-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) in RVSMCs. In addition, TA significantly decreased the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-1β. Furthermore, TA pretreatment prevented nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) subunit p65 phosphorylation and NF-κB inhibitor α (IκBα) degradation induced by H2O2 in RVSMCs. TA is, therefore, suggested to inhibit H2O2-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in RVSMCs via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. TA may have potential as a pharmacological agent in the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:27572426

  2. Competence for Elicitation of H2O2 in Hypocotyls of Cucumber Is Induced by Breaching the Cuticle and Is Enhanced by Salicylic Acid.

    PubMed

    Fauth, M.; Merten, A.; Hahn, M. G.; Jeblick, W.; Kauss, H.

    1996-02-01

    To study H2O2 production, the epidermal surfaces of hypocotyl segments from etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were gently abraded. Freshly abraded segments were not constitutively competent for rapid H2O2 elicitation. This capacity developed subsequent to abrasion in a time-dependent process that was greatly enhanced in segments exhibiting an acquired resistance to penetration of their epidermal cell walls by Colletotrichum lagenarium, because of root pretreatment of the respective seedlings with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid. When this compound or salicylic acid was applied to abraded segments, it also greatly enhanced the induction of competence for H2O2 elicitation. This process was fully inhibited by 5 [mu]M cycloheximide or 200 [mu]M puromycin, suggesting a requirement for translational protein synthesis. Both a crude elicitor preparation and a partially purified oligoglucan mixture from Phytophthora sojae also induced, in addition to H2O2 production, a refractory state, which explains the transient nature of H2O2 elicitation. Taken together, these results suggest that the cucumber hypocotyl epidermis becomes conditioned for competence to produce H2O2 in response to elicitors by a stimulus resulting from breaching the cuticle and/or cutting segments. This conditioning process is associated with protein synthesis and is greatly enhanced when substances able to induce systemic acquired resistance are present in the tissue.

  3. Tormentic acid inhibits H2O2-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Lun; Sun, Gen-Yi; Zhang, Ying; He, Jia-Jun; Zheng, Shen; Lin, Jing-Na

    2016-10-01

    Tormentic acid (TA) is a triterpene isolated from the stem bark of the plant Vochysia divergens and has been reported to exhibit anticancer, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑atherogenic properties. However, the functions of TA in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (RVSMCs) remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether TA suppressed H2O2‑induced oxidative stress and inflammation in RVSMCs, and to determine its molecular mechanisms. The present study demonstrated that TA inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, induced H2O2 in RVSMCs, and inhibited H2O2-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase (NOX) in RVSMCs. In addition, TA significantly decreased the production of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interleukin 6 (IL‑6) and IL‑1β. Furthermore, TA pretreatment prevented nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) subunit p65 phosphorylation and NF‑κB inhibitor α (IκBα) degradation induced by H2O2 in RVSMCs. TA is, therefore, suggested to inhibit H2O2-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in RVSMCs via inhibition of the NF‑κB signaling pathway. TA may have potential as a pharmacological agent in the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis.

  4. Effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant enzymes of Brassica juncea L. seedlings in relation to 24-epibrassinolide under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Gagandeep

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is most stable molecule among reactive oxygen species, which play a vital role in growth and development of plant as signaling molecule at low concentration in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Exogenous application of H2O2 is known to induce chilling tolerance in plants. Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones known for their anti-stress properties. In this study, effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. seedlings was investigated in 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) treated and untreated seedlings under chilling stress. The surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea L. were germinated in petriplates containing different concentrations of H2O2 alone and in combination with 10(-8) M 24-EBL. Chilling treatment (4 degrees C) was given to 10-days old seedlings grown in different treatments for 6 h daily up to 3 days. 24 h recovery period was given to chilling treated seedlings by placing at 25 degrees C + 2 degrees C and harvested for antioxidant enzymes on 14th day after sowing (DAS). Treatment of 24-EBL in combination with H2O2 (15 and 20 mM) helped in reducing the toxicity of seed and seedlings due to H2O2 exposure on their germination rate, shoot and root length respectively. 24-EBL treatment at seed and seedling stage helped in alleviating the toxic effect of H2O2 through antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of various enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX, E.C. 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1). In conclusion, exogenous pretreatment of H2O2 to seeds of B. juncea L. adapted the seedlings to tolerate chilling stress, which was further ameliorated in combination of H2O2 with 24-EBL. PMID:21355422

  5. Effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant enzymes of Brassica juncea L. seedlings in relation to 24-epibrassinolide under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Sirhindi, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Renu; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Gagandeep

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is most stable molecule among reactive oxygen species, which play a vital role in growth and development of plant as signaling molecule at low concentration in response to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Exogenous application of H2O2 is known to induce chilling tolerance in plants. Brassinosteroids are plant steroid hormones known for their anti-stress properties. In this study, effect of exogenous H2O2 on antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. seedlings was investigated in 24-epibrassinolide (24-EBL) treated and untreated seedlings under chilling stress. The surface sterilized seeds of B. juncea L. were germinated in petriplates containing different concentrations of H2O2 alone and in combination with 10(-8) M 24-EBL. Chilling treatment (4 degrees C) was given to 10-days old seedlings grown in different treatments for 6 h daily up to 3 days. 24 h recovery period was given to chilling treated seedlings by placing at 25 degrees C + 2 degrees C and harvested for antioxidant enzymes on 14th day after sowing (DAS). Treatment of 24-EBL in combination with H2O2 (15 and 20 mM) helped in reducing the toxicity of seed and seedlings due to H2O2 exposure on their germination rate, shoot and root length respectively. 24-EBL treatment at seed and seedling stage helped in alleviating the toxic effect of H2O2 through antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of various enzymes involved in antioxidant defense system such as catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX, E.C. 1.11.1.11), and superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1). In conclusion, exogenous pretreatment of H2O2 to seeds of B. juncea L. adapted the seedlings to tolerate chilling stress, which was further ameliorated in combination of H2O2 with 24-EBL.

  6. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Sim, Junyoung; An, Junyeong; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Ryu, Hodon; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-11-01

    Cathode potential and O2 supply methods were investigated to improve H2O2 synthesis in an electrochemical cell, and optimal cathode conditions were applied for microbial electrochemical cells (MECs). Using aqueous O2 for the cathode significantly improved current density, but H2O2 conversion efficiency was negligible at 0.3-12%. Current density decreased for passive O2 diffusion to the cathode, but H2O2 conversion efficiency increased by 65%. An MEC equipped with a gas diffusion cathode was operated with acetate medium and domestic wastewater, which presented relatively high H2O2 conversion efficiency from 36% to 47%, although cathode overpotential was fluctuated. Due to different current densities, the maximum H2O2 production rate was 141 mg H2O2/L-h in the MEC fed with acetate medium, but it became low at 6 mg H2O2/L-h in the MEC fed with the wastewater. Our study clearly indicates that improving anodic current density and mitigating membrane fouling would be key parameters for large-scale H2O2-MECs.

  7. Endogenous H2O2 produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae controls FabF activity.

    PubMed

    Benisty, Rachel; Cohen, Aharon Yehonatan; Feldman, Alexandra; Cohen, Zvi; Porat, Nurith

    2010-09-01

    FabF elongation condensing enzyme is a critical factor in determining the spectrum of products produced by the FASII pathway. Its active site contains a critical cysteine-thiol residue, which is a plausible target for oxidation by H2O2. Streptococcus pneumoniae produces exceptionally high levels of H2O2, mainly through the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-P via pyruvate oxidase (SpxB). We present evidence showing that endogenous H2O2 inhibits FabF activity by specifically oxidizing its active site cysteine-thiol residue. Thiol trapping methods revealed that one of the three FabF cysteines in the wild-type strain was oxidized, whereas in an spxB mutant, defective in H2O2 production, none of the cysteines was oxidized, indicating that the difference in FabF redox state originated from endogenous H2O2. In vitro exposure of the spxB mutant to various H2O2 concentrations further confirmed that only one cysteine residue was susceptible to oxidation. By blocking FabF active site cysteine with cerulenin we show that the oxidized cysteine was the catalytic one. Inhibition of FabF activity by either H2O2 or cerulenin resulted in altered membrane fatty acid composition. We conclude that FabF activity is inhibited by H2O2 produced by S. pneumoniae. PMID:20601114

  8. Three-dimensional WS2 nanosheet networks for H2O2 produced for cell signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Quan, Yingzhou; Zhang, Yueyu; Jiang, Min; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M.; Kong, Biao; An, Tiance; Wang, Wenshuo; Xia, Limin; Gong, Xingao; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important molecular messenger for cellular signal transduction. The capability of direct probing of H2O2 in complex biological systems can offer potential for elucidating its manifold roles in living systems. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) WS2 nanosheet networks with flower-like morphologies on a variety of conducting substrates. The semiconducting WS2 nanosheets with largely exposed edge sites on flexible carbon fibers enable abundant catalytically active sites, excellent charge transfer, and high permeability to chemicals and biomaterials. Thus, the 3D WS2-based nano-bio-interface exhibits a wide detection range, high sensitivity and rapid response time for H2O2, and is capable of visualizing endogenous H2O2 produced in living RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and neurons. First-principles calculations further demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of probing H2O2 is attributed to the efficient and spontaneous H2O2 adsorption on WS2 nanosheet edge sites. The combined features of 3D WS2 nanosheet networks suggest attractive new opportunities for exploring the physiological roles of reactive oxygen species like H2O2 in living systems.Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important molecular messenger for cellular signal transduction. The capability of direct probing of H2O2 in complex biological systems can offer potential for elucidating its manifold roles in living systems. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) WS2 nanosheet networks with flower-like morphologies on a variety of conducting substrates. The semiconducting WS2 nanosheets with largely exposed edge sites on flexible carbon fibers enable abundant catalytically active sites, excellent charge transfer, and high permeability to chemicals and biomaterials. Thus, the 3D WS2-based nano-bio-interface exhibits a wide detection range, high sensitivity and rapid response time for H2O2, and is capable of visualizing endogenous H2O2 produced in

  9. Generation of H2, O2, and H2O2 from water by the use of intense femtosecond laser pulses and the possibility of laser sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, S. L.; Lagacé, S.

    1996-02-01

    An intense femtosecond Ti-sapphire laser pulse was focused into water, leading to self-focusing. Apart from generating a white light (supercontinuum), the intense laser field in the self-focusing regions of the laser pulse dissociated the water molecules, giving rise to hydrogen and oxygen gas as well as hydrogen peroxide. Our analysis shows that the formation of free radicals O, H, and OH preceded the formation of the stable products of H2, O2, and H2O2. Because O radicals and H2O2 are strong oxydizing agents, one can take advantage of this phenomenon to design a laser scheme for sterilization in medical and biological applications.

  10. In Vivo Monitoring of H2O2 with Polydopamine and Prussian Blue-coated Microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruixin; Liu, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wanling; Zhang, Meining

    2016-08-01

    In vivo monitoring of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the brain is of importance for understanding the function of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signal transmission. Producing a robust microelectrode for in vivo measurement of H2O2 is challenging due to the complex brain environment and the instability of electrocatalysts employed for the reduction of H2O2. Here, we develop a new kind of microelectrode for in vivo monitoring of H2O2, which is prepared by, first, electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) onto carbon nanotube (CNT) assembled carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) and then overcoating of the CFEs with a thin membrane of polydopamine (PDA) through self-polymerization. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray proton spectroscopic results confirm the formation of PDA/PB/CNT/CFEs. The PDA membrane enables PB-based electrodes to show high stability in both in vitro and in vivo studies and to stably catalyze the electrochemical reduction of H2O2. The microelectrode is selective for in vivo measurements of H2O2, interference-free from O2 and other electroactive species coexisting in the brain. These properties, along with good linearity, high biocompatibility, and stability toward H2O2, substantially enable the microelectrode to track H2O2 changes in vivo during electrical stimulation and microinfusion of H2O2 and drug, which demonstrates that the microelectrode could be well suited for in vivo monitoring of dynamic changes of H2O2 in rat brain.

  11. Dynamics of H2O2 Availability to ARPE-19 Cultures in Models of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kaczara, Patrycja; Sarna, Tadeusz; Burke, Janice M.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative injury to cells such as the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is often modeled using H2O2-treated cultures, but H2O2 concentrations are not sustained in culture medium. Here medium levels of H2O2 and cytotoxicity were analyzed in ARPE-19 cultures following H2O2 delivery as a single pulse or with continuous generation using glucose oxidase (GOx). When added as a pulse, H2O2 is rapidly depleted (within 2 hr); cytotoxicity at 24, determined by the MTT assay for mitochondrial function, is unaffected by medium replacement at 2 hr. Continuous generation of H2O2 produces complex outcomes. At low GOx concentrations, H2O2 levels are sustained by conditions in which generation matches depletion, but when GOx concentrations produce cytotoxic levels of H2O2, oxidant depletion accelerates. Acceleration results partly from the release of contents from oxidant damaged cells as indicated by testing depletion after controlled membrane disruption with detergents. Cytotoxicity analyses show that cells can tolerate short exposure to high H2O2 doses delivered as a pulse but are susceptible to lower chronic doses. The results provide broadly applicable guidance for using GOx to produce sustained H2O2 levels in cultured cells. This approach will be specifically useful for modeling chronic stress relevant for RPE aging and have wider value for studying cellular effects of sub-lethal oxidant injury and for evaluating antioxidants that may protect significantly against mild but not lethal stress. PMID:20100568

  12. In Vivo Monitoring of H2O2 with Polydopamine and Prussian Blue-coated Microelectrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruixin; Liu, Xiaomeng; Qiu, Wanling; Zhang, Meining

    2016-08-01

    In vivo monitoring of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the brain is of importance for understanding the function of both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signal transmission. Producing a robust microelectrode for in vivo measurement of H2O2 is challenging due to the complex brain environment and the instability of electrocatalysts employed for the reduction of H2O2. Here, we develop a new kind of microelectrode for in vivo monitoring of H2O2, which is prepared by, first, electrodeposition of Prussian blue (PB) onto carbon nanotube (CNT) assembled carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFEs) and then overcoating of the CFEs with a thin membrane of polydopamine (PDA) through self-polymerization. Scanning electron microscopic and X-ray proton spectroscopic results confirm the formation of PDA/PB/CNT/CFEs. The PDA membrane enables PB-based electrodes to show high stability in both in vitro and in vivo studies and to stably catalyze the electrochemical reduction of H2O2. The microelectrode is selective for in vivo measurements of H2O2, interference-free from O2 and other electroactive species coexisting in the brain. These properties, along with good linearity, high biocompatibility, and stability toward H2O2, substantially enable the microelectrode to track H2O2 changes in vivo during electrical stimulation and microinfusion of H2O2 and drug, which demonstrates that the microelectrode could be well suited for in vivo monitoring of dynamic changes of H2O2 in rat brain. PMID:27385361

  13. Mechanism and toxicity research of benzalkonium chloride oxidation in aqueous solution by H2O2/Fe(2+) process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Xia, Yu-Feng; Hong, Jun-Ming

    2016-09-01

    As widely used disinfectants, the pollution caused by benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Since it is not suitable for biodegradation, BAC was degraded firstly by Fenton advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) in this research to enhance the biodegradability of the pollutions. The result revealed that the optimal molar ratio of H2O2/Fe(2+) for BAC degradation was 10:1, and the COD removal rate was 32 %. To clarify the pathway of degradation, the technique of GC-MS was implemented herein to identify intermediates and the toxicity of those BAC intermediates were also novelty tested through microbial fuel cells (MFC). The findings indicated that ten transformation products including benzyl dimethyl amine and dodecane were formed during the H2O2/Fe(2+) processes, which means the degradation pathway of BAC was initiated both on the hydrophobic (alkyl chain) and hydrophilic (benzyl and ammonium moiety) region of the surfactant. The toxicity of BAC before and after treated by Fenton process was monitored through MFC system. The electricity generation was improved 337 % after BAC was treated by H2O2/Fe(2+) oxidation processes which indicated that the toxicity of those intermediates were much lower than BAC. The mechanism and toxicity research in this paper could provide the in-depth understanding to the pathway of BAC degradation and proved the possibility of AOTs for the pretreatment of a biodegradation process. PMID:27250091

  14. Detoxifying effect of fermented black ginseng on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Bak, Min-Ji; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2014-12-01

    Fermented black ginseng (FBG) is prepared by repeated steaming and drying processes with fresh ginseng followed by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has recently been shown to have several bioactivities. FBG contains crude saponin (1,440 µg/ml), ginsenoside Rg2 (2.86 µg/ml), ginsenoside Rg3 (24.52 µg/ml), ginsenoside Rh1 (12.64 µg/ml), ginsenoside Rh2 (0.63 µg/ml) and ginsenoside Rf (1.32 µg/ml). The present study investigated the antioxidant defense properties of FBG against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated oxidative stress in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H2O2 was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner when the cells were pre-treated with FBG (10-50 µg/ml). FBG induced both the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the H2O2-treated HepG2 cells. The inhibitory effects of FBG on the phosphorylation of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 were also observed. Overall, our results demonstrate that FBG protects HepG2 cells from oxidative stress through the induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and the inhibition of MAPK pathways. PMID:25319719

  15. Hydroalcoholic extract of cyperus rotundus ameliorates H2O2-induced human neuronal cell damage via its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic machinery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Hemanth; Khanum, Farhath

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), a major reactive oxygen species produced during oxidative stress, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative conditions. Cyperus rotundus is a traditional medicinal herb that has recently found applications in food and confectionary industries. In the current study, the neuroprotective effects of Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract (CRE) through its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic machinery to attenuate H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been explored. The results obtained demonstrate that pretreatment of cells with CRE for 2 h before administration of H(2)O(2) for 24 h ameliorates the cytotoxicity induced by H(2)O(2) as evidenced by MTT and LDH assays. CRE exhibited potent antioxidant activity by regulating the enzymes/proteins levels such as SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, HSP-70, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2. The pretreatment restored H(2)O(2)-induced cellular, nuclear, and mitochondrial morphologies as well as increased the expression of Brain derived nerve growth factor (BDNF). The anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic potentials of the plant extract may account for its high content of phenolics, flavonoids, and other active principles. Taken together, our findings suggest that CRE might be developed as an agent for neurodegeneration prevention or therapy. PMID:22869350

  16. Protective effect of bioactive compounds from Lonicera japonica Thunb. against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity using neonatal rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Wang, Gang; Liu, Hong; Hou, Yun-long

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Pharmacological studies showed that the extracts of Jin Yin Hua and its active constituents have lipid lowering, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, cytoprotective, antimicrobial, antibiotic, antioxidative, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) from Jin Yin Hua against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced and hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity using neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Materials and Methods: Seven CQAs (C1 to C7) isolated and identified from Jin Yin Hua were used to examine the effects of H2O2-induced and hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity. We studied C4 and C6 as preventative bioactive compounds of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptotic pathway, and apoptosis-related gene expression. Results: C4 and C6 were screened as bioactive compounds to exert a cytoprotective effect against oxidative injury. Pretreatment with C4 and C6, dose-dependently attenuated hypoxia-induced ROS production and reduced the ratio of GSSG/GStotal. Western blot data revealed that the inhibitory effect of C4 on H2O2-induced up and down-regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-3. Apoptosis was evaluated by detection of DNA fragmentation using TUNEL assay, and quantified with Annexin V/PI staining. Conclusion: In vitro experiments revealed that both C4 and C6 protect cardiomyocytes from necrosis and apoptosis during H2O2-induced injury, via inhibiting the generation of ROS and activation of caspase-3 apoptotic pathway. These results demonstrated that CQAs might be a class of compounds which possess potent myocardial protective activity against the ischemic heart diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:27096070

  17. Decoloration Kinetics of Waste Cooking Oil by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yulin; Xiang, Yuxiu; Wang, Lipeng

    2016-03-01

    In order to decolorize, waste cooking oil, a dark red close to black solution from homes and restaurants, was subjected to 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment. By virtue of UV/Vis spectrophotometric method, the influence of Gamma irradiation to decoloration kinetics and rate constants of the waste cooking oil in the presence of H2O2 was researched. In addition, the influence of different factors such as H2O2 concentration and irradiation dose on the decoloration rate of waste cooking oil was investigated. Results indicated that the decoloration kinetics of waste cooking oil conformed to the first-order reaction. The decoloration rate increased with the increase of irradiation dose and H2O2 concentration. Saponification analysis and sensory evaluation showed that the sample by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment presented better saponification performance and sensory score. Furthermore, according to cost estimate, the cost of the 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 was lower and more feasible than the H2O2 alone for decoloration of waste cooking oil.

  18. Xylem parenchyma cells deliver the H2O2 necessary for lignification in differentiating xylem vessels.

    PubMed

    Ros Barceló, A

    2005-03-01

    Lignification in Zinnia elegans L. stems is characterized by a burst in the production of H(2)O(2), the apparent fate of which is to be used by xylem peroxidases for the polymerization of p-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols into lignins. A search for the sites of H(2)O(2) production in the differentiating xylem of Z. elegans stems by the simultaneous use of optical (bright field, polarized light and epi-polarization) and electron-microscope tools revealed that H(2)O(2) is produced on the outer-face of the plasma membrane of both differentiating (living) thin-walled xylem cells and particular (non-lignifying) xylem parenchyma cells. From the production sites it diffuses to the differentiating (secondary cell wall-forming) and differentiated lignifying xylem vessels. H(2)O(2) diffusion occurs mainly through the continuous cell wall space. Both the experimental data and the theoretical calculations suggest that H(2)O(2 )diffusion from the sites of production might not limit the rate of xylem cell wall lignification. It can be concluded that H(2)O(2) is produced at the plasma membrane in differentiating (living) thin-walled xylem cells and xylem parenchyma cells associated to xylem vessels, and that it diffuses to adjacent secondary lignifying xylem vessels. The results strongly indicate that non-lignifying xylem parenchyma cells are the source of the H(2)O(2) necessary for the polymerization of cinnamyl alcohols in the secondary cell wall of lignifying xylem vessels.

  19. Three-dimensional WS2 nanosheet networks for H2O2 produced for cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing; Quan, Yingzhou; Zhang, Yueyu; Jiang, Min; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Kong, Biao; An, Tiance; Wang, Wenshuo; Xia, Limin; Gong, Xingao; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-03-14

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important molecular messenger for cellular signal transduction. The capability of direct probing of H2O2 in complex biological systems can offer potential for elucidating its manifold roles in living systems. Here we report the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) WS2 nanosheet networks with flower-like morphologies on a variety of conducting substrates. The semiconducting WS2 nanosheets with largely exposed edge sites on flexible carbon fibers enable abundant catalytically active sites, excellent charge transfer, and high permeability to chemicals and biomaterials. Thus, the 3D WS2-based nano-bio-interface exhibits a wide detection range, high sensitivity and rapid response time for H2O2, and is capable of visualizing endogenous H2O2 produced in living RAW 264.7 macrophage cells and neurons. First-principles calculations further demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of probing H2O2 is attributed to the efficient and spontaneous H2O2 adsorption on WS2 nanosheet edge sites. The combined features of 3D WS2 nanosheet networks suggest attractive new opportunities for exploring the physiological roles of reactive oxygen species like H2O2 in living systems.

  20. The reaction of H2O2 with NO2 and NO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D.; Lissi, E.; Heicklen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The reactions of NO and NO2 with H2O2 have been examined at 25 C. Reaction mixtures were monitored by continuously bleeding through a pinhole into a monopole mass spectrometer. NO2 was also monitored by its optical absorption in the visible part of the spectrum. Reaction mixtures containing initially 1.5 - 2.5 torr of NO2 and 0.8 - 1.4 torr of H2O2 or 1 - 12 torr of NO and 0.5 - 1.5 torr of H2O2 were studied. The H2O2 - NO reaction was complex. There was an induction period followed by a marked acceleration in reactant removal. The final products of the reaction, NO2, probably H2O, and possibly HONO2 were produced mainly after all the H2O2 was removed. The HONO intermediate was shown to disproportionate to NO2 + NO + H2O in a relatively slow first order reaction. The acceleration in H2O2 removal after the NO - H2O2 reaction is started is caused by NO2 catalysis.

  1. Thermal Reactions of H2O2 on Icy Satellites and Small Bodies: Descent with Modification?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetospheric radiation drives surface and near-surface chemistry on Europa, but below a few meters Europa's chemistry is hidden from direct observation . As an example, surface radiation chemistry converts H2O and SO2 into H2O2 and (SO4)(sup 2-), respectively, and these species will be transported downward for possible thermally-driven reactions. However, while the infrared spectra and radiation chemistry of H2O2-containing ices are well documented, this molecule's thermally-induced solid-phase chemistry has seldom been studied. Here we report new results on thermal reactions in H2O + H2O2 + SO2 ices at 50 - 130 K. As an example of our results, we find that warming H2O + H2O2 + SO2 ices promotes SO2 oxidation to (SO4)(sup 2-). These results have implications for the survival of H2O2 as it descends, with modification, towards a subsurface ocean on Europa. We suspect that such redox chemistry may explain some of the observations related to the presence and distribution of H2O2 across Europa's surface as well as the lack of H2O2 on Ganymede and Callisto.

  2. Regulation of phospholipase D2 by H(2)O(2) in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, S O; Hong, J H; Kim, Y R; Yoo, H S; Lee, S H; Lim, K; Hwang, B D; Exton, J H; Park, S K

    2000-12-01

    Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is expressed in brain and inhibited by synuclein, which is involved in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. However, the activation mechanism of PLD2 in neuronal cells has not been defined clearly. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) plays roles in the neurodegenerative diseases and also acts as a second messenger of various molecules such as nerve growth factor. To study regulation mechanisms of PLD2 by H(2)O(2) in neuronal cells, we have made stable PC12 cell lines expressing PLD2 (PLD2-PC12 cells). H(2)O(2) treatment stimulated PLD activity in PLD2-PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This activation was inhibited by the treatment with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors or by depletion of PKCalpha, -delta, and -epsilon. Phorbol ester markedly activated PLD2. Co-treatment with phorbol ester and H(2)O(2) did not show an additive effect. Chelation of extracellular calcium substantially blocked the H(2)O(2)-induced activation of PLD2. A calcium ionophore induced PLD2 activation in a PKC-dependent manner. Protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced PLD activation slightly. These data indicate that H(2)O(2) can activate PLD2 in PC12 cells and that this activation is largely dependent on PKC and Ca(2+) ions and minimally dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation.

  3. [H2O2 induces changes in the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tingli; Shi, Qingshan; Ouyang, Yousheng; Chen, Yiben

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews the recent studies on H2O2 adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When the cell exposed in the H2O2 sub-lethal doses, the plasma membrane permeability decreased, meanwhile the plasma membrane fluidity is minished. These changes resulted in a gradient across the plasma membrane, which conferring a higher resistance to oxidative stress. Recent work has also shown that the yeast cells adapted to H2O2 would lead to several changes in the expression of genes coding the key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of lipid profile and in the organization of lipid microdomains of the plasma membrane, which finally decreased its' permeability and fluidity. The reorganization of the plasma membrane might be the major mechanism of the H2O2 adaptation. Once the yeast cells adapted to the external H2O2, changes in plasma occurred. The H2O2 dependent signaling pathways in the plasma membrane might be activated by high levels of H2O2. But the details of the signaling events should still be further studies.

  4. Stability and prospect of UV/H2O2 activated titania films for biomedical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unosson, Erik; Welch, Ken; Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

    2013-11-01

    Biomedical implants and devices that penetrate soft tissue are highly susceptible to infection, but also accessible for UV induced decontamination through photocatalysis if coated with suitable surfaces. As an on-demand antibacterial strategy, photocatalytic surfaces should be able to maintain their antibacterial properties over repeated activation. This study evaluates the surface properties and photocatalytic performance of titania films obtained by H2O2-oxidation and heat treatment of Ti and Ti-6Al-4V substrates, as well as the prospect of assisting photocatalytic reactions with H2O2 for improved efficiency. H2O2-oxidation generated a nanoporous coating, and subsequent heat treatment above 500 °C resulted in anatase formation. Tests using photo-assisted degradation of rhodamine B showed that prior to heat treatment, an initially high photocatalytic activity (PCA) of H2O2-oxidized substrates decayed significantly with repeated testing. Heat treating the samples at 600 °C resulted in stable yet lower PCA. Addition of 3% H2O2 during the photo-assisted reaction led to a substantial increase in PCA due to synergetic effects at the surface and H2O2 photolysis, the effect being most notable for non-heat treated samples. Both heat treated and non-heat treated samples showed stable PCA through repeated tests with H2O2-assisted photocatalysis, indicating that the combination of H2O2-oxidized titania films, UV light and added H2O2 can improve efficiency of these photocatalytic surfaces.

  5. Propofol Protects Against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Injury in Differentiated PC12 Cells via Inhibition of Ca(2+)-Dependent NADPH Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Xue; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Zhi-Bin; Lu, Di-Han; Tang, Ying; Ling, Ze-Min; Zhou, Li-Hua; Feng, Xia

    2016-05-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a widely used general anesthetic with anti-oxidant activities. This study aims to investigate protective capacity of propofol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury in neural cells and whether the anti-oxidative effects of propofol occur through a mechanism involving the modulation of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in a manner of calcium-dependent. The rat differentiated PC12 cell was subjected to H2O2 exposure for 24 h to mimic a neuronal in vitro model of oxidative injury. Our data demonstrated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with propofol significantly reversed the H2O2-induced decrease in cell viability, prevented H2O2-induced morphological changes, and reduced the ratio of apoptotic cells. We further found that propofol attenuated the accumulation of malondialdehyde (biomarker of oxidative stress), counteracted the overexpression of NOX core subunit gp91(phox) (NOX2) as well as the NOX activity following H2O2 exposure in PC12 cells. In addition, blocking of L-type Ca(2+) channels with nimodipine reduced H2O2-induced overexpression of NOX2 and caspase-3 activation in PC12 cells. Moreover, NOX inhibitor apocynin alone or plus propofol neither induces a significant downregulation of NOX activity nor increases cell viability compared with propofol alone in the PC12 cells exposed to H2O2. These results demonstrate that the protective effects of propofol against oxidative injury in PC12 cells are mediated, at least in part, through inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent NADPH oxidase.

  6. Selective Recovery of Chromium from Precipitates Containing d Elements and Actinides: II. Effect of H2O2

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, A. M.; Shilov, V. P.; Charushnikova, I. A.; Yusov, A. B.; Budantseva, N. A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2002-07-15

    The oxidation of Cr(III) hydroxides of different composition and mixed Fe(III)-Cr(III) and Ni(II)-Cr(III) hydroxides has been investigated in alkaline suspensions under the action of hydrogen peroxide. The initial rate of reaction increases with increasing of Cr(III) content in the suspension and H2O2 concentration and decreases non-monotonically with NaOH concentration increase from 0.2 to 2 M. The activation energy in 0.5 M NaOH solution is 82 kJ/mole. The consumption of oxidizing agent exceeds stoichiometry.

  7. Cell proliferating and differentiating role of H2O2 in Sclerotium rolfsii and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Papapostolou, Ioannis; Sideri, Marina; Georgiou, Christos D

    2014-01-01

    This study shows that the oxidant and also signal transducing H2O2 exerts a cell proliferating action at certain intracellular concentrations (around 80 nM), by inhibiting the lateral-chained and terminal sclerotial differentiation of the phytopathogenic filamentous fungi S. rolfsii and S. sclerotiorum, respectively. H2O2 also promotes sclerotial differentiation in these fungi at higher intracellular concentrations (approx. 130 nM). A cell proliferating and differentiation inhibiting effect was exerted also by the inhibitor of catalase activity aminotriazole via increase of intracellular H2O2. PMID:24388556

  8. SRT1720, a SIRT1 specific activator, protected H2O2-induced senescent endothelium.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Lin; Lu, Zhao-Yang; Huang, Jing-Juan; Qi, Jia; Hu, An; Su, Zhi-Xiao; Zhang, Lan; Li, Yue; Shi, Yi-Qin; Hao, Chang-Ning; Duan, Jun-Li

    2016-01-01

    Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis via modulating senescent-related signal pathway, however, the molecular mechanism remains modest clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine whether SIRT1 specific activator SRT1720 would exhibit pro-angiogenic and anti-aging properties in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced endothelial senescence, and determine the underlying mechanisms. We pre-treated senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with SRT1720, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, apoptosis, migration, tube formation, proliferation and angiogenic factors were quantitatively examined. The results revealed that pharmacologic activation of SIRT1 by SRT1720 rescued apoptotic HUVECs and upregulated angiogenic response through reinforcing the protein expressions of angiogenic and survival factors in vitro. Furthermore, we confirmed that the expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphoryl-Akt were augmented in SRT1720-treated senescent HUVECs. In conclusion, our data indicated that SRT1720 could protect against endothelial senescence and maintain cell function via Akt/eNOS/VEGF axis. PMID:27508009

  9. SRT1720, a SIRT1 specific activator, protected H2O2-induced senescent endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui-Lin; Lu, Zhao-Yang; Huang, Jing-Juan; Qi, Jia; Hu, An; Su, Zhi-Xiao; Zhang, Lan; Li, Yue; Shi, Yi-Qin; Hao, Chang-Ning; Duan, Jun-Li

    2016-01-01

    Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis via modulating senescent-related signal pathway, however, the molecular mechanism remains modest clarified. The purpose of this study was to examine whether SIRT1 specific activator SRT1720 would exhibit pro-angiogenic and anti-aging properties in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced endothelial senescence, and determine the underlying mechanisms. We pre-treated senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with SRT1720, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, apoptosis, migration, tube formation, proliferation and angiogenic factors were quantitatively examined. The results revealed that pharmacologic activation of SIRT1 by SRT1720 rescued apoptotic HUVECs and upregulated angiogenic response through reinforcing the protein expressions of angiogenic and survival factors in vitro. Furthermore, we confirmed that the expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphoryl-Akt were augmented in SRT1720-treated senescent HUVECs. In conclusion, our data indicated that SRT1720 could protect against endothelial senescence and maintain cell function via Akt/eNOS/VEGF axis. PMID:27508009

  10. [Study on removal effect of different organic fractions from bio-treated effluent of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Liu, Yong-di; Sun, Xian-bo; Xu, Hong-yong; Qian, Fei-yue; Li, Xin-jue; Li, Mu

    2012-08-01

    The pretreatment of bio-treated effluent of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process was studied. The influencing factors, such as H2O2 dosage, reaction time and pH values were evaluated for the removal efficiency of UV254, ADMI7.6, DOC and DOC of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process. The experimental results showed that,the optimal conditions determined were as follows: initial pH 7.4-8.1, H2O2 dosage 4.5 mmol x L(-1) and UV irradiation time of 50 min. Under the optimal conditions, UV254, ADMI7.6, DOC and COD removal rate could reach 77%, 94%, 40% and 69%. Removal effects of four different DOM fractions, hydrophobic acids, non-acid hydrophobics, tasnsphilics and hydrophilics separated by XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The experimental results show that: hydrophobic material was the main substance causing color, when it was characterized by ADMI7.6, the proportion could reach 92%, of which 53% was non-acid hydrophobics. It indicated that removal efficiencies of tasnsphilics, hydrophobic acids and non-acid hydrophobics were high through UV/H2O2, process, while hydrophilics' efficiencies were lower. The experimental results showed that organic molecules with molecular weight over 10,000 contributed greatly to UV254, ADMI7.6 and DOC removal rate. PMID:23213897

  11. [Study on removal effect of different organic fractions from bio-treated effluent of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Liu, Yong-di; Sun, Xian-bo; Xu, Hong-yong; Qian, Fei-yue; Li, Xin-jue; Li, Mu

    2012-08-01

    The pretreatment of bio-treated effluent of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process was studied. The influencing factors, such as H2O2 dosage, reaction time and pH values were evaluated for the removal efficiency of UV254, ADMI7.6, DOC and DOC of dye wastewater by UV/H2O2 process. The experimental results showed that,the optimal conditions determined were as follows: initial pH 7.4-8.1, H2O2 dosage 4.5 mmol x L(-1) and UV irradiation time of 50 min. Under the optimal conditions, UV254, ADMI7.6, DOC and COD removal rate could reach 77%, 94%, 40% and 69%. Removal effects of four different DOM fractions, hydrophobic acids, non-acid hydrophobics, tasnsphilics and hydrophilics separated by XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins. The experimental results show that: hydrophobic material was the main substance causing color, when it was characterized by ADMI7.6, the proportion could reach 92%, of which 53% was non-acid hydrophobics. It indicated that removal efficiencies of tasnsphilics, hydrophobic acids and non-acid hydrophobics were high through UV/H2O2, process, while hydrophilics' efficiencies were lower. The experimental results showed that organic molecules with molecular weight over 10,000 contributed greatly to UV254, ADMI7.6 and DOC removal rate.

  12. Human B lymphocytes show greater susceptibility to H2O2 toxicity than T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Farber, C M; Liebes, L F; Kanganis, D N; Silber, R

    1984-05-01

    Lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and from normal subjects were incubated with a glucose-glucose oxidase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generating system to study the effect of oxidant stress on these cells. Within 4 hr, 90% of normal but only 21% of CLL lymphocytes remained viable. When normal and CLL preparations enriched in B or T cells were exposed to H2O2, B lymphocytes from both groups were highly susceptible to oxidative damage while T lymphocytes were relatively resistant. The H2O2 scavenger catalase prevented the cytotoxicity. The present work identifies the human B lymphocyte as a cell that should be a suitable target for selective killing by H2O2-generating systems.

  13. Photochemical and dynamical processes affecting gaseous H2O2 concentrations in the lower troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Mita; Husain, Liaquat

    1999-09-01

    Measurements of gas phase H2O2, O3, and SO2 in ambient air, along with other meteorological parameters, were made at the Summit (1.5 km, above mean sea level, amsl) and at the Lodge (0.6 km, amsl) on Whiteface Mountain situated in the Adirondack region of northern New York state. These measurements were made during the summer of 1997 (July-August) to study the dynamical and chemical processes that control the distribution of H2O2 at a pristine mountainous site. H2O2 and O3 exhibited considerable variability from day to day. Gas phase H2O2 ranged from 0.3 to 4.3 ppb with a mean of 1.2±0.6 at the Summit, whereas at the Lodge the range was 0.10 to 4.6 ppb with a mean of 1.1±0.8. H2O2 exhibited a weak reverse diurnal variation at the Summit, whereas a diurnal variation was observed in the H2O2 levels at the Lodge. The daytime H2O2 concentrations at the Lodge were significantly higher than those at the Summit, while the nighttime values were higher at the Summit. The observed diurnal variations at the Lodge have been explained in terms of photochemical production of H2O2 during the day and scavenging by aqueous aerosols during the nighttime under the influence of a stable nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). Ozone was observed to have a reverse diurnal variation at both sites though the concentrations at the Summit were higher than at the Lodge. Nocturnal maxima in H2O2 and O3 concentrations under certain meteorological conditions were observed at both sites and are believed to be due to transport of these pollutants above the NBL after they are mixed down in the presence of a weak NBL. Two case studies are presented to elucidate the influence of atmospheric chemical and dynamical processes on the ambient concentration of H2O2 and O3. Results of multivariate statistical analysis show that photochemical production is most important in regulating the formation of H2O2 at the Lodge, whereas at the Summit meteorological processes are most important.

  14. H2O2 alters rat cardiac sarcomere function and protein phosphorylation through redox signaling.

    PubMed

    Avner, Benjamin S; Hinken, Aaron C; Yuan, Chao; Solaro, R John

    2010-09-01

    ROS, such as H(2)O(2), are a component of pathological conditions in many organ systems and have been reported to be elevated in cardiac pathophysiology. The experiments presented here test the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) induces alterations in cardiac myofilament function by the posttranslational modification of sarcomeric proteins indirectly through PKC signaling. In vitro assessment of actomyosin Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of myofibrillar fractions showed blunted relative ATP consumption in the relaxed state (pCa 8.0) in response to treatment with 0.5 mM H(2)O(2) before myofilament isolation. The effect was attributable to downstream "redox signaling," inasmuch as the direct application of H(2)O(2) to isolated myofibrils did not alter Mg(2+)-ATPase activity. Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, which was used as a measure of myofibrillar myosin function, was unaffected by H(2)O(2). Functional experiments using rat cardiac trabeculae treated with 0.5 or 5 mM H(2)O(2) followed by detergent extraction of membranes demonstrated increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force production, a faster rate of force redevelopment, and (for 5 mM) decreased maximum tension. Biochemical analysis of myocardial samples treated with 0.5 mM H(2)O(2) demonstrated increased phosphorylation of two sarcomeric proteins: cardiac troponin I and myosin-binding protein-C. These changes were eliminated by a general PKC inhibitor. However, H(2)O(2) and the general PKC activator PMA induced different phosphorylation patterns in cardiomyocytes in which PKC-delta was elevated by viral infection. These data provide evidence that PKC-dependent redox signaling affects the function of cardiac myofilaments and indicate modification of specific proteins through this signaling mechanism.

  15. Drosophila TRPA1 isoforms detect UV light via photochemical production of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Guntur, Ananya R; Gu, Pengyu; Takle, Kendra; Chen, Jingyi; Xiang, Yang; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2015-10-20

    The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is an evolutionarily conserved detector of temperature and irritant chemicals. Here, we show that two specific isoforms of TRPA1 in Drosophila are H2O2 sensitive and that they can detect strong UV light via sensing light-induced production of H2O2. We found that ectopic expression of these H2O2-sensitive Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) isoforms conferred UV sensitivity to light-insensitive HEK293 cells and Drosophila neurons, whereas expressing the H2O2-insensitive isoform did not. Curiously, when expressed in one specific group of motor neurons in adult flies, the H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms were as competent as the blue light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 in triggering motor output in response to light. We found that the corpus cardiacum (CC) cells, a group of neuroendocrine cells that produce the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in the larval ring gland endogenously express these H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms and that they are UV sensitive. Sensitivity of CC cells required dTRPA1 and H2O2 production but not conventional phototransduction molecules. Our results suggest that specific isoforms of dTRPA1 can sense UV light via photochemical production of H2O2. We speculate that UV sensitivity conferred by these isoforms in CC cells may allow young larvae to activate stress response--a function of CC cells--when they encounter strong UV, an aversive stimulus for young larvae.

  16. Drosophila TRPA1 isoforms detect UV light via photochemical production of H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Guntur, Ananya R.; Gu, Pengyu; Takle, Kendra; Chen, Jingyi; Xiang, Yang; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is an evolutionarily conserved detector of temperature and irritant chemicals. Here, we show that two specific isoforms of TRPA1 in Drosophila are H2O2 sensitive and that they can detect strong UV light via sensing light-induced production of H2O2. We found that ectopic expression of these H2O2-sensitive Drosophila TRPA1 (dTRPA1) isoforms conferred UV sensitivity to light-insensitive HEK293 cells and Drosophila neurons, whereas expressing the H2O2-insensitive isoform did not. Curiously, when expressed in one specific group of motor neurons in adult flies, the H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms were as competent as the blue light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 in triggering motor output in response to light. We found that the corpus cardiacum (CC) cells, a group of neuroendocrine cells that produce the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) in the larval ring gland endogenously express these H2O2-sensitive dTRPA1 isoforms and that they are UV sensitive. Sensitivity of CC cells required dTRPA1 and H2O2 production but not conventional phototransduction molecules. Our results suggest that specific isoforms of dTRPA1 can sense UV light via photochemical production of H2O2. We speculate that UV sensitivity conferred by these isoforms in CC cells may allow young larvae to activate stress response—a function of CC cells—when they encounter strong UV, an aversive stimulus for young larvae. PMID:26443856

  17. Characteristics and applications of UV/controlled-release H2O2 for urban runoff treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; Lee, E.; Schwartz, F. W.; Kim, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution for urban runoff has been considered as one of the leading causes of receiving water degradation. Among the NPS pollutants, petroleum hydrocarbons, such as BTEX; polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and gasoline additives (such as MTBE) are gaining more attention due to their resistance to biodegradation, high detention frequency and toxicity. Opportunities exist for the development of in situ scheme to remediate organic pollutants in urban runoff. The Ultraviolet (UV)/H2O2 process uses direct photolysis of H2O2 under UV irradiation, producing hydroxyl radicals. They attack organic compounds relatively non-selectively with rate constants ranging from 106 to 1010 M-1s-1, oxidizing them by addition to double bonds or hydrogen atom abstraction. This study aims to develop a controlled-release system (CRS) that can deliver H2O2 at a rate which is predetermined by the design of the system and nearly independent of environmental conditions. A series of correlation analyses and literature review suggested that UV/CRS-H2O2 system can provide an efficient scheme for treating organic pollutants in urban runoff in situ. CRS-H2O2 forms were manufactured by dispersing fine sodium percarbonate (Na2CO3`1.5H2O2) granules, which can rapidly release H2O2 when dissolved in water, in liquid wax matrix. Release rates of these CRS forms were measured using column experiments and computer modeling. These column and numerical simulation data indicated the CRP could deliver H2O2 in a controlled concentration, which is efficient to treat organic pollution in urban runoff for several years. This type of new approach may be suitable for in situ remediation of urban storm runoff in which low to medium-concentration contaminants exist

  18. Sensitive and real-time determination of H2O2 release from intact peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sebastian; Weber, Angelika; Fritz, Reiner; Mütze, Sabine; Rost, Daniel; Walczak, Henning; Völkl, Alfred; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2002-05-01

    Peroxisomes are essential and ubiquitous cell organelles having a key role in mammalian lipid and oxygen metabolism. The presence of flavine oxidases makes them an important intracellular source of H(2)O(2): an obligate product of peroxisomal redox reactions and a key reactive oxygen species. Peroxisomes proliferate in response to external signals triggered by peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor signalling pathways. Peroxisome-derived oxidative stress as a consequence of this proliferation is increasingly recognized to participate in pathologies ranging from carcinogenesis in rodents to alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis in humans. To date, no sensitive approach exists to record H(2)O(2) turnover of peroxisomes in real time. Here, we introduce a sensitive chemiluminescence method that allows the monitoring of H(2)O(2) generation and degradation in real time in suspensions of intact peroxisomes. Importantly, removal, as well as release of, H(2)O(2) can be assessed at nanomolar, non-toxic concentrations in the same sample. Owing to the kinetic properties of catalase and oxidases, H(2)O(2) forms fast steady-state concentrations in the presence of various peroxisomal substrates. Substrate screening suggests that urate, glycolate and activated fatty acids are the most important sources for H(2)O(2) in rodents. Kinetic studies imply further that peroxisomes contribute significantly to the beta-oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, in addition to their essential role in the breakdown of long and very long ones. These observations establish a direct quantitative release of H(2)O(2) from intact peroxisomes. The experimental approach offers new possibilities for functionally studying H(2)O(2) metabolism, substrate transport and turnover in peroxisomes of eukaryotic cells. PMID:11964148

  19. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw for enhancing bioethanol production by Same Vessel Saccharification and Co-Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Karagöz, Pinar; Rocha, Indre V; Özkan, Melek; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw was evaluated for conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. After pretreatment, a liquid phase called pretreatment liquid and a solid phase were separated by filtration. The neutralized pretreatment liquids were used in a co-fermentation process, with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. The solid fraction was used for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process in the same vessel. The effects of various operating variables were investigated. Pretreatment with 5% (v/v) H(2)O(2) at 50 °C for 1h was found to be the optimal pretreatment combination with respect to overall ethanol production. At this condition, 5.73 g ethanol was obtained from pretreatment liquid and 14.07 g ethanol was produced by co-fermentation of solid fraction with P. stipitis. Optimum delignification was observed when 0.5 M MgSO(4) was included in the pretreatment mixture, and it resulted in 0.92% increase in ethanol production efficiency. PMID:22104093

  20. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw for enhancing bioethanol production by Same Vessel Saccharification and Co-Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Karagöz, Pinar; Rocha, Indre V; Özkan, Melek; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline peroxide pretreatment of rapeseed straw was evaluated for conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. After pretreatment, a liquid phase called pretreatment liquid and a solid phase were separated by filtration. The neutralized pretreatment liquids were used in a co-fermentation process, with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. The solid fraction was used for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process in the same vessel. The effects of various operating variables were investigated. Pretreatment with 5% (v/v) H(2)O(2) at 50 °C for 1h was found to be the optimal pretreatment combination with respect to overall ethanol production. At this condition, 5.73 g ethanol was obtained from pretreatment liquid and 14.07 g ethanol was produced by co-fermentation of solid fraction with P. stipitis. Optimum delignification was observed when 0.5 M MgSO(4) was included in the pretreatment mixture, and it resulted in 0.92% increase in ethanol production efficiency.

  1. Proximity-based protein thiol oxidation by H2O2-scavenging peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Gutscher, Marcus; Sobotta, Mirko C; Wabnitz, Guido H; Ballikaya, Seda; Meyer, Andreas J; Samstag, Yvonne; Dick, Tobias P

    2009-11-13

    H(2)O(2) acts as a signaling molecule by oxidizing critical thiol groups on redox-regulated target proteins. To explain the efficiency and selectivity of H(2)O(2)-based signaling, it has been proposed that oxidation of target proteins may be facilitated by H(2)O(2)-scavenging peroxidases. Recently, a peroxidase-based protein oxidation relay has been identified in yeast, namely the oxidation of the transcription factor Yap1 by the peroxidase Orp1. It has remained unclear whether the protein oxidase function of Orp1 is a singular adaptation or whether it may represent a more general principle. Here we show that Orp1 is in fact not restricted to oxidizing Yap1 but can also form a highly efficient redox relay with the oxidant target protein roGFP (redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein) in mammalian cells. Orp1 mediates near quantitative oxidation of roGFP2 by H(2)O(2), and the Orp1-roGFP2 redox relay effectively converts physiological H(2)O(2) signals into measurable fluorescent signals in living cells. Furthermore, the oxidant relay phenomenon is not restricted to Orp1 as the mammalian peroxidase Gpx4 also mediates oxidation of proximal roGFP2 in living cells. Together, these findings support the concept that certain peroxidases harbor an intrinsic and powerful capacity to act as H(2)O(2)-dependent protein thiol oxidases when they are recruited into proximity of oxidizable target proteins. PMID:19755417

  2. Proximity-based Protein Thiol Oxidation by H2O2-scavenging Peroxidases*♦

    PubMed Central

    Gutscher, Marcus; Sobotta, Mirko C.; Wabnitz, Guido H.; Ballikaya, Seda; Meyer, Andreas J.; Samstag, Yvonne; Dick, Tobias P.

    2009-01-01

    H2O2 acts as a signaling molecule by oxidizing critical thiol groups on redox-regulated target proteins. To explain the efficiency and selectivity of H2O2-based signaling, it has been proposed that oxidation of target proteins may be facilitated by H2O2-scavenging peroxidases. Recently, a peroxidase-based protein oxidation relay has been identified in yeast, namely the oxidation of the transcription factor Yap1 by the peroxidase Orp1. It has remained unclear whether the protein oxidase function of Orp1 is a singular adaptation or whether it may represent a more general principle. Here we show that Orp1 is in fact not restricted to oxidizing Yap1 but can also form a highly efficient redox relay with the oxidant target protein roGFP (redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein) in mammalian cells. Orp1 mediates near quantitative oxidation of roGFP2 by H2O2, and the Orp1-roGFP2 redox relay effectively converts physiological H2O2 signals into measurable fluorescent signals in living cells. Furthermore, the oxidant relay phenomenon is not restricted to Orp1 as the mammalian peroxidase Gpx4 also mediates oxidation of proximal roGFP2 in living cells. Together, these findings support the concept that certain peroxidases harbor an intrinsic and powerful capacity to act as H2O2-dependent protein thiol oxidases when they are recruited into proximity of oxidizable target proteins. PMID:19755417

  3. Cosmetic wastewater treatment using the Fenton, Photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV processes.

    PubMed

    Marcinowski, Piotr P; Bogacki, Jan P; Naumczyk, Jeremi H

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), such as the Fenton, photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV processes, have been investigated for the treatment of cosmetic wastewaters that were previously coagulated by FeCl3. The Photo-Fenton process at pH 3.0 with 1000/100 mg L(-1) H2O2/Fe(2+) was the most effective (74.0% Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal). The Fenton process with 1200/500 mg L(-1) H2O2/Fe(2+) achieved a COD removal of 72.0%, and the H2O2/UV process achieved a COD removal of 47.0%. Spreading the H2O2 doses over time to obtain optimal conditions did not improve COD removal. The kinetics of the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes may be described by the following equation: d[COD]/dt = -a[COD] t(m) (t represents time and a and m are constants). The rate of COD removal by the H2O2/UV process may be described by a second-order reaction equation. Head Space, Solid-Phase MicroExtraction, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) were used to identify 48 substances in precoagulated wastewater. Among these substances, 26 were fragrances. Under optimal AOP conditions, over 99% of the identified substances were removed in 120 min.

  4. Cross Talk between H2O2 and Interacting Signal Molecules under Plant Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ina; Srikanth, Sandhya; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress is an important cause of cellular damage. During stress conditions, plants have evolved regulatory mechanisms to adapt to various environmental stresses. One of the consequences of stress is an increase in the cellular concentration of reactive oxygen species, which is subsequently converted to H2O2. H2O2 is continuously produced as the byproduct of oxidative plant aerobic metabolism. Organelles with a high oxidizing metabolic activity or with an intense rate of electron flow, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, or peroxisomes are major sources of H2O2 production. H2O2 acts as a versatile molecule because of its dual role in cells. Under normal conditions, H2O2 immerges as an important factor during many biological processes. It has been established that it acts as a secondary messenger in signal transduction networks. In this review, we discuss potential roles of H2O2 and other signaling molecules during various stress responses.

  5. Cross Talk between H2O2 and Interacting Signal Molecules under Plant Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ina; Srikanth, Sandhya; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress is an important cause of cellular damage. During stress conditions, plants have evolved regulatory mechanisms to adapt to various environmental stresses. One of the consequences of stress is an increase in the cellular concentration of reactive oxygen species, which is subsequently converted to H2O2. H2O2 is continuously produced as the byproduct of oxidative plant aerobic metabolism. Organelles with a high oxidizing metabolic activity or with an intense rate of electron flow, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, or peroxisomes are major sources of H2O2 production. H2O2 acts as a versatile molecule because of its dual role in cells. Under normal conditions, H2O2 immerges as an important factor during many biological processes. It has been established that it acts as a secondary messenger in signal transduction networks. In this review, we discuss potential roles of H2O2 and other signaling molecules during various stress responses. PMID:27200043

  6. Fluorescent gold nanoclusters based photoelectrochemical sensors for detection of H2O2 and glucose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianxiu; Tu, Liping; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Guohua; Wang, Yangyun; Wang, Yong; Yue, Zhao

    2015-05-15

    In this work, low-toxicity fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) based photoelectrochemical sensors were developed for H2O2 and glucose detection. Herein, the processes used to fabricate the sensors and the photoelectrochemical performances of the sensors under different conditions were presented. Based on the energy band levels of the AuNCs and electron tunneling processes, a detailed photoelectrochemical sensing model was given. The designed sensors were then used for H2O2 and glucose detection without any extra modification of the AuNCs or complex enzyme immobilization. The results demonstrate that the AuNCs allow for H2O2 sensing based on their capacity for both fluorescence and catalysis. Indeed, it was observed that H2O2 was catalyzed by the AuNCs and reduced by photoinduced electrons derived from excited AuNCs. Furthermore, an enhancement in photocurrent amplitude followed the increase in the concentrations of H2O2 and glucose. The effects of the types of ligands surrounding the AuNCs and the applied potential on the output photocurrent were well studied to optimize the measurement conditions. The sensitivity and LOD of MUA-AuNCs at -500 mV were 4.33 nA/mM and 35 μM, respectively. All experimental results indicated that AuNCs could not only serve as a promising photoelectrical material for building the photoelectrochemical biosensors but as catalysts for H2O2 sensing.

  7. Cross Talk between H2O2 and Interacting Signal Molecules under Plant Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ina; Srikanth, Sandhya; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress is an important cause of cellular damage. During stress conditions, plants have evolved regulatory mechanisms to adapt to various environmental stresses. One of the consequences of stress is an increase in the cellular concentration of reactive oxygen species, which is subsequently converted to H2O2. H2O2 is continuously produced as the byproduct of oxidative plant aerobic metabolism. Organelles with a high oxidizing metabolic activity or with an intense rate of electron flow, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, or peroxisomes are major sources of H2O2 production. H2O2 acts as a versatile molecule because of its dual role in cells. Under normal conditions, H2O2 immerges as an important factor during many biological processes. It has been established that it acts as a secondary messenger in signal transduction networks. In this review, we discuss potential roles of H2O2 and other signaling molecules during various stress responses. PMID:27200043

  8. Efficiency and energy requirements for the transformation of organic micropollutants by ozone, O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2011-07-01

    The energy consumptions of conventional ozonation and the AOPs O(3)/H(2)O(2) and UV/H(2)O(2) for transformation of organic micropollutants, namely atrazine (ATR), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were compared. Three lake waters and a wastewater were assessed. With p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) as a hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) probe compound, we experimentally determined the rate constants of organic matter of the selected waters for their reaction with (•)OH (k(OH,DOM)), which varied from 2.0 × 10(4) to 3.5 × 10(4) L mgC(-1) s(-1). Based on these data we calculated (•)OH scavenging rates of the various water matrices, which were in the range 6.1-20 × 10(4) s(-1). The varying scavenging rates influenced the required oxidant dose for the same degree of micropollutant transformation. In ozonation, for 90% pCBA transformation in the water with the lowest scavenging rate (lake Zürich water) the required O(3) dose was roughly 2.3 mg/L, and in the water with the highest scavenging rate (Dübendorf wastewater) it was 13.2 mg/L, corresponding to an energy consumption of 0.035 and 0.2 kWh/m(3), respectively. The use of O(3)/H(2)O(2) increased the rate of micropollutant transformation and reduced bromate formation by 70%, but the H(2)O(2) production increased the energy requirements by 20-25%. UV/H(2)O(2) efficiently oxidized all examined micropollutants but energy requirements were substantially higher (For 90% pCBA conversion in lake Zürich water, 0.17-0.75 kWh/m(3) were required, depending on the optical path length). Energy requirements between ozonation and UV/H(2)O(2) were similar only in the case of NDMA, a compound that reacts slowly with ozone and (•)OH but is transformed efficiently by direct photolysis. PMID:21645916

  9. Microchannel Reactor System Design & Demonstration For On-Site H2O2 Production by Controlled H2/O2 Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Adeniyi Lawal

    2008-12-09

    We successfully demonstrated an innovative hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production concept which involved the development of flame- and explosion-resistant microchannel reactor system for energy efficient, cost-saving, on-site H2O2 production. We designed, fabricated, evaluated, and optimized a laboratory-scale microchannel reactor system for controlled direct combination of H2 and O2 in all proportions including explosive regime, at a low pressure and a low temperature to produce about 1.5 wt% H2O2 as proposed. In the second phase of the program, as a prelude to full-scale commercialization, we demonstrated our H2O2 production approach by ‘numbering up’ the channels in a multi-channel microreactor-based pilot plant to produce 1 kg/h of H2O2 at 1.5 wt% as demanded by end-users of the developed technology. To our knowledge, we are the first group to accomplish this significant milestone. We identified the reaction pathways that comprise the process, and implemented rigorous mechanistic kinetic studies to obtain the kinetics of the three main dominant reactions. We are not aware of any such comprehensive kinetic studies for the direct combination process, either in a microreactor or any other reactor system. We showed that the mass transfer parameter in our microreactor system is several orders of magnitude higher than what obtains in the macroreactor, attesting to the superior performance of microreactor. A one-dimensional reactor model incorporating the kinetics information enabled us to clarify certain important aspects of the chemistry of the direct combination process as detailed in section 5 of this report. Also, through mathematical modeling and simulation using sophisticated and robust commercial software packages, we were able to elucidate the hydrodynamics of the complex multiphase flows that take place in the microchannel. In conjunction with the kinetics information, we were able to validate the experimental data. If fully implemented across the whole

  10. Protective effect of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) peel proanthocyanidin against oxidative damage under H2O2-induced cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young A; Cho, Eun Ju; Yokozawa, Takako

    2008-06-01

    8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), one of the most abundant oxidative DNA adducts, is used as an indicator of oxidative DNA damage associated with aging. Among homologs of the silent information regulator (Sir), sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is suggested as a regulator of the apoptotic response to DNA damage. Since it has been suggested that the aging process can be delayed by the attenuation of oxidative damage such as DNA damage or SIRT1 modulation, we focused on the protective effect against cellular oxidative damage of persimmon peel, a proanthocyanidin-rich food, in relation to its level of polymerization. We confirmed that 8-OHdG expression in TIG-1 human fibroblasts was increased by treatment with 300 microM H2O2 for 2 h. On the other hand, the nuclear SIRT1 level was decreased in H2O2-treated as compared with non-pretreated cells. However, pretreatments with polymers and oligomers led to a decrease in 8-OHdG and elevation in nuclear SIRT1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In particular, oligomers exerted a stronger effect. The present study supports the protective potential of proanthocyanidin from persimmon peel against oxidative damage under the aging process, and suggests that the polymerization of proanthocyanidin plays an important role in retarding aging in a cellular senescence model.

  11. Surface and bulk uptake of H2O2 to snow: Insights from laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Ulrich, Thomas; Ammann, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The trace gas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is chemical vey reactive in the atmosphere and in the cryosphere. Its gas-phase concentration may significantly determine OH and O3 levels, and thus the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. In snow, H2O2 can drive oxidation of impurities and also a vivid photochemistry is observed. It is further the only major atmospheric oxidant that is directly taken up by snow. Snow might thus be an important reservoir for atmospheric H2O2 and reconstructions of its atmospheric concentration from ice core records might deliver crucial information about past atmosphere. Because H2O2 readily exchanges with between the ice and the gas phase, the transfer function of H2O2 between snow and the atmosphere is crucial to understand and predict the large-scale importance of its chemistry in snow, its exchange with the atmosphere, and its fate in ice-cores. Characterizing the physical exchange of H2O2 between the snow grains and the surrounding air has consequently received much attention in laboratory studies. In one type of studies that focused on short time scales, a detailed description of the adsorption equilibrium between the gas phase and ice was derived. These studies, done on very thin ice films, indicate that H2O2 exclusively adsorbs to the surface. Earlier studies with packed snow samples, published 30 years ago, have shown a different picture of the H2O2 interaction with snow, where surface adsorption and accommodation into the bulk ice governed the overall uptake in long-lasting experiments. The situation where uptake of a trace gas to snow can be driven by several processes with different time scales is typical for the interaction of a number of trace gases with snow. Describing both processes in detail is thus a key-issue in current research. Generally, the uptake occurring on short time scales in thought to be caused by surface adsorption; slow transfer behaviour is related to uptake to the bulk. As H2O2 is not soluble in solid ice

  12. Oxidative damage to fibronectin. 2. The effect of H2O2 and the hydroxyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, M.C.; Winterbourn, C.C. )

    1991-03-01

    The effect of H2O2 and the hydroxyl radical (.OH) on fibronectin was investigated. .OH was generated in three ways: (1) by radiolysis with 60Co under N2O, or by the Fenton system using either (2) equimolar Fe(2+)-EDTA and H2O2 or (3) H2O2 and catalytic amounts of Fe(2+)-EDTA recycled with ascorbate. Each system had a different effect. H2O2 alone caused no changes, even at an 800-fold molar excess. Radiolytic .OH caused a rapid loss of tryptophan fluorescence, an increase in bityrosine fluorescence, and extensive crosslinking. The Fenton system using Fe-EDTA, H2O2, and ascorbate caused a loss in tryptophan fluorescence, a smaller increase in bityrosine than was seen with radiolytic .OH, and a threefold increase in carbonyl groups. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis fragmentation of fibronectin was seen. In contrast, when .OH was generated with equimolar Fe-EDTA and H2O2, the only change was a small increase in bityrosine fluorescence at the highest dose of oxidant. None of the systems used affected cysteine. All the changes except the loss of tryptophan by radiolytic .OH were completely inhibited with mannitol. The differences seen with radiolytic .OH and the Fe-EDTA, H2O2, ascorbate system were not solely due to O2 in the latter system since similar results were obtained under N2. The differences between radiolytic .OH and the Fenton systems could be partly due to the components of the latter systems reacting with .OH and thus competing with fibronectin. The authors results demonstrate that the extent and type of fibronectin damage by .OH is dependent on the mode of radical generation.

  13. MicroRNA-214 protects cardiac myocytes against H2O2-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guangwei; Shao, Suxia; Dong, Hua; Bian, Xiaohua; Yang, Xingwei; Dong, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cardiac myocyte injury resulting from changes in the expression levels of multiple genes plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of numerous heart diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential roles of microRNA-214 (miR-214) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated gene regulation in cardiac myocytes. In this study, we used quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to demonstrate that miR-214 was upregulated in cardiac myocytes after treatment with H2O2. We transfected cells with pre-miR-214 to upregulate miR-214 expression and transfected cells with a miR-214 inhibitor (anti-miR-214) to downregulate miR-214 expression. H2O2-induced cardiac cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. The level of apoptosis was increased by the miR-214 inhibitor and decreased by pre-miR-214. Therefore, we believe that miR-214 plays a positive role in H2O2-induced cardiac cell apoptosis. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is constitutively active and is considered to be the primary downregulator of the pro-oncogenic PI3K/Akt pathway. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of the PTEN protein in cardiac myocytes decreased after H2O2 induction. Anti-miR-214 increased PTEN protein expression level, in contrast, pre-miR-214 decreased the PTEN protein expression level in cultured cardiac myocytes. These results indicate that PTEN is regulated by miR-214 and serves as an important target of miR-214 in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, miR-214 is sensitive to H2O2 stimulation, and miR-214 protects cardiac myocytes against H2O2-induced injury via one of its targets, PTEN.

  14. Comparative study of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and organosolv pretreatments of sugarcane bagasse to improve the overall sugar yield.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hailong; You, Yanzhi; Lei, Fuhou; Liu, Zuguang; Zhang, Weiming; Jiang, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Green liquor (GL) combined with H2O2 (GL-H2O2) and green liquor (GL) combined with ethanol (GL-ethanol) were chosen for treating sugarcane bagasse. Results showed that the glucose yield (calculated from the glucose content as a percentage of the theoretical glucose available in the substrates)of sugarcane bagasse from GL-ethanol pretreatment (97.7%) was higher than that from GL-H2O2 pretreatment (41.7%) after 72h hydrolysis with 18 filter paper unit (FPU)/g-cellulose for cellulase, 27,175 cellobiase units (CBU)/g-cellulose for β-glucosidase. Furthermore, about 94.1% of xylan was converted to xylose after GL-ethanol pretreatment without additional xylanase, while the xylose yield was only 29.2% after GL-H2O2 pretreatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed that GL-ethanol pretreatment could break up the fiber severely. Moreover, GL-ethanol pretreated substrate was more accessible to cellulase and more hydrophilic than that of GL-H2O2 pretreated. Therefore, GL-ethanol pretreatment is a promising method for improving the overall sugar (glucose and xylan) yield of sugarcane bagasse.

  15. Decreased cellular permeability to H2O2 protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in stationary phase against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Lopes, A; Antunes, F; Cyrne, L; Marinho, H S

    2004-12-01

    The higher resistance of stationary-phase Saccharomyces cerevisiae to H2O2 when compared with exponential phase is well characterized, but the molecular mechanisms underlying it remain mostly unknown. By applying the steady-state H2O2-delivery model, we show that (a) cellular permeability to H2O2 is five times lower in stationary--than in exponential phase; (b) cell survival to H2O2 correlates with H2O2 cellular gradients for a variety of cells; and, (c) cells in stationary phase are predicted to be more susceptible to intracellular H2O2 than in exponential phase. In conclusion, limiting H2O2 diffusion into cells is a key protective mechanism against extracellular H2O2.

  16. Abscisic Acid-Induced H2O2 Accumulation Enhances Antioxidant Capacity in Pumpkin-Grafted Cucumber Leaves under Ca(NO3)2 Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Sheng; Gao, Pan; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yinghui; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) in pumpkin-grafted cucumber leaves gradually increased over time and peaked at 12 h of Ca(NO3)2 stress. Furthermore, in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings, the H2O2 generation, the antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of SOD, POD and cAPX were strongly blocked by an inhibitor of ABA under Ca(NO3)2 stress, but this effect was eliminated by the addition of exogenous ABA. Moreover, the activities and gene expressions of these antioxidant enzymes in pumpkin-grafted leaves were almost inhibited under Ca(NO3)2 stress by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. These results suggest that the pumpkin grafting-induced ABA accumulation mediated H2O2 generation, resulting in the induction of antioxidant defense systems in leaves exposed to Ca(NO3)2 stress in the ABA/H2O2 signaling pathway. PMID:27746808

  17. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3). PMID:25600300

  18. Post-treatment of biologically treated wastewater containing organic contaminants using a sequence of H2O2 based advanced oxidation processes: photolysis and catalytic wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Márquez, J J; Sillanpää, M; Pocostales, P; Acevedo, A; Manzano, M A

    2015-03-15

    In this paper the feasibility of a multi-barrier treatment (MBT) for the regeneration of synthetic industrial wastewater (SIWW) was evaluated. Industrial pollutants (orange II, phenol, 4-chlorophenol and phenanthrene) were added to the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant. The proposed MBT begins with a microfiltration membrane pretreatment (MF), followed by hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and finishing, as a polishing step, with catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) using granular activated carbon (GAC) at ambient conditions. During the microfiltration step (0.7 μm) the decrease of suspended solids concentration, turbidity and Escherichia coli in treated water were 88, 94 and 99%, respectively. Also, the effluent's transmittance (254 nm) was increased by 14.7%. Removal of more than 99.9% of all added pollutants, mineralization of 63% of organic compounds and complete disinfection of total coliforms were reached during the H2O2/UVC treatment step (H2O2:TOC w/w ratio = 5 and an UVC average dose accumulated by wastewater 8.80 WUVC s cm(-2)). The power and efficiency of the lamp, the water transmittance and photoreactor geometry are taken into account and a new equation to estimate the accumulated dose in water is suggested. Remaining organic pollutants with a higher oxidation state of carbon atoms (+0.47) and toxic concentration of residual H2O2 were present in the effluent of the H2O2/UVC process. After 2.3 min of contact time with GAC at CWPO step, 90 and 100% of total organic carbon and residual H2O2 were removed, respectively. Also, the wastewater toxicity was studied using Vibrio fischeri and Sparus aurata larvae. The MBT operational and maintenance costs (O&M) was estimated to be 0.59 € m(-3).

  19. Oxidation of nonionic surfactants by Fenton and H2O2/UV processes.

    PubMed

    Pagano, M; Lopez, A; Volpe, A; Mascolo, G; Ciannarella, R

    2008-04-01

    The oxidation of 10 nonionic surfactants (6 alcohol ethoxylates and 4 alkylphenol ethoxylates) by Fenton and H2O2/UV processes was investigated in synthetic (deionized water) and real aqueous matrices, i.e. secondary effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant and groundwater. Batch tests were carried out to assess the optimal dosages of reagents leading to the total removal of surfactants. Regardless to the specific surfactant, both Fenton and H2O2/UV treatments of synthetic solutions containing one single surfactant (C0=14 mg l(-1)) always caused its rapid and quantitative removal (96-99%) with a corresponding very low (0-18%) TOC decrease. Only for the Fenton treatment, linear relationships were found between the amounts of H2O2 and Fe2+ necessary for surfactant removal and the ethoxy chain length of each surfactant. Conversely, in the case of H2O2/UV treatment the H2O2 dosage causing the quantitative oxidation of the treated surfactant depended on the length of both chains: the ethoxy and the hydrophobic one. Mixtures of the 10 surfactants (1.4 mg l(-1) each) were treated in both synthetic and real matrices. These latter were different in the case of Fenton (i.e. municipal secondary effluent) or H2O2/UV (i.e. real groundwater) treatments. Fenton treatment of municipal secondary effluent containing the surfactants mixture led to its total removal when a molar ratio [Total surfactants]/[H2O2]/[Fe2+] equal to 1/17/12 was used. As for H2O2/UV treatment of real groundwater samples, quantitative removal of surfactants mixture was achieved with a molar ratio [Total surfactants]/[H2O2] equal to 1/7.4. Surfactants mixture removals, if compared in deionized water and in real matrices, showed the same matrix effect during both treatments, i.e. less amounts of reagents were always required in synthetic solutions. PMID:18619147

  20. Atmospheric H2O2 measurement: comparison of cold trap method with impinger bubbling method.

    PubMed

    Sakugawa, H; Kaplan, I R

    1987-01-01

    Collection of atmospheric H2O2 was performed by a cold trap method using dry ice-acetone as the refrigerant. The air was drawn by a pump into a glass gas trap immersed in the dry ice-acetone slush in a dewar flask at a flow rate of 2.5 l min-1 for approximately 2 h. Collection efficiency was > 99% and negligible interferences by O3, SO2 or organic matter with the collected H2O2 in the trap were observed. This method was compared with the air impinger bubbling method which has been previously described (Kok et al., 1978a, b, Envir. Sci. Technol. 12, 1072-1080). The measured total peroxide (H2O2 + organic peroxide) values in a series of aim samples collected by the impinger bubbling method (0.06-3.7 ppb) were always higher than those obtained by the cold trap method (0.02-1.2 ppb). Laboratory experiments suggest that the difference in values between the two methods probably results from the aqueous phase generation of H2O2 and organic peroxide in the impinger solution by a reaction of atmospheric O3 with olefinic and aromatic compounds. If these O3-organic compound reactions which occur in the impinger also occur in aqueous droplets in the atmosphere, the process could be very important for aqueous phase generation of H2O2 in clouds and rainwater.

  1. Selenoprotein X Gene Knockdown Aggravated H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in Liver LO2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiayong; Cao, Lei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Longqiong; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Chen, Xiaoling; Cai, Jingyi; Shang, Haiying; Zhao, Hua

    2016-09-01

    To determine the roles of selenoprotein X gene (Selx) in protecting liver cells against oxidative damage, the influences of Selx knockdown on H2O2-induced apoptosis in human normal hepatocyte (LO2) cells were studied. pSilencer 3.1 was used to develop knockdown vector targeting the 3'-UTR of human Selx. The Selx knockdown and control cells were further exposed to H2O2, and cell viability, cell apoptosis rate, and the expression levels of mRNA and protein of apoptosis-related genes were detected. The results showed that vector targeting the 3'-UTR of Selx successfully silenced mRNA or protein expression of SelX in LO2 cells. Selx knockdown resulted in decreased cell viability, increased percentage of early apoptotic cells, decreased Bcl2A1 and Bcl-2 expression, and increased phosphorylation of P38 in LO2 cells. When Selx knockdown LO2 cells were exposed to H2O2, characteristics of H2O2-induced cell dysfunctions were further exacerbated. Taken together, our findings suggested that SelX played important roles in protecting LO2 cells against oxidative damage and reducing H2O2-induced apoptosis in liver cells.

  2. Atmospheric H2O2 measurement: comparison of cold trap method with impinger bubbling method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakugawa, H.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1987-01-01

    Collection of atmospheric H2O2 was performed by a cold trap method using dry ice-acetone as the refrigerant. The air was drawn by a pump into a glass gas trap immersed in the dry ice-acetone slush in a dewar flask at a flow rate of 2.5 l min-1 for approximately 2 h. Collection efficiency was > 99% and negligible interferences by O3, SO2 or organic matter with the collected H2O2 in the trap were observed. This method was compared with the air impinger bubbling method which has been previously described (Kok et al., 1978a, b, Envir. Sci. Technol. 12, 1072-1080). The measured total peroxide (H2O2 + organic peroxide) values in a series of aim samples collected by the impinger bubbling method (0.06-3.7 ppb) were always higher than those obtained by the cold trap method (0.02-1.2 ppb). Laboratory experiments suggest that the difference in values between the two methods probably results from the aqueous phase generation of H2O2 and organic peroxide in the impinger solution by a reaction of atmospheric O3 with olefinic and aromatic compounds. If these O3-organic compound reactions which occur in the impinger also occur in aqueous droplets in the atmosphere, the process could be very important for aqueous phase generation of H2O2 in clouds and rainwater.

  3. The interaction of H(2)O(2) with ice surfaces between 203 and 233 K.

    PubMed

    Pouvesle, N; Kippenberger, M; Schuster, G; Crowley, J N

    2010-12-21

    The interaction of H(2)O(2) with ice surfaces at temperatures between 203 and 233 K was investigated using a low pressure, coated-wall flow tube equipped with a chemical ionisation/electron impact mass spectrometer. Equilibrium surface coverages of H(2)O(2) on ice were measured at various concentrations and temperatures to derive Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. H(2)O(2) was found to be strongly partitioned to the ice surface at low temperatures, with a partition coefficient, K(linC), equal to 2.1 × 10(-5) exp(3800/T) cm. At 228 K, this expression results in values of K(linC) which are orders of magnitude larger than the single previous determination and suggests that H(2)O(2) may be significantly partitioned to the ice phase in cirrus clouds. The partition coefficient for H(2)O(2) was compared to several other trace gases which hydrogen-bond to ice surfaces and a good correlation with the free energy of condensation found. For this class of trace gas a simple parameterisation for calculating K(linC)(T) from thermodynamic properties was established.

  4. Effect of iron on leukocyte function: inactivation of H2O2 BY IRON.

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, S S; Quie, P G; Basford, R E

    1975-01-01

    We investigated the effect of FeSO4 on phagocytosis-associated, increased oxidative metabolism via the hexose monophosphate shunt, with special attention to its effect on H2O2 levels. The availability of glutathione eroxidase and glutathione reductase for H2O2 disposal and hexose monophosphate shunt stimulation also are evaluated. The results show an impairment of phagocytosis-associated hexose monophosphate shunt activity together with an increase both of resting and phagocytosing formate oxidation. These apparently paradoxical findings are resolved by demonstrating a direct enhancement of formate oxidation by FeSO4 in a cell-free system. In addition, measurement of H2O2 concentrations via scopoletin fluorescence shows reduction of H2O2 by Feso4. There is no effect on either glutathione peroxidase or glutathione reductase activities. These data suggest that one mechanism of FeSO4 imairment of microbicidal activity is by its removal of H2O2. PMID:1158522

  5. Carboxylesterase converts Amplex red to resorufin: Implications for mitochondrial H2O2 release assays.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Satomi; Treumann, Achim; Bell, Amy; Vistoli, Giulio; Nelson, Glyn; Hay, Sam; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Amplex Red is a fluorescent probe that is widely used to detect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a reaction where it is oxidised to resorufin by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a catalyst. This assay is highly rated amongst other similar probes thanks to its superior sensitivity and stability. However, we report here that Amplex Red is readily converted to resorufin by a carboxylesterase without requiring H2O2, horseradish peroxidase or oxygen: this reaction is seen in various tissue samples such as liver and kidney as well as in cultured cells, causing a serious distortion of H2O2 measurements. The reaction can be inhibited by Phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) at concentrations which do not disturb mitochondrial function nor the ability of the Amplex Red-HRP system to detect H2O2.In vitro experiments and in silico docking simulations indicate that carboxylesterases 1 and 2 recognise Amplex Red with the same kinetics as carboxylesterase-containing mitochondria. We propose two different approaches to correct for this problem and re-evaluate the commonly performed experimental procedure for the detection of H2O2 release from isolated liver mitochondria. Our results call for a serious re-examination of previous data. PMID:26577176

  6. The extracellular matrix modulates H2O2 degradation and redox signaling in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bagulho, Ana; Vilas-Boas, Filipe; Pena, Andreia; Peneda, Catarina; Santos, Filipa C.; Jerónimo, Ana; de Almeida, Rodrigo F.M.; Real, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The molecular processes that are crucial for cell function, such as proliferation, migration and survival, are regulated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Although environmental cues, such as growth factors, regulate redox signaling, it was still unknown whether the ECM, a component of the cell microenvironment, had a function in this process. Here, we showed that the extracellular matrix (ECM) differently regulated H2O2 consumption by endothelial cells and that this effect was not general for all types of cells. The analysis of biophysical properties of the endothelial cell membrane suggested that this modification in H2O2 consumption rates was not due to altered membrane permeability. Instead, we found that the ECM regulated GPx activity, a known H2O2 scavenger. Finally, we showed that the extent of PTEN oxidation was dependent on the ECM, indicating that the ECM was able to modulate H2O2-dependent protein oxidation. Thus, our results unraveled a new mechanism by which the ECM regulates endothelial cell function by altering redox balance. These results pinpoint the ECM as an important component of redox-signaling. PMID:26409032

  7. Effect of H2O2 concentrations on copper removal using the modified hydrothermal biochar.

    PubMed

    Zuo, XiaoJun; Liu, Zhengang; Chen, MinDong

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated effect of H2O2 concentrations on copper removal using H2O2 modified hydrothermal carbonization Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. Spreng (HLG). Sorption behaviors of Cu (II) on the modified HLG by 20% H2O2 (mHLG2) could be the most desirable. Based on Langmuir isotherm, the maximum amount of Cu (II) uptake was in the sequence of mHLG2 (53.8mgg(-1))>mHLG1 (44.2mgg(-1))>mHLG3 (42.0mgg(-1))>mHLG0 (35.8mgg(-1)), which was higher than the results from majority of previous studies, suggesting that H2O2 modification advanced sorption capacity of hydrothermal biochars evidently. Effect mechanisms exploration indicated that the difference of Cu (II) removal by biochars before and after the modification was mainly related to functional groups. Carboxylic group was responsible for the best sorption property of Cu (II) by mHLG2, which was attributed to its significant relationships with H2O2 modification and Cu (II) removal. PMID:26894566

  8. Degradation of 40 selected pharmaceuticals by UV/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Wols, B A; Hofman-Caris, C H M; Harmsen, D J H; Beerendonk, E F

    2013-10-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in source waters is increasing. Although UV advanced oxidation is known to be an effective barrier against micropollutants, degradation rates are only available for limited amounts of pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the degradation of a large group of pharmaceuticals has been studied in this research for the UV/H2O2 process under different conditions, including pharmaceuticals of which the degradation by UV/H2O2 was never reported before (e.g., metformin, paroxetine, pindolol, sotalol, venlafaxine, etc.). Monochromatic low pressure (LP) and polychromatic medium pressure (MP) lamps were used for three different water matrices. In order to have well defined hydraulic conditions, all experiments were conducted in a collimated beam apparatus. Degradation rates for the pharmaceuticals were determined. For those compounds used in this research that are also reported in literature, measured degradation results are in good agreement with literature data. Pharmaceutical degradation for only photolysis with LP lamps is small, which is increased by using a MP lamp. Most of the pharmaceuticals are well removed when applying both UV (either LP or MP) and H2O2. However, differences in degradation rates between pharmaceuticals can be large. For example, ketoprofen, prednisolone, pindolol are very well removed by UV/H2O2, whereas metformin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide are very little removed by UV/H2O2. PMID:23906776

  9. An Ustilago maydis gene involved in H2O2 detoxification is required for virulence.

    PubMed

    Molina, Lázaro; Kahmann, Regine

    2007-07-01

    The fungus Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic pathogen of maize (Zea mays). In its genome we have identified an ortholog of YAP1 (for Yeast AP-1-like) from Saccharomyces cerevisae that regulates the oxidative stress response in this organism. yap1 mutants of U. maydis displayed higher sensitivity to H(2)O(2) than wild-type cells, and their virulence was significantly reduced. U. maydis yap1 could partially complement the H(2)O(2) sensitivity of a yap1 deletion mutant of S. cerevisiae, and a Yap1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed nuclear localization after H(2)O(2) treatment, suggesting that Yap1 in U. maydis functions as a redox sensor. Mutations in two Cys residues prevented accumulation in the nucleus, and the respective mutant strains showed the same virulence phenotype as Deltayap1 mutants. Diamino benzidine staining revealed an accumulation of H(2)O(2) around yap1 mutant hyphae, which was absent in the wild type. Inhibition of the plant NADPH oxidase prevented this accumulation and restored virulence. During the infection, Yap1 showed nuclear localization after penetration up to 2 to 3 d after infection. Through array analysis, a large set of Yap1-regulated genes were identified and these included two peroxidase genes. Deletion mutants of these genes were attenuated in virulence. These results suggest that U. maydis is using its Yap1-controlled H(2)O(2) detoxification system for coping with early plant defense responses. PMID:17616735

  10. Role of metabolic H2O2 generation: redox signaling and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sies, Helmut

    2014-03-28

    Hydrogen peroxide, the nonradical 2-electron reduction product of oxygen, is a normal aerobic metabolite occurring at about 10 nm intracellular concentration. In liver, it is produced at 50 nmol/min/g of tissue, which is about 2% of total oxygen uptake at steady state. Metabolically generated H2O2 emerged from recent research as a central hub in redox signaling and oxidative stress. Upon generation by major sources, the NADPH oxidases or Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, H2O2 is under sophisticated fine control of peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases with their backup systems as well as by catalase. Of note, H2O2 is a second messenger in insulin signaling and in several growth factor-induced signaling cascades. H2O2 transport across membranes is facilitated by aquaporins, denoted as peroxiporins. Specialized protein cysteines operate as redox switches using H2O2 as thiol oxidant, making this reactive oxygen species essential for poising the set point of the redox proteome. Major processes including proliferation, differentiation, tissue repair, inflammation, circadian rhythm, and aging use this low molecular weight oxygen metabolite as signaling compound.

  11. Use and abuse of exogenous H2O2 in studies of signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Forman, Henry Jay

    2007-04-01

    The goal of this review is to present a rationale for the use of exogenous H(2)O(2), which has been demonstrated to have both toxicological and physiological signaling roles. Reasons for the use of exogenous application of nontoxic concentrations of H(2)O(2) in model systems and caveats for interpretation of the data obtained will both be presented. Briefly, an argument for the cautious use of the addition of exogenous H(2)O(2) is that, because of the permeability of cell membranes to this neutral small molecule, a concentration that is produced locally and that is necessary for the physiological action can be mimicked. On the other hand, it must be recognized that the addition of an agent or its enzymatic generation in the medium may produce reactions that may not normally occur because the total dose of H(2)O(2) and the concentration of H(2)O(2) in some cellular locations will exceed what is normally achieved even under a pathophysiological state. For this reason, this review will try to provide an unbiased balanced pros- and -cons analysis of this issue.

  12. Atmospheric H2O2 measurement: comparison of cold trap method with impinger bubbling method.

    PubMed

    Sakugawa, H; Kaplan, I R

    1987-01-01

    Collection of atmospheric H2O2 was performed by a cold trap method using dry ice-acetone as the refrigerant. The air was drawn by a pump into a glass gas trap immersed in the dry ice-acetone slush in a dewar flask at a flow rate of 2.5 l min-1 for approximately 2 h. Collection efficiency was > 99% and negligible interferences by O3, SO2 or organic matter with the collected H2O2 in the trap were observed. This method was compared with the air impinger bubbling method which has been previously described (Kok et al., 1978a, b, Envir. Sci. Technol. 12, 1072-1080). The measured total peroxide (H2O2 + organic peroxide) values in a series of aim samples collected by the impinger bubbling method (0.06-3.7 ppb) were always higher than those obtained by the cold trap method (0.02-1.2 ppb). Laboratory experiments suggest that the difference in values between the two methods probably results from the aqueous phase generation of H2O2 and organic peroxide in the impinger solution by a reaction of atmospheric O3 with olefinic and aromatic compounds. If these O3-organic compound reactions which occur in the impinger also occur in aqueous droplets in the atmosphere, the process could be very important for aqueous phase generation of H2O2 in clouds and rainwater. PMID:11542111

  13. Atmospheric H 2O 2 measurement: Comparison of cold trap method with impinger bubbling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    Collection of atmospheric H 2O 2 was performed by a cold trap method using dry ice-acetone as the refrigerant. The air was drawn by a pump into a glass gas trap immersed in the dry ice-acetone slush in a dewar flask at a flow rate of 2.5ℓ -1 for ~ 2 h. Collection efficiency was > 99% and negligible interferences by O 3, SO 2 or organic matter with the collected H 2O 2 in the trap were observed. This method was compared with the air impinger bubbling method which has been previously described (Kok et al., 1978a, b, Envir, Sci. Technol.12, 1072-1080). The measured total peroxide (H 2O 2 + organic peroxide) values in a series of air samples collected by the impinger bubbling method (0.06-3.7 ppb) were always higher than those obtained by the cold trap method (0.02-1.2 ppb). Laboratory experiments suggest that the difference in values between the two methods probably results from the aqueous phase generation of H 2O 2 and organic peroxide in the impinger solution by a reaction of atmospheric O 3 with olefinic and aromatic compounds. If these O 3-organic compound reactions which occur in the impinger also occur in aqueous droplets in the atmosphere, the process could be very important for aqueous phase generation of H 2O 2 in clouds and rainwater.

  14. H2O2-responsive molecularly engineered polymer nanoparticles as ischemia/reperfusion-targeted nanotherapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwon; Bae, Soochan; Hong, Donghyun; Lim, Hyungsuk; Yoon, Joo Heung; Hwang, On; Park, Seunggyu; Ke, Qingen; Khang, Gilson; Kang, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The main culprit in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the most abundant form of ROS produced during I/R, causes inflammation, apoptosis and subsequent tissue damages. Here, we report H2O2-responsive antioxidant nanoparticles formulated from copolyoxalate containing vanillyl alcohol (VA) (PVAX) as a novel I/R-targeted nanotherapeutic agent. PVAX was designed to incorporate VA and H2O2-responsive peroxalate ester linkages covalently in its backbone. PVAX nanoparticles therefore degrade and release VA, which is able to reduce the generation of ROS, and exert anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity. In hind-limb I/R and liver I/R models in mice, PVAX nanoparticles specifically reacted with overproduced H2O2 and exerted highly potent anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities that reduced cellular damages. Therefore, PVAX nanoparticles have tremendous potential as nanotherapeutic agents for I/R injury and H2O2-associated diseases. PMID:23868607

  15. The extracellular matrix modulates H2O2 degradation and redox signaling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bagulho, Ana; Vilas-Boas, Filipe; Pena, Andreia; Peneda, Catarina; Santos, Filipa C; Jerónimo, Ana; de Almeida, Rodrigo F M; Real, Carla

    2015-12-01

    The molecular processes that are crucial for cell function, such as proliferation, migration and survival, are regulated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Although environmental cues, such as growth factors, regulate redox signaling, it was still unknown whether the ECM, a component of the cell microenvironment, had a function in this process. Here, we showed that the extracellular matrix (ECM) differently regulated H2O2 consumption by endothelial cells and that this effect was not general for all types of cells. The analysis of biophysical properties of the endothelial cell membrane suggested that this modification in H2O2 consumption rates was not due to altered membrane permeability. Instead, we found that the ECM regulated GPx activity, a known H2O2 scavenger. Finally, we showed that the extent of PTEN oxidation was dependent on the ECM, indicating that the ECM was able to modulate H2O2-dependent protein oxidation. Thus, our results unraveled a new mechanism by which the ECM regulates endothelial cell function by altering redox balance. These results pinpoint the ECM as an important component of redox-signaling.

  16. Differentiating between apparent and actual rates of H2O2 metabolism by isolated rat muscle mitochondria to test a simple model of mitochondria as regulators of H2O2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Treberg, Jason R; Munro, Daniel; Banh, Sheena; Zacharias, Pamela; Sotiri, Emianka

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are often regarded as a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animal cells, with H2O2 being the predominant ROS released from mitochondria; however, it has been recently demonstrated that energized brain mitochondria may act as stabilizers of H2O2 concentration (Starkov et al. [1]) based on the balance between production and the consumption of H2O2, the later of which is a function of [H2O2] and follows first order kinetics. Here we test the hypothesis that isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria, from the rat, are able to modulate [H2O2] based upon the interaction between the production of ROS, as superoxide/H2O2, and the H2O2 decomposition capacity. The compartmentalization of detection systems for H2O2 and the intramitochondrial metabolism of H2O2 leads to spacial separation between these two components of the assay system. This results in an underestimation of rates when relying solely on extramitochondrial H2O2 detection. We find that differentiating between these apparent rates found when using extramitochondrial H2O2 detection and the actual rates of metabolism is important to determining the rate constant for H2O2 consumption by mitochondria in kinetic experiments. Using the high rate of ROS production by mitochondria respiring on succinate, we demonstrate that net H2O2 metabolism by mitochondria can approach a stable steady-state of extramitochondrial [H2O2]. Importantly, the rate constant determined by extrapolation of kinetic experiments is similar to the rate constant determined as the [H2O2] approaches a steady state.

  17. Palladium-tin catalysts for the direct synthesis of H2O2 with high selectivity

    DOE PAGES

    Freakley, Simon J.; He, Qian; Harrhy, Jonathan H.; Lu, Li; Crole, David A.; Morgan, David J.; Ntainjua, Edwin N.; Edwards, Jennifer K.; Carley, Albert F.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; et al

    2016-02-25

    The direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ) from H2 and O2 represents a potentially atom-efficient alternative to the current industrial indirect process. We show that the addition of tin to palladium catalysts coupled with an appropriate heat treatment cycle switches off the sequential hydrogenation and decomposition reactions, enabling selectivities of >95% toward H2O2 . This effect arises from a tin oxide surface layer that encapsulates small Pd-rich particles while leaving larger Pd-Sn alloy particles exposed. In conclusion, we show that this effect is a general feature for oxide-supported Pd catalysts containing an appropriate second metal oxide component, and wemore » set out the design principles for producing high-selectivity Pd-based catalysts for direct H2O2 production that do not contain gold.« less

  18. Far-infrared Spectroscopy of the H2-O2 Van Der Waals Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, Hayley; Bennett, Trystan; Karayilan, Aidan; Raston, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the far infrared spectrum of H2-O2 at 80 K in the vicinity of the pure rotational bands of H2. Sharp peaks were observed, which correspond to end-over-end rotational transitions of the H2-O2 molecular complex, that are superimposed over broad collision induced absorptions. We find that the maximum value of the end-over-end rotational quantum number that is bound is seven, which is two more than supported by a recently reported ab initio H2-O2 potential energy surface. The rotational spectrum reported here should therefore greatly help in refining this surface, which is used to calculate scattering processes relevant to the chemistry occurring in interstellar molecular clouds.

  19. The protective mechanism of quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (QGC) in H2O2-induced injury of feline esophageal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Uy Soo; Lee, Se Eun; Lee, Sung Hee; Nam, Yoonjin; Hwang, Wan Kyunn; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-09-01

    Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (QGC) is a flavonoid glucoside extracted from Rumex Aquaticus. Recent studies have shown that QGC exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidateve effect in vivo and cytoprotective effect in vitro. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), at low concentration, play role as a primary signal or second messenger, however, at high concentration, ROS are cytotoxic. In this study, we investigated the protective mechanism of QGC in H2O2-induced injury of Feline Esophageal Epithelial Cells. Primary-cultured feline esophagus cells were identified by an indirect immunofluorescent staining method using a cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. Cell viability was determined by the conventional MTT reduction assay. Western blot analysis was performed with specific antibodies to investigate the activation of MAPKs, NF-κB, and IκB-α, and the expression of COX-2. When the cells were exposed to 600 μM H2O2 medium for 24 h, cell viability decreased to 54 %. However, when cells were pretreated with 50-150 μM QGC for 12 h, the viability of cells exposed to H2O2 significantly increased in the dose dependent manner. QGC (50 μM, 12 h) also inhibited the expression of COX-2 induced by 10 μM H2O2 for 24 h. We found that treatment of H2O2 activated p38 MAPK and JNK, but not ERK. However QGC inhibited the H2O2-induced p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation. In addition, NF-κB was activated by H2O2 and translocated into the nucleus, but QGC inhibited the activation of NF-κB by blocking degradation of IκB. These data suggest that QGC reduces H2O2-induced COX-2 production by modulating the p38 MAPK, JNK, NF-κB signal pathway in feline esophageal epithelial cells.

  20. The protective mechanism of quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (QGC) in H2O2-induced injury of feline esophageal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Uy Soo; Lee, Se Eun; Lee, Sung Hee; Nam, Yoonjin; Hwang, Wan Kyunn; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-09-01

    Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (QGC) is a flavonoid glucoside extracted from Rumex Aquaticus. Recent studies have shown that QGC exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidateve effect in vivo and cytoprotective effect in vitro. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), at low concentration, play role as a primary signal or second messenger, however, at high concentration, ROS are cytotoxic. In this study, we investigated the protective mechanism of QGC in H2O2-induced injury of Feline Esophageal Epithelial Cells. Primary-cultured feline esophagus cells were identified by an indirect immunofluorescent staining method using a cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. Cell viability was determined by the conventional MTT reduction assay. Western blot analysis was performed with specific antibodies to investigate the activation of MAPKs, NF-κB, and IκB-α, and the expression of COX-2. When the cells were exposed to 600 μM H2O2 medium for 24 h, cell viability decreased to 54 %. However, when cells were pretreated with 50-150 μM QGC for 12 h, the viability of cells exposed to H2O2 significantly increased in the dose dependent manner. QGC (50 μM, 12 h) also inhibited the expression of COX-2 induced by 10 μM H2O2 for 24 h. We found that treatment of H2O2 activated p38 MAPK and JNK, but not ERK. However QGC inhibited the H2O2-induced p38 MAPK and JNK phosphorylation. In addition, NF-κB was activated by H2O2 and translocated into the nucleus, but QGC inhibited the activation of NF-κB by blocking degradation of IκB. These data suggest that QGC reduces H2O2-induced COX-2 production by modulating the p38 MAPK, JNK, NF-κB signal pathway in feline esophageal epithelial cells. PMID:27522656

  1. H2O2 Improves Quality of Radix scutellariae Through Anti-oxidant Effect

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Song; Wu-lin, Cao; Hua, Jiang; Ai-hua, Zhang; Xiang-cai, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The correlation between the quality and geographical origin of herbal medicine was traced back to Tang Dynasty in China, more than 1200 years, and the effects of ecological environments on the secondary metabolites such as flavonoids have been confirmed. However, little is known about how the adversity impacts on the quality. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be medium between the ecological environment and the secondary metabolism. Materials and Methods: The fresh roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi were treated with 0.002 μmol/L, 0.2 μmol/L, and 20 μmol/L H2O2, respectively. A stress model was established to elucidate the change of secondary metabolism, anti-oxidant enzyme system, and enzymes relating to flavonoids. Results: The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase decreased. Too much H2O2, firstly, boosted transformation of flavonoids glycoside into aglucon with the most remarkable activities through UDP-glucuronate baicalein 7-O-glucuronosyltransferase (UBGAT), and β-glucuronidase (GUS), then regulated the gene expression of phenylalanine ammonialyase, GUS, and UBGAT, and increased the contents of flavones, motivated the flavonoid glycoside converting into aglucon. With this action, the flavones displaced the anti-oxidant enzymes. The higher the dosage, the more baicalein and wogonin increased, the later they took action. Conclusion: The plant secondary metabolites to keep ROS constant are identical to the effective materials in clinic. They are closely linked. H2O2 can improve flavones, especially the aglucon, and further increased the quality of herbal medicine, which possesses very important value in medical practice. SUMMARY H2O2 decreasing the activities of CAT and POD lead to accumulation of more H2O2. Excess of H2O2 up-regulated PAL, BUG, promote biosynthesis of flavones, and enhance the nonenzyme system. “↑” and “↓” represent activity or content “up” and “down” respectively. PMID:27019566

  2. H2O2: a Ca(2+) or Mg(2+)-sensing function in statin passive diffusion.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Yves Claude; Lethier, Lydie; André, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In a previous paper Guillaume's group demonstrated that magnesium (Mg(2+) concentration range 0.00-2.60 mm) increased the passive diffusion of statins and thus played a role in their potential toxicity. In order to confirm an increase in this passive diffusion by divalent salt cations, the role of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the statin-immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) association was studied. It was demonstrated that calcium supplementation (Ca(2+) concentration range 0.00-3.25 mm) increases the statin passive diffusion. In addition, it was shown that the Ca(2+) effect on the statin-IAM association is higher than that of Mg(2+). These results show that Ca(2+) enhances the passive diffusion of drugs into biological membranes and thus their potential toxicity. Also, addition of H2O2 to the medium showed a hyperbolic response for the statin passive diffusion and this effect was enhanced for the highest Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) concentrations in the medium. H2O2 is likely to interact with the polar head groups of the IAM through dipole-dipole interactions. The conformational changes in H2O2-IAM result in a higher degree of exposure of hydrophobic areas, thus explaining why the binding of pravastatin, which showed the lowest logP value, was less affected by H2O2. This result shows the significant contribution of H2O2 and thus the oxidative stress on the statin passive diffusion. Much of the sensitivity derives from the action of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+), in turn supported the idea that H2O2 may serve a Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) sensing function in statin passive diffusion.

  3. [Study on UV and H2O2 combined inactivation of E. coli in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Qing; Zhou, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Yong-Ji

    2013-06-01

    The inactivation effect of E. coli with both UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide disinfection individually and in different combination modes was investigated. The results showed that hydrogen peroxide alone caused hardly any inactivation of E. coli. Only 0.02 lg inactivation was achieved by hydrogen peroxide with concentration of 20 mg x L(-1) and contact time of 30 min. UV irradiation was able to inactivate E. coli to a certain extent. The inactivation reached 4.51 lg at a UV dose of 10 mJ x cm(-2). The combination of UV and H2O2 could significantly improve the inactivation effect and the different combination modes affected the inactivation effect. The inactivation effect of UV-H2O2 was better than that of H2O2 -UV. The inactivation was increased by 0.09, 0.35, 0.38, 0.68 lg and 0.01, 0.07, 0.14, 0.53 lg when compared to the treatment with solely UV irradiation, respectively, at UV dose of 5 mJ x cm(-2) with hydrogen peroxide at contact time of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 minutes. UV/H2O2 achieved better results than sequential disinfection. The inactivation was enhanced by 0.43 lg and 0.58 lg when compared to UV-H2O2 and H2O2-UV, respectively, at UV dose of 5 mJ x cm(-2) with hydrogen peroxide at contact time of 20 minutes. The inactivation of E. coli increased with the enhancement of UV radiation intensity.

  4. Nanoshock wave resonance enhancement on stimulated Raman scattering of H(2)O(2) in liquid water.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhanlong; Li, Hongdong; Fang, Wenhui; Wang, Shenghan; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of H(2)O(2)-H(2)O mixtures. The laser-induced plasma nanoshock wave is formed by focusing an intense pulsed 532 nm laser beam on the mixtures. An enhancement at the low-frequency 1715  cm(-1) SRS line of the bending mode of H(2)O(2) is observed. The mechanism of enhancement was attributed to nanoshock wave resonance with the bending mode, which would preferentially excite phonon and lower energy molecular vibrations. PMID:26512509

  5. Nanoshock wave resonance enhancement on stimulated Raman scattering of H(2)O(2) in liquid water.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhanlong; Li, Hongdong; Fang, Wenhui; Wang, Shenghan; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of H(2)O(2)-H(2)O mixtures. The laser-induced plasma nanoshock wave is formed by focusing an intense pulsed 532 nm laser beam on the mixtures. An enhancement at the low-frequency 1715  cm(-1) SRS line of the bending mode of H(2)O(2) is observed. The mechanism of enhancement was attributed to nanoshock wave resonance with the bending mode, which would preferentially excite phonon and lower energy molecular vibrations.

  6. Application of multiwalled carbon nanotubes-graphene hybrid nanocomposite for nonenzymatic H2O2 biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Pranati; Santhosh, P. N.; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2013-02-01

    In the present work, we report the fabrication of nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) biosensor using multiwalled carbon nanotubes-solar exfoliated graphene hybrid nanocomposite (MWCNTs-sG) as a transducer candidate. The hybrid material has been synthesized by solar reduction technique from a mixture of MWCNTs and graphite oxide (GO). The fabricated MWCNTs-sG based biosensor shows a high catalytic response towards H2O2 reduction at a low potential of -0.4 V and good linearity over a wide range of concentration from 2 mM to 344 mM.

  7. Degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV / H2O2 process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Che Zulzikrami Azner; Fahmi, Muhammad Ridwan; Fazara, Md Ali Umi; Nadhirah, Siti Nurfatin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV / H2O2 process was evaluated based on the trend of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Three types of dyes consist of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dyes were used to compare the degradation mechanism of the dyes. The UV / H2O2 experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale cylindrical glass reactor operated in semi-batch mode. The UV/Vis characterization of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye indicated that the rapid degradation of the dyes by UV / H2O2 process is meaningful with respect to decolourization, as a result of the azo bonds and substitute antraquinone chromophore degradation. However, this process is not efficient for aromatic amines removal. The monoazo MO was difficult to be decolorized than diazo RR120 dye, which imply that number of sulphonic groups in the dye molecules determines the reactivity with hydroxyl radical. The increased in COD removal is the evidence for oxidation and decreased in carbon content of dye molecules. TOC removal analysis shows that low TOC removal of monoazo MO and diazo RR120, as compared to anthraquinone RB19 may indicate an accumulation of by-products that are resistant to the H2O2 photolysis.

  8. Effective Reuse of Electroplating Rinse Wastewater by Combining PAC with H2O2/UV Process.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Kang, Shyh-Fang; Lin, Chen Pei

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the performance of treating electroplating rinse wastewater by powder activated carbon (PAC) adsorption, H2O2/UV oxidation, and their combination to remove organic compounds and heavy metals. The results showed that neither the process of PAC adsorption nor H2O2/UV oxidation could reduce COD to 100 mg/L, as enforced by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. On the other hand, the water sample treated by the combined approach of using PAC (5 g/L) pre-adsorption and H2O2/UV post-oxidation (UV of 64 W, H2O2 of 100 mg/L, oxidation time of 90 min), COD and DOC were reduced to 8.2 mg/L and 3.8 mg/L, respectively. Also, the combined approach reduced heavy metals to meet the effluent standards and to satisfy the in-house water reuse criteria for the electroplating factory. The reaction constant analysis indicated that the reaction proceeded much more rapidly for the combined process. Hence, it is a more efficient, economic and environmentally friendly process.

  9. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase-representative H2O2-detoxifying heme enzymes in plants.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Sharma, Pallavi; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Khan, Ekhlaque A; Kachhap, Kiran; Mohamed, Amal A; Thangavel, Palaniswamy; Devi, Gurumayum Devmanjuri; Vasudhevan, Palanisamy; Sofo, Adriano; Khan, Nafees A; Misra, Amarendra Narayan; Lukatkin, Alexander S; Singh, Harminder Pal; Pereira, Eduarda; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-10-01

    Plants have to counteract unavoidable stress-caused anomalies such as oxidative stress to sustain their lives and serve heterotrophic organisms including humans. Among major enzymatic antioxidants, catalase (CAT; EC 1.11.1.6) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) are representative heme enzymes meant for metabolizing stress-provoked reactive oxygen species (ROS; such as H2O2) and controlling their potential impacts on cellular metabolism and functions. CAT mainly occurs in peroxisomes and catalyzes the dismutation reaction without requiring any reductant; whereas, APX has a higher affinity for H2O2 and utilizes ascorbate (AsA) as specific electron donor for the reduction of H2O2 into H2O in organelles including chloroplasts, cytosol, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. Literature is extensive on the glutathione-associated H2O2-metabolizing systems in plants. However, discussion is meager or scattered in the literature available on the biochemical and genomic characterization as well as techniques for the assays of CAT and APX and their modulation in plants under abiotic stresses. This paper aims (a) to introduce oxidative stress-causative factors and highlights their relationship with abiotic stresses in plants; (b) to overview structure, occurrence, and significance of CAT and APX in plants; PMID:27549233

  10. Fluorometric enzymatic autoindicating biosensor for H2O2 determination based on modified catalase.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Estefania; de Marcos, Susana; Galbán, Javier

    2013-03-15

    Our general aim is to develop reversible optical biosensors which can be used for continuous monitoring. In this paper we propose a biosensor for H(2)O(2) determination. The bioreceptor is catalase (Cat) previously linked to a Ruthenium O(2)-sensitive fluorophore (Cat-Ru). It is based on the reversible H(2)O(2) disproportionation into O(2) and H(2)O. First, the fluorescent-enzymatic system was optimized for batch measurements (linear response ranges from 1×10(-4) to, at least, 1×10(-3) M H(2)O(2)). Because of its reversibility, the same enzyme aliquot can be used for performing the whole calibration step (and the subsequent determination). Secondly, the optical sensor was prepared by Cat-Ru immobilization in a polyacrylamide film. The sensor permits H(2)O(2) determination in a similar concentration range as in batch mode and can be used during at least 1 month. A mathematical model has also been developed which permits the effect of the experimental parameters to predict. The model also explains the sensor behavior if different fluorophores are used, and shows that the analytical signal only slightly depends on the initial concentration of the O(2) in the sample. Finally an alternative sensor is presented based on a commercially available O(2) fluorescence sensor linked to catalase. This system gives an analytical behavior similar to that shown for the Cat-Ru sensor.

  11. Advanced NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cell for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Kim, Kyu-Jung; Luo, Nie; Shrestha, Prajakti Joshi

    2009-03-01

    Fuel cells have played an important role in NASA's space program starting with the Gemini space program. However, improved fuel cell performance will be needed to enable demanding future missions. An advanced fuel cell (FC) using liquid fuel and oxidizer is being developed by U of IL/NPL team to provide air independence and to achieve higher power densities than normal H2/O2 fuel cells (Lou et al., 2008; Miley, 2007). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used in this FC directly at the cathode (Lou and Miley, 2004). Either of two types of reactant, namely a gas-phase hydrogen or an aqueous NaBH4 solution, is utilized as fuel at the anode. Experiments with both 10-W single cells and 500-W stacks demonstrate that the direct utilization of H2O2 and NaBH4 at the electrodes result in >30% higher voltage output compared to the ordinary H2/O2 FC (Miley, 2007). Further, the use of this combination of all liquid fuels provides—from an operational point of view—significant advantages (ease of storage, reduced pumping requirements, simplified heat removal). This design is inherently compact compared to other fuel cells that use gas phase reactants. This results in a high overall system (including fuel tanks, pumps and piping, waste heat radiator) power density. Further, work is in progress on a regenerative version which uses an electrical input, e.g. from power lines or a solar panel to regenerate reactants.

  12. Active sites and mechanisms for H2O2 decomposition over Pd catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Plauck, Anthony; Stangland, Eric E.; Dumesic, James A.; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2016-01-01

    A combination of periodic, self-consistent density functional theory (DFT-GGA-PW91) calculations, reaction kinetics experiments on a SiO2-supported Pd catalyst, and mean-field microkinetic modeling are used to probe key aspects of H2O2 decomposition on Pd in the absence of cofeeding H2. We conclude that both Pd(111) and OH-partially covered Pd(100) surfaces represent the nature of the active site for H2O2 decomposition on the supported Pd catalyst reasonably well. Furthermore, all reaction flux in the closed catalytic cycle is predicted to flow through an O–O bond scission step in either H2O2 or OOH, followed by rapid H-transfer steps to produce the H2O and O2 products. The barrier for O–O bond scission is sensitive to Pd surface structure and is concluded to be the central parameter governing H2O2 decomposition activity. PMID:27006504

  13. X-ray irradiation activates K+ channels via H2O2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Gibhardt, Christine S; Roth, Bastian; Schroeder, Indra; Fuck, Sebastian; Becker, Patrick; Jakob, Burkhard; Fournier, Claudia; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a universal tool in tumor therapy but may also cause secondary cancers or cell invasiveness. These negative side effects could be causally related to the human-intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated-K+-channel (hIK), which is activated by X-ray irradiation and affects cell proliferation and migration. To analyze the signaling cascade downstream of ionizing radiation we use genetically encoded reporters for H2O2 (HyPer) and for the dominant redox-buffer glutathione (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor with high spatial and temporal resolution, radiation-triggered excursions of H2O2 in A549 and HEK293 cells. The data show that challenging cells with ≥1 Gy X-rays or with UV-A laser micro-irradiation causes a rapid rise of H2O2 in the nucleus and in the cytosol. This rise, which is determined by the rate of H2O2 production and glutathione-buffering, is sufficient for triggering a signaling cascade that involves an elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ and eventually an activation of hIK channels. PMID:26350345

  14. X-ray irradiation activates K+ channels via H2O2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gibhardt, Christine S.; Roth, Bastian; Schroeder, Indra; Fuck, Sebastian; Becker, Patrick; Jakob, Burkhard; Fournier, Claudia; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a universal tool in tumor therapy but may also cause secondary cancers or cell invasiveness. These negative side effects could be causally related to the human-intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated-K+-channel (hIK), which is activated by X-ray irradiation and affects cell proliferation and migration. To analyze the signaling cascade downstream of ionizing radiation we use genetically encoded reporters for H2O2 (HyPer) and for the dominant redox-buffer glutathione (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor with high spatial and temporal resolution, radiation-triggered excursions of H2O2 in A549 and HEK293 cells. The data show that challenging cells with ≥1 Gy X-rays or with UV-A laser micro-irradiation causes a rapid rise of H2O2 in the nucleus and in the cytosol. This rise, which is determined by the rate of H2O2 production and glutathione-buffering, is sufficient for triggering a signaling cascade that involves an elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ and eventually an activation of hIK channels. PMID:26350345

  15. Factors affecting UV/H2O2 inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongji; Zhang, Yiqing; Zhou, Lingling; Tan, Chaoqun

    2014-05-01

    This study aims at estimating the performance of the Bacillus atrophaeus spores inactivation by the UV treatment with addition of H2O2. The effect of factors affecting the inactivation was investigated, including initial H2O2 dose, UV irradiance, initial cell density, initial solution pH and various inorganic anions. Under the experimental conditions, the B. atrophaeus spores inactivation followed both the modified Hom Model and the Chick's Model. The results revealed that the H2O2 played dual roles in the reactions, while the optimum reduction of 5.88lg was received at 0.5mM H2O2 for 10min. The inactivation effect was affected by the UV irradiance, while better inactivation effect was achieved at higher irradiance. An increase in the initial cell density slowed down the inactivation process. A slight acid condition at pH 5 was considered as the optimal pH value. The inactivation effect within 10min followed the order of pH 5>pH 7>pH 9>pH 3>pH 11. The effects of three added inorganic anions were investigated and compared, including sulfate (SO4(2)(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and carbonate (CO3(2)(-)). The sequence of inactivation effect within 10min followed the order of control group>SO4(2)(-)>NO3(-)>CO3(2)(-).

  16. Characterization and optimization of cathodic conditions for H2O2 synthesis in microbial electrochemical cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cathode potential and O2 supply methods were investigated to improve H2O2 synthesis in an electrochemical cell, and optimal cathode conditions were applied for microbial electrochemical cells (MECs). Using aqueous O2 for the cathode significantly improved current density, but H2...

  17. Mixed protein-templated luminescent metal clusters (Au and Pt) for H2O2 sensing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A simple and cost-effective method to synthesize the luminescent noble metal clusters (Au and Pt) in chicken egg white aqueous solution at room temperature is reported. The red-emitting Au cluster is used as fluorescent probe for sensitive detection of H2O2. PMID:23601828

  18. UV/H(2)O(2) treatment of drinking water increases post-chlorination DBP formation.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Aaron D; Keen, Volha Olya S; Metz, Debbie; Linden, Karl G

    2010-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has become popular as a primary disinfectant because it is very effective against Cryptosporidium and does not directly form regulated disinfection by-products. Higher UV doses and UV advanced oxidation (UV/H2O2) processes are under consideration for the treatment of trace organic pollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products). Despite the disinfection effectiveness of UV light, a secondary disinfectant capable of maintaining a distribution system residual is required to meet current U.S. regulation. This study investigated changes in disinfection by-product (DBP) formation attributed to UV or UV/H2O2 followed by application of free chlorine to quench hydrogen peroxide and provide residual disinfectant. At a UV dose of 1000 mJ/cm(2), trihalomethane (THM) yield increased by up to 4 microg/mg-C and 13 microg/mg-C when treated with low and medium pressure UV, respectively. With the addition of hydrogen peroxide, THM yield increased by up to 25 microg/mg-C (5mg-H2O2/L) and 37 microg/mg-C (10 mg-H2O2/L). Although no changes in DBPs are expected during UV disinfection, application of UV advanced oxidation followed by chlorine addition was assessed with regard to impacts on DBP formation.

  19. [Efficiency of atrazine degradation by O3/H2O2].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Feng; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Rong-Quan; Ye, Fei

    2009-05-15

    The endocrine disrupter Atrazine was oxidized by O3/H2O2 system and the products were analyzed to assess the degradation efficiency of Atrazine. When it's initial content was 2 mg/L and O3 dosage was 7.5 mg/L, Atrazine was removed about 27.2% after 5 minutes. Under the same condition, H2O2/O3 molar ratio was 0.75, Atrazine maximum removal rate reached 96.5%, which suggested that Atrazine could be degraded by O3/H2O2 system effectively. Ion Chromatography (IC) analysis showed that concentrations of chloride and nitrate ions were increasing along with the Atrazine content decreasing. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry chromatograms (LC-MS) analyzing illuminated the existence of de-ethyl-atrazine, de-isopropyl-atrazine and de-chloro-atrazine, which indicated the Atrazine could not be destroyed completely by O3/H2O2 system. Consequently, it should be combined with GAC (Granular Activated Carbon) or other techniques while used as primary treatment unit or emergency measure.

  20. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration.

    PubMed

    Molavian, Hamid R; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis.

  1. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Molavian, Hamid R.; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  2. H2O2 inhibits ABA-signaling protein phosphatase HAB1.

    PubMed

    Sridharamurthy, Madhuri; Kovach, Amanda; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Melcher, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Due to its ability to be rapidly generated and propagated over long distances, H2O2 is an important second messenger for biotic and abiotic stress signaling in plants. In response to low water potential and high salt concentrations sensed in the roots of plants, the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) activates NADPH oxidase to generate H2O2, which is propagated in guard cells in leaves to induce stomatal closure and prevent water loss from transpiration. Using a reconstituted system, we demonstrate that H2O2 reversibly prevents the protein phosphatase HAB1, a key component of the core ABA-signaling pathway, from inhibiting its main target in guard cells, SnRK2.6/OST1 kinase. We have identified HAB1 C186 and C274 as H2O2-sensitive thiols and demonstrate that their oxidation inhibits both HAB1 catalytic activity and its ability to physically associate with SnRK2.6 by formation of intermolecular dimers.

  3. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration.

    PubMed

    Molavian, Hamid R; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis. PMID:27601999

  4. Polyoxometalates as peroxidase mimetics and their applications in H2O2 and glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Han, Dongxue; Wang, Xiaohong; Qi, Bin; Zhao, Meisheng

    2012-01-01

    Polyoxometalates (H(3)PW(12)O(40), H(4)SiW(12)O(40) and H(3)PMo(12)O(40)) have been proven to possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity for the first time, which can catalyze oxidation of the peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H(2)O(2) to form a blue color in aqueous solution. Among them, H(3)PW(12)O(40) (PW(12)) exhibits higher catalytic activity to TMB than natural enzyme HRP and other two POMs. In addition, H(3)PW(12)O(40)/graphene exhibited higher activity than H(3)PW(12)O(40) in this catalytic oxidation reaction due to the effect of graphene in promoting the electron transfer between the substrate and catalyst. POMs/H(2)O(2)/TMB system provides a simple, accurate approach to colorimetric detection for H(2)O(2) or glucose. The colorimetric method based on POMs showed good response toward H(2)O(2) and glucose detection with a linear range from 1.34×10(-7) to 6.7×10(-5) mol/L and 1×10(-7) to 1×10(-4) mol/L, respectively. The results showed that it is a simple, cheap, more convenient, highly selective, sensitive, and easy handling colorimetric assay. PMID:22560441

  5. Comparison of sludge treatment by O3 and O3/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Yuxin, Zhao; Liang, Wang; Helong, Yu; Baojun, Jiang; Jinming, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on the comparison of sludge decomposition caused by ozone (O3) alone and by ozone/hydrogen peroxide (O3/H2O2). The content of carbonaceous organic materials, nitrogenous compounds and phosphoric substances in sludge supernatant were measured. The release of soluble chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) caused by O3/H2O2 treatment were more than by O3 alone. As a result, it can be concluded that the efficiency of sludge breakup in O3/H2O2 was better than that in O3 alone. However, a peak appeared in both systems for the biodegradable substances such as carbohydrate. Carbohydrate could be used as the carbon source for denitrification, and the releasing of TN and TP may become an additional burden for a subsequent biological system. So, it was of benefit for the enhancement of cryptic growth and cost reduction by raising and maintaining the content of biodegradable substance and reducing the concentrations of the nitrogenous and phosphoric substances as far as possible. Therefore, sludge treated by O3/H2O2 with lower O3 dose would be more suitable than O3 alone. PMID:25026588

  6. High Concentrations of H2O2 Make Aerobic Glycolysis Energetically More Favorable for Cellular Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Molavian, Hamid R.; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Since the original observation of the Warburg Effect in cancer cells, over 8 decades ago, the major question of why aerobic glycolysis is favored over oxidative phosphorylation has remained unresolved. An understanding of this phenomenon may well be the key to the development of more effective cancer therapies. In this paper, we use a semi-empirical method to throw light on this puzzle. We show that aerobic glycolysis is in fact energetically more favorable than oxidative phosphorylation for concentrations of peroxide (H2O2) above some critical threshold value. The fundamental reason for this is the activation and high engagement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in response to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) H2O2 by mitochondria and the high concentration of H2O2 (produced by mitochondria and other sources). This makes oxidative phosphorylation an inefficient source of energy since it leads (despite high levels of ATP production) to a concomitant high energy consumption in order to respond to the hazardous waste products resulting from cellular processes associated with this metabolic pathway. We also demonstrate that the high concentration of H2O2 results in an increased glucose consumption, and also increases the lactate production in the case of glycolysis.

  7. H2O2 Inhibits ABA-Signaling Protein Phosphatase HAB1

    PubMed Central

    Sridharamurthy, Madhuri; Kovach, Amanda; Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H. Eric; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Melcher, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Due to its ability to be rapidly generated and propagated over long distances, H2O2 is an important second messenger for biotic and abiotic stress signaling in plants. In response to low water potential and high salt concentrations sensed in the roots of plants, the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) activates NADPH oxidase to generate H2O2, which is propagated in guard cells in leaves to induce stomatal closure and prevent water loss from transpiration. Using a reconstituted system, we demonstrate that H2O2 reversibly prevents the protein phosphatase HAB1, a key component of the core ABA-signaling pathway, from inhibiting its main target in guard cells, SnRK2.6/OST1 kinase. We have identified HAB1 C186 and C274 as H2O2-sensitive thiols and demonstrate that their oxidation inhibits both HAB1 catalytic activity and its ability to physically associate with SnRK2.6 by formation of intermolecular dimers. PMID:25460914

  8. Effects of a single water molecule on the OH + H2O2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Buszek, Robert J; Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Anglada, Josep M; Francisco, Joseph S

    2012-06-21

    The effect of a single water molecule on the reaction between H(2)O(2) and HO has been investigated by employing MP2 and CCSD(T) theoretical approaches in connection with the aug-cc-PVDZ, aug-cc-PVTZ, and aug-cc-PVQZ basis sets and extrapolation to an ∞ basis set. The reaction without water has two elementary reaction paths that differ from each other in the orientation of the hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl radical moiety. Our computed rate constant, at 298 K, is 1.56 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), in excellent agreement with the suggested value by the NASA/JPL evaluation. The influence of water vapor has been investigated by considering either that H(2)O(2) first forms a complex with water that reacts with hydroxyl radical or that H(2)O(2) reacts with a previously formed H(2)O·OH complex. With the addition of water, the reaction mechanism becomes much more complex, yielding four different reaction paths. Two pathways do not undergo the oxidation reaction but an exchange reaction where there is an interchange between H(2)O(2)·H(2)O and H(2)O·OH complexes. The other two pathways oxidize H(2)O(2), with a computed total rate constant of 4.09 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, 2.6 times the value of the rate constant of the unassisted reaction. However, the true effect of water vapor requires taking into account the concentration of the prereactive bimolecular complex, namely, H(2)O(2)·H(2)O. With this consideration, water can actually slow down the oxidation of H(2)O(2) by OH between 1840 and 20.5 times in the 240-425 K temperature range. This is an example that demonstrates how water could be a catalyst in an atmospheric reaction in the laboratory but is slow under atmospheric conditions. PMID:22455374

  9. H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress Affects SO4= Transport in Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Romano, Orazio; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to verify the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein, responsible for Cl-/HCO3- as well as for cell membrane deformability, due to its cross link with cytoskeletal proteins. The role of cytoplasmic proteins binding to Band 3 protein has been also considered by assaying H2O2 effects on hemoglobin-free resealed ghosts of erythrocytes. Oxidative conditions were induced by 30 min exposure of human erythrocytes to different H2O2 concentrations (10 to 300 μM), with or without GSH (glutathione, 2 mM) or curcumin (10 μM), compounds with proved antioxidant properties. Since SO4= influx through Band 3 protein is slower and better controllable than Cl- or HCO3- exchange, the rate constant for SO4= uptake was measured to prove anion transport efficiency, while MDA (malondialdehyde) levels and -SH groups were estimated to quantify the effect of oxidative stress. H2O2 induced a significant decrease in rate constant for SO4= uptake at both 100 and 300 μM H2O2. This reduction, observed in erythrocytes but not in resealed ghosts and associated to increase in neither MDA levels nor in -SH groups, was impaired by both curcumin and GSH, whereas only curcumin effectively restored H2O2-induced changes in erythrocytes shape. Our results show that: i) 30 min exposure to 300 μM H2O2 reduced SO4= uptake in human erythrocytes; ii) oxidative damage was revealed by the reduction in rate constant for SO4= uptake, but not by MDA or -SH groups levels; iii) the damage was produced via cytoplasmic components which cross link with Band 3 protein; iv) the natural antioxidant curcumin may be useful in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative injury; v) SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein may be reasonably suggested as a tool to monitor erythrocytes function under oxidative conditions possibly deriving from alcohol consumption, use of drugs, radiographic contrast media administration, hyperglicemia or neurodegenerative

  10. Kinetic Model for UV/H2O2 Degradation of 5-Methoxypsoralen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Bryantseva, N. G.; Carrasco, J. L. Gómez; Krayukhina, V. S.; Almagro, M. D. Murcia; Gómez, M. Gómez

    2016-08-01

    The influence of H2O2 on the photodegradataion of 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) in ethanol and in waterethanol solutions upon exposure to KrCl excilamp radiation (λrad = 222 nm) and XeBr excilamp radiation (λrad = 283 nm) is investigated. A kinematic model of photodegradation of the investigated molecule is constructed. The addition of H2O2 resulted in a weak increase of the decay rate of 5-MOP in ethanol exposed to KrCl excilamp radiation. In water-ethanol solutions the addition of H2O2 altered the mechanism of decay of 5-MOP irradiated by the KrCl excilamp in comparison with irradiation by the XeBr excilamp. It has been shown that upon exposure to XeBr excilamp radiation in the presence of H2O2, the primary photoproduct of the transformation of 5-MOP in the reaction corresponding to the first-order kinetic model is formed both in ethanol and in the water-ethanol solutions. Maximum removal of 5-MOP takes place for the ratio of initial concentrations [5-MOP]:[H2O2] = 1:3 after 60 min irradiation. It is found that irradiation by the XeBr excilamp the decay rate of 5-MOP is 5 times higher in the water-ethanol solutions in comparison with ethanol. Upon exposure to KrCl excilamp radiation the mechanism of 5-MOP decay corresponds to a pseudo-firstorder kinetic model. The nature of the dependence of the decay rate of 5-MOP on the irradiation time for the ratio of initial concentrations [5-MOP]:[H2O2] = 1:24 indicates that during decay of the initial compound a photoproduct appears in the system which decays during the irradiation time into secondary compounds. Efficient removal of 5-MOP under this irradiation takes place for the ratio of initial concentrations [5-MOP]:[H2O2] = 1:10 after 60 min irradiation.

  11. H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress Affects SO4= Transport in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morabito, Rossana; Romano, Orazio; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to verify the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein, responsible for Cl-/HCO3- as well as for cell membrane deformability, due to its cross link with cytoskeletal proteins. The role of cytoplasmic proteins binding to Band 3 protein has been also considered by assaying H2O2 effects on hemoglobin-free resealed ghosts of erythrocytes. Oxidative conditions were induced by 30 min exposure of human erythrocytes to different H2O2 concentrations (10 to 300 μM), with or without GSH (glutathione, 2 mM) or curcumin (10 μM), compounds with proved antioxidant properties. Since SO4= influx through Band 3 protein is slower and better controllable than Cl- or HCO3- exchange, the rate constant for SO4= uptake was measured to prove anion transport efficiency, while MDA (malondialdehyde) levels and –SH groups were estimated to quantify the effect of oxidative stress. H2O2 induced a significant decrease in rate constant for SO4= uptake at both 100 and 300 μM H2O2. This reduction, observed in erythrocytes but not in resealed ghosts and associated to increase in neither MDA levels nor in –SH groups, was impaired by both curcumin and GSH, whereas only curcumin effectively restored H2O2-induced changes in erythrocytes shape. Our results show that: i) 30 min exposure to 300 μM H2O2 reduced SO4= uptake in human erythrocytes; ii) oxidative damage was revealed by the reduction in rate constant for SO4= uptake, but not by MDA or –SH groups levels; iii) the damage was produced via cytoplasmic components which cross link with Band 3 protein; iv) the natural antioxidant curcumin may be useful in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative injury; v) SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein may be reasonably suggested as a tool to monitor erythrocytes function under oxidative conditions possibly deriving from alcohol consumption, use of drugs, radiographic contrast media administration, hyperglicemia or

  12. Effects of a single water molecule on the OH + H2O2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Buszek, Robert J; Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Anglada, Josep M; Francisco, Joseph S

    2012-06-21

    The effect of a single water molecule on the reaction between H(2)O(2) and HO has been investigated by employing MP2 and CCSD(T) theoretical approaches in connection with the aug-cc-PVDZ, aug-cc-PVTZ, and aug-cc-PVQZ basis sets and extrapolation to an ∞ basis set. The reaction without water has two elementary reaction paths that differ from each other in the orientation of the hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl radical moiety. Our computed rate constant, at 298 K, is 1.56 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), in excellent agreement with the suggested value by the NASA/JPL evaluation. The influence of water vapor has been investigated by considering either that H(2)O(2) first forms a complex with water that reacts with hydroxyl radical or that H(2)O(2) reacts with a previously formed H(2)O·OH complex. With the addition of water, the reaction mechanism becomes much more complex, yielding four different reaction paths. Two pathways do not undergo the oxidation reaction but an exchange reaction where there is an interchange between H(2)O(2)·H(2)O and H(2)O·OH complexes. The other two pathways oxidize H(2)O(2), with a computed total rate constant of 4.09 × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K, 2.6 times the value of the rate constant of the unassisted reaction. However, the true effect of water vapor requires taking into account the concentration of the prereactive bimolecular complex, namely, H(2)O(2)·H(2)O. With this consideration, water can actually slow down the oxidation of H(2)O(2) by OH between 1840 and 20.5 times in the 240-425 K temperature range. This is an example that demonstrates how water could be a catalyst in an atmospheric reaction in the laboratory but is slow under atmospheric conditions.

  13. H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress Affects SO4= Transport in Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Romano, Orazio; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to verify the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein, responsible for Cl-/HCO3- as well as for cell membrane deformability, due to its cross link with cytoskeletal proteins. The role of cytoplasmic proteins binding to Band 3 protein has been also considered by assaying H2O2 effects on hemoglobin-free resealed ghosts of erythrocytes. Oxidative conditions were induced by 30 min exposure of human erythrocytes to different H2O2 concentrations (10 to 300 μM), with or without GSH (glutathione, 2 mM) or curcumin (10 μM), compounds with proved antioxidant properties. Since SO4= influx through Band 3 protein is slower and better controllable than Cl- or HCO3- exchange, the rate constant for SO4= uptake was measured to prove anion transport efficiency, while MDA (malondialdehyde) levels and -SH groups were estimated to quantify the effect of oxidative stress. H2O2 induced a significant decrease in rate constant for SO4= uptake at both 100 and 300 μM H2O2. This reduction, observed in erythrocytes but not in resealed ghosts and associated to increase in neither MDA levels nor in -SH groups, was impaired by both curcumin and GSH, whereas only curcumin effectively restored H2O2-induced changes in erythrocytes shape. Our results show that: i) 30 min exposure to 300 μM H2O2 reduced SO4= uptake in human erythrocytes; ii) oxidative damage was revealed by the reduction in rate constant for SO4= uptake, but not by MDA or -SH groups levels; iii) the damage was produced via cytoplasmic components which cross link with Band 3 protein; iv) the natural antioxidant curcumin may be useful in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative injury; v) SO4= uptake through Band 3 protein may be reasonably suggested as a tool to monitor erythrocytes function under oxidative conditions possibly deriving from alcohol consumption, use of drugs, radiographic contrast media administration, hyperglicemia or neurodegenerative

  14. H2O2 intensifies CN(-)-induced apoptosis in pea leaves.

    PubMed

    Samuilov, V D; Kiselevsky, D B; Sinitsyn, S V; Shestak, A A; Lagunova, E M; Nesov, A V

    2006-04-01

    H2O2 intensifies CN(-)-induced apoptosis in stoma guard cells and to lesser degree in basic epidermal cells in peels of the lower epidermis isolated from pea leaves. The maximum effect of H2O2 on guard cells was observed at 10(-4) M. By switching on non-cyclic electron transfer in chloroplasts menadione and methyl viologen intensified H2O2 generation in the light, but prevented the CN--induced apoptosis in guard cells. The light stimulation of CN- effect on guard cell apoptosis cannot be caused by disturbance of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase function and associated OH* generation in chloroplasts with participation of free transition metals in the Fenton or Haber-Weiss type reactions as well as with participation of the FeS clusters of the electron acceptor side of Photosystem I. Menadione and methyl viologen did not suppress the CN(-)-induced apoptosis in epidermal cells that, unlike guard cells, contain mitochondria only, but not chloroplasts. Quinacrine and diphenylene iodonium, inhibitors of NAD(P)H oxidase of cell plasma membrane, had no effect on the respiration and photosynthetic O2 evolution by leaf slices, but prevented the CN(-)-induced guard cell death. The data suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase of guard cell plasma membrane is a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) needed for execution of CN(-)-induced programmed cell death. Chloroplasts and mitochondria were inefficient as ROS sources in the programmed death of guard cells. When ROS generation is insufficient, exogenous H2O2 exhibits a stimulating effect on programmed cell death. H2O2 decreased the inhibitory effects of DCMU and DNP-INT on the CN(-)-induced apoptosis of guard cells. Quinacrine, DCMU, and DNP-INT had no effect on CN(-)-induced death of epidermal cells.

  15. A measurement of the 362 GHz absorption line of Mars atmospheric H 2O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Sandor, B. J.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.

    2004-03-01

    The 362.156 GHz absorption spectrum of H 2O 2 in the Mars atmosphere was observed on September 4 of 2003, employing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) sub-millimeter facility on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Radiative transfer analysis of this line absorption yields an average volume mixing ratio of 18±0.4 ppbv within the lower (0-30 km) Mars atmosphere, in general accordance with standard photochemical models (e.g., Nair et al., 1994, Icarus 111, 124-150). Our derived H 2O 2 abundance is roughly three times greater than the upper limit retrieved by Encrenaz et al. (2002, Astron. Astrophys. 396, 1037-1044) from infrared spectroscopy, although part of this discrepancy may result from the different solar longitudes ( Ls) of observation. Aphelion-to-perihelion thermal forcing of the global Mars hygropause generates substantial (>200%) increases in HO x abundances above ˜10 km altitudes between the Ls=112° period of the Encrenaz et al. upper limit measurement and the current Ls=250° period of detection (Clancy and Nair, 1996, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 12785-12590). The observed H 2O 2 line absorption weakens arguments for non-standard homogeneous (Encrenaz et al., 2002, Astron. Astrophys. 396, 1037-1044) or heterogeneous (Krasnopolsky, 2003a, J. Geophys. Res. 108; 2003b, Icarus 165, 315-325) chemistry, which have been advocated partly on the basis of infrared (8 μm) non-detections for Mars H 2O 2. Observation of Mars H 2O 2 also represents the first measurement of a key catalytic specie in a planetary atmosphere other than our own.

  16. Biophotonic tool for sensing the dynamics of H2O2 extracellular release in stressed cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, G.; Santschi, Ch.; Dutta-Gupta, S.; Juillerat-Jeanneret, L.; Martin, O. J. F.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is known to play a multifaceted role in cell physiology mechanisms involving oxidative stress and intracellular signal transduction. Therefore, the development of analytical tools providing information on the dynamics of H2O2 generation remains of utmost importance to achieve further insight in the complex physiological processes of living cells and their response to environmental stress. In the present work we developed a novel optic biosensor that provides continuous real-time quantification of the dynamics of the hydrogen peroxide release from cells under oxidative stress conditions. The biosensor is based on the ultra-sensitive dark field optical detection of cytochrome c (cyt c) that exhibits a narrow absorption peaks in its reduced state (Fe(II)) at λ = 550 nm. In the presence of H2O2 the ferrous heme group Fe(II) is oxidised into Fe(III) providing the spectroscopic information exploited in this approach. Extremely low limit-of-detection for H2O2 down to the subnanomolar range is achieved by combining scattering substrates (eg. polystyrene beads) able to shelter cyt c and an inverted microscope in dark field configuration. The developed biosensor was able to perform real-time detection of H2O2 extracellular release from human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) exposed to lipopolysaccaride (LPS) that elicits strong immune-response. This biosensing tool is currently being implemented to the real-time detection of superoxide anion (O2.-) and offers the possibility to extend to further oxidative stress biomarkers such as glutathione. More generally, multianalyte and dynamic informations might bring new insights to understand complex cellular metabolisms involved in oxidative-stress-related diseases and cytotoxic responses.

  17. Degradation of selected pharmaceuticals in aqueous solution with UV and UV/H(2)O(2).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Hu, Chun; Hu, Xuexiang; Qu, Jiuhui; Yang, Min

    2009-04-01

    The degradation of four pharmaceutical compounds (PhACs), ibuprofen (IBU), diphenhydramine (DP), phenazone (PZ), and phenytoin (PHT) was investigated via ultraviolet (UV) photolysis and UV/H(2)O(2) process with a low-pressure (LP) UV lamp. For each PhAC tested, direct photolysis quantum yields at 254 nm were found to be ranging from 6.32 x 10(-2) to 2.79 x 10(-1)molE(-1) at pH 7. The second-order rate constants of the reaction between the PhACs and OH were determined to be from 4.86 x 10(9) to 6.67 x 10(9)M(-1)s(-1) by using a competition kinetic model which utilized para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) as a reference compound. The overall effect of OH radical scavenging from humic acid (HA) and anions HCO(3)(-), NO(3)(-) was measured utilizing R(OH,UV) method through examining the aqueous photodegradation of pCBA as a probe compound. Moreover, these fundamental direct and indirect photolysis parameters were applied in the model prediction for oxidation rate constants of the PhACs in UV/H(2)O(2) process. It was found that the predicted oxidation rate constants approximated the observed ones. The results indicated that the new R(OH,UV) probe compound method was applicable for measuring background OH radical scavenging effects in water treatment process of UV/H(2)O(2). Furthermore, by GC-MS analysis, most of the intermediates created during the photodegradation of the selected PhACs in UV/H(2)O(2) process were identified. For the photodegradation of PZ, a competition mechanism existed between the direct UV photolysis and the oxidation of OH. An appropriate dosage of H(2)O(2) could hinder the occurrence of the direct photolysis.

  18. Reducing THMFP by H2O2/UV oxidation for humic acid of small molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Yen, Li Shuang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the merits of using H2O2/UV oxidation for reducing trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), colour, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of smaller molecular humic acid were investigated, especially the energy consumption based on EEO. The results show that THMFP decreases by increasing oxidation time, H2O2 dose and UV intensity. The reaction constant in descending order is kColour>kDOC>kTHMFP. Furthermore, EEO shows three trends. First, it decreases as H2O2 dose increases. That is, by increasing the amount of H2O2 dose, the electrical energy efficiency becomes better. Second, EEO,9 W>EEO,13 W, implying that higher UV power would result in a higher electrical energy efficiency. Third, EEO,THMFP>EEO,DOC>EEO,colour. That is, the electric energy efficiency is the best for colour removal, second for DOC removal, and third for THMFP reduction. The operation costs for 90% removal of colour, DOC, and THMFP are from 0.31 to 0.69, from 0.78 to 1.72, and from 1.11 to 2.29 US$/m3, respectively. However, reducing THMs to Taiwan's drinking water standard of 80 µg/L needs only 0.25-0.60 US$/m3. Therefore, the condition with UV of 9 W, H2O2 of 50 mg/L, and oxidation time of 23 min can be applied for THMs reduction as the cost is the smallest of 0.25 US$/m3, even lower than current Taiwan's drinking water price of 0.3 US$/m3.

  19. Removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated groundwater by the combined technique of adsorption onto perlite followed by the O3/H2O2 process.

    PubMed

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Amir

    2012-09-01

    Groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was treated using a combined system of adsorption onto powdered expanded perlite (PEP) followed by the O3/H2O2 process. The pretreatment investigations indicated a high capacity for PEP to remove petroleum hydrocarbons from the contaminated water. An experimental total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) adsorption capacity of 275 mg/g PEP was obtained at the natural pH of water. The experimental data fit best with the Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo-second-order adsorption model. The second phase of the experiment evaluated the performance of the O3/H2O2 process in the removal of residual TPH from pretreated water and compared the results with that of raw water. The O3/H202 process attained a maximum TPH removal rate for the pretreated water after 70 min, when 93% of the residual TPH in the effluent of the adsorption system was removed. Overall, the combination of adsorption onto PEP for 100 min and the subsequent treatment with the O3/H2O2 process for 70min eliminated over 99% of the TPH of highly petroleum-contaminated groundwater, with initial values of 162 mg/L. Therefore, we can conclude that the developed treatment system is an appropriate method of remediation for petroleum-contaminated waters.

  20. H2O2 induces rapid biophysical and permeability changes in the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Folmer, Vanderlei; Pedroso, Nuno; Matias, Ana C; Lopes, Sílvia C D N; Antunes, Fernando; Cyrne, Luísa; Marinho, H Susana

    2008-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the diffusion rate of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) through the plasma membrane decreases during adaptation to H2O2 by means of a mechanism that is still unknown. Here, evidence is presented that during adaptation to H2O2 the anisotropy of the plasma membrane increases. Adaptation to H2O2 was studied at several times (15min up to 90min) by applying the steady-state H2O2 delivery model. For wild-type cells, the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy increased after 30min, or 60min, when using 2-(9-anthroyloxy) stearic acid (2-AS), or diphenylhexatriene (DPH) membrane probe, respectively. Moreover, a 40% decrease in plasma membrane permeability to H2O2 was observed at 15min with a concomitant two-fold increase in catalase activity. Disruption of the ergosterol pathway, by knocking out either ERG3 or ERG6, prevents the changes in anisotropy during H2O2 adaptation. H2O2 diffusion through the plasma membrane in S. cerevisiae cells is not mediated by aquaporins since the H2O2 permeability constant is not altered in the presence of the aquaporin inhibitor mercuric chloride. Altogether, these results indicate that the regulation of the plasma membrane permeability towards H2O2 is mediated by modulation of the biophysical properties of the plasma membrane.

  1. Kinetics and mechanisms of degradation of chloroacetonitriles by the UV/H2O2 process.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Sun, Jianliang; Fang, Jingyun; Shang, Chii

    2016-08-01

    Haloacetonitriles (HANs) are emerging disinfection by-products (DBPs) that are more toxic than the regulated DBPs and widely found in the chlorinated/chloraminated water. This paper studied kinetics and mechanisms of the degradation of chloroacetonitriles (CANs) by the UV/H2O2 process at pH 6 and 7.5 and H2O2 concentrations of 1 × 10(-3) M, 5 × 10(-3) M and 1 × 10(-2) M. The degradation followed pseudo first-order degradation kinetics. The degradation rate of monochloroacetonitrile (MCAN) remained similar, while those of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) and trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) increased with increasing pH and H2O2 concentrations. The different trends were attributed to the changing contributions of the two major mechanisms: the nucleophilic attack by hydroperoxide ions ( [Formula: see text] ) and the hydroxyl radical (•OH) oxidation. The second-order rate constants of [Formula: see text] towards MCAN, DCAN and TCAN were determined to be 11.8 (±0.62), 4.83 (±0.01) × 10(3), and 2.54 (±0.23) × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, while that of •OH were 8.7 × 10(6), 4.4 × 10(6), and < 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The degradation of TCAN was mainly attributed to the [Formula: see text] nucleophilic attack, while that of MCAN was dominated by the •OH oxidation. DCAN was degraded by both mechanisms. The nucleophilic attack increased linearly with increasing [Formula: see text] concentration as a result of increasing H2O2 concentration and/or pH, while the •OH oxidation was less dependent on H2O2 concentrations and/or pH. The nucleophilic attack mainly transformed HANs to haloacetamides, while the •OH oxidation dechlorinated HANs. This paper firstly illustrated the importance of the [Formula: see text] nucleophilic attack, in addition to the •OH oxidation, on the CAN degradation in the UV/H2O2 process.

  2. [Relationship of Sa, No and H2O2 signals in the reponses of Arabidopsis to toxin of Verticillium dahliae].

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang Shi; Li, Ying Zhang

    2004-08-01

    The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in Arabidopsis was induced by toxin of Verticillium dahliae (VD-toxin), exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide donor (SNP). The effect of SNP was the most intense. H2O2 level was not increased in Arabidopsis treated with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (NNA). It was identified with the results of DAB staining of H2O2 accumulates in the leaves of Arabidopsis. H2O2 was cytochemically detected in the cells of epidermal hair and the cell wall of vascular parenchyma cell. The results suggest that H2O2 acts as a second messenger to involve the defenses in Arabidopsis induced by SA and NO signal transduction. The relationship of NO and H2O2 signals was likely closer.

  3. Enhanced gellan gum production by hydrogen peroxide (H2O 2) induced oxidative stresses in Sphingomonas paucimobilis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guilan; Sheng, Long; Tong, Qunyi

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on gellan gum production and cell growth were investigated. Gellan gum production was improved and cell growth was inhibited by H2O2. A multiple H2O2 stresses with different concentrations were developed to optimize gellan gum production. A maximal gellan gum yield (22.52 g/L), which was 35.58 % higher than the control, was observed with 2, 2, 3, 4 mmol/L H2O2 added at 6, 12, 18, 24 h, respectively. Moreover, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity and glucosyltransferase activity were increased with H2O2 stresses. This new strategy of multiple H2O2-induced oxidative stresses would be further applied to gellan gum production in future study.

  4. The H2O2-H2O Hypothesis: Extremophiles Adapted to Conditions on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houtkooper, Joop M.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2007-08-01

    The discovery of extremophiles on Earth is a sequence of discoveries of life in environments where it had been deemed impossible a few decades ago. The next frontier may be the Martian surface environment: could life have adapted to this harsh environment? What we learned from terrestrial extremophiles is that life adapts to every available niche where energy, liquid water and organic materials are available so that in principle metabolism and propagation are possible. A feasible adaptation mechanism to the Martian surface environment would be the incorporation of a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the intracellular fluid of organisms. The H2O2-H2O hypothesis suggests the existence of Martian organisms that have a mixture of H2O2 and H2O instead of salty water as their intracellular liquid (Houtkooper and Schulze-Makuch, 2007). The advantages are that the freezing point is low (the eutectic freezes at 56.5°C) and that the mixture is hygroscopic. This would enable the organisms to scavenge water from the atmosphere or from the adsorbed layers of water molecules on mineral grains, with H2O2 being also a source of oxygen. Moreover, below its freezing point the H2O2-H2O mixture has the tendency to supercool. Hydrogen peroxide is not unknown to biochemistry on Earth. There are organisms for which H2O2 plays a significant role: the bombardier beetle, Brachinus crepitans, produces a 25% H2O2 solution and, when attacked by a predator, mixes it with a fluid containing hydroquinone and a catalyst, which produces an audible steam explosion and noxious fumes. Another example is Acetobacter peroxidans, which uses H2O2 in its metabolism. H2O2 plays various other roles, such as the mediation of physiological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Moreover, most eukaryotic cells contain an organelle, the peroxisome, which mediates the reactions involving H2O2. Therefore it is feasible that in the course of evolution, water-based organisms

  5. Neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of bamboo salt soy sauce against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    JEONG, JONG HEE; NOH, MIN-YOUNG; CHOI, JAE-HYEOK; LEE, HAIWON; KIM, SEUNG HYUN

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo salt (BS) and soy sauce (SS) are traditional foods in Asia, which contain antioxidants that have cytoprotective effects on the body. The majority of SS products contain high levels of common salt, consumption of which has been associated with numerous detrimental effects on the body. However, BS may be considered a healthier substitute to common salt. The present study hypothesized that SS made from BS, known as bamboo salt soy sauce (BSSS), may possess enhanced cytoprotective properties; this was evaluated using a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced neuronal cell death rat model. Rat neuronal cells were pretreated with various concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10%) of BSSS, traditional soy sauce (TRSS) and brewed soy sauce (BRSS), and were subsequently exposed to H2O2 (100 µM). The viability of neuronal cells, and the occurrence of DNA fragmentation, was subsequently examined. Pretreatment of neuronal cells with TRSS and BRSS reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas neuronal cells pretreated with BSSS exhibited increased cell viability, as compared with non-treated neuronal cells. Furthermore, neuronal cells pretreated with 0.01% BSSS exhibited the greatest increase in viability. Exposure of neuronal cells to H2O2 significantly increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein, poly (ADP-ribose), cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3, in all cases. Pretreatment of neuronal cells with BSSS significantly reduced the levels of ROS generated by H2O2, and increased the levels of phosphorylated AKT and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Furthermore, the observed effects of BSSS could be blocked by administration of 10 µM LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. The results of the present study suggested that BSSS may exert positive neuroprotective effects against H2O2-induced cell death

  6. Inhibition of the alternative oxidase stimulates H2O2 production in plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Popov, V N; Simonian, R A; Skulachev, V P; Starkov, A A

    1997-09-22

    The hypothesis that a non-coupled alternative oxidase of plant mitochondria operates as an antioxygen defence mechanism [Purvis, A.C. and Shewfelt, R.L., Physiol. Plant. 88 (1993) 712-718; Skulachev, V.P., Biochemistry (Moscow) 59 (1994) 1433-1434] has been confirmed in experiments on isolated soybean and pea cotyledon mitochondria. It is shown that inhibitors of the alternative oxidase, salicyl hydroxamate and propyl gallate strongly stimulate H2O2 production by these mitochondria oxidizing succinate. Effective concentrations of the inhibitors proved to be the same as those decreasing the cyanide-resistant respiration. The inhibitors proved to be ineffective in stimulating H2O2 formation in rat liver mitochondria lacking the alternative oxidase.

  7. Effect of O3 and O3/H2O2 on algae harvesting using chitosan.

    PubMed

    Pranowo, R; Lee, D J; Liu, J C; Chang, J S

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of pre-oxidation using ozone (O3) and a combination of O3 and hydrogen peroxide (O3/H2O2) on algae suspensions and their harvesting. Inactivation of algae cells, release of intracellular organic matter (IOM), mineralization of extracellular organic matter (EOM), and changes in molecular weight distribution of EOM were found after pre-oxidation. Enhanced separation efficiency of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), protein, and polysaccharide using chitosan and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) was found after pre-oxidation, especially when algae cells were subject to O3/H2O2. Chitosan showed higher efficiency than PACl. Judging from the remarkable increase in floc size, it was proposed that released IOM formed complexes with cationic chitosan and resulted in enhanced dual flocculation and facilitated algae separation.

  8. H2-O2 auxiliary power unit for Space Shuttle vehicles - A progress report.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, J. P.; Beremand, D. G.; Cameron, H. M.; Jefferies, K. S.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a program to establish technology readiness of hydrogen-oxygen (H2-O2) auxiliary power units for use on board the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle. Fundamental objectives include experimentally establishing an acceptable propellant flow control method, verification of combustor stability, and adequate thermal management. An initial auxiliary power unit (APU) configuration with recycled hydrogen flow has been studied and revised toward greater simplicity and scaling ease. The selected APU is a recuperated open-cycle, turbine-driven unit. Series flow of cryogenic hydrogen removes internally-generated heat and heat from the hydraulic system. The revised configuration schematic and its calculated performance are reviewed. A weight comparison is made between the shuttle baseline hydrazine and H2-O2 APU systems, showing that hydrogen-oxygen APUs have the potential of increasing the payload of the Space Shuttle.

  9. Removal of lead contaminant from Cr surfaces by using H2O2/EDTA cleaner solution.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Ghorban; Gholivand, Khodayar; Khosravi, Mortezah; Toloti, Seyed Jafar Hosseini; Pandas, Hossein Momenizadeh

    2013-01-01

    All industrial processes especially metal cleaning procedures dealing with dangerous solutions should be used as little as possible and their emission into the aquatic environment should be controlled. In this study, in order to find a proper and efficient cleaning process, lead pollution was removed from the solid matrix by using a cleaner solution containing EDTA and H2O2 as chelating and oxidizing agents respectively. An orthogonal array design (OAD), OA9, was employed as a chemometric method for the optimization of the procedure. The results of experiment revealed that, lead pollution (-3 g) at the predicted optimum condition can be effectively removed from the solid matrix during 4 minutes. Cleaning quality was checked by SEM/EDAX, ICP and UV spectroscopy methods. Finally, the results of this investigation showed that H2O2/EDTA system can be considered as a novel, safe and an efficient cleaning solution, due to its proper processing parameters. PMID:23841357

  10. Cardiolipin activates cytochrome c peroxidase activity since it facilitates H(2)O(2) access to heme.

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, Yu A; Proskurnina, E V; Izmailov, D Yu; Novikov, A A; Brusnichkin, A V; Osipov, A N; Kagan, V E

    2006-09-01

    In this work, the effect of liposomes consisting of tetraoleyl cardiolipin and dioleyl phosphatidylcholine (1 : 1, mol/mol) on the rate of three more reactions of Cyt c heme with H2O2 was studied: (i) Cyt c (Fe2+) oxidation to Cyt c (Fe3+), (ii) Fe...S(Met80) bond breaking, and (iii) heme porphyrin ring decomposition. It was revealed that the rates of all those reactions increased greatly in the presence of liposomes containing cardiolipin and not of those consisting of only phosphatidylcholine, and approximately to the same extent as peroxidase activity. These data suggest that cardiolipin activates specifically Cyt c peroxidase activity not only because it promotes Fe...S(Met80) bond breaking but also facilitates H2O2 penetration to the reaction center. PMID:17009954

  11. Carbon dioxide adsorption on H2 O 2 treated single-walled carbon nanohorns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migone, Aldo; Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Banjara, Shree; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio

    2011-03-01

    Carbon nanohorns are closed single-wall structures with a hollow interior. Unlike SWNTs, which assemble into cylindrical bundles, nanohorns form spherical aggregates. In our experiments we used dahlia-like carbon nanohorn aggregates. Our sample underwent treatment with H2 O2 which opened access to the interior spaces of the individual nanohorns. We measured carbon dioxide adsorption at several temperatures between 167 and 195 K. We calculated the isosteric heat as a function of loading, and the binding energy values for CO2 on the nanohorn aggregates from the isotherm data. Results on the H2 O2 -treated nanohorns will be compared with those obtained on other carbon substrates. We have also determined detailed equilibration profiles for CO2 adsorption on the nanohorn aggregates; these results will also be presented. This work was supported by the NSF through grants DMR-1006428 and DMR-0705077.

  12. Removal of lead contaminant from Cr surfaces by using H2O2/EDTA cleaner solution.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Ghorban; Gholivand, Khodayar; Khosravi, Mortezah; Toloti, Seyed Jafar Hosseini; Pandas, Hossein Momenizadeh

    2013-01-01

    All industrial processes especially metal cleaning procedures dealing with dangerous solutions should be used as little as possible and their emission into the aquatic environment should be controlled. In this study, in order to find a proper and efficient cleaning process, lead pollution was removed from the solid matrix by using a cleaner solution containing EDTA and H2O2 as chelating and oxidizing agents respectively. An orthogonal array design (OAD), OA9, was employed as a chemometric method for the optimization of the procedure. The results of experiment revealed that, lead pollution (-3 g) at the predicted optimum condition can be effectively removed from the solid matrix during 4 minutes. Cleaning quality was checked by SEM/EDAX, ICP and UV spectroscopy methods. Finally, the results of this investigation showed that H2O2/EDTA system can be considered as a novel, safe and an efficient cleaning solution, due to its proper processing parameters.

  13. Numerical simulation of detonation reignition in H 2-O 2 mixtures in area expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. A.; Kemister, G.; Tonello, N. A.; Oran, E. S.; Sichel, M.

    Time-dependent, two-dimensional, numerical simulations of a transmitted detonation show reignition occuring by one of two mechanisms. The first mechanism involves the collision of triple points as they expand along a decaying shock front. In the second mechanism ignition results from the coalescence of a number of small, relatively high pressure regions left over from the decay of weakened transverse waves. The simulations were performed using an improved chemical kinetic model for stoichiometric H 2-O 2 mixtures. The initial conditions were a propagating, two-dimensional detonation resolved enough to show transverse wave structure. The calculations provide clarification of the reignition mechanism seen in previous H 2-O 2-Ar simulations, and again demonstrate that the transverse wave structure of the detonation front is critical to the reignition process.

  14. Line Intensities in the Far-Infrared Spectrum of H 2O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Schermaul, R.; Winnewisser, M.; Mandin, J.-Y.; Dana, V.; Badaoui, M.; Koput, J.

    1996-04-01

    Using high resolution Fourier transform spectra (resolution 0.002 cm -1) recorded at the Instituto Ricerca Onde Electromagnetiche Firenze and at the Justus Liebig University Giessen, it has been possible to measure the relative intensities of lines in the far-infrared spectrum of H 2O 2in the 25-400 cm -1spectral region. These intensities were used as input data in a least-squares fit calculation in order to obtain the expansion parameters of the transition moment operator of the pure torsional-rotational transitions of H 2O 2. For these intensity calculations, the theoretical model takes into account the cos γ-type dependence of the dipole moment due to the large amplitude motion of the H atoms relative to the O-O bond, where 2γ is the torsion angle. The value of the dipole moment obtained from the fit of the observed intensities was then scaled to the value obtained from Stark effect measurements. Finally, a synthetic spectrum of the far infrared band of H 2O 2was generated, using the dipole moment expansion determined in this work for the line intensities and the parameters and the Hamiltonian matrix given in a previous analysis (C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, J. W. C. Johns, and M. Noel, J. Mol. Spectrosc.155,84-104 (1992)) for the line positions. In addition to the (Δ n= ±1, Δ Ka= ∓2) torsional-rotational resonances within the ground vibrational state, which are usually observed for H 2O 2, the Hamiltonian model takes explicitly into account both the vibration-rotation resonances involving the ground state and the v3= 1 vibrational state and the "staggering" effect which is due to the cispotential barrier.

  15. Preliminary results in the NASA Lewis H2-O2 combustion MHD experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation experiments were carried out in the NASA Lewis Research Center cesium-seeded H2-O2 combustion facility. This facility uses a neon-cooled cryomagnet capable of producing magnetic fields in excess of 5 tesla. The effects of power takeoff location, generator loading, B-field strength, and electrode breakdown on generator performance are discussed. The experimental data is compared to a theory based on one-dimensional flow with heat transfer, friction, and voltage drops.

  16. Vitamin D derivatives enhance cytotoxic effects of H2O2 or cisplatin on human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Justyna; Ślebioda, Tomasz; Woźniak, Michał; Tuckey, Robert C; Slominski, Andrzej T; Żmijewski, Michał A

    2016-06-01

    Although the skin production of vitamin D is initiated by ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB), the role vitamin D plays in antioxidative or pro-oxidative responses remains to be elucidated. We have used immortalized human HaCaT keratinocytes as a model of proliferating epidermal cells to test the influence of vitamin D on cellular response to H2O2 or the anti-cancer drug, cisplatin. Incubation of keratinocytes with 1,25(OH)2D3 or its low calcemic analogues, 20(OH)D3, 21(OH)pD or calcipotriol, sensitized cells to ROS resulting in more potent inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation by H2O2 in the presence of vitamin D compounds. These results were supported by cell cycle and apoptosis analyses, and measurement of the mitochondrial transmembrane potentials (MMP), however some unique properties of individual secosteroids were observed. Furthermore, in HaCaT keratinocytes treated with H2O2, 1,25(OH)2D3, 21(OH)pD and calcipotriol stimulated the expression of SOD1 and CAT genes, but not SOD2, indicating a possible role of mitochondria in ROS-modulated cell death. 1,25(OH)2D3 also showed a short-term, protective effect on HaCaT keratinocytes, as exemplified by the inhibition of apoptosis and the maintenance of MMP. However, with prolonged incubation with H2O2 or cisplatin, 1,25(OH)2D3 caused an acceleration in the death of the keratinocytes. Therefore, we propose that lead vitamin D derivatives can protect the epidermis against neoplastic transformation secondary to oxidative or UV-induced stress through activation of vitamin D-signaling. Furthermore, our data suggest that treatment with low calcemic vitamin D analogues or the maintenance of optimal level of vitamin D by proper supplementation, can enhance the anticancer efficacy of cisplatin. PMID:27083311

  17. [Relationships between H2O2 metabolism and Ca2+ transport in dormancy-breaking process of nectarine floral buds].

    PubMed

    Tan, Yue; Gao, Dong-sheng; Li, Ling; Wei, Hai-rong; Wang, Jia-wei; Liu, Qing-zhong

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore regulatory function of H2O2 in bud dormancy release, main effects of three dormancy-breaking treatments (high temperature, hydrogen cyanamide and TDZ) on H2O2 metabolism were determined, and impacts of H2O2 on Ca2+ transport were tested using non-invasive micro-test technique. The results showed that both high temperature and hydrogen cyanamide induced H2O2 accumulation and CAT inhibition were efficient in breaking dormancy during deep dormancy period. However, TDZ showed little impacts on H2O2 metabolism and was much less effective in breaking dormancy. Dormant floral primordium was absorbing state to exogenous Ca2+ due to active calcium channels. The Ca2+ transport could be changed by exogenous H2O2. H2O2 of low concentration reduced the absorption rate of Ca2+, and at high concentration, it changed the Ca2+ transport direction from absorption to release. The results indicated that H2O2 signals were related with Ca2+ signals in dormant buds. Ca2+ signal regulated by H2O2 accumulation might be important in the dormancy-breaking signal transduction process induced by high temperature and hydrogen cyanamide.

  18. Radical-scavenging abilities and antioxidant properties of theaflavins and their gallate esters in H2O2-mediated oxidative damage system in the HPF-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziyin; Jie, Guoliang; Dong, Fang; Xu, Yi; Watanabe, Naoharu; Tu, Youying

    2008-08-01

    The antioxidant properties of theaflavins and their gallate esters, namely theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3(3')-gallate (TF2) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3) were investigated by comparing with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The order of hydroxyl radicals-scavenging ability was TF3>TF2>TF1>EGCG. The order of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging ability was TF3>TF2>EGCG>TF1. TF1, TF2, and TF3 showed more effective effects than EGCG in protection against H2O2-mediated damage in HPF-1 cells. TF2 was the most potent accelerant of HPF-1 cell proliferation. TF1, TF2 and TF3 suppressed the accumulation of intracellular reactive species in H2O2-mediated damage HPF-1 cells. Pre-treated for 2h and eliminated from the cells, TF1 and TF3 still showed protective effects against H2O2-mediated damage in HPF-1 cells. This suggests that the protective effects of TF1 and TF3 on oxidative damage HPF-1 cells may be responsible for other mechanisms, rather than only scavenging the already formed reactive species. It remains to be determined whether TF1 and TF3 improved the normal HPF-1 cell resistive abilities toward radical-damage in pre-treatment. Further studies of the effects of theaflavins on some enzymes or signal transduction in the normal HPF-1 cells are underway.

  19. NO fluorescence sensing by europium tetracyclines complexes in the presence of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Simões, Eliana F C; Leitão, João M M; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2013-07-01

    The effect on the fluorescence of the europium:tetracycline (Eu:Tc), europium:oxytetracycline (Eu:OxyTc) and europium:chlortetracycline (Eu:ClTc) complexes in approximately 2:1 ratio of nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2 (·-)) was assessed at three ROS/RNS concentrations levels, 30 °C and pH 6.00, 7.00 and 8.00. Except for the NO, an enhancement of fluorescence intensity was observed at pH 7.00 for all the europium tetracyclines complexes-the high enhancement was observed for H2O2. The quenching of the fluorescence of the Tc complexes, without and with the presence of other ROS/RNS species, provoked by NO constituted the bases for an analytical strategy for NO detection. The quantification capability was evaluated in a NO donor and in a standard solution. Good quantification results were obtained with the Eu:Tc (3:1) and Eu:OxyTc (4:1) complexes in the presence of H2O2 200 μM with a detection limit of about 3 μM (Eu:OxyTc).

  20. A Rex Family Transcriptional Repressor Influences H2O2 Accumulation by Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Vesić, Dušanka

    2013-01-01

    Rex factors are bacterial transcription factors thought to respond to the cellular NAD+/NADH ratio in order to modulate gene expression by differentially binding DNA. To date, Rex factors have been implicated in regulating genes of central metabolism, oxidative stress response, and biofilm formation. The genome of Enterococcus faecalis, a low-GC Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen, encodes EF2638, a putative Rex factor. To study the role of E. faecalis Rex, we purified EF2638 and evaluated its DNA binding activity in vitro. EF2638 was able to bind putative promoter segments of several E. faecalis genes in an NADH-responsive manner, indicating that it represents an authentic Rex factor. Transcriptome analysis of a ΔEF2638 mutant revealed that genes likely to be involved in anaerobic metabolism were upregulated during aerobic growth, and the mutant exhibited an altered NAD+/NADH ratio. The ΔEF2638 mutant also exhibited a growth defect when grown with aeration on several carbon sources, suggesting an impaired ability to cope with oxidative stress. Inclusion of catalase in the medium alleviated the growth defect. H2O2 measurements revealed that the mutant accumulates significantly more H2O2 than wild-type E. faecalis. In summary, EF2638 represents an authentic Rex factor in E. faecalis that influences the production or detoxification of H2O2 in addition to its more familiar role as a regulator of anaerobic gene expression. PMID:23417491

  1. H2O2-responsive antioxidant polymeric nanoparticles as therapeutic agents for peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Byeongsu; Kang, Changsun; Kim, Jinsub; Yoo, Donghyuck; Cho, Byung-Ryul; Kang, Peter M; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-09-25

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common circulatory disorder in which narrowed arteries limit blood flow to the lower extremity and affect millions of people worldwide. Therapeutic angiogenesis has emerged as a promising strategy to treat PAD patients because surgical intervention has been showing limited success. Leg muscles of PAD patients have significantly high level of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the increased production of ROS is a key mechanism of initiation and progression of PAD. We have recently developed H2O2-responsive polymer PVAX, which is designed to rapidly scavenge H2O2 and release vanillyl alcohol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of PVAX nanoparticles for PAD using a cell culture model and a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. PVAX nanoparticles significantly enhanced the expression of angiogenic inducers such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). PVAX nanoparticles promoted revascularization and restoration of blood perfusion into ischemic tissues by upregulating angiogenic VEGF and PECAM-1. This work demonstrates that H2O2-responsive PVAX nanoparticles facilitate therapeutic angiogenesis and hold tremendous translational potential as therapeutic systems for ischemic diseases such as PAD. PMID:27521705

  2. Polydatin Attenuates H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress via PKC Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, which is found to precede the development of diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The aim of this study was to observe the protective effects of PD against H2O2-induced oxidative stress injury (OSI) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the possible mechanism of PD in OSI treatment. HUVECs were subjected to H2O2 in the absence or presence of PD. It turned out that PD improved cell viability and adhesive and migratory abilities, inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevated the content of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). TUNEL, fluorometric assays, and Western blotting showed that OSI upregulated the apoptosis ratio, the activity of caspase-3 and the level of proapoptotic protein Bax and decreased the level of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. However, PD treatment partially reversed these damage effects and Protein Kinase C (PKC) activation by thymeleatoxin (THX) in turn eliminated the antiapoptotic effect of PD. Furthermore, PD attenuated the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of PKCs α and δ and increased the phosphorylation of PKC ε. Our results indicated that PD might exert protective effects against OSI through various interactions with PKC pathway. PMID:26881030

  3. Long Noncoding RNA MHRT Protects Cardiomyocytes against H2O2-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Gao, Caihua; Meng, Meijuan; Tang, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The exploration of new biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for early diagnosis of AMI therefore becomes one of the primary task. In the current study, we aim to detect whether there is any heart specific long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) releasing into the circulation during AMI, and explore its function in the neonatal rat cardiac myocytes injury induced by H2O2. Our results revealed that the cardiac-specific lncRNA MHRT (Myosin Heavy Chain Associated RNA Transcripts) was significantly elevated in the blood from AMI patients compared with the healthy control ((*) p<0.05). Using an in vitro neonatal rat cardiac myocytes injury model, we demonstrated that lncRNA MHRT was upregulated in the cardiac myocytes after treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) via real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, we knockdowned the MHRT gene by siRNA to confirm its roles in the H2O2-induced cardiac cell apoptosis, and found that knockdown of MHRT led to significant more apoptotic cells than the non-target control ((**) p<0.01), indicating that the lncRNA MHRT is a protective factor for cardiomyocyte and the plasma concentration of MHRT may serve as a biomarker for myocardial infarction diagnosis in humans AMI. PMID:26759697

  4. Spectroscopic measurement of HO2, H2O2, and OH in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.; Carli, B.

    1991-01-01

    Stratospheric concentrations of HO2, H2O2, and OH have been retrieved simultaneously from the far-infrared emission spectra obtained with a balloon-borne Fourier transform spectrometer in June 1983 at 32 deg N latitude. Retrieved concentrations of HO2 and H2O2 are reported, along with vertical distributions of OH which were reported in an earlier paper for the afternoon, sunset, and nighttime periods for altitudes from 26 to 38 km. HO2 distributions are obtained with uncertainties that are about the same as OH for the same vertical range and for the afternoon and sunset periods. H2O2 concentration is obtained at an altitude of 30 km for the period that covers afternoon and sunset hours. The retrieved concentrations of these HO(x) species agree well with other individually measured results and the steady state photochemical predictions. The ratio HO2/OH at around 32 km seems to increase from the afternoon period to the sunset period.

  5. Leptospira interrogans Catalase Is Required for Resistance to H2O2 and for Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Azad; Lourdault, Kristel; Murray, Gerald L.; Bartpho, Thanatchaporn; Sermswan, Rasana W.; Picardeau, Mathieu; Adler, Ben; Snarr, Brendan; Zuerner, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. are likely to encounter higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species induced by the host innate immune response. In this study, we characterized Leptospira interrogans catalase (KatE), the only annotated catalase found within pathogenic Leptospira species, by assessing its role in resistance to H2O2-induced oxidative stress and during infection in hamsters. Pathogenic L. interrogans bacteria had a 50-fold-higher survival rate under H2O2-induced oxidative stress than did saprophytic L. biflexa bacteria, and this was predominantly catalase dependent. We also characterized KatE, the only annotated catalase found within pathogenic Leptospira species. Catalase assays performed with recombinant KatE confirmed specific catalase activity, while protein fractionation experiments localized KatE to the bacterial periplasmic space. The insertional inactivation of katE in pathogenic Leptospira bacteria drastically diminished leptospiral viability in the presence of extracellular H2O2 and reduced virulence in an acute-infection model. Combined, these results suggest that L. interrogans KatE confers in vivo resistance to reactive oxygen species induced by the host innate immune response. PMID:22927050

  6. VUV photoionization cross sections of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Leah G; Shen, Linhan; Savee, John D; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Sander, Stanley P; Okumura, Mitchio

    2015-02-26

    The absolute vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra of the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and formaldehyde (H2CO) have been measured from their first ionization thresholds to 12.008 eV. HO2, H2O2, and H2CO were generated from the oxidation of methanol initiated by pulsed-laser-photolysis of Cl2 in a low-pressure slow flow reactor. Reactants, intermediates, and products were detected by time-resolved multiplexed synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Absolute concentrations were obtained from the time-dependent photoion signals by modeling the kinetics of the methanol oxidation chemistry. Photoionization cross sections were determined at several photon energies relative to the cross section of methanol, which was in turn determined relative to that of propene. These measurements were used to place relative photoionization spectra of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO on an absolute scale, resulting in absolute photoionization spectra. PMID:25621533

  7. H2O2-responsive antioxidant polymeric nanoparticles as therapeutic agents for peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Byeongsu; Kang, Changsun; Kim, Jinsub; Yoo, Donghyuck; Cho, Byung-Ryul; Kang, Peter M; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-09-25

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a common circulatory disorder in which narrowed arteries limit blood flow to the lower extremity and affect millions of people worldwide. Therapeutic angiogenesis has emerged as a promising strategy to treat PAD patients because surgical intervention has been showing limited success. Leg muscles of PAD patients have significantly high level of ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the increased production of ROS is a key mechanism of initiation and progression of PAD. We have recently developed H2O2-responsive polymer PVAX, which is designed to rapidly scavenge H2O2 and release vanillyl alcohol with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of PVAX nanoparticles for PAD using a cell culture model and a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. PVAX nanoparticles significantly enhanced the expression of angiogenic inducers such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). PVAX nanoparticles promoted revascularization and restoration of blood perfusion into ischemic tissues by upregulating angiogenic VEGF and PECAM-1. This work demonstrates that H2O2-responsive PVAX nanoparticles facilitate therapeutic angiogenesis and hold tremendous translational potential as therapeutic systems for ischemic diseases such as PAD.

  8. A novel and efficient polymerization of lignosulfonates by horseradish peroxidase/H(2)O(2) incubation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haifeng; Yang, Dongjie; Qiu, Xueqing; Wu, Xiaolei; Li, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Lignosulfonates(LSs), by-products from chemical pulping processes, are low-value products with limited dispersion properties. The ability of commercially available horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to polymerize LS macromolecules and improve the dispersion properties of LSs was investigated. The polymerization of LSs proceeded efficiently under mild reaction conditions in an aqueous solution with HRP/H2O2. Gel permeation chromatography showed a significant increase in weight-average molecular weight (M w ) of sulfonated kraft lignin and sodium lignosulfonate (NaLS) by 8.5-fold and 4.7-fold, respectively. The mechanism of polymerization was investigated by elemental analysis, surface charge measurement, headspace gas chromatography, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry ((1)H-NMR). The functional group measurements indicated that HRP incubation did not reduce the sulfonic group content. However, it decreased the phenolic and methoxyl group contents. As the phenolic group content decreased, M w increased as a power function. The polymerization was proposed to involve the random coupling of phenoxy radical intermediates. The radicals coupled with each other to form different inter-unit linkages, most of which were the β-O-4' type, as the (1)H-NMR spectra indicated. Moreover, the HRP/H2O2 incubation induced a significant improvement in the adsorption and dispersion properties of LSs. Therefore, the HRP/H2O2 incubation is a promising approach for industrial applications of LSs. PMID:24196582

  9. Phosphate buffer effects on thermal stability and H2O2-resistance of horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Asad, Sedigheh; Torabi, Seyed-Fakhreddin; Fathi-Roudsari, Mehrnoosh; Ghaemi, Nasser; Khajeh, Khosro

    2011-05-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has attracted intense research interest due to its potential applications in biotechnological fields. However, inadequate stability under prevalent conditions such as elevated temperatures and H(2)O(2) exposure, has limited its industrial application. In this study, stability of HRP was investigated in the presence of different buffer systems (potassium phosphate and Tris-HCl) and additives. It was shown that the concentration of phosphate buffer severely affects enzyme thermostability in a way that in diluted potassium phosphate buffer (10mM) half-life (from 13 to 35 min at 80 °C) and T(m) (from 73 to 77.5 °C) increased significantly. Among additives tested, trehalose had the most thermostabilizing effect. Exploring the role of glycosylation in stabilizing effect of phosphate buffer, non-glycosylated recombinant HRP was also examined for its thermal and H(2)O(2) stability in both diluted and concentrated phosphate buffers. The recombinant enzyme was more thermally stable in diluted buffer in accordance to glycosylated HRP; but interestingly recombinant HRP showed higher H(2)O(2) tolerance in concentrated buffer.

  10. A genetically encoded sensor for H2O2 with expanded dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Markvicheva, Kseniya N; Bilan, Dmitry S; Mishina, Natalia M; Gorokhovatsky, Andrey Yu; Vinokurov, Leonid M; Lukyanov, Sergey; Belousov, Vsevolod V

    2011-02-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important second messenger controlling intracellular signaling cascades by selective oxidation of redox active thiolates in proteins. Changes in intracellular [H(2)O(2)] can be tracked in real time using HyPer, a ratiometric genetically encoded fluorescent probe. Although HyPer is sensitive and selective for H(2)O(2) due to the properties of its sensing domain derived from the Escherichia coli OxyR protein, many applications may benefit from an improvement of the indicator's dynamic range. We here report HyPer-2, a probe that fills this demand. Upon saturating [H(2)O(2)] exposure, HyPer-2 undergoes an up to sixfold increase of the ratio F500/F420 versus a threefold change in HyPer. HyPer-2 was generated by a single point mutation A406V from HyPer corresponding to A233V in wtOxyR. This mutation was previously shown to destabilize interface between monomers in OxyR dimers. However, in HyPer-2, the A233V mutation stabilizes the dimer and expands the dynamic range of the probe.

  11. In vivo formation of H2O2 in red cells during exposure to hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W P; Jefferson, D; Mengel, C E

    1972-08-01

    Chow-fed and tocopherol-deficient mice were given aminotriazole (AT), exposed to 100% O(2) at 60 pounds per square inch absolute for 1 hr (OHP), and red blood cells were assayed for catalase activity and lipid peroxide levels. A decrease of catalase activity (CA) in the presence of AT can be taken as evidence of excess formation or accumulation of H(2)O(2). No differences of CA were observed among chow-fed mice, with or without AT and/or OHP. Tocopherol-deficient mice with AT had lower CA (0.174+/-0.040) than chow-fed mice with AT (0.225+/-0.028) P < 0.01. Tocopherol-deficient mice with AT exposed to OHP had even lower CA, 0.137+/-0.024, P < 0.01.The data are consistent with the hypothesis that H(2)O(2) is formed or accumulated in excess in red cells of tocopherol-deficient mice, an effect that is enhanced in the presence of hyperoxia. They imply that tocopherol plays a role in the detoxification of H(2)O(2).

  12. Cigarette smoke affects keratinocytes SRB1 expression and localization via H2O2 production and HNE protein adducts formation.

    PubMed

    Sticozzi, Claudia; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Arezzini, Beatrice; Gardi, Concetta; Maioli, Emanuela; Miracco, Clelia; Toscano, Marzia; Forman, Henry Jay; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Scavenger Receptor B1 (SR-B1), also known as HDL receptor, is involved in cellular cholesterol uptake. Stratum corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the skin, is composed of more than 25% cholesterol. Several reports support the view that alteration of SC lipid composition may be the cause of impaired barrier function which gives rise to several skin diseases. For this reason the regulation of the genes involved in cholesterol uptake is of extreme significance for skin health. Being the first shield against external insults, the skin is exposed to several noxious substances and among these is cigarette smoke (CS), which has been recently associated with various skin pathologies. In this study we first have shown the presence of SR-B1 in murine and human skin tissue and then by using immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, RT-PCR, and confocal microscopy we have demonstrated the translocation and the subsequent lost of SR-B1 in human keratinocytes (cell culture model) after CS exposure is driven by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) that derives not only from the CS gas phase but mainly from the activation of cellular NADPH oxidase (NOX). This effect was reversed when the cells were pretreated with NOX inhibitors or catalase. Furthermore, CS caused the formation of SR-B1-aldheydes adducts (acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) and the increase of its ubiquitination, which could be one of the causes of SR-B1 loss. In conclusion, exposure to CS, through the production of H(2)O(2), induced post-translational modifications of SR-B1 with the consequence lost of the receptor and this may contribute to the skin physiology alteration as a consequence of the variation of cholesterol uptake.

  13. Cytoprotective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Pinus eldarica Bark against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Babaee, Fatemeh; Safaeian, Leila; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Haghjoo Javanmard, Shaghayegh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pinus eldarica is a widely growing pine in Iran consisting of biologically active constituents with antioxidant properties. This study investigates the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of P. eldarica bark against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods: The total phenolic content of P. eldarica extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of P. eldarica extract (25-1000 µg/ml) on HUVECs was assessed using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Cytoprotective effect of P. eldarica extract (25-500 µg/ml) on H2O2-induced oxidative stress was also evaluated by MTT assay. The intra- and extra-cellular hydroperoxides concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in pretreated cells. Results: The total phenolic content of P. eldarica extract was estimated as 37.04±1.8% gallic acid equivalent. P. eldarica extract (25-1000 µg/ml) had no cytotoxic effect on HUVECs viability. The pretreatment of HUVECs with P. eldarica extract at the concentrations of 50-500 µg/ml significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of H2O2. P. eldarica extract decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in intra-cellular fluid at the concentration range of 100-500 µg/ml and in extra-cellular fluid at the concentration range of 25-500 µg/ml. Conclusions: This study revealed the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of P. eldarica extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Concerning the high content of phenolic compounds in P. eldarica, more research is needed to evaluate its clinical value in endothelial dysfunction and in other oxidative conditions. PMID:26931383

  14. Induced peroxidase and cytoprotective enzyme expressions support adaptation of HUVECs to sustain subsequent H2O2 exposure.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hemang; Chen, Juan; Kavdia, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    H2O2 mediates autocrine and paracrine signaling in the vasculature and can propagate endothelial dysfunction. However, it is not clear how endothelial cells withstand H2O2 exposure and promote H2O2-induced vascular remodeling. To understand the innate ability of endothelial cells for sustaining excess H2O2 exposure, we investigated the genotypic and functional regulation of redox systems in primary HUVECs following an H2O2 treatment. Primary HUVECs were exposed to transient H2O2 exposure and consistent H2O2 exposure. Following H2O2 treatments for 24, 48 and 72 h, we measured O2(-) production, mitochondrial membrane polarization (MMP), and gene expressions of pro-oxidative enzymes, peroxidase enzymes, and cytoprotective intermediates. Our results showed that the 24 h H2O2 exposure significantly increased O2(-) levels, hyperpolarized MMP, and downregulated CAT, GPX1, TXNRD1, NFE2L2, ASK1, and ATF2 gene expression in HUVECs. At 72 h, HUVECs in both treatment conditions were shown to adapt to reduce O2(-) levels and normalize MMP. An upregulation of GPX1, TXNRD1, and HMOX1 gene expression and a recovery of NFE2L2 and PRDX1 gene expression to control levels were observed in both consistent and transient treatments at 48 and 72 h. The response of endothelial cells to excess levels of H2O2 involves a complex interaction amongst O2(-) levels, mitochondrial membrane polarization and anti- and pro-oxidant gene regulation. As a part of this response, HUVECs induce cytoprotective mechanisms including the expression of peroxidase and antioxidant enzymes along with the downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes. This adaptation assists HUVECs to withstand subsequent exposures to H2O2.

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Dissolved Silica on the H2O2 Decomposition by Iron(III) and Manganese(IV) Oxides: Implications for H2O2-based In Situ Chemical Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Doyle, Fiona M.; Sedlak, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of H2O2 on iron minerals can generate •OH, a strong oxidant that can transform a wide range of contaminants. This reaction is critical to In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) processes used for soil and groundwater remediation, as well as advanced oxidation processes employed in waste treatment systems. The presence of dissolved silica at concentrations comparable to those encountered in natural waters decreases the reactivity of iron minerals toward H2O2, because silica adsorbs onto the surface of iron minerals and alters catalytic sites. At circumneutral pH values, goethite, amorphous iron oxide, hematite, iron-coated sand and montmorillonite that were pre-equilibrated with 0.05 – 1.5 mM SiO2 were significantly less reactive toward H2O2 decomposition than their original counterparts, with the H2O2 loss rates inversely proportional to the SiO2 concentration. In the goethite/H2O2 system, the overall •OH yield, defined as the percentage of decomposed H2O2 producing •OH, was almost halved in the presence of 1.5 mM SiO2. Dissolved SiO2 also slows the H2O2 decomposition on manganese(IV) oxide. The presence of dissolved SiO2 results in greater persistence of H2O2 in groundwater, lower H2O2 utilization efficiency and should be considered in the design of H2O2-based treatment systems. PMID:22129132

  16. Fate of antibiotic resistance bacteria and genes during enhanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by microwave pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Liu, Jibao; Zheng, Xiang; Zhang, Junya; Ni, Xiaotang; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-10-01

    The fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated during the sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) with microwave-acid (MW-H), microwave (MW) and microwave-H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2) pretreatments. Results showed that combined MW pretreatment especially for the MW-H pretreatment could efficiently reduce the ARB concentration, and most ARG concentrations tended to attenuate during the pretreatment. The subsequent AD showed evident removal of the ARB, but most ARGs were enriched after AD. Only the concentration of tetX kept continuous declination during the whole sludge treatment. The total ARGs concentration showed significant correlation with 16S rRNA during the pretreatment and AD. Compared with unpretreated sludge, the AD of MW and MW-H2O2 pretreated sludge presented slightly better ARB and ARGs reduction efficiency.

  17. Kinetics and Efficiency of H2O2 Activation by Iron-Containing Minerals and Aquifer Materials

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Doyle, Fiona M.; Sedlak, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into factors that control H2O2 persistence and ˙OH yield in H2O2-based in situ chemical oxidation systems, the decomposition of H2O2 and transformation of phenol were investigated in the presence of iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials. Under conditions expected during remediation of soil and groundwater, the stoichiometric efficiency, defined as the amount of phenol transformed per mole of H2O2 decomposed, varied from 0.005 to 0.28%. Among the iron-containing minerals, iron oxides were 2 to 10 times less efficient in transforming phenol than iron-containing clays and synthetic iron-containing catalysts. In both iron-containing mineral and aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was inversely correlated with the rate of H2O2 decomposition. In aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was also inversely correlated with the Mn content, consistent with the fact that the decomposition of H2O2 on manganese oxides does not produce ˙OH. Removal of iron and manganese oxide coatings from the surface of aquifer materials by extraction with citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite slowed the rate of H2O2 decomposition on aquifer materials and increased the stoichiometric efficiency. In addition, the presence of 2 mM of dissolved SiO2 slowed the rate of H2O2 decomposition on aquifer materials by over 80% without affecting the stoichiometric efficiency. PMID:23047055

  18. Absolute Infrared Cross Sections of Gas-Phase H2O2 Using Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sams, Robert L.; Burton, Sarah D.

    2010-01-29

    We report quantitative spectra of pressure-broadened H2O2 vapor. An 83% solution was flowed into a disseminator and diluted with N2 gas; water lines were subtracted. The H2O2 spectrum spans the IR and compares well with HITRAN values for ν6 band.

  19. Understanding the role of H(2)O(2) during pea seed germination: a combined proteomic and hormone profiling approach.

    PubMed

    Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Job, Dominique; Belghazi, Maya; Job, Claudette; Hernández, José Antonio

    2011-11-01

    In a previous publication, we showed that the treatment of pea seeds in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased germination performance as well as seedling growth. To gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for this behaviour, we have analysed the effect of treating mature pea seeds in the presence of 20 mm H(2)O(2) on several oxidative features such as protein carbonylation, endogenous H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation levels. We report that H(2)O(2) treatment of the pea seeds increased their endogenous H(2)O(2) content and caused carbonylation of storage proteins and of several metabolic enzymes. Under the same conditions, we also monitored the expression of two MAPK genes known to be activated by H(2)O(2) in adult pea plants. The expression of one of them, PsMAPK2, largely increased upon pea seed imbibition in H(2)O(2) , whereas no change could be observed in expression of the other, PsMAPK3. The levels of several phytohormones such as 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and zeatin appeared to correlate with the measured oxidative indicators and with the expression of PsMAPK2. Globally, our results suggest a key role of H(2)O(2) in the coordination of pea seed germination, acting as a priming factor that involves specific changes at the proteome, transcriptome and hormonal levels.

  20. Activation of γ-aminobutyrate production by chloroplastic H(2)O(2) is associated with the oxidative stress response.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Takanori; Ojiri, Megumi; Noshi, Masahiro; Tamoi, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    We isolated an Arabidopsis knockout line lacking glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), one that produced γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), as an oxidative stress-insensitive mutant, and found that chloroplastic H(2)O(2) enhances GAD1 expression and GABA levels. This suggests a possible relationship between GABA metabolism and the chloroplastic H(2)O(2)-mediated stress response.

  1. Kinetics and efficiency of H2O2 activation by iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Doyle, Fiona M; Sedlak, David L

    2012-12-01

    To gain insight into factors that control H(2)O(2) persistence and ·OH yield in H(2)O(2)-based in situ chemical oxidation systems, the decomposition of H(2)O(2) and transformation of phenol were investigated in the presence of iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials. Under conditions expected during remediation of soil and groundwater, the stoichiometric efficiency, defined as the amount of phenol transformed per mole of H(2)O(2) decomposed, varied from 0.005 to 0.28%. Among the iron-containing minerals, iron oxides were 2-10 times less efficient in transforming phenol than iron-containing clays and synthetic iron-containing catalysts. In both iron-containing mineral and aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was inversely correlated with the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition. In aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was also inversely correlated with the Mn content, consistent with the fact that the decomposition of H(2)O(2) on manganese oxides does not produce ·OH. Removal of iron and manganese oxide coatings from the surface of aquifer materials by extraction with citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite slowed the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition on aquifer materials and increased the stoichiometric efficiency. In addition, the presence of 2 mM of dissolved SiO(2) slowed the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition on aquifer materials by over 80% without affecting the stoichiometric efficiency.

  2. Possibility of H2O2 decomposition in thin liquid films on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Akos; Gobi, Sandor

    2014-11-01

    In this work the pathways and possibilities of H2O2 decomposition on Mars in microscopic liquid interfacial water were analyzed by kinetic calculations. Thermal and photochemical driven decomposition, just like processes catalyzed by various metal oxides, is too slow compared to the annual duration while such microscopic liquid layers exist on Mars today, to produce substantial decomposition. The most effective analyzed process is catalyzed by Fe ions, which could decompose H2O2 under pH<4.5 with a half life of 1-2 days. This process might be important during volcanically influenced periods when sulfur release produces acidic pH, and rotational axis tilt change driven climatic changes also influence the volatile circulation and spatial occurrence just like the duration of thin liquid layer. Under current conditions, using the value of 200 K as the temperature in interfacial water (at the southern hemisphere), and applying Phoenix lander's wet chemistry laboratory results, the pH is not favorable for Fe mobility and this kind of decomposition. Despite current conditions (especially pH) being unfavorable for H2O2 decomposition, microscopic scale interfacial liquid water still might support the process. By the reaction called heterogeneous catalysis, without acidic pH and mobile Fe, but with minerals surfaces containing Fe decomposition of H2O2 with half life of 20 days can happen. This duration is still longer but not several orders than the existence of springtime interfacial liquid water on Mars today. This estimation is relevant for activation energy controlled reaction rates. The other main parameter that may influence the reaction rate is the diffusion speed. Although the available tests and theoretical calculations do not provide firm values for the diffusion speed in such a “2-dimensional” environment, using relevant estimations this parameter in the interfacial liquid layer is smaller than in bulk water. But the 20 days' duration mentioned above is still

  3. Decomposition of cyclohexanoic acid by the UV/H2O2 process under various conditions.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Atefeh; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Martin, Jonathan W; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are a broad range of alicyclic and aliphatic compounds that are persistent and contribute to the toxicity of oil sands process affected water (OSPW). In this investigation, cyclohexanoic acid (CHA) was selected as a model naphthenic acid, and its oxidation was investigated using advanced oxidation employing a low-pressure ultraviolet light in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (UV/H(2)O(2) process). The effects of two pHs and common OSPW constituents, such as chloride (Cl(-)) and carbonate (CO(3)(2-)) were investigated in ultrapure water. The optimal molar ratio of H(2)O(2) to CHA in the treatment process was also investigated. The pH had no significant effect on the degradation, nor on the formation and degradation of byproducts in ultrapure water. The presence of CO(3)(2-) or Cl(-) significantly decreased the CHA degradation rate. The presence of 700 mg/L CO(3)(2-) or 500 mg/L Cl(-), typical concentrations in OSPW, caused a 55% and 23% decrease in the pseudo-first order degradation rate constants for CHA, respectively. However, no change in byproducts or in the degradation trend of byproducts, in the presence of scavengers was observed. A real OSPW matrix also had a significant impact by decreasing the CHA degradation rate, such that by spiking CHA into the OSPW, the degradation rate decreased up to 82% relative to that in ultrapure water. The results of this study show that UV/H(2)O(2) AOP is capable of degrading CHA as a model NA in ultrapure water. However, in the real applications, the effect of radical scavengers should be taken into consideration for the achievement of best performance of the process. PMID:22521165

  4. Biological dosimetry after H2O2/L-histidine treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Michael; Lentfer, Heiko; Wolf, Dietmar; Bauer, Eckhard; Aldinger, Klaus; Greulich, Karl O.; Cremer, Christoph

    1997-12-01

    In biological dosimetry after radiation or chemical exposure, it has been well established to estimate exposure doses from the relative rate of aberrant chromosomes, especially dicentric chromosomes in a given number of cells. For this purpose, dose-efficiency curves depending on laboratory parameters (e.g. preparation technique, analysis procedure etc.) have to be measured under standard conditions. For statistical reasons, a high number of chromosomes or cells, respectively, has to be evaluated. For a Chinese hamster cell line (CO60) as a typical model system in mutation research, a dose efficiency relation after H2O2/L-histidine treatment of the cells was determined using the Heidelberg slit-scan flow fluorometer. This technique has the advantage that several thousand chromosomes can be automatically analyzed in a very short time. As expected, for low doses of H2O2/L-histidine exposure, a nearly linear dependence of the relative number of dicentric chromosomes to the concentration of H2O2 was obtained. In order to correlate the relative number of dicentric chromosomes to the relative number of double strand breaks, the cells were analyzed by the technique of the neutral comet assay. The dose dependent `tail moment' obtained from the comet assay also showed a linear behavior. This confirmed the results obtained by slit-scan flow fluorometry. Furthermore, the linear dependence of the dose efficiency curve was well compatible to results obtained by visual counting by means of a fluorescence microscope. In this case chromosome 1 of the Chinese hamster cell line DON was specifically labelled by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

  5. Chemistry in glow discharges of H2 / O2 mixtures. Diagnostics and modelling

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Redondo, M; Carrasco, E; Herrero, V J; Tanarro, I

    2015-01-01

    The chemistry of low pressure H2 + O2 discharges with different mixture ratios has been studied in a hollow cathode DC reactor. Neutral and positive ion distributions have been measured by mass spectrometry, and Langmuir probes have been used to provide charge densities and electron temperatures. A simple zero order kinetic model including neutral species and positive and negative ions, which takes into account gas-phase and heterogeneous chemistry, has been used to reproduce the global composition of the plasmas over the whole range of mixtures experimentally studied, and allows for the identification of the main physicochemical mechanisms that may explain the experimental results. To our knowledge, no combined experimental and modelling studies of the heavy species kinetics of low pressure H2 + O2 plasmas including ions has been reported before. As expected, apart from the precursors, H2O is detected in considerable amounts. The model also predicts appreciable concentrations of H and O atoms and the OH radical. The relevance of the metastable species O(1D) and O2(a1Δg) is analysed. Concerning the charged species, positive ion distributions are dominated by H3O+ for a wide range of intermediate mixtures, while H3+ and O2+ are the major ions for the higher and lower H2/O2 ratios, respectively. The mixed ions OH+, H2O+ and HO2+ are also observed in small amounts. Negative ions are shown to have a limited relevance in the global chemistry; their main contribution is the reduction of the electron density available for electron impact processes. PMID:26702195

  6. Chemistry in glow discharges of H2/O2 mixtures: diagnostics and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Redondo, M.; Carrasco, E.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I.

    2015-02-01

    The chemistry of low pressure H2+O2 discharges with different mixture ratios has been studied in a hollow cathode dc reactor. Neutral and positive ion distributions have been measured by mass spectrometry, and Langmuir probes have been used to provide charge densities and electron temperatures. A simple zero order kinetic model including neutral species and positive and negative ions, which takes into account gas-phase and heterogeneous chemistry, has been used to reproduce the global composition of the plasmas over the whole range of mixtures experimentally studied, and allows for the identification of the main physico-chemical mechanisms that may explain the experimental results. To our knowledge, no combined experimental and modelling studies of the heavy species kinetics of low pressure H2 + O2 plasmas including ions has been reported before. As expected, apart from the precursors, H2O is detected in considerable amounts. The model also predicts appreciable concentrations of H and O atoms and the OH radical. The relevance of the metastable species O(1D) and O2(a 1Δg) is analysed. Concerning the charged species, positive ion distributions are dominated by H3O+ for a wide range of intermediate mixtures, while H3+ and O2+ are the major ions for the higher and lower H2/O2 ratios, respectively. The mixed ions OH+, H2O+ and HO2+ are also observed in small amounts. Negative ions are shown to have a limited relevance in the global chemistry; their main contribution is the reduction of the electron density available for electron impact processes.

  7. Biological dosimetry after H2O2/L-histidine treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Michael; Lentfer, Heiko; Wolf, Dietmar; Bauer, Eckhard; Aldinger, Klaus; Greulich, Karl-Otto; Cremer, Christoph G.

    1998-01-01

    In biological dosimetry after radiation or chemical exposure, it has been well established to estimate exposure doses from the relative rate of aberrant chromosomes, especially dicentric chromosomes in a given number of cells. For this purpose, dose-efficiency curves depending on laboratory parameters (e.g. preparation technique, analysis procedure etc.) have to be measured under standard conditions. For statistical reasons, a high number of chromosomes or cells, respectively, has to be evaluated. For a Chinese hamster cell line (CO60) as a typical model system in mutation research, a dose efficiency relation after H2O2/L-histidine treatment of the cells was determined using the Heidelberg slit-scan flow fluorometer. This technique has the advantage that several thousand chromosomes can be automatically analyzed in a very short time. As expected, for low doses of H2O2/L-histidine exposure, a nearly linear dependence of the relative number of dicentric chromosomes to the concentration of H2O2 was obtained. In order to correlate the relative number of dicentric chromosomes to the relative number of double strand breaks, the cells were analyzed by the technique of the neutral comet assay. The dose dependent `tail moment' obtained from the comet assay also showed a linear behavior. This confirmed the results obtained by slit-scan flow fluorometry. Furthermore, the linear dependence of the dose efficiency curve was well compatible to results obtained by visual counting by means of a fluorescence microscope. In this case chromosome 1 of the Chinese hamster cell line DON was specifically labelled by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

  8. UV/H2O2 oxidation of arsenic and terbuthylazine in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, S; Gialdini, F; Stefan, M

    2014-02-01

    Arsenic is a widespread contaminant in the environment. The intake of water containing high concentrations of arsenic could have serious impact on human health, such as skin and lung cancer. In the European Union, thus, also in Italy, the arsenic limit in drinking water is 10 μg L(-1). Several water remediation treatment technologies are available for arsenic removal. For some processes, the removal efficiencies can be improved after an oxidation step. Most full-scale applications are based on conventional oxidation processes for chemical micropollutant removal. However, if water contains arsenic and refractory organic contaminants, the advanced oxidation processes could be considered. The aim of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone and in combination with hydrogen peroxide for the oxidation of arsenic and terbuthylazine (TBA). The experimental tests were performed in groundwater at the laboratory scale (0.1 mg L(-1) As(III) and 10 μg L(-1) TBA). Hydrogen peroxide alone (15 mg L(-1)) was ineffective on both arsenic and TBA oxidation; the 253.7-nm radiation alone did not oxidize arsenic(III), but photolyzed efficiently TBA (52 % removal yield at a UV dose of 1,200 mJ cm(-2)). The UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation (UV dose 600-2,000 mJ cm(-2), 5-15 mg L(-1) H2O2) was the most effective process for the oxidation of both arsenic and TBA, with observed oxidation efficiencies of 85 and 94 %, respectively, with 5 mg L(-1) H2O2 and a UV dose of 2,000 mJ cm(-2).

  9. Descent Without Modification? The Thermal Chemistry of H2O2 on Europa and Other Icy Worlds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, Mark Josiah; Hudson, Reggie Lester

    2015-01-01

    The strong oxidant H2O2 is known to exist in solid form on Europa and is suspected to exist on several other Solar System worlds at temperatures below 200 K. However, little is known of the thermal chemistry that H2O2 might induce under these conditions. Here, we report new laboratory results on the reactivity of solid H2O2 with eight different compounds in H2O-rich ices. Using infrared spectroscopy, we monitored compositional changes in ice mixtures during warming. The compounds CH4 (methane), C3H4 (propyne), CH3OH (methanol), and CH3CN (acetonitrile) were unaltered by the presence of H2O2 in ices, showing that exposure to either solid H2O2 or frozen H2O+H2O2 at cryogenic temperatures will not oxidize these organics, much less convert them to CO2. This contrasts strongly with the much greater reactivity of organics with H2O2 at higher temperatures, and particularly in the liquid and gas phases. Of the four inorganic compounds studied, CO, H2S, NH3, and SO2, only the last two reacted in ices containing H2O2, NH3 making NHþ 4 and SO2 making SO2 4 by H+ and e - transfer, respectively. An important astrobiological conclusion is that formation of surface H2O2 on Europa and that molecule's downward movement with H2O-ice do not necessarily mean that all organics encountered in icy subsurface regions will be destroyed by H2O2 oxidation.

  10. Descent without Modification? The Thermal Chemistry of H2O2 on Europa and Other Icy Worlds.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Mark J; Hudson, Reggie L

    2015-06-01

    The strong oxidant H2O2 is known to exist in solid form on Europa and is suspected to exist on several other Solar System worlds at temperatures below 200 K. However, little is known of the thermal chemistry that H2O2 might induce under these conditions. Here, we report new laboratory results on the reactivity of solid H2O2 with eight different compounds in H2O-rich ices. Using infrared spectroscopy, we monitored compositional changes in ice mixtures during warming. The compounds CH4 (methane), C3H4 (propyne), CH3OH (methanol), and CH3CN (acetonitrile) were unaltered by the presence of H2O2 in ices, showing that exposure to either solid H2O2 or frozen H2O+H2O2 at cryogenic temperatures will not oxidize these organics, much less convert them to CO2. This contrasts strongly with the much greater reactivity of organics with H2O2 at higher temperatures, and particularly in the liquid and gas phases. Of the four inorganic compounds studied, CO, H2S, NH3, and SO2, only the last two reacted in ices containing H2O2, NH3 making NH4+ and SO2 making SO(4)2- by H+ and e- transfer, respectively. An important astrobiological conclusion is that formation of surface H2O2 on Europa and that molecule's downward movement with H2O-ice do not necessarily mean that all organics encountered in icy subsurface regions will be destroyed by H2O2 oxidation.

  11. Descent without Modification? The Thermal Chemistry of H2O2 on Europa and Other Icy Worlds.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Mark J; Hudson, Reggie L

    2015-06-01

    The strong oxidant H2O2 is known to exist in solid form on Europa and is suspected to exist on several other Solar System worlds at temperatures below 200 K. However, little is known of the thermal chemistry that H2O2 might induce under these conditions. Here, we report new laboratory results on the reactivity of solid H2O2 with eight different compounds in H2O-rich ices. Using infrared spectroscopy, we monitored compositional changes in ice mixtures during warming. The compounds CH4 (methane), C3H4 (propyne), CH3OH (methanol), and CH3CN (acetonitrile) were unaltered by the presence of H2O2 in ices, showing that exposure to either solid H2O2 or frozen H2O+H2O2 at cryogenic temperatures will not oxidize these organics, much less convert them to CO2. This contrasts strongly with the much greater reactivity of organics with H2O2 at higher temperatures, and particularly in the liquid and gas phases. Of the four inorganic compounds studied, CO, H2S, NH3, and SO2, only the last two reacted in ices containing H2O2, NH3 making NH4+ and SO2 making SO(4)2- by H+ and e- transfer, respectively. An important astrobiological conclusion is that formation of surface H2O2 on Europa and that molecule's downward movement with H2O-ice do not necessarily mean that all organics encountered in icy subsurface regions will be destroyed by H2O2 oxidation. PMID:26060983

  12. Mitigation of H2O2-Induced Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in NG108-15 Cells by Novel Mesuagenin C from Mesua kunstleri (King) Kosterm

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Gomathi; Kamarudin, Muhamad Noor Alfarizal; Wong, Daniel Zin Hua; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Abdul Latif, Faizuri; Hasan, Aurengzeb; Awang, Khalijah; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to isolate and evaluate neuroprotective compounds from the hexane extract of the bark of Mesua kunstleri (Clusiaceae) on H2O2-induced apoptosis in NG108-15 cells. Five 4-phenylcoumarins were isolated by using various chromatographic techniques via neuroprotective activity-guided fractionation and isolation from the active hexane extract. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by NMR spectroscopic data interpretation and comparison with literature values. Cell viability data demonstrated that mesuagenin C 3 significantly increased cell viability. Hoechst 33342/PI staining illustrated mesuagenin C 3 was able to abate the nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies. Pretreatment with mesuagenin C 3 reduced total annexin V positive cells and increased the level of intracellular glutathione (GSH). Mesuagenin C 3 attenuated membrane potential (Δψm), reduced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and inactivated of caspase-3/7 and -9. These results indicated that mesuagenin C 3 could protect NG108-15 cells against H2O2-induced apoptosis by increasing intracellular GSH level, aggrandizing Δψm, and modulating apoptotic signalling pathway through Bcl-2 family and caspase-3/7 and -9. These findings confirmed the involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in H2O2-induced apoptosis and suggested that mesuagenin C 3 may have potential therapeutic properties for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22956972

  13. Cobalt alleviates GA-induced programmed cell death in wheat aleurone layers via the regulation of H2O2 production and heme oxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingzhu; Li, Jiale; Wang, Fangquan; Li, Feng; Yang, Jun; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-11-14

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are key signaling molecules that are produced in response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt is able to delay gibberellic acid (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone layers. A similar response was observed when samples were pretreated with carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two end-products of HO catalysis. We further observed that increased HO-1 expression played a role in the cobalt-induced alleviation of PCD. The application of HO-1-specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX), substantially prevented the increases of HO-1 activity and the alleviation of PCD triggered by cobalt. The stimulation of HO-1 expression, and alleviation of PCD might be caused by the initial H2O2 production induced by cobalt. qRT-PCR and enzymatic assays revealed that cobalt-induced gene expression and the corresponding activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), three enzymes that metabolize reactive oxygen species, were consistent with the H2O2 accumulation during GA treatment. These cobalt responses were differentially blocked by co-treatment with ZnPPIX. We therefore suggest that HO-1 functions in the cobalt-triggered alleviation of PCD in wheat aleurone layers, which is also dependent on the enhancement of the activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Cobalt Alleviates GA-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Wheat Aleurone Layers via the Regulation of H2O2 Production and Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingzhu; Li, Jiale; Wang, Fangquan; Li, Feng; Yang, Jun; Shen, Wenbiao

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are key signaling molecules that are produced in response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt is able to delay gibberellic acid (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone layers. A similar response was observed when samples were pretreated with carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two end-products of HO catalysis. We further observed that increased HO-1 expression played a role in the cobalt-induced alleviation of PCD. The application of HO-1-specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX), substantially prevented the increases of HO-1 activity and the alleviation of PCD triggered by cobalt. The stimulation of HO-1 expression, and alleviation of PCD might be caused by the initial H2O2 production induced by cobalt. qRT-PCR and enzymatic assays revealed that cobalt-induced gene expression and the corresponding activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), three enzymes that metabolize reactive oxygen species, were consistent with the H2O2 accumulation during GA treatment. These cobalt responses were differentially blocked by co-treatment with ZnPPIX. We therefore suggest that HO-1 functions in the cobalt-triggered alleviation of PCD in wheat aleurone layers, which is also dependent on the enhancement of the activities of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25405743

  15. Carbonate-H2O2 Leaching for Sequestering Uranium from Seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Horng-Bin; Weisheng, Liao; Wai, Chien; Oyola, Yatsandra; Janke, Christopher James; Tian, Guoxin; Rao, Linfeng

    2014-01-01

    Uranium adsorbed on amidoxime-based polyethylene fiber in simulated seawater can be quantitatively eluted at room temperature using 1M Na2CO3 containing 0.1 M H2O2. This efficient elution process is probably due to formation of an extremely stable uranyl-peroxo-carbonato complex in the carbonate solution. After washing with water, the sorbent can be reused with little loss of uranium loading capacity. Possible existence of this stable uranyl species in ocean water is also discussed.

  16. H2-O2 auxiliary power unit for space shuttle vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, J. P.; Beremand, D. G.; Cameron, H. M.; Jefferies, K. S.

    1973-01-01

    A program to establish technology readiness of hydrogen-oxygen (H2-O2) auxiliary power units for use on board the space shuttle orbiter vehicle is discussed. Fundamental objectives include experimentally establishing an acceptable propellant flow control method, verification of combustor stability, and adequate thermal management. An initial APU configuration with recycled hydrogen flow has been studied and revised towards greater simplicity and scaling ease. The selected APU is a recuperated open-cycle, turbine-driven unit. Series flow of cryogenic hydrogen removes internally-generated heat and from the hydraulic system. Steady-state test of the combustor has been successful.

  17. Amino acid oxidase of leukocytes in relation to H2O2-mediated bacterial killing

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, Marlene R.; Baehner, Robert L.; Nathan, David G.

    1971-01-01

    D-Amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase have been measured in sucrose homogenates of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) obtained from guinea pigs and humans. Subcellular distribution patterns and studies on latency indicate that these oxidases are soluble enzymes. Their hydrogen peroxide-generating capacity was verified. Chronic granulomatous disease PMN, which lack a respiratory burst and fail to generate H2O2 during phagocytosis and do not kill catalase positive bacteria, had peroxide-generating amino acid oxidase activity equal to that found in PMN homogenates from patients with bacterial infections. The precise metabolic and bactericidal role of amino acid oxidases in PMN remains uncertain. PMID:4397948

  18. Nanoporous graphene obtained by hydrothermal process in H2O2 and its application for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jinlong; Liang, Tongxiang

    2016-08-01

    Nanohole graphene oxide (NHGO) was obtained in a homogeneous aqueous mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and H2O2 at 120 °C. Supercapacitors were fabricated as the electrode material by using NHGO. A specific capacitance of 240.1 F g-1 was obtained at a current density of 1 A g-1 in 6 m KOH electrolyte and specific capacitance remained 193.6 F g-1 at the current density of 20 A g-1. This was attributed to reducing the inner space between the double-layers, enhanced ion diffusion and large specific surface area. Supercapacitor prepared with NHGO electrodes also exhibited an excellent cycle stability.

  19. H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Smith, J. M.; Nichols, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    Estimates are made for both the performance and the power costs of H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems. Hydrogen gas is assumed to be transmitted by pipe from a remote coal gasifier into the city and converted to electricity in a steam MHD plant having an integral gaseous oxygen plant. These steam MHD systems appear to offer an attractive alternative to both in-city clean fueled conventional steam power plants and to remote coal fired power plants with underground electric transmission into the city.

  20. Degradation of 5-FU by means of advanced (photo)oxidation processes: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2--Comparison of transformation products, ready biodegradability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lutterbeck, Carlos Alexandre; Wilde, Marcelo Luís; Baginska, Ewelina; Leder, Christoph; Machado, Ênio Leandro; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-09-15

    The present study investigates the degradation of the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by three different advanced photo oxidation processes: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. Prescreening experiments varying the H2O2 and TiO2 concentrations were performed in order to set the best catalyst concentrations in the UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 experiments, whereas the UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 process was optimized varying the pH, Fe(2+) and H2O2 concentrations by means of the Box-Behnken design (BBD). 5-FU was quickly removed in all the irradiation experiments. The UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes achieved the highest degree of mineralization, whereas the lowest one resulted from the UV/H2O2 treatment. Six transformation products were formed during the advanced (photo)oxidation processes and identified using low and high resolution mass spectrometry. Most of them were formed and further eliminated during the reactions. The parent compound of 5-FU was not biodegraded, whereas the photolytic mixture formed in the UV/H2O2 treatment after 256 min showed a noticeable improvement of the biodegradability in the closed bottle test (CBT) and was nontoxic towards Vibrio fischeri. In silico predictions showed positive alerts for mutagenic and genotoxic effects of 5-FU. In contrast, several of the transformation products (TPs) generated along the processes did not provide indications for mutagenic or genotoxic activity. One exception was TP with m/z 146 with positive alerts in several models of bacterial mutagenicity which could demand further experimental testing. Results demonstrate that advanced treatment can eliminate parent compounds and its toxicity. However, transformation products formed can still be toxic. Therefore toxicity screening after advanced treatment is recommendable.

  1. Plant Aquaporin AtPIP1;4 Links Apoplastic H2O2 Induction to Disease Immunity Pathways.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shan; Wang, Xiaobing; Li, Ping; Wang, Hao; Ji, Hongtao; Xie, Junyi; Qiu, Qinglei; Shen, Dan; Dong, Hansong

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a stable component of reactive oxygen species, and its production in plants represents the successful recognition of pathogen infection and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This production of H2O2 is typically apoplastic but is subsequently associated with intracellular immunity pathways that regulate disease resistance, such as systemic acquired resistance and PAMP-triggered immunity. Here, we elucidate that an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) aquaporin (i.e. the plasma membrane intrinsic protein AtPIP1;4) acts to close the cytological distance between H2O2 production and functional performance. Expression of the AtPIP1;4 gene in plant leaves is inducible by a bacterial pathogen, and the expression accompanies H2O2 accumulation in the cytoplasm. Under de novo expression conditions, AtPIP1;4 is able to mediate the translocation of externally applied H2O2 into the cytoplasm of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. In plant cells treated with H2O2, AtPIP1;4 functions as an effective facilitator of H2O2 transport across plasma membranes and mediates the translocation of externally applied H2O2 from the apoplast to the cytoplasm. The H2O2-transport role of AtPIP1;4 is essentially required for the cytoplasmic import of apoplastic H2O2 induced by the bacterial pathogen and two typical PAMPs in the absence of induced production of intracellular H2O2 As a consequence, cytoplasmic H2O2 quantities increase substantially while systemic acquired resistance and PAMP-triggered immunity are activated to repress the bacterial pathogenicity. By contrast, loss-of-function mutation at the AtPIP1;4 gene locus not only nullifies the cytoplasmic import of pathogen- and PAMP-induced apoplastic H2O2 but also cancels the subsequent immune responses, suggesting a pivotal role of AtPIP1;4 in apocytoplastic signal transduction in immunity pathways.

  2. Evaluation of high solids alkaline pretreatment of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chao Wei; Dooley, Todd M; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2010-11-01

    Fresh-harvested, air-dried rice straw was pretreated at a water content of 5 g H(2)O/g straw using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and compared to pretreatment at 10 g H(2)O/g straw by hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)). Full factorial experiments including parallel wash-only treatments were completed with both sources of alkali. The experiments were designed to measure the effects of alkaline loading and pretreatment time on delignification and sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Reaction temperature was held constant at 95 degrees C for lime pretreatment and 55 degrees C for NaOH pretreatment. The range of delignification was 13.1% to 27.0% for lime pretreatments and was 8.6% to 23.1% for NaOH pretreatments. Both alkaline loading and reaction time had significant positive effects (p < 0.001) on delignification under the design conditions, but only alkaline loading had a significant positive effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment at higher temperature also improved delignification; delignification with water alone ranged from 9.9% to 14.5% for pretreatment at 95 degrees C, but there was little effect observed at 55 degrees C. Post-pretreatment washing of biomass was not necessary for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yields were 176.3 mg/g dried biomass (48.5% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in lime-pretreated and unwashed biomass and were 142.3 mg/g dried biomass (39.2% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in NaOH-pretreated and unwashed biomass. PMID:20440580

  3. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor) and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass) have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass) governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline pretreatment technology

  4. A portable microfluidic-based biophotonic sensor for extracellular H2O2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koman, V.; Suárez, G.; Santschi, Ch.; Cadarso, V. J.; Brugger, J.; von Moos, N.; Slaveykova, V. I.; Martin, O. J. F.

    2013-03-01

    In this work a portable analytical biosensor for real-time extracellular monitoring of released hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ) is presented. The biosensor is based on the optical detection of the cytochrome c (cyt c) oxidation state. The setup consists of an integrated microscope combined with a compact spectrometer. The light being absorbed by cyt c is enhanced via multiscattering produced by random aggregates of polystyrene beads in a cross-linked cyt c matrix. Using ink-jet printing technique, the sensing elements, namely cyt c loaded polystyrene aggregates, are fabricated with high reliability in terms of repeatability of size and sensitivity. Additionally, the sensing elements are enclosed in a microfluidic channel assuring a fast and efficient analytes delivery. As an example, the effect of trace concentrations of functionalized cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide (CdSe/ZnS) core shell quantum dots on the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is investigated, showing extracellular H2O2 release with different production rates over a period of 1 hour. In conclusion, the presented portable biosensor enables the highly sensitive and non-invasive real-time monitoring of the cell metabolism of C. reinhardtii.

  5. Free radical-quenched SERS probes for detecting H2O2 and glucose.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian; Guo, Guoming; Xie, Wei; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Qian, Weiping

    2015-04-21

    For developing a free radical-quenched surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe, starch, a linear molecule, was used as a protective layer to coat gold nanoshells (GNSs) as enhancement substrates and then, methylene blue (MB) was absorbed on the starch-coated GNSs as a free radical-responsive element. By detecting the change of the SERS intensity of MB on GNSs, the free radical-quenched SERS probes were used to detect H2O2, a less active reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was first converted to free radicals, a highly active ROS, to react with MB absorbed on GNSs to quench its SERS. The free radical-quenched SERS probe was also used to detect glucose in the presence of glucose oxidase which converted glucose to H2O2. The free radical-quenched SERS probe would be a versatile platform for detection of biochemical processes. The integration of optically changed molecules and optical enhancement of nanomaterials provided a way for advanced materials and analytical science. PMID:25706812

  6. Prediction of absolute infrared intensities for the fundamental vibrations of H2O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. D.; Hillman, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Absolute infrared intensities are predicted for the vibrational bands of gas-phase H2O2 by the use of a hydrogen atomic polar tensor transferred from the hydroxyl hydrogen atom of CH3OH. These predicted intensities are compared with intensities predicted by the use of a hydrogen atomic polar tensor transferred from H2O. The predicted relative intensities agree well with published spectra of gas-phase H2O2, and the predicted absolute intensities are expected to be accurate to within at least a factor of two. Among the vibrational degrees of freedom, the antisymmetric O-H bending mode nu(6) is found to be the strongest with a calculated intensity of 60.5 km/mole. The torsional band, a consequence of hindered rotation, is found to be the most intense fundamental with a predicted intensity of 120 km/mole. These results are compared with the recent absolute intensity determinations for the nu(6) band.

  7. Free radical-quenched SERS probes for detecting H2O2 and glucose.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian; Guo, Guoming; Xie, Wei; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Qian, Weiping

    2015-04-21

    For developing a free radical-quenched surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe, starch, a linear molecule, was used as a protective layer to coat gold nanoshells (GNSs) as enhancement substrates and then, methylene blue (MB) was absorbed on the starch-coated GNSs as a free radical-responsive element. By detecting the change of the SERS intensity of MB on GNSs, the free radical-quenched SERS probes were used to detect H2O2, a less active reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was first converted to free radicals, a highly active ROS, to react with MB absorbed on GNSs to quench its SERS. The free radical-quenched SERS probe was also used to detect glucose in the presence of glucose oxidase which converted glucose to H2O2. The free radical-quenched SERS probe would be a versatile platform for detection of biochemical processes. The integration of optically changed molecules and optical enhancement of nanomaterials provided a way for advanced materials and analytical science.

  8. Treatment of an industrial stream containing vinylcyclohexene by the H2O2/UV process.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lenise V F; Azevedo, Eduardo B; de Aquino-Neto, Francisco R; Bila, Daniele M; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L; Dezotti, Márcia

    2016-10-01

    Petrochemical industries generate wastewaters containing pollutants that can severely impact the biological treatment systems. Some streams from specific production units may contain nonbiodegradable or toxic compounds that impair the performance of the wastewater treatment plant and should be segregated and treated by specific techniques. In this work, the utilization of chemical oxidation (H2O2/UV) was investigated for removing 4-vinylcyclohexene (VCH) from a liquid stream coming from the production of hydroxylated liquid polybutadiene (HLPB). Besides VCH, this stream also contains ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and many other organic compounds. Experiments were carried out in a small-scale photochemical reactor (0.7 L) using a 25-W low-pressure mercury vapor lamp. The photochemical reactor was operated in batch, and the reaction times were comprised between 10 and 60 min. Assays were also performed with a synthetic medium containing VCH, H2O2, and ethanol to investigate the removal of these substances in a less complex aqueous matrix. By-products formed in the reaction were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). VCH was significantly removed by the oxidation process, in most assays to undetectable levels. Ethanol removal varied from 16 to 23 % depending on the reaction conditions. Acetic acid, acetaldehyde, and diols were detected as by-products of the industrial wastewater stream oxidation. A drop on the toxicity of the industrial stream was also observed in assays using the organism Artemia salina. PMID:27392628

  9. Ultrasensitive electrospun fluorescent nanofibrous membrane for rapid visual colorimetric detection of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Senthamizhan, Anitha; Balusamy, Brabu; Aytac, Zeynep; Uyar, Tamer

    2016-02-01

    We report herein a flexible fluorescent nanofibrous membrane (FNFM) prepared by decorating the gold nanocluster (AuNC) on electrospun polysulfone nanofibrous membrane for rapid visual colorimetric detection of H2O2. The provision of AuNC coupled to NFM has proven to be advantageous for facile and quick visualization of the obtained results, permitting instant, selective, and on-site detection. We strongly suggest that the fast response time is ascribed to the enhanced probabilities of interaction with AuNC located at the surface of NF. It has been observed that the color change from red to blue is dependent on the concentration, which is exclusively selective for hydrogen peroxide. The detection limit has been found to be 500 nM using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), visually recognizable with good accuracy and stability. A systematic comparison was performed between the sensing performance of FNFM and AuNC solution. The underlying sensing mechanism is demonstrated using UV spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corresponding disappearance of the characteristic emissions of gold nanoclusters and the emergence of a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band, stressing this unique characteristic of gold nanoparticles. Hence, it is evident that the conversion of nanoparticles from nanoclusters has taken place in the presence of H2O2. Our work here has paved a new path for the detection of bioanalytes, highlighting the merits of rapid readout, sensitivity, and user-friendliness.

  10. Hugoniot Information for Bromonitromethane, Isopropyl Nitrate, and 90 wt% H_2O_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Stephen A.; Davis, Lloyd; Engelke, Ray

    1998-03-01

    Hugoniot curves and related information are reported for three liquid explosives: bromonitromethane (BrNM), isopropyl nitrate (IPN), and 90/10 wt% hydrogen peroxide/water (H_2O_2). Hugoniot curves were determined using the measured sound speeds and the universal liquid Hugoniot empirical form(Woolfolk, R. W.; Cowperthwaite, M.; Shaw, R. Thermochimica Acta,) 1973, 5, 409-414. which only requires the initial sound speed as a parameter. We measured sound speeds for these liquids. In addition, gas gun experiments were conducted to determine experimental Hugoniot states for BrNM and IPN. Magnetic gauges were used to measure the input particle velocity and to track the shock front (a shock velocity measurement), providing the necessary information to determine a Hugoniot state. These measured states were compared to those predicted using the universal liquid Hugoniot and agreement was found to be very good. Using the calculated Hugoniot curves and the detonation velocities for IPN and H_2O_2, von Neumann spike detonation conditions were estimated and compared to nitromethane (NM). BrNM was also found to be more sensitive to shock initiation than neat NM.

  11. A biomimetic enzyme modified electrode for H2O2 highly sensitive detection.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jinming; Yu, Xuehua; Hu, Weiwen; Hu, Qiong; Shui, Sailan; Li, Lianzhi; Han, Xiaojun; Xie, Huifang; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Tianhe

    2015-11-21

    An efficient catalyst based on artificial bionic peroxidase was synthesized for electrocatalysis. A poly(ethyleneimine)/Au nanoparticle composite (PEI-AuNP) was prepared and it was then linked to hemin via a coupling reaction between carboxyl groups in hemin and amino groups in PEI without the activation of a carboxyl group by carbodiimide. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy verified the formation of amido bonds within the structure. The presence of AuNPs contributed greatly in establishing the amido bonds within the composite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy were also used to characterize the PEI-AuNP-hemin catalyst. PEI-AuNP-hemin exhibited intrinsic peroxidase-like catalytic activities. The PEI-AuNP-hemin deposited on a glass carbon electrode had strong sensing for H2O2 with a well-defined linear relationship between the amperometric response and H2O2 concentration in the range from 1 μM to 0.25 mM. The detection limit was 0.247 nM with a high sensitivity of 0.347 mA mM(-1) cm(-2). The peroxidase-like catalytic activity of PEI-AuNP-hemin is discussed in relation to its microstructure. The study suggests that PEI-AuNP-hemin may have promising application prospects in biocatalysis and bioelectronics. PMID:26462299

  12. Numerical simulations of turbulent premixed H2/O2/N2 flames with complex chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, M.; Poinsot, T. J.; Haworth, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    Premixed stoichiometric H2/O2/N2 flames propagating in two-dimensional turbulence were studied using direct numerical simulation (simulations in which all fluid and thermochemical scales are fully resolved) including realistic chemical kinetics and molecular transport. Results are compared with earlier zero-chemistry (flame sheet) and one-step chemistry simulations. Consistent with the simpler models, the turbulent flame with realistic chemistry aligns preferentially with extensive strain rates in the tangent plane and flame curvature probability density functions are close to symmetric with near-zero means. By contrast to simple-chemistry results with non-unity Lewis numbers (ratio of thermal to species diffusivity), local flame structure does not correlate with curvature but rather with tangential strain rate. Turbulent straining results in substantial thinning of the flame relative to the steady unstrained laminar case. Heat release and H2O2 contours remain thin and connected ('flamelet-like') while species including H-atom and OH are more diffuse. Peak OH concentration occurs well behind the peak heat-release zone. The feasibility of incorporating realistic chemistry into full turbulence simulations to address issues such as pollutant formation in hydrocarbon-air flames is suggested.

  13. Functionalization of graphene by atmospheric pressure plasma jet in air or H2O2 environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weixin; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2016-03-01

    The functionalization of graphene, which deforms its band structure, can result in a metal-semiconductor transition. In this work, we report a facile strategy to oxidize single-layer graphene using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) that generates a variety of reactive plasma species at close to ambient temperature. We systematically characterized the oxygen content and chemical structure of the graphene films after plasma treatment under different oxidative conditions (ambient air atmosphere or hydrogen peroxide solution) by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Plasma-treated graphene films containing more than 40% oxygen were obtained in both oxidative environments. Interestingly, prolonged irradiation led to the reduction of graphene oxides. N-doping of graphene also occurred during the APPJ treatment in H2O2 solution; the nitrogen content of the doped graphene was dependent on the duration of irradiation and reached up to 8.1% within 40 min. Moreover, the H2O2 solution served as a buffer layer that prevented damage to the graphene during plasma irradiation. Four-point probe measurement revealed an increase in sheet resistance of the plasma-treated graphene, indicating the transition of the material property from semi-metallic to semiconducting.

  14. Relationship between chloroplastic H2O2 and the salicylic acid response

    PubMed Central

    Noshi, Masahiro; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling molecules for regulating plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress and there exist source- and kind-specific pathways for ROS signaling. Recently, we created a novel system for producing H2O2 in Arabidopsis chloroplasts by chemical-dependent thylakoid membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX) silencing using an estrogen-inducible RNAi method. Microarray analysis revealed that the expression of a large set of genes was altered in response to tAPX silencing, some of which are known to be involved in pathogen response/resistance. Furthermore, we found that tAPX silencing enhances the levels of salicylic acid (SA) and the response to SA, a central regulator for biotic stress response. In this addendum, we describe the relationship between chloroplastic H2O2 and SA in stress response, and discuss the function of the kind- and source-specific ROS signaling in SA-mediated stress response. PMID:22836499

  15. Ultrasensitive electrospun fluorescent nanofibrous membrane for rapid visual colorimetric detection of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Senthamizhan, Anitha; Balusamy, Brabu; Aytac, Zeynep; Uyar, Tamer

    2016-02-01

    We report herein a flexible fluorescent nanofibrous membrane (FNFM) prepared by decorating the gold nanocluster (AuNC) on electrospun polysulfone nanofibrous membrane for rapid visual colorimetric detection of H2O2. The provision of AuNC coupled to NFM has proven to be advantageous for facile and quick visualization of the obtained results, permitting instant, selective, and on-site detection. We strongly suggest that the fast response time is ascribed to the enhanced probabilities of interaction with AuNC located at the surface of NF. It has been observed that the color change from red to blue is dependent on the concentration, which is exclusively selective for hydrogen peroxide. The detection limit has been found to be 500 nM using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), visually recognizable with good accuracy and stability. A systematic comparison was performed between the sensing performance of FNFM and AuNC solution. The underlying sensing mechanism is demonstrated using UV spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corresponding disappearance of the characteristic emissions of gold nanoclusters and the emergence of a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band, stressing this unique characteristic of gold nanoparticles. Hence, it is evident that the conversion of nanoparticles from nanoclusters has taken place in the presence of H2O2. Our work here has paved a new path for the detection of bioanalytes, highlighting the merits of rapid readout, sensitivity, and user-friendliness. PMID:26637215

  16. Inhibition of cyclophilin A suppresses H2O2-enhanced replication of HCMV through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Song, Xin; Deng, Jiang; Lv, Liping; Ma, Ping; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Xipeng; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can be accelerated by intracellular and extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulation, mediated by the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, it remains unknown whether host gene expression is involved in H2O2-upregulated HCMV replication. Here, we show that the expression of the host gene, cyclophilin A (CyPA), could be facilitated by treatment with H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Experiments with CyPA-specific siRNA, or with cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of CyPA, confirmed that H2O2-mediated upregulation of HCMV replication is specifically mediated by upregulation of CyPA expression. Furthermore, depletion or inhibition of CyPA reduced H2O2-induced p38 activation, consistent with that of H2O2-upregulated HCMV lytic replication. These results show that H2O2 is capable of activating ROS-CyPA-p38 MAPK interactions to enhance HCMV replication. PMID:27642560

  17. Inhibition of cyclophilin A suppresses H2O2-enhanced replication of HCMV through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jun; Song, Xin; Deng, Jiang; Lv, Liping; Ma, Ping; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Xipeng; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can be accelerated by intracellular and extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulation, mediated by the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, it remains unknown whether host gene expression is involved in H2O2-upregulated HCMV replication. Here, we show that the expression of the host gene, cyclophilin A (CyPA), could be facilitated by treatment with H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Experiments with CyPA-specific siRNA, or with cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of CyPA, confirmed that H2O2-mediated upregulation of HCMV replication is specifically mediated by upregulation of CyPA expression. Furthermore, depletion or inhibition of CyPA reduced H2O2-induced p38 activation, consistent with that of H2O2-upregulated HCMV lytic replication. These results show that H2O2 is capable of activating ROS-CyPA-p38 MAPK interactions to enhance HCMV replication.

  18. Antimicrobial mechanism based on H2O2 generation at oxygen vacancies in ZnO crystals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoling; Chen, Dan; Yi, Zhigang; Jiang, Man; Wang, Li; Zhou, Zuowan; Fan, Ximei; Wang, Yong; Hui, David

    2013-05-01

    The production of H2O2 has been taken for a crucial reason for antimicrobial activity of ZnO without light irradiation. However, how the H2O2 generates in ZnO suspension is not clear. In the present work, the comparatively detections on three kinds of ZnO, tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers (t-ZnO), nanosized ZnO particles (n-ZnO), and microsized ZnO particles (m-ZnO), showed that the antimicrobial activity of ZnO was correlated with its production of H2O2. Oxygen vacancy (V(O)) in the surface layer of ZnO crystals determined by XPS indicated that it was quite probably involved in the production of H2O2. To validate the role of V(O), the concentration of VO in t-ZnO was adjusted by heat-treatment under the atmospheres of H2, vacuum, and O2, respectively, and the H2O2 production and antimicrobial effect were detected. Consistently, the t-ZnO treated in H2, which possessed the most V(O) in its crystal, produced the most H2O2 and displayed the best antimicrobial activity. These results provide the basis for developing a more detailed mechanism for H2O2 generation catalyzed by ZnO and for taking greater advantage of this type of antimicrobial agent.

  19. Salicylic acid-induced inactivation of creatine kinase in the presence of lactoperoxidase and H2O2.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Sanae; Miura, Toshiaki

    2005-01-15

    To clarify one mechanism of aspirin-induced gastric mucosal damage, inactivation of creatine kinase (CK) by salicylic acid that is easily produced from aspirin in vivo was examined in the presence of lactoperoxidase (LPO) and H2O2 (LPO-H2O2). Salicylic acid inactivated CK (rabbit muscle) during its interaction with LPO-H2O2. CK activity in gastric mucosal homogenate decreased dependent on the concentration of salicylic acid in the presence of LPO-H2O2. Oxygen radical scavengers did not prevent the inactivation of CK. Direct detection of free radicals of salicylic acid by electron spin resonance was unsuccessful. However, glutathionyl radicals were formed during the interaction of salicylic acid with LPO-H2O2 in the presence of reduced glutathione and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline oxide as a spin trap agent. Among salicylic acid-related drugs, salsalate, but not aspirin and ethenzamide, inactivated CK, indicating the phenolic hydroxyl group is oxidized by LPO-H2O2. During oxidation of salicylic acid by LPO-H2O2, the sulfhydryl group in CK markedly decreased, and salicylic acid bound to CK. These results indicate that CK was inactivated through loss of the sulfhydryl group and binding of salicylic acid.

  20. Production of high concentrations of H2O2 in a bioelectrochemical reactor fed with real municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Modin, Oskar; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems can be used to energy-efficiently produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from wastewater. Organic compounds in the wastewater are oxidized by microorganisms using the anode as electron acceptor. H2O2 is produced by reduction of oxygen on the cathode. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time production of high concentrations of H2O2 production from real municipal wastewater. A concentration of 2.26 g/L H2O2 was produced in 9 h at 8.3 kWh/kgH2O2. This concentration could potentially be useful for membrane cleaning at membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants. With an acetate-containing nutrient medium as anode feed, a H2O2 concentration of 9.67 g/L was produced in 21 h at an energy cost of 3.0 kWh/kgH2O2. The bioelectrochemical reactor used in this study suffered from a high internal resistance, most likely caused by calcium carbonate deposits on the cathode-facing side of the cation exchange membrane separating the anode and cathode compartments.

  1. Metabolites of the phospholipase D pathway regulate H2O2-induced filamin redistribution in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hastie, L E; Patton, W F; Hechtman, H B; Shepro, D

    1998-03-15

    Hypoxia/reoxygenation injury to cultured endothelial cells results in cytoskeletal rearrangement and second messenger activation related to increased monolayer junctional permeability. Cytoskeletal rearrangement by reactive oxygen species may be related to specific activation of the phospholipase D (PLD) pathway. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers are exposed to H2O2 (100 microM) or metabolites of the PLD pathway for 1-60 min. Changes in cAMP levels, Ca2+ levels, PIP2 production, filamin distribution, and intercellular gap formation are then quantitated. H2O2-induced filamin translocation from the membrane to the cytosol occurs after 1-min H2O2 treatment, while intercellular gap formation significantly increases after 15 min. H2O2 and phosphatidic acid exposure rapidly decrease intracellular cAMP levels, while increasing PIP2 levels in a Ca2+-independent manner. H2O2-induced cAMP decreases are prevented by inhibiting phospholipase D. H2O2-induced cytoskeletal changes are prevented by inhibiting phospholipase D, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate kinase, phosphoinositide turnover, or by adding a synthetic peptide that binds PIP2. These data indicate that metabolites produced downstream of H2O2-induced PLD activation may mediate filamin redistribution and F-actin rearrangement.

  2. ERO1-independent production of H2O2 within the endoplasmic reticulum fuels Prdx4-mediated oxidative protein folding

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Tasuku; Pinho Melo, Eduardo; Lopes, Carlos; Mehmeti, Ilir; Lenzen, Sigurd

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–localized peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) supports disulfide bond formation in eukaryotic cells lacking endoplasmic reticulum oxidase 1 (ERO1). The source of peroxide that fuels PRDX4-mediated disulfide bond formation has remained a mystery, because ERO1 is believed to be a major producer of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the ER lumen. We report on a simple kinetic technique to track H2O2 equilibration between cellular compartments, suggesting that the ER is relatively isolated from cytosolic or mitochondrial H2O2 pools. Furthermore, expression of an ER-adapted catalase to degrade lumenal H2O2 attenuated PRDX4-mediated disulfide bond formation in cells lacking ERO1, whereas depletion of H2O2 in the cytosol or mitochondria had no similar effect. ER catalase did not effect the slow residual disulfide bond formation in cells lacking both ERO1 and PRDX4. These observations point to exploitation of a hitherto unrecognized lumenal source of H2O2 by PRDX4 and a parallel slow H2O2-independent pathway for disulfide formation. PMID:26504166

  3. Sp1 is involved in H2O2-induced PUMA gene expression and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinying; Wang, Jing; Lin, Shiyong; Geng, Yan; Wang, Jide; Jiang, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are intricately involved in tumor progression through effects on proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. But how ROS works is not well understood. In previous study, we found PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) played an important role in oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis. In the present study, we detect the role of PUMA in H2O2-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells and investigate the potential mechanism. Methods and results We showed that H2O2 stimulated the activity of a 493 PUMA promoter reporter gene construct. Suppressing the expression of PUMA abrogated H2O2-induced apoptosis. Deletion of the Sp1-binding sites also decreased the transactivation of PUMA promoter by H2O2. Furthermore, induction of PUMA promoter activity by H2O2 was abrogated by PFT-α (a p53 inhibitor) and Mithramycin A (a Sp1 inhibitor), as compared with PFT-α alone. To determine the effects of Sp1 on PUMA in H2O2-induced apoptosis, procaspase 3, procaspase 9 and procaspase 8 expression was assessed. Mithramycin A and PFT-α also reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis synergistically and abrogated the expression of procaspase 3 and procaspase 9. Conclusion Our findings suggest that PUMA plays a role in H2O2-induced apoptosis, and that Sp1 works together with p53 in the regulation of H2O2-induced PUMA expression and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. This study provides important regulatory insights in the mechanisms of ROS in colorectal cancer. PMID:18811981

  4. Descent with Modification: Thermal Reactions of Subsurface H2O2 of Relevance to Icy Satellites and Other Small Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Loefler, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that magnetospheric radiation in the Jovian system drives reaction chemistry in ices at temperatures relevant to Europa and other icy satellites. Similarly, cosmic radiation (mainly protons) acting on cometary and interstellar ices can promote extensive chemical change. Among the products that have been identified in irradiated H20-ice is hydrogen peroxide (H202), which has been observed on Europa and is suspected on other worlds. Although the infrared spectra and radiation chemistry of H2O2-containing ices are well documented, the thermally-induced solid-phase chemistry of H2O2 is largely unknown. Therefore, in this presentation we report new laboratory results on reactions at 50 - 130 K in ices containing H2O2 and other molecules, both in the presence and absence of H2O. As an example of our results, we find that warming H2O + H2O2 + SO2 ices promotes SO2 oxidation to SO4(2-). We suspect that such redox chemistry may explain some of the observations related to the presence and distribution of H2O2 across Europa's surface as well as the lack of H2O2 on Ganymede and Callisto. If other molecules prove to be just as reactive with frozen H2O2 then it may explain why H2O2 has been absent from surfaces of many of the small icy bodies that are known to be exposed to ionizing radiation. Our results also have implications for the survival of H2O2 as it descends towards a subsurface ocean on Europa.

  5. Cytochrome c peroxidase is a mitochondrial heme-based H2O2 sensor that modulates antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Martins, Dorival; Kathiresan, Meena; English, Ann M

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a key signaling molecule that also induces apoptosis. Thus, cells must rapidly sense and tightly control H2O2 levels. Well-characterized cellular responses to exogenous H2O2 involve oxidation of specific cytosolic protein-based thiols but sensing of H2O2 generated by mitochondrial respiration is less well described. Here we provide substantial biochemical evidence that the heme enzyme Ccp1 (cytochrome c peroxidase), which is targeted to the intermembrane space, functions primarily as a mitochondrial H2O2 sensing and signaling protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Key evidence for a sensing role for Ccp1 is the significantly higher H2O2 accumulation in ccp1-null cells(ccp1Δ) vs ccp1(W191F) cells producing the catalytically inactive Ccp1(W191F) variant. In fact, intracellular H2O2 levels (ccp1Δ>wildtype >ccp1(W191F)) correlate inversely with the activity of the mitochondrial (and peroxisomal) heme catalase, Cta1 (ccp1Δwildtype >ccp1(W191F)) and ccp1Δ cells exhibit low superoxide levels. Notably, Ccp1(W191F) is a more persistent H2O2 signaling protein than wild-type Ccp1, and this enhanced mitochondrial H2O2 signaling decreases the mitochondrial fitness of ccp1(W191F) cells. However, these cells are fully protected from a bolus (0.4mM) of exogenous H2O2 added after 12h of growth, whereas the viability of ccp1Δ cells drops below 20%, which additionally associates Ccp1 with Yap1-dependent H2O2 signaling. Combined, our results strongly implicate Ccp1, independent of its peroxidase activity, in mitochondrial H2O2 sensing and signaling to maintain reactive oxygen species homeostasis. PMID:23831190

  6. Organic Contaminant Abatement in Reclaimed Water by UV/H2O2 and a Combined Process Consisting of O3/H2O2 Followed by UV/H2O2: Prediction of Abatement Efficiency, Energy Consumption, and Byproduct Formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunho; Gerrity, Daniel; Lee, Minju; Gamage, Sujanie; Pisarenko, Aleksey; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Canonica, Silvio; Snyder, Shane A; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-04-01

    UV/H2O2 processes can be applied to improve the quality of effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants by attenuating trace organic contaminants (micropollutants). This study presents a kinetic model based on UV photolysis parameters, including UV absorption rate and quantum yield, and hydroxyl radical (·OH) oxidation parameters, including second-order rate constants for ·OH reactions and steady-state ·OH concentrations, that can be used to predict micropollutant abatement in wastewater. The UV/H2O2 kinetic model successfully predicted the abatement efficiencies of 16 target micropollutants in bench-scale UV and UV/H2O2 experiments in 10 secondary wastewater effluents. The model was then used to calculate the electric energies required to achieve specific levels of micropollutant abatement in several advanced wastewater treatment scenarios using various combinations of ozone, UV, and H2O2. UV/H2O2 is more energy-intensive than ozonation for abatement of most micropollutants. Nevertheless, UV/H2O2 is not limited by the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and bromate whereas ozonation may produce significant concentrations of these oxidation byproducts, as observed in some of the tested wastewater effluents. The combined process of O3/H2O2 followed by UV/H2O2, which may be warranted in some potable reuse applications, can achieve superior micropollutant abatement with reduced energy consumption compared to UV/H2O2 and reduced oxidation byproduct formation (i.e., NDMA and/or bromate) compared to conventional ozonation.

  7. Organic Contaminant Abatement in Reclaimed Water by UV/H2O2 and a Combined Process Consisting of O3/H2O2 Followed by UV/H2O2: Prediction of Abatement Efficiency, Energy Consumption, and Byproduct Formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunho; Gerrity, Daniel; Lee, Minju; Gamage, Sujanie; Pisarenko, Aleksey; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Canonica, Silvio; Snyder, Shane A; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-04-01

    UV/H2O2 processes can be applied to improve the quality of effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plants by attenuating trace organic contaminants (micropollutants). This study presents a kinetic model based on UV photolysis parameters, including UV absorption rate and quantum yield, and hydroxyl radical (·OH) oxidation parameters, including second-order rate constants for ·OH reactions and steady-state ·OH concentrations, that can be used to predict micropollutant abatement in wastewater. The UV/H2O2 kinetic model successfully predicted the abatement efficiencies of 16 target micropollutants in bench-scale UV and UV/H2O2 experiments in 10 secondary wastewater effluents. The model was then used to calculate the electric energies required to achieve specific levels of micropollutant abatement in several advanced wastewater treatment scenarios using various combinations of ozone, UV, and H2O2. UV/H2O2 is more energy-intensive than ozonation for abatement of most micropollutants. Nevertheless, UV/H2O2 is not limited by the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and bromate whereas ozonation may produce significant concentrations of these oxidation byproducts, as observed in some of the tested wastewater effluents. The combined process of O3/H2O2 followed by UV/H2O2, which may be warranted in some potable reuse applications, can achieve superior micropollutant abatement with reduced energy consumption compared to UV/H2O2 and reduced oxidation byproduct formation (i.e., NDMA and/or bromate) compared to conventional ozonation. PMID:26909504

  8. Saccharification of microalgae biomass obtained from wastewater treatment by enzymatic hydrolysis. Effect of alkaline-peroxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Martín Juárez, Judit; Lorenzo Hernando, Ana; Muñoz Torre, Raúl; Blanco Lanza, Saúl; Bolado Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    An enzymatic method for the carbohydrate hydrolysis of different microalgae biomass cultivated in domestic (DWB) and pig manure (PMWB) wastewaters, at different storage conditions (fresh, freeze-dried and reconstituted), was evaluated. The DWB provided sugars yields between 40 and 63%, although low xylose yields (< 23.5%). Approximately 2% of this biomass was converted to byproducts as succinic, acetic and formic acids. For PMWB, a high fraction of the sugars (up to 87%) was extracted, but mainly converted into acetic, butyric and formic acids, which was attributed to the bacterial action. In addition, the performance of an alkaline-peroxide pretreatment, conducted for 1h, 50°C and H2O2 concentrations from 1 to 7.5% (w/w), was essayed. The hydrolysis of pretreated microalgae supported a wide range of sugars extraction for DWB (55-90%), and 100% for PMWB. Nevertheless, a large fraction of these sugars (∼30% for DWB and 100% for PMWB) was transformed to byproducts. PMID:27372005

  9. Saccharification of microalgae biomass obtained from wastewater treatment by enzymatic hydrolysis. Effect of alkaline-peroxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Martín Juárez, Judit; Lorenzo Hernando, Ana; Muñoz Torre, Raúl; Blanco Lanza, Saúl; Bolado Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    An enzymatic method for the carbohydrate hydrolysis of different microalgae biomass cultivated in domestic (DWB) and pig manure (PMWB) wastewaters, at different storage conditions (fresh, freeze-dried and reconstituted), was evaluated. The DWB provided sugars yields between 40 and 63%, although low xylose yields (< 23.5%). Approximately 2% of this biomass was converted to byproducts as succinic, acetic and formic acids. For PMWB, a high fraction of the sugars (up to 87%) was extracted, but mainly converted into acetic, butyric and formic acids, which was attributed to the bacterial action. In addition, the performance of an alkaline-peroxide pretreatment, conducted for 1h, 50°C and H2O2 concentrations from 1 to 7.5% (w/w), was essayed. The hydrolysis of pretreated microalgae supported a wide range of sugars extraction for DWB (55-90%), and 100% for PMWB. Nevertheless, a large fraction of these sugars (∼30% for DWB and 100% for PMWB) was transformed to byproducts.

  10. Determination Co 2+ in vitamin B 12 based on enhancement of 2-(4-substituted-phenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole and H 2O 2 chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; Zhang, Yumin; Kang, Jing; Tang, Jieli; Zhang, Yihua

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, three kinds of imidazole derivatives, 2-(4-methylphenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole (MDFI), 2-(4-nitrophenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole (NDFI), and 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-4,5-di(2-furyl) imidazole (t-BDFI) were synthesized. In an alkaline medium, the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of imidazole derivatives with H 2O 2 has been investigated. It was also found that MDFI/H 2O 2 and t-BDFI/H 2O 2 systems gave strong CL. When Co 2+ was added into the two CL systems, the CL intensity was remarkably enhanced. In the optimum conditions, the CL intensity is linearly related to the logarithm of concentration of Co 2+. The linear ranges are 5 × 10 -9-2.5 × 10 -7 mol/L for MDFI/H 2O 2 system and 5 × 10 -9-2.5 × 10 -7 mol/L for t-BDFI/H 2O 2 system, and the corresponding detection limits are 1.2 × 10 -9 mol/L and 1.1 × 10 -9 mol/L, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of Co 2+ in vitamin B 12 injection. Furthermore, the CL mechanism was also discussed.

  11. Simultaneous measurements of photocurrents and H2O2 evolution from solvent exposed photosystem 2 complexes.

    PubMed

    Vöpel, Tobias; Ning Saw, En; Hartmann, Volker; Williams, Rhodri; Müller, Frank; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Plumeré, Nicolas; Nowaczyk, Marc; Ebbinghaus, Simon; Rögner, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosystem 2 (PS2) catalyzes the light driven oxidation of water. The main products of this reaction are protons and molecular oxygen. In vitro, however, it was demonstrated that reactive oxygen species like hydrogen peroxide are obtained as partially reduced side products. The transition from oxygen to hydrogen peroxide evolution might be induced by light triggered degradation of PS2's active center. Herein, the authors propose an analytical approach to investigate light induced bioelectrocatalytic processes such as PS2 catalyzed water splitting. By combining chronoamperometry and fluorescence microscopy, the authors can simultaneously monitor the photocurrent and the hydrogen peroxide evolution of light activated, solvent exposed PS2 complexes, which have been immobilized on a functionalized gold electrode. The authors show that under limited electron mediation PS2 displays a lower photostability that correlates with an enhanced H2O2 generation as a side product of the light induced water oxidation. PMID:26700470

  12. Enabling direct H2O2 production through rational electrocatalyst design.

    PubMed

    Siahrostami, Samira; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Karamad, Mohammadreza; Deiana, Davide; Malacrida, Paolo; Wickman, Björn; Escudero-Escribano, María; Paoli, Elisa A; Frydendal, Rasmus; Hansen, Thomas W; Chorkendorff, Ib; Stephens, Ifan E L S; Stephens, Ifan E; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-12-01

    Future generations require more efficient and localized processes for energy conversion and chemical synthesis. The continuous on-site production of hydrogen peroxide would provide an attractive alternative to the present state-of-the-art, which is based on the complex anthraquinone process. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide is a particularly promising means of achieving this aim. However, it would require active, selective and stable materials to catalyse the reaction. Although progress has been made in this respect, further improvements through the development of new electrocatalysts are needed. Using density functional theory calculations, we identify Pt-Hg as a promising candidate. Electrochemical measurements on Pt-Hg nanoparticles show more than an order of magnitude improvement in mass activity, that is, A g(-1) precious metal, for H2O2 production, over the best performing catalysts in the literature. PMID:24240242

  13. Fragmentation pathways of H+(H2O)2 after extreme ultraviolet photoionization.

    PubMed

    Lammich, L; Domesle, C; Jordon-Thaden, B; Förstel, M; Arion, T; Lischke, T; Heber, O; Klumpp, S; Martins, M; Guerassimova, N; Treusch, R; Ullrich, J; Hergenhahn, U; Pedersen, H B; Wolf, A

    2010-12-17

    Photofragmentation of the protonated water dimer H+(H2O)_{2}, a fundamental system both in aqueous solutions and gas-phase water clusters, has been studied at 13.8 nm using the Free Electron Laser FLASH in Hamburg. In a crossed-beam experiment using time-resolved, single-molecule fragment imaging, the two-body breakup into H2O++H3O+ was found as a prominent fragmentation channel with a kinetic energy release of up to 10 eV. This channel was observed with at least a similar yield as events with stronger fragmentation, producing protons together with neutral fragments and showing an absolute cross section of (0.5 ± 0.2) × 10(-18) cm2.

  14. Yield of H2O2 in Gas-Liquid Phase with Pulsed DBD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Song; Wen, Yiyong; Liu, Kefu

    2014-01-01

    Electric discharge in water can generate a large number of oxidants such as ozone, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. In this paper, a non-thermal plasma processing system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in gas-liquid phase. The electrodes of discharge reactor were staggered. The yield of H2O2 was enhanced after discharge. The effects of discharge time, discharge voltage, frequency, initial pH value, and feed gas were investigated. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide and ozone was measured after discharge. The experimental results were fully analyzed. The chemical reaction equations in water were given as much as possible. At last, the water containing Rhodamine B was tested in this system. The degradation rate came to 94.22% in 30 min.

  15. High-Flux, High Performance H2O2 Catalyst Bed for ISTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponzo, J.

    2005-01-01

    On NASA's ISTAR RBCC program packaging and performance requirements exceeded traditional H2O2 catalyst bed capabilities. Aerojet refined a high performance, monolithic 90% H202 catalyst bed previously developed and demonstrated. This approach to catalyst bed design and fabrication was an enabling technology to the ISTAR tri-fluid engine. The catalyst bed demonstrated 55 starts at throughputs greater than 0.60 lbm/s/sq in for a duration of over 900 seconds in a physical envelope approximately 114 of traditional designs. The catalyst bed uses photoetched plates of metal bonded into a single piece monolithic structure. The precise control of the geometry and complete mixing results in repeatable, quick starting, high performing catalyst bed. Three different beds were designed and tested, with the best performing bed used for tri-fluid engine testing.

  16. Catalytic performance of carbon nanotubes in H2O2 decomposition: experimental and quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Voitko, Katerina; Tóth, Ajna; Demianenko, Evgenij; Dobos, Gábor; Berke, Barbara; Bakalinska, Olga; Grebenyuk, Anatolij; Tombácz, Etelka; Kuts, Volodymyr; Tarasenko, Yurij; Kartel, Mykola; László, Krisztina

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic performance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different surface chemistry was studied in the decomposition reaction of H2O2 at various values of pH and temperature. A comparative analysis of experimental and quantum chemical calculation results is given. It has been shown that both the lowest calculated activation energy (∼18.9 kJ/mol) and the highest rate constant correspond to the N-containing CNT. The calculated chemisorption energy values correlate with the operation stability of MWCNTs. Based on the proposed quantum chemical model it was found that the catalytic activity of carbon materials in electron transfer reactions is controlled by their electron donor capability.

  17. A variationally calculated room temperature line-list for H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Refaie, Ahmed F.; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    A room temperature line list for hydrogen peroxide is computed using a high level ab initio potential energy surface by Małyszek and Koput (2013) with a small adjustment of the equilibrium geometry and height of the torsional barrier and a new ab initio dipole moment surface (CCSD(T)-f12b/aug-cc-pv(T+d)Z). In order to improve further the ab initio accuracy, the vibrational band centers were shifted to match experimental values when available. The line list covers the wavenumber region up to 8000 cm-1 with the rotational excitations J ⩽ 40 . Room temperatures synthetic spectra of H2O2 are generated and compared to the spectra from the HITRAN and PNNL-IR databases showing good agrement.

  18. Direct N2H4/H2O2 Fuel Cells Powered by Nanoporous Gold Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiuling; Meng, Fanhui; Xie, Yun; Liu, Jianguo; Ding, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Dealloyed nanoporous gold leaves (NPGLs) are found to exhibit high electrocatalytic properties toward both hydrazine (N2H4) oxidation and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reduction. This observation allows the implementation of a direct hydrazine-hydrogen peroxide fuel cell (DHHPFC) based on these novel porous membrane catalysts. The effects of fuel and oxidizer flow rate, concentration and cell temperature on the performance of DHHPFC are systematically investigated. With a loading of ~0.1 mg cm−2 Au on each side, an open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.2 V is obtained at 80°C with a maximum power density 195 mW cm−2, which is 22 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst at the same noble metal loading. NPGLs thus hold great potential as effective and stable electrocatalysts for DHHPFCs. PMID:23230507

  19. Decolorization of ammonium lignosulfonate with H(2)O(2)/Cu(II) heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dulman, Viorica; Ignat, Maurusa-Elena; Bunia, Ion

    2011-01-01

    The potential of ammonium lignosulfonate (ALS) decolorization and degradation in aqueous solution was studied in a heterogeneous system using hydrogen peroxide and a Cu (II)-chelating ion exchanger. This was based on acrylic copolymers functionalized with N,N dimethylamino propylamine (DMAPA) as a catalyst. In order to optimize the efficiency of the system, the influence of such process parameters like H(2)O(2) concentration, pH, contact time, temperature, ALS concentration and catalyst amount were evaluated. The apparent rate constant of decolorization calculated from the absorbance data indicates that the process profiles follow pseudo-first order kinetics. Lignosulfonate degradation was furthermore studied by FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and determination in phenolic compounds. The catalyst stability and reusability have also been investigated. Our experimental results clearly indicate that, under optimum conditions, the ammonium lignosulfonate solutions exhibit a total bleaching associated with degradation and significant mineralization to CO(2). PMID:21942389

  20. Graphene quantum dots/gold electrode and its application in living cell H2O2 detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Wu, Congyu; Zhou, Xuejiao; Wu, Xiaochen; Yang, Yongqiang; Wu, Haixia; Guo, Shouwu; Zhang, Jingyan

    2013-02-01

    Due to the high peroxidase-like activity and small lateral size of graphene quantum dots (GQDs), the covalently assembled GQDs/Au electrode exhibits great performance and stability in H2O2 detection. It is better or comparable to some enzyme-immobilized electrodes, and thus could be useful in sensing H2O2 changes in biological systems.Due to the high peroxidase-like activity and small lateral size of graphene quantum dots (GQDs), the covalently assembled GQDs/Au electrode exhibits great performance and stability in H2O2 detection. It is better or comparable to some enzyme-immobilized electrodes, and thus could be useful in sensing H2O2 changes in biological systems. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33954h

  1. Detection of H2O2 at the nanomolar level by electrode modified with ultrathin AuCu nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Han, Yu; Xu, Ying; Gao, Caizhen; Cao, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic AuCu nanowires (AuCuNWs) are synthesized via a facile water solution method at room temperature. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity is observed toward the oxidation of H2O2, which makes the AuCu nanowire, along with its unique catalytic properties, intriguing bifunctional mechanism, and surface atomic construction, a promising platform for the amplification of interfacing signal. A highly sensitive H2O2 biosensor is thus developed on the base of the as-prepared AuCuNW catalyst. A very low real determination limit (2.0 nM) was reached, and a linear range as wide as 5 orders of magnitude was demonstrated. In addition, a trace amount of H2O2, which was released from Raw 264.7 cells, was selectively detected, hinting at the possible applications for real-time quantitative detection of H2O2 in a biological environment. PMID:25418032

  2. Low Concentration H2O2/TiO_N in Office Bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Bortolatto, J.F.; Pretel, H.; Floros, M.C.; Luizzi, A.C.C.; Dantas, A.A.R.; Fernandez, E.; Moncada, G.; de Oliveira, O.B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this randomized double-blinded clinical trial was to test the efficacy and tooth sensitivity promoted by the use of an in-office 15% H2O2 bleaching agent containing nanoparticles of TiO_N photocatalyzed with LED/laser light (HP15) and a control of 35% H2O2 (HP35). Methods: Forty healthy volunteers, both sexes, aged 18 to 25 yr, were randomly distributed in 2 groups: HP15 (n = 20) was treated in 3 sessions of 48 min each, and HP35 (n = 20) was treated in 3 sessions of 45 min each. The efficacy (E) was evaluated by ΔE values measured via reflectance spectroscopy. The tooth sensitivity (S) was analyzed by visual analog scale (low, average, high, very high). The absolute risk reduction and the number needed to treat index were calculated. The data were analyzed by mixed repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni-correction t test (α = 0.05). Results: For the efficacy, significant differences were found for number of bleaching sessions (p = .0001; ηp2 = 0.73 and π = 1.000) and for the interaction of number of sessions and bleaching protocols (p = .0001; ηp2 = 0.319 and π = 1.000. The tooth sensitivity level showed significant differences only between the bleaching protocols. Absolute risk reduction calculated was 52% and number needed to treat, 1.92. Conclusions: The bleaching agent with the lower concentration (HP15) promoted lower levels of tooth sensitivity and presented greater efficacy compared to the control (HP35) in patients between 18 and 25 yr old. The limitation of short-term evaluation did not provide information about the longevity of the tooth bleaching (Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry Re Bec no. U1111-1150-4466). PMID:24868014

  3. Heterogeneous interaction of H2O2 with TiO2 surface under dark and UV light irradiation conditions.

    PubMed

    Romanias, Manolis N; El Zein, Atallah; Bedjanian, Yuri

    2012-08-01

    The heterogeneous interaction of H(2)O(2) with TiO(2) surface was investigated under dark conditions and in the presence of UV light using a low pressure flow tube reactor coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The uptake coefficients were measured as a function of the initial concentration of gaseous H(2)O(2) ([H(2)O(2)](0) = (0.17-120) × 10(12) molecules cm(-3)), irradiance intensity (J(NO(2)) = 0.002-0.012 s(-1)), relative humidity (RH = 0.003-82%), and temperature (T = 275-320 K). Under dark conditions, a deactivation of TiO(2) surface upon exposure to H(2)O(2) was observed, and only initial uptake coefficient of H(2)O(2) was measured, given by the following expression: γ(0)(dark) = 4.1 × 10(-3)/(1 + RH(0.65)) (calculated using BET surface area, estimated conservative uncertainty of 30%) at T = 300 K. The steady-state uptake coefficient measured on UV irradiated TiO(2) surface, γ(ss)(UV), was found to be independent of RH and showed a strong inverse dependence on [H(2)O(2)] and linear dependence on photon flux. In addition, slight negative temperature dependence, γ(ss)(UV) = 7.2 × 10(-4) exp[(460 ± 80)/T], was observed in the temperature range (275-320) K (with [H(2)O(2)] ≈ 5 × 10(11) molecules cm(-3) and J(NO(2)) = 0.012 s(-1)). Experiments with NO addition into the reactive system provided indirect evidence for HO(2) radical formation upon H(2)O(2) uptake, and the possible reaction mechanism is proposed. Finally, the atmospheric lifetime of H(2)O(2) with respect to the heterogeneous loss on mineral dust was estimated (using the uptake data for TiO(2)) to be in the range of hours during daytime, i.e., comparable to H(2)O(2) photolysis lifetime (~1 day), which is the major removal process of hydrogen peroxide in the atmosphere. These data indicate a strong potential impact of H(2)O(2) uptake on mineral aerosol on the HO(x) chemistry in the troposphere.

  4. H2O2 Detection at Carbon Nanotubes and Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes: Oxidation, Reduction, or Disproportionation?

    PubMed

    Goran, Jacob M; Phan, Ethan N H; Favela, Carlos A; Stevenson, Keith J

    2015-06-16

    The electrochemical behavior of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) was investigated over a wide potential window. At CNTs, H2O2 will be oxidized or reduced at large overpotentials, with a large potential region between these two processes where electrochemical activity is negligible. At N-CNTs, the overpotential for both H2O2 oxidation and reduction is significantly reduced; however, the reduction current from H2O2, especially at low overpotentials, is attributed to increased oxygen reduction rather than the direct reduction of H2O2, due to a fast chemical disproportionation of H2O2 at the N-CNT surface. Additionally, N-CNTs do not display separation between observable oxidation and reduction currents from H2O2. Overall, the analytical sensitivity of N-CNTs to H2O2, either by oxidation or reduction, is considerably higher than CNTs, and obtained at significantly lower overpotentials. N-CNTs display an anodic sensitivity and limit of detection of 830 mA M(-1) cm(-2) and 0.5 μM at 0.05 V, and a cathodic sensitivity and limit of detection of 270 mA M(-1) cm(-2) and 10 μM at -0.25 V (V vs Hg/Hg2SO4). N-CNTs are also a superior platform for the creation of bioelectrodes from the spontaneous adsorption of enzyme, compared to CNTs. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was allowed to adsorb onto N-CNTs, producing a bioelectrode with a sensitivity and limit of detection to glucose of 80 mA M(-1) cm(-2) and 7 μM after only 30 s of adsorption time from a 81.3 μM GOx solution.

  5. Bactericidal Effect of Photolysis of H2O2 in Combination with Sonolysis of Water via Hydroxyl Radical Generation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Hong; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radical (·OH) generated by combination of photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sonolysis of water was examined under the condition in which the yield of ·OH increased additively when H2O2 aqueous solution was concomitantly irradiated with laser and ultrasound. The suspension of Staphylococcus aureus mixed with the different concentrations of H2O2 was irradiated simultaneously with a laser light (wavelength: 405 nm, irradiance: 46 and 91 mW/cm2) and ultrasound (power: 30 w, frequency: 1.65 MHz) at 20 ± 1°C of the water bulk temperature for 2 min. The combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly reduced the viable bacterial count in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone. By contrast, the ultrasound irradiation alone exerted almost no bactericidal effect. These results suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity was synergistic. A multi-way analysis of variance also revealed that the interaction of H2O2 concentration, laser power and ultrasound irradiation significantly affected the bactericidal activity. Since the result of oxidative DNA damage evaluation demonstrated that the combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone, it was suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity would be exerted via oxidative damage of cellular components such as DNA.

  6. Pharmaceuticals and organic pollution mitigation in reclamation osmosis brines by UV/H2O2 and ozone.

    PubMed

    Justo, A; González, O; Aceña, J; Pérez, S; Barceló, D; Sans, C; Esplugas, S

    2013-12-15

    One significant disadvantage of using reverse osmosis (RO) for reclamation purposes is the need to dispose of the RO retentates. These retentates contain a high concentration of micropollutants, effluent organic matter (EfOM) and other inorganic constituents, which are recalcitrant to biological treatment and may impact the environment. The occurrence of 11 pharmaceuticals (concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.6 μg L(-1)) and their mitigation in RO retentates by a UV/H2O2 process and ozonation was studied using a wide range of oxidant dosages. Eleven pharmaceuticals were identified at. Initial observed kinetic constants (kobs) were calculated for the different pharmaceuticals. Other typical wastewater parameters were also monitored during the UV/H2O2 and ozonation reactions. The range for kobs was found to be 0.8-12.8L mmol O3(-1) and 9.7-29.9 L mmol H2O2(-1) for the ozonation and UV/H2O2 process, respectively. For ozonation, Atenolol, Carbamazepine, Codeine, Trimethoprim and Diclofenac showed the lowest initial kobs (in the order mentioned). Atenolol and Carbamazepine appeared as the most ozone resistant pharmaceuticals, exhibiting the lowest percentage of elimination at low ozone doses. On the other hand, despite the non-selectivity of HO, differences in the initial kobs were also observed during the UV/H2O2 process. Trimethoprim, Paroxetine and Sulfamethoxazole exhibited the lowest initial kobs values (in the order mentioned). Trimethoprim and Paroxetine also exhibited the lowest percentage removal when low H2O2 doses were assayed. The compounds that were identified as problematic during ozonation were more efficiently removed by the UV/H2O2 process. UV/H2O2 generally appeared to be a more efficient technology for removing pharmaceuticals from RO brines compared to ozonation. PMID:23768786

  7. Yap1 activation by H2O2 or thiol-reactive chemicals elicits distinct adaptive gene responses.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Tran, Quynh T; Goodwin, Shirlean; Wible, Ryan S; Sutter, Carrie Hayes; Sutter, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Yap1 mediates an adaptive response to oxidative stress by regulating protective genes. H(2)O(2) activates Yap1 through the Gpx3-mediated formation of a Yap1 Cys303-Cys598 intramolecular disulfide bond. Thiol-reactive electrophiles can activate Yap1 directly by adduction to cysteine residues in the C-terminal domain containing Cys598, Cys620, and Cys629. H(2)O(2) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) showed no cross-protection against each other, whereas another thiol-reactive chemical, acrolein, elicited Yap1-dependent cross-protection against NEM, but not H(2)O(2). Either Cys620 or Cys629 was sufficient for activation of Yap1 by NEM or acrolein; Cys598 was dispensable for this activation mechanism. To determine whether Yap1 activated by H(2)O(2) or thiol-reactive chemicals elicits distinct adaptive gene responses, microarray analysis was performed on the wild-type strain or its isogenic single-deletion strain Δyap1 treated with control buffer, H(2)O(2), NEM, or acrolein. Sixty-five unique H(2)O(2) and 327 NEM and acrolein Yap1-dependent responsive genes were identified. Functional analysis using single-gene-deletion yeast strains demonstrated that protection was conferred by CTA1 and CTT1 in the H(2)O(2)-responsive subset and YDR042C in the NEM- and acrolein-responsive subset. These findings demonstrate that the distinct mechanisms of Yap1 activation by H(2)O(2) or thiol-reactive chemicals result in selective expression of protective genes. PMID:20971184

  8. Bactericidal Effect of Photolysis of H2O2 in Combination with Sonolysis of Water via Hydroxyl Radical Generation

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Hong; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radical (·OH) generated by combination of photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sonolysis of water was examined under the condition in which the yield of ·OH increased additively when H2O2 aqueous solution was concomitantly irradiated with laser and ultrasound. The suspension of Staphylococcus aureus mixed with the different concentrations of H2O2 was irradiated simultaneously with a laser light (wavelength: 405 nm, irradiance: 46 and 91 mW/cm2) and ultrasound (power: 30 w, frequency: 1.65 MHz) at 20 ± 1°C of the water bulk temperature for 2 min. The combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly reduced the viable bacterial count in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone. By contrast, the ultrasound irradiation alone exerted almost no bactericidal effect. These results suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity was synergistic. A multi-way analysis of variance also revealed that the interaction of H2O2 concentration, laser power and ultrasound irradiation significantly affected the bactericidal activity. Since the result of oxidative DNA damage evaluation demonstrated that the combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone, it was suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity would be exerted via oxidative damage of cellular components such as DNA. PMID:26148024

  9. Pharmaceuticals and organic pollution mitigation in reclamation osmosis brines by UV/H2O2 and ozone.

    PubMed

    Justo, A; González, O; Aceña, J; Pérez, S; Barceló, D; Sans, C; Esplugas, S

    2013-12-15

    One significant disadvantage of using reverse osmosis (RO) for reclamation purposes is the need to dispose of the RO retentates. These retentates contain a high concentration of micropollutants, effluent organic matter (EfOM) and other inorganic constituents, which are recalcitrant to biological treatment and may impact the environment. The occurrence of 11 pharmaceuticals (concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.6 μg L(-1)) and their mitigation in RO retentates by a UV/H2O2 process and ozonation was studied using a wide range of oxidant dosages. Eleven pharmaceuticals were identified at. Initial observed kinetic constants (kobs) were calculated for the different pharmaceuticals. Other typical wastewater parameters were also monitored during the UV/H2O2 and ozonation reactions. The range for kobs was found to be 0.8-12.8L mmol O3(-1) and 9.7-29.9 L mmol H2O2(-1) for the ozonation and UV/H2O2 process, respectively. For ozonation, Atenolol, Carbamazepine, Codeine, Trimethoprim and Diclofenac showed the lowest initial kobs (in the order mentioned). Atenolol and Carbamazepine appeared as the most ozone resistant pharmaceuticals, exhibiting the lowest percentage of elimination at low ozone doses. On the other hand, despite the non-selectivity of HO, differences in the initial kobs were also observed during the UV/H2O2 process. Trimethoprim, Paroxetine and Sulfamethoxazole exhibited the lowest initial kobs values (in the order mentioned). Trimethoprim and Paroxetine also exhibited the lowest percentage removal when low H2O2 doses were assayed. The compounds that were identified as problematic during ozonation were more efficiently removed by the UV/H2O2 process. UV/H2O2 generally appeared to be a more efficient technology for removing pharmaceuticals from RO brines compared to ozonation.

  10. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects 661W cells from H2O2-mediated cell death and enhances electroretinography response in dim-reared albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Tran, Julie-Thu A.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, has a wide range of beneficial properties. The purpose of this study was to test the protective role of CAPE in 661W cells (in vitro) against H2O2-mediated cell death and in albino rats (in vivo) against various light conditions. Methods The 661W cells were pretreated with CAPE and then stressed with H2O2. Cell death was measured with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, and mRNA and proteins were analyzed. Sprague Dawley rats were raised on either a control or CAPE (0.02%) diet and exposed to various light conditions for short or long periods. Retinal histology, mRNA, protein, lipid composition, and retinal function by electroretinography (ERG) were measured at the end of feeding. Results Pretreatment of 661W cells with CAPE reduced H2O2-mediated cell death in a dose-dependent manner and induced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (Ho1). Albino rats fed with CAPE had greater expression of Ho1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1), less expression of FOS-like antigen (Fosl) and lipoxygenase 12 (Lox12) genes in the retina, less translocation of nuclear factor kappaB protein to the nucleus, and a lower molar ratio of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Further, the ERGs of the retinas of CAPE-fed rats were significantly higher than those of the control-fed rats when raised in dim light. Conclusions CAPE can activate the antioxidative gene expression pathway in retinal cells in vitro and in vivo. Feeding CAPE to albino rats can enhance ERG responses and change the lipid profile in the rats’ retinas. PMID:22690111

  11. A cysteine-sulfinic acid in peroxiredoxin regulates H2O2-sensing by the antioxidant Pap1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vivancos, Ana P.; Castillo, Esther A.; Biteau, Benoît; Nicot, Carine; Ayté, José; Toledano, Michel B.; Hidalgo, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe transcription factor Pap1 regulates antioxidant-gene transcription in response to H2O2. Pap1 activation occurs only at low, but not elevated, H2O2 concentrations that instead strongly trigger the mitogen-activated protein kinase Sty1 pathway. Here, we identify the peroxiredoxin Tpx1 as the upstream activator of Pap1. We show that, at low H2O2 concentrations, this oxidant scavenger can transfer a redox signal to Pap1, whereas higher concentrations of the oxidant inhibit the Tpx1-Pap1 redox relay through the temporal inactivation of Tpx1 by oxidation of its catalytic cysteine to a sulfinic acid. This cysteine modification can be reversed by the sulfiredoxin Srx1, its expression in response to high doses of H2O2 strictly depending on active Sty1. Thus, Tpx1 oxidation to the cysteine-sulfinic acid and its reversion by Srx1 constitutes a previously uncharacterized redox switch in H2O2 signaling, restricting Pap1 activation within a narrow range of H2O2 concentrations. PMID:15956211

  12. A Peroxiredoxin Promotes H2O2 Signaling and Oxidative Stress Resistance by Oxidizing a Thioredoxin Family Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jonathon D.; Day, Alison M.; Taylor, Sarah R.; Tomalin, Lewis E.; Morgan, Brian A.; Veal, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary H2O2 can cause oxidative damage associated with age-related diseases such as diabetes and cancer but is also used to initiate diverse responses, including increased antioxidant gene expression. Despite significant interest, H2O2-signaling mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we present a mechanism for the propagation of an H2O2 signal that is vital for the adaptation of the model yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, to oxidative stress. Peroxiredoxins are abundant peroxidases with conserved antiaging and anticancer activities. Remarkably, we find that the only essential function for the thioredoxin peroxidase activity of the Prx Tpx1(hPrx1/2) in resistance to H2O2 is to inhibit a conserved thioredoxin family protein Txl1(hTxnl1/TRP32). Thioredoxins regulate many enzymes and signaling proteins. Thus, our discovery that a Prx amplifies an H2O2 signal by driving the oxidation of a thioredoxin-like protein has important implications, both for Prx function in oxidative stress resistance and for responses to H2O2. PMID:24268782

  13. Pentachlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions by microwave/persulfate and microwave/H2O2: a comparative kinetic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is one of the most fungicides and pesticides used in wood protection. Poisoning from PCP may be happened in dermal absorption, and respiration or ingestion. With regard to health and environmental effects of PCP, many methods were studied for its removal. Microwave assisted other methods are environmental friendly, safety, and economical method, therefore, in this study; a modified domestic microwave assisted hydrogen peroxide (MW/H2O2) and sodium persulfate (MW/SPS) was used for PCP removal from aqueous solutions. PCP removal rate was measured under different factors such as pH, energy intensity, SPS, H2O2 concentration, Tert- butyl alcohol (TBA) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The concentration changes of PCP were determined using spectrophotometer and HPLC spectra, respectively. The best removal PCP rate obtained in condition of pH of 11, 0.02 mol L−1 of SPS, 0.2 mol L−1 of H2O2 and energy intensity of 600 W. Moreover, COD removals in MW/H2O2 and MW/SPS process were 83% and 94%, respectively, also TBA test decreased 15% and 3% of PCP removal in MW/SPS and MW/H2O2 processes respectively. Experimental results indicated that sulfate radical was stronger than hydroxyl radical and examinations order reaction was in first order. In this study, was cleared that MW/SPS process was more effective than MW/H2O2 process in PCP removal. PMID:25018879

  14. Activation of flavin-containing oxidases underlies light-induced production of H2O2 in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Hockberger, Philip E.; Skimina, Timothy A.; Centonze, Victoria E.; Lavin, Colleen; Chu, Su; Dadras, Soheil; Reddy, Janardan K.; White, John G.

    1999-01-01

    Violet-blue light is toxic to mammalian cells, and this toxicity has been linked with cellular production of H2O2. In this report, we show that violet-blue light, as well as UVA, stimulated H2O2 production in cultured mouse, monkey, and human cells. We found that H2O2 originated in peroxisomes and mitochondria, and it was enhanced in cells overexpressing flavin-containing oxidases. These results support the hypothesis that photoreduction of flavoproteins underlies light-induced production of H2O2 in cells. Because H2O2 and its metabolite, hydroxyl radicals, can cause cellular damage, these reactive oxygen species may contribute to pathologies associated with exposure to UVA, violet, and blue light. They may also contribute to phototoxicity often encountered during light microscopy. Because multiphoton excitation imaging with 1,047-nm wavelength prevented light-induced H2O2 production in cells, possibly by minimizing photoreduction of flavoproteins, this technique may be useful for decreasing phototoxicity during fluorescence microscopy. PMID:10339574

  15. Calculation of anharmonic effects in the unimolecular dissociation of M2+(H2O)2 (M = Be, Mg, and Ca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Yao, Li; Xia, Wenwen; Lin, S. H.

    2015-11-01

    The anharmonic and harmonic rate constants of the unimolecular dissociation of M2+(H2O)2 (M = Be, Mg, and Ca) were calculated using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory. The anharmonic effects of the reactions were investigated. The results show that the energy barrier of the dissociation of Be2+(H2O)2 is 68.47 kcal/mol, and the anharmonic (T4000K = 4.28×108 s-1) and harmonic (T4000K = 4.22×108 s-1) rate constants were close in value in both the canonical and microcanonical systems. The energy barriers of the two steps for the dissociation, Mg2+(H2O)2 → MgOH++H3O+, were 37.41 and 11.39 kcal/mol, and those for the dissociation, Ca2+(H2O)2 → CaOH++H3O+, were 21.15 and 26.42 kcal/mol. The anharmonic effect of the two reactions is significant and cannot be neglected in both the canonical and microcanonical systems. The comparison also shows that the rate constants of the dissociation of Ca2+(H2O)2 have the maximum values, while those of Be2+(H2O)2 have the minimum values in the three reactions; however, the anharmonic effect also shows the similar trend in the comparison.

  16. Control of the pericentrosomal H2O2 level by peroxiredoxin I is critical for mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung Mi; Lee, Kyung S.; Woo, Hyun Ae

    2015-01-01

    Proteins associated with the centrosome play key roles in mitotic progression in mammalian cells. The activity of Cdk1-opposing phosphatases at the centrosome must be inhibited during early mitosis to prevent premature dephosphorylation of Cdh1—an activator of the ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome—and the consequent premature degradation of mitotic activators. In this paper, we show that reversible oxidative inactivation of centrosome-bound protein phosphatases such as Cdc14B by H2O2 is likely responsible for this inhibition. The intracellular concentration of H2O2 increases as the cell cycle progresses. Whereas the centrosome is shielded from H2O2 through its association with the H2O2-eliminating enzyme peroxiredoxin I (PrxI) during interphase, the centrosome-associated PrxI is selectively inactivated through phosphorylation by Cdk1 during early mitosis, thereby exposing the centrosome to H2O2 and facilitating inactivation of centrosome-bound phosphatases. Dephosphorylation of PrxI by okadaic acid–sensitive phosphatases during late mitosis again shields the centrosome from H2O2 and thereby allows the reactivation of Cdk1-opposing phosphatases at the organelle. PMID:26150388

  17. Efficiency of the UV/H2O2 process for the disinfection of humic surface waters.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Ufuk; Teksoy, Arzu; Atesli, Ahu; Baskaya, Huseyin S

    2007-03-01

    The efficiency of the UV/H2O2 process for the disinfection of total coliforms and the prevention of bacterial regrowth in humic surface waters were investigated. Inactivation of total coliforms was determined in water samples containing various concentrations ranging from 0-10 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of fulvic acid, which were exposed to various doses (68-681 mWs/cm2) of UV radiation in the presence of 0.125 mg/L and 3.000 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide. Disinfection efficiencies of the UV radiation and the UV/H2O2 processes were compared. The results of bacterial inactivation experiments showed that the performances of the UV and the UV/H2O2 (0.125) were comparable whereas the UV/H2O2 (3.000) process showed significant improvement in performance, especially, in highly humic waters. Inactivation coefficient appeared to be almost doubled by the addition of 3.000 mg/L hydrogen peroxide during the treatment of highly humic waters. In contradiction to significant regrowth which occurred in the single UV radiation treatment, residual bacteria following the UV/H2O2 (0.125) and the UV/H2O2 (3.000) treatments were completely inactivated during dark incubation indicating the elimination of possible bacterial regrowth.

  18. Effects of H2O2 on insulin signaling the glucose transport system in mammalian skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Erik J

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important regulator of cellular events leading to glucose transport activation in mammalian skeletal muscle. In the absence of insulin, H2O2 in the low micromolar range engages the canonical IRS-1/PI3K/Akt-dependent insulin signaling pathway, as well as other signaling elements (AMPK and p38 MAPK), to increase basal glucose transport activity. In contrast, in the presence of insulin, H2O2 antagonizes insulin signaling by recruitment of various deleterious serine/threonine kinases, producing a state of insulin resistance. Here, we describe the H2O2 enzymatic-generating system, utilizing glucose oxidase, that has been used to investigate the impact of H2O2 on cellular signaling mechanisms related to glucose transport activity in isolated rat skeletal muscle preparations, such as the soleus. By varying the glucose oxidase concentration in the medium, target ranges of steady-state H2O2 concentrations (30-90 μM) can be attained for up to 6h, with subsequent assessment of cellular signaling and glucose transport activity.

  19. Inhibition of H2O2 generation in rat liver mitochondria by radical quenchers and phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Swaroop, A; Ramasarma, T

    1981-03-15

    Generation of H2O2 by rat liver mitochondria with choline, glycerol 1-phosphate and proline as substrates has been shown by using high-concentration phosphate buffer. Rates obtained under these conditions were higher and more consistent as compared with the earlier reports with high-concentration mannitol/sucrose/Tris buffer. Sulphate ions could replace phosphate indicating a requirement for a high concentration of oxygen-containing anions. H2O2 generation was dependent on the presence of native mitochondria and substrate. Maximal rates with various substrates were found to be the same as with succinate. Values of Km and Vmax for H2O2 generation were considerably less than those obtained for respective dehydrogenase activities, measured by dye reduction. Scavengers of O2-. and OH. inhibited generation of H2O2. ATP, ADP, thyronine derivatives and a number of phenolic compounds also showed very potent inhibitory effects of H2O2 generation, whereas phenyl compound had no effect. Phenolic compounds did not have any effect on mitochondrial superoxide dismutase and choline dehydrogenase activities as well as on O2-. generation by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase system. Inhibition by phenolic compounds may have potential for regulation of the intracellular concentration of H2O2, that is not considered to have a "second messenger' function.

  20. Molecular hydrogel-stabilized enzyme with facilitated electron transfer for determination of H2O2 released from live cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Liao, Chuanan; Zhang, Limin; Wang, Qigang; Tian, Yang

    2014-05-01

    In this work, small molecular hydrogel was first employed as a surrounding matrix to stabilize an enzyme model, Cytochrome c (Cyt c), and more importantly to facilitate electron transfer between redox enzyme and electrode. Direct electron transfer of Cyt c was successfully achieved in the molecular hydrogel with redox formal potential (E(0')) of 100.7 ± 3.2 mV versus Ag|AgCl and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (ks) up to 18.6 ± 2.3 s(-1). Experimental data demonstrated that Cyt c was stably immobilized into the molecular hydrogel and retained its inherent bioactive activity toward H2O2. The direct redox reaction of Cyt c, followed by the biochemical reaction between Cyt c and H2O2, established a reliable approach to determine H2O2 at an optimized potential with high selectivity over other reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxygen, metal ions, ascobic acid (AA), and so on. In addition, the present biosensor for H2O2 also exhibited wide linear range and low detection limit, which fulfills the requirements for detection of H2O2 in a biological system. The remarkable analytical performance of the present biosensor, as well as the long-term stability and good reproducibility ascribed to the molecular hydrogel-stabilized enzyme, provided a durable platform for real-time determination of H2O2 from live cells.

  1. Peroxiredoxin I and II inhibit H2O2-induced cell death in MCF-7 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Soo-Jung; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young

    2007-07-01

    Apoptosis is known to be induced by direct oxidative damage due to oxygen-free radicals or hydrogen peroxide or by their generation in cells by the actions of injurious agents. Together with glutathione peroxidase and catalase, peroxiredoxin (Prx) enzymes play an important role in eliminating peroxides generated during metabolism. We investigated the role of Prx enzymes during cellular response to oxidative stress. Using Prx isoforms-specific antibodies, we investigated the presence of Prx isoforms by immunoblot analysis in cell lysates of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Treatment of MCF-7 with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) resulted in the dose-dependent expressions of Prx I and II at the protein and mRNA levels. To investigate the physiologic relevance of the Prx I and II expressions induced by H2O2, we compared the survivals of MCF10A normal breast cell line and MCF-7 breast cancer cell line following exposure to H2O2. The treatment of MCF10A with H2O2 resulted in rapid cell death, whereas MCF-7 was resistant to H2O2. In addition, we found that Prx I and II transfection enabled MCF10A cells to resist H2O2-induced cell death. These findings suggest that Prx I and II have important functions as inhibitors of cell death during cellular response to oxidative stress.

  2. Obligatory Role of Early Ca(2+) Responses in H2O2-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Taiji; Kaneko, Yukiko K; Sawatani, Toshiaki; Noguchi, Akiko; Ishikawa, Tomohisa

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study using apoptosis analysis suggested that Ca(2+) release through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors and the subsequent Ca(2+) influx through store-operated channels (SOCs) constitute a triggering signal for H2O2-induced β-cell apoptosis. In the present study, we further examined the obligatory role of early Ca(2+) responses in β-cell apoptosis induction. H2O2 induced elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) consisting of two phases: an initial transient [Ca(2+)]c elevation within 30 min and a slowly developing one thereafter. The first phase was almost abolished by 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB), which blocks IP3 receptors and cation channels including SOCs, while the second phase was only partially inhibited by 2-APB. The inhibition by 2-APB of the second phase was not observed when 2-APB was added 30 min after the treatment with H2O2. 2-APB also largely inhibited elevation of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) induced by H2O2 when 2-APB was applied simultaneously with H2O2, but not when applied 30 min after H2O2 application. In addition, 2-APB inhibited the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to the cytosol induced by H2O2 when 2-APB was applied simultaneously with H2O2 but not 30 min post-treatment. H2O2-induced [Ca(2+)]m elevation and cell death were not inhibited by Ru360, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). These results suggest that the H2O2-induced initial [Ca(2+)]c elevation, occurring within 30 min and mediated by Ca(2+) release through IP3 receptors and subsequent Ca(2+) influx through SOCs, leads to [Ca(2+)]m elevation, possibly through a mechanism independent of MCU, thereby inducing cytochrome c release and consequent apoptosis.

  3. H2O2 assisted room temperature oxidation of Ti2C MXene for Li-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Bilal; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Gogotsi, Yury; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-03-01

    Herein we demonstrate that a prominent member of the MXene family, Ti2C, undergoes surface oxidation at room temperature when treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 treatment results in opening up of MXene sheets and formation of TiO2 nanocrystals on their surface, which is evidenced by the high surface area of H2O2 treated MXene and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We show that the reaction time and the amount of hydrogen peroxide used are the limiting factors, which determine the morphology and composition of the final product. Furthermore, it is shown that the performance of H2O2 treated MXene as an anode material in Li ion batteries (LIBs) was significantly improved as compared to as-prepared MXenes. For instance, after 50 charge/discharge cycles, specific discharge capacities of 389 mA h g-1, 337 mA h g-1 and 297 mA h g-1 were obtained for H2O2 treated MXene at current densities of 100 mA g-1, 500 mA g-1 and 1000 mA g-1, respectively. In addition, when tested at a very high current density, such as 5000 mA g-1, the H2O2 treated MXene showed a specific capacity of 150 mA h g-1 and excellent rate capability. These results clearly demonstrate that H2O2 treatment of Ti2C MXene improves MXene properties in energy storage applications, such as Li ion batteries or capacitors.Herein we demonstrate that a prominent member of the MXene family, Ti2C, undergoes surface oxidation at room temperature when treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 treatment results in opening up of MXene sheets and formation of TiO2 nanocrystals on their surface, which is evidenced by the high surface area of H2O2 treated MXene and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We show that the reaction time and the amount of hydrogen peroxide used are the limiting factors, which determine the morphology and composition of the final product. Furthermore, it is shown that the performance of H2O2 treated MXene as an anode material in Li ion batteries (LIBs) was significantly improved as

  4. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique.

  5. Peroxy defects in Rocks and H2O2 formation on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, A.; Balk, M.; Mason, P.; Freund, F.; Rothschild, L.

    2013-12-01

    An oxygen-rich atmosphere appears to have been a prerequisite for complex life to evolve on Earth and possibly elsewhere in the Universe. The question is still shrouded in uncertainty how free oxygen became available on the early Earth. Here we study processes of peroxy defects in silicate minerals which, upon weathering, generate mobilized electronic charge carriers resulting in oxygen formation in an initially anoxic subsurface environment. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are precursors to molecular oxygen during this process. Due to their toxicity they may have strongly influenced the evolution of life. ROS are generated during hydrolysis of peroxy defects, which consist of pairs of oxygen anions. A second pathway for formation occurs during (bio) transformations of iron sulphide minerals. ROS are produced and consumed by intracellular and extracellular reactions of Fe, Mn, C, N, and S species. We propose that despite an overall reducing or neutral oxidation state of the macroenvironment and the absence of free O2 in the atmosphere, microorganisms on the early Earth had to cope with ROS in their microenvironments. They were thus under evolutionary pressure to develop enzymatic and other defenses against the potentially dangerous, even lethal effects of ROS and oxygen. We have investigated how oxygen might be released through weathering and test microorganisms in contact with rock surfaces. Our results show how early Life might have adapted to oxygen. Early microorganisms must have "trained" to detoxify ROS prior to the evolution of aerobic metabolism and oxygenic photosynthesis. A possible way out of this dilemma comes from a study of igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks, whose minerals contain a small but significant fraction of oxygen anions in the valence state 1- , forming peroxy links of the type O3Si-OO-SiO3 [1, 2]. As water hydrolyzes the peroxy links hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, forms. Continued experimental discovery of H2O2 formation at rock

  6. [Effect and mechanism of degradation of nitrobenzene in aqueous solution by O3/H2O2].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ji-min; Chen, Zhong-lin; Li, Xue-yan; Qi, Fei; Ye, Miao-miao

    2006-09-01

    Nitrobenzene (NB) was selected as the model pollutant in water and the efficiency and mechanism of degradation of NB in aqueous solution by O3/H2O2 were investigated. The effects of pH, H2O2 dose and the inhibitor or accelerant of .OH on the removal rate of NB were studied. H2O2 could obviously improve the ozonation decay rate of NB when the pH value of the solution was below 7. The removal rate of NB was enhanced remarkably while H2O2 dose was increased from 1.0 m g/L. to 4.0 mg/L. However, as H2O2 dose increased from 4.0 mg/L to 20 mg/L, the removal efficiency of NB decreased. Different quantities of H2O2 were yielded in different reaction phases of single ozonation system. Both systems of single ozonation and H2O2-catalysed ozonation could not reduce TOC observably. During the NB degradation process, organonitrogen was almost completely converted to nitrate and the pH value of the solution reduced significantly. Results of LC-MS and GC-MS analysis showed that the main intermediate products were phenolic compounds and carbonyl compounds. A possible reaction pathway of the catalytic ozonation of NB was also proposed. It was found that the catalytic ozonation of NB could be divided into two steps. First, hydroxyl radical attacked phenyl ring to form phenolic compounds, then the ring was opened, forming into various aliphatic compounds or being mineralized to inorganic compounds.

  7. Kinetic Studies of Iron Deposition in Horse Spleen Ferritin Using H2O2 and O2 as Oxidants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, Thomas J., Jr.; Bunker, Jared; Zhang, Bo; Costen, Robert; Watt, Gerald D.

    2004-01-01

    The reaction of horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) with Fe(2+) at pH 6.5 and 7.5 using O2, H2O2 and 1:1 a mixture of both showed that the iron deposition reaction using H2O2 is approx. 20- to 50-fold faster than the reaction with O2 alone. When H2O2 was added during the iron deposition reaction initiated with O2 as oxidant, Fe(2+) was preferentially oxidized by H2O2, consistent with the above kinetic measurements. Both the O2 and H202 reactions were well defined from 15 to 40 C from which activation parameters were determined. The iron deposition reaction was also studied using O2 as oxidant in the presence and absence of catalase using both stopped-flow and pumped-flow measurements. The presence of catalase decreased the rate of iron deposition by approx. 1.5-fold, and gave slightly smaller absorbance changes than in its absence. From the rate constants for the O2 (0.044 per second) and H2O2 (0.67 per second) iron-deposition reactions at pH 7.5, simulations of steady-state H2O2 concentrations were computed to be 0.45 micromolar. This low value and reported Fe2(+)/O2 values of 2.0-2.5 are consistent with H2O2 rapidly reacting by an alternate but unidentified pathway involving a system component such as the protein shell or the mineral core as previously postulated.

  8. Role of H2O2 in the oxidative effects of zinc exposure in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wages, Phillip A; Silbajoris, Robert; Speen, Adam; Brighton, Luisa; Henriquez, Andres; Tong, Haiyan; Bromberg, Philip A; Simmons, Steven O; Samet, James M

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a global environmental health concern. Zinc (Zn(2+)) is a ubiquitous respiratory toxicant that has been associated with PM health effects. However, the molecular mechanism of Zn(2+) toxicity is not fully understood. H2O2 and Zn(2+) have been shown to mediate signaling leading to adverse cellular responses in the lung and we have previously demonstrated Zn(2+) to cause cellular H2O2 production. To determine the role of Zn(2+)-induced H2O2 production in the human airway epithelial cell response to Zn(2+) exposure. BEAS-2B cells expressing the redox-sensitive fluorogenic sensors HyPer (H2O2) or roGFP2 (EGSH) in the cytosol or mitochondria were exposed to 50µM Zn(2+) for 5min in the presence of 1µM of the zinc ionophore pyrithione. Intracellular H2O2 levels were modulated using catalase expression either targeted to the cytosol or ectopically to the mitochondria. HO-1 mRNA expression was measured as a downstream marker of response to oxidative stress induced by Zn(2+) exposure. Both cytosolic catalase overexpression and ectopic catalase expression in mitochondria were effective in ablating Zn(2+)-induced elevations in H2O2. Compartment-directed catalase expression blunted Zn(2+)-induced elevations in cytosolic EGSH and the increased expression of HO-1 mRNA levels. Zn(2+) leads to multiple oxidative effects that are exerted through H2O2-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:25462065

  9. Performance of combined sodium persulfate/H2O2 based advanced oxidation process in stabilized landfill leachate treatment.

    PubMed

    Hilles, Ahmed H; Abu Amr, Salem S; Hussein, Rim A; El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Arafa, Anwaar I

    2016-01-15

    A combination of persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) was used to oxidizelandfill leachate. The reaction was performed under varying S2O8(2-)/H2O2 ratio (g/g), S2O8(2-)/H2O2 dosages (g/g), pH, and reaction time (minutes), so as to determine the optimum operational conditions. Results indicated that under optimum operational conditions (i.e. 120 min of oxidation using a S2O8(2-)/H2O2 ratio of 1 g/1.47 g at a persulfate and hydrogen peroxide dosage of 5.88 g/50 ml and8.63 g/50 ml respectively, at pH 11) removal of 81% COD and 83% NH3-N was achieved. In addition, the biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio) of the leachate was improved from 0.09 to 0.17. The results obtained from the combined use of (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) were compared with those obtained with sodium persulfate only, hydrogen peroxide only and sodium persulfate followed by hydrogen peroxide. The combined method (S2O8(2-)/H2O2) achieved higher removal efficiencies for COD and NH3-N compared with the other methods using a single oxidizing agent. Additionally, the study has proved that the combination of S2O8(2-)/H2O2 is more efficient than the sequential use of sodium persulfate followed by hydrogen peroxide in advanced oxidation processes aiming at treatingstabilizedlandfill leachate.

  10. H2O2 assisted room temperature oxidation of Ti2C MXene for Li-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bilal; Anjum, Dalaver H; Hedhili, Mohamed N; Gogotsi, Yury; Alshareef, Husam N

    2016-04-14

    Herein we demonstrate that a prominent member of the MXene family, Ti2C, undergoes surface oxidation at room temperature when treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 treatment results in opening up of MXene sheets and formation of TiO2 nanocrystals on their surface, which is evidenced by the high surface area of H2O2 treated MXene and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We show that the reaction time and the amount of hydrogen peroxide used are the limiting factors, which determine the morphology and composition of the final product. Furthermore, it is shown that the performance of H2O2 treated MXene as an anode material in Li ion batteries (LIBs) was significantly improved as compared to as-prepared MXenes. For instance, after 50 charge/discharge cycles, specific discharge capacities of 389 mA h g(-1), 337 mA h g(-1) and 297 mA h g(-1) were obtained for H2O2 treated MXene at current densities of 100 mA g(-1), 500 mA g(-1) and 1000 mA g(-1), respectively. In addition, when tested at a very high current density, such as 5000 mA g(-1), the H2O2 treated MXene showed a specific capacity of 150 mA h g(-1) and excellent rate capability. These results clearly demonstrate that H2O2 treatment of Ti2C MXene improves MXene properties in energy storage applications, such as Li ion batteries or capacitors.

  11. Optimized enzymatic colorimetric assay for determination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Chamira Dilanka; Soysa, Preethi

    2015-01-01

    The classical method to determine hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity of plant extracts is evaluated by measuring the disappearance of H2O2 at a wavelength of 230 nm. Since this method suffers from the interference of phenolics having strong absorption in the UV region, a simple and rapid colorimetric assay was developed where plant extracts are introduced to H2O2, phenol and 4-aminoantipyrine reaction system in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This reaction yields a quinoneimine chromogen which can be measured at 504 nm. Decrease in the colour intensity reflects the H2O2 scavenged by the plant material. •Optimum conditions determined for this assay were 30 min reaction time, 37 °C, pH 7, enzyme concentration of 1 U/ml and H2O2 concentration of 0.7 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 136 μM and 411 μM, respectively.•Half maximal effective concentration required to scavenge 50% of H2O2 in the system (EC50 value) calculated for several plant extracts and standard antioxidants resulted in coefficient of variance (CV%) of the EC50 values less than 3.0% and correlation coefficient values (R (2)) > 0.95 for all dose response curves obtained.•This method is convenient and very precise which is suitable for the rapid quantification of H2O2 scavenging ability of standard antioxidants and natural antioxidants present in plant extracts.

  12. H2O2 assisted room temperature oxidation of Ti2C MXene for Li-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bilal; Anjum, Dalaver H; Hedhili, Mohamed N; Gogotsi, Yury; Alshareef, Husam N

    2016-04-14

    Herein we demonstrate that a prominent member of the MXene family, Ti2C, undergoes surface oxidation at room temperature when treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The H2O2 treatment results in opening up of MXene sheets and formation of TiO2 nanocrystals on their surface, which is evidenced by the high surface area of H2O2 treated MXene and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We show that the reaction time and the amount of hydrogen peroxide used are the limiting factors, which determine the morphology and composition of the final product. Furthermore, it is shown that the performance of H2O2 treated MXene as an anode material in Li ion batteries (LIBs) was significantly improved as compared to as-prepared MXenes. For instance, after 50 charge/discharge cycles, specific discharge capacities of 389 mA h g(-1), 337 mA h g(-1) and 297 mA h g(-1) were obtained for H2O2 treated MXene at current densities of 100 mA g(-1), 500 mA g(-1) and 1000 mA g(-1), respectively. In addition, when tested at a very high current density, such as 5000 mA g(-1), the H2O2 treated MXene showed a specific capacity of 150 mA h g(-1) and excellent rate capability. These results clearly demonstrate that H2O2 treatment of Ti2C MXene improves MXene properties in energy storage applications, such as Li ion batteries or capacitors. PMID:26984324

  13. Wogonin inhibits H2O2-induced angiogenesis via suppressing PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Song, Xiuming; Huang, Yujie; Wei, Libin; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2014-03-01

    Wogonin, a natural monoflavonoid extracted from Scutellariae radix, has been reported for its ability of inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we assessed the effect of wogonin on angiogenesis induced by low level of H2O2 (10 μM) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Wogonin suppressed H2O2-induced migration and tube formation of HUVECs as well as microvessel sprouting from rat aortic rings in vitro. Meanwhile, wogonin suppressed vessel growth in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model in vivo. Mechanistic studies showed that wogonin suppressed H2O2-activated PI3K/Akt pathway and reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) up-regulated by H2O2 in both protein and mRNA levels. In addition, wogonin also inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and decreased the binding ability of NF-κB with exogenous consensus DNA oligonucleotide. Then we further investigated the effect of wogonin on over-activated PI3K/Akt pathway by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and H2O2. We found that wogonin suppressed phosphorylation of Akt, up-regulation of VEGF and angiogenesis in vitro which was further induced by IGF-1 and H2O2. Moreover, in NF-κB overexpressed HUVECs, wogonin could also reduce the expression of VEGF and inhibited the migration and tube formation. Taken together, these results suggested that wogonin was potential in inhibiting H2O2-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo via suppressing PI3K/Akt pathway and NF-κB signaling.

  14. Influence of various reaction parameters on 2,4-D removal in photo/ferrioxalate/H(2)O(2) process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunho; Jeong, Joonseon; Lee, Changha; Kim, Soomyung; Yoon, Jeyong

    2003-06-01

    The influence of various reaction parameters on herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) removal were examined in the photo/ferrioxalate/H(2)O(2) system, with regard to: (1) sulfate, phosphate, and z.rad;OH scavenger, as solution constituent; and (2) light intensity, ferrioxalate, H(2)O(2), and oxalate concentration, as operating parameter. In terms of 2,4-D removal, the photo/ferrioxalate/H(2)O(2) system has always been superior to the photo/Ferric ion/H(2)O(2) system, despite the high presence of anions (sulfate 100 mM, phosphate 1 mM) or z.rad;OH scavenger. Not only the rate of 2,4-D removal, but also the decomposition rate of H(2)O(2) and oxalate proportionally increase with light intensity. The ferrioxalate concentration determines the light absorption fraction, and thus, controls the rates of 2,4-D removal, and the decomposition of H(2)O(2) and oxalate, are predicted from kinetic formulations. The optimal concentration of H(2)O(2) and oxalate, according to the extent of the z.rad;OH scavenging reaction with these reagents, has been demonstrated for 2,4-D removal. It was found that an increasing oxalate concentration, which bears the burden of increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC), does not occur. This is because its decomposition, as a result of the photochemical reduction of the ferric oxalate complex, results in a decrease of the equivalent DOC. The importance of the key reaction factors to be considered, when applying this system to real wastewater treatment, is also discussed. PMID:12697181

  15. Enhanced Removal of Hexavalent Chromium in the Presence of H2O2 in Frozen Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kitae; Kim, Jaesung; Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong; Yoon, Ho-Il; Kim, Jungwon

    2015-09-15

    The reductive transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by H2O2 in ice was compared with that in water. The reduction of Cr(VI) was significant at -20 °C (ice), whereas the reduction efficiency was very low at 25 °C (water). This enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) in ice was observed over a wide range of H2O2 concentration (20-1000 μM), pH (3-11), and freezing temperature (-10 to -30 °C). The observed molar ratio of consumed [H2O2] to reduced [Cr(VI)] in ice was in close agreement with the theoretical (stoichiometric) molar ratio (1.5) for H2O2-mediated Cr(VI) reduction through proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). The synergistic increase in Cr(VI) reduction in water by increasing the H2O2 and proton concentrations confirms that the freeze concentration of both H2O2 and protons in the liquid brine is primarily responsible for the enhanced Cr(VI) reduction in ice. In comparison, the one-electron reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(V) and subsequent reoxidation of Cr(V) to Cr(VI) is the major reaction mechanism in aqueous solution. The reduction efficiency of Cr(VI) by H2O2 in the frozen aqueous electroplating wastewater was similar to that in the frozen aqueous deionized water, which verifies the enhanced reduction of Cr(VI) by freezing in real Cr(VI)-contaminated aquatic systems.

  16. Optimized enzymatic colorimetric assay for determination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity of plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Chamira Dilanka; Soysa, Preethi

    2015-01-01

    The classical method to determine hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity of plant extracts is evaluated by measuring the disappearance of H2O2 at a wavelength of 230 nm. Since this method suffers from the interference of phenolics having strong absorption in the UV region, a simple and rapid colorimetric assay was developed where plant extracts are introduced to H2O2, phenol and 4-aminoantipyrine reaction system in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This reaction yields a quinoneimine chromogen which can be measured at 504 nm. Decrease in the colour intensity reflects the H2O2 scavenged by the plant material. • Optimum conditions determined for this assay were 30 min reaction time, 37 °C, pH 7, enzyme concentration of 1 U/ml and H2O2 concentration of 0.7 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 136 μM and 411 μM, respectively. • Half maximal effective concentration required to scavenge 50% of H2O2 in the system (EC50 value) calculated for several plant extracts and standard antioxidants resulted in coefficient of variance (CV%) of the EC50 values less than 3.0% and correlation coefficient values (R2) > 0.95 for all dose response curves obtained. • This method is convenient and very precise which is suitable for the rapid quantification of H2O2 scavenging ability of standard antioxidants and natural antioxidants present in plant extracts. PMID:26285798

  17. Dual-Enzyme Characteristics of Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Capped Iridium Nanoparticles and Their Cellular Protective Effect against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage.

    PubMed

    Su, Hua; Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Meng; Hu, Wei-Liang; Xue, Shan-Shan; Cao, Qian; Le, Xue-Yi; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2015-04-22

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized iridium nanoparticles (PVP-IrNPs), synthesized by the facile alcoholic reduction method using abundantly available PVP as protecting agents, were first reported as enzyme mimics showing intrinsic catalase- and peroxidase-like activities. The preparation procedure was much easier and more importantly, kinetic studies found that the catalytic activity of PVP-IrNPs was comparable to previously reported platinum nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicated that PVP-IrNPs had the average size of approximately 1.5 nm and mainly consisted of Ir(0) chemical state. The mechanism of PVP-IrNPs' dual-enzyme activities was investigated using XPS, Electron spin resonance (ESR) and cytochrome C-based electron transfer methods. The catalase-like activity was related to the formation of oxidized species Ir(0)@IrO2 upon reaction with H2O2. The peroxidase-like activity originated from their ability acting as electron transfer mediators during the catalysis cycle, without the production of hydroxyl radicals. Interestingly, the protective effect of PVP-IrNPs against H2O2-induced cellular oxidative damage was investigated in an A549 lung cancer cell model and PVP-IrNPs displayed excellent biocompatibility and antioxidant activity. Upon pretreatment of cells with PVP-IrNPs, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in response to H2O2 was decreased and the cell viability increased. This work will facilitate studies on the mechanism and biomedical application of nanomaterials-based enzyme mimic.

  18. H2O2 and cytosolic Ca2+ signals triggered by the PM H-coupled transport system mediate K+/Na+ homeostasis in NaCl-stressed Populus euphratica cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Mei-Juan; Ding, Ming-Quan; Deng, Shu-Rong; Liu, Mei-Qin; Lu, Cun-Fu; Zhou, Xiao-Yang; Shen, Xin; Zheng, Xiao-Jiang; Zhang, Zeng-Kai; Song, Jin; Hu, Zan-Min; Xu, Yue; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Using confocal microscopy, X-ray microanalysis and the scanning ion-selective electrode technique, we investigated the signalling of H(2)O(2), cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) and the PM H(+)-coupled transport system in K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis control in NaCl-stressed calluses of Populus euphratica. An obvious Na(+)/H(+) antiport was seen in salinized cells; however, NaCl stress caused a net K(+) efflux, because of the salt-induced membrane depolarization. H(2)O(2) levels, regulated upwards by salinity, contributed to ionic homeostasis, because H(2)O(2) restrictions by DPI or DMTU caused enhanced K(+) efflux and decreased Na(+)/H(+) antiport activity. NaCl induced a net Ca(2+) influx and a subsequent rise of [Ca(2+)](cyt), which is involved in H(2)O(2)-mediated K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis in salinized P. euphratica cells. When callus cells were pretreated with inhibitors of the Na(+)/H(+) antiport system, the NaCl-induced elevation of H(2)O(2) and [Ca(2+)](cyt) was correspondingly restricted, leading to a greater K(+) efflux and a more pronounced reduction in Na(+)/H(+) antiport activity. Results suggest that the PM H(+)-coupled transport system mediates H(+) translocation and triggers the stress signalling of H(2)O(2) and Ca(2+), which results in a K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis via mediations of K(+) channels and the Na(+)/H(+) antiport system in the PM of NaCl-stressed cells. Accordingly, a salt stress signalling pathway of P. euphratica cells is proposed. PMID:20082667

  19. Cytoprotective effect of isoniazid against H2O2 derived injury in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saifur R; Aljuhani, Naif; Morgan, Andrew G M; Baghdasarian, Argishti; Fahlman, Richard P; Siraki, Arno G

    2016-01-25

    To combat tuberculosis (TB), host phagocytic cells need to survive against self-generating oxidative stress-induced necrosis. However, the effect of isoniazid (INH) in protecting cells from oxidative stress-induced necrosis has not been previously investigated. In this in vitro study, the cytotoxic effect of H2O2 generation using glucose oxidase (a model of oxidative stress) was found to be abrogated by INH in a concentration-dependent manner in HL-60 cells (a human promyelocytic leukemia cell). In cells treated with glucose oxidase, both ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential were found to be decreased. However, treatment with INH demonstrated small but significant attenuation in decreasing ATP levels, and complete reversal for the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Quantitative proteomics analysis identified up-regulation of 15 proteins and down-regulation of 14 proteins which all together suggest that these proteomic changes signal for increasing cellular replication, structural integrity, ATP synthesis, and inhibiting cell death. In addition, studies demonstrated that myeloperoxidase (MPO) was involved in catalyzing INH-protein adduct formation. Unexpectedly, these covalent protein adducts were correlated with INH-induced cytoprotection in HL-60 cells. Further studies are needed to determine whether the INH-protein adducts were causative in the mechanism of cytoprotection.

  20. Design of H2-O2 space shuttle APU. Volume 1: APU design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, E.

    1974-01-01

    The H2-O2 space shuttle auxiliary power unit (APU) program is a NASA-Lewis effort aimed at hardware demonstration of the technology required for potential use on the space shuttle. It has been shown that a hydrogen-oxygen power unit (APU) system is an attractive alternate to the space shuttle baseline hydrazine APU system for minimum weight. It has the capability for meeting many of the heat sink requirements for the space shuttle vehicle, thereby reducing the amount of expendable evaporants required for cooling in the baseline APU. Volume 1 of this report covers preliminary design and analysis of the current reference system and detail design of the test version of this reference system. Combustor test results are also included. Volume 2 contains the results of the analysis of an initial version of the reference system and the computer printouts of system performance. The APU consists of subsystems for propellant feed and conditioning, turbopower, and control. Propellant feed and conditioning contains all heat exchangers, valves, and the combustor. The turbopower subsystem contains a two-stage partial-admission pressure-modulated, 400-hp, 63,000-rpm turbine, a 0-to 4-g lubrication system, and a gearbox with output pads for two hydraulic pumps and an alternator (alternator not included on test unit). The electronic control functions include regulation of speed and system temperatures; and start-and-stop sequences, overspeed (rpm) and temperature limits, failsafe provisions, and automatic shutdown provisions.

  1. Inactivation of adenovirus using low-dose UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bounty, Sarah; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Linden, Karl G

    2012-12-01

    Adenovirus has consistently been observed to be the most resistant known pathogen to disinfection by ultraviolet light. This has had an impact on regulations set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency regarding the use of UV disinfection for virus inactivation in groundwater and surface water. In this study, enhancement of UV inactivation of adenovirus was evaluated when hydrogen peroxide was added to create an advanced oxidation process (AOP). While 4 log reduction of adenovirus was determined to require a UV dose (UV fluence) of about 200 mJ/cm(2) from a low pressure (LP) UV source (emitting at 253.7 nm), addition of 10 mg/L H(2)O(2) achieved 4 log inactivation at a dose of 120 mJ/cm(2). DNA damage was assessed using a novel nested PCR approach, and similar levels of DNA damage between the two different treatments were noted, suggesting the AOP enhancement in inactivation was not due to additional DNA damage. Hydroxyl radicals produced in the advanced oxidation process are likely able to damage parts of the virus not targeted by LPUV, such as attachment proteins, enhancing the UV-induced inactivation. The AOP-enhanced inactivation potential was modeled in three natural waters. This research sheds light on the inactivation mechanisms of viruses with ultraviolet light and in the presence of hydroxyl radicals and provides a practical means to enhance inactivation of this UV-resistant virus.

  2. Availability of O2 and H2O2 on Pre-Photosynthetic Earth

    PubMed Central

    Kasting, James F.; Lee, Sukyoung

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Old arguments that free O2 must have been available at Earth's surface prior to the origin of photosynthesis have been revived by a new study that shows that aerobic respiration can occur at dissolved oxygen concentrations much lower than had previously been thought, perhaps as low as 0.05 nM, which corresponds to a partial pressure for O2 of about 4 × 10−8 bar. We used numerical models to study whether such O2 concentrations might have been provided by atmospheric photochemistry. Results show that disproportionation of H2O2 near the surface might have yielded enough O2 to satisfy this constraint. Alternatively, poleward transport of O2 from the equatorial stratosphere into the polar night region, followed by downward transport in the polar vortex, may have brought O2 directly to the surface. Thus, our calculations indicate that this “early respiration” hypothesis might be physically reasonable. Key Words: Early Earth—Oxygen—Respiration—Tracer transport—General circulation. Astrobiology 11, 293–302. PMID:21545266

  3. Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase activity by H2O2.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Anne; Grant, Ross; Austin, Chris J D; Jamie, Joanne F; Willows, Robert D; Takikawa, Osamu; Littlejohn, Tamantha K; Truscott, Roger J W; Walker, Mark J; Sachdev, Perminder; Smythe, George A

    2006-06-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase is the first and rate limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, has potent effects on cell proliferation and mediates antimicrobial, antitumorogenic, and immunosuppressive effects. As a potent cytotoxic effector, the mechanisms of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibition deserve greater attention. The work presented here represents the first systematic study exploring the mechanisms by which low levels of hydrogen peroxide (10-100 microM) inhibit indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in vitro. Following brief peroxide exposure both enzyme inhibition and structural changes were observed. Loss of catalysis was accompanied by oxidation of several cysteine residues to sulfinic and sulfonic acids, observed by electrospray and MALDI mass spectrometry. Enzyme activity could in part be preserved in the presence of sulfhydryl containing compounds, particularly DTT and methionine. However, these structural alterations did not prevent substrate (l-tryptophan) binding. Some enzyme activity could be recovered in the presence of thioredoxin, indicating that the inhibitory effect of H(2)O(2) is at least partially reversible in vitro. We present evidence that cysteine oxidation represents one mechanism of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibition.

  4. Synergistic effects of H2O2 with components of dental restorative materials on gluconeogenesis in rat kidney tubules.

    PubMed

    Franz-Xaver, Reichl; Jürgen, Durner; Kai, Kehe; Matthias, Folwaczny; Norbert, Kleinsasser; Markus, Schwarz; El-Mahdy, Karim; Reinhard, Hickel

    2003-05-01

    No data are available about (toxic) effects of dental materials administered in combination with H(2)O(2) from dental bleaching compounds. The effect of dental composite components triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) as well as mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) and methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl), each in combination with H(2)O(2), was investigated on gluconeogenesis in kidney cells. From rats kidney tubules were prepared. Every 10 min up to 60 min 1-ml samples were drawn from the cell suspension for quantitating the glucose content. Glucose formation in controls was 3.5+/-0.3 nmol/mg.per min (mean+/-SEM, n=21). Relative rates of glucose formation were obtained by expressing individual rates as percentage of the corresponding control. X-Y concentration curves (effective concentration, EC) of the substances were calculated by fitting a four-parametric sigmoid function to the relative rates of the glucose formation at various test concentrations. At the end of the incubation period cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Cell viability decreased within the 60 min interval from 90% to approx. 80% (controls), <25 (HEMA), <20 (TEGDMA), <20 (H(2)O(2)) <10 (MeHgCl), and <10 (HgCl(2)). Values of 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) were calculated from fitted curves. EC(50) values were (mmol/l; mean+/-SEM; n=4): HEMA, 17.2+/-2.8; TEGDMA, 1.9+/-0.2; H(2)O(2) 0.22+/-0.03, MeHgCl, 0.016+/-0.0005; and HgCl(2), 0.0017+/-0.0005. No significant decrease of the EC(50) values was found when kidney cells were exposed to HEMA, HgCl(2), or MeHgCl in addition with H(2)O(2) (1-100 microM), compared to those EC(50) values of each compound without H(2)O(2) addition. A significant decrease of the TEGDMA EC(50) values to about 0.25 or 0.04 (mmol/l) was found when cells were exposed to TEGDMA in combination with H(2)O(2) (75 or 100 microM), compared to that TEGDMA EC(50) value without H(2)O(2) addition. The addition of H(2)O(2) (75 and 100

  5. Catalase regulates cell growth in HL60 human promyelocytic cells: evidence for growth regulation by H(2)O(2).

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Misao; Akashi, Makoto

    2005-03-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) are generated constitutively in mammalian cells. Because of its relatively long life and high permeability across membranes, H(2)O(2) is thought to be an important second messenger. Generation of H(2)O(2) is increased in response to external insults, including radiation. Catalase is located at the peroxisome and scavenges H(2)O(2). In this study, we investigated the role of catalase in cell growth using the H(2)O(2)-resistant variant HP100-1 of human promyelocytic HL60 cells. HP100-1 cells had an almost 10-fold higher activity of catalase than HL60 cells without differences in levels of glutathione peroxidase, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and copper-zinc SOD (CuZnSOD). HP100-1 cells had higher proliferative activity than HL60 cells. Treatment with catalase or the introduction of catalase cDNA into HL60 cells stimulated cell growth. Exposure of HP100-1 cells to a catalase inhibitor resulted in suppression of cell growth with concomitant increased levels of intracellular H(2)O(2). Moreover, exogenously added H(2)O(2) or depletion of glutathione suppressed cell growth in HL60 cells. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was constitutively phosphorylated in HP100-1 cells but not in HL60 cells. Inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway suppressed the growth of HP100-1 cells, but inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) did not affect growth. Moreover, inhibition of catalase blocked the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 but not of p38MAPK in HP100-1 cells. Thus our results suggest that catalase activates the growth of HL60 cells through dismutation of H(2)O(2), leading to activation of the ERK1/2 pathway; H(2)O(2) is an important regulator of growth in HL60 cells.

  6. Distinct H2O2 concentration promotes proliferation of tumour cells after transient oxygen/glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Schild, Lorenz; Makarow, Petr; Haroon, Fahad; Krautwald, Karla; Keilhoff, Gerburg

    2008-03-01

    A solid tumour undergoes ischemia/reperfusion due to deficient vascularization and subsequent formation of new blood vessels. This study investigated the effect of transient oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) on proliferation of C6 glioma cells. The cells were subjected to 18 h of OGD followed by reoxygenation in the presence of glucose and different extra-cellular H(2)O(2) concentrations since H(2)O(2) affects cell proliferation. After reoxygenation, the cellular H(2)O(2) concentration was increased returning to control levels within 24 h. Within this period, increase in cell number and MTT-reduction were impaired. Regeneration was completed on the third day of reoxygenation. MTT-reduction increased faster than cell number, indicating an OGD-dependent up-regulation of protein expression. It is concluded that ischemia/reperfusion stress promotes proliferation of tumour cells. An essential factor is a distinct H(2)O(2) concentration. Massive elevation as well as significant reduction of H(2)O(2) concentration impairs the proliferation process. PMID:18344118

  7. Microbial Oxidation of Fe2+ and Pyrite Exposed to Flux of Micromolar H2O2 in Acidic Media

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingqun; Lin, Chuxia

    2013-01-01

    At an initial pH of 2, while abiotic oxidation of aqueous Fe2+ was enhanced by a flux of H2O2 at micromolar concentrations, bio-oxidation of aqueous Fe2+ could be impeded due to oxidative stress/damage in Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans caused by Fenton reaction-derived hydroxyl radical, particularly when the molar ratio of Fe2+ to H2O2 was low. When pyrite cubes were intermittently exposed to fluxes of micromolar H2O2, the reduced Fe2+-Fe3+ conversion rate in the solution (due to reduced microbial activity) weakened the Fe3+-catalyzed oxidation of cubic pyrite and added to relative importance of H2O2-driven oxidation in the corrosion of mineral surfaces for the treatments with high H2O2 doses. This had effects on reducing the build-up of a passivating coating layer on the mineral surfaces. Cell attachment to the mineral surfaces was only observed at the later stage of the experiment after the solutions became less favorable for the growth of planktonic bacteria. PMID:23760258

  8. An Ustilago maydis Gene Involved in H2O2 Detoxification Is Required for Virulence[W

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Lázaro; Kahmann, Regine

    2007-01-01

    The fungus Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic pathogen of maize (Zea mays). In its genome we have identified an ortholog of YAP1 (for Yeast AP-1-like) from Saccharomyces cerevisae that regulates the oxidative stress response in this organism. yap1 mutants of U. maydis displayed higher sensitivity to H2O2 than wild-type cells, and their virulence was significantly reduced. U. maydis yap1 could partially complement the H2O2 sensitivity of a yap1 deletion mutant of S. cerevisiae, and a Yap1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed nuclear localization after H2O2 treatment, suggesting that Yap1 in U. maydis functions as a redox sensor. Mutations in two Cys residues prevented accumulation in the nucleus, and the respective mutant strains showed the same virulence phenotype as Δyap1 mutants. Diamino benzidine staining revealed an accumulation of H2O2 around yap1 mutant hyphae, which was absent in the wild type. Inhibition of the plant NADPH oxidase prevented this accumulation and restored virulence. During the infection, Yap1 showed nuclear localization after penetration up to 2 to 3 d after infection. Through array analysis, a large set of Yap1-regulated genes were identified and these included two peroxidase genes. Deletion mutants of these genes were attenuated in virulence. These results suggest that U. maydis is using its Yap1-controlled H2O2 detoxification system for coping with early plant defense responses. PMID:17616735

  9. Effect of organic molecular weight on mineralization and energy consumption of humic acid by H2O2/UV oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Kang, Shyh Fang

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effect of molecular weights (MWs) on mineralization, energy consumption, kinetic reaction, and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) of humic acid was evaluated by the process of H2O2/UV oxidation. Three ranges of MWs of 100 k-10 kDa (sample A), 10 k-1 kDa (sample B), and less than 1 kDa (sample C) were investigated. The results showed that the reaction constant k increased with either increased UV intensity or increased H2O2 dose; the order of k was kA > kB > kC, for all UV intensities from 16 to 64 W and H2O2 dose from 25 to 100 mg L(-1). In terms of EEO and EEM, the energy consumption decreased as the H2O2 dose increased with the descending order of sample C > sample B > sample A. The three samples had an initial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 20 mg L(-1) with the related values of THMFP of 325, 359, and 468 μg L(-1) for samples A, B, and C, respectively. After H2O2/UV oxidation, the combination of a higher UV power with a shorter time was a better treatment condition for samples A and B as residual DOC and THMFP were smaller.

  10. UV-H2O2 degradation of methyl orange catalysed by H3PW12O40/activated clay.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guangtao; Zhang, Linye; Wei, Tengyou; Luo, Qiyu; Tong, Zhangfa

    2012-01-01

    A catalyst consisting of phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) combined with activated clay was prepared by the impregnation method, and an experiment was carried out to evaluate the catalytic activity of the H3PW12O40/activated clay for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in the UV-H2O2 process. The degradation ratio of MO can be affected by H2O2 concentration, reaction time, catalyst dosage, pH and temperature. The reaction temperature should be controlled at less than 70 degrees C, and the catalyst has a wide applicable pH range in the UV-H2O2 process. Hydroxyl radicals were generated in the UV-H2O2 system under the action of H3PW12O40/activated clay, and MO was degraded by hydroxyl radicals. Compared with traditional catalysts used in UV-H2O2 systems, H3PW12O40/activated clay has certain advantages for its practical application.

  11. Synergistic Effect of H2O2 and NO2 in Cell Death Induced by Cold Atmospheric He Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Pierre-Marie; Arbabian, Atousa; Fleury, Michel; Bauville, Gérard; Puech, Vincent; Dutreix, Marie; Sousa, João Santos

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) have emerged over the last decade as a new promising therapy to fight cancer. CAPPs’ antitumor activity is primarily due to the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), but the precise determination of the constituents linked to this anticancer process remains to be done. In the present study, using a micro-plasma jet produced in helium (He), we demonstrate that the concentration of H2O2, NO2− and NO3− can fully account for the majority of RONS produced in plasma-activated buffer. The role of these species on the viability of normal and tumour cell lines was investigated. Although the degree of sensitivity to H2O2 is cell-type dependent, we show that H2O2 alone cannot account for the toxicity of He plasma. Indeed, NO2−, but not NO3−, acts in synergy with H2O2 to enhance cell death in normal and tumour cell lines to a level similar to that observed after plasma treatment. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of plasma treatment strongly depends on the combination of H2O2 and NO2− in determined concentrations. We also show that the interaction of the He plasma jet with the ambient air is required to generate NO2− and NO3− in solution. PMID:27364563

  12. Simultaneous photoinduced generation of Fe(2+) and H2O2 in rivers: An indicator for photo-Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    The photo-Fenton reaction is a key source of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (HO) that is produced by the reaction of simultaneous photo-induced generation of Fe(2)(+)-dissolved organic matter (DOM) with H2O2 in sunlit surface waters as well as in the treatment of organic pollutants in the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Concentrations of both H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM were dependent on time and total solar intensity flux, and their levels were highest in the diurnal samples collected at noon compared with the samples collected during the period before sunrise and after sunset. H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM concentrations during monthly readings were also found higher in comparison with the diurnal samples, shortly before sunrise or after sunset. A π-electron bonding system is formed between Fe and the functional groups in DOM (Fe-DOM), through electron donation from the functional groups of DOM to an empty d-orbital of Fe. The π-electron is loosely bound and is highly susceptible to a rapid excitation upon light exposure that will provide better understanding of the formation of aqueous electrons, superoxide radical anions, H2O2 and finally, photo-Fenton reactions, too. Our results imply that simultaneous generation of H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM upon sunlight exposure during the daytime is most likely to be the key photo-Fenton reaction pathway, taking place in surface waters.

  13. Metformin Selectively Attenuates Mitochondrial H2O2 Emission without Affecting Respiratory Capacity in Skeletal Muscle of Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Daniel A.; Anderson, Ethan J.; Price, Jesse W.; Woodlief, Tracey L.; Lin, Chien-Te; Bikman, Benjamin T.; Cortright, Ronald N.; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2010-01-01

    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, although no cellular mechanism of action has been established. To determine whether in vivo metformin treatment alters mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, respiratory O2 flux and H2O2 emission were measured in saponin-permeabilized myofibers from lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats treated for 4 wks with metformin. Succinate- and palmitoyl-carnitine- supported respiration generated >2-fold higher rates of H2O2 emission in myofibers from untreated obese versus lean rats, indicative of an obesity-associated increased mitochondrial oxidant emitting potential. In conjunction with improved glycemic control, metformin treatment reduced H2O2 emission in muscle from obese rats to rates near or below those observed in lean rats during both succinate- and palmitoyl-carnitine- supported respiration. Surprisingly, metformin treatment did not affect basal or maximal rates of O2 consumption in muscle from obese or lean rats. Ex vivo dose-response experiments revealed that metformin inhibits complex I-linked H2O2 emission at a concentration ∼2 orders of magnitude lower than that required to inhibit respiratory O2 flux. These findings suggest that therapeutic concentrations of metformin normalize mitochondrial H2O2 emission by blocking reverse electron flow without affecting forward electron flow or respiratory O2 flux in skeletal muscle. PMID:20600832

  14. [Degradation of Organic Sunscreens 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone by UV/ H2O2 Process: Kinetics and Factors].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin-xin; Du, Er-deng; Guo, Ying-qing; Li, Hua-jie; Liu, Xiang; Zhou, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Organic sunscreens continue to enter the environment through people's daily consumption, and become a kind of emerging contaminants. The photochemical degradation of benzophenone-3 (BP-3) in water by UV/H2O2 process was investigated. Several factors, including the initial BP-3 concentration, H2O2 concentration, UV light intensity, coexisting cations and anions, humic acid and tert-butyl alcohol, were also discussed. The results showed that BP-3 degradation rate constant decreased with increasing initial BP-3 concentration, while increased with increasing H2O2 dosage and UV intensity. Coexisting anions could reduce the degradation rate, while coexisting ferric ions could stimulate the production of OH through Fenton-like reaction, further significantly accelerated BP-3 degradation process. The BP-3 degradation would be inhibited by humic acid or tert-butyl alcohol. The electrical energy per order (E(Eo)) values were also calculated to evaluate the cost of BP-3 degradation by UV/H2O2 process. The addition of ferric ions significantly reduced the value of E(Eo). The investigation of processing parameter could provide a reference for the practical engineering applications of benzophenone compounds removal by UV/H2O2 process.

  15. Synergistic Effect of H2O2 and NO2 in Cell Death Induced by Cold Atmospheric He Plasma.

    PubMed

    Girard, Pierre-Marie; Arbabian, Atousa; Fleury, Michel; Bauville, Gérard; Puech, Vincent; Dutreix, Marie; Sousa, João Santos

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) have emerged over the last decade as a new promising therapy to fight cancer. CAPPs' antitumor activity is primarily due to the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), but the precise determination of the constituents linked to this anticancer process remains to be done. In the present study, using a micro-plasma jet produced in helium (He), we demonstrate that the concentration of H2O2, NO2(-) and NO3(-) can fully account for the majority of RONS produced in plasma-activated buffer. The role of these species on the viability of normal and tumour cell lines was investigated. Although the degree of sensitivity to H2O2 is cell-type dependent, we show that H2O2 alone cannot account for the toxicity of He plasma. Indeed, NO2(-), but not NO3(-), acts in synergy with H2O2 to enhance cell death in normal and tumour cell lines to a level similar to that observed after plasma treatment. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of plasma treatment strongly depends on the combination of H2O2 and NO2(-) in determined concentrations. We also show that the interaction of the He plasma jet with the ambient air is required to generate NO2(-) and NO3(-) in solution.

  16. H2O2 acts on cellular membranes to generate ceramide signaling and initiate apoptosis in tracheobronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Goldkorn, T; Balaban, N; Shannon, M; Chea, V; Matsukuma, K; Gilchrist, D; Wang, H; Chan, C

    1998-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an inflammatory oxidant which contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as lung injury of the respiratory tract, atherosclerosis and cancer. The mechanisms and target sites of this reactive oxidant are mainly unknown. So far there are opposing reports as to whether reactive oxidants inhibit or promote apoptosis. We activated the death pathway in primary tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) cells with H2O2 (20-200 microM) and observed the morphological changes, DNA laddering patterns, and DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis. Elevation of ceramide with exogenous ceramide analogs was sufficient for apoptosis induction with the same characteristics and in the same time frame. H2O2 induced rapid sphingomyelin hydrolysis to ceramide, the elevation of which paralleled the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, H2O2 acted directly on TBE cells membrane preparations devoid of nuclei, stimulating sphingomyelin hydrolysis through a neutral Mg2+ dependent sphingomyelinase (SMase). These data suggest that the formation of ceramide from sphingomyelin in the plasma membrane is a key event in H2O2-induced apoptosis in tracheobronchial epithelial cells.

  17. Metformin selectively attenuates mitochondrial H2O2 emission without affecting respiratory capacity in skeletal muscle of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Kane, Daniel A; Anderson, Ethan J; Price, Jesse W; Woodlief, Tracey L; Lin, Chien-Te; Bikman, Benjamin T; Cortright, Ronald N; Neufer, P Darrell

    2010-09-15

    Metformin is a widely prescribed drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, although no cellular mechanism of action has been established. To determine whether in vivo metformin treatment alters mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, respiratory O(2) flux and H(2)O(2) emission were measured in saponin-permeabilized myofibers from lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats treated for 4 weeks with metformin. Succinate- and palmitoylcarnitine-supported respiration generated greater than twofold higher rates of H(2)O(2) emission in myofibers from untreated obese versus lean rats, indicative of an obesity-associated increased mitochondrial oxidant emitting potential. In conjunction with improved glycemic control, metformin treatment reduced H(2)O(2) emission in muscle from obese rats to rates near or below those observed in lean rats during both succinate- and palmitoylcarnitine-supported respiration. Surprisingly, metformin treatment did not affect basal or maximal rates of O(2) consumption in muscle from obese or lean rats. Ex vivo dose-response experiments revealed that metformin inhibits complex I-linked H(2)O(2) emission at a concentration approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than that required to inhibit respiratory O(2) flux. These findings suggest that therapeutic concentrations of metformin normalize mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission by blocking reverse electron flow without affecting forward electron flow or respiratory O(2) flux in skeletal muscle.

  18. Synergistic Effect of H2O2 and NO2 in Cell Death Induced by Cold Atmospheric He Plasma.

    PubMed

    Girard, Pierre-Marie; Arbabian, Atousa; Fleury, Michel; Bauville, Gérard; Puech, Vincent; Dutreix, Marie; Sousa, João Santos

    2016-01-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPPs) have emerged over the last decade as a new promising therapy to fight cancer. CAPPs' antitumor activity is primarily due to the delivery of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), but the precise determination of the constituents linked to this anticancer process remains to be done. In the present study, using a micro-plasma jet produced in helium (He), we demonstrate that the concentration of H2O2, NO2(-) and NO3(-) can fully account for the majority of RONS produced in plasma-activated buffer. The role of these species on the viability of normal and tumour cell lines was investigated. Although the degree of sensitivity to H2O2 is cell-type dependent, we show that H2O2 alone cannot account for the toxicity of He plasma. Indeed, NO2(-), but not NO3(-), acts in synergy with H2O2 to enhance cell death in normal and tumour cell lines to a level similar to that observed after plasma treatment. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of plasma treatment strongly depends on the combination of H2O2 and NO2(-) in determined concentrations. We also show that the interaction of the He plasma jet with the ambient air is required to generate NO2(-) and NO3(-) in solution. PMID:27364563

  19. Putative role of the malate valve enzyme NADP-malate dehydrogenase in H2O2 signalling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Heyno, Eiri; Innocenti, Gilles; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2014-04-19

    In photosynthetic organisms, sudden changes in light intensity perturb the photosynthetic electron flow and lead to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. At the same time, thioredoxins can sense the redox state of the chloroplast. According to our hypothesis, thioredoxins and related thiol reactive molecules downregulate the activity of H2O2-detoxifying enzymes, and thereby allow a transient oxidative burst that triggers the expression of H2O2 responsive genes. It has been shown recently that upon light stress, catalase activity was reversibly inhibited in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in correlation with a transient increase in the level of H2O2. Here, it is shown that Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking the NADP-malate dehydrogenase have lost the reversible inactivation of catalase activity and the increase in H2O2 levels when exposed to high light. The mutants were slightly affected in growth and accumulated higher levels of NADPH in the chloroplast than the wild-type. We propose that the malate valve plays an essential role in the regulation of catalase activity and the accumulation of a H2O2 signal by transmitting the redox state of the chloroplast to other cell compartments. PMID:24591715

  20. Simultaneous photoinduced generation of Fe(2+) and H2O2 in rivers: An indicator for photo-Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Khan M G; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    The photo-Fenton reaction is a key source of the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (HO) that is produced by the reaction of simultaneous photo-induced generation of Fe(2)(+)-dissolved organic matter (DOM) with H2O2 in sunlit surface waters as well as in the treatment of organic pollutants in the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Concentrations of both H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM were dependent on time and total solar intensity flux, and their levels were highest in the diurnal samples collected at noon compared with the samples collected during the period before sunrise and after sunset. H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM concentrations during monthly readings were also found higher in comparison with the diurnal samples, shortly before sunrise or after sunset. A π-electron bonding system is formed between Fe and the functional groups in DOM (Fe-DOM), through electron donation from the functional groups of DOM to an empty d-orbital of Fe. The π-electron is loosely bound and is highly susceptible to a rapid excitation upon light exposure that will provide better understanding of the formation of aqueous electrons, superoxide radical anions, H2O2 and finally, photo-Fenton reactions, too. Our results imply that simultaneous generation of H2O2 and Fe(2)(+)-DOM upon sunlight exposure during the daytime is most likely to be the key photo-Fenton reaction pathway, taking place in surface waters. PMID:27593270

  1. Photodegradation of the antineoplastic cyclophosphamide: a comparative study of the efficiencies of UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 processes.

    PubMed

    Lutterbeck, Carlos Alexandre; Machado, Ênio Leandro; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drugs are harmful substances that can have carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, genotoxic, and cytotoxic effects even at low concentrations. More than 50 years after its introduction, the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (CP) is still one of the most consumed anticancer drug worldwide. CP has been detected in water bodies in several studies and is known as being persistent in the aquatic environment. As the traditional water and wastewater treatment technologies are not able to remove CP from the water, different treatment options such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are under discussion to eliminate these compounds. The present study investigated the degradation of CP by three different AOPs: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. The light source was a Hg medium-pressure lamp. Prescreening tests were carried out and afterwards experiments based on the optimized conditions were performed. The primary elimination of the parent compounds and the detection of transformation products (TPs) were monitored with LC-UV-MS/MS analysis, whereas the degree of mineralization was monitored by measuring the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Ecotoxicological assays were carried out with the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. CP was completely degraded in all treatments and UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 was the fastest process, followed by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. All the reactions obeyed pseudo-first order kinetics. Considering the mineralization UV/Fe(2+)/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 were the most efficient process with mineralization degrees higher than 85%, whereas UV/H2O2 achieved 72.5% of DOC removal. Five transformation products were formed during the reactions and identified. None of them showed significant toxicity against V. fischeri. PMID:25303738

  2. Improved direct bonding of Si and SiO2 surfaces by cleaning in H2SO4:H2O2:HF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Karin; Söderbärg, Anders; Jansson, Ulf

    1995-07-01

    A method for silicon surface preparation prior to wafer bonding is presented. By cleaning the wafers in a H2SO4:H2O2 mixture in which a small amount of HF is added, and then rinsing in H2O, the bonding behavior of the surfaces is improved, compared to other pretreatments used for bonding. The modified SPM cleaning results in a highly fluorinated chemical oxide on the Si surface. A subsequent water rinse causes substitution of F by OH groups, which increase the initial attraction of the mating surfaces. Higher contact wave velocities and bond strengths than reported for other surface pretreatments have been measured, both for bare and thermally oxidized silicon surfaces.

  3. Alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment for fermentable sugar production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inevitable depletion of fossil fuels has resulted in an increasing worldwide interest in exploring alternative and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulose, which is the most abundant biomass on earth, is widely regarded as a promising raw material to produce fuel ethanol. Pretreatment is an essential step to disrupt the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic matrix for enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production. This paper established an ATSE (alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment) process using a specially designed twin-screw extruder in the presence of alkaline solution to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover for the production of fermentable sugars. Results The ATSE pretreatment was conducted with a biomass/liquid ratio of 1/2 (w/w) at a temperature of 99°C without heating equipment. The results indicated that ATSE pretreatment is effective in improving the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Sodium hydroxide loading is more influential factor affecting both sugar yield and lignin degradation than heat preservation time. After ATSE pretreatment under the proper conditions (NaOH loading of 0.06 g/g biomass during ATSE and 1 hour heat preservation after extrusion), 71% lignin removal was achieved and the conversions of glucan and xylan in the pretreated biomass can reach to 83% and 89% respectively via subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g-biomass and substrate consistency of 2%). About 78% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars. Conclusions With the physicochemical functions in extrusion, the ATSE method can effectively overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover. This process can be considered as a promising pretreatment method due to its relatively low temperature (99°C), high biomass/liquid ratio (1/2) and satisfied total sugar yield (78%), despite further study is needed for process

  4. Upper limits for stratospheric H2O2 and HOCl from high resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.; Murcray, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Solar absorption spectra from two stratospheric balloon flights have been analyzed for the presence of H2O2 and HOCl absorption in the 1230.0 to 1255.0 per cm region. The data were recorded at 0.02 per cm resolution during sunset with the University of Denver interferometer system on October 27, 1978 and March 23, 1981. Selected spectral regions were analyzed with the technique of nonlinear least squares spectral curve fitting. Upper limits of 0.33 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.36 ppbv for HOCl near 28 km are derived from the 1978 flight data while upper limits of 0.44 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.43 ppbv for HOCl at 29.5 km are obtained from the 1981 flight data.

  5. The catalytic activity of Ag2S-montmorillonites as peroxidase mimetic toward colorimetric detection of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyun; Jiang, Yanling; Zhang, Leyou; Zhou, Xinpei; Lv, Xintian; Ding, Yanyuan; Sun, Lifang; Chen, Pengpeng; Yin, Hailiang

    2016-08-01

    Nanocomposites based on silver sulfide (Ag2S) and Ca-montmorillonite (Ca(2+)-MMT) were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). The as-prepared Ag2S-MMT nanocomposites were firstly demonstrated to possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and could rapidly catalytically oxidize the substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2 to produce a blue product which can be seen by the naked eye in only one minute. The experimental results revealed that the Ag2S-MMT nanocomposites exhibit higher thermal durance. Based on the TMB-H2O2 catalyzed color reaction, the Ag2S-MMT nanocomposites were exploited as a new type of biosensor for detection and estimation of H2O2 through a simple, cheap and selective colorimetric method. PMID:27157733

  6. Sorption of diclofenac and naproxen onto MWCNT in model wastewater treated by H2O2 and/or UV.

    PubMed

    Czech, Bożena; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-04-01

    The application of oxidation processes such as UV and/or H2O2 will change the physicochemical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT). It may affect the sorption affinity of CNT to different contaminants and then affect their fate in the environment. In the present study the adsorption of two very common used pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and naproxen) onto CNT treated by UV, H2O2 or UV/H2O2 was investigated. Four different adsorption models (Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich) were tested. The best fitting of experimental data was observed for Freundlich or Langmuir model. The significant relationships between Q calculated from Langmuir model with O% and dispersity were observed. Kinetics of diclofenac and naproxen followed mainly pseudo-second order indicating for chemisorption limiting step of adsorption. The data showed that the mechanism of sorption was physical or chemical depending on the type of CNT modification.

  7. Giardia duodenalis: Number and Fluorescence Reduction Caused by the Advanced Oxidation Process (H2O2/UV)

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, José Roberto; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Guadagnini, Regiane Aparecida; dos Santos, Luciana Urbano

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of peroxidation assisted by ultraviolet radiation (H2O2/UV), which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP), on Giardia duodenalis cysts. The cysts were inoculated in synthetic and surface water using a concentration of 12 g H2O2 L−1 and a UV dose (λ = 254 nm) of 5,480 mJcm−2. The aqueous solutions were concentrated using membrane filtration, and the organisms were observed using a direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The AOP was effective in reducing the number of G. duodenalis cysts in synthetic and surface water and was most effective in reducing the fluorescence of the cyst walls that were present in the surface water. The AOP showed a higher deleterious potential for G. duodenalis cysts than either peroxidation (H2O2) or photolysis (UV) processes alone. PMID:27379301

  8. [Treatment of 4, 4'-dBB in aqueous solution using O3/H2O2 system and its synergetic kinetics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Jin-feng; Lu, Xiao-ping; Han, Ping-fang

    2007-09-01

    A comparative study of O3 alone and O3/H2O2 was made to evaluate their respective effectiveness for removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from water with 4, 4'-dibro minated biphenyl (4, 4'-DBB) as the model pollutant, and UV254 was used as the surrogate parameter for TOC and DOC. It was found that both processes enhanced the removal rate. Especially, it has been made a further enhancement of the removal of 4, 4'-DBB as H2O2 was added under the alkaline-condition. The final removal rate of 4 mg/L 4, 4'-DBB solution reached 78.0% after reacting for 270 min, while the UV254 value varies with the removal rate and reached 76.9%-77.8% ultimately. It means that the total organic carbon has been removed obviously. Two kinds of solution of different concentration with the same amount of oxidant reacting for the same time have been compared with each other and the results showed that the higher the initial concentration was, the smaller the removal rate was, however, the more the absolute amount could be removed. It was also found that 4, 4'-DBB's removal followed pseudo-first order reaction and the promoted factor f for 4, 4'-DBB removal rate constant was about 1.54.

  9. Cyanide oxidation by singlet oxygen generated via reaction between H2O2 from cathodic reduction and OCl(-) from anodic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shichao; Li, Yibing; Zeng, Huabin; Guan, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xu

    2016-11-15

    Cyanide is widely present in electroplating wastewater or metallurgical effluents. In the present study, the electrochemical destruction of cyanide with various anode and cathode compositions under alkaline conditions was investigated. The results indicated that the electrochemical system using RuO2/Ti as anode and activated carbon fiber (ACF) as cathode in the presence of sodium chloride was efficient for the cyanide removal. In this system, in situ generation of HClO by anodic oxidation of Cl(-) at RuO2/Ti anode occurred with the H2O2 generation by O2 reduction at ACF cathode. As confirmed by the electron spin resonance technique, the reaction between HClO and H2O2 led to the generation of singlet oxygen, which was responsible for the cyanide removal. Further experiment indicated that the cyanide removal efficiency increased with the increase of the current density or the sodium chloride concentration. Cyanate was identified as main product in the system. Besides, the system exhibited good stability for the cyanide removal, which was beneficial to its practical application. PMID:27505273

  10. ALA Inhibits ABA-induced Stomatal Closure via Reducing H2O2 and Ca(2+) Levels in Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    An, Yuyan; Liu, Longbo; Chen, Linghui; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a newly proved natural plant growth regulator, is well known to improve plant photosynthesis under both normal and stressful conditions. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Stomatal closure is one of the major limiting factors for photosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone in provoking stomatal closing. Here, we showed that ALA significantly inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure using wild-type and ALA-overproducing transgenic Arabidopsis (YHem1). We found that ALA decreased ABA-induced H2O2 and cytosolic Ca(2+) accumulation in guard cells with stomatal bioassay, laser-scanning confocal microscopy and pharmacological methods. The inhibitory effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was similar to that of AsA (an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal), CAT (a H2O2-scavenging enzyme), DPI (an inhibitor of the H2O2-generating NADPH oxidase), EGTA (a Ca-chelating agent), and AlCl3 (an inhibitor of calcium channel). Furthermore, ALA inhibited exogenous H2O2- or Ca(2+)-induced stomatal closure. Taken together, we conclude that ALA inhibits ABA-induced stomatal closure via reducing H2O2, probably by scavenging, and Ca(2+) levels in guard cells. Moreover, the inhibitive effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was further confirmed in the whole plant. Finally, we demonstrated that ALA inhibits stomatal closing, but significantly improves plant drought tolerance. Our results provide valuable information for the promotion of plant production and development of a sustainable low-carbon society.

  11. Expression of ROS-responsive genes and transcription factors after metabolic formation of H2O2 in chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Balazadeh, Salma; Jaspert, Nils; Arif, Muhammad; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Maurino, Veronica G.

    2012-01-01

    Glycolate oxidase (GO) catalyses the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate, thereby consuming O2 and producing H2O2. In this work, Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing GO in the chloroplasts (GO plants) were used to assess the expressional behavior of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive genes and transcription factors (TFs) after metabolic induction of H2O2 formation in chloroplasts. In this organelle, GO uses the glycolate derived from the oxygenase activity of RubisCO. Here, to identify genes responding to an abrupt production of H2O2 in chloroplasts we used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to test the expression of 187 ROS-responsive genes and 1880 TFs after transferring GO and wild-type (WT) plants grown at high CO2 levels to ambient CO2 concentration. Our data revealed coordinated expression changes of genes of specific functional networks 0.5 h after metabolic induction of H2O2 production in GO plants, including the induction of indole glucosinolate and camalexin biosynthesis genes. Comparative analysis using available microarray data suggests that signals for the induction of these genes through H2O2 may originate in the chloroplast. The TF profiling indicated an up-regulation in GO plants of a group of genes involved in the regulation of proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin biosynthesis. Moreover, the upregulation of expression of TF and TF-interacting proteins affecting development (e.g., cell division, stem branching, flowering time, flower development) would impact growth and reproductive capacity, resulting in altered development under conditions that promote the formation of H2O2. PMID:23125844

  12. ALA Inhibits ABA-induced Stomatal Closure via Reducing H2O2 and Ca(2+) Levels in Guard Cells.

    PubMed

    An, Yuyan; Liu, Longbo; Chen, Linghui; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a newly proved natural plant growth regulator, is well known to improve plant photosynthesis under both normal and stressful conditions. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Stomatal closure is one of the major limiting factors for photosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone in provoking stomatal closing. Here, we showed that ALA significantly inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure using wild-type and ALA-overproducing transgenic Arabidopsis (YHem1). We found that ALA decreased ABA-induced H2O2 and cytosolic Ca(2+) accumulation in guard cells with stomatal bioassay, laser-scanning confocal microscopy and pharmacological methods. The inhibitory effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was similar to that of AsA (an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal), CAT (a H2O2-scavenging enzyme), DPI (an inhibitor of the H2O2-generating NADPH oxidase), EGTA (a Ca-chelating agent), and AlCl3 (an inhibitor of calcium channel). Furthermore, ALA inhibited exogenous H2O2- or Ca(2+)-induced stomatal closure. Taken together, we conclude that ALA inhibits ABA-induced stomatal closure via reducing H2O2, probably by scavenging, and Ca(2+) levels in guard cells. Moreover, the inhibitive effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was further confirmed in the whole plant. Finally, we demonstrated that ALA inhibits stomatal closing, but significantly improves plant drought tolerance. Our results provide valuable information for the promotion of plant production and development of a sustainable low-carbon society. PMID:27148309

  13. ALA Inhibits ABA-induced Stomatal Closure via Reducing H2O2 and Ca2+ Levels in Guard Cells

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuyan; Liu, Longbo; Chen, Linghui; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a newly proved natural plant growth regulator, is well known to improve plant photosynthesis under both normal and stressful conditions. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Stomatal closure is one of the major limiting factors for photosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone in provoking stomatal closing. Here, we showed that ALA significantly inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure using wild-type and ALA-overproducing transgenic Arabidopsis (YHem1). We found that ALA decreased ABA-induced H2O2 and cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in guard cells with stomatal bioassay, laser-scanning confocal microscopy and pharmacological methods. The inhibitory effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was similar to that of AsA (an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal), CAT (a H2O2-scavenging enzyme), DPI (an inhibitor of the H2O2-generating NADPH oxidase), EGTA (a Ca-chelating agent), and AlCl3 (an inhibitor of calcium channel). Furthermore, ALA inhibited exogenous H2O2- or Ca2+-induced stomatal closure. Taken together, we conclude that ALA inhibits ABA-induced stomatal closure via reducing H2O2, probably by scavenging, and Ca2+ levels in guard cells. Moreover, the inhibitive effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was further confirmed in the whole plant. Finally, we demonstrated that ALA inhibits stomatal closing, but significantly improves plant drought tolerance. Our results provide valuable information for the promotion of plant production and development of a sustainable low-carbon society. PMID:27148309

  14. Treatment of MSW landfill leachate by a thin gap annular UV/H2O2 photoreactor with multi-UV lamps.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Fan, Hung-Jung; Chang, Ming-Chin; Hsieh, Wen-Pin

    2006-02-28

    The treatment of leachate from landfills is a major disposal problem for municipal solid waste. The leachate is generally recalcitrant to be treated according to complicated characteristics and high color intensity resulting further threat for environment and human health. In this work, the designed thin gap annular photoreactor with 4-UV lamps in UV/H2O2 process was proposed to decolor and remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the landfill leachate for solving this environmental problem. Meanwhile, the operating parameters such as UV dosage, hydrogen peroxide concentration and leachate strength were evaluated. The landfill leachate treated with the maximum dosage of 4-UV lamps and 232.7 mM of hydrogen peroxide concentration achieved 72 and 65% of color and COD removal efficiencies in 300 min. As for less concentrated leachate of 20% strength, 91% of color and 87% of COD were removed within only 120 min. From the experimental results, the UV/H2O2 process in this work was an effective pre-treatment or treatment technology for landfill leachate. PMID:16157447

  15. Treatment of MSW landfill leachate by a thin gap annular UV/H2O2 photoreactor with multi-UV lamps.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Fan, Hung-Jung; Chang, Ming-Chin; Hsieh, Wen-Pin

    2006-02-28

    The treatment of leachate from landfills is a major disposal problem for municipal solid waste. The leachate is generally recalcitrant to be treated according to complicated characteristics and high color intensity resulting further threat for environment and human health. In this work, the designed thin gap annular photoreactor with 4-UV lamps in UV/H2O2 process was proposed to decolor and remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the landfill leachate for solving this environmental problem. Meanwhile, the operating parameters such as UV dosage, hydrogen peroxide concentration and leachate strength were evaluated. The landfill leachate treated with the maximum dosage of 4-UV lamps and 232.7 mM of hydrogen peroxide concentration achieved 72 and 65% of color and COD removal efficiencies in 300 min. As for less concentrated leachate of 20% strength, 91% of color and 87% of COD were removed within only 120 min. From the experimental results, the UV/H2O2 process in this work was an effective pre-treatment or treatment technology for landfill leachate.

  16. 2-Methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (MAM), a natural naphthoquinone, induces NO-dependent apoptosis and necroptosis by H2O2-dependent JNK activation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen; Bao, Jiaolin; Lin, Wei; Gao, Hongwei; Zhao, Wenwen; Zhang, Qingwen; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-03-01

    Redox signaling plays a fundamental role in maintaining cell physiological activities. A deregulation of this balance through oxidative stress or nitrosative stress has been implicated in cancer. Here, we reported that 2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyl juglone (MAM), a natural naphthoquinone isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc, caused hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dependent activation of JNK and induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thereby leading to nitric oxide (NO) generation in multiple cancer cells. Nitrosative stress induced necroptosis in A549 lung cancer cells, but resulted in caspase-dependent intrinsic apoptosis in B16-F10 melanoma and MCF7 breast cancer cells. In addition, a decrease in GSH/GSSG levels accompanied with increased ROS production was observed. Reversal of ROS generation and cell death in GSH pretreated cells indicated the involvement of GSH depletion in MAM mediated cytotoxicity. In summary, a natural product MAM induced NO-dependent multiple forms of cell death in cancer cells mediated by H2O2-dependent JNK activation in cancer cells. GSH depletion might play an initial role in MAM-induced cytotoxicity. PMID:26802903

  17. A laser flash photolysis kinetics study of the reaction OH + H2O2 yields HO2 + H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, P. H.; Semmes, D. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the reaction are reported as a function of temperature over the range 273-410 K. OH radicals are produced by 266 nm laser photolysis of H2O2 and detected by resonance fluorescence. H2O2 concentrations are determined in situ in the slow flow system by UV photometry. The results confirm the findings of two recent discharge flow-resonance fluorescence studies that the title reaction is considerably faster, particularly at temperatures below 300 K, than all earlier studies had indicated. A table giving kinetic data from the reaction is included.

  18. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin in egg-phosphatidylcholine films and its catalysis to H(2)O(2).

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaojun; Huang, Weimin; Jia, Jianbo; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2002-09-01

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin was observed in stable thin film composed of a natural lipid (egg-phosphatidylcholine) and hemoglobin on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrode. Hemoglobin in lipid films shows thin layer electrochemistry behavior. The formal potential E degrees ' of hemoglobin in the lipid film was linearly varied with pH in the range from 3.5 to 7.0 with a slope of -46.4 mV pH(-1). Hemoglobin in the lipid film exhibited elegant catalytic activity for electrochemical reduction of H(2)O(2), based which a unmediated biosensor for H(2)O(2) was developed.

  19. Emerging micropollutant oxidation during disinfection processes using UV-C, UV-C/H2O2, UV-A/TiO2 and UV-A/TiO2/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Cristina; Marugán, Javier; van Grieken, Rafael; Serrano, Elena

    2013-03-01

    Regeneration of wastewater treatment plant effluents constitutes a solution to increase the availability of water resources in arid regions. Water reuse legislation imposes an exhaustive control of the microbiological quality of water in the operation of disinfection tertiary treatments. Additionally, recent reports have paid increasing attention to emerging micropollutants with potential biological effects even at trace level concentration. This work focuses on the evaluation of several photochemical technologies as disinfection processes with the aim of simultaneously achieving bacterial inactivation and oxidation of pharmaceuticals as examples of emerging micropollutants typically present in water and widely studied in the literature. UV-C-based processes show a high efficiency to inactivate bacteria. However, the bacterial damages are reversible and only when using H(2)O(2), bacterial reproduction is affected. Moreover, a complete elimination of pharmaceutical compounds was not achieved at the end of the inactivation process. In contrast, UV-A/TiO(2) required a longer irradiation time to inactivate bacteria but pharmaceuticals were completely removed along the process. In addition, its oxidation mechanism, based on hydroxyl radicals (OH), leads to irreversible bacterial damages, not requiring of chemicals to avoid bacterial regrowth. For UV-A/TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) process, the addition of H(2)O(2) improved Escherichia coli inactivation since the cell wall weakening, due to OH attacks, allowed H(2)O(2) to diffuse into the bacteria. However, a total elimination of the pharmaceuticals was not achieved during the inactivation process.

  20. Emerging micropollutant oxidation during disinfection processes using UV-C, UV-C/H2O2, UV-A/TiO2 and UV-A/TiO2/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Pablos, Cristina; Marugán, Javier; van Grieken, Rafael; Serrano, Elena

    2013-03-01

    Regeneration of wastewater treatment plant effluents constitutes a solution to increase the availability of water resources in arid regions. Water reuse legislation imposes an exhaustive control of the microbiological quality of water in the operation of disinfection tertiary treatments. Additionally, recent reports have paid increasing attention to emerging micropollutants with potential biological effects even at trace level concentration. This work focuses on the evaluation of several photochemical technologies as disinfection processes with the aim of simultaneously achieving bacterial inactivation and oxidation of pharmaceuticals as examples of emerging micropollutants typically present in water and widely studied in the literature. UV-C-based processes show a high efficiency to inactivate bacteria. However, the bacterial damages are reversible and only when using H(2)O(2), bacterial reproduction is affected. Moreover, a complete elimination of pharmaceutical compounds was not achieved at the end of the inactivation process. In contrast, UV-A/TiO(2) required a longer irradiation time to inactivate bacteria but pharmaceuticals were completely removed along the process. In addition, its oxidation mechanism, based on hydroxyl radicals (OH), leads to irreversible bacterial damages, not requiring of chemicals to avoid bacterial regrowth. For UV-A/TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) process, the addition of H(2)O(2) improved Escherichia coli inactivation since the cell wall weakening, due to OH attacks, allowed H(2)O(2) to diffuse into the bacteria. However, a total elimination of the pharmaceuticals was not achieved during the inactivation process. PMID:23276426

  1. Neuroprotective effects of the Phellinus linteus ethyl acetate extract against H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death of SK-N-MC cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Doo Jin; Cho, Sarang; Seo, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Hyang Burm; Park, Yong Il

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that neuronal cells are protected against oxidative stress-induced cell damage by antioxidants, such as polyphenolic compounds. Phellinus linteus (PL) has traditionally been used to treat various symptoms in East Asian countries. In the present study, we prepared an ethyl acetate extract from the fruiting bodies of PL (PLEA) using hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and ethyl acetate extraction. The PLEA contained polyphenols as its major chemical component, and thus, we predicted that it may exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. The results showed that the pretreatment of human brain neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells with the PLEA (0.1-5 μg/mL) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the cytotoxicity of H2O2 and the intracellular ROS levels and enhanced the expression of HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) and antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT (catalase), GPx-1 (glutathione peroxidase-1), and SOD-1 and -2 (superoxide dismutase-1 and -2). The PLEA also directly scavenged free radicals. PLEA pretreatment also significantly attenuated DNA fragmentation and suppressed the mRNA expression and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 kinase, which are induced by oxidative stress and lead to cell death. PLEA pretreatment inhibited the activation of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. These results demonstrate that the PLEA has neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress (H2O2)-induced neuronal cell death via its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. PLEA should be investigated in an in vivo model on its potential to prevent or ameliorate neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26773779

  2. Effect of H2O2 on the treatment of NO and NO2 using a Mg-Al oxide slurry.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Tomohito; Kodama, Aki; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effect of H2O2 on the removal of NO and NO2 by treatment with a Mg-Al oxide slurry. The removal of NO2 and dissolution of NOx species in an aqueous solution increased with increasing concentrations of H2O2. NO2 was reduced to NO2(-) by HOO(-) derived from H2O2. The contribution of Mg-Al oxide decreased with increasing H2O2 concentration. The addition of H2O2 to the Mg-Al oxide slurry promoted the removal of NO owing to the oxidation of NO to NO3(-) by H2O2. However, the contribution of Mg-Al oxide decreased with increasing H2O2 concentration.

  3. A Coupled Soil-Atmosphere Model of H2O2 on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, Mark A.; Stoker, Carol R.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Zent, Aaron P.

    1994-01-01

    The Viking Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer failed to detect organic compounds on Mars, and both the Viking Labeled Release and the Viking Gas Exchange experiments indicated a reactive soil surface. These results have led to the widespread belief that there are oxidants in the martian soil. Since H2O2 is produced by photochemical processes in the atmosphere of Mars, and has been shown in the laboratory to reproduce closely the Viking LR results, it is a likely candidate for a martian soil oxidant. Here, we report on the results of a coupled soil/atmosphere transport model for H202 on Mars. Upon diffusing into the soil, its concentration is determined by the extent to which it is adsorbed and by the rate at which it is catalytically destroyed. An analytical model for calculating the distribution of H202 in the martian atmosphere and soil is developed. The concentration of H202 in the soil is shown to go to zero at a finite depth, a consequence of the nonlinear soil diffusion equation. The model is parameterized in terms of an unknown quantity, the lifetime of H202 against heterogeneous catalytic destruction in the soil. Calculated concentrations are compared with a H202 concentration of 30 nmoles/cu cm, inferred from the Viking Labeled Release experiment. A significant result of this model is that for a wide range of H202 lifetimes (up to 105 years), the extinction depth was found to be less than 3 m. The maximum possible concentration in the top 4 cm is calculated to be approx. 240 nmoles/cu cm, achieved with lifetimes of greater than 1000 years. Concentrations higher than 30 nmoles/cu cm require lifetimes of greater than 4.3 terrestrial years. For a wide range of H202 lifetimes, it was found that the atmospheric concentration is only weakly coupled with soil loss processes. Losses to the soil become significant only when lifetimes are less than a few hours. If there are depths below which H202 is not transported, it is plausible that organic compounds

  4. Inhibition of Store-Operated Calcium Entry Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells from H2O2-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Ji-Hang; Yu, Yang; Yu, Jie; Huang, Lan

    2016-01-01

    Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), a major mode of extracellular calcium entry, plays roles in a variety of cell activities. Accumulating evidence indicates that the intracellular calcium ion concentration and calcium signaling are critical for the responses induced by oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effect of SOCE inhibition on H2O2-induced apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are the predominant cells involved in endothelial repair. The results showed that H2O2-induced EPC apoptosis was reversed by SOCE inhibition induced either using the SOCE antagonist ML-9 or via silencing of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a component of SOCE. Furthermore, SOCE inhibition repressed the increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and ameliorated the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by H2O2. Our findings provide evidence that SOCE inhibition exerts a protective effect on EPCs in response to oxidative stress induced by H2O2 and may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy against vascular endothelial injury. PMID:27169819

  5. In-situ non-disruptive cleaning of Ge(100) using H2O2(g) and atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman-Osborn, Tobin; Kiantaj, Kiarash; Chang, Chorng-Ping; Kummel, Andrew C.

    2014-12-01

    In-situ gas phase cleaning of the Ge(100) surface was studied at the atomic level using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) while chemical analysis of the surface was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). High purity H2O2(g) dosing removed carbon contamination from an air exposed Ge(100) sample. The oxide formed via H2O2(g) dosing was subsequently removed via either atomic hydrogen exposure at 300 °C or 550-700 °C annealing. STM imaging showed an air exposed Ge(100) surface after H2O2(g) dosing and 600-700 °C annealing produced a flat and ordered surface while STS verified the density of states (DOS) is equal to that of a Ge(100) surface which has been cleaned via sputter (500 °C) and annealing (700 °C). Combining H2O2(g) with atomic hydrogen dosing or annealing removed carbon via oxidation and oxygen via thermal desorption or reduction from an air exposed Ge(100) surface.

  6. Protective effects of veskamide, enferamide, becatamide, and oretamide on H2O2-induced apoptosis of PC-12 cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veskamide, enferamide, becatamide, and oretamide are phenolic amides whose analogues are found in plants. In this study, the four amides were prepared by chemical synthesis and their protective effects on H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells were investigated. The syntheses were relatively si...

  7. Degradation Mechanism of Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin by Hydroxyl Radicals in Homogeneous UV/H2O2 Process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a widely distributed and highly toxic cyanobacterial toxin (cyanotoxin), remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the mechanism of CYN destruction by UV-254 nm/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) was investigated by mass spectrometr...

  8. TAML/H2O2 Oxidative Degradation of Metaldehyde: Pursuing Better Water Treatment for the Most Persistent Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang L; DeNardo, Matthew A; Gayathri, Chakicherla; Gil, Roberto R; Kanda, Rakesh; Collins, Terrence J

    2016-05-17

    The extremely persistent molluscicide, metaldehyde, widely used on farms and gardens, is often detected in drinking water sources of various countries at concentrations of regulatory concern. Metaldehyde contamination restricts treatment options. Conventional technologies for remediating dilute organics in drinking water, activated carbon, and ozone, are insufficiently effective against metaldehyde. Some treatment plants have resorted to effective, but more costly UV/H2O2. Here we have examined if TAML/H2O2 can decompose metaldehyde under laboratory conditions to guide development of a better real world option. TAML/H2O2 slowly degrades metaldehyde to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) was used to monitor the degradation-the technique requires a high metaldehyde concentration (60 ppm). Within the pH range of 6.5-9, the reaction rate is greatest at pH 7. Under optimum conditions, one aliquot of TAML 1a (400 nM) catalyzed 5% degradation over 10 h with a turnover number of 40. Five sequential TAML aliquots (2 μM overall) effected a 31% removal over 60 h. TAML/H2O2 degraded metaldehyde steadily over many hours, highlighting an important long-service property. The observation of metaldehyde decomposition under mild conditions provides a further indication that TAML catalysis holds promise for advancing water treatment. These results have turned our attention to more aggressive TAML activators in development, which we expect will advance the observed technical performance. PMID:27088657

  9. A novel H(2)O(2) amperometric biosensor based on gold nanoparticles/self-doped polyaniline nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Chen, Zixuan; Zhu, Jinwei; Xu, Chenbin; Yan, Wei; Yao, Cheng

    2011-10-01

    A new kind of gold nanoparticles/self-doped polyaniline nanofibers (Au/SPAN) with grooves has been prepared for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The ratio of gold in the composite nanofibers was up to 64%, which could promote the conductivity and biocompatibility of SPAN and increase the immobilized amount of HRP molecules greatly. The electrode exhibits enhanced electrocatalytic activity in the reduction of H(2)O(2) in the presence of the mediator hydroquinone (HQ). The effects of concentration of HQ, solution pH and the working potential on the current response of the modified electrode toward H(2)O(2) were optimized to obtain the maximal sensitivity. The proposed biosensor exhibited a good linear response in the range from 10 to 2000 μM with a detection limit of 1.6 μM (S/N=3) under the optimum conditions. The response showed Michaelis-Menten behavior at larger H(2)O(2) concentrations, and the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant K(m) was estimated to be 2.21 mM. The detection of H(2)O(2) concentration in real sample showed acceptable accuracy with the traditional potassium permanganate titration. PMID:21664881

  10. H2O2 in plant peroxisomes: an in vivo analysis uncovers a Ca2+-dependent scavenging system

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alex; Drago, Ilaria; Behera, Smrutisanjita; Zottini, Michela; Pizzo, Paola; Schroeder, Julian I; Pozzan, Tullio; Schiavo, Fiorella Lo

    2010-01-01

    Summary Oxidative stress is a major challenge for all cells living in an oxygen-based world. Among reactive oxygen species, H2O2, is a well known toxic molecule and, nowadays, considered a specific component of several signalling pathways. In order to gain insight into the roles played by H2O2 in plant cells, it is necessary to have a reliable, specific and non-invasive methodology for its in vivo detection. Hence, the genetically-encoded H2O2 sensor HyPer was expressed in plant cells in different subcellular compartments such as cytoplasm and peroxisomes. Moreover, with the use of the new GFP-based Cameleon Ca2+ indicator, D3cpv-KVK-SKL, targeted to peroxisomes, we demonstrated that the induction of cytoplasmic Ca2+ increase is followed by Ca2+ rise in the peroxisomal lumen. The analyses of HyPer fluorescence ratios were performed in leaf peroxisomes of tobacco and pre- and post-bolting Arabidopsis plants. These analyses allowed us to demonstrate that an intraperoxisomal Ca2+ rise in vivo stimulates catalase activity, increasing peroxisomal H2O2 scavenging efficiency. PMID:20230493

  11. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.

    2014-06-20

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry’s law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henry’s law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

  12. Effects of nitrate on the UV photolysis of H2O2 for VOCs degradation in an aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Kang, S H; Lee, J Y; Lim, S H; Yun, Z; Yim, S K; Ko, K B

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to delineate the effect of nitrate on the UV oxidation of benzene and toluene, dissolved in less than 100 microg l(-1), by conducting a bench-scale operation at various reaction times and with various initial concentrations of H2O2 and NO3-. The oxidation of benzene and toluene can be expected to be only about 10% and 18%, respectively, through the photolysis of H2O2 (initial conc. of 50 mg l(-1)), where the reactor was operated at a reaction time of 2 min, with an initial NO(3-)-N concentration of 5 mg l(-1). Nitrate clearly hindered UV oxidation when the initial H2O2 concentration in the reactor was less than 50 mg l(-1). Even if approximately 40% removal could be achieved under the conditions mentioned above (an initial H2O2 concentration of 200 mg l(-1) at a reaction time of 9 min, with a high UV dose), the operating conditions for the 40% removal might be beyond the practical limits applied for effluents discharged from wastewater treatment plants. The results of the experiment also indicate that benzene and toluene can be oxidized in very limited amounts through direct photolysis, without additional oxidation by hydroxyl radicals.

  13. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

  14. H2O2 in time marine troposphere and seawater of the Atlantic Ocean (48 deg N - 63 deg S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Rolf; Schrems, Otto

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of H2O2 in gas phase and seawater have been measured in pristine regions of the Atlantic Ocean during the RV Polarstern expedition ANT X-1 from 11/15/91 to 01/02/02. A broad maximum of gaseous H2O2 mixing ratio in the troposphere was found between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricornus with peak values around 1.8 ppbv. The observed ratio of organic peroxides/total amount of peroxides was 0.2-0.35, in contrast to the remarkably lower ratio of 0.05-0.10 measured in the continental troposphere by other groups. In the Atlantic surface seawater the H2O2 concentrations were determined to be around 0.1 micromol/L, decreasing with increasing water depth to a value below the detection limit at approximately 100 m. We observed low H2O2 concentrations (about 0.03 micromol/L) in surface water in coastal shelf regions and in the partly ice covered Weddell Sea.

  15. Over-expression of Trxo1 increases the viability of tobacco BY-2 cells under H2O2 treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Locato, Vittoria; Camejo, Daymi; Schiermeyer, Andreas; De Gara, Laura; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide, play a critical role in the regulation of plant development and in the induction of plant defence responses during stress adaptation, as well as in plant cell death. The antioxidant system is responsible for controlling ROS levels in these processes but redox homeostasis is also a key factor in plant cell metabolism under normal and stress situations. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous small proteins found in different cell compartments, including mitochondria and nuclei (Trxo1), and are involved in the regulation of target proteins through reduction of disulphide bonds, although their role under oxidative stress has been less well studied. This study describes over-expression of a Trxo1 for the first time, using a cell-culture model subjected to an oxidative treatment provoked by H2O2. Methods Control and over-expressing PsTrxo1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells were treated with 35 mm H2O2 and the effects were analysed by studying the growth dynamics of the cultures together with oxidative stress parameters, as well as several components of the antioxidant systems involved in the metabolism of H2O2. Analysis of different hallmarks of programmed cell death was also carried out. Key Results Over-expression of PsTrxo1 caused significant differences in the response of TBY-2 cells to high concentrations of H2O2, namely higher and maintained viability in over-expressing cells, whilst the control line presented a severe decrease in viability and marked indications of oxidative stress, with generalized cell death after 3 d of treatment. In over-expressing cells, an increase in catalase activity, decreases in H2O2 and nitric oxide contents and maintenance of the glutathione redox state were observed. Conclusions A decreased content of endogenous H2O2 may be responsible in part for the delayed cell death found in over-expressing cells, in which changes in oxidative parameters and

  16. Comparative evaluation of iodoacids removal by UV/persulfate and UV/H2O2 processes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongjun; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Kok-Yong; Webster, Richard D; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2016-10-01

    To develop a cost-effective method for post-formation mitigation of iodinated disinfection by-products, degradation of iodoacids by UV, UV/PS (persulfate), and UV/H2O2 was extensively investigated in this study. UV direct photolysis of 4 iodoacids followed first-order kinetics with rate constants in the range of 2.43 × 10(-4)-3.02 × 10(-3) cm(2) kJ(-1). The derived quantum yields (Ф254) of the 4 iodoacids range from 0.13 to 0.34, respectively. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was subsequently established and applied to predict the direct photolysis rates of 6 other structurally similar iodoacids whose standards are commercially unavailable. At a UV dose of 140 mJ cm(-2) which is typically applied for disinfection of drinking water, the removal percentages of 4 iodoacids were only between 3.35% and 34.7%. Thus, ICH2CO2H (IAA), the most photo-recalcitrant species, was selected as the target compound for removal in the UV/PS and UV/H2O2 processes. The IAA degradation rates decreased with increasing pH from 3 to 11 in both processes. Humic acid (HA) and HCO3(-) had inhibitory effects on IAA degradation in both processes. Cl(-) adversely affected the IAA degradation in the UV/PS process but had no effect in the UV/H2O2 process. Generally, in the deionized (DI) water, surface water, treated drinking water, and secondary effluent, UV/PS process is more effective than UV/H2O2 process for IAA removal, based on the same molar ratio of oxidant: IAA. SO4(-) generated in the UV/PS process yields a greater mineralization of IAA than HO in the UV/H2O2 process. IO3(-) was the predominant end-product in the UV/PS process, while I(-) was the major end-product in the UV/H2O2 process. The respective contributions of UV, HO, and SO4(-) for IAA removal in the UV/PS process were 7.8%, 14.7%, and 77.5%, respectively, at a specific condition (1.5 μM IAA, 60 μM oxidant, and pH 7). Compared to UV/H2O2 process, UV/PS was also observed as more cost

  17. Comparative evaluation of iodoacids removal by UV/persulfate and UV/H2O2 processes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongjun; Zhang, Lifeng; Zhang, Wei; Lim, Kok-Yong; Webster, Richard D; Lim, Teik-Thye

    2016-10-01

    To develop a cost-effective method for post-formation mitigation of iodinated disinfection by-products, degradation of iodoacids by UV, UV/PS (persulfate), and UV/H2O2 was extensively investigated in this study. UV direct photolysis of 4 iodoacids followed first-order kinetics with rate constants in the range of 2.43 × 10(-4)-3.02 × 10(-3) cm(2) kJ(-1). The derived quantum yields (Ф254) of the 4 iodoacids range from 0.13 to 0.34, respectively. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was subsequently established and applied to predict the direct photolysis rates of 6 other structurally similar iodoacids whose standards are commercially unavailable. At a UV dose of 140 mJ cm(-2) which is typically applied for disinfection of drinking water, the removal percentages of 4 iodoacids were only between 3.35% and 34.7%. Thus, ICH2CO2H (IAA), the most photo-recalcitrant species, was selected as the target compound for removal in the UV/PS and UV/H2O2 processes. The IAA degradation rates decreased with increasing pH from 3 to 11 in both processes. Humic acid (HA) and HCO3(-) had inhibitory effects on IAA degradation in both processes. Cl(-) adversely affected the IAA degradation in the UV/PS process but had no effect in the UV/H2O2 process. Generally, in the deionized (DI) water, surface water, treated drinking water, and secondary effluent, UV/PS process is more effective than UV/H2O2 process for IAA removal, based on the same molar ratio of oxidant: IAA. SO4(-) generated in the UV/PS process yields a greater mineralization of IAA than HO in the UV/H2O2 process. IO3(-) was the predominant end-product in the UV/PS process, while I(-) was the major end-product in the UV/H2O2 process. The respective contributions of UV, HO, and SO4(-) for IAA removal in the UV/PS process were 7.8%, 14.7%, and 77.5%, respectively, at a specific condition (1.5 μM IAA, 60 μM oxidant, and pH 7). Compared to UV/H2O2 process, UV/PS was also observed as more cost

  18. Heterogeneous Reaction of SO2