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Sample records for alkaline medium ph

  1. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range.

  2. [Effect of calcium on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures].

    PubMed

    Liu, Liancheng; Wang, Cong; Dong, Juan'e; Su, Hui; Zhuo, Zequn; Xue, Yaxin

    2013-07-01

    We studied medium alkalinization in Salvia miltiorrhiza suspension cultures treated with salicylic acid and the effect of Ca2+ in this process through application of calcium channel antagonists (Verapamil, LaCl3, LiCl, 2-APB) and ionophore A23187. The results show that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture. Verapamil and LaCl3 or LiCl and 2-APB, two different groups of calcium channel antagonist, significantly inhibited the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid. However, the suppression effect of verapamil or LaCl3 on medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was higher than that of LiCl or 2-APB. When two types of calcium channel inhibitor (LaCl3 and 2-APB) were used together, the medium alkalinization induced by salicylic acid was completely suppressed and even reduced the pH in medium. On the other hand, A23187 could promote the medium alkalinization. Based on the results above, we speculated that salicylic acid could induce significant medium alkalinization in S. miltiorrhiza culture, depending on the calcium from both extracell and intracell. Moreover, calcium from extracell plays a more dominant role in this process. Reveal of relationship in this research between Ca2+ and medium alkalinization can provide theory evidence for mechanism of the plant secondary metabolism.

  3. Field measurement of alkalinity and pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan

    1964-01-01

    The behavior of electrometric pH equipment under field conditions departs from the behavior predicted from Nernst's law. The response is a linear function of pH, and hence measured pH values may be corrected to true pH if the instrument is calibrated with two reference solutions for each measurement. Alkalinity titrations may also be made in terms of true pH. Standard methods, such as colorimetric titrations, were rejected as unreliable or too cumbersome for rapid field use. The true pH of the end point of the alkalinity titration as a function of temperature, ionic strength, and total alkalinity has been calculated. Total alkalinity in potable waters is the most important factor influencing the end point pH, which varies from 5.38 (0 ? C, 5 ppm (parts per million) HC0a-) to 4.32 (300 ppm HC0a-,35 ? C), for the ranges of variables considered. With proper precautions, the pH may be determined to =i:0.02 pH and the alkalinity to =i:0.6 ppm HCO3- for many naturally occurring bodies of fresh water.

  4. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine. PMID:22013455

  5. Interpretation of pH, acidity, and alkalinity in fisheries and aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of pH, acidity, and alkalinity are commonly used to describe water quality. The three variables are interrelated and are sometimes confused. The pH of water is an intensity factor, while the acidity and alkalinity of waters are capacity factors. More precisely, acidity and alkalinity ar...

  6. Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Melody M.; Pellis, Neal; Jeevarajan, Anthony S.; Taylor, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    An optoelectronic instrument monitors the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium in a perfused rotating-wall-vessel bioreactor. The instrument is designed to satisfy the following requirements: It should be able to measure the pH of the medium continuously with an accuracy of 0.1 in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. It should be noninvasive. Any material in contact with the culture medium should be sterilizable as well as nontoxic to the cells to be grown in the medium. The biofilm that inevitably grows on any surface in contact with the medium should not affect the accuracy of the pH measurement. It should be possible to obtain accurate measurements after only one calibration performed prior to a bioreactor cell run. The instrument should be small and lightweight. The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the culture medium flows as it is circulated through the bioreactor. The cuvette is sandwiched between light source on one side and a photodetector on the other side. The light source comprises a red and a green light-emitting diode (LED) that are repeatedly flashed in alternation with a cycle time of 5 s. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red LEDs are processed electronically to obtain a quantity proportional to the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium.

  7. SIMPLE WAYS TO IMPROVE PH AND ALKALINITY MEASUREMENTS FOR WATER UTILITIES AND LABORATORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both pH and total alkalinity determinations are critical in characterizing chemical properties of water, being important to implementing good process control, determining corrosivity and other water quality properties, and assessing changes in water characteristics. Poor charac...

  8. Isolation of a Sulfur-oxidizing Bacterium That can Grow under Alkaline pH, from Corroded Concrete.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Negishi, A; Oshima, Y; Nogami, Y; Kamimura, K; Sugio, T

    1998-01-01

    To study the early stages of concrete corrosion by bacteria, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium strain RO-1, which grows in an alkaline thiosulfate medium (pH 10.0) was isolated from corroded concreate and characterized. Strain RO-1 was a Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium (0.5-0.6×0.9-1.5 μm). The mean G+C content of the DNA of strain RO-1 was 65.0 mol%. Optimum pH and temperature for growth were 8.0. and 30-37°C, respectively. When grown in thiosulfate medium with pH 10.0, growth rate of the strain was 48% of that observed at the optimum pH for growth. Strain RO-1 used sulfide, thiosulfate, and glucose, but not elemental sulfur or tetrathionate, as a sole energy source. Strain RO-1 grew under anaerobic conditions in pepton-NO3 (-) medium containing sodium nitrate as an electron acceptor, and had enzyme activities that oxidized sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite, and glucose, but not tetrathionate. The bacterium had an activity to assimilate (14)CO2 into the cells when thiosulfate was used as an energy source. These results suggest that strain RO-1 is Thiobacillus versutus. Strain RO-1 exuded Ca(2+) from concrete blocks added to thiosulfate medium with pH 9.0 and the pH of the medium decreased from 9.0 to 5.5 after 22 days of cultivation. In contrast, Thiobacillus thiooxidans strain NB1-3 could not exude Ca(2+) in the same thiosulfate medium, suggesting that strain RO-1, but not T. thiooxidans NB1-3, is involved in the early stage of concrete corrosion because concrete structures just after construction contain calcium hydroxide and have a pH of 12-13. PMID:27388643

  9. Isolation of a Sulfur-oxidizing Bacterium That can Grow under Alkaline pH, from Corroded Concrete.

    PubMed

    Maeda, T; Negishi, A; Oshima, Y; Nogami, Y; Kamimura, K; Sugio, T

    1998-01-01

    To study the early stages of concrete corrosion by bacteria, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium strain RO-1, which grows in an alkaline thiosulfate medium (pH 10.0) was isolated from corroded concreate and characterized. Strain RO-1 was a Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium (0.5-0.6×0.9-1.5 μm). The mean G+C content of the DNA of strain RO-1 was 65.0 mol%. Optimum pH and temperature for growth were 8.0. and 30-37°C, respectively. When grown in thiosulfate medium with pH 10.0, growth rate of the strain was 48% of that observed at the optimum pH for growth. Strain RO-1 used sulfide, thiosulfate, and glucose, but not elemental sulfur or tetrathionate, as a sole energy source. Strain RO-1 grew under anaerobic conditions in pepton-NO3 (-) medium containing sodium nitrate as an electron acceptor, and had enzyme activities that oxidized sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite, and glucose, but not tetrathionate. The bacterium had an activity to assimilate (14)CO2 into the cells when thiosulfate was used as an energy source. These results suggest that strain RO-1 is Thiobacillus versutus. Strain RO-1 exuded Ca(2+) from concrete blocks added to thiosulfate medium with pH 9.0 and the pH of the medium decreased from 9.0 to 5.5 after 22 days of cultivation. In contrast, Thiobacillus thiooxidans strain NB1-3 could not exude Ca(2+) in the same thiosulfate medium, suggesting that strain RO-1, but not T. thiooxidans NB1-3, is involved in the early stage of concrete corrosion because concrete structures just after construction contain calcium hydroxide and have a pH of 12-13.

  10. Alkaline oesophageal reflux--an artefact due to oxygen corrosion of antimony pH electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, F; Gustafsson, U; Tibbling, L

    1992-12-01

    Antimony electrodes are widely used for gastro-oesophageal pH monitoring. They are also sensitive to oxygen, however, especially at low PO2 levels, which are known to shift recorded values in the alkaline direction. This study, which compares antimony and glass electrodes for oesophageal pH monitoring in six adults, shows that values recorded by antimony electrodes are 2.1 +/- 0.8 pH units (mean +/- SD) higher than by glass electrodes (p < 0.001; n = 7642). A further 52 patients with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux were investigated by 24-h pH monitoring by means of antimony electrodes. In these patients the oesophageal pH was higher than 8.0 for 7% of the time (range, 0-60%). The alkaline periods recorded with antimony electrodes were all protracted in time, smoothly increasing from a neutral pH, and did not correspond to a sudden increase in pH, which would be expected if alkaline reflux had occurred. It is concluded that high pH values obtained by antimony electrodes are due to the oxygen sensitivity of the electrodes. The diagnosis of alkaline reflux seems to be valid only when pH monitoring is performed with glass electrodes or when values obtained with antimony electrodes are adjusted for the influence of the oxygen tension in the oesophagus. PMID:1475627

  11. Cementitious porous pavement in stormwater quality control: pH and alkalinity elevation.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xuheng; Sansalone, John

    2011-01-01

    A certain level of alkalinity acts as a buffer and maintains the pH value in a stable range in water bodies. With rapid urban development, more and more acidic pollutants flow to watersheds with runoff and drop alkalinity to a very low level and ultimately degrade the water environment. Cementitious porous pavement is an effective tool for stormwater acidic neutralization. When stormwater infiltrates cement porous pavement (CPP) materials, alkalinity and pH will be elevated due to the basic characteristics of cement concrete. The elevated alkalinity will neutralize acids in water bodies and maintain the pH in a stable level as a buffer. It is expected that CPP materials still have a certain capability of alkalinity elevation after years of service, which is important for CPP as an effective tool for stormwater management. However, few previous studies have reported on how CPP structures would elevate runoff alkalinity and pH after being exposed to rainfall-runoff for years. In this study, three groups of CPP specimens, all exposed to rainfall-runoff for 3 years, were used to test the pH and alkalinity elevation properties. It was found that runoff pH values were elevated from 7.4 to the range of 7.8-8.6 after infiltrating through the uncoated specimens, and from 7.4 to 8.5-10.7 after infiltrating through aluminum-coated specimens. Runoff alkalinity elevation efficiencies are 11.5-14.5% for uncoated specimens and 42.2% for coated specimens. The study shows that CPP is an effective passive unit operation for stormwater acid neutralization in our built environment.

  12. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, David T.

    1992-01-01

    A method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction.

  13. Mechanistic study of nickel based catalysts for oxygen evolution and methanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dayi; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2015-06-01

    Nickel based catalysts have been studied as catalysts for either organic compound (especially methanol) oxidation or oxygen evolution reactions in alkaline medium for decades, but methanol oxidation and oxygen evolution reactions occur at a similar potential range and pH with nickel based catalysts. In contrast to previous studies, we studied these two reactions simultaneously under various pH and methanol concentrations with electrodes containing a series of NiOOH surface concentrations. We found that nickel based catalysts are more suitable to be used as oxygen evolution catalysts than methanol oxidation catalysts based on the observation that: The rate-determining step of methanol oxidation involves NiOOH, OH- and methanol while high methanol to OH- ratio could poison the NiOOH sites. Since NiOOH is involved in the rate-determining step, methanol oxidation suffers from high overpotential and oxygen evolution is favored over methanol oxidation in the presence of an equivalent amount (0.1 M) of alkali and methanol.

  14. Computational Design of a pH Stable Enzyme: Understanding Molecular Mechanism of Penicillin Acylase's Adaptation to Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Panin, Nikolay; Kirilin, Evgeny; Shcherbakova, Tatyana; Kudryavtsev, Pavel; Švedas, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    Protein stability provides advantageous development of novel properties and can be crucial in affording tolerance to mutations that introduce functionally preferential phenotypes. Consequently, understanding the determining factors for protein stability is important for the study of structure-function relationship and design of novel protein functions. Thermal stability has been extensively studied in connection with practical application of biocatalysts. However, little work has been done to explore the mechanism of pH-dependent inactivation. In this study, bioinformatic analysis of the Ntn-hydrolase superfamily was performed to identify functionally important subfamily-specific positions in protein structures. Furthermore, the involvement of these positions in pH-induced inactivation was studied. The conformational mobility of penicillin acylase in Escherichia coli was analyzed through molecular modeling in neutral and alkaline conditions. Two functionally important subfamily-specific residues, Gluβ482 and Aspβ484, were found. Ionization of these residues at alkaline pH promoted the collapse of a buried network of stabilizing interactions that consequently disrupted the functional protein conformation. The subfamily-specific position Aspβ484 was selected as a hotspot for mutation to engineer enzyme variant tolerant to alkaline medium. The corresponding Dβ484N mutant was produced and showed 9-fold increase in stability at alkaline conditions. Bioinformatic analysis of subfamily-specific positions can be further explored to study mechanisms of protein inactivation and to design more stable variants for the engineering of homologous Ntn-hydrolases with improved catalytic properties. PMID:24959852

  15. Disrupted OmpC causes osmosis sensitivity of Escherichia coli in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqi; Wang, Lingling; Sun, Yirong; Chen, Yicai; Zhu, Lei; Guo, Lixia; Luo, Biao; Wang, Haihong

    2007-12-01

    The Escherichia coli strain DH42 is sensitive to high osmolarity in an alkaline medium. Using mini-Tn5 mutagenesis, construction of mutant strains by homologous recombination and subcloning of DNA fragment techniques, gene ompC was identified as the key factor that, once disrupted, caused osmosis-sensitivity of E. coli strain DH42 grown in an alkaline medium. Through P1 transduction, a mutant strain, D9 (W3110 ompC:kan), was constructed and growth comparison was performed between DH42 and D9 under different pHs and salt concentrations. The result showed that ompC was necessarily required for hyperosmotic adaptation of E. coli in the alkaline medium.

  16. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1992-10-06

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction. 2 figs.

  17. Detection of Baking Soda in Flat Bread by Direct pH Metery and Alkalinity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahed Khaniki, G. H. R.; Vaezi, F.; Yunesian, M.; Nabizadeh, R.; Paseban, G. H. A.

    The objective of this study is evaluation of direct pH metery and alkalinity measurement methods for determination of baking soda in lavash bread (a kind of flat bread) in order to introduce and recommend a good practice of control. For running the experiments, various samples of lavash bread having different concentrations of baking soda were prepared. Ten grams of each sample were mixed with distilled water and then the prepared solutions were filtrated. The filtrates were then analyzed for pH and total alkalinity according to the distractions described in Standard Methods. Results show a significant correlation between the pH values of bread samples and the amount of baking soda. Also, a positive correlation has been observed between the alkalinity of bread samples and used baking soda. By comparing the R2-values specified for these two methods it could be concluded that the direct pH metery method is more reasonable. Furthermore, by this simple method it is possible to accelerate the detection of minute amounts of this chemical in bread.

  18. Palladium and Tin Alloyed Catalysts for the Ethanol Oxidation Reaction in an Alkaline Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Su D.; Du W.; Mackenzie K.E.; Milano D.F.; Deskins N.A.; Teng X.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we present a study of a series of carbon-supported Pd-Sn binary alloyed catalysts prepared through a modified Polyol method as anode electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cell reactions in an alkaline medium. Transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with electron energy loss spectroscopy were used to characterize the Pd-Sn/C catalysts, where homogeneous Pd-Sn alloys were determined to be present with the surface Sn being partially oxidized. Among various Pd-Sn catalysts, Pd{sub 86}Sn{sub 14}/C catalysts showed much enhanced current densities in cyclic voltammetric and chronoamperometric measurements, compared to commercial Pd/C (Johnson Matthey). The overall rate law of ethanol oxidation reaction for both Pd{sub 86}Sn{sub 14}/C and commercial Pd/C were also determined, which clearly showed that Pd{sub 86}Sn{sub 14}/C was more favorable in high ethanol concentration and/or high pH environment. Density functional theory calculations also confirmed Pd-Sn alloy structures would result in lower reaction energies for the dehydrogenation of ethanol, compared to the pure Pd crystal.

  19. Multidrug resistance protein MdtM adds to the repertoire of antiporters involved in alkaline pH homeostasis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In neutralophilic bacteria, monovalent metal cation/H+ antiporters play a key role in pH homeostasis. In Escherichia coli, only four antiporters (NhaA, NhaB, MdfA and ChaA) are identified to function in maintenance of a stable cytoplasmic pH under conditions of alkaline stress. We hypothesised that the multidrug resistance protein MdtM, a recently characterised homologue of MdfA and a member of the major facilitator superfamily, also functions in alkaline pH homeostasis. Results Assays that compared the growth of an E. coli ΔmdtM deletion mutant transformed with a plasmid encoding wild-type MdtM or the dysfunctional MdtM D22A mutant at different external alkaline pH values (ranging from pH 8.5 to 10) revealed a potential contribution by MdtM to alkaline pH tolerance, but only when millimolar concentrations of sodium or potassium was present in the growth medium. Fluorescence-based activity assays using inverted vesicles generated from transformants of antiporter-deficient (ΔnhaA, ΔnhaB, ΔchaA) E. coli TO114 cells defined MdtM as a low-affinity antiporter that catalysed electrogenic exchange of Na+, K+, Rb+ or Li+ for H+. The K+/H+ antiport reaction had a pH optimum at 9.0, whereas the Na+/H+ exchange activity was optimum at pH 9.25. Measurement of internal cellular pH confirmed MdtM as contributing to maintenance of a stable cytoplasmic pH, acid relative to the external pH, under conditions of alkaline stress. Conclusions Taken together, the results support a role for MdtM in alkaline pH tolerance. MdtM can therefore be added to the currently limited list of antiporters known to function in pH homeostasis in the model organism E. coli. PMID:23701827

  20. Improved volatile fatty acids anaerobic production from waste activated sludge by pH regulation: Alkaline or neutral pH?

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xingchun; Liu, He; Liu, Hongbo; Fu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the anaerobic fermentation was carried out for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production at different pH (between 7.0 and 10.0) conditions with untreated sludge and heat-alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge. In the fermentation with untreated sludge, the extent of hydrolysis of organic matters and extent of acidification at alkaline pH are 54.37% and 30.37%, respectively, resulting in the highest VFAs yield at 235.46mg COD/gVS of three pH conditions. In the fermentation with heat-alkaline pretreated sludge, the acidification rate and VFAs yield at neutral pH are 30.98% and 240.14mg COD/gVS, respectively, which are higher than that at other pH conditions. With the glucose or bovine serum albumin as substrate for VFAs production, the neutral pH showed a higher VFAs concentration than the alkaline pH condition. The results of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated that the alkaline pH caused low microbial richness. Based on the results in this study, we demonstrated that the alkaline pH is favor of hydrolysis of organic matter in sludge while neutral pH improved the acidogenesis for the VFAs production from sludge. Our finding is obvious different to the previous research and helpful for the understanding of how heat-alkaline pretreatment and alkaline fermentation influence the VFAs production, and beneficial to the development of VFAs production process.

  1. Use of pH as fuzzy control parameter for nitrification under different alkalinity in SBR process.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y Z; Gao, J F; Wang, S Y; Sui, M H

    2003-01-01

    In order to achieve fuzzy control of nitrification in a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) brewery wastewater was used as the substrate. The effect of alkalinity on pH variation during nitrification was systematically studied, at the same time the variations of DO and ORP were investigated. Alkalinity and pH of the wastewater were adjusted by adding sodium bicarbonate at five levels and sodium hydroxide at two levels. Unadjusted wastewater was also studied. According to the results, variation of pH could be divided into rising type and descending type. When bicarbonate alkalinity was deficient or sufficient, the descending type happened. If alkalinity was deficient, the pH decreasing rate got slower when nitrification nearly stopped; if alkalinity was sufficient, at the end of nitrification pH turned from decrease to increase. This was the most common situation and pH could be used to control the end of nitrification. When alkalinity was excessive, the rising type happened, pH was increasing at nearly a constant rate during and after nitrification and could not be used to control the nitrification time, but if the aeration rate was moderate DO could be used to control the nitrification time. This situation seldom happened. Therefore the variation of pH could not only be used to control the nitrification time but also to judge whether the alkalinity was enough or not. On the basis of this, the fuzzy controller of nitrification in SBR was constructed. When discussing the influence of pH on nitrification rate the composition and concentration of alkalinity must be considered or else the results may be incomprehensive. And to some extent the influence of alkalinity on nitrification rate was more important than pH.

  2. Preparation of acidic and alkaline macrocapsules for pH control.

    PubMed

    Flora, Joseph R V; Baker, Benjamin; Wybenga, Daniel; Zhu, Huiying; Aelion, C Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed to prepare acidic macroencapsulated buffers composed of 20% Ca(H2PO4)(2) and 80% Eudragit S 100 polymer and alkaline macrocapsules composed of 65% K2HPO4 and 35% Eudragit E PO polymer (the powdered form of Eudragit E 100). Eudragit S 100 was shown to be soluble at a pH greater than 7.0, while Eudragit E 100 was soluble at a pH less than 7.0. Both polymers did not impart significant biochemical oxygen demand. The Eudragit E PO polymer solution showed low toxicity (EC50=91%) based on the Microtox Acute Toxicity Test compared to the 0.1mM background phosphate buffer solution (EC50=100%) while the Eudragit S 100 polymer solution showed higher toxicity (EC50=53%). Batch tests showed that the acidic macrocapsules reduced the pH of a 0.1mM phosphate solution from 11 to neutral, while the alkaline macrocapsules increased the pH of a 0.1mM phosphate solution from 3 to neutral. The macrocapsules could potentially be used as an in situ proportional pH controller for groundwater remediation.

  3. Geochemistry of extremely alkaline (pH>12) ground water in slag-fill aquifers.

    PubMed

    Roadcap, George S; Kelly, Walton R; Bethke, Craig M

    2005-01-01

    Extremely alkaline ground water has been found underneath many shuttered steel mills and slag dumps and has been an impediment to the cleanup and economic redevelopment of these sites because little is known about the geochemistry. A large number of these sites occur in the Lake Calumet region of Chicago, Illinois, where large-scale infilling of the wetlands with steel slag has created an aquifer with pH values as high as 12.8. To understand the geochemistry of the alkaline ground water system, we analyzed samples of ground water and the associated slag and weathering products from four sites. We also considered several potential remediation schemes to lower the pH and toxicity of the water. The principal cause of the alkaline conditions is the weathering of calcium silicates within the slag. The resulting ground water at most of the sites is dominated by Ca2+ and OH- in equilibrium with Ca(OH)2. Where the alkaline ground water discharges in springs, atmospheric CO2 dissolves into the water and thick layers of calcite form. Iron, manganese, and other metals in the metallic portion of the slag have corroded to form more stable low-temperature oxides and sulfides and have not accumulated in large concentrations in the ground water. Calcite precipitated at the springs is rich in a number of heavy metals, suggesting that metals can move through the system as particulate matter. Air sparging appears to be an effective remediation strategy for reducing the toxicity of discharging alkaline water.

  4. The Effects of Alkaline pH on Microleakage of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium Enriched Mixture Apical Plugs

    PubMed Central

    Mirhadi, Hossein; Moazzami, Fariborz; Rangani Jahromi, Saeed; Safarzade, Sareh

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Alkaline pH can affect the physical and chemical properties and sealing ability of apical plug material. Calcium hydroxide is used as an intracanal medication to complete disinfection of root canals. It raises the pH of environment to alkaline value. Purpose The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of alkaline pH on the sealing ability of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plugs. Materials and Method Seventy single-rooted human maxillary anterior teeth were randomly divided to two experimental groups for Angelus MTA and CEM cement (n=30) and two control groups (n=5). Each group was divided into two subgroups of 15 for neutral and alkaline pH, and 1 negative and 1 positive control groups of 5. The root canals were cleaned and shaped by using ProTaper rotary system (Dentsply Maillefer; Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the terminal 3mm of the roots were resected. Then, MTA and CEM cement were condensed in apical region with 3mm thickness. The samples were exposed to two environments with different pH values of 13 and 7.4. The leakage was assessed by using the fluid filtration technique at 1, 7, 14, 30 days intervals. Data were analyzed by the repeated measures MANOVA. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of microleakage between neutral and alkaline pH of CEM cement and MTA (p> 0.05). The sealing ability of MTA in an alkaline pH of 13 was significantly less than CEM cement in this pH (p< 0.05). Conclusion An environment with alkaline pH had no adverse effect on the sealing ability of MTA and CEM cement used as apical plugs. CEM cement had better sealing ability in alkaline pH. PMID:26966703

  5. Alkalinizing the intralysosomal pH inhibits degranulation of human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Klempner, M S; Styrt, B

    1983-01-01

    Degranulation of lysosomes is one of the consequences of neutrophil activation. Regulatory mechanisms of lysosomal secretion are thought to be localized largely in the plasma membrane and cytosol, with the lysosome playing a passive role in secretion. Recent evidence indicates that the intralysosomal pH is highly acidic (pH congruent to 5.5) and is maintained by active transport of H+. We investigated whether changes in the intralysosomal pH altered the availability of lysosomes for exocytosis. Intralysosomal pH in intact neutrophils was monitored with the weakly basic fluorescent probe, 9-aminoacridine (9AA). The weak bases, methylamine, chloroquine, clindamycin, propanolol, and ammonium chloride (0.1-50 mM), caused an alkalinization of the intralysosomal pH as determined by reversal of quenching of 9AA fluorescence. Similarly, each of the weak bases, including ammonium chloride, methylamine, chloroquine, ethylamine, propylamine, propanolol, clindamycin, and dansylcadaverine, inhibited neutrophil degranulation in response to the calcium ionophore A23187, phorbol myristate acetate, or the chemotactic peptide, formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine plus cytochalasin B. These studies indicate that an acid intralysosomal pH is important to the neutrophil secretory response and suggest that the lysosome may play an active part in control of degranulation. PMID:6415117

  6. Geographic distance and pH drive bacterial distribution in alkaline lake sediments across Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jinbo; Liu, Yongqin; Lin, Xiangui; Zhang, Huayong; Zeng, Jun; Hou, Juzhi; Yang, Yongping; Yao, Tandong; Knight, Rob; Chu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Continent-scale biogeography has been extensively studied in soils and marine systems, but little is known about biogeographical patterns in non-marine sediments. We used barcode pyrosequencing to quantify the effects of local geochemical properties and geographic distance for bacterial community structure and membership, using sediment samples from 15 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (4–1670 km apart). Bacterial communities were surprisingly diverse, and distinct from soil communities. Four of 26 phyla detected were dominant: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, albeit 20.2% of sequences were unclassified at the phylum level. As previously observed in acidic soil, pH was the dominant factor influencing alkaline sediment community structure, phylotype richness and phylogenetic diversity. In contrast, archaeal communities were less affected by pH. More geographically distant sites had more dissimilar communities (r = 0.443, P = 0.030). Variance partitioning analysis showed that geographic distance (historical contingencies) contributed more to bacterial community variation (12.2%) than any other factor, although the environmental factors explained more variance when combined (28.9%). Together, our results show that pH is the best predictor of bacterial community structure in alkaline sediments, and confirm that both geographic distance and chemical factors govern bacterial biogeography in lake sediments. PMID:22676420

  7. Anoxic Biodegradation of Isosaccharinic Acids at Alkaline pH by Natural Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Charles, Christopher J.; Doulgeris, Charalampos; McCarthy, Alan J.; Rooks, Dave J.; Loughnane, J. Paul; Laws, Andrew P.; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    One design concept for the long-term management of the UK’s intermediate level radioactive wastes (ILW) is disposal to a cementitious geological disposal facility (GDF). Under the alkaline (10.0<pH>13.0) anoxic conditions expected within a GDF, cellulosic wastes will undergo chemical hydrolysis. The resulting cellulose degradation products (CDP) are dominated by α- and β-isosaccharinic acids (ISA), which present an organic carbon source that may enable subsequent microbial colonisation of a GDF. Microcosms established from neutral, near-surface sediments demonstrated complete ISA degradation under methanogenic conditions up to pH 10.0. Degradation decreased as pH increased, with β-ISA fermentation more heavily influenced than α-ISA. This reduction in degradation rate was accompanied by a shift in microbial population away from organisms related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides to a more diverse Clostridial community. The increase in pH to 10.0 saw an increase in detection of Alcaligenes aquatilis and a dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the Archaeal population. Methane was generated up to pH 10.0 with acetate accumulation at higher pH values reflecting a reduced detection of acetoclastic methanogens. An increase in pH to 11.0 resulted in the accumulation of ISA, the absence of methanogenesis and the loss of biomass from the system. This study is the first to demonstrate methanogenesis from ISA by near surface microbial communities not previously exposed to these compounds up to and including pH 10.0. PMID:26367005

  8. Anoxic Biodegradation of Isosaccharinic Acids at Alkaline pH by Natural Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Rout, Simon P; Charles, Christopher J; Doulgeris, Charalampos; McCarthy, Alan J; Rooks, Dave J; Loughnane, J Paul; Laws, Andrew P; Humphreys, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    One design concept for the long-term management of the UK's intermediate level radioactive wastes (ILW) is disposal to a cementitious geological disposal facility (GDF). Under the alkaline (10.0<pH>13.0) anoxic conditions expected within a GDF, cellulosic wastes will undergo chemical hydrolysis. The resulting cellulose degradation products (CDP) are dominated by α- and β-isosaccharinic acids (ISA), which present an organic carbon source that may enable subsequent microbial colonisation of a GDF. Microcosms established from neutral, near-surface sediments demonstrated complete ISA degradation under methanogenic conditions up to pH 10.0. Degradation decreased as pH increased, with β-ISA fermentation more heavily influenced than α-ISA. This reduction in degradation rate was accompanied by a shift in microbial population away from organisms related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides to a more diverse Clostridial community. The increase in pH to 10.0 saw an increase in detection of Alcaligenes aquatilis and a dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the Archaeal population. Methane was generated up to pH 10.0 with acetate accumulation at higher pH values reflecting a reduced detection of acetoclastic methanogens. An increase in pH to 11.0 resulted in the accumulation of ISA, the absence of methanogenesis and the loss of biomass from the system. This study is the first to demonstrate methanogenesis from ISA by near surface microbial communities not previously exposed to these compounds up to and including pH 10.0. PMID:26367005

  9. Transcriptome Profiling of Shewanella oneidensis Gene Expressionfollowing Exposure to Acidic and Alkaline pH

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, Adam B.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Huang, Katherine; Alm,Eric; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Arkin, Adam P.; Brown, Steven D.; Wu, Liyou; Yan,Tingfen; Liu, Xueduan; Wickham, Gene S.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-04-02

    The molecular response of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 tovariations in extracellular pH was investigated based on genomewide geneexpression profiling. Microarray analysis revealed that cells elicitedboth general and specific transcriptome responses when challenged withenvironmental acid (pH 4) or base (pH 10) conditions over a 60-minperiod. Global responses included the differential expression of genesfunctionally linked to amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulationand signal transduction, transport, cell membrane structure, andoxidative stress protection. Response to acid stress included theelevated expression of genes encoding glycogen biosynthetic enzymes,phosphate transporters, and the RNA polymerase sigma-38 factor (rpoS),whereas the molecular response to alkaline pH was characterized byupregulation of nhaA and nhaR, which are predicted to encode an Na+/H+antiporter and transcriptional activator, respectively, as well assulfate transport and sulfur metabolism genes. Collectively, theseresults suggest that S. oneidensis modulates multiple transporters, cellenvelope components, and pathways of amino acid consumption and centralintermediary metabolism as part of its transcriptome response to changingexternal pH conditions.

  10. Alkalinity, pH, and copper corrosion by-product release

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.; Meyer, T.E.; Schock, M.R.

    1996-03-01

    Contrary to expectations, higher bicarbonate concentrations exacerbate copper corrosion rates and by-product release. In fact, as illustrated by monitoring experiences of large utilities and by laboratory data, the concentration of copper corrosion by-products in drinking water increases linearly with bicarbonate concentration at constant pH. This relationship implicates cupric hydroxide solubility in control of copper release from relatively new (less than a few years old) copper plumbing. Decision-marking guidance from a traditional Larson`s ratio or Langelier index approach can aggravate copper corrosion problems; consequently, their use should be discontinued for copper corrosion mitigation. In contrast, aeration-CO{sub 2} stripping is a particularly attractive strategy because benefits from higher pH are realized without adverse effects from higher alkalinity.

  11. Spectrophotometric total protein assay with copper(II)-neocuproine reagent in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Sözgen, Kevser; Cekic, Sema Demirci; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Resat

    2006-02-28

    Total protein assay was made using copper(II)-neocuproine (Nc) reagent in alkaline medium (with the help of a hydroxide-carbonate-tartarate solution) after 30min incubation at 40 degrees C. The absorbance of the reduction product, Cu(I)-Nc complex, was recorded at 450nm against a reagent blank. The absorptivity of the developed method for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was 0.023lmg(-1)cm(-1), greater than that of Lowry assay (0.0098), and much greater than that of Cu(II)-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay (0.00077). The linear range of the developed method (8-100mgl(-1) BSA) was as wide as that of Lowry, and much wider than that of BCA (200-1000mgl(-1) BSA) assay. The sensitivity of the method was greater than those of Cu-based assays (biuret, Lowry, and BCA) with a LOD of 1mgl(-1) BSA. The within-run and between-run precisions as RSD were 0.73 and 1.01%, respectively. The selectivity of the proposed method for protein was much higher than those of dye-binding and Lowry assays: Most common interferents to other protein assays such as tris, ethanolamine, deoxycholate, CsCl, citrate, and triton X-100 were tolerated at 100-fold concentrations in the analysis of 10mgl(-1) BSA, while the tolerance limits for other interferents, e.g., (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and acetylsalicylic acid (50-fold), SDS (25-fold), and glycerol (20-fold) were at acceptable levels. The redox reaction of Cu(II)-Nc as an outer-sphere electron transfer agent with the peptide bond and with four amino acid residues (cystine, cysteine, tryptophan, and tyrosine) was kinetically more favourable than that of Cu(II) alone in the biuret assay. Since the reduction product of Cu(II) with protein, i.e., Cu(I), was coordinatively saturated with Nc in the stable Cu(Nc)(2)(+) chelate, re-oxidation of the formed Cu(I) with Fenton-like reactions was not possible, thereby preventing a loss of chromophore. After conventional protein extraction, precipitation, and redissolution procedures, the protein contents of the minced meat

  12. Use of natural mordenite to remove chromium (III) and to neutralize pH of alkaline waste waters.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Rodríguez, Valduvina; Rodríguez-Iznaga, Inocente; Acosta-Chávez, Raquel María; Chávez-Rivas, Fernando; Petranovskii, Vitalii; Pestryakov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The natural mordenite from Palmarito de Cauto deposit (PZ), Cuba, was studied in this work as an ion exchanger to remove Cr(3+) cations from alkaline aqueous solutions at different pH and chromium concentrations. The mordenite stability under cyclic treatment processes with alkaline solutions and its capacity to decrease the pH of the solutions was also analyzed. It was shown that PZ removes Cr(3+) ions from alkaline solutions, and it happens independently of the starting chromium concentration and the pH of the exchange solution used. This material has an important neutralizing effect on alkaline solutions, expressed in a significant pH decrease from the early stages of the treatments. For solutions with initial pH equal to 11, it decreases to a value of around seven. The stability of this material is not affected significantly after continuous cyclic treatment with NaOH solution, which shows that mordenite, in particular from Palmarito de Cauto deposit, has high stability in alkaline solutions. The results are important as they suggest that natural zeolites may be of interest in treatments of alkaline industrial waste effluents.

  13. Use of natural mordenite to remove chromium (III) and to neutralize pH of alkaline waste waters.

    PubMed

    Córdova-Rodríguez, Valduvina; Rodríguez-Iznaga, Inocente; Acosta-Chávez, Raquel María; Chávez-Rivas, Fernando; Petranovskii, Vitalii; Pestryakov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The natural mordenite from Palmarito de Cauto deposit (PZ), Cuba, was studied in this work as an ion exchanger to remove Cr(3+) cations from alkaline aqueous solutions at different pH and chromium concentrations. The mordenite stability under cyclic treatment processes with alkaline solutions and its capacity to decrease the pH of the solutions was also analyzed. It was shown that PZ removes Cr(3+) ions from alkaline solutions, and it happens independently of the starting chromium concentration and the pH of the exchange solution used. This material has an important neutralizing effect on alkaline solutions, expressed in a significant pH decrease from the early stages of the treatments. For solutions with initial pH equal to 11, it decreases to a value of around seven. The stability of this material is not affected significantly after continuous cyclic treatment with NaOH solution, which shows that mordenite, in particular from Palmarito de Cauto deposit, has high stability in alkaline solutions. The results are important as they suggest that natural zeolites may be of interest in treatments of alkaline industrial waste effluents. PMID:26818904

  14. Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Sodium-Montmorillonite at Alkaline pH Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinnacher, R. M.; Davis, J. A.; Tournassat, C.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Diffusive transport of uranium(VI) in montmorillonite clay and bentonite has important implications for uranium(VI) mobility in engineered barrier systems or host rocks in high level radioactive waste repositories, and clay-rich soils and sediments in the environment. The prediction of uranium(VI) adsorption and diffusion in clay-rich media, however, is complicated by (1) the complexity of the mineralogical structure of montmorillonite, in terms of its pore-size distributions and available surface site types, and (2) the complex uranium(VI) solution speciation, which can include cationic, uncharged, and anionic complexes, depending on solution conditions. For instance, a partial or full exclusion of anions from negatively charged clay interlayer spaces could change the effective 'anion-accessible' porosity and decrease the diffusive flux of these solutes under steady state conditions. In contrast, weak cation exchange reactions can result in 'surface diffusion' of adsorbed cations, such as UO2OH+, in addition to diffusion in the liquid phase, resulting in greater diffusive fluxes at steady state. In order to investigate these complex interactions, we performed two, lab-scale uranium(VI) through-diffusion experiments in lightly compacted Na-montmorillonite at slightly different, alkaline pH conditions (average pH values of 8.69 and 8.87). Observed uranium(VI) diffusive fluxes were decreased by approximately an order of magnitude in comparison to a tritium tracer. This indicates a relevance of 'anion exclusion' effects, the full or partial exclusion of anionic U(VI)-carbonato species from clay interlayer spaces. In addition, uranium(VI) sorption reactions were shown to be relevant in the diffusion experiments, even at alkaline pH values of around 8.7 and 8.9, where uranium(VI) sorption is low compared to other pH conditions. Despite the similarity of pH conditions, different degrees of uranium(VI) retardation were determined for the two systems. Additionally, we

  15. Analyses of optical absorption and circular dichroism spectra of spinach ferredoxin at alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Hasumi, H

    1982-10-01

    The whole protein structure and the microenvironments of the iron-sulfur cluster and of the side chains of amino acid residues of spinach ferredoxin were studied by optical absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in the alkaline pH range. From the pH-dependence of the optical absorption changes at 245 nm, the four tyrosyl residues of ferredoxin were classified into three groups: one exposed residue with a normal apparent pK value of 10.1, two exposed residues with abnormal apparent pK values of 12.0, and one buried residue showing time-dependent ionization. The absorption in the visible region disappeared gradually with the ionization of the buried residue rather than that of the three exposed residues. The apparent pK value of 10.0 was obtained from the rapid CD changes at 258 nm caused by pH elevation from neutral to alkaline pH. The structural alteration associated with the CD change had no effect on the secondary structure of the protein moiety other than the iron-sulfur cluster and the microenvironment of the cluster. The rate constants obtained from the time courses of the CD changes in the near-ultraviolet and visible regions were in good agreement with those obtained from the time courses of the optical absorption changes. These results lead to the conclusions that (1) the native ferredoxin structure is maintained through the interaction with the iron-sulfur cluster and (2) the protein structure in the neighborhood of the cluster, important for the physiological activity, is not perturbed even though the exposed tyrosyl residues are ionized.

  16. The characterization of soybean oil body integral oleosin isoforms and the effects of alkaline pH on them.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanyun; Zhao, Luping; Ying, Yusang; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Yeming

    2015-06-15

    Oil body, an organelle in seed cell (naturally pre-emulsified oil), has great potentials to be used in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. Researchers have tried to extract oil body by alkaline buffers, which are beneficial for removing contaminated proteins. But it is not clear whether alkaline buffers could remove oil body integral proteins (mainly oleosins), which could keep oil body integrity and stability. In this study, seven oleosin isoforms were identified for soybean oil body (three isoforms, 24 kDa; three isoforms, 18 kDa; one isoform, 16kDa). Oleosins were not glycoproteins and 24 kDa oleosin isoforms possessed less thiol groups than 18 kDa ones. It was found that alkaline pH not only removed contaminated proteins but also oleosins, and more and more oleosins were removed with increasing alkaline pH.

  17. Electrooxidation of 2-propanol compared ethanol on Pd electrode in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuzhi; Xu, Changwei; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Zhaoqing

    Here, the oxidation activity of 2-propanol compared ethanol on Pd electrode has been studied in alkaline medium. We have used the amount of coulombs (coulometry) and apparent activation energy (E a) to measure the activity of alcohol electrooxidation. The amount of coulombs during alcohol electrooxidation for 2-propanol is much higher than that of ethanol showing that 2-propanol is more easily electrochemically oxidized than ethanol. The E a values of 2-propanol are lower than that of ethanol at the potential from -0.45 to -0.375 V which is usually used in direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) indicating that 2-propanol shows better electrooxidation activity than ethanol.

  18. Fluorescent probes and bioimaging: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and pH.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Hu, Ying; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-07-21

    All living species and life forms have an absolute requirement for bio-functional metals and acid-base equilibrium chemistry owing to the critical roles they play in biological processes. Hence, a great need exists for efficient methods to detect and monitor biometals and acids. In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the development of organic molecule based fluorescent chemosensors. The availability of new synthetic fluorescent probes has made fluorescence microscopy an indispensable tool for tracing biologically important molecules and in the area of clinical diagnostics. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in the design and bioimaging applications of fluorescent probes for alkali metals and alkaline earth metal cations, including lithium, sodium and potassium, magnesium and calcium, and for pH determination within biological systems. PMID:25317749

  19. Fluorescent probes and bioimaging: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and pH.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Hu, Ying; Yoon, Juyoung

    2015-07-21

    All living species and life forms have an absolute requirement for bio-functional metals and acid-base equilibrium chemistry owing to the critical roles they play in biological processes. Hence, a great need exists for efficient methods to detect and monitor biometals and acids. In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the development of organic molecule based fluorescent chemosensors. The availability of new synthetic fluorescent probes has made fluorescence microscopy an indispensable tool for tracing biologically important molecules and in the area of clinical diagnostics. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in the design and bioimaging applications of fluorescent probes for alkali metals and alkaline earth metal cations, including lithium, sodium and potassium, magnesium and calcium, and for pH determination within biological systems.

  20. Integrated hydrometallurgical process for production of zinc from electric arc furnace dust in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Youcai, Z; Stanforth, R

    2000-12-30

    In this study, a novel and integrated hydrometallurgical process for the production of zinc powder from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust in alkaline medium is reported. The dust is firstly hydrolysed in water, and then fused in caustic soda at 350 degrees C for 1h, followed by leaching in alkaline solution in which both zinc and lead are effectively extracted. Zinc powder is then produced by electrowinning from the leach solution after the lead is selectively removed by precipitation using sodium sulphide as precipitant. The EAF dust tested contained 25% Zn, 1.8% Pb and 33% Fe. It was found that 38% of zinc and 68% of lead could be extracted from the dust when leached directly in caustic soda solution. Leaching of zinc increased to 80% when dust was directly fused with caustic soda followed by alkaline leaching. However, the leaching further increased to 95% when the dust was hydrolysed first with water before fusion. Zinc powder with a purity of 99.95% was then produced by electrowinning from the lead depleted solution. Stainless electrodes were used as both anode and cathode. PMID:11080580

  1. Integrated hydrometallurgical process for production of zinc from electric arc furnace dust in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Youcai, Z; Stanforth, R

    2000-12-30

    In this study, a novel and integrated hydrometallurgical process for the production of zinc powder from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust in alkaline medium is reported. The dust is firstly hydrolysed in water, and then fused in caustic soda at 350 degrees C for 1h, followed by leaching in alkaline solution in which both zinc and lead are effectively extracted. Zinc powder is then produced by electrowinning from the leach solution after the lead is selectively removed by precipitation using sodium sulphide as precipitant. The EAF dust tested contained 25% Zn, 1.8% Pb and 33% Fe. It was found that 38% of zinc and 68% of lead could be extracted from the dust when leached directly in caustic soda solution. Leaching of zinc increased to 80% when dust was directly fused with caustic soda followed by alkaline leaching. However, the leaching further increased to 95% when the dust was hydrolysed first with water before fusion. Zinc powder with a purity of 99.95% was then produced by electrowinning from the lead depleted solution. Stainless electrodes were used as both anode and cathode.

  2. Optimization of medium composition for the production of alkaline beta-mannanase by alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. N16-5 using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan-shan; Dou, Wen-fang; Xu, Hong-yu; Li, Hua-zhong; Xu, Zheng-hong; Ma, Yan-he

    2007-07-01

    In this work, a 2(2) factorial design was employed combining with response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the medium compositions for the production of alkaline beta-mannanase by alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. N16-5 isolated previously from sediment of Wudunur Soda Lake in Inner Mongolia, China. The central composite design (CCD) used for the analysis of treatment combinations showed that a second-order polynomial regression model was in good agreement with experimental results, with R (2) = 0.9829 (P < 0.05). The maximum activity was obtained at NaCl concentration (84.4 g l(-1)) and sodium glutamate (3.11 g l(-1)) and a high medium pH around 10.0. Under such conditions, the activity of alkaline beta-mannanase achieved 310.1 U/ml in the scale of 5-l fermenter, which was increased nearly twice compared with the original. Through optimization, the substrates shifted from the expensive substrates, such as locust bean gum and peptone, to the inexpensive ones such as konjac powder, soymeal, and sodium glutamate. The experiment results also suggested that the environmental conditions of high salinity and high alkalinity, as well as the inducer substrates, play very important roles in the production of the alkaline beta-mannanase by alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. N16-5. PMID:17361429

  3. Low medium pH value enhances anthocyanin accumulation in Malus crabapple leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanchen; Zhang, Jie; Song, Tingting; Li, Jinyan; Tian, Ji; Jin, Kaina; Yao, Yuncong

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin is a critical factor involved in coloration of plant tissues, but the mechanism how medium pH values affect anthocyanin accumulation in woody plants is unknown. We analyzed anthocyanin composition and the expression of elements encoding anthocyanin and flavonols biosynthesis underlying different medium pH values by using three different leave color type cultivars. HPLC analysis demonstrated that high medium pH values treatment induced a dramatic decrease in the concentration of cyaniding in crabapple leaves. Conversely, the high medium pH values induced up-regulation of the content of flavones and flavonols, suggesting that low pH treatment-induced anthocyanin accumulation. Quantitative real time PCR experiment showed the expression level of anthocyanidin synthase (McANS) and uridine diphosphate glucose flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (McUFGT) was up-regulated by low pH values treatment, and high medium pH value treatment up-regulate the transcription level of flavonol synthase (McFLS). Meanwhile, several MYB TFs have been suggested in the regulation of pH responses. These results strongly indicate that the low pH treatment-induced anthocyanin accumulation is mediated by the variation of mRNA transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. PMID:24914811

  4. Improving the Expression of Recombinant Proteins in E. coli BL21 (DE3) under Acetate Stress: An Alkaline pH Shift Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hengwei; Wang, Fengqing; Wang, Wei; Yao, Xueling; Wei, Dongzhi; Cheng, Hairong; Deng, Zixin

    2014-01-01

    Excess acetate has long been an issue for the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli cells. Recently, improvements in acetate tolerance have been achieved through the use of genetic strategies and medium supplementation with certain amino acids and pyrimidines. The aim of our study was to evaluate an alternative to improve the acetate tolerance of E. coli BL21 (DE3), a popular strain used to express recombinant proteins. In this work we reported the cultivation of BL21 (DE3) in complex media containing acetate at high concentrations. In the presence of 300 mM acetate, compared with pH 6.5, pH 7.5 improved cell growth by approximately 71%, reduced intracellular acetate by approximately 50%, and restored the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST), green fluorescent protein (GFP) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP). Further experiments showed that alkaline pHs up to 8.5 had little inhibition in the expression of GST, GFP and CYP. In addition, the detrimental effect of acetate on the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) by the cell membrane, an index of cellular metabolic capacity, was substantially alleviated by a shift to alkaline pH values of 7.5–8.0. Thus, we suggest an approach of cultivating E. coli BL21 (DE3) at pH 8.0±0.5 to minimize the effects caused by acetate stress. The proposed strategy of an alkaline pH shift is a simple approach to solving similar bioprocessing problems in the production of biofuels and biochemicals from sugars. PMID:25402470

  5. Oxidation of L-phenylalanine by diperiodatoargentate(III) in aqueous alkaline medium. A Mechanistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamani, S. D.; Veeresh, T. M.; Nandibewoor, S. T.

    2009-12-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) by diperiodatoargentate(III) (DPA) in alkaline medium at a constant ionic strength of 0.25 mol/dm-3 has been studied spectrophotometrically. The reaction between DPA and L-phenylalanine in alkaline medium exhibits 1: 1 stoichiometry (L-phenylalanine: DPA). The reaction shows first order in [DPA] and has less than unit order dependence each in both [L-Phe] and [Alkali] and retarding effect of [IO{4/-}] under the reaction conditions. The active species of DPA is understood to be as monoperiodatoargentate(III) (MPA). The reaction is shown to proceed via a MPA-L-Phe complex, which decomposes in a rate-determining step to give intermediates followed by a fast step to give the products. The products were identified by spot and spectroscopic studies. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of the mechanisms were calculated. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were computed and discussed. The thermodynamic quantities were also determined for the reaction.

  6. [Degradation kinetics of chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid at neutral and alkaline pH values].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Miao, Xiao-lei; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of chlorogenic acid (5-CQA), cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), and neochlorogenic acid (3-CQA) in aqueous solution at 37 degrees C and different pH values (7.05, 7.96, 9.25) were investigated in the present work. The results indicated that 3-, 4- and 5-CQA tended to remain stable in acidic pH circumstance, and unstable in neutral and alkaline pH circumstance. With the increase of the alkalinity, the degradation of 3-, 4- and 5-CQA was increased leading to a less amount of total CQA and was satisfactorily described by the Weibull equation. Meanwhile, caffeic acid was not detected after the degradation of CQA. Moreover, the degradation of 3-CQA and 5-CQA tended to be converted to 4-CQA, and the degradation of 4-CQA tended to be converted to 3-CQA rather than 5-CQA. The comparison of the degradation kinetics parameters of 3-, 4- and 5-CQA at neutral and alkaline pH values showed that the orders of the rate constant (k) values were 4-CQA > 3-CQA > 5-CQA, while the orders of the degradation half life (t½) values were 4-CQA < 3-CQA < 5-CQA, indicating the orders of the stabilities of 3-, 4- and 5-CQA at 37 degrees C and neutral and alkaline pH values were 4-CQA < 3-CQA < 5-CQA. PMID:27405173

  7. Ligninolytic peroxidase gene expression by Pleurotus ostreatus: differential regulation in lignocellulose medium and effect of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Castanera, Raul; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; López-Lucendo, María F; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Martínez, Angel T

    2014-11-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is an important edible mushroom and a model lignin degrading organism, whose genome contains nine genes of ligninolytic peroxidases, characteristic of white-rot fungi. These genes encode six manganese peroxidase (MnP) and three versatile peroxidase (VP) isoenzymes. Using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, secretion of four of these peroxidase isoenzymes (VP1, VP2, MnP2 and MnP6) was confirmed when P. ostreatus grows in a lignocellulose medium at 25°C (three more isoenzymes were identified by only one unique peptide). Then, the effect of environmental parameters on the expression of the above nine genes was studied by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR by changing the incubation temperature and medium pH of P. ostreatus cultures pre-grown under the above conditions (using specific primers and two reference genes for result normalization). The cultures maintained at 25°C (without pH adjustment) provided the highest levels of peroxidase transcripts and the highest total activity on Mn(2+) (a substrate of both MnP and VP) and Reactive Black 5 (a VP specific substrate). The global analysis of the expression patterns divides peroxidase genes into three main groups according to the level of expression at optimal conditions (vp1/mnp3>vp2/vp3/mnp1/mnp2/mnp6>mnp4/mnp5). Decreasing or increasing the incubation temperature (to 10°C or 37°C) and adjusting the culture pH to acidic or alkaline conditions (pH 3 and 8) generally led to downregulation of most of the peroxidase genes (and decrease of the enzymatic activity), as shown when the transcription levels were referred to those found in the cultures maintained at the initial conditions. Temperature modification produced less dramatic effects than pH modification, with most genes being downregulated during the whole 10°C treatment, while many of them were alternatively upregulated (often 6h after the thermal shock) and downregulated (12h) at 37°C. Interestingly, mnp4 and

  8. Ligninolytic peroxidase gene expression by Pleurotus ostreatus: differential regulation in lignocellulose medium and effect of temperature and pH.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Castanera, Raul; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; López-Lucendo, María F; Ramírez, Lucía; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Martínez, Angel T

    2014-11-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is an important edible mushroom and a model lignin degrading organism, whose genome contains nine genes of ligninolytic peroxidases, characteristic of white-rot fungi. These genes encode six manganese peroxidase (MnP) and three versatile peroxidase (VP) isoenzymes. Using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, secretion of four of these peroxidase isoenzymes (VP1, VP2, MnP2 and MnP6) was confirmed when P. ostreatus grows in a lignocellulose medium at 25°C (three more isoenzymes were identified by only one unique peptide). Then, the effect of environmental parameters on the expression of the above nine genes was studied by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR by changing the incubation temperature and medium pH of P. ostreatus cultures pre-grown under the above conditions (using specific primers and two reference genes for result normalization). The cultures maintained at 25°C (without pH adjustment) provided the highest levels of peroxidase transcripts and the highest total activity on Mn(2+) (a substrate of both MnP and VP) and Reactive Black 5 (a VP specific substrate). The global analysis of the expression patterns divides peroxidase genes into three main groups according to the level of expression at optimal conditions (vp1/mnp3>vp2/vp3/mnp1/mnp2/mnp6>mnp4/mnp5). Decreasing or increasing the incubation temperature (to 10°C or 37°C) and adjusting the culture pH to acidic or alkaline conditions (pH 3 and 8) generally led to downregulation of most of the peroxidase genes (and decrease of the enzymatic activity), as shown when the transcription levels were referred to those found in the cultures maintained at the initial conditions. Temperature modification produced less dramatic effects than pH modification, with most genes being downregulated during the whole 10°C treatment, while many of them were alternatively upregulated (often 6h after the thermal shock) and downregulated (12h) at 37°C. Interestingly, mnp4 and

  9. HYDROXYL RADICAL/OZONE RATIOS DURING OZONATION PROCESSES. II. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, PH, ALKALINITY, AND DOM PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of temperature, pH, alkalinity, and type and concentration of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the rate of ozone (O3) decomposition, O3-exposure, .OH-exposure and the ratio Rct of the concentrations of .OH and O3 has been studied. For a standardized single ozon...

  10. Effect of pH alkaline salts of fatty acids on the inhibition of bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine the effect of pH on the ability of alkaline salts of three fatty acids (FA) to inhibit growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing. FA solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.5 M concentrations of caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in separate ali...

  11. Conformational stability of human erythrocyte transglutaminase. Patterns of thermal unfolding at acid and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, C M; Dean, M; Matteucci, G; Hanau, S; Tanfani, F; Ferrari, C; Boggian, M; Scatturin, A

    1999-12-01

    Tissue-type transglutaminase is irreversibly inactivated during heat treatment. The rate of inactivation is low at pH 7.5; it increases slightly at acid pH (6.1) but much more at alkaline pH (9.0-9.5), suggesting that specific effects take place in the alkaline range, possibly in relation to decreased stability of the transition-state intermediate as pH is raised above 9.0. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments indicate that thermal unfolding of the protein occurs with two separate transitions, involving independent regions of the enzyme. They are assigned to domains 1 and 2 and domains 3 and 4, respectively, by a combination of calorimetric and spectroscopic techniques. When considering the effects of pH, we noted that transglutaminase was unfolded via different pathways at the different pH values considered. At acid pH, the whole structure of the protein was lost irreversibly, with massive aggregation. At neutral and, even more so, at alkaline pH, aggregation was absent (or very limited at high protein concentration) and the loss of secondary structure was dependent on the ionization state of crucial lysine residues. Unfolding at pH 9.5 apparently chiefly involved the N-terminal region, as testified by changes in protein intrinsic fluorescence. In addition, the C-terminal region was destabilized at each pH value tested during thermal unfolding, as shown by digestion with V8 proteinase, which is inactive on the native protein. Evidence was obtained that the N-terminal and C-terminal regions interact with each other in determining the structure of the native protein. PMID:10561600

  12. Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei; Yang, Duangguang; Chen, Hongbiao; Gao, Yong; Li, Huaming

    2015-04-01

    A novel electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is fabricated by directly annealing oxidized carbon nanotubes and tripyrrolyl[1,3,5]triazine in nitrogen. The structural and chemical properties of the resultant N-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) are systematically investigated. The electrocatalytic activity of the NCNTs towards ORR in O2-saturated 0.1 M KOH electrolyte is evaluated using rotating disk electrode voltammetry. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared NCNT-900 (annealed at 900 °C) exhibits excellent electrochemical performance towards ORR in alkaline medium with an onset potential of -0.038 V (vs Ag/AgCl), a high kinetic current density of 31.26 mA cm-2 at -0.25 V, a dominant four-electron transfer mechanism (n = 3.88 at -0.25 V), and excellent methanol tolerance and durability. The results obtained are significant for the development of N-doped carbon-based electrocatalysts for alkaline fuel cells.

  13. Formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline medium in the presence of palladium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Musić, Svetozar

    2009-04-01

    The effect of the presence of palladium ions in a highly alkaline precipitation system on the formation of iron oxides was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Acicular α-FeOOH particles precipitated in a highly alkaline medium with the addition of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) were used as reference material. The initial addition of palladium ions to that precipitation system had a significant effect on the formation of iron oxide phases and their properties. In the presence of palladium ions, the initially formed α-FeOOH has been transformed to α-Fe 2O 3 crystals in the form of hexagonal bipyramids via a dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism with a simultaneous formation of metallic palladium nanoparticles. These palladium nanoparticles acted as a catalyst for the reductive dissolution of α-Fe 2O 3 particles and the formation of Fe 3O 4 crystals in the form of octahedrons. Increase in the initial concentration of palladium ions in the precipitation system accelerated the transformation process α-FeOOH → α-Fe 2O 3 → Fe 3O 4 and influenced changes in the shape of α-Fe 2O 3 and Fe 3O 4 particles.

  14. The influence of platinum(IV) ions on the formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Musić, Svetozar

    2011-05-01

    The effect of the presence of platinum(IV) ions, in the form of Pt(OH)62- at a high pH, on the formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline precipitation system was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), 57Fe Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Monodispersed lath-like α-FeOOH (goethite) particles precipitated by hydrothermal treatment in a highly alkaline medium with the addition of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) were used as reference material. In the presence of 1 or 5 mol% of platinum ions in the precipitation system the lath-like α-FeOOH particles were formed as a single phase after a short hydrothermal treatment (2 h). No significant change in the size and shape of these particles in comparison to the reference sample was observed. After 6 h of autoclaving the formation of platinum nanoparticles at the surface of α-FeOOH particles via reduction by TMAH and/or its decomposition products became visible. These nanoparticles acted as a catalyst for the reduction of Fe(III) ions into Fe(II) and gradual transformation of α-FeOOH into a mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) oxide (Fe 3O 4, magnetite) by the dissolution-recrystallization mechanism. The presence of a higher concentration of platinum ions accelerates the process of α-FeOOH → Fe 3O 4 transformation with the appearance of α-Fe 2O 3 (hematite) particles as an intermediate product.

  15. Low temperature alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free Titan tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, Coralie; Buch, Arnaud; Raulin, François; Coll, Patrice; Poch, Olivier; Ramirez, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is known for its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan's atmosphere are of great astrobiological interest, particularly because of their potential evolution when they reach the surface and may interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma[1]. In this context we have followed the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis (25wt% ammonia-water) of Titan tholins (produced by an experimental setup using a plasma DC discharge named PLASMA) at low temperature. Urea has been identified as one of the main product of tholins hydrolysis along with several amino acids (alanine, glycine and aspartic acid). However, those molecules have also been detected in non-hydrolyzed tholins. One explanation is a possible oxygen leak in the PLASMA reactor during the tholins synthesis[2]. Following this preliminary study the synthesis protocol has been improved by isolating the whole device in a specially designed glove box which protect the PLASMA experiment from the laboratory atmosphere. Once we confirmed the non-presence of oxygen in tholins, we performed alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free tholins. Then we verify that the organic compounds cited above are still produced in-situ. Moreover, a recent study shows that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less[3]), than the one used until now in this kind of experimental study[2, 4]. Thus, we have carried out new hydrolysis experiments which take this lower value into account. Additional studies have provided new highlights on the bulk composition of Titan for various gas species. Indeed, the observed Saturn's atmosphere enrichment constrains the composition of the planetesimals present in the feeding zone of Saturn. The enrichment in volatiles in Saturn's atmosphere has been reproduced by assuming the presence of specific gas species[5, 6], in particular CO2 and H2S. In the present study we assume that those gas species have

  16. Synergy among transition element, nitrogen, and carbon for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhou Peng; Liu, Zi Xuan; Zhu, Kun Ning; Li, Zhuo; Liu, Bin Hong

    2012-12-01

    A series of M-doped polypyrrole (PPy)-modified BP2000 catalysts (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) are synthesized using the hydrothermal method. The synergy among a transition element, nitrogen, and carbon for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium is discussed based on the physical characterization and electrochemical analyses of the Co-doped PPy-modified BP2000. PPy is found to adhere carbon black particles together to form a porous 3D network during the PPy modification on BP2000. PPy reconfiguration occurs during the hydrothermal treatment process. The individual interactions between BP and PPy, BP and Co, and Co and PPy exhibit insignificant effects on the enhancement of ORR. The cooperative interaction among Co, N, and C plays a very important role in the enhancement of ORR. The doping effect of transition-metal salt on ORR enhancement depends on the nature of the transition element and the corresponding anion.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis of carrot in hormone-free medium: external pH control over morphogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Cultures of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs) were initiated from mechanically wounded mature zygotic embryos of carrot, Daucus carota, on a hormone-free, semisolid medium. These PGSPs have been maintained and multiplied for extended periods without their progression into later embryo stages on the same hormone-free medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Sustained maintenance of cultures comprised exclusively of PGSPs was dependent on medium pH throughout the culture period. Best growth and multiplication of PGSP cultures occurred when the pH of unbuffered, hormone-free medium fell from 4.5 to 4 over a 2-week period or when buffered medium was titrated to pH 4. If the hormone-free medium was buffered to sustain a pH at or above 4.5, PGSPs developed into later embryo stages. Maintenance with continuous multiplication of PGSPs occurred equally well on medium containing NH4+ or NH4+ and NO3-, but growth was poor with NO3- alone. Additional observations on the effects of medium components such as various nitrogen sources and levels, sucrose concentration, semisolid supports, type of buffer, borate concentration, activated charcoal, and initial pH that permit optimum maintenance of the PGSPs or foster their continued developmental progression into mature embryos and plantlets are reported. The influence of the pH of the hormone-free medium as a determinant in maintaining cultures as PGSPs or allowing their continued embryonic development are unequivocally demonstrated by gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and histological preparations.

  18. Glucose metabolism and glutamate analog acutely alkalinize pH of insulin secretory vesicles of pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Eto, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Tokuyuki; Hirose, Kenzo; Tsubamoto, Yoshiharu; Ainscow, Edward K; Rutter, Guy A; Kimura, Satoshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iino, Masamitsu; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    We studied acute changes of secretory vesicle pH in pancreatic beta-cells with a fluorescent pH indicator, lysosensor green DND-189. Fluorescence was decreased by 0.66 +/- 0.10% at 149 +/- 16 s with 22.2 mM glucose stimulation, indicating that vesicular pH was alkalinized by approximately 0.016 unit. Glucose-responsive pH increase was observed when cytosolic Ca2+ influx was blocked but disappeared when an inhibitor of glycolysis or mitochondrial ATP synthase was present. Glutamate dimethyl ester (GME), a plasma membrane-permeable analog of glutamate, potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion at 5 mM without changing cellular ATP content or cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]). Application of GME at basal glucose concentration decreased DND-189 fluorescence by 0.83 +/- 0.19% at 38 +/- 2 s. These results indicated that the acutely alkalinizing effect of glucose on beta-cell secretory vesicle pH was dependent on glucose metabolism but independent of modulations of cytosolic [Ca2+]. Moreover, glutamate derived from glucose may be one of the mediators of this alkalinizing effect of glucose, which may have potential relevance to the alteration of secretory function by glutamate.

  19. Anodic oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on platinum electrode in alkaline medium

    SciTech Connect

    Pakalapati, S.N.R.; Popov, B.N.; White, R.E.

    1996-05-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) forms strong metal complexes and is often used to remove scale from heat-transfer equipment and to decontaminate equipment exposed to radioactive material. However, the resultant waste in the form of EDTA-metal complex is hard to treat due to the high stability of such complexes. The anodic oxidation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was studied in alkaline medium on a smooth platinum electrode. Bulk electrolysis indicated that stable organic intermediates (formaldehyde and glyoxal) are formed during the oxidation of EDTA and that complete oxidation to CO{sub 2} can be achieved. The proposed pathway suggests that the acetate groups in EDTA are initially oxidized, generating formaldehyde and ethylenediamine. The rest potential of EDTA (0.066 to 0.164 V vs. Hg/HgO) was observed to be higher than for other organic species. In alkaline medium, very little EDTA oxidation was found to occur on bare platinum. Limiting-current behavior due to PtO formation was observed immediately positive of the rest potential. Tafel behavior (Tafel slope 120 mV/dec) was observed in the potential region positive of the cessation of the bulk of oxide film formation and negative of the onset of O{sub 2} evolution. The reaction order of EDTA was determined to be {approximately}0.5, and that of OH{sup {minus}} was close to zero. The reaction mechanism consistent with the experimental data involves Temkin-type adsorption and a first-electron-transfer rate-determining step.

  20. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Marra, Leandro M; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M; Soares, Cláudio R F S; de Lima, José M; Olivares, Fabio L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2015-06-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization.

  1. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Leandro M.; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M.; Soares, Cláudio R.F.S.; de Lima, José M.; Olivares, Fabio L.; Moreira, Fatima M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  2. Thermodynamics of Micellization of n-Alkyl Sulfates in an Alkaline Medium at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ruso; Taboada; Mosquera; Sarmiento

    1999-06-15

    Critical micelle concentrations (cmc) have been calculated from conductivity measurements at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15 K for sodium n-decyl sulfate (SDES), sodium n-undecyl sulfate (SUNDS), and sodium n-dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in a medium of pH 10.0 and ionic strength 0.0312. Thermodynamic parameters of micellization, standard Gibbs energies (), standard enthalpies (), and standard entropies (), have been obtained by application of the model of Evans and Ninham in terms of hydrophobic and surface contributions. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  3. Sewage sludge pretreatment by microwave irradiation combined with activated carbon fibre at alkaline pH for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dedong; Guo, Sixiao; Ma, Nina; Wang, Guowen; Ma, Chun; Hao, Jun; Xue, Mang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the effects of microwave-assisted activated carbon fibre (ACF) (MW-ACF) treatment on sewage sludge at alkaline pH. The disintegration and biodegradability of sewage sludge were studied. It was found that the MW-ACF process at alkaline pH provided a rapid and efficient process to disrupt the microbial cells in the sludge. The results suggested that when irradiated at 800 W MW for 110 s with a dose of 1.0 g ACF/g solid concentration (SS) at pH 10.5, the MW-ACF pretreatment achieved 55% SS disintegration, 23% greater than the value of MW alone (32%). The concentration of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand, protein, and polysaccharide increased by 60%, 144%, 145%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. An increase in biogas production by 63.7% was achieved after 20 days of anaerobic digestion (AD), compared to the control. The results indicated that the MW-ACF pretreatment process at alkaline pH provides novel sludge management options in disintegration of sewage sludge for further AD.

  4. Sewage sludge pretreatment by microwave irradiation combined with activated carbon fibre at alkaline pH for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dedong; Guo, Sixiao; Ma, Nina; Wang, Guowen; Ma, Chun; Hao, Jun; Xue, Mang; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the effects of microwave-assisted activated carbon fibre (ACF) (MW-ACF) treatment on sewage sludge at alkaline pH. The disintegration and biodegradability of sewage sludge were studied. It was found that the MW-ACF process at alkaline pH provided a rapid and efficient process to disrupt the microbial cells in the sludge. The results suggested that when irradiated at 800 W MW for 110 s with a dose of 1.0 g ACF/g solid concentration (SS) at pH 10.5, the MW-ACF pretreatment achieved 55% SS disintegration, 23% greater than the value of MW alone (32%). The concentration of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, supernatant soluble chemical oxygen demand, protein, and polysaccharide increased by 60%, 144%, 145%, 74%, and 77%, respectively. An increase in biogas production by 63.7% was achieved after 20 days of anaerobic digestion (AD), compared to the control. The results indicated that the MW-ACF pretreatment process at alkaline pH provides novel sludge management options in disintegration of sewage sludge for further AD. PMID:27332832

  5. Transitions from alkaline spots to regular bands during pH pattern formation at the plasmalemma of Chara cells.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, A A; Zykov, S V; Rubin, A B; Müller, S C

    2003-05-01

    A scanning pH-microprobe was used to study pH patterns near the surface of Chara corallina cells at various light intensities and during light-induced transitions from homogeneous pH distribution to alternating pH bands. In the irradiance (PAR) range 4-400 micromol quanta m(-2) s(-1), the sustained pH profiles consisted of alternating acid and alkaline bands with a characteristic length of 7-10 mm and pH shifts as large as 2-3 units. At lower irradiance, the number of alkaline bands decreased while the amplitude of remaining peaks stayed high. On cyclic changes in light intensity, a hysteresis of pH banding was observed: the pH bands tolerated low irradiance in weakening light, but higher irradiance was required for their emergence after dark adaptation of the cell. The pH profiles measured for different paths of electrode scanning suggest that the pH pattern at low light level represents patches coexisting with bands. The exposure of the cell to high-intensity light led to formation of radially symmetrical bands. Transformations of the pH pattern induced by lowering the light intensity were similar to those induced by transcellular electric current (1.5-3 microA). The data suggest that band formation at the plasmalemma of Chara cells proceeds through the initial appearance of multiple patches with a localized H(+)-transporting activity and subsequent spot rearrangements (fusion, deletions, widening), leading to establishment of alternating bands.

  6. Bleb formation is induced by alkaline but not acidic pH in estrogen receptor silenced breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Khajah, Maitham A; Mathew, Princy M; Alam-Eldin, Nada S; Luqmani, Yunus A

    2015-04-01

    De novo and acquired resistance to endocrine-based therapies in breast cancer occurs in parallel with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is associated with enhanced proliferative and metastatic potential, and poor clinical outcome. We have established several endocrine insensitive breast cancer lines by shRNA-induced depletion of estrogen receptor (ER) by transfection of MCF7 cells. All of these exhibit EMT. We have previously reported that brief exposure of specifically ER- breast cancer cells, to extracellular alkaline pH, results in cell rounding and segregation, and leads to enhanced invasive potential. In this study we describe more detailed morphological changes and compare these with cell exposure to acidic pH. Morphological changes and localization of various molecules critical for cell adhesion and motility, associated with pH effects, were assessed by live cell microscopy, electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Exposure of either ER- or ER+ breast cancer cells to extracellular acidic pH did not induce significant changes in morphological appearance. Conversely, brief exposure of specifically ER silenced cells, to alkaline pH, resulted in cell contractolation and formation of bleb-like actin-rich structures which were evenly distributed on the outer membrane. Integrin α2, FAK, and JAM-1 were found in the cytoplasm streaming into the newly formed blebs. These blebs appear to be related to cell polarity and movement. Pre-treatment with cytochalasin-D or inhibitors of Rho or MLCK prevented both contractolation and bleb formation. Our data suggest that the effect of pH on the microenvironment of endocrine resistant breast cancer cells needs to be more extensively investigated. Alkaline, rather than acidic pH, appears to induce dramatic morphological changes, and enhances their invasive capabilities, through re-organization of cortical actin. PMID:25672508

  7. Pt- and Ru-doped SnO₂-Sb anodes with high stability in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Raúl; Sieben, Juan Manuel; Quijada, César; Morallón, Emilia

    2014-12-24

    Different Pt- and Ru-doped Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes were synthesized by thermal decomposition. The effect of the gradual substitution of Sb by Ru in the nominal composition on the physicochemical and electrochemical properties were evaluated. The electrochemical stability of the electrodes was estimated from accelerated tests at 0.5 A cm(-2) in 1 M NaOH. Both as-synthesized and deactivated electrodes were thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The incorporation of a small amount (about 3 at. %) of both Pt and Ru into the SnO2-Sb electrodes produced a 400-times increase in their service life in alkaline medium, with no remarkable change in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). It is concluded that the deactivation of the electrodes is promoted by alkaline dissolution of metal species and coating detachment at high potentials. The introduction of Pt has a coating compacting effect, and Ru(IV), at low amounts until 9.75 at. %, replaces the Sn(IV) cations in the rutile-like SnO2 structure to form a solid solution that strongly increases the stability of the electrodes. The observed Ru segregation and decreased stability for larger Ru contents (x > 9.75 at. %), together with the selective dissolution of Ru after deactivation, suggest that the formation of a homogeneous (RuδSn1-δ)O2 single-phase is crucial for the stabilization of these electrodes. PMID:25453898

  8. Pt- and Ru-doped SnO₂-Sb anodes with high stability in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Raúl; Sieben, Juan Manuel; Quijada, César; Morallón, Emilia

    2014-12-24

    Different Pt- and Ru-doped Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes were synthesized by thermal decomposition. The effect of the gradual substitution of Sb by Ru in the nominal composition on the physicochemical and electrochemical properties were evaluated. The electrochemical stability of the electrodes was estimated from accelerated tests at 0.5 A cm(-2) in 1 M NaOH. Both as-synthesized and deactivated electrodes were thoroughly characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The incorporation of a small amount (about 3 at. %) of both Pt and Ru into the SnO2-Sb electrodes produced a 400-times increase in their service life in alkaline medium, with no remarkable change in the electrocatalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). It is concluded that the deactivation of the electrodes is promoted by alkaline dissolution of metal species and coating detachment at high potentials. The introduction of Pt has a coating compacting effect, and Ru(IV), at low amounts until 9.75 at. %, replaces the Sn(IV) cations in the rutile-like SnO2 structure to form a solid solution that strongly increases the stability of the electrodes. The observed Ru segregation and decreased stability for larger Ru contents (x > 9.75 at. %), together with the selective dissolution of Ru after deactivation, suggest that the formation of a homogeneous (RuδSn1-δ)O2 single-phase is crucial for the stabilization of these electrodes.

  9. Evaluation of pH, alkalinity and temperature during air stripping process for ammonia removal from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Campos, Juacyara Carbonelli; Moura, Denise; Costa, Ana Paula; Yokoyama, Lidia; Araujo, Fabiana Valeria da Fonseca; Cammarota, Magali Christe; Cardillo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the air stripping technology for the removal of ammonia from landfill leachates. In this process, pH, temperature, airflow rate and operation time were investigated. Furthermore, the relationship between the leachate alkalinity and the ammonia removal efficiency during the process was studied. The leachate used in the tests was generated in the Gramacho Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil). The best results were obtained with a temperature of 60(o)C, and they were independent of the pH value for 7 h of operation (the ammonia nitrogen removal was greater than 95%). A strong influence of the leachate alkalinity on the ammonia nitrogen removal was observed; as the alkalinity decreased, the ammonia concentration also decreased because of prior CO2 removal, which increased the pH and consequently favored the NH3 stripping. The air flow rate, in the values evaluated (73, 96 and 120 L air.h(-1).L(-1) of leachate), did not influence the results.

  10. Alkaline unfolding and salt-induced folding of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase under high pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Le, W P; Yan, S X; Li, S; Zhong, H N; Zhou, H M

    1996-06-01

    The conformational changes of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase during unfolding at alkaline pH have been followed by fluorescence emission and circular dichroism spectra. A result of comparison of inactivation and conformational changes shows that much lower values of alkaline pH are required to bring about inactivation than significant conformational change of the enzyme molecule. At pH 9.5, although the enzyme has been completely inactivated, no marked conformational changes can be observed. Even at pH 12, the apparently fully unfolded enzyme retains some ordered secondary structure. After removal of Zn2+ from the enzyme molecule, the conformational stability decreased. At pH 12 by adding the salt, the relatively unfolded state of denatured enzyme changes into a compact conformational state by hydrophobic collapsing. Folded states induced by salt bound ANS strongly, indicating the existence of increased hydrophobic surface. More extensive studies showed that although apo-YADH and holo-YADH exhibited similar behavior, the folding cooperative ability of apo-enzyme was lower than that of holo-enzyme. The above results suggest that the zinc ion plays an important role in helping the folding of YADH and in stabilizing its native conformation.

  11. On the Mechanism by which Alkaline pH Prevents Expression of an Acid-Expressed Gene

    PubMed Central

    Espeso, Eduardo A.; Arst, Herbert N.

    2000-01-01

    Previous work has shown that zinc finger transcription factor PacC mediates the regulation of gene expression by ambient pH in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. This regulation ensures that the syntheses of molecules functioning in the external environment, such as permeases, secreted enzymes, and exported metabolites, are tailored to the pH of the growth environment. A direct role for PacC in activating the expression of an alkaline-expressed gene has previously been demonstrated, but the mechanism by which alkaline ambient pH prevents the expression of any eukaryotic acid-expressed gene has never been reported. Here we show that a double PacC binding site in the promoter of the acid-expressed gabA gene, encoding γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) permease, overlaps the binding site for the transcriptional activator IntA, which mediates ω-amino acid induction. Using bacterially expressed fusion proteins, we have shown that PacC competes with IntA for DNA binding in vitro at this site. Thus, PacC repression of GABA permease synthesis is direct and occurs by blocking induction. A swap of IntA sites between promoters for gabA and amdS, a gene not subject to pH regulation, makes gabA expression pH independent and amdS acid expressed. PMID:10779325

  12. Alkalinity and pH effects on nitrification in a membrane aerated bioreactor: an experimental and model analysis.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, John W; Semmens, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    A nitrifying biofilm was grown in a laboratory-scale membrane aerated bioreactor (MABR) to calibrate and test a one-dimensional biofilm model incorporating chemical equilibria to calculate local pH values. A previously developed model (Shanahan and Semmens, 2004) based upon AQUASIM was modified to incorporate the impact of local pH changes within the biofilm on the kinetics of nitrification. Shielded microelectrodes were used to measure the concentration profiles of dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrate, and pH within the biofilm and the overlying boundary layer under actual operating conditions. Operating conditions were varied to assess the impact of bicarbonate loading (alkalinity), ammonium loading, and intra-membrane oxygen partial pressure on biofilm performance. Nitrification performance improved with increased ammonium and bicarbonate loadings over the range of operating conditions tested, but declined when the intra-membrane oxygen partial pressure was increased. Minor discrepancies between the measured and predicted concentration profiles within the biofilm were attributed to changes in biofilm density and vertical heterogeneities in biofilm structure not accounted for by the model. Nevertheless, predicted concentration profiles within the biofilm agreed well with experimental results over the range of conditions studied and highlight the fact that pH changes in the biofilm are significant especially in low alkalinity waters. The influent pH and buffer capacity of a wastewater may therefore have a significant impact on the performance of a membrane-aerated bioreactor with respect to nitrification, and nitrogen removal.

  13. Upper ocean carbon cycling inferred from direct pH observations made by profiling floats and estimated alkalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. S.; Plant, J. N.; Jannasch, H. W.; Coletti, L. J.; Elrod, V.; Sakamoto, C.; Riser, S.

    2015-12-01

    The annual cycle of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is a key tracer of net community production and carbon export in the upper ocean. In particular, the DIC concentration is much less sensitive to air-sea gas exchange, when compared to oxygen, another key tracer of upper ocean metabolism. However, the annual DIC cycle is observed with a seasonal resolution at only a few time-series stations in the open ocean. Here, we consider the annual carbon cycle that has been observed using profiling floats equipped with pH sensors. Deep-Sea DuraFET pH sensors have been deployed on profiling floats for over three years and they can provide temporal and spatial resolution of 5 to 10 days and 5 to 10 m in the upper ocean over multi-year periods. In addition to pH, a second carbon system parameter is required to compute DIC. Total alkalinity can be derived from the float observations of temperature, salinity and oxygen using equations in these variables that are fitted to shipboard observations of alkalinity obtained in the global repeat hydrography programs (e.g., Juranek et al., GRL, doi:10.1029/2011GL048580, 2011), as the relationships should be stable in time in the open ocean. Profiling floats with pH have been deployed from Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) cruises since late 2012 and an array of floats with pH have been deployed since early 2014 in the Southern Ocean as part of the SOCCOM program. The SOCCOM array should grow to nearly 200 floats over the next 5 years. The sensor data was quality controlled and adjusted by comparing observations at 1500 m depth to the deep climatology of pH (derived from DIC and alkalinity) computed with the GLODAP data set. After adjustment, the surface DIC concentrations were calculated from pH and alkalinity. This yields a data set that is used to examine annual net community production in the oligotrophic North Pacific and in the South Pacific near 150 West from 40 South to 65 South.

  14. The immobilization of all spermatozoa in vitro by bitter lemon drink and the effect of alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Nwoha, P U

    1992-12-01

    Researchers at Obafemi Awolowo University in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, collected semen samples from 7 healthy men 25-30 years old who had abstained from sex for at least 5 days in order to examine the spermicidal action of 4 soft drinks (Krest bitter lemon, Afri-Cola, Coca-Cola, and Pepsi-Cola), the effect of increased temperature of the drinks on spermicidal action, and the effect of changing the soft drinks from an acid, as it comes from the factory, (ph 2.4) to an alkaline (pH 7.5). Increasing the temperature of the soft drinks from room temperature (22 degrees Celsius) to body temperatures (37 degrees Celsius) did not significantly change the spermicidal action any of the soft drinks. All soft drinks with an acid pH, except Coca-Cola, had a significantly lower percent of sperm motility than those with an alkaline pH (0-42.3% vs. 20-52.1%; p .001). In fact, Krest bitter lemon in its factory form (acid pH) completely immobilized all spermatozoa within 1 minute after the researchers diluted the semen with the soft drink. Alkaline Coca-Cola had a significantly lower percent of sperm motility than did acid Coca-Cola (35.8% vs. 46.5%; p .001). Other than Krest bitter lemon, the significant decreases in sperm motility were not enough to prevent pregnancy. These findings indicated that researchers should test Krest bitter lemon for effectiveness as a postcoital contraceptive. If indeed it proves effective, it has great potential as such a contraceptive among the poor in the densely population developed countries since it is readily available and inexpensive.

  15. Carbon dioxide addition to microbial fuel cell cathodes maintains sustainable catholyte pH and improves anolyte pH, alkalinity, and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Fornero, Jeffrey J; Rosenbaum, Miriam; Cotta, Michael A; Angenent, Largus T

    2010-04-01

    Bioelectrochemical system (BES) pH imbalances develop due to anodic proton-generating oxidation reactions and cathodic hydroxide-ion-generating reduction reactions. Until now, workers added unsustainable buffers to reduce the pH difference between the anode and cathode because the pH imbalance contributes to BES potential losses and, therefore, power losses. Here, we report that adding carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gas to the cathode, which creates a CO(2)/bicarbonate buffered catholyte system, can diminish microbial fuel cell (MFC) pH imbalances in contrast to the CO(2)/carbonate buffered catholyte system by Torres, Lee, and Rittmann [Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 8773]. We operated an air-cathode and liquid-cathode MFC side-by-side. For the air-cathode MFC, CO(2) addition resulted in a stable catholyte film pH of 6.61 +/- 0.12 and a 152% increase in steady-state power density. By adding CO(2) to the liquid-cathode system, we sustained a steady catholyte pH (pH = 5.94 +/- 0.02) and a low pH imbalance (DeltapH = 0.65 +/- 0.18) over a 2-week period without external salt buffer addition. By migrating bicarbonate ions from the cathode to the anode (with an anion-exchange membrane), we increased the anolyte pH (DeltapH = 0.39 +/- 0.31), total alkalinity (494 +/- 6 to 582 +/- 6 as mg CaCO(3)/L), and conductivity (1.53 +/- 0.49 to 2.16 +/- 0.03 mS/cm) relative to the feed properties. We also verified with a phosphate-buffered MFC that our reaction rates were limited mainly by the reactor configuration rather than limitations due to the bicarbonate buffer.

  16. Nickel hydroxide deposited indium tin oxide electrodes as electrocatalysts for direct oxidation of carbohydrates in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Farzana, S.; Berchmans, Sheela

    In this work, the direct electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates using nickel hydroxide modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes in alkaline medium is demonstrated; suggesting the feasibility of using carbohydrates as a novel fuel in alkaline fuel cells applications. The chosen monosaccharides are namely glucose and fructose; disaccharides such as sucrose and lactose; and sugar acid like ascorbic acid for this study. ITO electrodes are chemically modified using a hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline phase template electrodeposition of nickel. Structural morphology, growth, orientation and electrochemical behaviour of Ni deposits are characterized using SEM, XRD, XPS and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. Further electrochemical potential cycling process in alkaline medium is employed to convert these Ni deposits into corresponding nickel hydroxide modified electrodes. These electrodes are used as novel platform to perform the electrocatalytic oxidation of various carbohydrates in alkaline medium. It was found that bare and Ni coated ITO electrodes are inactive towards carbohydrates oxidation. The heterogeneous rate constant values are determined and calculated to be two orders of magnitude higher in the case of template method when compared to non-template technique. The observed effect is attributed to the synergistic effect of higher surface area of these deposits and catalytic ability of Ni(II)/Ni(III) redox couple.

  17. The effect of critical pH on virus fate and transport in saturated porous medium.

    PubMed

    Guan, Huade; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Schaffer, Steve; Pillai, Suresh D

    2003-01-01

    Several viral transport experiments were conducted in a model aquifer 1 m long, using bacteriophages MS2 and phiX174 at various pH (4.6 to 8.3) conditions, to increase our understanding of virus behavior in ground water. The results indicate the existence of a critical pH at which the virus behavior changes abruptly. This is supported by data from field and batch experiments. The critical pH is determined to be 0.5 unit below the highest isoelectric point of the virus and porous medium. When water pH is below the critical pH, the virus has an opposite charge to at least one component of the porous medium, and is almost completely and irreversibly removed from the water. This suggests that electrostatic attraction at a subcritical water pH condition is an important factor controlling virus attenuation in ground water. The concept of critical pH can assist in the design of geologic barriers for preventing viral contamination in ground water.

  18. Tendency for oxidation of annelid hemoglobin at alkaline pH and dissociated states probed by redox titration.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Jose Ailton Conceicao; Landini, Gustavo Fraga; Santos, Jose Luis Rocha; Norberto, Douglas Ricardo; Bonafe, Carlos Francisco Sampaio

    2005-08-01

    The redox titration of extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (Annelidea) was investigated in different pH conditions and after dissociation induced by pressure. Oxidation increased with increasing pH, as shown by the reduced amount of ferricyanide necessary for the oxidation of hemoglobin. This behavior was the opposite of that of vertebrate hemoglobins. The potential of half oxidation (E1/2) changed from -65.3 to +146.8 mV when the pH increased from 4.50 to 8.75. The functional properties indicated a reduction in the log P50 from 1.28 to 0.28 in this pH range. The dissociation at alkaline pH or induced by high pressure, confirmed by HPLC gel filtration, suggested that disassembly of the hemoglobin could be involved in the increased potential for oxidation. These results suggest that the high stability and prolonged lifetime common to invertebrate hemoglobins is related to their low tendency to oxidize at acidic pH, in contrast to vertebrate hemoglobins. PMID:15982915

  19. Tendency for oxidation of annelid hemoglobin at alkaline pH and dissociated states probed by redox titration.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Jose Ailton Conceicao; Landini, Gustavo Fraga; Santos, Jose Luis Rocha; Norberto, Douglas Ricardo; Bonafe, Carlos Francisco Sampaio

    2005-08-01

    The redox titration of extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (Annelidea) was investigated in different pH conditions and after dissociation induced by pressure. Oxidation increased with increasing pH, as shown by the reduced amount of ferricyanide necessary for the oxidation of hemoglobin. This behavior was the opposite of that of vertebrate hemoglobins. The potential of half oxidation (E1/2) changed from -65.3 to +146.8 mV when the pH increased from 4.50 to 8.75. The functional properties indicated a reduction in the log P50 from 1.28 to 0.28 in this pH range. The dissociation at alkaline pH or induced by high pressure, confirmed by HPLC gel filtration, suggested that disassembly of the hemoglobin could be involved in the increased potential for oxidation. These results suggest that the high stability and prolonged lifetime common to invertebrate hemoglobins is related to their low tendency to oxidize at acidic pH, in contrast to vertebrate hemoglobins.

  20. Optimized coagulation of high alkalinity, low temperature and particle water: pH adjustment and polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianfeng; Wang, Dongsheng; Yan, Mingquan; Ye, Changqing; Yang, Min; Ge, Xiaopeng

    2007-08-01

    The Yellow River in winter as source water is characterized as high alkalinity, low temperature and low particle concentrations, which have brought many difficulties to water treatment plants. This study fully examines the optimized coagulation process of the Yellow River by conventional and pre-polymerized metal coagulants, pH adjustment and polyelectrolytes as the primary coagulants or coagulant aids. For all the metal coagulants, polyaluminum chlorides are superior to traditional metal coagulants due to their stable polymeric species and low consumption of alkalinity. The removal of natural organic matter by monomeric metal coagulants can be improved through pH adjustment, which is in accordance with the higher concentration of polymeric species formed at corresponding pH value. With the addition of polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids, the coagulation performance is significantly improved. The effective removal of dissolved organic matter is consistent with high charge density, while molecular weight is relatively important for removing particles, which is consistent with polyelectrolytes as primary coagulants. These results suggest that the coagulation mechanisms in the removal of dissolved organic matter and particles are different, which may be exploited for optimized coagulation for the typical source water in practice.

  1. Anomalous velocity enhancing of soliton, propagating in nonlinear PhC, due to its reflection from nonlinear ambient medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Lysak, T. M.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a new possibility of a soliton velocity control at its propagation in a nonlinear layered structure (1D photonic crystal) which is placed in a nonlinear ambient medium. Nonlinear response of the ambient medium, as well as the PhC layers, is cubic. At the initial time moment, a soliton is spread over a few layers of PhC. Then, soliton propagates across the layered structure because of the initial wave-vector direction presence for the laser beam. The soliton reaches the PhC faces and reflects from them or passes through the face. As a nonlinear medium surrounds the PhC, the laser beam obtains additional impulse after interaction with this medium and accelerates (or slows down or stops near the PhC face). Nonlinear response of the ambient medium can be additionally created by another laser beam which shines near the PhC faces.

  2. Geochemical Modeling of pH Neutralization of High Alkaline-Saline Waste Fluids in Unsaturated Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Zheng, Z.

    2004-12-01

    Leakage of high alkaline-saline fluids, such as those stored in Hanford, a site of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in Washington State, has raised attention of scientific community. These fluids have unique thermodynamic and physical properties. Chemical components in the fluids are incompletely dissociated, especially those containing divalent or polyvalent ions. A number of laboratory experiments through injecting synthetic high alkaline-saline fluids (up to 10M of sodium nitrate, pH >12) into the sediments sampled from the DOE Hanford site were conducted to study the reactive transport processes of the fluids in subsurface environments. The experimental results observed show that the composition of the high alkaline sodium nitrate fluids can be drastically changed due to fluid-rock interactions, and eventually lead to pH neutralization of the fluid in the plume front. The dominant fluid-rock interactions are cation exchanges (Na+-K+-Ca+2-Mg+2-H+), precipitation of calcium and magnesium minerals, and dissolution of silica. In order to precisely model the reactive transport of these processes, a coupling of the Pitzer's ion-interaction geochemical model and a flow and transport model would be highly needed. The extended existing reactive geochemical transport code, BIO-CORE2Dc, incorporating a comprehensive Pitzer ion-interaction model, is capable of predicting the experimental observations. In addition, the developed model was tested against two reported cases. In both cases, the measured mean ionic activity coefficients were well reproduced by our model, while the Debye-Hückel model, usually used to calculate aqueous species activities in dilute solutions, was unable to predict the experimental data. Finally, modeling study based on our laboratory column experiment was performed. Our simulation is able to capture the observed pH trends, changes in exchangeable cations such as Ca+2, Mg+2, and formation of secondary precipitation phases in the plume front.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of a constructed wetland for treating extremely alkaline (pH 12) steel slag drainage.

    PubMed

    Mayes, W M; Aumônier, J; Jarvis, A P

    2009-01-01

    High pH (> 12) leachates are an environmental problem associated with drainage from lime (CaO)-rich industrial residues such as steel slags, lime spoil and coal combustion residues. Recent research has highlighted the potential for natural ('volunteer') wetlands to buffer extremely alkaline influent waters. This appears ascribable to high CO(2) partial pressures in the wetland waters from microbial respiration, which accelerates precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)), and the high specific surface area for mineral precipitation offered by macrophytes. The research presented here builds on this and provides preliminary evaluation of a constructed wetland built in March 2008 to buffer drainage from steel slag heaps in north-east England. The drainage water from the slag mounds is characterised by a mean pH of 11.9, high concentrations of Ca (up to 700 mg/L), total alkalinity (up to 800 mg/L as CaCO(3)) and are slightly brackish (Na = 300 mg/L; Cl = 400 mg/L) reflecting native groundwaters at this coastal setting. Documented calcite precipitation rates (mean of 5 g CaCO(3)/m(2)/day) from nearby volunteer sites receiving steel slag drainage were used to scale the constructed wetland planted with Phragmites australis; a species found to spontaneously grow in the vicinity of the discharge. Improved performance of the wetland during summer months may at least in part be due to biological activity which enhances rates of calcite precipitation and thus lowering of pH. Secondary Ca-rich precipitates also serve as a sink for some trace elements present at low concentrations in the slag leachate such as Ni and V. The implications for scaling and applying constructed wetlands for highly alkaline drainage are discussed.

  4. Harvesting Chlorella vulgaris by natural increase in pH: effect of medium composition.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Dong Phuong; Frappart, Matthieu; Jaouen, Pascal; Pruvost, Jérémy; Bourseau, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris was harvested by autoflocculation resulting from the precipitation of magnesium or calcium compounds induced by a slow increase in pH in the absence of CO2 input. Autoflocculation was tested in two culture media with, respectively, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) ions as nitrogen source. The culture pH increased because of photosynthesis and CO2 stripping. pH rose to 11 after 8 h in the NO3- medium, but did not exceed 9 in the NH4+ medium. No flocculation took place in any of the media. Autoflocculation tests were repeated in the NO(3-)-based culture medium by progressively increasing the concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ until inorganic compounds precipitated and flocculated microalgae. The minimal concentrations for flocculation were found to be 120 mg Ca2 L(-1) and 1000 mg Mg2+ L(-1). These values were, respectively, 3.5 times and 20 times higher than those allowing flocculation by NaOH addition. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, zeta potential measurement, and ionic chromatography suggest that the mechanisms involved are different. The rate of cell removal was close to 90% in both cases, but cells were more concentrated in the aggregates obtained by magnesium compound precipitation, with an estimated concentration close to 33 g (dry matter) L(-1), against 19 g L(-1) for calcium phosphates.

  5. Effects of high medium pH on growth, metabolism and transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Peña, Antonio; Sánchez, Norma Silvia; Álvarez, Helber; Calahorra, Martha; Ramírez, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stopped by maintaining the pH of the medium in a pH-stat at pH 8.0 or 9.0. Studying its main physiological capacities and comparing cells after incubation at pH 6.0 vs. 8.0 or 9.0, we found that (a) fermentation was moderately decreased by high pH and respiration was similar and sensitive to the addition of an uncoupler, (b) ATP and glucose-6-phosphate levels upon glucose addition increased to similar levels and (c) proton pumping and K(+) transport were also not affected; all this indicating that energy mechanisms were preserved. Growth inhibition at high pH was also not due to a significant lower amino acid transport by the cells or incorporation into proteins. The cell cycle stopped at pH 9.0, probably due to an arrest as a result of adjustments needed by the cells to contend with the changes under these conditions, and microarray experiments showed some relevant changes to this response.

  6. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. T.; Nelson, P. N.; Li, M.-H.; Cai, J. P.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; Yang, S.; Wang, R. Z.; Wang, Z. W.; Wu, Y. N.; Han, X. G.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate-containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate-containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate-containing soils than in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate-containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate-containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate-containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Along the transect, soil pHBC was different in regions with different aridity index. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate-containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate- and non-carbonate-containing soils. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  7. Relation between iron uptake, pH of growth medium, and penicillinase formation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S; Sweeney, H M; Leitner, F

    1967-04-01

    The uptake of iron and the formation of penicillinase was examined in cultures of wild-type Staphylococcus aureus. Uptake of iron was about twice as great at pH 4.7 as at pH 7.4 At pH 4.7, increase in iron uptake in the range of 1.0 to 4.0 mug per mg of bacterial protein was associated with a progressive increase in the rate of penicillinase formation, but a direct correlation between cellular iron content and rate of enzyme formation was not demonstrated. Addition of iron to deferrated medium enhanced penicillinase formation at pH 6.5 to 7.4 two- to fourfold in cultures induced with benzylpenicillin and in uninduced cultures. To demonstrate an effect on the uninduced cells, it was necessary to increase iron uptake by preliminary incubation of cells with iron in buffer. Calcium and certain other ions depressed iron uptake at acidic and at neutral pH, and, presumably as a result of this action, depressed the formation of penicillinase. Iron did not enhance penicillinase formation at pH 4.7 by two penicillinase constitutive mutants nor by wild-type cells undergoing induction at pH 6.5 by cephalosporin C or methicillin. After removal of cephalosporin C or methicillin during an early phase of induction, residual synthesis of enzyme was increased by prior uptake of iron. The results are considered compatible with the concept that uptake of iron, especially at acidic pH, interferes with the formation or function of penicillinase repressor. PMID:6032503

  8. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium availability on emergence, nodulation and growth of Trifolium medium L. in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Chmelíková, L; Hejcman, M

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability on the growth of Trifolium medium in alkaline soil. In 2010, a pot experiment (10 N, P and K fertiliser treatments) with seeding of T. medium into alkaline soil was performed and emergence of seedlings, survival, aboveground and belowground organs were studied. The positive effects of increased nutrient availability on seedling emergence ranged from 5% in the control to 17% in the high P treatment. The lowest mortality was in treatments with P and K supply and the highest in treatments with N supply, due to the sensitivity of young plants to high N availability. The highest values of most measured aboveground plant traits were recorded in treatments with simultaneous application of N, P and K. There were highly positive effects of P supply alone or in combination with N and K on the development of belowground organs. Taproot length ranged from 11.5 in high N to 40.2 cm in P treatment. There was a negative effect of N application on nodulation, especially in N treatments, where growth of T. medium was limited by insufficient P supply. The number of nodules per plant ranged from 0.8 to 4.5 in the high N and P treatments. As demonstrated in this study, T. medium is a potentially suitable legume for alkaline soils. It requires a relatively high P and K supply as well as moderate mineral N supply to achieve its maximum growth potential. PMID:24355109

  9. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  10. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components.

  11. Variation in Biofilm Stability with Decreasing pH Affects Porous Medium Hydraulic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, M. F.; Santillan, E. F.; McGrath, L. K.; Altman, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    Changes to microbial communities caused by subsurface CO2 injection may have many consequences, including possible impacts to CO2 transport. We used column experiments to examine how decreasing pH, a geochemical change associated with CO2 injection, will affect biofilm stability and ultimately the hydraulic properties of porous media. Columns consisted of 1 mm2 square capillary tubes filled with 105-150 µm diameter glass beads. Artificial groundwater medium containing 1 mM glucose was pumped through the columns at a rate of 0.01 mL/min (q = 14.4 m/day; Re = 0.03). Columns were inoculated with 3 × 10^8 CFU (avg.) of Pseudomonas fluorescens, a model biofilm former, transformed with a green fluorescent protein. Biomass distribution and transport was examined using scanning laser confocal microscopy and effluent plating. Variation in the bulk hydraulic properties of the columns was measured using manometers. In an initial experiment, biofilm growth was allowed to occur for seven days in medium with pH 7.3. Within this period, cells uniformly coated bead surfaces, effluent cell numbers stabilized at 1 × 10^9 CFU/mL, and hydraulic conductivity (K) decreased 77%. Next, medium with pH 4 was introduced. As a result, biomass within the reactor redistributed from bead surfaces to pores, effluent cell numbers decreased to 3 × 10^5 CFU/mL, and K decreased even further (>94% reduction). This decreased K was maintained until the experiment was terminated, seven days after introducing low pH medium. These results suggest that changes in biomass distribution as a result of decreased pH may initially limit transport of solubility-trapped CO2 following CO2 injection. Experiments in progress and planned will test this result in more detail and over longer periods of time. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office

  12. Ketocyanine dyes as sensors for proticity and pH of a medium.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Niraja; Sarkar, Amrita; Purkayastha, Pradipta; Bagchi, Sanjib

    2012-09-01

    Photophysical properties of two structurally similar ketocyanine dyes have been studied in aprotic+protic (dioxane+water, tetrahydrofuran+water) and protic+protic (methanol+water) solvent mixtures. The observed photophysical properties of these dyes show different trends with an increase in solvent polarity (in the E(T)(30) scale) in aprotic and protic media. The H-bonding at the carbonyl centres of the dyes in the excited state presumably plays a role in modifying the emitting state and hence the photophysical properties show similar trend in a protic solvent or in a mixed aprotic+protic solvent at higher percentage of the later. Thus the dyes are supposed to act as useful probes for studying H-bonding ability of a medium. Absorption and fluorescence spectral characteristics of these dyes have been found to get modified in the presence of strong acid. The presence of H(+) ions persists the dyes to exist in equilibrium with the protonated forms having different absorption and fluorescence characteristics. Reversible change of the equilibrium with pH of the medium makes the dyes, particularly the symmetric one, good probes for indicating the pH of the medium.

  13. Salinity and Alkaline pH in Irrigation Water Affect Marigold Plants: II. Mineral Ion Relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scarcity of water of good quality for landscape irrigation is of outmost importance in arid and semiarid regions due to the competition with urban population. This is forcing the use of degraded waters with high levels of salinity and high pH, which may affect plant establishment and growth. The o...

  14. Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity with Decreasing pH in a Biologically-Clogged Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, M. F.; Santillan, E.; McGrath, L. K.; Altman, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Biological clogging can significantly lower the hydraulic conductivity of porous media, potentially helping to limit CO2 transport from geological carbon storage reservoirs. How clogging is affected by CO2 injection, however, is unclear. We used column experiments to examine how decreasing pH, a geochemical change associated with CO2 injection, will affect the hydraulic conductivity (K) of biologically clogged porous medium. Four biologically-active experiments and two control experiments were performed. Columns consisted of 1 mm2 capillary tubes filled with 105-150 μm diameter glass beads. Artificial groundwater medium containing 1 mM glucose was pumped through the columns at a rate of 0.015 mL/min (q = 21.6 m/day; Re = 0.045). Each column was inoculated with 10^8 CFU of Pseudomonas fluorescens tagged with a green fluorescent protein; cells introduced to control columns were heat sterilized. Biomass distribution and transport was monitored using scanning laser confocal microscopy and effluent plating. Growth was allowed to occur for 5 days in medium with pH 7 in the biologically active columns. During that time, K decreased to values ranging from 10 to 27% of the average control K and effluent cell levels increased to about 10^8 CFU/mL. Next, the pH of the inflowing medium was lowered to 4 in three experiments and 5.5 in one experiment. After pH 4 medium was introduced, K increased to values ranging from 21 to 64% of the average control K and culturable cell levels in the effluent fell by about 4 log units. Confocal images show that clogging persisted in the columns at pH 4 because most of the microbial biomass remained attached to bead surfaces. In the experiment where pH was lowered to 5.5, K changed little because biological clogging remained entirely intact. The concentration of culturable cells in the effluent was also invariant. These results suggest that biomass in porous medium will largely remain in place following exposure to acidic water in a CO2

  15. Diversity and food web structure of nematode communities under high soil salinity and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Salamún, Peter; Kucanová, Eva; Brázová, Tímea; Miklisová, Dana; Renčo, Marek; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2014-10-01

    A long-term and intensive magnesium (Mg) ore processing in Slovenské Magnezitové Závody a.s. in Jelšava has resulted in a high Mg content and alkaline pH of the soil environment, noticeable mainly in the close vicinity of the smelter. Nematode communities strongly reacted to the contamination mostly by a decrease in abundance of the sensitive groups. Nematodes from c-p 1 group and bacterivores, tolerant to pollution played a significant role in establishing the dominance at all sites. With increasing distance from the pollution source, the nematode communities were more structured and complex, with an increase in proportion of sensitive c-p 4 and 5 nematodes, composed mainly of carnivores and omnivores. Various ecological indices (e.g. MI2-5, SI, H') indicated similar improvement of farther soil ecosystems.

  16. Catalytically active alkaline molten globular enzyme: Effect of pH and temperature on the structural integrity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Bosko M; Breydo, Leonid; Hunter, Gregory A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Ferreira, Gloria C

    2014-12-01

    5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), a pyridoxal-5'phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first step of heme biosynthesis in mammals. Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to examine the effects of pH (1.0-3.0 and 7.5-10.5) and temperature (20 and 37°C) on the structural integrity of ALAS. The secondary structure, as deduced from far-UV CD, is mostly resilient to pH and temperature changes. Partial unfolding was observed at pH2.0, but further decreasing pH resulted in acid-induced refolding of the secondary structure to nearly native levels. The tertiary structure rigidity, monitored by near-UV CD, is lost under acidic and specific alkaline conditions (pH10.5 and pH9.5/37°C), where ALAS populates a molten globule state. As the enzyme becomes less structured with increased alkalinity, the chiral environment of the internal aldimine is also modified, with a shift from a 420nm to 330nm dichroic band. Under acidic conditions, the PLP cofactor dissociates from ALAS. Reaction with 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid corroborates increased exposure of hydrophobic clusters in the alkaline and acidic molten globules, although the reaction is more pronounced with the latter. Furthermore, quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of ALAS with acrylamide at pH1.0 and 9.5 yielded subtly different dynamic quenching constants. The alkaline molten globule state of ALAS is catalytically active (pH9.5/37°C), although the kcat value is significantly decreased. Finally, the binding of 5-aminolevulinate restricts conformational fluctuations in the alkaline molten globule. Overall, our findings prove how the structural plasticity of ALAS contributes to reaching a functional enzyme.

  17. Catalytically active alkaline molten globular enzyme: Effect of pH and temperature on the structural integrity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Bosko M; Breydo, Leonid; Hunter, Gregory A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Ferreira, Gloria C

    2014-12-01

    5-Aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), a pyridoxal-5'phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the first step of heme biosynthesis in mammals. Circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to examine the effects of pH (1.0-3.0 and 7.5-10.5) and temperature (20 and 37°C) on the structural integrity of ALAS. The secondary structure, as deduced from far-UV CD, is mostly resilient to pH and temperature changes. Partial unfolding was observed at pH2.0, but further decreasing pH resulted in acid-induced refolding of the secondary structure to nearly native levels. The tertiary structure rigidity, monitored by near-UV CD, is lost under acidic and specific alkaline conditions (pH10.5 and pH9.5/37°C), where ALAS populates a molten globule state. As the enzyme becomes less structured with increased alkalinity, the chiral environment of the internal aldimine is also modified, with a shift from a 420nm to 330nm dichroic band. Under acidic conditions, the PLP cofactor dissociates from ALAS. Reaction with 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid corroborates increased exposure of hydrophobic clusters in the alkaline and acidic molten globules, although the reaction is more pronounced with the latter. Furthermore, quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of ALAS with acrylamide at pH1.0 and 9.5 yielded subtly different dynamic quenching constants. The alkaline molten globule state of ALAS is catalytically active (pH9.5/37°C), although the kcat value is significantly decreased. Finally, the binding of 5-aminolevulinate restricts conformational fluctuations in the alkaline molten globule. Overall, our findings prove how the structural plasticity of ALAS contributes to reaching a functional enzyme. PMID:25240868

  18. Aerobic granulation utilizing fermented municipal wastewater under low pH and alkalinity conditions in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Leong, Jason; Rezania, Babak; Mavinic, Don S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to achieve aerobic granulation utilizing fermented municipal wastewater under low pH, and alkalinity conditions. Stable granulation was achieved after a 166-day start-up period. Due to low influent strength, supplemental carbon addition, in the form of sucrose, was added to the feed storage tank on the 82nd day of start-up to facilitate granulation. This increased the system's organic loading rate from 1.43 ± 0.14 to 2.53 ± 0.18 kg COD/m(3)/d, and reduced the influent pH due to fermentation of the added sucrose. Although granulation was successful, the nutrient removal was limited. Removal rates at an influent pH of 6.23 ± 0.06 were 54.4% ± 8.3% for phosphorus, 21.9% ± 4.1% for ammonium, and 84.0% ± 3.0% for total chemical oxygen demand (COD). During the second phase of experimentation, increased amounts of sucrose were added to the feed, which resulted in increased volatile fatty acid concentrations and pH reduction to 5.62 ± 0.12 due to fermentation. Under further reduced pH conditions, phosphorus, ammonium, and total COD removal were found to be 58.9% ± 4.7%, 37.9% ± 4.7%, and 87.1% ± 0.9%, respectively. Settling volume indexes, SVI10 and SVI30, were found to be 148.8 ± 28.9 mL/g, for the influent pH of 6.23 ± 0.06, and 157.5 ± 40.6 mL/g, for the influent pH of 5.62 ± 0.12. This high SVI is indicative of the formation of lower-density granules in comparison to high-ash-content granules. The absence of denitrification-induced chemical phosphorus precipitation within the granule was likely a contributing factor to the low granule density observed in the system.

  19. Corrosion control in water supply systems: effect of pH, alkalinity, and orthophosphate on lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing.

    PubMed

    Tam, Y S; Elefsiniotis, P

    2009-10-01

    This study explored the potential of lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing in the Auckland region of New Zealand. A five-month field investigation, at six representative locations, indicated that Auckland's water can be characterized as soft and potentially corrosive, having low alkalinity and hardness levels and a moderately alkaline pH. More than 90% of the unflushed samples contained lead above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) of 10 microg/L (New Zealand Standards). In contrast, the copper level of unflushed samples remained consistently below the corresponding MAV of 2 mg/L. Flushing however reduced sharply metal concentrations, with lead values well below the MAV limit. Generally, metal leaching patterns showed a limited degree of correlation with the variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and free chlorine residual at all sampling locations. Furthermore, a series of bench-scale experiments was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pH and alkalinity adjustment, as well as orthophosphate addition as corrosion control tools regarding lead and copper dissolution. Results demonstrated that lead and copper leaching was predominant during the first 24 hr of stagnation, but reached an equilibrium state afterwards. Since the soluble fraction of both metals was small (12% for lead, 29% for copper), it is apparent that the non-soluble compounds play a predominant role in the dissolution process. The degree of leaching however was largely affected by the variations in pH and alkalinity. At pH around neutrality, an increase in alkalinity promoted metal dissolution, while at pH 9.0 the effect of alkalinity on leaching was marginal. Lastly, addition of orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor was more effective at pH 7.5 or higher, resulting in approximately 70% reduction in both lead and copper concentrations.

  20. Corrosion control in water supply systems: effect of pH, alkalinity, and orthophosphate on lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing.

    PubMed

    Tam, Y S; Elefsiniotis, P

    2009-10-01

    This study explored the potential of lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing in the Auckland region of New Zealand. A five-month field investigation, at six representative locations, indicated that Auckland's water can be characterized as soft and potentially corrosive, having low alkalinity and hardness levels and a moderately alkaline pH. More than 90% of the unflushed samples contained lead above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) of 10 microg/L (New Zealand Standards). In contrast, the copper level of unflushed samples remained consistently below the corresponding MAV of 2 mg/L. Flushing however reduced sharply metal concentrations, with lead values well below the MAV limit. Generally, metal leaching patterns showed a limited degree of correlation with the variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and free chlorine residual at all sampling locations. Furthermore, a series of bench-scale experiments was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pH and alkalinity adjustment, as well as orthophosphate addition as corrosion control tools regarding lead and copper dissolution. Results demonstrated that lead and copper leaching was predominant during the first 24 hr of stagnation, but reached an equilibrium state afterwards. Since the soluble fraction of both metals was small (12% for lead, 29% for copper), it is apparent that the non-soluble compounds play a predominant role in the dissolution process. The degree of leaching however was largely affected by the variations in pH and alkalinity. At pH around neutrality, an increase in alkalinity promoted metal dissolution, while at pH 9.0 the effect of alkalinity on leaching was marginal. Lastly, addition of orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor was more effective at pH 7.5 or higher, resulting in approximately 70% reduction in both lead and copper concentrations. PMID:19847713

  1. Photo-Fenton oxidation of phenol and organochlorides (2,4-DCP and 2,4-D) in aqueous alkaline medium with high chloride concentration.

    PubMed

    Luna, Airton J; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Machulek, Amilcar; de Moraes, José Ermírio F; Nascimento, Cláudio A O

    2012-11-30

    A highly concentrated aqueous saline-containing solution of phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was treated by the photo-Fenton process in a system composed of an annular reactor with a quartz immersion well and a medium-pressure mercury lamp (450 W). The study was conducted under special conditions to minimize the costs of acidification and neutralization, which are usual steps in this type of process. Photochemical reactions were carried out to investigate the influence of some process variables such as the initial concentration of Fe(2+) ([Fe(2+)](0)) from 1.0 up to 2.5 mM, the rate in mmol of H(2)O(2) fed into the system (FH(2)O(2);in) from 3.67 up to 7.33 mmol of H(2)O(2)/min during 120 min of reaction time, and the initial pH (pH(0)) from 3.0 up to 9.0 in the presence and absence of NaCl (60.0 g/L). Although the optimum pH for the photo-Fenton process is about 3.0, this particular system performed well in experimental conditions starting at alkaline and neutral pH. The results obtained here are promising for industrial applications, particularly in view of the high concentration of chloride, a known hydroxyl radical scavenger and the main oxidant present in photo-Fenton processes.

  2. Alkaline phosphatase promotes radioprotection and accumulation of WR-1065 in V79-171 cells incubated in medium containing WR-2721.

    PubMed

    Calabro-Jones, P M; Fahey, R C; Smoluk, G D; Ward, J F

    1985-01-01

    Addition of alkaline phosphatase and WR-2721 to culture medium containing V79-171 cells leads to production of WR-1065 and its disulphide forms in the medium, to cellular accumulation of WR-1065, and to radioprotection which correlates with cellular WR-1065 level.

  3. Action potentials occur spontaneously in squid giant axons with moderately alkaline intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Clay, J R; Shrier, A

    2001-10-01

    This report demonstrates a novel finding from the classic giant axon preparation of the squid. Namely, the axon can be made to fire autonomously (spontaneously occurring action potentials) when the intracellular pH (pH(i)) was increased to about 7.7, or higher. (Physiological pH(i) is 7.3.) The frequency of firing was 33 Hz (T = 5 degrees ). No changes in frequency or in the voltage waveform itself were observed when pH(i) was increased from 7.7 up to 8.5. In other words, the effect has a threshold at a pH(i) of about 7.7. A mathematical model that is sufficient to mimic these results is provided using a modified version of the Clay (1998) description of the axonal ionic currents.

  4. A New Alkaline pH-Adjusted Medium Enhances Detection of β-Hemolytic Streptococci by Minimizing Bacterial Interference Due to Streptococcus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Dierksen, Karen P.; Ragland, Nancy L.; Tagg, John R.

    2000-01-01

    A new selective medium (CNA-P) that reduces or eliminates the inhibitory activity of bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus salivarius against β-hemolytic streptococci has been developed and compared with sheep blood agar (SBA) for the sensitive detection of small numbers of β-hemolytic streptococci in clinical specimens. CNA-P has as its basis a commercial medium (Difco Columbia CNA agar) supplemented with 5% (vol/vol) sheep blood, and the CNA is further modified by addition of 100 mM PIPES buffer [piperazine-N,N′-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid)] (pH 7.5) to maintain cultures at an alkaline pH during incubation. CNA-P was shown to inhibit the production and/or release of four different types of S. salivarius bacteriocins or bacteriocin-like inhibitory molecules. The efficacies of CNA-P and SBA for detection of β-hemolytic streptococci in 1,352 pharyngeal samples from 376 children were compared. The β-hemolytic streptococcal isolates recovered from the samples included 314 group A (S. pyogenes), 61 group G, 33 group B, and 5 group C streptococci. Of 314 samples that yielded S. pyogenes, 300 were positive on CNA-P (96%) and 264 (86%) were positive on SBA. A significantly greater number of S. pyogenes isolates from these samples were recovered only on CNA-P (50 of 314) compared with the number of isolates recovered only on SBA (14 of 314). In addition, the degree of positivity, a measure of the total numbers of S. pyogenes isolates on the plate, was significantly higher on CNA-P than on SBA (2.40 versus 2.07; P < 0.001). Interestingly, CNA-P was also found to enhance the hemolytic activity of streptolysin O, allowing detection of streptolysin S-deficient S. pyogenes strains which might otherwise go undetected on SBA and other isolation media. PMID:10655361

  5. Temperature dependence of bistability in squid giant axons with alkaline intracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Clay, J R; Shrier, A

    2002-06-01

    Raising the intracellular pH (pHi) above 7.7 in intracellularly perfused squid giant axons causes spontaneous firing of action potentials. The firing frequency ranged from 20 Hz at 0 degrees C to 200 Hz at 23 degrees C. Above 23 degrees C, the axons were quiescent. They were bistable for 13

  6. Evaluation studies on carbon supported catalysts for oxygen reduction in alkaline medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Vakula S.; Singer, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes tests designed to predict the performance of fuel cell electrodes, as applied to an alkaline oxygen-fuel cell having specially fabricated porous-carbon electrodes with various amounts of dispersed platinum or gold as active catalysts. The tests are based on information obtained from the techniques of cyclic voltammetry and polarization. The parameters obtained from cyclic voltammetry were of limited use in predicting fuel cell performance of the cathode. On the other hand, half-cell polarization measurements offered close simulation of the oxygen electrode, although a predictor of the electrode life is still lacking. The very low polarization of the Au-10 percent Pt catalytic electrode suggests that single-phase catalysts should be considered.

  7. Estimation and Comparison of Salivary Calcium, Phosphorous, Alkaline Phosphatase and pH Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease: A Cross-sectional Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rufi Murad; Suragimath, Girish; Zope, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In oral diagnostics there is a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and evaluating the disease activity. Biomarkers can also serve as a useful tool to measure the efficacy of the therapy. Aim To evaluate and compare the levels of salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH levels in periodontally healthy subjects and patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Materials and Methods The present study consisted of 150 subjects aged between 20-45 years who were divided into three groups; periodontally healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Prior to the clinical examination the demographic details, relevant information of the subject, gingival index, plaque index, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and pH were recorded. Biochemical assay of saliva i.e., inorganic calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were estimated by colorimetric method. ANOVA and Tukey’s test were applied for statistical analysis. Results The mean levels of biomarkers studied were; inorganic calcium (12.55μg/dl), phosphorous (14.50μg/dl), alkaline phosphatase (49.62μg/dl) and pH (11.65). There was a gradual increase in these levels as the condition progressed from health to gingivitis or periodontitis which was statistically significant at p<0.001. Conclusion Based on these results, it can be concluded that, the biomarkers like salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH can be considered for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal tissues in disease and health.

  8. Estimation and Comparison of Salivary Calcium, Phosphorous, Alkaline Phosphatase and pH Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease: A Cross-sectional Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rufi Murad; Suragimath, Girish; Zope, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In oral diagnostics there is a great challenge to determine biomarkers for screening and evaluating the disease activity. Biomarkers can also serve as a useful tool to measure the efficacy of the therapy. Aim To evaluate and compare the levels of salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH levels in periodontally healthy subjects and patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Materials and Methods The present study consisted of 150 subjects aged between 20-45 years who were divided into three groups; periodontally healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Prior to the clinical examination the demographic details, relevant information of the subject, gingival index, plaque index, Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and pH were recorded. Biochemical assay of saliva i.e., inorganic calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase were estimated by colorimetric method. ANOVA and Tukey’s test were applied for statistical analysis. Results The mean levels of biomarkers studied were; inorganic calcium (12.55μg/dl), phosphorous (14.50μg/dl), alkaline phosphatase (49.62μg/dl) and pH (11.65). There was a gradual increase in these levels as the condition progressed from health to gingivitis or periodontitis which was statistically significant at p<0.001. Conclusion Based on these results, it can be concluded that, the biomarkers like salivary calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase and pH can be considered for evaluating the diagnosis and prognosis of periodontal tissues in disease and health. PMID:27630955

  9. Kinetics of Alkaline Decomposition and Cyaniding of Argentian Rubidium Jarosite in NaOH Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Eleazar Salinas; Sáenz, Eduardo Cerecedo; Ramírez, Marius; Cardona, Francisco Patiño; Labra, Miguel Pérez

    2012-10-01

    The alkaline decomposition of Argentian rubidium jarosite in NaOH media is characterized by an induction period and a progressive conversion period in which the sulfate and rubidium ions pass to the solution, leaving an amorphous iron hydroxide residue. The process is chemically controlled and the order of reaction with respect to hydroxide concentration in the range of 1.75 and 20.4 mol OH- m-3 is 0.94, while activation energy in the range of temperatures of 298 K to 328 K (25 °C to 55 °C) is 91.3 kJ mol-1. Cyaniding of Argentian rubidium jarosite in NaOH media presents a reaction order of 0 with respect to NaCN concentration (in the range of 5 to 41 mol m-3) and an order of reaction of 0.62 with respect to hydroxide concentration, in the range of 1.1 and 30 mol [OH-] m-3. In this case, the cyaniding process can be described, as in other jarosites, as the following two-step process: (1) a step (slow) of alkaline decomposition that controls the overall process followed by (2) a fast step of silver complexation. The activation energy during cyaniding in the range of temperatures of 298 K to 333 K (25 °C to 60 °C) is 43.5 kJ mol-1, which is characteristic of a process controlled by chemical reaction. These results are quite similar to that observed for several synthetic jarosites and that precipitated in a zinc hydrometallurgical plant (Industrial Minera México, San Luis Potosi).

  10. Effects of heat and pH stresses on the recovery of Staphylococcus aureus on medium-110.

    PubMed

    Salamah, A A

    1990-07-01

    The effects of heat and pH stresses on Staphylococcus aureus strain ATCC 10390 (coagulase positive) and strain ATCC 6020 (coagulase negative) were studied. The coagulase negative strain was more sensitive to heat and low or high pH than the coagulase positive strain. Both strains, however, were injured by heat and by pH 4.5 and 9 as estimated by the decrease in their tolerance to the selective agents (sodium chloride and sodium azide) present in the selective medium. The heat or pH injured cells, however, regained their tolerance to the selective agents if they were pregrown in a non-selective medium before they were plated on the selective medium. PMID:2273983

  11. Application of a fluidized bed reactor charged with aragonite for control of alkalinity, pH and carbon dioxide in marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul S Wills, PhD; Pfeiffer, Timothy; Baptiste, Richard; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2016-01-01

    Control of alkalinity, dissolved carbon dioxide (dCO2), and pH are critical in marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in order to maintain health and maximize growth. A small-scale prototype aragonite sand filled fluidized bed reactor was tested under varying conditions of alkalinity and dCO2 to develop and model the response of dCO2 across the reactor. A large-scale reactor was then incorporated into an operating marine recirculating aquaculture system to observe the reactor as the system moved toward equilibrium. The relationship between alkalinity dCO2, and pH across the reactor are described by multiple regression equations. The change in dCO2 across the small-scale reactor indicated a strong likelihood that an equilibrium alkalinity would be maintained by using a fluidized bed aragonite reactor. The large-scale reactor verified this observation and established equilibrium at an alkalinity of approximately 135 mg/L as CaCO3, dCO2 of 9 mg/L, and a pH of 7.0 within 4 days that was stable during a 14 day test period. The fluidized bed aragonite reactor has the potential to simplify alkalinity and pH control, and aid in dCO2 control in RAS design and operation. Aragonite sand, purchased in bulk, is less expensive than sodium bicarbonate and could reduce overall operating production costs.

  12. Order of Activity of Nitrogen, Iron Oxide, and FeNx Complexes towards Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Medium.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yansong; Zhang, Bingsen; Wang, Da-Wei; Su, Dang Sheng

    2015-12-01

    In alkaline medium, it seems that both metal-free and iron-containing carbon-based catalysts, such as nitrogen-doped nanocarbon materials, FeOx -doped carbon, and Fe/N/C catalysts, are active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, the order of activity of these different active compositions has not been clearly determined. Herein, we synthesized nitrogen-doped carbon black (NCB), Fe3 O4 /CB, Fe3 O4 /NCB, and FeN4 /CB. Through the systematic study of the ORR catalytic activity of these four catalysts in alkaline solution, we confirmed the difference in the catalytic activity and catalytic mechanism for nitrogen, iron oxides, and Fe-N complexes, respectively. In metal-free NCB, nitrogen can improve the ORR catalytic activity with a four-electron pathway. Fe3 O4 /CB catalyst did not exhibit improved activity over that of NCB owing to the poor conductivity and spinel structure of Fe3 O4 . However, FeN4 coordination compounds as the active sites showed excellent ORR catalytic activity.

  13. Spectroscopic and electron microscopic investigation of iron oxides formed in a highly alkaline medium in the presence of rhodium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Musić, Svetozar

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the presence of rhodium ions on the formation of iron oxides in a highly alkaline precipitation system was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), 57Fe Mössbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Acicular α-FeOOH particles precipitated in a highly alkaline medium with the addition of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) were used as reference material. Characterization of α-FeOOH samples formed in the presence of rhodium ions showed a somewhat smaller mean crystallite size, increased unit-cell dimensions, a reduced average hyperfine magnetic field and a slight shift in the position of IR absorption bands in comparison with the reference α-FeOOH sample. By additional heating of the precipitation system, α-FeOOH precipitated in the presence of rhodium ions transformed to α-Fe 2O 3 crystals in the form of hexagonal bipyramids via a dissolution-recrystallization process. Metallic rhodium nanoparticles were formed simultaneously by the reduction of Rh 3+ ions in the presence of the products of TMAH thermal decomposition (trimethylamine and methanol). These rhodium nanoparticles acted as a catalyst for the reductive dissolution of α-Fe 2O 3 particles and the formation of Fe 3O 4 crystals in the form of octahedrons.

  14. Stoichiometric C6-oxidation of hyaluronic acid by oxoammonium salt TEMPO⁺Cl⁻ in an aqueous alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Ponedel'kina, Irina Yu; Khaibrakhmanova, Elvira A; Tyumkina, Tatyana V; Romadova, Irina V; Odinokov, Victor N

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the selective oxidation of hyaluronic acid (HA) by stoichiometric quantity of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxoammonium chloride (TEMPO(+)) in aqueous alkaline medium. High efficiency of the HA oxidation and quantitative yield of carboxy-HA per starting TEMPO(+), as well as unusual behavior of the oxidation system generating an oxygen upon alkali-induced oxoammonium chloride decomposition are demonstrated. The scheme for HA oxidation involving both TEMPO(+) and oxygen produced upon the TEMPO(+)Cl(-) decomposition and/or air oxygen is proposed. For comparison, the data on stoichiometric oxidation of such substrates as dermatan sulfate, water-soluble potato starch, methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranoside and ethanol are presented.

  15. Effect of stabilizers on the synthesis of palladium-nickel nanoparticles supported on carbon for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huijuan; Wang, Hui; Li, Hao; Ji, Shan; Davids, Moegamat Wafeeq; Wang, Rongfang

    2014-08-01

    PdNi/C electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium are fabricated using four stabilizers, i.e., glycine (G), ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), sodium citrate (SC), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with the same reducing process and reaction parameters. X-ray diffraction characterization shows PdNi nanoparticles for all PdNi/C electrocatalysts possess face-centered cubic structure with different alloying degree. TEM results show that PdNi/C-G and PdNi/C-SC have uniform dispersion with ellipse morphology, while particle agglomeration occurs on PdNi/C-EDTA and PdNi/C-SDS. Electrocatalytic activities of these PdNi/C electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation are measured by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The electrocatalytic activities of PdNi/C change with the different lattice contraction. PdNi/C-SC electrocatalyst exhibits the best activity among the four electrocatalysts, which is ascribed to an appropriate lattice contraction.

  16. Proteome of Salmonella enterica serotype Tyhimurium Grown in Low Mg2+/pH Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Ansong, Charles; Smallwood, Heather S.; Rommereim, Leah M.; McDermott, Jason E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Gustin, Jean K.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2009-09-04

    To determine the impact of a low Mg2+/pH defined growth medium (MgM) on the proteome of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, we cultured S. Typhimurium cells in the medium under two different conditions termed MgM Shock and MgM Dilution and then comparatively analyzed the bacterial cells harvested from these conditions by a global proteomic approach. Proteomic results showed that MgM Shock and MgM Dilution differentially affected the S. Typhimurium proteome. MgM Shock induced a group of proteins whose induction usually occurred at low O2 level, while MgM Dilution induced those related to the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) and those involved in thiamine or biotin biosynthesis. The metabolic state of the S. Typhimurium cells grown under MgM Shock condition also differed significantly from that under MgM Dilution condition. Western blot analysis not only confirmed the proteomic results, but also showed that the abundances of SPI2-T3SS proteins SsaQ and SseE and biotin biosynthesis proteins BioB and BioD increased after S. Typhimurium infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Deletion of the gene encoding BioB reduced the bacterial ability to replicate inside the macrophages, suggesting a biotin-limited environment encountered by S. Typhimurium within RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  17. High-resolution Imaging of pH in Alkaline Sediments and Water Based on a New Rapid Response Fluorescent Planar Optode.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Yao, Lei; Xu, Di; Xie, Xianchuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-01-01

    A new dual-lumophore optical sensor combined with a robust RGB referencing method was developed for two-dimensional (2D) pH imaging in alkaline sediments and water. The pH sensor film consisted of a proton-permeable polymer (PVC) in which two dyes with different pH sensitivities and emission colors: (1) chloro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (CPIPA) and (2) the coumarin dye Macrolex(®) fluorescence yellow 10 GN (MFY-10 GN) were entrapped. Calibration experiments revealed the typical sigmoid function and temperature dependencies. This sensor featured high sensitivity and fast response over the alkaline working ranges from pH 7.5 to pH 10.5. Cross-sensitivity towards ionic strength (IS) was found to be negligible for freshwater when IS <0.1 M. The sensor had a spatial resolution of approximately 22 μm and aresponse time of <120 s when going from pH 7.0 to 9.0. The feasibility of the sensor was demonstrated using the pH microelectrode. An example of pH image obtained in the natrual freshwater sediment and water associated with the photosynthesis of Vallisneria spiral species was also presented, suggesting that the sensor held great promise for the field applications. PMID:27199163

  18. High-resolution Imaging of pH in Alkaline Sediments and Water Based on a New Rapid Response Fluorescent Planar Optode

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chao; Yao, Lei; Xu, Di; Xie, Xianchuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-01-01

    A new dual-lumophore optical sensor combined with a robust RGB referencing method was developed for two-dimensional (2D) pH imaging in alkaline sediments and water. The pH sensor film consisted of a proton-permeable polymer (PVC) in which two dyes with different pH sensitivities and emission colors: (1) chloro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (CPIPA) and (2) the coumarin dye Macrolex® fluorescence yellow 10 GN (MFY-10 GN) were entrapped. Calibration experiments revealed the typical sigmoid function and temperature dependencies. This sensor featured high sensitivity and fast response over the alkaline working ranges from pH 7.5 to pH 10.5. Cross-sensitivity towards ionic strength (IS) was found to be negligible for freshwater when IS <0.1 M. The sensor had a spatial resolution of approximately 22 μm and aresponse time of <120 s when going from pH 7.0 to 9.0. The feasibility of the sensor was demonstrated using the pH microelectrode. An example of pH image obtained in the natrual freshwater sediment and water associated with the photosynthesis of Vallisneria spiral species was also presented, suggesting that the sensor held great promise for the field applications. PMID:27199163

  19. High-resolution Imaging of pH in Alkaline Sediments and Water Based on a New Rapid Response Fluorescent Planar Optode.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Yao, Lei; Xu, Di; Xie, Xianchuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-05-20

    A new dual-lumophore optical sensor combined with a robust RGB referencing method was developed for two-dimensional (2D) pH imaging in alkaline sediments and water. The pH sensor film consisted of a proton-permeable polymer (PVC) in which two dyes with different pH sensitivities and emission colors: (1) chloro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (CPIPA) and (2) the coumarin dye Macrolex(®) fluorescence yellow 10 GN (MFY-10 GN) were entrapped. Calibration experiments revealed the typical sigmoid function and temperature dependencies. This sensor featured high sensitivity and fast response over the alkaline working ranges from pH 7.5 to pH 10.5. Cross-sensitivity towards ionic strength (IS) was found to be negligible for freshwater when IS <0.1 M. The sensor had a spatial resolution of approximately 22 μm and aresponse time of <120 s when going from pH 7.0 to 9.0. The feasibility of the sensor was demonstrated using the pH microelectrode. An example of pH image obtained in the natrual freshwater sediment and water associated with the photosynthesis of Vallisneria spiral species was also presented, suggesting that the sensor held great promise for the field applications.

  20. High-resolution Imaging of pH in Alkaline Sediments and Water Based on a New Rapid Response Fluorescent Planar Optode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chao; Yao, Lei; Xu, Di; Xie, Xianchuan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-05-01

    A new dual-lumophore optical sensor combined with a robust RGB referencing method was developed for two-dimensional (2D) pH imaging in alkaline sediments and water. The pH sensor film consisted of a proton-permeable polymer (PVC) in which two dyes with different pH sensitivities and emission colors: (1) chloro phenyl imino propenyl aniline (CPIPA) and (2) the coumarin dye Macrolex® fluorescence yellow 10 GN (MFY-10 GN) were entrapped. Calibration experiments revealed the typical sigmoid function and temperature dependencies. This sensor featured high sensitivity and fast response over the alkaline working ranges from pH 7.5 to pH 10.5. Cross-sensitivity towards ionic strength (IS) was found to be negligible for freshwater when IS <0.1 M. The sensor had a spatial resolution of approximately 22 μm and aresponse time of <120 s when going from pH 7.0 to 9.0. The feasibility of the sensor was demonstrated using the pH microelectrode. An example of pH image obtained in the natrual freshwater sediment and water associated with the photosynthesis of Vallisneria spiral species was also presented, suggesting that the sensor held great promise for the field applications.

  1. Thin-Layer Chemical Modulations by a Combined Selective Proton Pump and pH Probe for Direct Alkalinity Detection.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Majid Ghahraman; Crespo, Gastón A; Bakker, Eric

    2015-07-01

    We report a general concept based on a selective electrochemical ion pump used for creating concentration perturbations in thin layer samples (∼40 μL). As a first example, hydrogen ions are released from a selective polymeric membrane (proton pump) and the resulting pH is assessed potentiometrically with a second membrane placed directly opposite. By applying a constant potential modulation for 30 s, an induced proton concentration of up to 350 mM may be realized. This concept may become an attractive tool for in situ titrations without the need for sampling, because the thin layer eventually re-equilibrates with the contacting bulk sample. Acid-base titrations of NaOH and Na2 CO3 are demonstrated. The determination of total alkalinity in a river water sample is carried out, giving levels (23.1 mM) comparable to that obtained by standard methods (23.6 mM). The concept may be easily extended to other ions (cations, anions, polyions) and may become attractive for environmental and clinical applications.

  2. Thin-Layer Chemical Modulations by a Combined Selective Proton Pump and pH Probe for Direct Alkalinity Detection.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Majid Ghahraman; Crespo, Gastón A; Bakker, Eric

    2015-07-01

    We report a general concept based on a selective electrochemical ion pump used for creating concentration perturbations in thin layer samples (∼40 μL). As a first example, hydrogen ions are released from a selective polymeric membrane (proton pump) and the resulting pH is assessed potentiometrically with a second membrane placed directly opposite. By applying a constant potential modulation for 30 s, an induced proton concentration of up to 350 mM may be realized. This concept may become an attractive tool for in situ titrations without the need for sampling, because the thin layer eventually re-equilibrates with the contacting bulk sample. Acid-base titrations of NaOH and Na2 CO3 are demonstrated. The determination of total alkalinity in a river water sample is carried out, giving levels (23.1 mM) comparable to that obtained by standard methods (23.6 mM). The concept may be easily extended to other ions (cations, anions, polyions) and may become attractive for environmental and clinical applications. PMID:26014101

  3. Synthesis and electrocatalytic activity of Au/Pt bimetallic nanodendrites for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinyi; Wang, Dawei; Liu, Dong; Huang, Jianshe; You, Tianyan

    2012-02-01

    Gold/Platinum (Au/Pt) bimetallic nanodendrites were successfully synthesized through seeded growth method using preformed Au nanodendrites as seeds and ascorbic acid as reductant. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of a series of Au/Pt nanodendrites modified electrodes in 1M KOH solution containing 1M ethanol showed that the electrocatalyst with a molar ratio (Au:Pt) of 3 exhibited the highest peak current density and the lowest onset potential. The peak current density of ethanol electro-oxidation on the Au(3)Pt(1) nanodendrites modified glassy carbon electrode (Au(3)Pt(1) electrode) is about 16, 12.5, and 4.5 times higher than those on the polycrystalline Pt electrode, polycrystalline Au electrode, and Au nanodendrites modified glassy carbon electrode (Au dendrites electrode), respectively. The oxidation peak potential of ethanol electro-oxidation on the Au(3)Pt(1) electrode is about 299 and 276 mV lower than those on the polycrystalline Au electrode and Au dendrites electrode, respectively. These results demonstrated that the Au/Pt bimetallic nanodendrites may find potential application in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFCs).

  4. Ethanol oxidation on Pt single-crystal electrodes: surface-structure effects in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Busó-Rogero, Carlos; Herrero, Enrique; Feliu, Juan M

    2014-07-21

    Ethanol oxidation in 0.1 M NaOH on single-crystal electrodes has been studied using electrochemical and FTIR techniques. The results show that the activity order is the opposite of that found in acidic solutions. The Pt(111) electrode displays the highest currents and also the highest onset potential of all the electrodes. The onset potential for the oxidation of ethanol is linked to the adsorption of OH on the electrode surface. However, small (or even negligible) amounts of CO(ads) and carbonate are detected by FTIR, which implies that cleavage of the C-C bond is not favored in this medium. The activity of the electrodes diminishes quickly upon cycling. The diminution of the activity is proportional to the measured currents and is linked to the formation and polymerization of acetaldehyde, which adsorbs onto the electrode surface and prevents further oxidation. PMID:24782218

  5. Occurrence of salt, pH, and temperature-tolerant, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in alkaline soils

    PubMed

    Johri; Surange; Nautiyal

    1999-08-01

    An ecological survey was conducted to characterize 4800 bacterial strains isolated from the root-free soil, rhizosphere, and rhizoplane of Prosopis juliflora growing in alkaline soils. Of the 4800 bacteria, 857 strains were able to solubilize phosphate on plates. The incidence of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in the rhizoplane was highest, followed by rhizosphere and root-free soil. Eighteen bacterial strains out of 857 PSB were able to produce halo at 30 degrees C in a plate assay in the presence of 5% salt (NaCl) and solubilize tricalcium phosphate in National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth medium (NBRIP) broth, in the presence of various salts, pHs, and temperatures. Among the various bacteria tested, NBRI4 and NBRI7 did not produced halo in a plate assay at 30 degrees C in the absence of salt. Contrary to indirect measurement of phosphate solubilization by plate assay, the direct measurement of phosphate solubilization in NBRIP broth assay always resulted in reliable results. The phosphate solubilization ability of NBRI4 was higher than in the control in the presence of salts (NaCl, CaCl2, and KCl) at 30 degrees C. Phosphate solubilization further increased in the presence of salts at 37 degrees C as compared with 30 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, CaCl2 reduced phosphate solubilization ability of NBRI4 compared with the control. The results indicated the role of calcium salt in the phosphate solubilization ability of NBRI4.http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00284/bibs/39n2p89.html PMID:10398833

  6. Microprofiles of oxygen, redox potential, and pH, and microbial fermentation products in the highly alkaline gut of the saprophagous larva of Penthetria holosericea (Diptera: Bibionidae).

    PubMed

    Šustr, Vladimír; Stingl, Ulrich; Brune, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The saprophagous larvae of bibionid flies harbor bacteria in their alkaline intestinal tracts, but little is known about the contribution of the gut microbiota to the digestion of their recalcitrant diet. In this study, we measured oxygen and hydrogen partial pressure, redox potential and pH in the midgut, gastric caeca and hindgut of larvae of the bibionid fly Penthetria holosericea with Clark-type O2 and H2 microsensors, platinum redox microelectrodes, and LIX-type pH microelectrodes. The center of the midgut lumen was anoxic, whereas gastric caeca and hindgut were hypoxic. However, redox potential profiles indicated oxidizing conditions throughout the gut, with lowest values in the midgut (+20 to +60mV). Hydrogen production was not detected. The midgut was extremely alkaline (pH around 11), whereas hindgut and gastric caeca were neutral to slightly alkaline. While HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of glucose in the midgut (15mM) and gastric caeca (27mM), the concentrations of microbial fermentation products such as lactate (2-4mM), acetate (<1mM) and succinate (<0.5mM) were low in all gut regions, suggesting that the contribution of microorganisms to the digestive process, particularly in the alkaline midgut, is only of minor importance. We conclude that the digestive strategy of the saprophytic larva of P. holosericea, which feeds selectively on decomposed leaves and its own microbe-rich faeces, differs fundamentally from those of detritivorous and humivorous insects, which host a highly active, fermentative microbiota in their alkaline midgut or hindgut compartments. PMID:24971929

  7. Summary of Maryland stream pH and alkalinity data: analysis of its application to assessing the impacts of acidic deposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Janicki, A.; Greening, H.

    1987-09-01

    Stream-chemistry data were gathered from a number of sources to characterize the sensitivity of flowing waters in Maryland to acidification, as well as to provide baseline information for the design of a synoptic survey of stream chemistry conducted in 1987. Overall, 19% of Maryland streams, for which data were collected, exhibit mean alkalinity values of less than 200 micro eq/L, generally considered to be indicative of waters sensitive to acidification. Minimum alkalinity values less than 200 micro eq/l were found in 41% of the data sets examined. Mean pH values less than 6.0 were observed in about 9% of the streams for which data were identified. Minimum pH values less than 6.0 were observed in 24% of the streams.

  8. Statistical medium optimization of an alkaline protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10501, its characterization and application in leather processing.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Naidu Ramachandra; Indhuja, Devadas; Srinivasan, Krishnan; Uthirappan, Mani; Gupta, Rishikesh; Ramudu, Kamini Numbi; Chellan, Rose

    2013-04-01

    Proteases are shown to have greener mode of application in leather processing for dehairing of goat skins and cow hides. Production of protease by submerged fermentation with potent activity is reported using a new isolate P. aeruginosa MTCC 10501. The production parameters were optimized by statistical methods such as Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology. The optimized production medium contained (g/L); tryptone, 2.5; yeast extract, 3.0; skim milk 30.0; dextrose 1.0; inoculum concentration 4%: initial pH 6.0; incubation temperature 30 degrees C and optimum production at 48 h with protease activity of 7.6 U/mL. The protease had the following characteristics: pH optima, 9.0; temperature optima 50 degrees C; pH stability between 5.0-10.0 and temperature stability between 10-40 degrees C. The protease was observed to have high potential for dehairing of goat skins in the pre- tanning process comparable to that of the chemical process as evidenced by histology. The method offers cleaner processing using enzyme only instead of toxic chemicals in the pre-tanning process of leather manufacture.

  9. Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) spermatozoa are sensitive to alkaline pH, but motility in vitro is not influenced by protein or energy supplements.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Swanson, W F; Collins, D; Burton, M; Garell, D M; Wildt, D E

    1996-01-01

    To better understand the biology of snow leopard spermatozoa and to facilitate developing assisted reproduction, a series of studies was conducted to: 1) identify the component(s) of complex culture media responsible for the detrimental effect on sperm survival in vitro, 2) optimize medium for supporting sperm viability, and 3) evaluate sperm capacitation in vitro. Constituents of complex media were added systematically to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to isolate the factor(s) influencing snow leopard sperm motility in vitro. Sperm capacitation was also assessed following incubation in PBS with bovine serum albumin (BSA), fetal calf serum (FCS), or heparin. For maintaining sperm motility, there was no benefit (P > or = 0.05) to supplementing PBS with low (5%) or high (20%) concentrations of snow leopard serum (SLS) versus FCS or BSA. Likewise, adding supplemental energy substrates (pyruvate, glucose, lactate, or glutamine) did not enhance or hinder (P > or = 0.05) sperm motility. However, motility rapidly decreased (P < 0.05) with the addition of NaHCO3 to PBS or Ham's F10 nutrient mixture. Surprisingly, Ham's F10 with no buffering component or with both NaHCO3 and N-Z-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) maintained sperm motility at levels similar (P > or = 0.05) to PBS. Although sperm motility in all treatments decreased with time, there was a strong inverse relationship (P < 0.01; r = 0.90) between motility and sample pH at 6 hours. Spermatozoa incubated in PBS containing FCS, BSA, or heparin did not undergo the acrosome reaction when exposed to calcium ionophore. In summary, alkaline pH has a profound detrimental effect on snow leopard sperm motility, and capacitation does not occur under conditions that normally promote this event in other felid species. These results clearly demonstrate a high degree of interspecific variation among felids in fundamental sperm function, and they provide evidence for the necessity of basic research when

  10. Snow leopard (Panthera uncia) spermatozoa are sensitive to alkaline pH, but motility in vitro is not influenced by protein or energy supplements.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Swanson, W F; Collins, D; Burton, M; Garell, D M; Wildt, D E

    1996-01-01

    To better understand the biology of snow leopard spermatozoa and to facilitate developing assisted reproduction, a series of studies was conducted to: 1) identify the component(s) of complex culture media responsible for the detrimental effect on sperm survival in vitro, 2) optimize medium for supporting sperm viability, and 3) evaluate sperm capacitation in vitro. Constituents of complex media were added systematically to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to isolate the factor(s) influencing snow leopard sperm motility in vitro. Sperm capacitation was also assessed following incubation in PBS with bovine serum albumin (BSA), fetal calf serum (FCS), or heparin. For maintaining sperm motility, there was no benefit (P > or = 0.05) to supplementing PBS with low (5%) or high (20%) concentrations of snow leopard serum (SLS) versus FCS or BSA. Likewise, adding supplemental energy substrates (pyruvate, glucose, lactate, or glutamine) did not enhance or hinder (P > or = 0.05) sperm motility. However, motility rapidly decreased (P < 0.05) with the addition of NaHCO3 to PBS or Ham's F10 nutrient mixture. Surprisingly, Ham's F10 with no buffering component or with both NaHCO3 and N-Z-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) maintained sperm motility at levels similar (P > or = 0.05) to PBS. Although sperm motility in all treatments decreased with time, there was a strong inverse relationship (P < 0.01; r = 0.90) between motility and sample pH at 6 hours. Spermatozoa incubated in PBS containing FCS, BSA, or heparin did not undergo the acrosome reaction when exposed to calcium ionophore. In summary, alkaline pH has a profound detrimental effect on snow leopard sperm motility, and capacitation does not occur under conditions that normally promote this event in other felid species. These results clearly demonstrate a high degree of interspecific variation among felids in fundamental sperm function, and they provide evidence for the necessity of basic research when

  11. Carbon Dioxide Addition to Microbial Fuel Cell Cathodes Maintains Sustainable Catholyte pH and Improves Anolyte pH, Alkalinity, and Conductivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioelectrochemical system (BES) pH imbalances develop due to anodic proton-generating oxidation reactions and cathodic hydroxide-ion-generating reduction reactions. Until now, workers added unsustainable buffers to reduce the pH difference between the anode and cathode because the pH imbalance cont...

  12. The influence of CTAB and gum arabic on the precipitation of α-FeOOH in a highly alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, Mira; Opačak, Ivana; Štajdohar, Jasenka; Musić, Svetozar

    2015-06-01

    The influence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and gum arabic (GA) on the precipitation of α-FeOOH in a highly alkaline medium was investigated using XRD, 57Fe Mössbauer, FT-IR and FE-SEM. In absence of CTAB and GA long α-FeOOH rods of nanosize width were obtained. For predetermined concentrations of CTAB added to the precipitation system the formation of a small fraction of α-Fe2O3 was noticed, whereas the length of the α-FeOOH rods significantly decreased and α-FeOOH dendrites were also found. The effect was specifically pronounced when GA was added to the precipitation system. The formation of ferrihydrite-like phase was detected, which suppressed the crystal growth of α-FeOOH on one side and forced the nucleation and growth of α-Fe2O3 on the other. Microstructural changes in the precipitates were also monitored. The phase transformation and changes in the nano/microstructure of the precipitates found can be explained taking into account the surface interactions between CTAB or GA with nuclei and crystallites (particles) during the kinetics investigated.

  13. Optimized electrospinning synthesis of iron-nitrogen-carbon nanofibers for high electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xingxu; Liu, Kexi; Wang, Xiangqing; Wang, Tuo; Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jing

    2015-04-24

    To achieve iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) nanofibers with excellent electrocatalysis for replacing high-cost Pt-based catalysts in the cathodes of fuel cells and metal-air batteries, we have investigated and evaluated the effects of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) concentration and the proportion of iron to PAN, along with voltage and flow rate during the electrospinning process, and thus proposed three criteria to optimize these parameters for ideal nanofiber catalysts. The best half-wave potential of an optimized catalysts is 0.82 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in an alkaline medium, which reaches the best range of the non-precious-metal catalysts reported and is very close to that of commercial Pt/C catalysts. Furthermore, the electron-transfer number of our catalysts is superior to that of the Pt/C, indicating the catalysts undergo a four-electron process. The durability of the optimized Fe-N-C nanofibers is also better than that of the Pt/C, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the active sites in our catalysts. PMID:25815586

  14. Optimized electrospinning synthesis of iron-nitrogen-carbon nanofibers for high electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xingxu; Liu, Kexi; Wang, Xiangqing; Wang, Tuo; Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jing

    2015-04-01

    To achieve iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) nanofibers with excellent electrocatalysis for replacing high-cost Pt-based catalysts in the cathodes of fuel cells and metal-air batteries, we have investigated and evaluated the effects of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) concentration and the proportion of iron to PAN, along with voltage and flow rate during the electrospinning process, and thus proposed three criteria to optimize these parameters for ideal nanofiber catalysts. The best half-wave potential of an optimized catalysts is 0.82 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in an alkaline medium, which reaches the best range of the non-precious-metal catalysts reported and is very close to that of commercial Pt/C catalysts. Furthermore, the electron-transfer number of our catalysts is superior to that of the Pt/C, indicating the catalysts undergo a four-electron process. The durability of the optimized Fe-N-C nanofibers is also better than that of the Pt/C, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the active sites in our catalysts.

  15. Three-dimensional nanoporous gold-cobalt oxide electrode for high-performance electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhihao; He, Yanghua; Ke, Xi; Gan, Lin; Zhao, Jie; Cui, Guofeng; Wu, Gang

    2015-10-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal method combined with a post-annealing treatment, cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanosheet arrays are grown on three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous gold (NPG) film supported on Ni foam substrates, in which NPG is fabricated by chemically dealloying electrodeposited Au-Sn alloy films. The morphology and structure of the Co3O4@NPG/Ni foam hybrids are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical activity of the Co3O4@NPG/Ni foam electrode toward hydrogen peroxide electroreduction in alkaline medium is studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and chronoamperometry (CA). The results demonstrate that the Co3O4@NPG/Ni foam electrode possesses exceptionally high catalytic activity and excellent stability for the peroxide electroreduction, resulting mainly from the unique electrode architecture. The combined 3D hierarchical porous structures of NPG/Ni foam with the open and porous structures of Co3O4 nanosheet arrays facilitate the mass transport and charge transfer. Therefore, the metal oxides supported on 3D hierarchical porous NPG/Ni foam framework may hold great promise to be effective electrodes for electrocatalytic reduction of peroxide and other electrochemical reactions.

  16. Advanced oxygen reduction reaction catalyst based on nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Li, Meng; Jiang, Liqing; Lin, Lin; Cui, Lili; He, Xingquan

    2014-11-14

    A novel nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene (N-S-G) catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been prepared by pyrolysing graphite oxide and poly[3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole] composite (PAMTa). The atomic percentage of nitrogen and sulfur for the prepared N-S-G can be adjusted by controlling the pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, the catalyst pyrolysed at 1000 °C, denoted N-S-G 1000, exhibits the highest catalytic activity for ORR, which displays the highest content of graphitic-N and thiophene-S among all the pyrolysed samples. The electrocatalytic performance of N-S-G 1000 is significantly better than that of PAMTa and reduced graphite oxide composite. Remarkably, the N-S-G 1000 catalyst is comparable with Pt/C in terms of the onset and half-wave potentials, and displays larger kinetic limiting current density and better methanol tolerance and stability than Pt/C for ORR in an alkaline medium. PMID:25255312

  17. Combined effects of carbonate alkalinity and pH on survival, growth and haemocyte parameters of the Venus clam Cyclina sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tingting; Lai, Qifang; Yao, Zongli; Lu, Jianxue; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Hui

    2013-08-01

    Carbonate alkalinity (CA) and pH are considered to be two important stress factors that determine the response of aquatic animals to sudden transfers into saline-alkaline water. To evaluate the potential for aquaculture production of Venus clams (Cyclina sinensis) farmed in saline-alkaline water, the combined effects of CA (2.5 (control), 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 meq/l) and pH (8.0 (control), 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5) on survival rate was monitored every day for 10 days. Length gain rate (LGR) and weight gain rate (WGR) were also monitored for two months, and total haemocyte count (THC), phagocytic rate (PR) and haemocyte mortality (HM) were measured for 3, 6, 12 and 24 days under the same water temperature (20 °C) and salinity (15‰) conditions. The results showed that survival rates in treatments of CA ≤ 20.0, combined with pH ≤ 9.0, were 100%. LGR and WGR in treatments of CA 2.5 & pH 8.0 (control), CA 2.5 & pH 8.5 and CA 10.0 & pH 8.0 exhibited the largest values (P > 0.05), while in other treatments, they showed a decreasing trend with an increase in either CA or pH or both (P < 0.05). Similarly, for THC, PR and HM, no significant differences were observed among the fast growth treatments during the entire experimental period (P > 0.05), however, in other treatments, they presented significant differences, especially on day 3 and 6 (P < 0.05), most notably with increases in CA or pH, but returned to control levels on day 12. In conclusion, in this study, a strong interaction between CA and pH was observed. Additionally, it was ascertained that the Venus clam C. sinensis can withstand the stress of CA 20.0 combined pH 9.0, although individuals grows slowly and may take approximately 12 days to recover to the unstressed condition.

  18. Hydrolysis and volatile fatty acids accumulation of waste activated sludge enhanced by the combined use of nitrite and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Liu, Congcong; Sun, Xiuyun; Sun, Yinglu; Li, Rui; Li, Jiansheng; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow hydrolysis and/or poor substrate availability. Increased attention has been given to enhance the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS recently. This study presented an efficient and green strategy based on the combined use of nitrite pretreatment and alkaline pH to stimulate hydrolysis and VFA accumulation from WAS. Results showed that both proteins and polysaccharides increased in the presence of nitrite, indicating the enhancement of sludge solubilization and hydrolysis processes. Mechanism investigations showed that nitrite pretreatment could disintegrate the sludge particle and disperse extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Then, anaerobic digestion tests demonstrated VFA production increased with nitrite treatment. The maximal VFA accumulation was achieved with 0.1 g N/L nitrite dosage and pH 10.0 at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 7 days, which was much higher VFA production in comparison with the blank, sole nitrite pretreatment, or sole pH 10. The potential analysis suggested that the combined nitrite pretreatment and alkaline pH is capable of enhancing WAS digestion with a great benefit for biological nutrient removal (BNR).

  19. Effect of environmental and cultural conditions on medium pH and explant growth performance of Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) shoot cultures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Bates, Rick; Carlson, John

    2014-01-01

    The medium pH level of plant tissue cultures has been shown to be essential to many aspects of explant development and growth. Sensitivity or tolerance of medium pH change in vitro varies according to specific requirements of individual species. The objectives of this study are to 1) determine medium pH change over time in storage conditions and with presence of explants, 2) evaluate the effects of medium pH change on explant growth performance and 3) assess the effects of adding a pH stabilizer, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) that is commonly used in Douglas-fir micropropagation medium. Vegetative buds were collected in the spring before breaking dormancy from juvenile and mature donor trees for conducting these evaluations. Medium, with or without MES, was pre-adjusted to five pH levels before adding MES, agar and autoclaving. Medium pH changes and explant growth parameters were measured at eight different incubation times. Overall, MES provided a more stable medium pH, relative to starting pH values, under both light and dark storage conditions as well as with presence of explants. A general trend of decreasing medium pH over time was found comparing explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Explant height and weight growth increased over time, but differ among explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Our findings suggest that a 21-day subculture practice may best sustain medium freshness, medium pH level and desirable explant growth.

  20. Effect of environmental and cultural conditions on medium pH and explant growth performance of Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) shoot cultures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Chih; Bates, Rick; Carlson, John

    2015-01-01

    The medium pH level of plant tissue cultures has been shown to be essential to many aspects of explant development and growth. Sensitivity or tolerance of medium pH change in vitro varies according to specific requirements of individual species. The objectives of this study are to 1) determine medium pH change over time in storage conditions and with presence of explants, 2) evaluate the effects of medium pH change on explant growth performance and 3) assess the effects of adding a pH stabilizer, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) that is commonly used in Douglas-fir micropropagation medium. Vegetative buds were collected in the spring before breaking dormancy from juvenile and mature donor trees for conducting these evaluations. Medium, with or without MES, was pre-adjusted to five pH levels before adding MES, agar and autoclaving. Medium pH changes and explant growth parameters were measured at eight different incubation times. Overall, MES provided a more stable medium pH, relative to starting pH values, under both light and dark storage conditions as well as with presence of explants. A general trend of decreasing medium pH over time was found comparing explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Explant height and weight growth increased over time, but differ among explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Our findings suggest that a 21-day subculture practice may best sustain medium freshness, medium pH level and desirable explant growth. PMID:26535110

  1. Ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of sulfanilic acid by diperiodatocuprate(III) in aqueous alkaline medium. A kinetic and mechanistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munavalli, D. S.; Patil, R. K.; Chimatadar, S. A.; Nandibewoor, S. T.

    2009-12-01

    The kinetics of ruthenium(III) catalyzed oxidation of sulfanilic acid by diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC) in alkaline medium at a constant ionic strength of (0.50 mol dm-3) has been studied spectrophoto-metrically. The reaction between sulfanilic acid and DPC in alkaline medium exhibits 1: 4 stoichiometry (sulfanilic acid: DPC). The reaction is first order with respect to [DPC] and [RuIII] and has less than unit order both in [sulfanilic acid] and [alkali]. The active species of catalyst and oxidant have been identified. Intervention of free radicals was observed in the reaction. The main products were identified by spot test and IR. Probable mechanism is proposed and discussed. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of the mechanism are calculated. The activation parameters with respect to the slow step of the mechanism are computed and discussed. Thermodynamic quantities are also determined.

  2. Structure reactivity and thermodynamic analysis on the oxidation of ampicillin drug by copper(III) complex in aqueous alkaline medium (stopped-flow technique)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetti, Nagaraj P.; Hegde, Rajesh N.; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T.

    2009-07-01

    Oxidation of penicillin derivative, ampicillin (AMP) by diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC) in alkaline medium at a constant ionic strength of 0.01-mol dm -3 was studied spectrophotometrically. The reaction between DPC and ampicillin in alkaline medium exhibits 1:4 stoichiometry (ampicillin:DPC). Intervention of free radicals was observed in the reaction. Based on the observed orders and experimental evidences, a mechanism involving the protonated form of DPC as the reactive oxidant species has been proposed. The oxidation reaction in alkaline medium has been shown to proceed via a DPC-AMP complex, which decomposes slowly in a rate determining step to yield phenyl glycine (PG) and free radical species of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), followed by other fast steps to give the products. The two major products were characterized by IR, NMR, LC-MS and Spot test. The reaction constants involved in the different steps of the mechanism were calculated. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were computed and discussed and thermodynamic quantities were also determined.

  3. Could a strong alkali deproteinization replace the standard lysis step in alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay (pH>13)?

    PubMed

    Vivek Kumar, P R; Cheriyan, V D; Seshadri, M

    2009-08-01

    The alkaline version of single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay is widely used for evaluating DNA damage at the individual cell level. The standard alkaline method of the comet assay involves deproteinization of cells embedded in agarose gel using a high salt-detergent lysis buffer, followed by denaturation of DNA and electrophoresis using a strong alkali at pH>13 [N.P. Singh, M.T. McCoy, R.R. Tice, E.L. Schneider, A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells, Exp. Cell. Res. 175 (1988) 184-191]. However, a recent report showed that a strong alkali treatment results in simultaneous deproteinization of cells and denaturation of genomic DNA [P. Sestili, C. Martinelli, V. Stocchi, The fast halo assay: an improved method to quantify genomic DNA strand breakage at the single cell-level, Mutat. Res. 607 (2006) 205-214]. This study was carried out to test whether the strong alkali deproteinization of cells could replace the high salt-detergent lysis step used in the standard method of the alkaline comet assay. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 3 healthy individuals were irradiated with gamma rays at doses varying between 0 and 10 Gy. Following irradiation, the comet assay was performed according to the standard alkaline method (pH>13) and a modified method. In the modified method, agarose embedded cells were treated with a strong alkali (0.3M NaOH, 0.02 M Trizma and 1mM EDTA, pH>13) for 20 min to allow deproteinization of cells and denaturation of DNA. This was followed by electrophoresis using the same alkali solution to obtain comets. DNA damage expressed in terms of comet tail length, percentage of DNA in comet tail and tail moment obtained by the standard alkaline method and the modified method were compared. In both methods, DNA damage showed a good correlation with the dose of gamma ray. The results indicate a satisfactory sensitivity of the modified method in detecting radiation-induced DNA damage in human peripheral

  4. Nitrogen Source and External Medium pH Interaction Differentially Affects Root and Shoot Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sarasketa, Asier; González-Moro, M. Begoña; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium nutrition often represents an important growth-limiting stress in plants. Some of the symptoms that plants present under ammonium nutrition have been associated with pH deregulation, in fact external medium pH control is known to improve plants ammonium tolerance. However, the way plant cell metabolism adjusts to these changes is not completely understood. Thus, in this work we focused on how Arabidopsis thaliana shoot and root respond to different nutritional regimes by varying the nitrogen source (NO3- and NH4+), concentration (2 and 10 mM) and pH of the external medium (5.7 and 6.7) to gain a deeper understanding of cell metabolic adaptation upon altering these environmental factors. The results obtained evidence changes in the response of ammonium assimilation machinery and of the anaplerotic enzymes associated to Tricarboxylic Acids (TCA) cycle in function of the plant organ, the nitrogen source and the degree of ammonium stress. A greater stress severity at pH 5.7 was related to NH4+ accumulation; this could not be circumvented in spite of the stimulation of glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and TCA cycle anaplerotic enzymes. Moreover, this study suggests specific functions for different gln and gdh isoforms based on the nutritional regime. Overall, NH4+ accumulation triggering ammonium stress appears to bear no relation to nitrogen assimilation impairment. PMID:26870054

  5. Expression of characteristics of ammonium nutrition as affected by pH of the root medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaillou, S.; Vessey, J. K.; Morot-Gaudry, J. F.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Boutin, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    To study the effect of root-zone pH on characteristic responses of NH4+ -fed plants, soybeans (Glycine max inverted question markL. inverted question mark Merr. cv. Ransom) were grown in flowing solution culture for 21 d on four sources of N (1.0 mol m-3 NO3-, 0.67 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.33 mol m-3 NH4+, 0.33 mol m-3 NO3- plus 0.67 mol m-3 NH4+, and 1.0 mol m-3 NH4+) with nutrient solutions maintained at pH 6.0, 5.5, 5.0, and 4.5. Amino acid concentration increased in plants grown with NH4+ as the sole source of N at all pH levels. Total amino acid concentration in the roots of NH4+ -fed plants was 8 to 10 times higher than in NO3(-)-fed plants, with asparagine accounting for more than 70% of the total in the roots of these plants. The concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the leaves of NH4+ -fed plants was greater than that of NO3(-)-fed plants, but was lower in roots of NH4+ -fed plants, regardless of pH. Starch concentration was only slightly affected by N source or root-zone pH. At all levels of pH tested, organic acid concentration in leaves was much lower when NH4+ was the sole N source than when all or part of the N was supplied as NO3-. Plants grown with mixed NO3- plus NH4+ N sources were generally intermediate between NO3(-)- and NH4+ -fed plants. Thus, changes in tissue composition characteristic of NH4+ nutrition when root-zone pH was maintained at 4.5 and growth was reduced, still occurred when pH was maintained at 5.0 or above, where growth was not affected. The changes were slightly greater at pH 4.5 than at higher pH levels.

  6. Computer simulation of immobilized pH gradients at acidic and alkaline extremes - A quest for extended pH intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Bier, Milan; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    1986-01-01

    Computer simulations of the concentration profiles of simple biprotic ampholytes with Delta pKs 1, 2, and 3, on immobilized pH gradients (IPG) at extreme pH values (pH 3-4 and pH 10-11) show markedly skewed steady-state profiles with increasing kurtosis at higher Delta pK values. Across neutrality, all the peaks are symmetric irrespective of their Delta pK values, but they show very high contribution to the conductivity of the background gel and significant alteration of the local buffering capacity. The problems of skewness, due to the exponential conductivity profiles at low and high pHs, and of gel burning due to a strong electroosmotic flow generated by the net charges in the gel matrix, also at low and high pHs, are solved by incorporating in the IPG gel a strong viscosity gradient. This is generated by a gradient of linear polyacrylamide which is trapped in the gel by the polymerization process.

  7. Effects of root medium pH on water transport in paper birch (Betula papyrifera) seedlings in relation to root temperature and abscisic acid treatments.

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, M; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2004-10-01

    We investigated the effects of root medium pH on water transport in whole-plant and detached roots of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.). Exposure of seedling roots to pH 4 and 8 significantly decreased root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) and stomatal conductance (gs), compared with pH 6. When roots of solution-culture-grown (pH 6) seedlings were transferred to pH 4 or 8, their steady-state water flow (Qv) declined within minutes, followed by a decline in gs. The root oxygen uptake rates were not significantly affected by the pH treatments. Treatment of roots with mercuric chloride resulted in a large decrease in Qv at pH 6; the extent of this decrease was similar to that brought about by pH 4 and 8. Lowering root temperature from 21 to 4 degrees C decreased Qv irrespective of medium pH. Low root temperatures did not offset the effects of medium pH 4 on Qv and the roots in this treatment had a high activation energy for water flow. Conversely, roots exposed to pH 8 had a low activation energy, similar to that at pH 6. When 2 micro M abscisic acid, (+/-)-cis-trans-ABA, was added to the root medium, Qv increased in roots that were incubated at pH 6. It also increased slightly in roots incubated at pH 4, but not at pH 8. The increase at pH 4 and 6 was temperature-dependent, occurring at 21 degrees C, but not 4 degrees C. We suggest that the pH treatments are responsible for altering root water flow properties through their effects on the activity of water channels. These results support the concept that ABA effects on water channels are modulated by other, possibly metabolic- and pH-dependent factors.

  8. Sensitivity of some marine bacteria, a moderate halophile, and Escherichia coli to uncouplers at alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, R A; Wisse, G A; Stejskal, F L

    1988-09-01

    The inhibitory effects of uncouplers on amino acid transport into three marine bacteria, Vibrio alginolyticus 118, Vibrio parahaemolyticus 113, and Alteromonas haloplanktis 214, into a moderate halophile, Vibrio costicola NRC 37001, and into Escherichia coli K-12 were found to vary depending upon the uncoupler tested, its concentration, and the pH. Higher concentrations of all of the uncouplers were required to inhibit transport at pH 8.5 than at pH 7.0. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone showed the greatest reduction in inhibitory capacity as the pH was increased, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone showed less reduction, and 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide was almost as effective as an inhibitor of amino acid transport at pH 8.5 as at pH 7.0 for all of the organisms except A. haloplanktis 214. Differences between the protonophores in their relative activities at pHs 7.0 and 8.5 were attributed to differences in their pK values. 3,3',4',5-Tetrachlorosalicylanilide, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide, and NaCN all inhibited Na+ extrusion from Na+-loaded cells of V. alginolyticus 118 at pH 8.5. The results support the conclusion that Na+ extrusion from this organism at pH 8.5 occurs as a result of Na+/H+ antiport activity. Data are presented indicating the presence in V. alginolyticus 118 of an NADH oxidase which is stimulated by Na+ at pH 8.5.

  9. Gold biorecovery from e-waste: An improved strategy through spent medium leaching with pH modification.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Gayathri; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2015-10-01

    Rapid technological advancement and relatively short life time of electronic goods have resulted in an alarming growth rate of electronic waste which often contains significant quantities of toxic and precious metals. Compared to conventional recovery methods, bioleaching is an environmentally friendly process for metal extraction. Gold was bioleached from electronic scrap materials (ESM) via gold-cyanide complexation using cyanide produced from pure and mixed cultures of cyanogenic bacteria Chromobacterium violaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens. As ESM was toxic to the bacteria, a two-step bioleaching approach was adopted where the solid waste was added to the bacterial culture after it has reached maximum growth and cyanide production during early stationary phase. Pure culture of C. violaceum showed the highest cyanide production, yielding maximum gold recovery of 11.3% at 0.5% w/v pulp density of ESM in two-step bioleaching. At the same pulp density of ESM, spent medium bioleaching using bacterial cell-free metabolites achieved gold recovery of 18%. Recovery increased to 30% when the pH of the spent medium was increased to shift the equilibrium in favor of cyanide ions production. It is demonstrated for the first time that pH modification of spent medium further improved metal solubilization and yielded higher metal recovery (compared to two-step bioleaching).

  10. Variation in hydraulic conductivity with decreasing pH in a biologically-clogged porous medium (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, S. J.; Kirk, M. F.; Santillan, E. U.; McGrath, L. K.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial biomass can clog porous media and ultimately affect both structural and mineral trapping of CO2 in geological carbon storage reservoirs. Whether biomass can remain intact following a sudden decrease in groundwater pH, a geochemical change associated with CO2 injection, is unclear. We examined this question using twelve biologically-active and three control column-reactor experiments. Cell abundance and distribution was monitored using confocal microscopy, plating, and direct counting. Hydraulic conductivity (K) was monitored using pressure sensors. Growth occurred for four days at neutral pH. During that time, K within the clogged portion of the reactors decreased from 0.013 to 0.0006 cm s-1 on average, a 1.47 log reduction. Next, the pH of the inflowing aqueous medium was lowered to pH 4 in six experiments and pH 5.7 in six experiments. As a result, K increased in five of the pH 4 experiments and two of the pH 5.7 experiments. Despite this increase, however, the columns remained largely clogged. Compared to pre-inoculation K values, log reductions averaged 1.13 and 1.44 in pH 4 and pH 5.7 experiments, respectively. Our findings show that biomass can largely remain intact following acidification and continue to reduce K, even when considerable cell stress and death occurs. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. A low-temperature-active alkaline pectate lyase from Xanthomonas campestris ACCC 10048 with high activity over a wide pH range.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Peng; Meng, Kun; Wang, Yaru; Luo, Huiying; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Tu, Tao; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Alkaline pectate lyases are favorable for the textile industry. Here, we report the gene cloning and expression of a low-temperature-active alkaline pectate lyase (PL D) from Xanthomonas campestris ACCC 10048. Deduced PL D consists of a putative 27-residue signal peptide and a catalytic domain of 320 residues belonging to family PF09492. Recombinant PL D (r-PL D) produced in Escherichia coli was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity with a single step of Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography and showed an apparent molecular weight of ~38 kDa. The pH and temperature optima of r-PL D were found to be 9.0 °C and 30 °C, respectively. Compared with its microbial counterparts, r-PL D had higher activity over a wide pH range (>45 % of the maximum activity at pH 3.0-12.0) and at lower temperatures (>35 % of activity even at 0 °C). The K(m) and V(max) values of r-PL D for polygalacturonic acid were 4.9 gl(-1) and 30.1 μmolmin(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Compared with the commercial compound pectinase from Novozymes, r-PL D showed similar efficacy in reducing the intrinsic viscosity of polygalacturonic acid (35.1 % vs. 36.5 %) and in bioscouring of jute (10.25 % vs. 10.82 %). Thus, r-PL D is a valuable additive candidate for the textile industry. PMID:22983714

  12. Technical Note: Large overestimation of pCO2 calculated from pH and alkalinity in acidic, organic-rich freshwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, G.; Bouillon, S.; Darchambeau, F.; Teodoru, C. R.; Marwick, T. R.; Tamooh, F.; Ochieng Omengo, F.; Geeraert, N.; Deirmendjian, L.; Polsenaere, P.; Borges, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Inland waters have been recognized as a significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere at the global scale. Fluxes of CO2 between aquatic systems and the atmosphere are calculated from the gas transfer velocity and the water-air gradient of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Currently, direct measurements of water pCO2 remain scarce in freshwaters, and most published pCO2 data are calculated from temperature, pH and total alkalinity (TA). Here, we compare calculated (pH and TA) and measured (equilibrator and headspace) water pCO2 in a large array of temperate and tropical freshwaters. The 761 data points cover a wide range of values for TA (0 to 14 200 μmol L-1), pH (3.94 to 9.17), measured pCO2 (36 to 23 000 ppmv), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (29 to 3970 μmol L-1). Calculated pCO2 were >10% higher than measured pCO2 in 60% of the samples (with a median overestimation of calculated pCO2 compared to measured pCO2 of 2560 ppmv) and were >100% higher in the 25% most organic-rich and acidic samples (with a median overestimation of 9080 ppmv). We suggest these large overestimations of calculated pCO2 with respect to measured pCO2 are due to the combination of two cumulative effects: (1) a more significant contribution of organic acids anions to TA in waters with low carbonate alkalinity and high DOC concentrations; (2) a lower buffering capacity of the carbonate system at low pH, which increases the sensitivity of calculated pCO2 to TA in acidic and organic-rich waters. No empirical relationship could be derived from our data set in order to correct calculated pCO2 for this bias. Owing to the widespread distribution of acidic, organic-rich freshwaters, we conclude that regional and global estimates of CO2 outgassing from freshwaters based on pH and TA data only are most likely overestimated, although the magnitude of the overestimation needs further quantitative analysis. Direct measurements of pCO2 are recommended in inland waters in general

  13. Technical Note: Large overestimation of pCO2 calculated from pH and alkalinity in acidic, organic-rich freshwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, G.; Bouillon, S.; Darchambeau, F.; Teodoru, C. R.; Marwick, T. R.; Tamooh, F.; Omengo, F. O.; Geeraert, N.; Deirmendjian, L.; Polsenaere, P.; Borges, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    Inland waters have been recognized as a~significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere at the global scale. Fluxes of CO2 between aquatic systems and the atmosphere are calculated from the gas transfer velocity and the water-air gradient of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Nowadays, direct measurements of water pCO2 remain scarce in freshwaters and most published pCO2 data are calculated from temperature, pH and total alkalinity (TA). Here, we compare calculated (pH and TA) and measured (Equilibrator and headspace) water pCO2 in a large array of temperate and tropical freshwaters. The 761 data points cover a wide range of values for TA (0 to 14.2 mmol L-1), pH (3.94 to 9.17), measured pCO2 (36 to 23 000 ppmv), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (29 to 3970 μmol L-1). Calculated pCO2 were > 10% higher than measured pCO2 in 60% of the samples (with a median overestimation of calculated pCO2 compared to measured pCO2 of 2560 ppmv) and were > 100% higher in the 25% most organic-rich and acidic samples (with a median overestimation of 9080 ppmv). We suggest these large overestimations of calculated pCO2 with respect to measured pCO2 are due to the combination of two cumulative effects: (1) a more significant contribution of organic acids anions to TA in waters with low carbonate alkalinity and high DOC concentrations; (2) a lower buffering capacity of the carbonate system at low pH, that increases the sensitivity of calculated pCO2 to TA in acidic and organic-rich waters. We recommend that regional studies on pCO2 should not be based on pH and TA data only, and that direct measurements of pCO2 should become the primary method in inland waters in general, and in particular in acidic, poorly buffered, freshwaters.

  14. Ecto-alkaline phosphatase activity identified at physiological pH range on intact P19 and HL-60 cells is induced by retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, R J; Kuehl, H; Krautwald, S; Meissner, J D; Mueller, W H

    2000-01-01

    The activity of membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expressed on the external surface of cultured murine P19 teratocarcinoma and human HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells was studied at physiological pH using p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) as substrate. The rate of substrate hydrolysis catalyzed by intact viable cells remained constant for eight successive incubations of 30 min and was optimal at micromolar substrate concentrations over the pH range 7.4-8.5. The value of apparent K(m) for pNPP in P19 and HL-60 cells was 120 microM. Hydrolytic activity of the ecto-enzyme at physiological pH decreased by the addition of levamisole, a specific and noncompetitive inhibitor of ALP (K(i) P19 = 57 microM; K(i) HL-60 = 50 microM). Inhibition of hydrolysis was reversed by removal of levamisole within 30 min. Retinoic acid (RA), which promotes the differentiation of P19 and HL-60 cells, induced levamisole-sensitive ecto-phosphohydrolase activity at pH 7.4. After its autophosphorylation by ecto-kinase activity, a 98-kDa membrane protein in P19 cells was found to be sensitive to ecto-ALP, and protein dephosphorylation increased after incubation of cells with RA for 24 h and 48 h. Orthovanadate, an inhibitor of all phosphatase activities, blocked the levamisole-sensitive dephosphorylation of the membrane phosphoproteins, while (R)-(-)-epinephrine reversed the effect by complexation of the inhibitor. The results demonstrate that the levamisole-sensitive phosphohydrolase activity on the cell surface is consistent with ecto-ALP activity degrading both physiological concentrations of exogenously added substrate and endogenous surface phosphoproteins under physiological pH conditions. The dephosphorylating properties of ecto-ALP are induced by RA, suggesting a specific function in differentiating P19 teratocarcinoma and HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells. PMID:10649440

  15. Chemical equilibrium model for interfacial activity of crude oil in aqueous alkaline solution: the effects of pH, alkali and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-11-01

    A chemical equilibrium model for interfacial activity of crude in aqueous alkaline solution is proposed. The model predicts the observed effects of pH and concentrations of alkali and salt on the interfacial tension (IFT). The model proposed was shown to describe the observed effects of acid content, pH, and sodium ions on the interfacial activity of crude oil in water. Once the pH of the interface reaches the pKa of the acids, sometimes with the help of addition of some salt, the IFT experiences a sudden steep drop to the range of 10/sup -2/ dynes/cm. After that, further addition of sodium either in the form of NaOH or NaCl is going to increase the IFT due to a shift of equilibriumn to the formation of undissociated soap. This was confirmed by the difference in the observed effect of sodium on the IFT of the extracted soap molecules which are dissociated easily and those which are associated highly and precipitated easily. These soap molecules have dissociation constant values ranging from below 10/sup -2/ to above one. 13 references.

  16. The relationship between the surface composition and electrical properties of corrosion films formed on carbon steel in alkaline sour medium: an XPS and EIS study.

    PubMed

    Galicia, Policarpo; Batina, Nikola; González, Ignacio

    2006-07-27

    This work studies the evolution of 1018 carbon steel surfaces during 3-15 day immersion in alkaline sour medium 0.1 M (NH4)2S and 10 ppm CN(-) as (NaCN). During this period of time, surfaces were jointly characterized by electrochemical techniques in situ (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS) and spectroscopic techniques ex situ (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS). The results obtained by these techniques allowed for a description of electrical and chemical properties of the films of corrosion products formed at the 1018 steel surface. There is an interconversion cycle of chemical species that form films of corrosion products whose conversion reactions favor two different types of diffusions inside the films: a chemical diffusion of iron cations and a typical diffusion of atomic hydrogen. These phenomena jointly control the passivity of the interface attacked by the corrosive medium.

  17. Termination of the solar wind in the hot, partially ionized interstellar medium. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombard, C. K.

    1974-01-01

    Theoretical foundations for understanding the problem of the termination of the solar wind are reexamined in the light of most recent findings concerning the states of the solar wind and the local interstellar medium. The investigation suggests that a simple extention of Parker's (1961) analytical model provides a useful approximate description of the combined solar wind, interstellar wind plasma flowfield under conditions presently thought to occur. A linear perturbation solution exhibiting both the effects of photoionization and charge exchange is obtained for the supersonic solar wind. A numerical algorithm is described for computing moments of the non-equilibrium hydrogen distribution function and associated source terms for the MHD equations. Computed using the algorithm in conjunction with the extended Parker solution to approximate the plasma flowfield, profiles of hydrogen number density are given in the solar wind along the upstream and downstream axes of flow with respect to the direction of the interstellar wind. Predictions of solar Lyman-alpha backscatter intensities to be observed at 1 a.u. have been computed, in turn, from a set of such hydrogen number density profiles varied over assumed conditions of the interstellar wind.

  18. Rhesus glycoprotein and urea transporter genes in rainbow trout embryos are upregulated in response to alkaline water (pH 9.7) but not elevated water ammonia.

    PubMed

    Sashaw, Jessica; Nawata, Michele; Thompson, Sarah; Wood, Chris M; Wright, Patricia A

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that genes for the putative ammonia transporter, Rhesus glycoproteins (Rh) and the facilitated urea transporter (UT) are expressed before hatching in rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss Walbaum) embryos. We tested the hypothesis that Rh and UT gene expressions are regulated in response to environmental conditions that inhibit ammonia excretion during early life stages. Eyed-up embryos (22 days post-fertilization (dpf)) were exposed to control (pH 8.3), high ammonia (1.70 mmol l(-1) NH4HCO3) and high pH (pH 9.7) conditions for 48h. With exposure to high water ammonia, ammonia excretion rates were reversed, tissue ammonia concentration was elevated by 9-fold, but there were no significant changes in mRNA expression relative to control embryos. In contrast, exposure to high water pH had a smaller impact on ammonia excretion rates and tissue ammonia concentrations, whereas mRNA levels for the Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcg2 and urea transporter (UT) were elevated by 3.5- and 5.6-fold, respectively. As well, mRNAs of the genes for H+ATPase and Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE2), associated with NH3 excretion, were also upregulated by 7.2- and 13-fold, respectively, in embryos exposed to alkaline water relative to controls. These results indicate that the Rhcg2, UT and associated transport genes are regulated in rainbow trout embryos, but in contrast to adults, there is no effect of high external ammonia at this stage of development.

  19. Substrate inhibition: Oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline media, substrate inhibition was observed with both substrates, i.e., a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. The substrate inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complex between the substrate and periodate. The reactions were found to be first order in case of periodate and a positive fractional order with hydroxide ions. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for the oxidation of sorbitol and mannitol by potassium periodate in alkali media.

  20. Rapid growth of nanocrystalline CuInS 2 thin films in alkaline medium at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Seung Jae; Mane, Rajaram S.; Pathan, Habib M.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2005-12-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of CuInS 2 (CIS) thin films at room temperature (25 °C) from alkaline CuSO 4 + In 2(SO 4) 3 and Na 2S precursor solutions was reported. The method allowed self-limited growth of CIS films with nanocrystalline structure and composed of densely packed nanometer-sized grains. The as-deposited CIS film was 250 nm thick and composed of closely packed particles of 20-30 nm in diameter. The alkaline cationic precursor solution was obtained by dissolving CuSO 4 and InSO 4 in deionized water with a appropriate amount of hydrazine monohydrate (H-H) and 2,2',2″-nitrilotriethanol (TEA). CIS films were annealed at 200 °C for 2 h and effect of annealing on structural, optical, and surface morphological properties was thoroughly investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis spectrometer, C-V, and water contact angle techniques, respectively.

  1. Copper-zinc electrodeposition in alkaline-sorbitol medium: Electrochemical studies and structural, morphological and chemical composition characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, M. R. H.; Barbano, E. P.; de Carvalho, M. F.; Tulio, P. C.; Carlos, I. A.

    2015-04-01

    The galvanostatic technique was used to analyze the electrodeposition of Cu-Zn on to AISI 1010 steel electrode from an alkaline-sorbitol bath with various proportions of the metal ions in the bath: Cu70/Zn30, Cu50/Zn50 and Cu30/Zn70. Coloration of Cu-Zn films were whitish golden, light golden, golden/gray depending on the Cu2+/Zn2+ ratios in the electrodeposition bath, deposition current density (jdep) and charge density (qdep). The highest current efficiency was ∼54.0%, at jdep -1.0 mA cm-2 and qdep 0.40 C cm-2 in the Cu70/Zn30 bath. Energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated that electrodeposits produced from the bath Cu70/Zn30 showed higher Cu content at lower jdep. Also, for same jdep the Cu content increased with qdep. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Cu-Zn electrodeposits of high quality were obtained from the Cu70/Zn30 bath, since the films were fine-grained, except the obtained at jdep -20.0 mA cm-2 and qdep 10.0 C cm-2. Also, these electrodeposits did not present cracks. X-ray analysis of the Cu-Zn electrodeposits obtained at jdep -8.0, -20.0 and -40.0 mA cm-2, in each case, with qdep 2.0 and 10.0 C cm-2, in the Cu70/Zn30 bath, suggested the occurrence of a mixture of the following phases, CuZn, CuZn5 and Cu5Zn8. Galvanostatic electrodeposits of Cu-Zn obtained from sorbitol-alkaline baths exhibited whitish golden color, with good prospects for industrial applications, especially for decorative purposes.

  2. Somatic proembryo production from excised, wounded zygotic carrot embryos on hormone-free medium: evaluation of the effects of pH, ethylene and activated charcoal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    Wounded zygotic embryos of cultivated carrot produce somatic proembryos on hormone-free nutrient medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Continued maintenance of proembryos on this medium leads to a "pure" culture of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs). Ethylene had no effect on this process. Also, somatic embryo production was not affected by growing cultures on activated charcoal-impregnated filter papers. However, somatic proembyros initiated on activated charcoal papers were not maintainable as PGSPs and developed into later embryo stages. Normally, medium pH dropped from 5.7 to 4 during each subculture period, but when using activated charcoal papers the pH endpoint was around 6 - 7 due to a leachable substance(s) within the filter papers. When powdered, activated charcoal was used in the medium as an adsorbent of products potentially released after wounding, pH dropped at the normal rate and to the expected levels; proembryos did not mature into later embryo stages and were maintainable exclusively as PGSPs. Low pH (approximately 4) is detrimental to proembyro production, but is essential to maintaining PGSPs on hormone-free nutrient medium, whereas a sustained pH > or = 5.7 allows continued development of PGSPs into later embryo stages.

  3. Enhanced methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions on palladium-decorated FeCo@Fe/C core-shell nanocatalysts in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Fashedemi, Omobosede O; Ozoemena, Kenneth I

    2013-12-28

    Palladium based nano-alloys are well known for their unique electrocatalytic properties. In this work, a palladium-decorated FeCo@Fe/C core-shell nanocatalyst has been prepared by a new method called microwave-induced top-down nanostructuring and decoration (MITNAD). This simple, yet efficient technique, resulted in the generation of sub-10 nm sized FeCo@Fe@Pd nanocatalysts (mainly 3-5 nm) from a micron-sized (0.21-1.5 μm) FeCo@Fe/C. The electrocatalytic activities of the core-shell nanocatalysts were explored for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium. A negative shift of 300 mV in the onset potential for MOR was observed, with a current thrice that of the Pd/C catalysts. A very low resistance to electron transfer (Rct) was observed while the ratio of forward-to-backward oxidation current (If/Ib) was doubled. The overpotential of ORR was significantly reduced with a positive shift of about 250 mV and twice the reduction current density was observed in comparison with Pd/C nanocatalysts with the same mass loading. The kinetic parameters (in terms of the Tafel slope (b) = -59.7 mV dec(-1) (Temkin isotherm) and high exchange current density (jo) = 1.26 × 10(-2) mA cm(-2)) provide insights into the favorable electrocatalytic performance of the catalysts in ORR in alkaline media. Importantly, the core-shell nanocatalyst exhibited excellent resistance to possible methanol cross-over during ORR, which shows excellent promise for application in direct alkaline alcohol fuel cells (DAAFCs).

  4. Effects of acetic acid and arginine on pH elevation and growth of Bacillus licheniformis in an acidified cucumber juice medium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenquan; Meng, Xia; Breidt, Frederick; Dean, Lisa L; Arritt, Fletcher M

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus licheniformis has been shown to cause pH elevation in tomato products having an initial pH below 4.6 and metabiotic effects that can lead to the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Because of this, the organism poses a potential risk to acidified vegetable products; however, little is known about the growth and metabolism of this organism in these products. To clarify the mechanisms of pH change and growth of B. licheniformis in vegetable broth under acidic conditions, a cucumber juice medium representative of a noninhibitory vegetable broth was used to monitor changes in pH, cell growth, and catabolism of sugars and amino acids. For initial pH values between pH 4.1 to 6.0, pH changes resulted from both fermentation of sugar (lowering pH) and ammonia production (raising pH). An initial pH elevation occurred, with starting pH values of pH 4.1 to 4.9 under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and was apparently mediated by the arginine deiminase reaction of B. licheniformis. This initial pH elevation was prevented if 5 mM or greater acetic acid was present in the brine at the same pH. In laboratory media, under favorable conditions for growth, data indicated that growth of the organism was inhibited at pH 4.6 with protonated acetic acid concentrations of 10 to 20 mM, corresponding to 25 to 50 mM total acetic acid; however, growth inhibition required greater than 300 mM citric acid (10-fold excess of the amount in processed tomato products) products under similar conditions. The data indicate that growth and pH increase by B. licheniformis may be inhibited by the acetic acid present in most commercial acidified vegetable products but not by the citric acid in many tomato products.

  5. Effects of alkalinity on ammonia removal, carbon dioxide stripping, and system pH in semi-commercial scale water recirculating aquaculture systems operated with moving bed bioreactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When operating water recirculating systems (RAS) with high make-up water flushing rates in locations that have low alkalinity in the raw water, such as Norway, knowledge about the required RAS alkalinity concentration is important. Flushing RAS with make-up water containing low alkalinity washes out...

  6. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of Pd-Pt/carbon nanotubes nanocomposites for enhanced electro-oxidation of ethanol and methanol in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guohai; Zhou, Yazhou; Pan, Horng-Bin; Zhu, Chengzhou; Fu, Shaofang; Wai, Chien M; Du, Dan; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-01-01

    Herein, a facile ultrasonic-assisted strategy was proposed to fabricate the Pd-Pt alloy/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Pd-Pt/CNTs) nanocomposites. A good number of Pd-Pt alloy nanoparticles with an average of 3.4 ± 0.5 nm were supported on sidewalls of CNTs with uniform distribution. The composition of the Pd-Pt/CNTs nanocomposites could also be easily controlled, which provided a possible approach for the preparation of other architectures with anticipated properties. The Pd-Pt/CNTs nanocomposites were extensively studied by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied for the ethanol and methanol electro-oxidation reaction in alkaline medium. The electrochemical results indicated that the nanocomposites had better electrocatalytic activities and stabilities, showing promising applications for fuel cells.

  7. Efficient metal-free oxygen reduction in alkaline medium on high-surface-area mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbons made from ionic liquids and nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Fellinger, Tim-Patrick; Antonietti, Markus

    2011-01-19

    Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon materials with high surface areas up to 1500 m(2) g(-1) were conveniently made by the carbonization of nucleobases dissolved in an all-organic ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide). Using hard templating with silica nanoparticles, this process yields high-surface-area nitrogen-doped carbon materials with nitrogen contents as high as 12 wt %, narrow mesopore size distribution of ca. 12 nm diameter, and local graphitic carbon structure. It is demonstrated that the resulting nitrogen-doped carbons show very high catalytic activity, even in the metal-free case in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for fuel cells. Specifically, the as-prepared materials exhibit a low onset voltage for ORR in alkaline medium and a high methanol tolerance, compared with those of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. We regard this as a first step toward an all-sustainable fuel cell, avoiding noble metals. PMID:21155583

  8. Rapid, general synthesis of PdPt bimetallic alloy nanosponges and their enhanced catalytic performance for ethanol/methanol electrooxidation in an alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengzhou; Guo, Shaojun; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-01-14

    We have demonstrated a rapid and general strategy to synthesize novel three-dimensional PdPt bimetallic alloy nanosponges in the absence of a capping agent. Significantly, the as-prepared PdPt bimetallic alloy nanosponges exhibited greatly enhanced activity and stability towards ethanol/methanol electrooxidation in an alkaline medium, which demonstrates the potential of applying these PdPt bimetallic alloy nanosponges as effective electrocatalysts for direct alcohol fuel cells. In addition, this simple method has also been applied for the synthesis of AuPt, AuPd bimetallic, and AuPtPd trimetallic alloy nanosponges. The as-synthesized three-dimensional bimetallic/trimetallic alloy nanosponges, because of their convenient preparation, well-defined sponge-like network, large-scale production, and high electrocatalytic performance for ethanol/methanol electrooxidation, may find promising potential applications in various fields, such as formic acid oxidation or oxygen reduction reactions, electrochemical sensors, and hydrogen-gas sensors.

  9. Novel As-doped, As and N-codoped carbon nanotubes as highly active and durable electrocatalysts for O2 reduction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziwu; Li, Meng; Wang, Fang; Wang, Quan-De

    2016-02-01

    To develop more efficient metal-free cathode electrocatalysts for fuel cells, novel arsenic (As)-doped, As and N-codoped carbon nanotubes are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition in this work. The as-prepared As-containing carbon nanotubes exhibit significantly enhanced activity and long-term durability for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium, indicating that the doping of As or codoping As with other heteroatoms into carbon matrix could improve the ORR activity of carbon materials due to the changes in electronic and physical properties of carbon nanotubes evidenced by density functional theory calculations. Moreover, As-containing carbon nanotubes also display much better methanol tolerance, showing a good potential application for future fuel cells.

  10. Modulation of medium pH by Caulobacter crescentus facilitates recovery from uranium-induced growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Park, Dan M; Jiao, Yongqin

    2014-09-01

    The oxidized form of uranium [U(VI)] predominates in oxic environments and poses a major threat to ecosystems. Due to its ability to mineralize U(VI), the oligotroph Caulobacter crescentus is an attractive candidate for U(VI) bioremediation. However, the physiological basis for U(VI) tolerance is unclear. Here we demonstrated that U(VI) caused a temporary growth arrest in C. crescentus and three other bacterial species, although the duration of growth arrest was significantly shorter for C. crescentus. During the majority of the growth arrest period, cell morphology was unaltered and DNA replication initiation was inhibited. However, during the transition from growth arrest to exponential phase, cells with shorter stalks were observed, suggesting a decoupling between stalk development and the cell cycle. Upon recovery from growth arrest, C. crescentus proliferated with a growth rate comparable to that of a control without U(VI), although a fraction of these cells appeared filamentous with multiple replication start sites. Normal cell morphology was restored by the end of exponential phase. Cells did not accumulate U(VI) resistance mutations during the prolonged growth arrest, but rather, a reduction in U(VI) toxicity occurred concomitantly with an increase in medium pH. Together, these data suggest that C. crescentus recovers from U(VI)-induced growth arrest by reducing U(VI) toxicity through pH modulation. Our finding represents a unique U(VI) detoxification strategy and provides insight into how microbes cope with U(VI) under nongrowing conditions, a metabolic state that is prevalent in natural environments.

  11. Modulation of Medium pH by Caulobacter crescentus Facilitates Recovery from Uranium-Induced Growth Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dan M.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidized form of uranium [U(VI)] predominates in oxic environments and poses a major threat to ecosystems. Due to its ability to mineralize U(VI), the oligotroph Caulobacter crescentus is an attractive candidate for U(VI) bioremediation. However, the physiological basis for U(VI) tolerance is unclear. Here we demonstrated that U(VI) caused a temporary growth arrest in C. crescentus and three other bacterial species, although the duration of growth arrest was significantly shorter for C. crescentus. During the majority of the growth arrest period, cell morphology was unaltered and DNA replication initiation was inhibited. However, during the transition from growth arrest to exponential phase, cells with shorter stalks were observed, suggesting a decoupling between stalk development and the cell cycle. Upon recovery from growth arrest, C. crescentus proliferated with a growth rate comparable to that of a control without U(VI), although a fraction of these cells appeared filamentous with multiple replication start sites. Normal cell morphology was restored by the end of exponential phase. Cells did not accumulate U(VI) resistance mutations during the prolonged growth arrest, but rather, a reduction in U(VI) toxicity occurred concomitantly with an increase in medium pH. Together, these data suggest that C. crescentus recovers from U(VI)-induced growth arrest by reducing U(VI) toxicity through pH modulation. Our finding represents a unique U(VI) detoxification strategy and provides insight into how microbes cope with U(VI) under nongrowing conditions, a metabolic state that is prevalent in natural environments. PMID:25002429

  12. Improving the ratio of monacolin K to citrinin production of Monascus purpureus NTU 568 under dioscorea medium through the mediation of pH value and ethanol addition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Lin; Hung, Hsi-Kai; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2007-08-01

    Using dioscorea root as substrate of Monascus species was found to stimulate monacolin K (cholesterol-lowering agent) formation in our previous study, but the mycotoxin-citrinin has never been studied. This study used dioscorea root as the liquid medium to culture Monascus purpureus NTU 568 using a 6.6 L jar fermentor. Culture pH value, dioscorea concentration, and ethanol concentration were used as the factors of response surface methodology (RSM) to investigate the optimal culture condition for high monacolin K production and low citrinin formation. Monacolin K and citrinin formation of M. purpureus NTU 568 under submerged dioscorea medium were respectively found to be significantly formed by 148% and 147%, as compared to that under submerged rice medium. The reason is due to the pH value (3.5) of dioscorea medium involved in the formation of Monascus cell amount and secondary metabolite. RSM results further indicated that lowering the pH value to 2.5 would result in high monacolin K and citrinin concentrations as well as high biomass in fixed dioscorea amount, implying that pH value may stimulate the formation of monacolin K and citrinin through increasing Monascus cell amount. Lowering dioscorea and ethanol concentration was able to increase the ratio of monacolin K level to citrinin level. The optimal culture condition (pH 5.7, 1% dioscorea concentration, and 0.5% ethanol concentration) would increase monacolin K levels to 27.9 mg/g (by 47%) and decrease citrinin level to 2.15 microg/g (by 54%), as compared to control conditions (pH 3.5, 5% dioscorea, and ethanol free).

  13. Electrocatalysis for dioxygen reduction by a μ-oxo decavanadium complex in alkaline medium and its application to a cathode catalyst in air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, Eniya Listiani; Oyaizu, Kenichi; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Tsuchida, Eishun

    The redox behavior of a decavanadium complex [(VO) 10(μ 2-O) 9(μ 3-O) 3(C 5H 7O 2) 6] ( 1) was studied using cyclic voltammetry under acidic and basic conditions. The reduction potential of V(V) was found at less positive potentials for higher pH electrolyte solutions. The oxygen reduction at complex 1 immobilized on a modified electrode was examined using cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode techniques in the 1 M KOH solutions. On the basis of measurements using a rotating disk electrode (RDE), the complex 1 was found to be highly active for the direct four-electron reduction of dioxygen at -0.2 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE). The complex 1 as a reduction catalyst of O 2 with a high selectivity was demonstrated using rotating ring-disk voltammograms in alkaline solutions. The application of complex 1 as an oxygen reduction catalyst at the cathode of zinc-air cell was also examined. The zinc-air cell with the modified electrode showed a stable discharge potential at approximately 1 V with discharge capacity of 80 mAh g -1 which was about five times larger than that obtained with the commonly used manganese dioxide catalyst.

  14. Facile self-assembly synthesis of PdPt bimetallic nanotubes with good performance for ethanol oxidation in an alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongyuan; Zhou, Haihui; Sun, Feifei; Fu, Chaopeng; Zeng, Fanyan; Li, Tianqi; Kuang, Yafei

    2013-10-01

    PdPt bimetallic nanotubes were prepared by the self-assembly of Pt and Pd on Te nanowires at room temperature. The morphologies of the as-prepared PdPt nanotubes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and the results display a large amount of PdPt bimetallic nanotubes with a diameter of 10-20 nm and a length of several micrometers. The composition and structure of the nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy spectrum analysis, and the results display uniform compositional distributions of both elements (Pd and Pt). The mechanism of the formation of the nanotube structure was supposed. The electrocatalytic performance of PdPt nanotubes were studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. Electrochemical results show that the as-prepared PdPt nanotube catalysts have not only high activity but also good stability for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.

  15. Size-controllable synthesis of trimetallic RhPdPt island-shaped nanoalloys with enhanced electrocatalytic performance for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Da-Bing; He, Pei-Lei; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Xun

    2015-03-01

    Size-controllable, high-yield, island-shaped RhPdPt trimetallic nanocrystals with sub-2.0 nm islands have been successfully synthesized through a facile aqueous solution approach. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) line scanning and elemental mapping analysis showed the as-synthesized RhPdPt nanocrystals are alloy structures. These island-shaped RhPdPt trimetallic nanoalloys showed a composition-dependent electrocatalytic performance for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium. Due to the special structure and intermetallic synergies, the Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys exhibited an enhanced catalytic activity and durability relative to island-shaped Pd50Pt50 bimetallic nanoalloys and commercial Pt black. The peak current density for Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys was 1.81 and 1.38 times that for commercial Pt black and Pd50Pt50 nanoalloys, respectively. In addition, the peak potential on Rh10Pd40Pt50 nanoalloys decreased 42 mV relative to commercial Pt black and Pd50Pt50 nanoalloys.

  16. N-doped carbon@Ni-Al2O3 nanosheet array@graphene oxide composite as an electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Qiu, Tian; Chen, Xu; Lu, Yanluo; Yang, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    An NiAl-layered double-hydroxide (NiAl-LDH) nanosheet array is grown on a graphene oxide (GO) substrate (NiAl-LDH@GO) by the hydrothermal method. The NiAl-LDH@GO is used as the precursor to synthetize an N-doped carbon@Ni-Al2O3 nanosheet array@GO composite (N-C@Ni-Al2O3@GO) by coating with dopamine followed by calcination. The N-C@Ni-Al2O3@GO is used as a non-noble metal electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline medium, and exhibits high electrocatalytic activity with low onset overpotential (-75 mV). The improved electrocatalytic performance of N-C@Ni-Al2O3@GO arises from its intrinsic features. First, it has a high specific surface area with the Ni nanoparticles in the composite dispersed well and the sizes of Ni nanoparticles are small, which lead to the exposure of more active sites for electrocatalysis. Second, there is a synergistic effect between the Ni nanoparticles and the N-C coating layer, which is beneficial to reduce the activation energy of the Volmer step and improve the electrocatalytic activity. Third, the N-C coating layer and the XC-72 additive can form an electrically conductive network, which serves as a bridge for the transfer of electrons from the electrode to the Ni nanoparticles.

  17. Direct, simple derivatization of disulfide bonds in proteins with organic mercury in alkaline medium without any chemical pre-reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; Ferrari, Carlo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Bramanti, Emilia

    2014-09-16

    In this work we have studied the derivatization of protein disulfide bonds with p-Hydroxymercurybenzoate (pHMB) in strong alkaline medium without any preliminary reduction. The reaction has been followed by the determination of the protein-pHMB complex using size exclusion chromatography coupled to a microwave/UV mercury oxidation system for the on-line oxidation of free and protein-complexed pHMB and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (SEC-CVG-AFS) detection. The reaction has been optimized by an experimental design using lysozyme as a model protein and applied to several thiolic proteins. The proposed method reports, for the first time, that it is possible to label 75-100% cysteines of proteins and, thus, to determine thiolic proteins without the need of any reducing step to obtain reduced SH groups before mercury labelling. We obtained a detection limit of 100 nmol L(-1) based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for unbound and complexed pHMB, corresponding to a detection limit of proteins ranged between 3 and 360 nmol L(-1), depending on the number of cysteines in the protein sequence.

  18. Kinetics and mechanism of the Ir(III)-catalyzed oxidation of xylose and maltose by potassium iodate in aqueous alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Shalini; Srivastava, Jaya; Singh, Reena

    2007-06-11

    For the first time, the Ir(III) catalysis of the iodate oxidation of xylose and maltose in aqueous alkaline medium has been investigated. The reactions exhibit first-order kinetics with respect to lower [IO(3)(-)] and [OH(-)] and show zero-order kinetics at their higher concentrations. Unity order at low concentrations of maltose becomes zero order at its higher concentrations, whereas zero-order kinetics with respect to [xylose] was observed throughout its variation. The reaction rate is found to be directly proportional to [Ir(III)] in the oxidation of both reducing sugars. Negligible effect of [Cl(-)] and nil effect of ionic strength (mu) on the rate of oxidation have also been noted. The species, [IrCl(3)(H(2)O)(2)OH](-) was ascertained as the reactive species of Ir(III) chloride for both the redox systems. Various activation parameters have been calculated. Formic acid and arabinonic acid for maltose and formic acid and threonic acid for xylose were identified as the main oxidation products of the reactions. Mechanisms consistent with the observed kinetic data and spectral evidence have been proposed for the oxidation of xylose and maltose.

  19. Anaerobic methanethiol degradation and methanogenic community analysis in an alkaline (pH 10) biological process for liquefied petroleum gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    van Leerdam, Robin C; Bonilla-Salinas, Monica; de Bok, Frank A M; Bruning, H; Lens, Piet N L; Stams, Alfons J M; Janssen, Albert J H

    2008-11-01

    Anaerobic methanethiol (MT) degradation by mesophilic (30 degrees C) alkaliphilic (pH 10) communities was studied in a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor inoculated with a mixture of sediments from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands), Soap Lake (Central Washington), and Russian soda lakes. MT degradation started after 32 days of incubation. During the first 252 days, complete degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 7.5 mmol MT/L/day, and sulfide, methane, and carbon dioxide were the main reaction products. Temporary inhibition of MT degradation occurred after MT peak loads and in the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), which is the autooxidation product of MT. From day 252 onwards, methanol was dosed to the reactor as co-substrate at a loading rate of 3-6 mmol/L/day to stimulate growth of methylotrophic methanogens. Methanol was completely degraded and also a complete MT degradation was achieved till a volumetric loading rate of 13 mmol MT/L/day (0.77 mmol MT/gVSS/day). However, from day 354 till the end of the experimental run (day 365), acetate was formed and MT was not completely degraded anymore, indicating that methanol-degrading homoacetogenic bacteria had partially outcompeted the methanogenic MT-degrading archea. The archeal community in the reactor sludge was analyzed by DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The methanogenic archea responsible for the degradation of MT in the reactor were related to Methanolobus oregonensis. A pure culture, named strain SODA, was obtained by serial dilutions in medium containing both trimethyl amine and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Strain SODA degraded MT, DMS, trimethyl amine, and methanol. Flow sheet simulations revealed that for sufficient MT removal from liquefied petroleum gas, the extraction and biological degradation process should be operated above pH 9.

  20. The effect of pH on the synthesis of stable Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles by sol-gel method in a glycolic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayyoun, N.; Bahmad, L.; Laânab, L.; Jaber, B.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that using a glycolic medium, both stable CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles can be elaborated from Cu colloidal particles by adjusting their chemical environment, in particular the acido-basicity of the solution. In this context, the effect of pH on the sol-gel synthesis of Cu2O/CuO NPs was investigated. XRD results confirmed the formation of pure Cu2O with a cubic structure at lower pH (pH ≤ 6), whereas the pure monoclinic CuO was formed at higher pH (pH ≥ 12). TEM image indicates that the as-formed CuO NPs in basic pH are spherical in shape and their average size is found to be in the range of 4.5 nm. However, the as-obtained Cu2O NPs in acid pH are cubical, with an average diameter of about 3 nm, and agglomerated into large spherical particles under the effect of ethylene glycol. Using the UV-Vis spectroscopy, the measured band gap energies of the prepared Cu2O and CuO NPs are 2.07 and 4.08 eV respectively. FTIR results confirm the purity of the synthesized CuO and Cu2O nanoparticles.

  1. Assessing Effects and interactions among key variables affecting the growth of mixotrophic microalgae: pH, inoculum volume, and growth medium composition.

    PubMed

    Ale, M T; Pinelo, M; Meyer, A S

    2014-01-01

    A 2(3) + 3 full factorial experimental design was used to evaluate growth rate and biomass productivity of four selected, high-biomass-yielding microalgae species,namely, Chlorella vulgaris (CV), Scenedesmus acutus (SA), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CR), and Chlamydomonas debaryana (CD), in mixtures of growth medium (MWC) and wastewater at different proportions (from 20 to 50% of MWC) and at different pH (from 7 to 9). Multilinear regression analysis of the biomass productivity data showed that for SA and CD the biomass productivity was independent of the proportion of medium (MWC), while the growth of CV and CR slowed down in mixtures with high proportions of wastewater. However, the biomass productivity of SA was dependent on pH, while the growth of the other microalgae was independent of pH (7-9). When evaluating the influence of pH and proportion of medium, CD appeared most robust among the algae species, despite its lower biomass productivity. All the four species reduced 80-90% of the nitrate [Formula: see text] and 60-70% of the ammonia [Formula: see text] initially present in the wastewater:medium mixture, although the extent of the reduction was dependent on the initial [Formula: see text] ratio. Both SA and CV reduced ∼20-25% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) contained in the wastewater. This study shows the remarkable influence of certain variables that are often ignored in the search for optimal conditions of microalgal growth and also reveals the importance of considering interactions among growth variables in potential applications at large scale, particularly in the field of bioremediation. PMID:24274013

  2. Origin of Ca-Al-rich inclusions. II - Sputtering and collisions in the three-ph8se interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The theory put forward by Clayton (1977) for the formation of the Ca-Al-rich inclusions within C3 meteorites is extended to an evolutionary history in a three-phase interstellar medium. Widespread supersonic turbulence in the hot interstellar medium is maintained by supernova shock waves, giving rise to heavy sputtering of the refractory dust. Subsequent reaccumulation with varying dust/gas ratios or varying particle sizes produces isotopically fractionated Ca-Al-rich accumulates. It is thought that the Ca-Al-rich inclusions themselves are formed by the following sequence in the solar system: (1) cold accumulation of larger-than-average Ca-Al-rich particles containing supernova condensate cores into macroscopic (approximately 1 cm) Ca-Al-rich agglomerates, probably by sedimentation; and (2) fusion of the supernova condensates into macroscopic minerals by exothermic chemical reactions that begin when the accumulate has been warmed, thereby releasing energy from the unequilibrated forms accumulated from the interstellar medium.

  3. Efficient mannitol production by wild-type Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 is attained at constant pH using a simplified culture medium.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    Mannitol is a natural polyol with multiple industrial applications. In this work, mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 was studied at free- and controlled-pH (6.0-4.8) fermentations using a simplified culture medium containing yeast and beef extracts and sugarcane molasses. The activity of mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH), the enzyme responsible for mannitol synthesis, was determined. The effect of the initial biomass concentration was further studied. Mannitol production (41.5 ± 1.1 g/l), volumetric productivity (Q Mtl 1.73 ± 0.05 g/l h), and yield (Y Mtl 105 ± 11 %) were maximum at pH 5.0 after 24 h while the highest MDH activity (1.66 ± 0.09 U/mg protein) was obtained at pH 6.0. No correlation between mannitol production and MDH activity was observed when varying the culture pH. The increase (up to 2000-fold) in the initial biomass concentration did not improve mannitol formation after 24 h although a 2-fold higher amount was produced at 8 h using 1 or 2 g cell dry weight/l comparing to the control (0.001 g cell dry weight/l). Finally, mannitol isolation under optimum fermentation conditions was achieved. The mannitol production obtained in this study is the highest reported so far by a wild-type L. reuteri strain and, more interestingly, using a simplified culture medium.

  4. Modifying the Cold Gelation Properties of Quinoa Protein Isolate: Influence of Heat-Denaturation pH in the Alkaline Range.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-09-01

    Heat-denaturation of quinoa protein isolate (QPI) at alkali pH and its influence on the physicochemical and cold gelation properties was investigated. Heating QPI at pH 8.5 led to increased surface hydrophobicity and decreases in free and bound sulfhydryl group contents. Heating at pH 10.5 caused a lesser degree of changes in sulfhydryl groups and surface hydrophobicity, and the resulting solutions showed drastically increased solubility. SDS PAGE revealed the presence of large aggregates only in the sample heated at pH 8.5, suggesting that any aggregates present in the sample heated at pH 10.5 were non-covalently bound and disintegrated in the presence of SDS. Reducing conditions partially dissolved the aggregates in the pH 8.5 heated sample indicating the occurrence of disulphide bonding, but caused no major alterations in the separation pattern of the pH 10.5 heated sample. Denaturation pH influenced the cold gelation properties greatly. Solutions heated at pH 8.5 formed a coarse coagulum with maximum G' of 5 Pa. Heat-denaturation at 10.5 enabled the proteins to form a finer and regularly structured gel with a maximum G' of 1140 Pa. Particle size analysis showed that the pH 10.5 heated sample contained a higher level of very small particles (0.1-2 μm), and these readily aggregated into large particles (30-200 μm) when pH was lowered to 5.5. Differences in the nature of aggregates formed during heating may explain the large variation in gelation properties.

  5. Modifying the Cold Gelation Properties of Quinoa Protein Isolate: Influence of Heat-Denaturation pH in the Alkaline Range.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2015-09-01

    Heat-denaturation of quinoa protein isolate (QPI) at alkali pH and its influence on the physicochemical and cold gelation properties was investigated. Heating QPI at pH 8.5 led to increased surface hydrophobicity and decreases in free and bound sulfhydryl group contents. Heating at pH 10.5 caused a lesser degree of changes in sulfhydryl groups and surface hydrophobicity, and the resulting solutions showed drastically increased solubility. SDS PAGE revealed the presence of large aggregates only in the sample heated at pH 8.5, suggesting that any aggregates present in the sample heated at pH 10.5 were non-covalently bound and disintegrated in the presence of SDS. Reducing conditions partially dissolved the aggregates in the pH 8.5 heated sample indicating the occurrence of disulphide bonding, but caused no major alterations in the separation pattern of the pH 10.5 heated sample. Denaturation pH influenced the cold gelation properties greatly. Solutions heated at pH 8.5 formed a coarse coagulum with maximum G' of 5 Pa. Heat-denaturation at 10.5 enabled the proteins to form a finer and regularly structured gel with a maximum G' of 1140 Pa. Particle size analysis showed that the pH 10.5 heated sample contained a higher level of very small particles (0.1-2 μm), and these readily aggregated into large particles (30-200 μm) when pH was lowered to 5.5. Differences in the nature of aggregates formed during heating may explain the large variation in gelation properties. PMID:25986749

  6. Monte Carlo investigation of transient acoustic fields in partially or completely bounded medium. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thanedar, B. D.

    1972-01-01

    A simple repetitive calculation was used to investigate what happens to the field in terms of the signal paths of disturbances originating from the energy source. The computation allowed the field to be reconstructed as a function of space and time on a statistical basis. The suggested Monte Carlo method is in response to the need for a numerical method to supplement analytical methods of solution which are only valid when the boundaries have simple shapes, rather than for a medium that is bounded. For the analysis, a suitable model was created from which was developed an algorithm for the estimation of acoustic pressure variations in the region under investigation. The validity of the technique was demonstrated by analysis of simple physical models with the aid of a digital computer. The Monte Carlo method is applicable to a medium which is homogeneous and is enclosed by either rectangular or curved boundaries.

  7. Continuous bioproduction of short-chain fatty acids from sludge enhanced by the combined use of surfactant and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinguang; Liu, Kun; Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Wang, Qin

    2013-07-01

    This work reported the enhancement of continuous SCFA production from sludge by the combined use of surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS)) and pH 10 (i.e., SDBS & pH 10). The maximal SCFA production (2056 mg COD/L) was achieved under the SDBS & pH 10 condition at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 12d, which was much higher than that of the blank, sole SDBS, or pH 10. The mechanisms investigation showed that the combined strategy had greater sludge solubilization, higher protein hydrolysis, and lower activity of methanogens. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed that the abundance of bacteria was increased, whereas that of archaea was decreased by SDBS & pH 10. The excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy assay further suggested that SBDS caused protein structure change, which benefited protein hydrolysis.

  8. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  9. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  10. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) utilization by Delftia acidovorans MC1 at alkaline pH and in the presence of dichlorprop is improved by introduction of the tfdK gene.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Doreen; Müller, Roland H

    2006-06-01

    Growth of Delftia acidovorans MC1 on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and on racemic 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid ((RS)-2,4-DP) was studied in the perspective of an extension of the strain's degradation capacity at alkaline pH. At pH 6.8 the strain grew on 2,4-D at a maximum rate (mu max) of 0.158 h(-1). The half-maximum rate-associated substrate concentration (Ks) was 45 microM. At pH 8.5 mu max was only 0.05 h(-1) and the substrate affinity was mucher lower than at pH 6.8. The initial attack of 2,4-D was not the limiting step at pH 8.5 as was seen from high dioxygenase activity in cells grown at this pH. High stationary 2,4-D concentrations and the fact that mu max with dichlorprop was around 0.2 h(-1) at both pHs rather pointed at limited 2,4-D uptake at pH 8.5. Introduction of tfdK from D. acidovorans P4a by conjugation, coding for a 2,4-D-specific transporter resulted in improved growth on 2,4-D at pH 8.5 with mu max of 0.147 h(-1) and Ks of 267 microM. Experiments with labeled substrates showed significantly enhanced 2,4-D uptake by the transconjugant TK62. This is taken as an indication of expression of the tfdK gene and proper function of the transporter. The uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) reduced the influx of 2,4-D. At a concentration of 195 microM 2,4-D, the effect amounted to 90% and 50%, respectively, with TK62 and MC1. Cloning of tfdK also improved the utilization of 2,4-D in the presence of (RS)-2,4-DP. Simultaneous and almost complete degradation of both compounds occurred in TK62 up to D = 0.23 h(-1) at pH 6.8 and up to D = 0.2 h(-1) at pH 8.5. In contrast, MC1 left 2,4-D largely unutilized even at low dilution rates when growing on herbicide mixtures at pH 8.5.

  11. Effect of medium variations (zinc supplementation during oocyte maturation, perifertilization pH, and embryo culture protein source) on equine embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ho; Gibbons, John R; Canesin, Heloísa S; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2016-10-15

    Prospective studies were conducted to help define procedural factors affecting in vitro embryo production via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of equine oocytes. In experiment 1, use of 10% fetal bovine serum as a protein source in embryo culture medium resulted in a higher blastocyst rate than did use of a combination of 3% fetal bovine serum, 3% equine preovulatory follicular fluid, and 4% human serum substitute (37% vs. 15%, respectively, P < 0.05). In experiment 2, the effect of zinc supplementation (0, 0.5, 1, or 1.5 μg/mL) during IVM was examined. There were no significant differences in rates of cleavage or blastocyst development (20%-31%). However, the proportion of blastocysts that developed on Day 7 for the added-zinc treatments was significantly higher than that for the control treatment (45% vs. 8%). In experiment 3, we tested whether use of high-pH medium (pH 8.0-8.4) during ICSI procedures would improve blastocyst rate when sperm with low cleavage rates after ICSI was used. When high-pH conditions were used for sperm preparation and also for the first 2 hours of incubation of injected oocytes after ICSI, the cleavage rate was unaffected but no blastocysts developed (0% vs. 24% for control). When high-pH conditions were used for sperm preparation only, the blastocyst rate was 37%. This was repeated using sperm from a second stallion; there was no significant difference in cleavage or blastocyst rates between sperm preparation in high pH vs. control medium. These findings add to our knowledge of factors affecting in vitro production of equine embryos.

  12. pH modulation of currents that contribute to the medium and slow afterhyperpolarizations in rat CA1 pyramidal neurones

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Tony; Church, John

    2004-01-01

    We examined the effects of changes in pHo and pHi on currents contributing to the medium and slow afterhyperpolarizations (mIAHP and sIAHP, respectively) in rat CA1 neurones. Reducing pHo from 7.4 to 6.7 inhibited mIAHP and sIAHP whereas increasing pHo to 7.7 augmented mIAHP and, to a greater extent, sIAHP. The ability of changes in pHo to modulate mIAHP reflected changes in the Ca2+-activated K+ current, IAHP, and a Co2+- and XE991-resistant component of mIAHP, but not the muscarine-sensitive current, IM. In the presence of 1 μm TTX and 5 mm TEA, low pHo-evoked reductions in sIAHP were associated with reductions in Ca2+-dependent depolarizing potentials; because neither effect was attenuated when internal H+ buffering power was raised by including 100 mm tricine in the patch pipette, the actions of reductions in pHo to inhibit sIAHP and, possibly, IAHP in large part appear to reflect a low pHo-dependent decrease in Ca2+ influx. In contrast, the effects of high pHo to augment mIAHP and sIAHP were associated with relatively small increases in Ca2+ potentials but were significantly attenuated by 100 mm internal tricine, indicating that a rise in pHi consequent upon the rise in pHo was largely responsible. The possibility that changes in pHi could act to modulate mIAHP and sIAHP, independently of changes in Ca2+ influx, was also suggested by experiments in which pHi was lowered at a constant pHo by the external application of propionate or by the withdrawal of HCO3− from the perfusing medium. Lowering pHi at a constant pHo had little effect on Ca2+ potentials but inhibited mIAHP and, to a greater extent, sIAHP, effects that were attenuated by 100 mm internal tricine. Together, the results indicate that changes in pHo and pHi modulate mIAHP and sIAHP in rat CA1 neurones and suggest that, depending on the direction of the pHo change, the sensitivities of the underlying currents to changes in Ca2+ influx and/or pHi may contribute to the effects of changes in pHo to

  13. Uptake of atmospheric mercury by deionized water and aqueous solutions of inorganic salts at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Waite, D T; Snihura, A D; Liu, Y; Huang, G H

    2002-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) is well known as a toxic environmental pollutant that is among the most highly bioconcentrated trace metals in the human food chain. The atmosphere is one of the most important media for the environmental cycling of mercury, since it not only receives mercury emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes and soil and water surfaces but also from anthropogenic sources such as fossil fuel combustion, mining and metal smelting. Although atmospheric mercury exists in different physical and chemical forms, as much as 90% can occur as elemental vapour Hg0, depending on the geographic location and time of year. Atmospheric mercury can be deposited to aquatic ecosystems through both wet (rain or snow) and dry (vapour adsorption and particulate deposition) processes. The purpose of the present study was to measure, under laboratory conditions, the rate of deposition of gaseous, elemental mercury (Hg0) to deionized water and to solutions of inorganic salt species of varying ionic strengths with a pH range of 2-12. In deionized water the highest deposition rates occurred at both low (pH 2) and high (pH 12). The addition of different species of salt of various concentrations for the most part had only slight effects on the absorption and retention of atmospheric Hg0. The low pH solutions of various salt concentrations and the high pH solutions of high salt concentrations tested in this study generally showed a greater tendency to absorb and retain atmospheric Hg0 than those at a pH closer to neutral.

  14. Alkaline flocculation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum induced by brucite and calcite.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Dries; Pohl, Philip I; Beuckels, Annelies; Foubert, Imogen; Brady, Patrick V; Hewson, John C; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-11-01

    Alkaline flocculation holds great potential as a low-cost harvesting method for marine microalgae biomass production. Alkaline flocculation is induced by an increase in pH and is related to precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts. In this study, we used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as model organism to study alkaline flocculation of marine microalgae cultured in seawater medium. Flocculation started when pH was increased to 10 and flocculation efficiency reached 90% when pH was 10.5, which was consistent with precipitation modeling for brucite or Mg(OH)2. Compared to freshwater species, more magnesium is needed to achieve flocculation (>7.5mM). Zeta potential measurements suggest that brucite precipitation caused flocculation by charge neutralization. When calcium concentration was 12.5mM, flocculation was also observed at a pH of 10. Zeta potential remained negative up to pH 11.5, suggesting that precipitated calcite caused flocculation by a sweeping coagulation mechanism.

  15. Alkaline flocculation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum induced by brucite and calcite

    DOE PAGES

    Vandamme, Dries; Pohl, Philip I.; Beuckels, Annelies; Foubert, Imogen; Brady, Patrick Vane; Muylaert, Koenraad; Hewson, John C.

    2015-08-20

    Alkaline flocculation holds great potential as a low-cost harvesting method for marine microalgae biomass production. Alkaline flocculation is induced by an increase in pH and is related to precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts. In this study, we used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as model organism to study alkaline flocculation of marine microalgae cultured in seawater medium. Flocculation started when pH was increased to 10 and flocculation efficiency reached 90% when pH was 10.5, which was consistent with precipitation modeling for brucite or Mg(OH)2. Compared to freshwater species, more magnesium is needed to achieve flocculation (>7.5 mM). Zeta potential measurementsmore » suggest that brucite precipitation caused flocculation by charge neutralization. When calcium concentration was 12.5 mM, flocculation was also observed at a pH of 10. Furthermore, zeta potential remained negative up to pH 11.5, suggesting that precipitated calcite caused flocculation by a sweeping coagulation mechanism.« less

  16. Evaluating the role of metal ions in the bathochromic and hyperchromic responses of cyanidin derivatives in acidic and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, G T; Robbins, R J; Collins, T M; Giusti, M M

    2016-10-01

    In many food products, colorants derived from natural sources are increasingly popular due to consumer demand. Anthocyanins are one class of versatile and abundant naturally occurring chromophores that produce different hues in nature, especially with metal ions and other copigments assisting. The effects of chelation of metal ions (Mg(2+), Al(3+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+), and Ga(3+)) in factorial excesses to anthocyanin concentration (0-500×) on the spectral characteristics (380-700nm) of cyanidin and acylated cyanidin derivatives were evaluated to better understand the color evolution of anthocyanin-metal chelates in pH 3-8. In all pH, anthocyanins exhibited bathochromic and hyperchromic shifts. Largest bathochromic shifts most often occurred in pH 6; while largest hyperchromic shifts occurred in pH 5. Divalent Mg(2+) showed no observable effect on anthocyanin color while trivalent metal ions caused bathochromic shifts and hue changes. Generally, bathochromic shifts on anthocyanins were greatest with more electron rich metal ions (Fe(3+)≈Ga(3+)>Al(3+)>Cr(3+)).

  17. Evaluating the role of metal ions in the bathochromic and hyperchromic responses of cyanidin derivatives in acidic and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, G T; Robbins, R J; Collins, T M; Giusti, M M

    2016-10-01

    In many food products, colorants derived from natural sources are increasingly popular due to consumer demand. Anthocyanins are one class of versatile and abundant naturally occurring chromophores that produce different hues in nature, especially with metal ions and other copigments assisting. The effects of chelation of metal ions (Mg(2+), Al(3+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+), and Ga(3+)) in factorial excesses to anthocyanin concentration (0-500×) on the spectral characteristics (380-700nm) of cyanidin and acylated cyanidin derivatives were evaluated to better understand the color evolution of anthocyanin-metal chelates in pH 3-8. In all pH, anthocyanins exhibited bathochromic and hyperchromic shifts. Largest bathochromic shifts most often occurred in pH 6; while largest hyperchromic shifts occurred in pH 5. Divalent Mg(2+) showed no observable effect on anthocyanin color while trivalent metal ions caused bathochromic shifts and hue changes. Generally, bathochromic shifts on anthocyanins were greatest with more electron rich metal ions (Fe(3+)≈Ga(3+)>Al(3+)>Cr(3+)). PMID:27132820

  18. Proteome of Salmonella Enterica SerotypeTyphimurium Grown in a Low Mg2+/pH Medium

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Ansong, Charles; Smallwood, Heather S.; Rommereim, Leah M.; McDermott, Jason E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Gustin, Jean K.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2009-09-01

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) must replicate within host macrophages in order to establish systemic infection in susceptible mice. In an effort to identify new STM proteins that help the bacterium colonize macrophages, we have cultured STM cells with a low pH/low magnesium medium (MgM) under two different conditions termed MgM-Shock and MgM-Dilution and investigated the impacts of these culturing conditions on the STM proteome by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomics. LC-MS/MS results showed that alteration of culturing conditions affected a group of STM proteins differently. Compared to MgM-Shock, MgM-Dilution induced more proteins of the Salmonella-pathogenecity island 2-type III secretion system (SPI2-T3SS). The abundances of the proteins used for cobalamin biosynthesis increased under MgM-Shock condition but decreased under MgM-Dilution condition, while those proteins used for thiamine or biotin biosynthesis were not affected under the former condition but increased under the latter condition. Western-blot (WB) analysis confirmed the LC-MS/MS results. Because cobalamin, thiamine and biotin play different roles in STM metabolism, differential induction of the proteins involved in their biosyntheses suggests that the metabolic states of STM cells under these conditions differ considerably. WB analysis also showed that the abundances of SPI2-T3SS proteins SsaQ and SseE and biotin biosynthesis proteins BioB and BioD increased after STM infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Deletion of the gene encoding BioB reduced the ability of STM to replicate inside the macrophages, demonstrating for the first time the involvement of a biotin synthesis protein in STM colonization of macrophages.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in response to alkaline stress.

    PubMed

    Ran, Shujun; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Zhe; Liang, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs) for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in response to alkaline stress

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Shujun; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Zhe; Liang, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly isolated species from endodontic failure root canals; its persistence in treated root canals has been attributed to its ability to resist high pH stress. The goal of this study was to characterize the E. faecalis transcriptome and to identify candidate genes for response and resistance to alkaline stress using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing. We found that E. faecalis could survive and form biofilms in a pH 10 environment and that alkaline stress had a great impact on the transcription of many genes in the E. faecalis genome. The transcriptome sequencing results revealed that 613 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs) for E. faecalis grown in pH 10 medium; 211 genes were found to be differentially up-regulated and 402 genes differentially down-regulated. Many of the down-regulated genes found are involved in cell energy production and metabolism and carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the up-regulated genes are mostly related to nucleotide transport and metabolism. The results presented here reveal that cultivation of E. faecalis in alkaline stress has a profound impact on its transcriptome. The observed regulation of genes and pathways revealed that E. faecalis reduced its carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and increased nucleotide synthesis to adapt and grow in alkaline stress. A number of the regulated genes may be useful candidates for the development of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of E. faecalis infections. PMID:26300863

  1. Kinetics of the oxidation of lactose by copper(II) complexed with bipyridyl in alkaline medium using chloro-complex of rhodium(III) in its nano-concentration range as homogeneous catalyst: a spectrophotometric study.

    PubMed

    Kumar Singh, Ashok; Singh, Manjula; Srivastava, Jaya; Rahmani, Shahla

    2012-06-01

    Kinetics of the oxidation of lactose by Cu(II) complexed with bipyridyl have been investigated at 40 °C for the first time spectrophotometrically using Rh(III) chloride as homogeneous catalyst in aqueous alkaline medium in its nano-concentration range. The order of reaction was found to be fractional positive-order, when the concentration of Rh(III) chloride was varied from 0.30×10(-9) M to 6.00×10(-9) M. The reaction shows fractional positive-order kinetics with respect to [lactose] and [OH(-)] and zeroth-order kinetics with respect to [Cu(II)]. The reaction also shows slight increase in the rate by decreasing dielectric constant of the medium and remains unaffected by the change in ionic strength of the medium. The reaction was carried out at four different temperatures and observed values of rate constants were utilized to calculate various activation parameters specially the entropy of activation (ΔS(#)). The species, [RhCl(3)(H(2)O)(2)OH](-), was postulated as the main reactive species of Rh(III) chloride for the oxidation of lactose by Cu(II) in alkaline medium. On the basis of kinetic and equivalence studies together with spectrophotometric information for the formation of a complex, [formula see text] the most appropriate mechanism for the aforesaid reaction has been proposed. Support to the proposed mechanism was also given by the observed activation parameters and multiple regression analysis. Sodium salts of formic acid, arabinonic acid and lyxonic acid were identified as the main oxidation products of the reaction under investigation.

  2. Highly porous nickel@carbon sponge as a novel type of three-dimensional anode with low cost for high catalytic performance of urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ke; Zhang, Dongming; Guo, Fen; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-06-01

    Highly porous nickel@carbon sponge electrode with low cost is synthesized via a facile sponge carbonization method coupled with a direct electrodeposition of Ni. The obtained electrodes are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The catalytic performances of urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The Ni@carbon sponge electrode exhibits three-dimensional open network structures with a large surface area. Remarkably, the Ni@carbon sponge electrode shows much higher electrocatalytic activity and lower onset oxidation potential towards urea electro-oxidation compared to a Ni/Ti flat electrode synthesized by the same procedure. The Ni@carbon sponge electrode achieves an onset oxidation potential of 0.24 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and a peak current density of 290 mA cm-2 in 5 mol L-1 NaOH and 0.10 mol L-1 urea solutions accompanied with a desirable stability. The impressive electrocatalytic activity is largely attributed to the high intrinsic electronic conductivity, superior porous network structures and rich surface Ni active species, which can largely boost the interfacial electroactive sites and charge transfer rates for urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium, indicating promising applications in fuel cells.

  3. Solar light (hv) and H2O2/hv photo-disinfection of natural alkaline water (pH 8.6) in a compound parabolic collector at different day periods in Sahelian region.

    PubMed

    Ndounla, J; Pulgarin, C

    2015-11-01

    The photo-disinfection of natural alkaline surface water (pH 8.6 ± 0.3) for drinking purposes was carried out under solar radiation treatments. The enteric bacteria studied were the wild total coliforms/Escherichia coli (10(4) CFU/ml) and Salmonella spp. (10(4) CFU/ml) naturally present in the water. The photo-disinfection of a 25-l water sample was carried out in a solar compound parabolic collector (CPC) in the absence and in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The addition of H2O2 (10 mg/L) to the sample water was sufficient to enhance the photo-disinfection and ensure an irreversible lethal action on the wild enteric bacteria contents of the sample. The inactivation kinetic of the system was significantly enhanced compared to the one carried out without H2O2 addition. The effect of the solar radiation parameters on the efficiency of the photo-disinfection were assessed. The pH has increased during the treatment in all the photo-disinfection processes (hv and H2O2/hv). The Salmonella spp strain has shown the best effective inactivate time in alkaline water than the one recorded under acidic or near-neutral conditions. The evolution of some physico-chemical parameters of the water (turbidity, NO2(-), NO3(-), NH4(+), HPO4(2-), and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))) was monitored during the treatment. Finally, the possible mechanistic process involved during the enteric bacteria inactivation was suggested.

  4. Alkaline protease production by a strain of marine yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Wang; Zhenming, Chi; Chunling, Ma

    2006-07-01

    Yeast strain 10 with high yield of protease was isolated from sediments of saltern near Qingdao, China. The protease had the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 45°C. The optimal medium for the maximum alkaline protease production of strain 10 was 2.5g soluble starch and 2.0g NaNO3 in 100mL seawater with initial pH 6.0. The optimal cultivation conditions for the maximum protease production were temperature 24.5°C, aeration rate 8.0L min-1 and agitation speed 150r min-1 Under the optimal conditions, 623.1 U mg-1 protein of alkaline protease was reached in the culture within 30h of fermentation.

  5. The use of microalgae and their culture medium for biogas production in an integrated cycle.

    PubMed

    Formagini, E L; Marques, F R; Serejo, M L; Paulo, P L; Boncz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Vinasse is a residue produced in large quantities as a sub-product of ethanol production. Anaerobic digestion of vinasse can yield large amounts of biogas, but often difficulties arise in maintaining stable operation, due to the acidity of the material (which has a pH between 3.5 and 5) and a strong tendency to further acidification. Anaerobically digested vinasse can be used as part of a culture medium for microalgae cultivation, for the production of biodiesel and other compounds, whilst the excess CO2 produced in the ethanol fermentation can be used to stimulate algal growth. During algae cultivation, the pH of the culture medium has a strong tendency to increase; therefore, recycling of the spent culture medium or the concentrated algae suspension to the anaerobic digester treating vinasse was considered an option for pH stabilization there. Batch tests, however, showed that alkalinity of the spent culture broth, in spite of its high pH, is too low (only 350 mgCaCO3L(-1)) to help stabilise the pH of vinasse digestion. Alkalinity of the algae suspension is higher and digestion of a mixture of vinasse and a suspension of algae results in efficient biogas production, but still the alkalinity is insufficient to stabilise the pH in a range suitable for methanogenic microorganisms; hence, the addition of additional alkalinity, for instance as sodium bicarbonate or urea, remains necessary. PMID:24622540

  6. Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simescu, Florica; Idrissi, Hassane

    2008-12-01

    We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating.

  7. The water barrier function of the skin in relation to the water content of stratum corneum, pH and skin lipids. The effect of alkaline soap and syndet on dry skin in elderly, non-atopic patients.

    PubMed

    Thune, P; Nilsen, T; Hanstad, I K; Gustavsen, T; Lövig Dahl, H

    1988-01-01

    Clinical dryness of the skin is a common problem among elderly, dermatological patients. In the present investigation, hydration, surface lipids, skin pH and water barrier function as expressed by the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were studied in both dry and normal skin. Using these parameters, a comparison of the local effects of acid and alkaline cleansing products was made. In non-atopic elderly patients with dry skin, the TEWL values were lower than in the younger control group but higher than in the older controls. Following one week's topical therapy, the TEWL values in the patient group decreased further and approached the lower values of the older control group. At the same time the skin hydration values increased, indicating a beneficial effect on the skin barrier. An inverse relationship was demonstrated between TEWL and skin hydration. The study indicates that high TEWL values are frequently correlated with high pH, low hydration of the stratum corneum and reduced skin surface lipid content. Despite the intensive use of an acid syndet and lotion, the pH-readings increased but were still within the 'confidence limits' of the control groups.

  8. Characterization of two glycoside hydrolase family 36 α-galactosidases: novel transglycosylation activity, lead-zinc tolerance, alkaline and multiple pH optima, and low-temperature activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junpei; Lu, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yiyan; Wu, Qian; Li, Junjun; Tang, Xianghua; Xu, Bo; Ding, Junmei; Huang, Zunxi

    2016-03-01

    Two α-galactosidases, AgaAJB07 from Mesorhizobium and AgaAHJG4 from Streptomyces, were expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant AgaAJB07 showed a 2.9-fold and 22.6-fold increase in kcat with a concomitant increase of 2.3-fold and 16.3-fold in Km in the presence of 0.5mM ZnSO4 and 30.0mM Pb(CH3COO)2, respectively. Recombinant AgaAHJG4 showed apparent optimal activity at pH 8.0 in McIlvaine or Tris-HCl buffer and 9.5 in glycine-NaOH or HCl-borax-NaOH buffer, retention of 23.6% and 43.2% activity when assayed at 10 and 20°C, respectively, and a half-life of approximately 2min at 50°C. The activation energies for p-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranoside hydrolysis by AgaAJB07 and AgaAHJG4 were 71.9±0.8 and 48.2±2.0kJmol(-1), respectively. Both AgaAJB07 and AgaAHJG4 exhibited transglycosylation activity, but they required different acceptors and produced different compounds. Furthermore, potential factors for alkaline and multiple pH optima and low-temperature adaptations of AgaAHJG4 were presumed. PMID:26471539

  9. pH gradients induced by urea metabolism in 'artificial mouth' microcosm plaques.

    PubMed

    Sissons, C H; Wong, L; Hancock, E M; Cutress, T W

    1994-06-01

    Evidence was sought for urea-induced pH gradients in dental plaque microcosm biofilms cultured from the mixed salivary bacteria in a multi plaque 'artificial mouth'. Application of 500 mmol/l urea for short periods (6 min) to 5-8 mm maximum-thickness plaques induced intraplaque pH gradients of up to 0.7 pH units with the surface alkaline relative to the inner plaque. These pH gradients persisted for more than 5 h in the absence of a flow of fluid. With 30-min urea applications and a flow of a basal medium containing mucin (BMM, pH 7.0), the pH of the inner (deeper) plaque regions also increased. Although the pH gradient initially formed was alkaline at the plaque surface, the BMM flow lowered the surface pH to neutrality whilst the inner layers were still alkaline, thereby reversing the pH gradient. In thick microcosm dental plaques, urea-induced pH gradients can therefore form and last many hours. They probably result from the significant time taken for urea to penetrate to the inner layers of plaque, its rapid metabolism by the outer plaque layers, and a rate-limiting clearance of ammonia. Even a slow BMM flow over the plaque greatly increased the rate of return to the resting pH, causing the gradients to change polarity.

  10. Extracellular pH modulates the activity of cultured human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kaysinger, K K; Ramp, W K

    1998-01-01

    The effect of medium pH on the activity of cultured human osteoblasts was investigated in this study. Osteoblasts derived from explants of human trabecular bone were grown to confluence and subcultured. The first-pass cells were incubated in Hepes-buffered media at initial pHs adjusted from 7.0 to 7.8. Osteoblast function was evaluated by measuring lactate production, alkaline phosphatase activity, proline hydroxylation, DNA content, and thymidine incorporation. Changes in medium pH were determined from media pHs recorded at the beginning and end of the final 48 h incubation period. As medium pH increased through pH 7.6, collagen synthesis, alkaline phosphatase activity, and thymidine incorporation increased. DNA content increased from pH 7.0 to 7.2, plateaued from pH 7.2 to 7.6, and increased again from pH 7.6 to 7.8. The changes in the medium pH were greatest at pHs 7.0 and 7.8, modest at pHs 7.4 and 7.6, and did not change at 7.2, suggesting that the pHs are migrating towards pH 7.2. Lactate production increased at pH 7.0 but remained constant from 7.2 to 7.8. These results suggest that in the pH range from 7.0-7.6 the activity of human osteoblasts increases with increasing pH, that this increase in activity does not require an increase in glycolytic activity, and that pH 7.2 may be the optimal pH for these cells.

  11. Usefulness of organic acid produced by Exiguobacterium sp. 12/1 on neutralization of alkaline wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Niha Mohan; Kumar, Anil; Bisht, Gopal; Pasha, Santosh; Kumar, Rita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of organic acids produced by Exiguobacterium sp. strain 12/1 (DSM 21148) in neutralization of alkaline wastewater emanated from beverage industry. This bacterium is known to be able to grow in medium of pH as high as pH 12.0 and to neutralize alkaline industrial wastewater from pH 12.0 to pH 7.5. The initial investigation on the type of functional groups present in medium, carried out using FT-IR spectroscopy, revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to carbonyl group and hydroxyl group, suggesting the release of carboxylic acid or related metabolic product(s). The identification of specific carboxylic group, carried out using RP-HPLC, revealed the presence of a single peak in the culture supernatant with retention time most similar to formic acid. The concentration of acid produced on different carbon sources was studied as a function of time. Although acid was present in same final concentration, the rate of acid production was highest in case of medium supplemented with sucrose followed by fructose and glucose. The knowledge of metabolic products of the bacterium can be considered as a first step towards realization of its potential for large-scale bioremediation of alkaline wastewater from beverage industry.

  12. Production of alkaline protease from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans

    PubMed Central

    Ferracini-Santos, Luciana; Sato, Hélia H

    2009-01-01

    Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is one of the microorganisms that produces a wide variety of yeast cell wall-degrading enzymes, β-1,3-glucanase, protease and chitinase. Dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as carbon and nitrogen source for cell growth and protease production. The medium components KH2PO4, KOH and dried yeast cells showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on the factorial fractional design. A second design was prepared using two factors: pH and percentage of dried yeast cells. The results showed that the culture medium for the maximum production of protease was 0.2 g/l of MgSO4.7H2O, 2.0 g/l of (NH4)2SO4 and 8% of dried yeast cells in 0.15M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The maximum alkaline protease production was 7.0 ± 0.27 U/ml over the center point. Crude protease showed best activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, and was stable at 50ºC. PMID:24031317

  13. Low pH increases the yield of exosome isolation.

    PubMed

    Ban, Jae-Jun; Lee, Mijung; Im, Wooseok; Kim, Manho

    2015-05-22

    Exosomes are the extracellular vesicles secreted by various cells. Exosomes mediate intercellular communication by delivering a variety of molecules between cells. Cancer cell derived exosomes seem to be related with tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor microenvironment is thought to be acidic and this low pH controls exosome physiology, leading to tumor progression. Despite the importance of microenvironmental pH on exosome, most of exosome studies have been performed without regard to pH. Therefore, the difference of exosome stability and yield of isolation by different pH need to be studied. In this research, we investigated the yield of total exosomal protein and RNA after incubation in acidic, neutral and alkaline conditioned medium. Representative exosome markers were investigated by western blot after incubation of exosomes in different pH. As a result, the concentrations of exosomal protein and nucleic acid were significantly increased after incubation in the acidic medium compared with neutral medium. The higher levels of exosome markers including CD9, CD63 and HSP70 were observed after incubation in an acidic environment. On the other hand, no exosomal protein, exosomal RNA and exosome markers have been detected after incubation in an alkaline condition. In summary, our results indicate that the acidic condition is the favorable environment for existence and isolation of exosomes.

  14. A comparative investigation of metal-support interactions on the catalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles for ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoi, Denis R. M.; Villullas, Hebe M.; Zhu, Fu-Chun; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Sun, Shi-Gang; Guo, Junsong; Sun, Lili; Chen, Rongrong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of interactions of Pt nanoparticles with hybrid supports on reactivity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline solution are investigated. Studies involve catalysts with identical Pt nanoparticles on six hybrid supports containing carbon powder and transition metal oxides (TiO2, ZrO2, SnO2, CeO2, MoO3 and WO3). In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results evidence that metal-support interactions produce changes in the Pt 5d band vacancy, which appears to determine the catalytic activity. The highest and lowest activities are observed for Pt nanoparticles on hybrid supports containing TiO2 and CeO2, respectively. Further studies are presented for these two catalysts. In situ FTIR reflection spectroscopy measurements, taken using both multi-stepped FTIR spectroscopy (MS-FTIR) and single potential alteration FTIR spectroscopy (SPA-FTIR), evidence that the main product of ethanol oxidation is acetate, although signals attributed to carbonate and CO2 indicate some differences in CO2 production. Fuel cell performances of these catalysts, tested in a 4.5 cm2 single cell at different temperatures (40-90 °C) show good agreement with data obtained by electrochemical techniques. Results of this comprehensive study point out the possibility of compensating a reduction of noble metal load with an increase in activity promoted by interactions between metallic nanoparticles and a support.

  15. Synthesis of silver/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide through a one-step thermal solid-state reaction for oxygen reduction in an alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Li Ting; Loh, Kee Shyuan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Wong, Wai Yin

    2016-08-01

    One of the obstacles to the commercialisation of fuel cells is the high cost of noble metals, such as platinum, that are used as electrocatalysts. Silver-incorporated nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag/N-rGO) has been synthesised through the simple annealing of metal salts with graphene oxide and melamine. The presence of silver and nitrogen atoms in Ag/N-rGO was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Both the XPS and EDS results showed a higher Ag loading on the N-rGO surface compared with the rGO surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed a wide size distribution of Ag particles loaded on the N-rGO surface. Electrochemical results indicate that N-rGO is a better support for Ag than rGO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) results indicate that Ag/N-rGO is a potential ORR catalyst candidate in alkaline as it exhibited an onset potential of -0.15 V vs. Ag/AgCl and a limiting diffusion current density of -4.38 mA cm-2 with four electron pathways. In addition, Ag/N-rGO also showed better methanol tolerance than Pt/C.

  16. Synthesis of silver/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide through a one-step thermal solid-state reaction for oxygen reduction in an alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Li Ting; Loh, Kee Shyuan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Wong, Wai Yin

    2016-08-01

    One of the obstacles to the commercialisation of fuel cells is the high cost of noble metals, such as platinum, that are used as electrocatalysts. Silver-incorporated nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag/N-rGO) has been synthesised through the simple annealing of metal salts with graphene oxide and melamine. The presence of silver and nitrogen atoms in Ag/N-rGO was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Both the XPS and EDS results showed a higher Ag loading on the N-rGO surface compared with the rGO surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed a wide size distribution of Ag particles loaded on the N-rGO surface. Electrochemical results indicate that N-rGO is a better support for Ag than rGO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) results indicate that Ag/N-rGO is a potential ORR catalyst candidate in alkaline as it exhibited an onset potential of -0.15 V vs. Ag/AgCl and a limiting diffusion current density of -4.38 mA cm-2 with four electron pathways. In addition, Ag/N-rGO also showed better methanol tolerance than Pt/C.

  17. A novel cobalt tetranitrophthalocyanine/graphene composite assembled by an in situ solvothermal synthesis method as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guojun; Cui, Lili; Wu, Yanying; Liu, Ying; Pu, Tao; He, Xingquan

    2013-08-21

    A novel micro/nano-composite, based on cobalt(II) tetranitrophthalocyanine (CoTNPc) grown on poly(sodium-p-styrenesulfonate) modified graphene (PGr), as a non-noble-metal catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), is fabricated by an in situ solvothermal synthesis method. The CoTNPc/PGr is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of the CoTNPc/PGr composite toward the ORR is evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry methods. The CoTNPc/PGr composite exhibits an unexpected, surprisingly high ORR activity compared to CoTNPc or PGr. The onset potential for ORR on CoTNPc/PGr is found to be around -0.10 V vs. SCE in 0.1 M NaOH solution, which is 30 mV and 70 mV more positive than that on PGr and CoTNPc, respectively. The peak current density on CoTNPc/PGr is about 2 times than that on PGr and CoTNPc, respectively. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements reveal that the ORR mechanism is nearly via a four-electron pathway on CoTNPc/PGr. The current density for ORR on CoTNPc/PGr still remains 69.9% of its initial value after chronoamperometric measurements for 24 h. Pt/C catalyst, on the other hand, only retains 13.3% of its initial current. The peak potential shifts slightly and current barely changes when 3 M methanol is added. The fabricated composite catalyst for ORR displays high activity, good stability and excellent tolerance to the crossover effect, which may be used as a promising Pt-free catalyst in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). PMID:23820483

  18. Capturing molten globule state of α-lactalbumin through constant pH molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Nicholus; Rani, Pooja; Biswas, Parbati

    2013-03-01

    The recently developed methods of constant pH molecular dynamics directly captures the correlation between protonation and conformation to probe protein structure, function, and dynamics. In this work, we investigate the effect of pH on the conformational properties of the protein human α-lactalbumin. Constant pH simulations at both acidic and alkaline medium indicate the formation of the molten globule state, which is in accordance with the previous experimental observations (especially, in acidic medium). The size of the protein measured by its radius of gyration (RG) exhibits a marked increase in both acidic and alkaline medium, which matches with the corresponding experimentally observed value of RG found in the molten globule. The probability of native contacts is also considerably reduced at acidic and basic pH as compared to that of native structure crystallized at neutral pH. The mean fractal dimension D2 of the protein records a sharp increase in basic medium as compared to those in neutral and acidic solutions implying a significant pH induced conformational change. The mean square fluctuations of all residues of the entire protein are found to increase by several folds in both acidic and basic medium, which may be correlated with the normalized solvent accessibility of the residues indicating role of solvent accessible surface area on protein internal dynamics. The helices comprising the α-domain of the protein are moderately preserved in the acidic and alkaline pH. However, the β-sheet structures present in the β-domain are completely disrupted in both acidic as well as basic pH.

  19. Photoreversible changes in pH of pea phytochrome solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tokutomi, S.; Yamamoto, K.T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Furuya, M.

    1982-02-01

    Phytochrome is a chromoprotein that serves as the photoreceptor for a variety of photomorphogenic responses in plants. Phytochrome was isolated from etiolated pea seedlings. Photoinduced pH changes of an unbuffered solution of the phytochrome were monitored with a semimicrocombination pH electrode at pH 6.5. Red-light irradiation increased the pH of the medium. This alkalinization was reversed by a subsequent far-red-light irradiation. The magnitude and direction of the red-light-induced pH changes was dependent on the pH of the photocrome solution, and the maximum alkalinization was observed at pH 6.0, where the number of protons taken up per phytochrome monomer was 0.18. These results suggest that phytochrome is a multifunctional protein composed of a chromophoric domain and a hydrophobic domain. It is probable that the hydrophobic domain is responsible for the photoinduced change of hydrophobicity of phytochrome and that the ionizable groups responsible for the photoinduced pH changes are localized in the chromophoric domain. (JMT)

  20. A newly high alkaline lipase: an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial lipases received much attention for their substrate specificity and their ability to function in extreme environments (pH, temperature...). Many staphylococci produced lipases which were released into the culture medium. Reports of thermostable lipases from Staphylococcus sp. and active in alkaline conditions are not previously described. Results A newly soil-isolated Staphylococcus sp. strain ESW secretes an induced lipase in the culture medium. The effects of temperature, pH and various components in a detergent on the activity and stability of Staphylococcus sp. lipase (SL1) were studied in a preliminary evaluation for use in detergent formulation solutions. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH from 9.0 to 13.0, with an optimum at pH 12.0. The relative activity at pH 13.0 was about 60% of that obtained at pH 12.0. It exhibited maximal activity at 60°C. This novel lipase, showed extreme stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants after pre-incubation for 1 h at 40°C, and relative stability towards oxidizing agents. Additionally, the crude enzyme showed excellent stability and compatibility with various commercial solid and liquid detergents. Conclusions These properties added to the high activity in high alkaline pH make this novel lipase an ideal choice for application in detergent formulations. PMID:22123072

  1. Increases in GroES and GroEL from Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 in response to a decrease in medium pH, and changes in cytokine release from splenocytes: Transcriptome and proteome analyses.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, Rumiko; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2012-07-01

    To study the anti-allergy effects of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus L-92 (L-92), changes in the immunomodulatory effect and key cell components in response to media pH in which L-92 cells were cultivated were studied using microarray and proteome analyses. Growth of L-92 cells was restricted if the medium pH was uncontrolled and the release of IL-12 from splenocytes increased as the pH decreased during cell growth. The decrease in pH from 5.0 to 4.5 at the exponential phase of growth had the greatest effect on the release of IL-12. When L-92 cells were cultured at low pH, the release of IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-10 was increased but IL-4 release was decreased from splenocytes. Comparative transcriptome analysis between L-92 cells cultured at pH 5.0 and pH 4.5 in MRS medium revealed significant up-regulation of 121 genes and down-regulation of 92 genes. Among the significantly changed genes, heat shock proteins such as GroES and GroEL were considered to be the most likely components affecting immunomodulation. Proteome analysis of the cell wall-associated components of L-92 also supported increases in GroES and GroEL as cell surface components in L-92 cells cultured at a lower pH. In conclusion, increases in cell wall-associated components of L-92, such as GroES and GroEL, in response to a pH decrease affect the release of certain cytokines from splenocytes.

  2. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  3. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production.

  4. Urine pH test

    MedlinePlus

    A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products, or cheese can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your urine acid levels. It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

  5. Effects of acetic acid and arginine on pH elevation and growth of Bacillus licheniformis in an acidified cucumber juice medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus licheniformis has been shown to cause pH elevation in tomato products having an initial pH below 4.6 and metabiotic effects that can lead to the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Because of this, the organism poses a potential risk to acidified vegetable products; however, little is known abou...

  6. Catalytic activity of ruthenium(III) on the oxidation of an anticholinergic drug-atropine sulfate monohydrate by copper(III) periodate complex in aqueous alkaline medium - decarboxylation and free radical mechanism.

    PubMed

    Byadagi, Kirthi S; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T; Chimatadar, Shivamurti A

    2013-01-01

    Atropine sulfate monohydrate (ASM) is an anticholinergic drug, having a wide spectrum of activity. Hence, the kinetics of oxidation of ASM by diperiodatocuperate (DPC) in the presence of micro (10-6) amounts of Ru(III) catalyst has been investigated spectrophotometrically in aqueous alkaline medium at I = 0.50 mol dm-3. The reaction between DPC and ASM exhibits 1:2 stoichiometry (ASM:DPC) i. e., one mole of ASM require two moles of DPC to give products. The main oxidation products were confirmed by spectral studies. The reaction is first order with respect to [DPC] and [Ru(III)], while the order with respect to [ASM] and [OH-] was less than unity. The rates decreased with increase in periodate concentration. The reaction rates revealed that Ru(III) catalyzed reaction was about seven-fold faster than the uncatalyzed reaction. The catalytic constant (KC) was also determined at different temperatures. A plausible mechanism is proposed. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were calculated and the thermodynamic quantities were also determined. Kinetic experiments suggest that [Cu(H2IO6)(H2O)2] is the reactive Cu(III) species and [Ru(H2O)5OH]2+ is the reactive Ru(III) species. PMID:24169716

  7. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    DOEpatents

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  8. Using of liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector for determination of naphthoquinones in plants and for investigation of influence of pH of cultivation medium on content of plumbagin in Dionaea muscipula.

    PubMed

    Babula, Petr; Mikelova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Havel, Ladislav; Sladky, Zdenek

    2006-09-14

    The interest of many investigators in naphthoquinones is due to their broad-range of biological actions from phytotoxic to fungicidal. The main aim of this work was to investigate the influence of different pH values of cultivation medium on naphthoquinone content in Dionaea muscipula. For this purpose, we optimized the simultaneous analysis of the most commonly occurring naphthoquinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone, juglone and plumbagin) by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The most suitable chromatographic conditions were as follows: mobile phase: 0.1 mol l-1 acetic acid:methanol in ratio of 33:67 (%, v/v), flow rate: 0.75 ml min-1 and temperature: 42 degrees C. Moreover, we looked for the most suitable technique for preparation of plant samples (D. muscipula, Juglans regia, Paulownia tomentosa, Impatience glandulifera, Impatience parviflora, Drosera rotundifolia, Drosera spathulata and Drosera capensis) due to their consequent analysis by HPLC-DAD. It clearly follows from the results obtained that sonication were the most suitable technique for preparation of J. regia plants. We also checked the recoveries of the determined naphthoquinones, which were from 96 to 104%. Finally, we investigated the changes in content of plumbagin in D. muscipula plants according to different pH of cultivation medium. The content increased with increasing pH up to 5 and, then, changed gradually. The lower content of plumbagin at lower pH values was of interest to us. Therefore, we determined the content of this naphthoquinone in the cultivation medium, what has not been studied before. We discovered that the lower tissue content of plumbagin was due to secretion of this naphthoquinone into the cultivation medium.

  9. Alkaline flocculation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum induced by brucite and calcite

    SciTech Connect

    Vandamme, Dries; Pohl, Philip I.; Beuckels, Annelies; Foubert, Imogen; Brady, Patrick Vane; Muylaert, Koenraad; Hewson, John C.

    2015-08-20

    Alkaline flocculation holds great potential as a low-cost harvesting method for marine microalgae biomass production. Alkaline flocculation is induced by an increase in pH and is related to precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts. In this study, we used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as model organism to study alkaline flocculation of marine microalgae cultured in seawater medium. Flocculation started when pH was increased to 10 and flocculation efficiency reached 90% when pH was 10.5, which was consistent with precipitation modeling for brucite or Mg(OH)2. Compared to freshwater species, more magnesium is needed to achieve flocculation (>7.5 mM). Zeta potential measurements suggest that brucite precipitation caused flocculation by charge neutralization. When calcium concentration was 12.5 mM, flocculation was also observed at a pH of 10. Furthermore, zeta potential remained negative up to pH 11.5, suggesting that precipitated calcite caused flocculation by a sweeping coagulation mechanism.

  10. Optimization of ferric chloride concentration and pH to improve both cell growth and flocculation in Chlorella vulgaris cultures. Application to medium reuse in an integrated continuous culture bioprocess.

    PubMed

    Lecina, Martí; Nadal, Gisela; Solà, Carles; Prat, Jordi; Cairó, Jordi J

    2016-09-01

    Combined effect of ferric chloride and pH on Chlorella vulgaris growth and flocculation were optimized using DoE. Afterwards, an integrated bioprocess for microalgae cultivation and harvesting conceived as a sole step was run in continuous operation mode. Microalgae concentration in a 2L-photobioreactor was about 0.5gL(-1) and the efficiency of flocculation in the coupled sedimentation tank was about 95%. Dewatered microalgae reached a biomass concentrations increase about 50-fold, whereas it was only about 0.02gL(-1) in the clarified medium. Then, the reuse of the clarified medium recovered was further evaluated. The clarified medium was reused without any further nutrient supplementation, whereas a second round of medium reuse was performed after supplementation of main nutrients (phosphate-sulfate-nitrate), micronutrients and ferric chloride. The medium reuse strategy did not affect cell growth and flocculation. Consequently, the reuse of medium reduces the nutrients requirements and the demand for water, and therefore the production costs should be reduced accordingly.

  11. Strong influence of medium pH condition on gas-phase biofilter ammonia removal, nitrous oxide generation and microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liangcheng; Wang, Xinlei; Funk, Ted L

    2014-01-01

    Effects of pH on gas-phase biofilter performance including NH3 removal efficiency (RE), N2O generation, and microbial communities of ammonia oxidizers and denitrifies, are examined. A two-step experiment was carried out on four biofilters for 130 days. In step 1 with pH 8.0, NH3 REs were 85-95% and N2O concentrations were 0.1-0.4 ppm. In step 2, pH was adjusted to 4.5, 6.0, 8.0, and 9.5 in four biofilters, respectively. The acidified biofilters showed higher NH3 REs than the alkalized biofilters. N2O concentration in biofilters with pH 4.5 and 6.0 was increased to 1.5 and 0.5 ppm, respectively, while no change in the alkalized biofilters. Comparing to communities in step 1, the amoA and nosZ structures were altered when pH was changed to 4.5 and 6.0, but not at 9.5. Abundance of amoA was reduced at pH 4.5, while nosZ abundance was increased with considerably less changes in acidified biofilters compared to alkalized biofilters.

  12. Alkaline-resistance model of subtilisin ALP I, a novel alkaline subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Mizutani, O; Yamagata, Y; Ichishima, E; Nakajima, T

    2001-05-01

    The alkaline-resistance mechanism of the alkaline-stable enzymes is not yet known. To clarify the mechanism of alkaline-resistance of alkaline subtilisin, structural changes of two typical subtilisins, subtilisin ALP I (ALP I) and subtilisin Sendai (Sendai), were studied by means of physicochemical methods. Subtilisin NAT (NAT), which exhibits no alkaline resistance, was examined as a control. ALP I gradually lost its activity, accompanied by protein degradation, but, on the contrary, Sendai was stable under alkaline conditions. CD spectral measurements at neutral and alkaline pH indicated no apparent differences between ALP I and Sendai. A significant difference was observed on measurement of fluorescence emission spectra of the tryptophan residues of ALP I that were exposed on the enzyme surface. The fluorescence intensity of ALP I was greatly reduced under alkaline conditions; moreover, the reduction was reversed when alkaline-treated ALP I was neutralized. The fluorescence spectrum of Sendai remained unchanged. The enzymatic and optical activities of NAT were lost at high pH, indicating a lack of functional and structural stability in an alkaline environment. Judging from these results, the alkaline resistance is closely related to the surface structure of the enzyme molecule.

  13. Production and properties of an alkaline, thermophilic lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens NS2W.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, N; Gadre, R V

    2002-06-01

    Eighteen bacterial strains were isolated from soil samples and screened for alkaline, thermophilic lipase production. Pseudomonas fluorescens NS2W was selected and its production of lipase was optimized in shake flasks using a statistical experimental design. Cell growth and lipase production were studied in shake flasks and in a 1-l fermenter in the optimized medium. Maximum lipase yields were 69.7 and 68.7 U ml(-1), respectively. The optimized medium resulted in about a five-fold increase in the enzyme production, compared to that obtained in the basal medium. The lipase had an optimal activity at pH 9.0 and was stable over a wide pH range of 3-11 with more than 70% activity retention. The lipase had an optimal activity at 55 degrees C and was stable up to 60 degrees C with more than 70% activity retention for at least 2 h. PMID:12032808

  14. Excitation-induced dynamics of external pH pattern in Chara corallina cells and its dependence on external calcium concentration.

    PubMed

    Eremin, Alexey; Bulychev, Alexander; Krupenina, Natalia A; Mair, Thomas; Hauser, Marcus J B; Stannarius, Ralf; Müller, Stefan C; Rubin, Andrei B

    2007-01-01

    The influence of cell excitation and external calcium level on the dynamics of light-induced pH bands along the length of Chara corallina cells is studied in the present paper. Generation of an action potential (AP) transiently quenched these pH patterns, which was more pronounced at 0.05-0.1 mM Ca2+ than at higher concentrations of Ca2+ (0.6-2 mM) in the medium. After transient smoothing of the pH bands, some alkaline peaks reemerged at slightly shifted positions in media with low Ca2+ concentrations, while at high Ca2+ concentrations, the alkaline spots reappeared exactly at their initial positions. This Ca2+ dependency has been revealed by both digital imaging and pH microelectrodes. The stabilizing effect of external Ca2+ on the locations of recovering alkaline peaks is supposedly due to formation of a physically heterogeneous environment around the cell owing to precipitation of CaCO3 in the alkaline zones at high Ca2+ during illumination. The elevation of local pH by dissolving CaCO3 facilitates the reappearance of alkaline spots at their initial locations after temporal suppression caused by cell excitation. At low Ca2+ concentrations, when the solubility product of CaCO3 is not attained, the alkaline peaks are not stabilized by CaCO3 dissolution and may appear at random locations.

  15. Transient removal of alkaline zones after excitation of Chara cells is associated with inactivation of high conductance in the plasmalemma.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, Alexander A; Krupenina, Natalia A

    2009-08-01

    The action potential (AP) of excitable plant cells is a multifunctional physiological signal. Its generation in characean algae suppresses the pH banding for 15-30 min and enhances the heterogeneity of spatial distribution of photosynthetic activity. This suppression is largely due to the cessation of H(+) influx (OH(-) efflux) in the alkaline cell regions. Measurements of local pH and membrane conductance in individual space-clamped alkaline zones (small cell areas bathed in an isolated pool of external medium) showed that the AP generation is followed by the transient disappearance of alkaline zone in parallel with a large decrease in membrane conductance. These changes, specific to alkaline zones, were only observed under continuous illumination following a relaxation period of at least 15 min after previous excitation. The excitation of dark-adapted cells produced no conductance changes in the post-excitation period. The results indicate that the origin of alkaline zones in characean cells is not due to operation of electroneutral H(+)/HCO(3)(-) symport or OH(-)/HCO(3)(-) antiport. It is concluded that the membrane excitation is associated with inactivation of plasmalemma high conductance in the alkaline cell regions. PMID:19820298

  16. Transient removal of alkaline zones after excitation of Chara cells is associated with inactivation of high conductance in the plasmalemma.

    PubMed

    Bulychev, Alexander A; Krupenina, Natalia A

    2009-08-01

    The action potential (AP) of excitable plant cells is a multifunctional physiological signal. Its generation in characean algae suppresses the pH banding for 15-30 min and enhances the heterogeneity of spatial distribution of photosynthetic activity. This suppression is largely due to the cessation of H(+) influx (OH(-) efflux) in the alkaline cell regions. Measurements of local pH and membrane conductance in individual space-clamped alkaline zones (small cell areas bathed in an isolated pool of external medium) showed that the AP generation is followed by the transient disappearance of alkaline zone in parallel with a large decrease in membrane conductance. These changes, specific to alkaline zones, were only observed under continuous illumination following a relaxation period of at least 15 min after previous excitation. The excitation of dark-adapted cells produced no conductance changes in the post-excitation period. The results indicate that the origin of alkaline zones in characean cells is not due to operation of electroneutral H(+)/HCO(3)(-) symport or OH(-)/HCO(3)(-) antiport. It is concluded that the membrane excitation is associated with inactivation of plasmalemma high conductance in the alkaline cell regions.

  17. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XIII. pH Effects in C{sup 14}O{sub 2} Fixation by Scenedesmus

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ouellet, C.; Benson, A. A.

    1951-10-23

    The rates of photosynthesis and dark fixation of C{sup 14}O{sub 2} in Scenedesmus have been compared in dilute phosphate buffers of 1.6 to 11.4 pH; determination of C{sup 14} incorporation into the various products shows enhancement of uptake in an acid medium into sucrose, polysaccharides, alanine and serine, in an alkaline medium into malic asparctic acids. kinetic experiments at extreme pH values suggest that several paths are available for CO{sub 2} assimilation. A tentative correlation of the results with the pH optima of some enzymes and resultant effects upon concentrations of intermediates is presented.

  18. Controlled synthesis of La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} nanoparticles by hydrothermal method with nonionic surfactant and their ORR activity in alkaline medium

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Bo Hyun; Park, Shin-Ae; Park, Bong Kyu; Chun, Ho Hwan; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: We demonstrate that Sr-doped LaCrO{sub 3} nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis method using the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 and the applicability of La{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysis in an alkaline medium. Compared with the nanoparticles synthesized by the coprecipitation method, they showed enhanced ORR activity. - Highlights: • Sr-doped LaCrO{sub 3} nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the hydrothermal method using the nonionic surfactant. • Homogeneously shaped and sized Sr-doped LaCrO{sub 3} nanoparticles were readily obtained. • Compared with the nanoparticles synthesized by the coprecipitation method, they showed an enhanced ORR activity. • The main origin was revealed to be the decreased particle size due to the nonionic surfactant. - Abstract: Sr-doped LaCrO{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by the hydrothermal method with the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 followed by heat treatment at 1000 °C for 10 h. The obtained perovskite nanoparticles had smaller particle size (about 100 nm) and more uniform size distribution than those synthesized by the conventional coprecipitation method. On the other hand, it was identified with the material simulation that the electronic structure change by Sr doping was negligible, because the initially unfilled e{sub g}-band was not affected by the p-type doping. Finally, the perovskite nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method showed much higher ORR activity by over 200% at 0.8 V vs. RHE than those by coprecipitation method.

  19. Role of general stress-response alternative sigma factors σ(S) (RpoS) and σ(B) (SigB) in bacterial heat resistance as a function of treatment medium pH.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ouazzou, A; Mañas, P; Condón, S; Pagán, R; García-Gonzalo, D

    2012-02-15

    This investigation aimed to determine the role of general stress-response alternative sigma factors σ(S) (RpoS) and σ(B) (SigB) in heat resistance and the occurrence of sublethal injuries in cell envelopes of stationary-phase Escherichia coli BJ4 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e cells, respectively, as a function of treatment medium pH. Given that microbial death followed first-order inactivation kinetics (R(2)>0.95) the traditional D(T) and z values were used to describe the heat inactivation kinetics. Influence of rpoS deletion was constant at every treatment temperature and pH, making a ΔrpoS deletion mutant strain approximately 5.5 times more heat sensitive than its parental strain for every studied condition. Furthermore, the influence of the pH of the treatment medium on the reduction of the heat resistance of E. coli was also constant and independent of the treatment temperature (average z value=4.9°C) in both parental and mutant strains. L. monocytogenes EGD-e z values obtained at pH 7.0 and 5.5 were not significantly different (p>0.05) in either parental or the ∆sigB deletion mutant strains (average z value=4.8°C). Nevertheless, at pH 4.0 the z value was higher (z=8.4°C), indicating that heat resistance of both L. monocytogenes strains was less dependent on temperature at pH 4.0. At both pH 5.5 and 7.0 the influence of sigB deletion was constant and independent of the treatment temperature, decreasing L. monocytogenes heat resistance approximately 2.5 times. In contrast, the absence of sigB did not decrease the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes at pH 4.0. The role of RpoS in protecting cell envelopes was more important in E. coli (4 times) than SigB in L. monocytogenes (1.5 times). Moreover, the role of σ(S) in increasing heat resistance seems more relevant in enhancing the intrinsic resilience of the cytoplasmic membrane, and to a lesser extent, outer membrane resilience. Knowledge of environmental conditions related to the activation of

  20. Microbial Thiocyanate Utilization under Highly Alkaline Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Tourova, Tatyana P.; Lysenko, Anatoly M.; Kuenen, J. Gijs

    2001-01-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS−) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  1. Microbial thiocyanate utilization under highly alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, D Y; Tourova, T P; Lysenko, A M; Kuenen, J G

    2001-02-01

    Three kinds of alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate (CNS-) at pH 10 were found in highly alkaline soda lake sediments and soda soils. The first group included obligate heterotrophs that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source while growing at pH 10 with acetate as carbon and energy sources. Most of the heterotrophic strains were able to oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to tetrathionate. The second group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles which utilized thiocyanate nitrogen during growth with thiosulfate as the energy source. Genetic analysis demonstrated that both the heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that utilized thiocyanate as a nitrogen source were related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria (the Halomonas group for the heterotrophs and the genus Thioalkalivibrio for autotrophs). The third group included obligately autotrophic sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphilic bacteria able to utilize thiocyanate as a sole source of energy. These bacteria could be enriched on mineral medium with thiocyanate at pH 10. Growth with thiocyanate was usually much slower than growth with thiosulfate, although the biomass yield on thiocyanate was higher. Of the four strains isolated, the three vibrio-shaped strains were genetically closely related to the previously described sulfur-oxidizing alkaliphiles belonging to the genus Thioalkalivibrio. The rod-shaped isolate differed from the other isolates by its ability to accumulate large amounts of elemental sulfur inside its cells and by its ability to oxidize carbon disulfide. Despite its low DNA homology with and substantial phenotypic differences from the vibrio-shaped strains, this isolate also belonged to the genus Thioalkalivibrio according to a phylogenetic analysis. The heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaliphiles that grew with thiocyanate as an N source possessed a relatively high level of cyanase

  2. Data showing chemical compositions of the essential oils of the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus obtained by varying pH of the extraction medium.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the various chemical components as obtained from the oils in the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus using hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Furthermore, extractions of the oils were also carried out with a slight in pH variation and compared, "GC-MS evaluation of C. citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods" (Ajayi et al., 2016 [1]). The current article contains one table exhibiting a list of compounds in the four different methods of extraction. Comparative studies amongst the various methods of extraction are highlighted in the table. PMID:27419197

  3. Uptake of arsenic by alkaline soils near alkaline coal fly ash disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Khodadoust, Amid P; Theis, Thomas L; Murarka, Ishwar P; Naithani, Pratibha; Babaeivelni, Kamel

    2013-12-01

    The attenuation of arsenic in groundwater near alkaline coal fly ash disposal facilities was evaluated by determining the uptake of arsenic from ash leachates by surrounding alkaline soils. Ten different alkaline soils near a retired coal fly ash impoundment were used in this study with pH ranging from 7.6 to 9.0, while representative coal fly ash samples from two different locations in the coal fly ash impoundment were used to produce two alkaline ash leachates with pH 7.4 and 8.2. The arsenic found in the ash leachates was present as arsenate [As(V)]. Adsorption isotherm experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption parameters required for predicting the uptake of arsenic from the ash leachates. For all soils and leachates, the adsorption of arsenic followed the Langmuir and Freundlich equations, indicative of the favorable adsorption of arsenic from leachates onto all soils. The uptake of arsenic was evaluated as a function of ash leachate characteristics and the soil components. The uptake of arsenic from alkaline ash leachates, which occurred mainly as calcium hydrogen arsenate, increased with increasing clay fraction of soil and with increasing soil organic matter of the alkaline soils. Appreciable uptake of arsenic from alkaline ash leachates with different pH and arsenic concentration was observed for the alkaline soils, thus attenuating the contamination of groundwater downstream of the retired coal fly ash impoundment.

  4. Influence of pH on yeast immobilization on polystyrene surfaces modified by energetic ion bombardment.

    PubMed

    Tran, Clara T H; Kondyurin, Alexey; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Bilek, Marcela M M; McKenzie, David R

    2013-04-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment is a novel method for immobilizing yeast on polymer surfaces by covalent linkage. This study of the immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both rehydrated and cultured forms showed that the density of cell attachment on PIII treated polystyrene (PS) was strongly dependent on the pH of the incubation medium and was higher for rehydrated yeast. A study of the surface charge was undertaken to explain this result. A high density of cell attachment occurs in acidic conditions (pH 3-5) and a significantly reduced cell density occurs in neutral and alkaline buffers (pH 6-10) for both types of yeast. Force measurements using atomic force microscopy show that a negative charge is present on polystyrene after PIII treatment. The charge is close to zero at pH 3 to pH 5 and increasingly negative from pH 6 to pH 10. Both rehydrated yeast and cultured yeast have negative electrophoretic mobility in the pH range studied. The repulsive forces are weak in acidic buffers and stronger in neutral and alkaline buffers, in good agreement with the cell densities observed. Rehydrated yeast cells are found to be more hydrophobic than cultured yeasts in the same buffer. The higher hydrophobicity explains the higher attachment of rehydrated yeast compared to cultured yeast.

  5. Optimization of alkaline protease production by Aspergillus clavatus ES1 in Mirabilis jalapa tuber powder using statistical experimental design.

    PubMed

    Hajji, Mohamed; Rebai, Ahmed; Gharsallah, Néji; Nasri, Moncef

    2008-07-01

    Medium composition and culture conditions for the bleaching stable alkaline protease production by Aspergillus clavatus ES1 were optimized. Two statistical methods were used. Plackett-Burman design was applied to find the key ingredients and conditions for the best yield. Response surface methodology (RSM) including full factorial design was used to determine the optimal concentrations and conditions. Results indicated that Mirabilis jalapa tubers powder (MJTP), culture temperature, and initial medium pH had significant effects on the production. Under the proposed optimized conditions, the protease experimental yield (770.66 U/ml) closely matched the yield predicted by the statistical model (749.94 U/ml) with R (2)=0.98. The optimum operating conditions obtained from the RSM were MJTP concentration of 10 g/l, pH 8.0, and temperature of 30 degrees C, Sardinella heads and viscera flour (SHVF) and other salts were used at low level. The medium optimization contributed an about 14.0-fold higher yield than that of the unoptimized medium (starch 5 g/l, yeast extract 2 g/l, temperature 30 degrees C, and pH 6.0; 56 U/ml). More interestingly, the optimization was carried out with the by-product sources, which may result in cost-effective production of alkaline protease by the strain.

  6. Changes in the bacterial populations of the highly alkaline saline soil of the former lake Texcoco (Mexico) following flooding.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Neria-González, Isabel; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Dendooven, Luc; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    Flooding an extreme alkaline-saline soil decreased alkalinity and salinity, which will change the bacterial populations. Bacterial 16S rDNA libraries were generated of three soils with different electrolytic conductivity (EC), i.e. soil with EC 1.7 dS m(-1) and pH 7.80 (LOW soil), with EC 56 dS m(-1) and pH 10.11 (MEDIUM soil) and with EC 159 dS m(-1) and pH 10.02 (HIGH soil), using universal bacterial oligonucleotide primers, and 463 clone 16S rDNA sequences were analyzed phylogenetically. Library proportions and clone identification of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi showed that the bacterial communities were different. Species and genera of the Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales and Xanthomonadales orders of the alpha- and gamma-subdivision of Proteobacteria were found at the three sites. Species and genera of the Rhodospirillales, Sphingobacteriales, Clostridiales, Oscillatoriales and Caldilineales were found only in the HIGH soil, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales and Pseudomonadales in the MEDIUM soil, Myxococcales in the LOW soil, and Actinomycetales in the MEDIUM and LOW soils. It was found that the largest diversity at the order and species level was found in the MEDIUM soil as bacteria of both the HIGH and LOW soils were found in it.

  7. Culture medium pH influence on Gluconacetobacter physiology: Cellulose production rate and yield enhancement in presence of multiple carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Fatima; Bassil, Nathalie; Flouty, Roula; Chokr, Ali; Samrani, Antoine El; Boiteux, Gisèle; Tahchi, Mario El

    2016-08-01

    Gluconacetobacter genera are valued for bacterial cellulose (BC) and acetic acid production. BC is produced at optimal yields in classical microbiological media that are expensive for a large scale of production. In addition, BC usage for industrial purposes is limited due to low conversion rate into cellulose and to long incubation duration. In this paper, Gluconacetobacter isolated from apple vinegar was kinetically studied to evaluate cellulose production in presence of different carbon sources. Acetic and citric acid effect on Gluconacetobacter metabolism is clarified. It was shown that Gluconacetobacter uses glucose as a primary carbon source for cells growth and products formation. Acetic acid employment as a co-carbon source in Hestrin Schramm medium showed an increase of 17% in BC yield with a moderate decrease in the crystallite size of the resulting polymer.

  8. Culture medium pH influence on Gluconacetobacter physiology: Cellulose production rate and yield enhancement in presence of multiple carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Yassine, Fatima; Bassil, Nathalie; Flouty, Roula; Chokr, Ali; Samrani, Antoine El; Boiteux, Gisèle; Tahchi, Mario El

    2016-08-01

    Gluconacetobacter genera are valued for bacterial cellulose (BC) and acetic acid production. BC is produced at optimal yields in classical microbiological media that are expensive for a large scale of production. In addition, BC usage for industrial purposes is limited due to low conversion rate into cellulose and to long incubation duration. In this paper, Gluconacetobacter isolated from apple vinegar was kinetically studied to evaluate cellulose production in presence of different carbon sources. Acetic and citric acid effect on Gluconacetobacter metabolism is clarified. It was shown that Gluconacetobacter uses glucose as a primary carbon source for cells growth and products formation. Acetic acid employment as a co-carbon source in Hestrin Schramm medium showed an increase of 17% in BC yield with a moderate decrease in the crystallite size of the resulting polymer. PMID:27112876

  9. Prebiotic synthesis of protobiopolymers under alkaline ocean conditions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Rivas, Luis A; Palacín, Arantxa; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana

    2011-08-01

    Clasically, prebiotic chemistry has focused on the production and identification of simple organic molecules, many of them forming part of "intractable polymers" named tholins. In a previous work, we demonstrated that in experiments using an external energy source and inorganic carbon the aqueous aerosols improved the formation of hydrophilic tholins. Herein, we elucidate the role of pH (from 4 to 12) in prebiotic experiments using saline aqueous aerosols, spark discharges and an atmosphere containing CH(4). At all values of pH, the saline aqueous aerosols increased the production of a significant variety of carboxylic acids that could have been present in a primitive Krebs cycle. Moreover, the study for the first time of hydrophilic tholins by 2-D electrophoresis revealed that these are formed by a set of unexpected heavy polymeric species. The initial alkaline conditions significantly increased both the apparent molecular weight of polymeric species up to 80 kDa and their diversity. We propose the term of protobiopolymers to denote those polymeric species fractionated by 2-D electrophoresis since these are formed by biomolecules present in living systems and show diversity in length as well as in functional groups. Thus, aerosols formed in simulated alkaline ocean conditions could provide an optimal medium for the formation of the primeval materials that could be precursors to the emergence of life.

  10. Prebiotic Synthesis of Protobiopolymers Under Alkaline Ocean Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Rivas, Luis A.; Palacín, Arantxa; Menor-Salván, César; Osuna-Esteban, Susana

    2011-08-01

    Clasically, prebiotic chemistry has focused on the production and identification of simple organic molecules, many of them forming part of "intractable polymers" named tholins. In a previous work, we demonstrated that in experiments using an external energy source and inorganic carbon the aqueous aerosols improved the formation of hydrophilic tholins. Herein, we elucidate the role of pH (from 4 to 12) in prebiotic experiments using saline aqueous aerosols, spark discharges and an atmosphere containing CH4. At all values of pH, the saline aqueous aerosols increased the production of a significant variety of carboxylic acids that could have been present in a primitive Krebs cycle. Moreover, the study for the first time of hydrophilic tholins by 2-D electrophoresis revealed that these are formed by a set of unexpected heavy polymeric species. The initial alkaline conditions significantly increased both the apparent molecular weight of polymeric species up to 80 kDa and their diversity. We propose the term of protobiopolymers to denote those polymeric species fractionated by 2-D electrophoresis since these are formed by biomolecules present in living systems and show diversity in length as well as in functional groups. Thus, aerosols formed in simulated alkaline ocean conditions could provide an optimal medium for the formation of the primeval materials that could be precursors to the emergence of life.

  11. Effect of environment pH on the photophysics of fisetin in solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Das, Shrabanti; Maity, Arnab; Purkayastha, Pradipta

    2015-12-01

    Photophysical modulation of fisetin has been extensively studied in bulk aqueous as well as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by varying the pH of the medium. The solution pH was varied from 5 to 9 to mimic biological environments. Neutral and anionic forms of fisetin coexist in ground state in both acidic and alkaline conditions. However, in the excited state and at low pH, the anionic form of fisetin predominates over the proton transferred form, whereas in SLNs, the proton transferred form is the major emitting species. Higher pH showed enhancement in anionic emission to different extent in the two types of environments. Limited percolation of H(+) and OH(-) ions inside the SLNs that host fisetin molecules controls their photophysics. The experimental results encourage usage of fisetin as a drug depending on the ratio of the neutral and anionic as well as the proton transferred forms under various pH conditions.

  12. Influences of heating temperature, pH, and soluble solids on the decimal reduction times of acid-adapted and non-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 (HCIPH 96055) in a defined liquid heating medium.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Alonzo A

    2012-11-01

    The study characterized the influences of various combinations of process and product parameters namely, heating temperature (53, 55, 57.5, 60, 62 °C), pH (2.0, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.0), and soluble solids (SS) (1.4, 15, 35, 55, 69°Brix) on the thermal inactivation of non-adapted and acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7 (HCIPH 96055) in a defined liquid heating medium (LHM). Acid adaptation was conducted by propagating cells in a gradually acidifying nutrient broth medium, supplemented with 1% glucose. The D values of non-adapted cells ranged from 1.43 s (0.02 min) to 304.89 s (5.08 min). Acid-adapted cells had D values that ranged from 1.33 s (0.02 min) to 2628.57 s (43.81 min). Adaptation did not always result in more resistant cells as indicated by the Log (D(adapted)/D(non-adapted)) values calculated in all combinations tested, with values ranging from -1.10 to 1.40. The linear effects of temperature and pH, and the joint effects of pH and SS significantly influenced the thermal resistance of non-adapted cells. Only the linear and quadratic effects of both pH and SS significantly influenced the D values of acid-adapted cells. Generally, the D values of acid-adapted cells decreased at SS greater than 55 °Brix, suggesting the possible cancelation of thermal cross protection by acid habituation at such SS levels. The relatively wide ranges of LHM pH and SS values tested in the study allowed for better examination of the effects of these factors on the thermal death of the pathogen. The results established in this work may be used in the evaluation, control and improvement of safety of juice products; and of other liquid foods with physicochemical properties that fall within the ranges tested in this work. PMID:23141645

  13. Alkaline Bohr effect of human hemoglobin Ao.

    PubMed

    Di Cera, E; Doyle, M L; Gill, S J

    1988-04-01

    Differential oxygen binding measurements obtained over the pH range 6.95 to 9.10 at 25 degrees C have allowed a detailed description of the alkaline Bohr effect of human hemoglobin Ao. Phenomenological analysis of the data in terms of the Adair equation shows that: (1) the oxygen binding curves are asymmetrical with the population of the triply oxygenated species being negligible throughout the pH range studied: (2) the shape of the oxygen binding curve is affected by pH, especially at low saturation; and (3) the maximum O2-proton linkage is -0.52 mole of proton per mole of oxygen at pH 7.4. A possible molecular mechanism of the Bohr effect is proposed within the framework of an allosteric model which accounts for the low population of triply oxygenated hemoglobin species. At least three Bohr groups are necessary for a quantitative description of the alkaline Bohr effect. Two of these groups titrate in the range of the His146 beta and Vall alpha residues, which have long been identified as the main alkaline Bohr groups, and altogether contribute 84% of the alkaline Bohr effect at physiological pH. A third ionizable group, linked to oxygenation presumably at the beta chains, is implicated and is titrated in a pH range characteristic of a surface histidyl residue.

  14. Production and characterization of thermostable alkaline protease of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) from optimized solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Joyee; Giri, Sudipta; Maity, Sujan; Sinha, Ankan; Ranjan, Ashish; Rajshekhar; Gupta, Suvroma

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are the most important group of enzymes utilized commercially in various arenas of industries, such as food, detergent, leather, dairy, pharmaceutical, diagnostics, and waste management, accounting for nearly 20% of the world enzyme market. Microorganisms of specially Bacillus genera serve as a vast repository of diverse set of industrially important enzymes and utilized for the large-scale enzyme production using a fermentation technology. Approximately 30%-40% of the cost of industrial enzymes originates from the cost of the growth medium. This study is attempted to produce protease from Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) after optimization of various process parameters with the aid of solid-state fermentation using a cheap nutrient source such as wheat bran. B. subtilis (ATCC 6633) produces proteases of molecular weight 36 and 20 kDa, respectively, in the fermented medium as evident from SDS zymogram. Alkaline protease activity has been detected with optimum temperature at 50 °C and is insensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. This thermostable alkaline protease exhibits dual pH optimum at 7 and 10 with moderate pH stability at alkaline pH range. It preserves its activity in the presence of detergent such as SDS, Tween 20, and Triton X-100 and may be considered as an effective additive to detergent formulation with some industrial importance.

  15. Cloning and Overexpression of Alkaline Phosphatase PhoK from Sphingomonas sp. Strain BSAR-1 for Bioprecipitation of Uranium from Alkaline Solutions▿

    PubMed Central

    Nilgiriwala, Kayzad S.; Alahari, Anuradha; Rao, Amara Sambasiva; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Cells of Sphingomonas sp. strain BSAR-1 constitutively expressed an alkaline phosphatase, which was also secreted in the extracellular medium. A null mutant lacking this alkaline phosphatase activity was isolated by Tn5 random mutagenesis. The corresponding gene, designated phoK, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). The resultant E. coli strain EK4 overexpressed cellular activity 55 times higher and secreted extracellular PhoK activity 13 times higher than did BSAR-1. The recombinant strain very rapidly precipitated >90% of input uranium in less than 2 h from alkaline solutions (pH, 9 ± 0.2) containing 0.5 to 5 mM of uranyl carbonate, compared to BSAR-1, which precipitated uranium in >7 h. In both strains BSAR-1 and EK4, precipitated uranium remained cell bound. The EK4 cells exhibited a much higher loading capacity of 3.8 g U/g dry weight in <2 h compared to only 1.5 g U/g dry weight in >7 h in BSAR-1. The data demonstrate the potential utility of genetically engineering PhoK for the bioprecipitation of uranium from alkaline solutions. PMID:18641147

  16. Cloning and overexpression of alkaline phosphatase PhoK from Sphingomonas sp. strain BSAR-1 for bioprecipitation of uranium from alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Nilgiriwala, Kayzad S; Alahari, Anuradha; Rao, Amara Sambasiva; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2008-09-01

    Cells of Sphingomonas sp. strain BSAR-1 constitutively expressed an alkaline phosphatase, which was also secreted in the extracellular medium. A null mutant lacking this alkaline phosphatase activity was isolated by Tn5 random mutagenesis. The corresponding gene, designated phoK, was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). The resultant E. coli strain EK4 overexpressed cellular activity 55 times higher and secreted extracellular PhoK activity 13 times higher than did BSAR-1. The recombinant strain very rapidly precipitated >90% of input uranium in less than 2 h from alkaline solutions (pH, 9 +/- 0.2) containing 0.5 to 5 mM of uranyl carbonate, compared to BSAR-1, which precipitated uranium in >7 h. In both strains BSAR-1 and EK4, precipitated uranium remained cell bound. The EK4 cells exhibited a much higher loading capacity of 3.8 g U/g dry weight in <2 h compared to only 1.5 g U/g dry weight in >7 h in BSAR-1. The data demonstrate the potential utility of genetically engineering PhoK for the bioprecipitation of uranium from alkaline solutions.

  17. Broth medium for enrichment of Vibrio fluvialis from the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Nishibuchi, M; Roberts, N C; Bradford, H B; Seidler, R J

    1983-01-01

    A medium was designed for the enrichment and enumeration of Vibrio fluvialis from environmental samples. The medium contains 1% peptone plus 4% sodium chloride and 5 micrograms of novobiocin per ml, pH 8.5. This V. fluvialis enrichment medium (FEM) was tested, in comparison with alkaline peptone (AP), in field samplings. A total of 177 samples (estuarine waters and sediment, sewage, and crabs) collected over a 14-month period were examined with FEM and with AP broth. Results showed that FEM was more effective than AP in detecting V. fluvialis, particularly from water and sewage samples with low salinities (less than 6%). The best recovery of V. fluvialis occurred when both enrichment media were used simultaneously. PMID:6625569

  18. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH < 6.3 after oxidation had positive Hot Acidity. Samples with similar pH values before oxidation had dissimilar Hot Acidities due to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the

  19. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  20. Influence of acid and alkaline sources on optical, structural and photovoltaic properties of CdSe nanoparticles precipitated from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coria-Monroy, C. Selene; Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida; Hu, Hailin

    2016-06-01

    CdSe is a widely researched material for photovoltaic applications. One of the most important parameters of the synthesis is the pH value, since it determines the kinetics and the mechanism of the reaction and in consequence, the optical and morphological properties of the products. We present the synthesis of CdSe in solution with strict control of pH and the comparison of ammonia and KOH as alkaline sources and diluted HCl as acid medium. CdSe formation was monitored with photoluminescence emission spectra (main peak in 490 nm, bandgap of CdSe nanoparticles). XRD patterns indicated that CdSe nanoparticles are mainly of cubic structure for ammonia and HCl, but the hexagonal planes appear with KOH. Product yield decreases with pH and also decreases with KOH at constant pH value since ammonia has a double function, as complexing agent and alkaline source. Changes in morphology were observed in SEM images as well with the different alkaline source. The effect of alkaline sources on photovoltaic performance of hybrid organic solar cells with CdSe and poly(3-hexylthiophene) as active layers was clearly observed, indicating the importance of synthesis conditions on optoelectronic properties of promising semiconductor nanomaterials for solar cell applications.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome.

    PubMed

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na(+)). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L(-1) day(-1) organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the "ML635J-40 aquatic group" while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  2. [Dependence of the intracellular concentrations of univalent ions and hydrogenase activity on the salt composition and pH of the medium in the haloalkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfonatronum thiodismutans].

    PubMed

    Soboleva, G S; Dulov, L E; Pusheva, M A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that the intracellular concentrations of Na+, K+, and Cl- ions in Desulfonatronum thiodismutans depend on the extracellular concentration of Na' ions. An increase in the extracellular concentration of Na+ results in the accumulation of K+ ions in cells, which points to the possibility that these ions perform an osmoprotective function. When the concentration of the NaCI added to the medium was increased to 4%, the concentration gradient of Cl- ions changed insignificantly. It was found that D. thiodismutans contains two forms of hydrogenase--periplasmic and cytoplasmic. Both enzymes are capable of functioning in solutions with high ionic force; however they exhibit different sensitivities to Na+, K+, and Li+ salts and pH. The enzymes were found to be resistant to high concentrations of Na+ and K+ chlorides and Na+ bicarbonate. The cytoplasmic hydrogenase differed significantly from the periplasmic one in having much higher salt tolerance and lower pH optimum. The activity of these enzymes depended on the nature of both the cationic and anionic components of the salts. For instance, the inhibitory effect of NaCl was less pronounced than that of LiCl, whereas Na+ and Li+ sulfates inhibited the activity of both hydrogenase types to an equal degree. The highest activity of these enzymes was observed at low Na+ concentrations, close to those typical of cells growing at optimal salt concentrations. PMID:17410870

  3. An experimental study of magnesite dissolution rates at neutral to alkaline conditions and 150 and 200 °C as a function of pH, total dissolved carbonate concentration, and chemical affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldi, Giuseppe D.; Schott, Jacques; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2010-11-01

    Steady-state magnesite dissolution rates were measured in mixed-flow reactors at 150 and 200 °C and 4.6 < pH < 8.4, as a function of ionic strength (0.001 M ⩽ I ⩽ 1 M), total dissolved carbonate concentration (10 -4 M < ΣCO 2 < 0.1 M), and distance from equilibrium. Rates were found to increase with increasing ionic strength, but decrease with increasing temperature from 150 to 200 °C, pH, and aqueous CO 32- activity. Measured rates were interpreted using the surface complexation model developed by Pokrovsky et al. (1999a) in conjunction with transition state theory ( Eyring, 1935). Within this formalism, magnesite dissolution rates are found to be consistent with r=k{>MgOH2+}41-exp (-4ART), where rd represents the BET surface area normalized dissolution rate, {>MgOH2+} stands for the concentration of hydrated magnesium centers on the magnesite surface, kMg designates a rate constant, A refers to the chemical affinity of the overall reaction, R denotes the gas constant, and T symbolizes absolute temperature. Within this model decreasing rates at far-from-equilibrium conditions (1) at constant pH with increasing temperature and (2) at constant temperature with increasing pH and ΣCO 2 stem from a corresponding decrease in {>MgOH2+}. This decrease in {>MgOH2+} results from the increasing stability of the >MgCO3- and >MgOH° surface species with increasing temperature, pH and CO 32- activity. The decrease in constant pH dissolution rates yields negative apparent activation energies. This behavior makes magnesite resistant to re-dissolution if formed as part of mineral carbon sequestration efforts in deep geologic formations.

  4. Alkalinity and carbon budgets in the Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Copin-Montegut, C. )

    1993-12-01

    The carbon budget of the Mediterranean Sea has never been assessed. This paper reports the results of numerous measurements of pH and alkalinity in the spring of 1991. This concentration in inorganic carbon was deduced from the measurements. The existence of simple relationships between alkalinity and salinity or inorganic carbon and salinity made it possible to assess the budget of alkalinity and carbon in the Mediterranean Sea. 55 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  6. Adaptation to pH and Role of PacC in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Landraud, Patricia; Chuzeville, Sarah; Billon-Grande, Geneviève; Poussereau, Nathalie; Bruel, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are known to adapt to pH partly via specific activation of the Pal signaling pathway and subsequent gene regulation through the transcription factor PacC. The role of PacC in pathogenic fungi has been explored in few species, and each time its partaking in virulence has been found. We studied the impact of pH and the role of PacC in the biology of the rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Conidia formation and germination were affected by pH whereas fungal growth and appressorium formation were not. Growth in vitro and in planta was characterized by alkalinization and ammonia accumulation in the surrounding medium. Expression of the MoPACC gene increased when the fungus was placed under alkaline conditions. Except for MoPALF, expression of the MoPAL genes encoding the pH-signaling components was not influenced by pH. Deletion of PACC caused a progressive loss in growth rate from pH 5 to pH 8, a loss in conidia production at pH 8 in vitro, a loss in regulation of the MoPALF gene, a decreased production of secreted lytic enzymes and a partial loss in virulence towards barley and rice. PacC therefore plays a significant role in M. oryzae’s biology, and pH is revealed as one component at work during interaction between the fungus and its host plants. PMID:23874922

  7. Biodegradation of nitrobenzene in a lysogeny broth medium by a novel halophilic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Deng, Xinping; Wang, Jinjun; Chen, Yucheng; He, Lin; Sun, Yuchuan; Song, Caixia; Zhou, Zhifeng

    2014-12-15

    The Bacillus licheniformis strain YX2, a novel nitrobenzene-degrading halophilic bacterium, was isolated from active sludge obtained from a pesticide factory. Strain YX2 can withstand highly acidic and alkaline conditions and high temperatures. Degradation of nitrobenzene (200mgL(-1)) by YX2 exceeded 70% after 72h in lysogeny broth medium (pH 4-9). Under optimal degradation conditions (33°C, pH 7 in LB medium) YX2 degraded 50, 100, 200, and 600mgL(-1) nitrobenzene within 36, 36, 72, and 156h, respectively. Even in the presence of benzene, phenol or aniline, strain YX2 efficiently degraded nitrobenzene. Furthermore, strain YX2 completely degraded 600mgL(-1) nitrobenzene in 7% NaCl (w/w). Thus, our data show that strain YX2 may have promise for removing nitrobenzene from complex wastewaters with high salinity and variable pH.

  8. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1

    PubMed Central

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6–12, temperatures of 28–50 °C, and NaCl concentrations of 0–16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. PMID:26887220

  9. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1.

    PubMed

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6-12, temperatures of 28-50°C, and NaCl concentrations of 0-16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications.

  10. Bacterial treatment of alkaline cement kiln dust using Bacillus halodurans strain KG1.

    PubMed

    Kunal; Rajor, Anita; Siddique, Rafat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate an acid-producing, alkaliphilic bacterium to reduce the alkalinity of cement industry waste (cement kiln dust). Gram-positive isolate KG1 grew well at pH values of 6-12, temperatures of 28-50°C, and NaCl concentrations of 0-16% and thus was further screened for its potential to reduce the pH of an alkaline medium. Phenotypic characteristics of the KG1 isolate were consistent with those of the genus Bacillus, and the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497 (94.7%). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness from other phylogenetic neighbors belonging to alkaliphilic Bacillus species, the isolated strain was designated B. halodurans strain KG1, with GenBank accession number JQ307184 (= NCIM 5439). Isolate KG1 reduced the alkalinity (by 83.64%) and the chloride content (by 86.96%) of cement kiln dust and showed a potential to be used in the cement industry for a variety of applications. PMID:26887220

  11. Acid and Alkaline Invertases in Suspension Cultures of Sugar Beet Cells

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Toshimasa; Sugawara, Shiro

    1988-01-01

    Alkaline invertase was induced during the initiation of suspension cultures of single cells from leaf explants of sugar beets in Murashige-Skoog liquid medium which contained benzyladenine. This activity was barely detectable in the leaves themselves. In suspension cultures, the presence of both acid and alkaline invertases was detected; alkaline invertase was only present in the cytoplasm of the cultured cells, whereas acid invertase was present in the cytoplasm and cell walls, and was also detected in the culture medium. The cell wall contained at least three types of acid invertase; two of these activities were solubilized by saline (saline-released) and EDTA (EDTA-released), respectively, and the third remained tightly associated with the cell wall. Saline-released and EDTA-released invertases from the cell wall showed the significant differences in their properties: the saline-released enzyme had the highest affinity for sucrose among the invertases tested, and was easily bound to cell walls, to DNA, and to a cation exchanger, unlike the EDTA-released enzyme. Sucrose is the source of carbon for plant cells in suspension culture and is probably degraded in the cell wall by the saline-released invertase, which had the highest activity and the highest affinity for sucrose. Hexose products of this degradation would be transported to cytoplasm. Soluble invertase, EDTA-released invertase from the cell wall, and one of two extracellular invertases behaved similarly upon chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. They had similar activity profiles with changing pH, and similar Km values for sucrose. Thus it appears that they are identical. Two extracellular invertases found in the growth medium of the suspension cultures were probably identical with those in the soluble fraction of callus and seedlings of sugar beets, because they showed similar behaviors during chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, and had similar activity profiles with changing pH and Km values for sucrose. PMID

  12. Purification and characterization of neutral and alkaline invertase from carrot.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H S; Sturm, A

    1996-01-01

    Neutral and alkaline invertase were identified in cells of a suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Neutral invertase is an octamer with a molecular mass of 456 kD and subunits of 57 kD, whereas alkaline invertase is a tetramer with a molecular mass of 504 kD and subunits of 126 kD. Both enzymes had sharp pH profiles, with maximal activities at pH 6.8 for neutral invertase and pH 8.0 for alkaline invertase, and both hydrolyzed sucrose with typical hyperbolic kinetics and similar Km values of about 20 mM at pH 7.5. Neutral invertase also hydrolyzed raffinose and stachyose and, therefore, is a beta-fructofuranosidase. In contrast, alkaline invertase was highly specific for sucrose. Fructose acted as a competitive inhibitor of both enzymes, with Ki values of about 15 mM. Glucose was a noncompetitive inhibitor of both neutral and alkaline invertase, with a Ki of about 30 mM. Neither enzyme was inhibited by HgCl2. Alkaline invertase was markedly inhibited by CaCl2, MgCl2, and MnCl2, and neutral invertase was not. In contrast to alkaline invertase, neutral invertase was inhibited by the nucleotides ATP, CTP, GTP, and UTP. PMID:8972597

  13. In vitro colonization of the muscle extracellular matrix components by Escherichia coli O157:H7: the influence of growth medium, temperature and pH on initial adhesion and induction of biofilm formation by collagens I and III.

    PubMed

    Chagnot, Caroline; Agus, Allison; Renier, Sandra; Peyrin, Frédéric; Talon, Régine; Astruc, Thierry; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 are responsible for repeated food-poisoning cases often caused by contaminated burgers. EHEC infection is predominantly a pediatric illness, which can lead to life-threatening diseases. Ruminants are the main natural reservoir for EHEC and food contamination almost always originates from faecal contamination. In beef meat products, primary bacterial contamination occurs at the dehiding stage of slaughtering. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the most exposed part of the skeletal muscles in beef carcasses. Investigating the adhesion to the main muscle fibrous ECM proteins, insoluble fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV, laminin-α2 and elastin, results demonstrated that the preceding growth conditions had a great influence on subsequent bacterial attachment. In the tested experimental conditions, maximal adhesion to fibril-forming collagens I or III occurred at 25°C and pH 7. Once initially adhered, exposure to lower temperatures, as applied to meat during cutting and storage, or acidification, as in the course of post-mortem physiological modifications of muscle, had no effect on detachment, except at pHu. In addition, dense biofilm formation occurred on immobilized collagen I or III and was induced in growth medium supplemented with collagen I in solution. From this first comprehensive investigation of EHEC adhesion to ECM proteins with respect to muscle biology and meat processing, new research directions for the development of innovative practices to minimize the risk of meat contamination are further discussed. PMID:23516631

  14. In vitro colonization of the muscle extracellular matrix components by Escherichia coli O157:H7: the influence of growth medium, temperature and pH on initial adhesion and induction of biofilm formation by collagens I and III.

    PubMed

    Chagnot, Caroline; Agus, Allison; Renier, Sandra; Peyrin, Frédéric; Talon, Régine; Astruc, Thierry; Desvaux, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 are responsible for repeated food-poisoning cases often caused by contaminated burgers. EHEC infection is predominantly a pediatric illness, which can lead to life-threatening diseases. Ruminants are the main natural reservoir for EHEC and food contamination almost always originates from faecal contamination. In beef meat products, primary bacterial contamination occurs at the dehiding stage of slaughtering. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the most exposed part of the skeletal muscles in beef carcasses. Investigating the adhesion to the main muscle fibrous ECM proteins, insoluble fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV, laminin-α2 and elastin, results demonstrated that the preceding growth conditions had a great influence on subsequent bacterial attachment. In the tested experimental conditions, maximal adhesion to fibril-forming collagens I or III occurred at 25°C and pH 7. Once initially adhered, exposure to lower temperatures, as applied to meat during cutting and storage, or acidification, as in the course of post-mortem physiological modifications of muscle, had no effect on detachment, except at pHu. In addition, dense biofilm formation occurred on immobilized collagen I or III and was induced in growth medium supplemented with collagen I in solution. From this first comprehensive investigation of EHEC adhesion to ECM proteins with respect to muscle biology and meat processing, new research directions for the development of innovative practices to minimize the risk of meat contamination are further discussed.

  15. pH. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on the effect of pH on plant growth. Presented first are an attention step/problem statement and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about soil pH and its effect on plants. The following topics are among those discussed: acidity and alkalinity; the…

  16. Carbon regulation of environmental pH by secreted small molecules that modulate pathogenicity in phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Bi, Fangcheng; Barad, Shiri; Ment, Dana; Luria, Neta; Dubey, Amit; Casado, Virginia; Glam, Nofar; Mínguez, Jose Diaz; Espeso, Eduardo A; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2016-10-01

    Fruit pathogens can contribute to the acidification or alkalinization of the host environment. This capability has been used to divide fungal pathogens into acidifying and/or alkalinizing classes. Here, we show that diverse classes of fungal pathogens-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus nidulans and Fusarium oxysporum-secrete small pH-affecting molecules. These molecules modify the environmental pH, which dictates acidic or alkaline colonizing strategies, and induce the expression of PACC-dependent genes. We show that, in many organisms, acidification is induced under carbon excess, i.e. 175 mm sucrose (the most abundant sugar in fruits). In contrast, alkalinization occurs under conditions of carbon deprivation, i.e. less than 15 mm sucrose. The carbon source is metabolized by glucose oxidase (gox2) to gluconic acid, contributing to medium acidification, whereas catalysed deamination of non-preferred carbon sources, such as the amino acid glutamate, by glutamate dehydrogenase 2 (gdh2), results in the secretion of ammonia. Functional analyses of Δgdh2 mutants showed reduced alkalinization and pathogenicity during growth under carbon deprivation, but not in high-carbon medium or on fruit rich in sugar, whereas analysis of Δgox2 mutants showed reduced acidification and pathogencity under conditions of excess carbon. The induction pattern of gdh2 was negatively correlated with the expression of the zinc finger global carbon catabolite repressor creA. The present results indicate that differential pH modulation by fruit fungal pathogens is a host-dependent mechanism, affected by host sugar content, that modulates environmental pH to enhance fruit colonization. PMID:26666972

  17. Carbon regulation of environmental pH by secreted small molecules that modulate pathogenicity in phytopathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Bi, Fangcheng; Barad, Shiri; Ment, Dana; Luria, Neta; Dubey, Amit; Casado, Virginia; Glam, Nofar; Mínguez, Jose Diaz; Espeso, Eduardo A; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2016-10-01

    Fruit pathogens can contribute to the acidification or alkalinization of the host environment. This capability has been used to divide fungal pathogens into acidifying and/or alkalinizing classes. Here, we show that diverse classes of fungal pathogens-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus nidulans and Fusarium oxysporum-secrete small pH-affecting molecules. These molecules modify the environmental pH, which dictates acidic or alkaline colonizing strategies, and induce the expression of PACC-dependent genes. We show that, in many organisms, acidification is induced under carbon excess, i.e. 175 mm sucrose (the most abundant sugar in fruits). In contrast, alkalinization occurs under conditions of carbon deprivation, i.e. less than 15 mm sucrose. The carbon source is metabolized by glucose oxidase (gox2) to gluconic acid, contributing to medium acidification, whereas catalysed deamination of non-preferred carbon sources, such as the amino acid glutamate, by glutamate dehydrogenase 2 (gdh2), results in the secretion of ammonia. Functional analyses of Δgdh2 mutants showed reduced alkalinization and pathogenicity during growth under carbon deprivation, but not in high-carbon medium or on fruit rich in sugar, whereas analysis of Δgox2 mutants showed reduced acidification and pathogencity under conditions of excess carbon. The induction pattern of gdh2 was negatively correlated with the expression of the zinc finger global carbon catabolite repressor creA. The present results indicate that differential pH modulation by fruit fungal pathogens is a host-dependent mechanism, affected by host sugar content, that modulates environmental pH to enhance fruit colonization.

  18. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  19. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  20. Kinetic Release of Alkalinity from Particle-Containing Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, K.; Chapra, S. C.; Ramsburg, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oil-in-water emulsions are typically employed during remediation to promote biotic reduction of contaminants. Emulsions, however, hold promise for encapsulated delivery of many types of active ingredients required for successful site remediation or long-term site stewardship. Our research is currently focused on using alkalinity-containing particles held within oil-in-water emulsions to sustain control of subsurface pH. Here we describe results from laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling conducted to quantify the kinetics associated with the emulsion delivery and alkalinity release process. Kinetically stable oil-in-water emulsions containing (~60 nmCaCO3 or ~100 nm MgO particles) were previously developed using soybean oil and Gum Arabic as a stabilizing agent. Batch and column experiments were employed to assess the accessibility and release of the alkalinity from the emulsion. Successive additions of HCl were used in batch systems to produce several pH responses (pH rebounds) that were subsequently modeled to elucidate release mechanisms and rates for varying emulsion compositions and particle types. Initial results suggest that a linear-driving-force model is generally able to capture the release behavior in the batch system when the temporally-constant, lumped mass-transfer coefficient is scaled by the fraction of particle mass remaining within the droplets. This result suggests that the rate limiting step in the release process may be the interphase transfer of reactive species at the oil-water interface. 1-d column experiments were also completed in order to quantify the extent and rate of alkalinity release from emulsion droplets retained in a sandy medium. Alkalinity release from the retained droplets treated a pH 4 influent water for 25-60 pore volumes (the duration depended on particle type and mass loading), and the cessation in treatment corresponded to exhaustion of the particle mass held within the oil. Column experiments were simulated

  1. Alkaline inulinase production by a newly isolated bacterium Marinimicrobium sp. LS-A18 and inulin hydrolysis by the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Xia; Guo, Li-Zhong; Lu, Wei-Dong

    2012-01-01

    To date, all of microbial inulinases reported showed optimal activity at pH values ranging from 3.5 to 7.0. A bacterial strain, Marinimicrobium sp. LS-A18, showing high extracellular inulinolytic activity was isolated from a marine solar saltern of the Yellow Sea in China. Maximum enzyme activity was obtained at 55°C and pH 9.0, respectively. The inulinase activity was induced by inulin, but not by the other carbon sources employed. Under the optimal medium and culture condition, the highest inulinase activity, 14.6 U/ml, was obtained after 96 h of incubation at shake flask level. The optimal medium for inulinase production was MHI medium containing 4% inulin, 1% peptone and 5% NaCl, while the optimal culture condition for inulinase production were pH 7.5, temperature 37°C, agitation speed 210 rpm, medium volume 40 ml in 250 ml shake flask, and incubation time 96 h. A large amount of monosaccharides was released after inulin hydrolysis by the inulinase from strain LS-A18. This is the first report on alkaline inulinase production from microorganism.

  2. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  3. The constitutive production of pectinase by the CT1 mutant of Penicillium occitainis is modulated by pH.

    PubMed

    Romdhane, Zamen Ben; Tounsi, Hajer; Hadj-Sassi, Azza; Hadj-Taieb, Noomen; Gargouri, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate pectinases production by CT1 mutant of Penicillium occitanis on glucose based media. Two main groups of pectinases were followed: lyases (pectin and pectate lyases) and hydrolases (polygalacturonases and polymethylgalacturonases). When cultivated in different liquid media, where either the starting glucose concentration or the nature of nitrogen sources used was varied, the CT1 mutant secreted either lyases or hydrolases. In fact, the pH of these various media seemed to correlate with the activity produced: The lyases were highly and exclusively produced at neutral or alkaline ambient pH, whereas hydrolases were highly produced on acidic ambient pH. Such conclusion was confirmed by following pectinase production in the same culture medium (with the same glucose concentration and the same nitrogen source) set at two initial pH of 4 and 7. Altogether, these results suggest that the pectinases control by PacC signaling pathway of P. occitanis should resemble to that of Aspergillus and its ability to "activate the expression of alkaline-expressed genes and repress acid-expressed genes" remains intact in the CT1 over-producing and constitutive strain. Enzymes produced at acidic pH (hydrolases) and at neutral pH (lyases) were applied in the hydrolysis of orange peel and gave results comparable to commercial enzymes.

  4. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes.

    PubMed

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations.

  5. Eukaryotic diversity at pH extremes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    Extremely acidic (pH < 3) and extremely alkaline (pH > 9) environments support a diversity of single-cell and to a lesser extent, multicellular eukaryotic life. This study compared alpha and beta diversity in eukaryotic communities from seven diverse aquatic environments with pH values ranging from 2 to 11 using massively-parallel pyrotag sequencing targeting the V9 hypervariable region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. A total of 946 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were recovered at a 6% cut-off level (94% similarity) across the sampled environments. Hierarchical clustering of the samples segregated the communities into acidic and alkaline groups. Similarity percentage (SIMPER) analysis followed by indicator OTU analysis (IOA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were used to determine which characteristic groups of eukaryotic taxa typify acidic or alkaline extremes and the extent to which pH explains eukaryotic community structure in these environments. Spain's Rio Tinto yielded the fewest observed OTUs while Nebraska Sandhills alkaline lakes yielded the most. Distinct OTUs, including metazoan OTUs, numerically dominated pH extreme sites. Indicator OTUs included the diatom Pinnularia and unidentified opisthokonts (Fungi and Filasterea) in the extremely acidic environments, and the ciliate Frontonia across the extremely alkaline sites. Inferred from NMDS, pH explained only a modest fraction of the variation across the datasets, indicating that other factors influence the underlying community structure in these environments. The findings from this study suggest that the ability for eukaryotes to adapt to pH extremes over a broad range of values may be rare, but further study of taxa that can broadly adapt across diverse acidic and alkaline environments, respectively present good models for understanding adaptation and should be targeted for future investigations. PMID:23335919

  6. Impact of pH and cationic supplementation on in vitro postantibiotic effect.

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsson, A; Erlendsdottir, H; Gottfredsson, M; Gudmundsson, S

    1991-01-01

    Most studies on pharmacodynamic variables in vitro, including the postantibiotic effect (PAE), are performed at pH 7.4 in noncationic-supplemented media, a situation which may differ significantly from the true microenvironment in most infected foci. We studied the impact of five different pH levels (pH 5, 6, 7, 7.4, and 8) on the duration of the PAE, the MIC, and bactericidal activity. Acid pH was found to have in general a deleterious effect on the activity of aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with the MIC being higher, the bactericidal rate being lower, and the PAE being shorter at pH 5 (and to a lesser extent at pH 6) than at more alkaline pH levels. Similar results were observed for imipenem against P. aeruginosa. The PAEs induced by ampicillin against E. coli and dicloxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus were not predictably dependent on the pH, whereas the PAEs induced by ciprofloxacin against S. aureus were longest at either end of the pH spectrum. The bactericidal activity of these agents was, however, pH dependent, being slower at acid pHs. The addition of 50 mg of Ca2+ and 20 mg of Mg2+ per liter of liquid medium at pH 7.4 did not affect the duration of the PAE. Since the pH in abscess cavities may be close to 5, these observations may be of importance for employment of the agents studied in closed or poorly drained infections. PMID:1810197

  7. Alkaline biofiltration of H2S odors.

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Armando; Revah, Sergio; Deshusses, Marc A

    2008-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a very common odor nuisance which is best controlled by chemical or biological scrubbing. Under alkaline pH, the amount of H2S that can be solubilized in a scrubbing liquid increases significantly, and therefore, gas-liquid mass transfer limitations can be reduced. To date, biological scrubbing of H2S has been limited to neutral or acidic pH, despite the potential benefit of reduced mass transfer limitations at alkaline pH. In the present paper, an alkaliphilic sulfoxidizing bacterial consortium was deployed in a laboratory-scale biotrickling filter treating H2S at pH 10. The gas contact time ranged from 1 to 6 s, and H2S inlet concentrations, from 2.5 to 18 ppm(v). The results showed that under most conditions, H2S removal exceeded 98% and the degradation end-product was sulfate. At the highest H2S concentrations and shortest gas contacttimes, when the loading exceeded 30 g m(-3) h(-1), the H2S removal efficiency decreased significantly due to biological reaction limitation, and incompletely oxidized sulfides were measured in the trickling liquid. An analysis of the process demonstrated that operating the biotrickling filter at high pH results in an enhancement of the mass transfer by a factor of 1700-11 000. Overall, alkaline biotrickling filtration was shown to be very effective at low concentration of H2S and very short gas contact time. This is the first demonstration of a biotrickling filter for air pollution control operated at high pH.

  8. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  9. pH Optrode Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Zhou, Quan

    1995-01-01

    pH-sensitive chromophoric reagents immobilized in porous optical fibers. Optoelectronic instrumentation system measures acidity or alkalinity of aqueous nutrient solution. Includes one or more optrodes, which are optical-fiber chemical sensors, in sense, analogous to electrodes but not subject to some of spurious effects distorting readings taken by pH electrodes. Concept of optrodes also described in "Ethylene-Vapor Optrodes" (KSC-11579). pH optrode sensor head, with lead-in and lead-out optical fibers, convenient for monitoring solutions located away from supporting electronic equipment.

  10. Sensitivity of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to pH and heat treatment in the presence or absence of porcine plasma.

    PubMed

    Quist-Rybachuk, G V; Nauwynck, H J; Kalmar, I D

    2015-12-31

    Emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) resulted in massive neonatal mortality in the North-American and Asian pork industry. Measures to prevent its geographical spread are of utmost importance to safeguard susceptible porcine populations. The major infection route is direct or indirect faecal-oral contact. Adequate biosafety measures should be in place at all levels of the swine production chain, including feed and feed ingredients. Present study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of PEDV to thermal inactivation at neutral and alkaline pH in presence or absence of porcine plasma. Cell culture medium and porcine plasma at different pH (7.2, 9.2, 10.2) and temperature conditions (4 °C, 40 °C, 44 °C, 48 °C) were inoculated to a final titer of 5.5 log10 TCID50 PEDV/ml, incubated for up to 120 min and the residual infectivity was determined by endpoint dilution assay. Irrespective of presence of plasma, PEDV was not sensitive to pH 7.2-10.2 at 4 °C. At moderate temperatures (≥40 °C), both alkaline pH and presence of plasma potentiated thermal inactivation. Inactivation of 8 log10 TCID50/ml plasma within 30 min (8D value<30 min) by moderate pH and temperature would denote potential industrial processing conditions that ensure safety towards PEDV while limiting denaturation of bioactive components. Virus-spiked plasma required heat treatment of 40 °C and alkalinization to pH 9.2 to achieve 8 log10 reduction within such time. At pH 10.2 and 48 °C, the 8D value was 4.6 min in plasma and 15.2 min in MEM. Here we propose heat-alkalinity-time (HAT) pasteurization as a highly efficient method to inactivate PEDV during industrial processing of porcine plasma.

  11. Alkaline phosphatase (tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme) is a phosphoethanolamine and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate ectophosphatase: normal and hypophosphatasia fibroblast study.

    PubMed Central

    Fedde, K N; Whyte, M P

    1990-01-01

    To clarify its physiologic role, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was examined in normal skin fibroblasts and was shown to be the tissue-nonspecific (TNS) isoenzyme type (as evidenced by heat and inhibition profiles) and to be active toward millimolar concentrations of the putative natural substrates phosphoethanolamine (PEA) and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP). Fibroblast ALP has a low-affinity activity, with a distinctly alkaline pH optimum (9.3), toward 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP), PEA, and PLP but a more physiologic pH optimum (8.3) toward physiologic concentrations (micromolar) of PEA and PLP. Normal fibroblast ALP is linked to the outside of the plasma membrane, since in intact cell monolayers (1) dephosphorylation rates of the membrane-impermeable substrates PEA and PLP in the medium at physiologic pH were similar to those observed with disrupted cell monolayers, (2) brief exposure to acidic medium resulted in greater than 90% inactivation of the total ALP activity, and (3) digestion with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released about 80% of the ALP activity. Hypophosphatasia fibroblasts were markedly deficient (2%-5% control values) in alkaline and physiologic ALP activity when 4-MUP, PLP, and PEA were used as substrate. The majority of the detectable ALP activity, however, appeared to be properly lipid anchored in ecto-orientation. Thus, our findings of genetic deficiency of PEA- and PLP-phosphatase activity in hypophosphatasia fibroblasts, as well as our biochemical findings, indicate that TNS-ALP acts physiologically as a lipid-anchored PEA and PLP ectophosphatase. PMID:2220817

  12. Salt- and alkaline-tolerance are linked in Acacia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Elisabeth N; Thornhill, Andrew; Miller, Joseph T

    2014-07-01

    Saline or alkaline soils present a strong stress on plants that together may be even more deleterious than alone. Australia's soils are old and contain large, sometimes overlapping, areas of high salt and alkalinity. Acacia and other Australian plant lineages have evolved in this stressful soil environment and present an opportunity to understand the evolution of salt and alkalinity tolerance. We investigate this evolution by predicting the average soil salinity and pH for 503 Acacia species and mapping the response onto a maximum-likelihood phylogeny. We find that salinity and alkalinity tolerance have evolved repeatedly and often together over 25 Ma of the Acacia radiation in Australia. Geographically restricted species are often tolerant of extreme conditions. Distantly related species are sympatric in the most extreme soil environments, suggesting lack of niche saturation. There is strong evidence that many Acacia have distributions affected by salinity and alkalinity and that preference is lineage specific.

  13. A pH dependent Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of citrazinic acid aided by theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sougata; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Dutta, Soumen; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-12-01

    A pH dependent normal Raman scattering (NRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral patterns of citrazinic acid (CZA), a biologically important molecule, have been investigated. The acid, with different pKa values (~ 4 and ~ 11) for the two different functional groups (-COOH and -OH groups), shows interesting range of color changes (yellow at pH ~ 14 and brown at pH ~ 2) with the variation in solution pH. Thus, depending upon the pH of the medium, CZA molecule can exist in various protonated and/or deprotonated forms. Here we have prescribed the existence different possible forms of CZA at different pH (Forms "C", "H" and "Dprot" at pH ~ 14 and Forms "A", "D", and "P" at pH ~ 2 respectively). The NRS spectra of these solutions and their respective SERS spectra over gold nanoparticles were recorded. The spectra clearly differ in their spectral profiles. For example the SERS spectra recorded with the CZA solution at pH ~ 2 shows blue shift for different bands compared to its NRS window e.g. 406 to 450 cm- 1, 616 to 632 cm- 1, 1332 to 1343 cm- 1 etc. Again, the most enhanced peak at ~ 1548 cm- 1 in NRS while in the SERS window this appears at ~ 1580 cm- 1. Similar observation was also made for CZA at pH ~ 14. For example, the 423 cm- 1 band in the NRS profile experience a blue shift and appears at ~ 447 cm- 1 in the SERS spectrum as well as other bands at ~ 850, ~ 1067 and ~ 1214 cm- 1 in the SERS window are markedly enhanced. It is also worth noting that the SERS spectra at the different pH also differ from each other. These spectral differences indicate the existence of various adsorptive forms of the CZA molecule depending upon the pH of the solution. Therefore based on the experimental findings we propose different possible molecular forms of CZA at different pH (acidic and alkaline) conditions. For example forms 'A', 'D' and 'P' existing in acidic pH (pH ~ 2) and three other deprotonated forms 'C', 'H' and 'Dprot' in alkaline pH (pH ~ 14). The DFT

  14. A pH dependent Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of citrazinic acid aided by theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sougata; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Dutta, Soumen; Pal, Tarasankar

    2016-12-01

    A pH dependent normal Raman scattering (NRS) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectral patterns of citrazinic acid (CZA), a biologically important molecule, have been investigated. The acid, with different pKa values (~4 and ~11) for the two different functional groups (-COOH and -OH groups), shows interesting range of color changes (yellow at pH~14 and brown at pH~2) with the variation in solution pH. Thus, depending upon the pH of the medium, CZA molecule can exist in various protonated and/or deprotonated forms. Here we have prescribed the existence different possible forms of CZA at different pH (Forms "C", "H" and "Dprot" at pH~14 and Forms "A", "D", and "P" at pH~2 respectively). The NRS spectra of these solutions and their respective SERS spectra over gold nanoparticles were recorded. The spectra clearly differ in their spectral profiles. For example the SERS spectra recorded with the CZA solution at pH~2 shows blue shift for different bands compared to its NRS window e.g. 406 to 450cm(-1), 616 to 632cm(-1), 1332 to 1343cm(-1) etc. Again, the most enhanced peak at ~1548cm(-1) in NRS while in the SERS window this appears at ~1580cm(-1). Similar observation was also made for CZA at pH~14. For example, the 423cm(-1) band in the NRS profile experience a blue shift and appears at ~447cm(-1) in the SERS spectrum as well as other bands at ~850, ~1067 and ~1214cm(-1) in the SERS window are markedly enhanced. It is also worth noting that the SERS spectra at the different pH also differ from each other. These spectral differences indicate the existence of various adsorptive forms of the CZA molecule depending upon the pH of the solution. Therefore based on the experimental findings we propose different possible molecular forms of CZA at different pH (acidic and alkaline) conditions. For example forms 'A', 'D' and 'P' existing in acidic pH (pH~2) and three other deprotonated forms 'C', 'H' and 'Dprot' in alkaline pH (pH~14). The DFT calculations for these

  15. Engineering of a glycosidase Family 7 cellobiohydrolase to more alkaline pH optimum: the pH behaviour of Trichoderma reesei Cel7A and its E223S/ A224H/L225V/T226A/D262G mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, D; Braet, C; Brumer , H; Claeyssens, M; Divne, C; Fagerström, B R; Harris, M; Jones, T A; Kleywegt, G J; Koivula, A; Mahdi, S; Piens, K; Sinnott, M L; Ståhlberg, J; Teeri, T T; Underwood, M; Wohlfahrt, G

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structures of Family 7 glycohydrolases suggest that a histidine residue near the acid/base catalyst could account for the higher pH optimum of the Humicola insolens endoglucanase Cel7B, than the corresponding Trichoderma reesei enzymes. Modelling studies indicated that introduction of histidine at the homologous position in T. reesei Cel7A (Ala(224)) required additional changes to accommodate the bulkier histidine side chain. X-ray crystallography of the catalytic domain of the E223S/A224H/L225V/T226A/D262G mutant reveals that major differences from the wild-type are confined to the mutations themselves. The introduced histidine residue is in plane with its counterpart in H. insolens Cel7B, but is 1.0 A (=0.1 nm) closer to the acid/base Glu(217) residue, with a 3.1 A contact between N(epsilon2) and O(epsilon1). The pH variation of k(cat)/K(m) for 3,4-dinitrophenyl lactoside hydrolysis was accurately bell-shaped for both wild-type and mutant, with pK(1) shifting from 2.22+/-0.03 in the wild-type to 3.19+/-0.03 in the mutant, and pK(2) shifting from 5.99+/-0.02 to 6.78+/-0.02. With this poor substrate, the ionizations probably represent those of the free enzyme. The relative k(cat) for 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl lactoside showed similar behaviour. The shift in the mutant pH optimum was associated with lower k(cat)/K(m) values for both lactosides and cellobiosides, and a marginally lower stability. However, k(cat) values for cellobiosides are higher for the mutant. This we attribute to reduced non-productive binding in the +1 and +2 subsites; inhibition by cellobiose is certainly relieved in the mutant. The weaker binding of cellobiose is due to the loss of two water-mediated hydrogen bonds. PMID:11336632

  16. Chemical composition profiles during alkaline flooding at different temperatures and extended residence times

    SciTech Connect

    Aflaki, R.; Handy, L.L.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate whether or not caustic sweeps the major portion of the reservoir efficiently during an alkaline flood process. It was also the objective of this work to study the state of final equilibrium during a caustic flood through determination of the pH and chemical composition profiles along the porous medium. For this purpose, a long porous medium which provided extended residence times was required. It was necessary to set up the porous medium such that the changes in the pH and chemical composition of the solution could be monitored. Four Berea sandstone cores (8 in. length and1 in. diameter) placed in series provided the desired length and the opportunity for sampling in-between cores. This enabled establishment of pH and chemical composition profiles. The experiments were run at, temperatures up.to 180{degrees}C, and the flow rates varied from 4.8 to 0.2 ft/day. The samples were analyzed for pH and for Si and Al concentrations.The results show that caustic consumption is insignificant for temperatures up to 100{degrees}C. Above 100{degrees}C consumption increases and is accompanied by a significant decrease in pH. The sharp decline in pH also coincides with a sharp decline in concentration of silica in solution. The results also show that alumina is removed from the solution and solubility of alumina ultimately reaches zero. Sharp silica and pH declines take place even in the absence of any alumina in solution. As a result, removal of silica from solution is attributed to the irreversible caustic/rock interaction. This interaction is in the form of chemisorption reactions in which silica is adsorbed onto the rock surface consuming hydroxyl ion. Once these reactions were satisfied, caustic breakthrough occurs at a high pH. However, significant pore volumes of caustic must be injected for completion of the chemisorption.

  17. Chemical composition profiles during alkaline flooding at different temperatures and extended residence times

    SciTech Connect

    Aflaki, R.; Handy, L.L.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate whether or not caustic sweeps the major portion of the reservoir efficiently during an alkaline flood process. It was also the objective of this work to study the state of final equilibrium during a caustic flood through determination of the pH and chemical composition profiles along the porous medium. For this purpose, a long porous medium which provided extended residence times was required. It was necessary to set up the porous medium such that the changes in the pH and chemical composition of the solution could be monitored. Four Berea sandstone cores (8 in. length and1 in. diameter) placed in series provided the desired length and the opportunity for sampling in-between cores. This enabled establishment of pH and chemical composition profiles. The experiments were run at, temperatures up.to 180[degrees]C, and the flow rates varied from 4.8 to 0.2 ft/day. The samples were analyzed for pH and for Si and Al concentrations.The results show that caustic consumption is insignificant for temperatures up to 100[degrees]C. Above 100[degrees]C consumption increases and is accompanied by a significant decrease in pH. The sharp decline in pH also coincides with a sharp decline in concentration of silica in solution. The results also show that alumina is removed from the solution and solubility of alumina ultimately reaches zero. Sharp silica and pH declines take place even in the absence of any alumina in solution. As a result, removal of silica from solution is attributed to the irreversible caustic/rock interaction. This interaction is in the form of chemisorption reactions in which silica is adsorbed onto the rock surface consuming hydroxyl ion. Once these reactions were satisfied, caustic breakthrough occurs at a high pH. However, significant pore volumes of caustic must be injected for completion of the chemisorption.

  18. Reduction of nitrobenzene with alkaline ascorbic acid: Kinetics and pathways.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chenju; Lin, Ya-Ting; Shiu, Jia-Wei

    2016-01-25

    Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) exhibits the potential to reductively degrade nitrobenzene (NB), which is the simplest of the nitroaromatic compounds. The nitro group (NO2(-)) of NB has a +III oxidation state of the N atom and tends to gain electrons. The effect of alkaline pH ranging from 9 to 13 was initially assessed and the results demonstrated that the solution pH, when approaching or above the pKa2 of AA (11.79), would increase reductive electron transfer to NB. The rate equation for the reactions between NB and AA at pH 12 can be described as r=((0.89±0.11)×10(-4) mM(1-(a+b))h(-1))×[NB](a=1.35±0.10)[AA](b=0.89±0.01). The GC/MS analytical method identified nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene, and azobenzene as NB reduction intermediates, and aniline (AN) as a final product. These experimental results indicate that the alkaline AA reduction of NB to AN mainly proceeds via the direct route, consisting of a series of two-electron or four-electron transfers, and the condensation reaction plays a minor route. Preliminary evaluation of the remediation of spiked NB contaminated soils revealed that maintenance of alkaline pH and a higher water to soil ratio are essential for a successful alkaline AA application.

  19. ALKALINITY, PH, AND COPPER CORROSION BY-PRODUCT RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contrary to expectations, higher bicarbonate concentrations exacerbate copper corrosion rates and by-product release. In fact, as illustrated by monitoring experiences of large utilities and by laboratory data, the concentration of copper corrosion by-products in drinking water i...

  20. pH profiles in human skin: influence of two in vitro test systems for drug delivery testing.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heike; Kostka, Karl Heinz; Lehr, Claus Michael; Schaefer, Ulrich F

    2003-01-01

    Investigations to determine pH profiles across human stratum corneum (SC), in vivo as well as in vitro, were carried out using the tape stripping technique and a flat surface pH electrode. This method was extended to the deeper skin layers (=viable epidermis+dermis; DSL) in vitro. Statistically significant changes in the pH values were detected in the SC between in vivo and in vitro investigations and also between male and female skin in vivo. For the DSL, no gender-dependent differences in pH were observed. While the results achieved for the SC are in accordance with data already published in the literature, the values for the DSL were surprising: An alkaline pH, with a steep increase of about two pH units in the first 100 microm of the DSL and a plateau of this level was thereafter detected. Research was also done to examine the influence of different in vitro test systems on the results of pH measurements across the skin. A permeation model (Franz diffusion cell; FD-C) and a penetration model (Saarbruecken penetration model; SB-M) were compared. Experiments were carried out concerning the incubation time as well as the pH of the acceptor solution in the FD-C. Independent of the test system used, no change in the pH profiles could be observed for the SC, but a strong effect of the acceptor medium and its pH on the pH profiles across the DSL could be demonstrated using the FD-C, which showed itself partly after 30 min in statistically significant differences between incubated and formerly frozen skin. The results after the use of buffer solutions with different pH values, the pH across the DSL seemed to come into line with the one of the buffer solution, which was investigated for acidic as well as alkaline pH values. The results obtained with the flat surface pH electrode were confirmed using two different dyes: the pH-dependent fluorescent dye carboxy-SNARF-1 and the pH indicator bromthymolblue.

  1. pH profiles in human skin: influence of two in vitro test systems for drug delivery testing.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heike; Kostka, Karl Heinz; Lehr, Claus Michael; Schaefer, Ulrich F

    2003-01-01

    Investigations to determine pH profiles across human stratum corneum (SC), in vivo as well as in vitro, were carried out using the tape stripping technique and a flat surface pH electrode. This method was extended to the deeper skin layers (=viable epidermis+dermis; DSL) in vitro. Statistically significant changes in the pH values were detected in the SC between in vivo and in vitro investigations and also between male and female skin in vivo. For the DSL, no gender-dependent differences in pH were observed. While the results achieved for the SC are in accordance with data already published in the literature, the values for the DSL were surprising: An alkaline pH, with a steep increase of about two pH units in the first 100 microm of the DSL and a plateau of this level was thereafter detected. Research was also done to examine the influence of different in vitro test systems on the results of pH measurements across the skin. A permeation model (Franz diffusion cell; FD-C) and a penetration model (Saarbruecken penetration model; SB-M) were compared. Experiments were carried out concerning the incubation time as well as the pH of the acceptor solution in the FD-C. Independent of the test system used, no change in the pH profiles could be observed for the SC, but a strong effect of the acceptor medium and its pH on the pH profiles across the DSL could be demonstrated using the FD-C, which showed itself partly after 30 min in statistically significant differences between incubated and formerly frozen skin. The results after the use of buffer solutions with different pH values, the pH across the DSL seemed to come into line with the one of the buffer solution, which was investigated for acidic as well as alkaline pH values. The results obtained with the flat surface pH electrode were confirmed using two different dyes: the pH-dependent fluorescent dye carboxy-SNARF-1 and the pH indicator bromthymolblue. PMID:12551704

  2. High performance nano-Ni/Graphite electrode for electro-oxidation in direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Ahmed B.; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S.; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2016-09-01

    Ni/Graphite electrocatalysts (Ni/G) are successfully prepared through electrodeposition of Ni from acidic (pH = 0.8) and feebly acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous Ni (II) baths. The efficiencies of such electrodes are investigated as anodes for direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells through their ethanol electrooxidation cyclic voltammetric (CV) response in alkaline medium. A direct proportionality between the amount of the electrodeposited Ni and its CV response is found. The amounts of the deposited Ni from the two baths are recorded using the Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (eQCM). The Ni/G electrodes prepared from the feebly acidic bath show a higher electrocatalytic response than those prepared from the acidic bath. Surface morphology of the Ni particles electrodeposited from feebly acidic bath appears in a nano-scale dimension. Various electrochemical experiments are conducted to confirm that the Ni/G ethanol electrooxidation CV response greatly depends on the pH rather than nickel ion concentration of the deposition bath. The eQCM technique is used to detect the crystalline phases of nickel as α-Ni(OH)2/γ-NiOOH and β-Ni(OH)2/β-NiOOH and their in-situ inter-transformations during the potentiodynamic polarization.

  3. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  4. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  5. Purification and properties of an alkaline proteinase of Fusarium culmorum.

    PubMed

    Pekkarinen, Anja I; Jones, Berne L; Niku-Paavola, Marja-Leena

    2002-02-01

    The disease Fusarium head blight (scab) causes severe problems for farmers and for the industries that use cereals. It is likely that the fungi that cause scab (Fusarium spp.) use various enzymes when they invade grains. We are studying enzymes that the fungi may use to hydrolyze grain proteins. To do this, Fusarium culmorum was grown in a gluten-containing medium from which an alkaline serine proteinase with a molecular mass of 28.7 kDa was purified by size-exclusion and cation exchange chromatographies. The enzyme was maximally active at pH 8.3-9.6 and 50 degrees C, but was unstable under these conditions. It hydrolyzed the synthetic substrates N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide and, to a lesser extent, N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu p-nitroanilide. It was inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and chymostatin, but not by soybean trypsin or Bowman-Birk inhibitors. Parts of the amino-acid sequence were up to 82% homologous with those of several fungal subtilisins. One of the active site amino acids was detected and it occupied the same relative position as in the other subtilisins. Therefore, on the basis of these characteristics, the proteinase is subtilisin-like. Purification of the enzyme was complicated by the fact that, when purified, it apparently underwent autolysis. The presence of extraneous protein stabilized the activity.

  6. A fungal pathogen secretes plant alkalinizing peptides to increase infection.

    PubMed

    Masachis, Sara; Segorbe, David; Turrà, David; Leon-Ruiz, Mercedes; Fürst, Ursula; El Ghalid, Mennat; Leonard, Guy; López-Berges, Manuel S; Richards, Thomas A; Felix, Georg; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Plant infections caused by fungi are often associated with an increase in the pH of the surrounding host tissue(1). Extracellular alkalinization is thought to contribute to fungal pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the root-infecting fungus Fusarium oxysporum uses a functional homologue of the plant regulatory peptide RALF (rapid alkalinization factor)(2,3) to induce alkalinization and cause disease in plants. An upshift in extracellular pH promotes infectious growth of Fusarium by stimulating phosphorylation of a conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase essential for pathogenicity(4,5). Fungal mutants lacking a functional Fusarium (F)-RALF peptide failed to induce host alkalinization and showed markedly reduced virulence in tomato plants, while eliciting a strong host immune response. Arabidopsis plants lacking the receptor-like kinase FERONIA, which mediates the RALF-triggered alkalinization response(6), displayed enhanced resistance against Fusarium. RALF homologues are found across a number of phylogenetically distant groups of fungi, many of which infect plants. We propose that fungal pathogens use functional homologues of alkalinizing peptides found in their host plants to increase their infectious potential and suppress host immunity. PMID:27572834

  7. The pH in the microenvironment of human mesenchymal stem cells is a critical factor for optimal osteogenesis in tissue-engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Monfoulet, Laurent-Emmanuel; Becquart, Pierre; Marchat, David; Vandamme, Katleen; Bourguignon, Marianne; Pacard, Elodie; Viateau, Véronique; Petite, Herve; Logeart-Avramoglou, Delphine

    2014-07-01

    The present study aimed at elucidating the effect of local pH in the extracellular microenvironment of tissue-engineered (TE) constructs on bone cell functions pertinent to new tissue formation. To this aim, we evaluated the osteogenicity process associated with bone constructs prepared from human Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) combined with 45S5 bioactive glass (BG), a material that induces alkalinization of the external medium. The pH measured in cell-containing BG constructs was around 8.0, that is, 0.5 U more alkaline than that in two other cell-containing materials (hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate [HA/TCP] and coral) constructs tested. When implanted ectopically in mice, there was no de novo bone tissue in the BG cell-containing constructs, in contrast to results obtained with either HA/TCP or coral ceramics, which consistently promoted the formation of ectopic bone. In addition, the implanted 50:50 composites of both HA/TCP:BG and coral:BG constructs, which displayed a pH of around 7.8, promoted 20-30-fold less amount of bone tissue. Interestingly, hBMSC viability in BG constructs was not affected compared with the other two types of material constructs tested both in vitro and in vivo. Osteogenic differentiation (specifically, the alkaline phosphatase [ALP] activity and gene expression of RUNX2, ALP, and BSP) was not affected when hBMSC were maintained in moderate alkaline pH (≤7.90) external milieu in vitro, but was dramatically inhibited at higher pH values. The formation of mineralized nodules in the extracellular matrix of hBMSC was fully inhibited at alkaline (>7.54) pH values. Most importantly, there is a pH range (specifically, 7.9-8.27) at which hBMSC proliferation was not affected, but the osteogenic differentiation of these cells was inhibited. Altogether, these findings provided evidence that excessive alkalinization in the microenvironment of TE constructs (resulting, for example, from material degradation) affects

  8. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  9. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy.

  10. Reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride using buffered alkaline ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Ting; Liang, Chenju

    2015-10-01

    Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) was recently discovered as a novel in-situ chemical reduction (ISCR) reagent for remediating chlorinated solvents in the subsurface. For this ISCR process, the maintenance of an alkaline pH is essential. This study investigated the possibility of the reduction of carbon tetrachloride (CT) using alkaline AA solution buffered by phosphate and by NaOH. The results indicated that CT was reduced by AA, and chloroform (CF) was a major byproduct at a phosphate buffered pH of 12. However, CT was completely reduced by AA in 2M NaOH without CF formation. In the presence of iron/soil minerals, iron could be reduced by AA and Fe(2+) tends to precipitate on the mineral surface to accelerate CT degradation. A simultaneous transfer of hydrogenolysis and dichloroelimination would occur under phosphate buffered pH 12. This implies that a high alkaline environment is a crucial factor for maintaining the dominant pathway of two electron transfer from dianionic AA to dehydroascorbic acid, and to undergo dichloroelimination of CT. Moreover, threonic acid and oxalic acid were identified to be the major AA decomposition products in alkaline solutions.

  11. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Quarterly report, October 1--December 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested. The problem of characterizing emulsions in porous media is very important in enhanced oil recovery applications. This is usually accomplished by externally added or insitu generated surfactants that sweep the oil out of the reservoir. Emulsification of the trapped oil is one of the mechanisms of recovery. The ability to detect emulsions in the porous medium is therefore crucial to designing profitable flood systems. The capability of microwave dielectric techniques to detect emulsions in porous medium is demonstrated by mathematical modelling and by experiments. This quarter the dielectric properties of porous media are shown to be predicted adequately by treating it an an O/W type dispersion of sand grains in water. Dielectric measurements of emulsion flow in porous media show that dielectric techniques may be applied to determine emulsion characteristics in porous media. The experimental observations were confirmed by theoretical analysis.

  12. Titanium corrosion in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Been, Jantje

    1998-12-01

    The corrosion of Grade 2 titanium in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments has been studied by weight loss corrosion tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and potentiodynamic polarography. Calcium ions and wood pulp were investigated as corrosion inhibitors. In alkaline peroxide, the titanium corrosion rate increased with increasing pH, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The corrosion controlling mechanism is thought to be the reaction of the oxide with the perhydroxyl ion. No evidence of thermodynamically stable calcium titanate was found in the surface film of test coupons exposed to calcium-inhibited alkaline peroxide solutions. Calcium inhibition is probably the result of low local alkali and peroxide concentrations at the metal surface produced by reaction of adsorbed calcium with hydrogen peroxide. It has been shown that the inhibiting effect of calcium is temporary, possibly through an effect of calcium on the chemical and/or physical stability of the surface oxide. Pulp is an effective and stable corrosion inhibitor. Raising the pulp concentration decreased the corrosion rate. The inhibiting effect of pulp may be related to the adsorption and interaction of the pulp fibers with H 2O2, thereby decreasing the peroxide concentration and rendering the solution less corrosive. The presence of both pulp and calcium led to higher corrosion rates than obtained by either one inhibitor alone. Replacement of hydrofluoric acid with alkaline peroxide for pickling of titanium was investigated. Titanium corrosion rates in alkaline peroxide exceeded those obtained in the conventional hydrofluoric acid bath. General corrosion was observed with extensive roughening of the surface giving a dull gray appearance. Preferred dissolution of certain crystallographic planes was investigated through the corrosion of a titanium single crystal. Whereas the overall effect on the corrosion rate was small

  13. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev

    2001-12-21

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

  14. The fate of added alkalinity in model scenarios of ocean alkalinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer González, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The deliberate large-scale manipulation of the Earth's climate (geo-engineering) has been proposed to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst the mitigation potential of these technologies could sound promising, they may also pose many environmental risks. Our research aims at exploring the ocean-based carbon dioxide removal method of alkalinity enhancement. Its mitigation potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 and counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, risks and unintended consequences are studied. In order to tackle these questions, different scenarios are implemented in the state-of-the-art Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The model configuration is based on the 5th phase of the coupled model intercomparison project following a high CO2 future climate change scenario RCP8.5 (in which radiative forcing rises to 8.5 W/m² in 2100). Two different scenarios are performed where the alkalinity is artificially added globally uniformly in the upper ocean. In the first scenario, alkalinity is increased as a pulse by doubling natural values of the first 12 meters. In the second scenario we add alkalinity into the same ocean layer such that the atmospheric CO2 concentration is reduced from RCP8.5 to RCP4.5 levels (with the radiative forcing of 4.5 W/m² in 2100). We investigate the fate of the added alkalinity in these two scenarios and compare the differences in alkalinity budgets. In order to increase oceanic CO2 uptake from the atmosphere, enhanced alkalinity has to stay in the upper ocean. Once the alkalinity is added, it will become part of the biogeochemical cycles and it will be distributed with the ocean currents. Therefore, we are particularly interested in the residence time of the added alkalinity at the surface. Variations in CO2 partial pressure, seawater pH and saturation state of carbonate minerals produced in the implemented scenarios will be presented. Collateral changes in ocean biogeochemistry and

  15. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  16. Field screening of cowpea cultivars for alkaline soil tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  17. Application of alkaline solid residue of electric arc furnace dust for neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Elez, Loris; Orescanin, Visnja; Sofilic, Tahir; Mikulic, Nenad; Ruk, Damir

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this work was development of an appropriate procedure for the neutralization/purification of electroplating wastewater (EWW) with alkaline solid residue (ASR) by-product of the alkaline extraction of zinc and lead from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD). Removal efficiency of ASR at optimum purification conditions (pH 8 and mixing time; 20 minutes) for the elements Pb, Cr (VI), Cr (III), Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were 94.92%, 97.58%, 99.59%, 99.48%, 97.25% and 99.97%, respectively. The concentrations of all elements in the purified wastewater were significantly lower in relation to the upper permissible limit for wastewaters suitable for discharge into the environment. The remaining waste mud was regenerated in the strong alkaline medium and successfully applied once again for the neutralization/purification of EWW. Removal efficiencies of heavy metals accomplished with regenerated waste mud were comparable to these achieved by original ASR. Elemental concentrations in the leachates of the waste mud were in accordance with regulated values.

  18. TMC-1 Mediates Alkaline Sensation in C. elegans through Nociceptive Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Guang; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jianfeng; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-07-01

    Noxious pH triggers pungent taste and nocifensive behavior. While the mechanisms underlying acidic pH sensation have been extensively characterized, little is known about how animals sense alkaline pH in the environment. TMC genes encode a family of evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins whose functions are largely unknown. Here, we characterize C. elegans TMC-1, which was suggested to form a Na(+)-sensitive channel mediating salt chemosensation. Interestingly, we find that TMC-1 is required for worms to avoid noxious alkaline environment. Alkaline pH evokes an inward current in nociceptive neurons, which is primarily mediated by TMC-1 and to a lesser extent by the TRP channel OSM-9. However, unlike OSM-9, which is sensitive to both acidic and alkaline pH, TMC-1 is only required for alkali-activated current, revealing a specificity for alkaline sensation. Ectopic expression of TMC-1 confers alkaline sensitivity to alkali-insensitive cells. Our results identify an unexpected role for TMCs in alkaline sensation and nociception. PMID:27321925

  19. Cost-Effective Production and Optimization of Alkaline Xylanase by Indigenous Bacillus mojavensis AG137 Fermented on Agricultural Waste

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan Sepahy, Abbas; Ghazi, Shokoofeh; Akhavan Sepahy, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    A xylanase producer Bacillus mojavensis strain, called AG137, isolated from cotton farm (Kashan-Iran). The optimal xylanase activity reached at 55°C & pH 9.0. Enzyme yield was studied using a medium with different agricultural wastes as inducers. Xylanase production of about 249.308 IU/mL was achieved at pH 8 and 37°C, within 48 h submerged fermentation in enzyme production medium supplemented with 2% (w/v) oat bran as an optimum carbon source. A mixture of 1% (w/v) yeast extract and 1% (w/v) tryptone as optimum nitrogen sources, agitation speed 200 rpm, and inoculum size 2% (v/v) were the optimums for maximum production. Accordingly, xylanase yield from 194.68 IU/mL under non-optimized fermentation condition enhanced to 302.466 IU/mL in optimized condition. Screened xylanase is thermostable, presenting 70% stability at 60°C during 30 min. Further enzyme incubation in higher temperature caused a decrease in the residual enzyme activity, yet it retained 68%–50% of its activity after 1 hour from 45°C to 55°C. Besides, it is stable in pH 9 and 10, maintaining over 70% of its activity for 2 h. The enzyme also could preserve 71% and 63% of its initial activity after 3 hours of pre-incubation in the same alkaline condition. Produced xylanase therefore was introduced as an alkaline-active and stable one, displaying suitable thermostability feature, confirmed by HPLC analysis. Hence, all xylanase properties highlight its promising uses in industrial scale. PMID:21904670

  20. Purification and characterization of a serine alkaline protease from Bacillus clausii GMBAE 42.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Dilek; Denizci, Aziz Akin; Oner, Mine N Kerimak; Erarslan, Altan

    2005-08-01

    An extracellular serine alkaline protease of Bacillus clausii GMBAE 42 was produced in protein-rich medium in shake-flask cultures for 3 days at pH 10.5 and 37 degrees C. Highest alkaline protease activity was observed in the late stationary phase of cell cultivation. The enzyme was purified 16-fold from culture filtrate by DEAE-cellulose chromatography followed by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, with a yield of 58%. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the molecular weight of the enzyme to be 26.50 kDa. The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 60 degrees C; however, it is shifted to 70 degrees C after addition of 5 mM Ca(2+) ions. The enzyme was stable between 30 and 40 degrees C for 2 h at pH 10.5; only 14% activity loss was observed at 50 degrees C. The optimal pH of the enzyme was 11.3. The enzyme was also stable in the pH 9.0--12.2 range for 24 h at 30 degrees C; however, activity losses of 38% and 76% were observed at pH values of 12.7 and 13.0, respectively. The activation energy of Hammarsten casein hydrolysis by the purified enzyme was 10.59 kcal mol(-1) (44.30 kJ mol(-1)). The enzyme was stable in the presence of the 1% (w/v) Tween-20, Tween-40,Tween-60, Tween-80, and 0.2% (w/v) SDS for 1 h at 30 degrees C and pH 10.5. Only 10% activity loss was observed with 1% sodium perborate under the same conditions. The enzyme was not inhibited by iodoacetate, ethylacetimidate, phenylglyoxal, iodoacetimidate, n-ethylmaleimidate, n-bromosuccinimide, diethylpyrocarbonate or n-ethyl-5-phenyl-iso-xazolium-3'-sulfonate. Its complete inhibition by phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride and relatively high k (cat) value for N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA hydrolysis indicates that the enzyme is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease. K (m) and k (cat) values were estimated at 0.655 microM N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA and 4.21 x 10(3) min(-1), respectively. PMID:15988584

  1. Alkaline galvanic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T.; Maeda, Y.; Momose, K.; Wakahata, T.

    1983-10-04

    An alkaline galvanic cell is disclosed including a container serving for a cathode terminal, a sealing plate in the form of a layered clad plate serving for an anode terminal to be fitted into the container, and an insulating packing provided between the sealing plate and container for sealing the cell upon assembly. The cell is provided with a layer of epoxy adduct polyamide amine having amine valence in the range of 50 to 400 and disposed between the innermost copper layer of the sealing plate arranged to be readily amalgamated and the insulating packing so as to serve as a sealing agent or liquid leakage suppression agent.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    PubMed Central

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  3. Detection of Micrococcus luteus biofilm formation in microfluidic environments by pH measurement using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Koji; Asano, Yuka; Yamada, Akira; Naruse, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation in microfluidic channels is difficult to detect because sampling volumes are too small for conventional turbidity measurements. To detect biofilm formation, we used an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) measurement system to measure pH changes in small volumes of bacterial suspension. Cells of Micrococcus luteus (M. luteus) were cultured in polystyrene (PS) microtubes and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based microfluidic channels laminated with polyvinylidene chloride. In microtubes, concentrations of bacteria and pH in the suspension were analyzed by measuring turbidity and using an ISFET sensor, respectively. In microfluidic channels containing 20 μL of bacterial suspension, we measured pH changes using the ISFET sensor and monitored biofilm formation using a microscope. We detected acidification and alkalinization phases of M. luteus from the ISFET sensor signals in both microtubes and microfluidic channels. In the alkalinization phase, after 2 day culture, dense biofilm formation was observed at the bottom of the microfluidic channels. In this study, we used an ISFET sensor to detect biofilm formation in clinical and industrial microfluidic environments by detecting alkalinization of the culture medium

  4. Plasma membrane domains participate in pH banding of Chara internodal cells.

    PubMed

    Schmölzer, Patric M; Höftberger, Margit; Foissner, Ilse

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the identity and distribution of cortical domains, stained by the endocytic marker FM 1-43, in branchlet internodal cells of the characean green algae Chara corallina and Chara braunii. Co-labeling with NBD C(6)-sphingomyelin, a plasma membrane dye, which is not internalized, confirmed their location in the plasma membrane, and co-labelling with the fluorescent pH indicator Lysotracker red indicated an acidic environment. The plasma membrane domains co-localized with the distribution of an antibody against a proton-translocating ATPase, and electron microscopic data confirmed their identity with elaborate plasma membrane invaginations known as charasomes. The average size and the distribution pattern of charasomes correlated with the pH banding pattern of the cell. Charasomes were larger and more frequent at the acidic regions than at the alkaline bands, indicating that they are involved in outward-directed proton transport. Inhibition of photosynthesis by DCMU prevented charasome formation, and incubation in pH buffers resulted in smaller, homogenously distributed charasomes irrespective of whether the pH was clamped at 5.5 or 8.5. These data indicate that the differential size and distribution of charasomes is not due to differences in external pH but reflects active, photosynthesis-dependent pH banding. The fact that pH banding recovered within several minutes in unbuffered medium, however, confirms that pH banding is also possible in cells with evenly distributed charasomes or without charasomes. Cortical mitochondria were also larger and more abundant at the acid bands, and their intimate association with charasomes and chloroplasts suggests an involvement in carbon uptake and photorespiration.

  5. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  6. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions.

  7. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions. PMID:25051401

  8. Total alkalinity versus buffer value (capacity) as a sensitivity indicator for fresh waters receiving acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, S.D.

    1983-09-01

    The frequently stated idea that total alkalinity is a measure of the buffer capacity of a natural water is refuted. Total alkalinity is a measure of the acid neutralizing capacity, equivalents/liter, of a water. In natural waters, the carbonate system provides most of this neutralizing capacity. In as much as the pH values of natural fresh waters lie below 8.3, the total alkalinity is, for all intents and purposes, the total bicarbonate content. Any contributions of carbonate and hydroxide to total alkalinity are nil. The buffer capacity or buffer value is the relation between the increment of a strong base, or strong acid, that causes a one unit change in the pH value. The values of total alkalinity and pH, considered individually cannot give an accurate assessment of the impact of acid deposition on a natural water. Rather it is necessary to combine the pH and alkalinity values into the beta concept in order to assess accurately and to calculate the capacity of a natural water to resist the impact of acid deposition. An analytical determination of total alkalinity is given with an application of the beta value. 17 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  10. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  11. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  12. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding for light oil recovery. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wasan, D.T.

    1995-12-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a very cost-effective method for formulating a successful surfactant-enhanced alkaline flood by appropriately choosing mixed alkalis which form inexpensive buffers to obtain the desired pH (between 8.5 and 12.0) for ultimate spontaneous emulsification and ultra-low tension. In addition, the novel concept of pH gradient design to optimize flood water conditions will be tested. The problem of characterizing emulsions in porous media is very important in enhanced oil recovery applications. This is usually accomplished by externally added or in situ generated surfactants that sweep the oil out of the reservoir. Emulsification of the trapped oil is one of the mechanisms of recovery. The ability to detect emulsions in the porous medium is therefore crucial to designing profitable flood systems. The capability of microwave dielectric techniques to detect emulsions in porous medium is demonstrated by mathematical modeling and by experiments. This quarter the shape dependence of the complex dielectric properties of W/O and O/W type dispersions in the microwave frequency region were analyzed using the generalized effective medium theory of Hanai. The computations show that the authors earlier finding for spherical dispersions can now be extended to include nonspherical geometries. The computed results show that the difference in dielectric behavior of the two emulsion types are a strong function of the shape of the dispersions, with the differences vanishing when the two phases are oriented as layers parallel and perpendicular to the electromagnetic field.

  13. Spectrophotometric studies on alkaline isomerization of spinach ferredoxin.

    PubMed

    Hasumi, H; Nagata, E; Nakamura, S

    1985-10-01

    The gross protein structure, the microenvironment of the iron-sulfur cluster, and the effect of neutral salts on the molecular structure of spinach ferredoxin were studied by CD and absorption spectroscopy in the alkaline pH range. In the pH range of 7-11, the existence of reversible isomerization which consisted of at least two proton dissociation processes was indicated by the statical CD and absorption spectra. The CD changes in the visible and far-UV regions were dramatic upon elevation of the pH from neutral to alkaline, indicating a significant alteration of the microenvironment of the cluster and a decrease in the ordered secondary structures. The absorption change in the visible region due to pH elevation was small but clearly observed with a high signal-to-noise ratio. The numbers of protons involved in the respective processes and the apparent pK values obtained from the pH-dependence of the CD changes were in good agreement with those obtained from the pH-dependence of the absorption changes in the visible region. In addition, the rate constants obtained from the time courses of the CD and absorption changes agreed with one another. By the addition of 1 M NaCl, the CD and absorption spectra at alkaline pH were reversed almost to those at neutral pH without significant pH change. On the other hand, above pH 11, ferredoxin was found to be irreversibly denatured. Based on analyses of the statical CD and absorption spectra and of the time courses of the CD changes, the probable mechanism of the isomerization was considered to be as follows: (Formula: see text) where H stands for a proton, N-form for native ferredoxin at neutral pH, N*-form for alkaline ferredoxin below pH 11 which still has the iron-sulfur cluster but with disordered secondary structures of the polypeptide chain, and D-form for completely denatured ferredoxin above pH 11. These results lead to the conclusions that (1) the interaction between the protein moiety and the iron-sulfur cluster is

  14. Effect of cobalt on synthesis and activation of Bacillus licheniformis alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, D B; Chen, C P; Hulett, F M

    1981-01-01

    The effect of CO2+ on the synthesis and activation of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 alkaline phosphatase has been shown by the development of a defined minimal salts medium in which this organism produces 35 times more (assayable) alkaline phosphatase than when grown in a low-phosphate complex medium or in the defined medium without cobalt. Stimulation of enzyme activity with cobalt is dependent on a low phosphate concentration in the medium (below 0.075 mM) and continued protein synthesis. Cobalt stimulation resulted in alkaline phosphate production being a major portion of total protein synthesized during late-logarithmic and early-stationary-phase culture growth. Cells cultured in the defined medium minus cobalt, or purified enzyme partially inactivated with a chelating agent, showed a 2.5-fold increase in activity when assayed in the presence of cobalt. Atomic spectral analysis indicated the presence of 3.65 +/- 0.45 g-atoms of cobalt associated with each mole of purified active alkaline phosphatase. A biochemical localization as a function of culture age in this medium showed that alkaline phosphatase was associated with the cytoplasmic membrane and was also found as a soluble enzyme in the periplasmic region and secreted into the growth medium. PMID:7462163

  15. Bacteria associated with deep, alkaline, anaerobic groundwaters in Southeast Washington.

    PubMed

    Stevens, T O; McKinley, J P; Fredrickson, J K

    1993-01-01

    The microbial diversity in two deep, confined aquifers, the Grande Ronde (1270 m) and the Priest Rapids (316 m), Hanford Reservation, Washington, USA, was investigated by sampling from artesian wells. These basaltic aquifers were alkaline (pH 8.5 to 10.5) and anaerobic (Eh -200 to -450 mV). The wells were allowed to free-flow until pH and Eh stabilized, then the microflora was sampled with water filtration and flow-through sandtrap methods. Direct microscopic counts showed 7.6 × 10(5) and 3.6 × 10(3) bacteria ml(-1) in water from the Grande Ronde and Priest Rapids aquifers, respectively. The sand filter method yielded 5.7 × 10(8) and 1.1 × 10(5) cells g(-1) wet weight of sand. The numbers of bacteria did not decrease as increasing volumes of water were flushed out. The heterotrophic diversity of these bacterial populations was assessed using enrichments for 20 functional groups. These groups were defined by their ability to grow in a matrix of five different electron acceptors (O2, Fe(III), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-)) and four groups of electron donors (fermentation products, monomers, polymers, aromatics) in a mineral salts medium at pH 9.5. Growth was assessed by protein production. Culture media were subsequently analyzed to determine substrate utilization patterns. Substrate utilization patterns proved to be more reliable indicators of the presence of a particular physiological group than was protein production. The sand-trap method obtained a greater diversity of bacteria than did water filtration, presumably by enriching the proportion of normally sessile bacteria relative to planktonic bacteria. Substrate utilization patterns were different for microflora from the two aquifers and corresponded to their different geochemistries. Activities in the filtered water enrichments more closely matched those predicted by aquifer geochemistry than did the sand-trap enrichments. The greatest activities were found in Fe(III)-reducing enrichments from both wells, SO4

  16. Facile Alkaline Lysis of Escherichia coli Cells in High-Throughput Mode for Screening Enzyme Mutants: Arylsulfatase as an Example.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mei; Yang, Xiaolan; Li, Yuwei; Liu, Hongbo; Pu, Jun; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Facile alkaline lysis of Escherichia coli cells in high-throughput (HTP) mode for screening enzyme mutants was tested with Pseudomonas aeruginosa arylsulfatase (PAAS). The alkaline lysis buffer was 1.0 M Tris-HCl at pH 9.0 plus 0.1 % Tween-20 and 2.0 mM 4-aminobenzamidine, mixed with cell suspension at 8:1 to 12:1 ratio for continuous agitation of mixtures in 96-well plates under room temperature; enzymatic activity in lysates was measured with 96-well microplate. PAAS activity tolerated final 0.1 % Tween-20. Individual clones were amplified for 12 h in 0.50 mL TB medium with 48-well plates to enhance the repeatability of induced expression. During continuous agitation of the mixture of cells and the lysis buffer, PAAS activities in lysates were steady from 3 to 9 h and comparable to sonication treatment but better than freezing-thawing. Coefficients of variation of activities of PAAS/mutants in lysates after treatment for 7 h reached ∼22 %. The mutant M72Q had specific activity 2-fold of G138S. By HTP lysis of cells, M72Q was recognized as a positive mutant over G138S with the area under the curve of 0.873. Therefore, for enzymes tolerating concentrated alkaline buffers, the proposed alkaline lysis approach may be generally applicable for HTP lysis of host cells during directed evolution. PMID:26899233

  17. pH in atomic scale simulations of electrochemical interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Chan, Karen; Ahmed, Rizwan; Tripković, Vladimir; Björketun, Mårten E

    2013-07-01

    Electrochemical reaction rates can strongly depend on pH, and there is increasing interest in electrocatalysis in alkaline solution. To date, no method has been devised to address pH in atomic scale simulations. We present a simple method to determine the atomic structure of the metal|solution interface at a given pH and electrode potential. Using Pt(111)|water as an example, we show the effect of pH on the interfacial structure, and discuss its impact on reaction energies and barriers. This method paves the way for ab initio studies of pH effects on the structure and electrocatalytic activity of electrochemical interfaces.

  18. Nixtamalized flour from quality protein maize (Zea mays L). optimization of alkaline processing.

    PubMed

    Milán-Carrillo, J; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R; Cuevas-Rodríguez, E O; Garzón-Tiznado, J A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2004-01-01

    Quality of maize proteins is poor, they are deficient in the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan. Recently, in Mexico were successfully developed nutritionally improved 26 new hybrids and cultivars called quality protein maize (QPM) which contain greater amounts of lysine and tryptophan. Alkaline cooking of maize with lime (nixtamalization) is the first step for producing several maize products (masa, tortillas, flours, snacks). Processors adjust nixtamalization variables based on experience. The objective of this work was to determine the best combination of nixtamalization process variables for producing nixtamalized maize flour (NMF) from QPM V-537 variety. Nixtamalization conditions were selected from factorial combinations of process variables: nixtamalization time (NT, 20-85 min), lime concentration (LC, 3.3-6.7 g Ca(OH)2/l, in distilled water), and steep time (ST, 8-16 hours). Nixtamalization temperature and ratio of grain to cooking medium were 85 degrees C and 1:3 (w/v), respectively. At the end of each cooking treatment the steeping started for the required time. Steeping was finished by draining the cooking liquor (nejayote). Nixtamal (alkaline-cooked maize kernels) was washed with running tap water. Wet nixtamal was dried (24 hours, 55 degrees C) and milled to pass through 80-US mesh screen to obtain NMF. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied as optimization technique, over four response variables: In vitro protein digestibility (PD), total color difference (deltaE), water absorption index (WAI), and pH. Predictive models for response variables were developed as a function of process variables. Conventional graphical method was applied to obtain maximum PD, WAI and minimum deltaE, pH. Contour plots of each of the response variables were utilized applying superposition surface methodology, to obtain three contour plots for observation and selection of best combination of NT (31 min), LC (5.4 g Ca(OH)2/l), and ST (8.1 hours) for producing

  19. Real-time fluorescence assays of alkaline phosphatase and ATP sulfurylase activities based on a novel PPi fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhiyang; Ma, Xiaoyan; Wen, Jinghan; Geng, Zhirong; Wang, Zhilin

    2015-05-01

    An anthracene-armed tetraaza macrocyclic fluorescent probe 3-(9-anthrylmethyl)-3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene(l) for detecting Zn(2+) in aqueous medium was synthesized. L-Zn(2+) complex, showed selectivity toward pyrophosphate ion (PPi) by quenching the fluorescence in aqueous HEPES buffer (pH 7.4). Furthermore, L-Zn(2+) was also used to set up a real-time fluorescence assay for monitoring enzyme activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and adenosine triphosphate sulfurylase (ATPS). In the presence of ALP inhibitor Na3VO4 and ATPS inhibitor chlorate, two enzymes activities decreased obviously, respectively.

  20. Effect of different carbon sources on decolourisation of an industrial textile dye under alkaline-saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Cristiane; Lima, Luis; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    White-rot fungal strains of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were selected to study the decolourisation of the textile dye, Reactive Black 5, under alkaline-saline conditions. Free and immobilised T. versicolor cells showed 100 % decolourisation in the growth medium supplemented with 15 g l(-1) NaCl, pH 9.5 at 30 °C in liquid batch culture. Continuous culture experiments were performed in a fixed-bed reactor using free and immobilised T. versicolor cells and allowed 85-100 % dye decolourisation. The immobilisation conditions for the biomass and the additional supply of carbon sources improved the decolourisation performance during a long-term trial of 40 days. Lignin peroxidase, laccase and glyoxal oxidase activities were detected during the experiments. The laccase activity varied depending on carbon source utilized and glycerol-enhanced laccase activity compared to sucrose during extended growth.

  1. Effects of saline-alkaline stress on benzo[a]pyrene biotransformation and ligninolytic enzyme expression by Bjerkandera adusta SM46.

    PubMed

    Andriani, Ade; Tachibana, Sanro; Itoh, Kazutaka

    2016-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) accumulates in marine organisms and contaminated coastal areas. The biotreatment of waste water using saline-alkaline-tolerant white rot fungi (WRF) represents a promising method for removing BaP under saline-alkaline conditions based on WRF's ability to produce ligninolytic enzymes. In a pre-screening for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of 82 fungal strains using Remazol brilliant blue R, Bjerkandera adusta SM46 exhibited the highest tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Moreover, a B. adusta culture grown in BaP-containing liquid medium exhibited resistance to salinities up to 20 g l(-1). These conditions did not inhibit fungal growth or the expression of manganese peroxidase (MnP) or lignin peroxidase (LiP). The degradation rate also became higher as salinity increased to 20 g l(-1). Fungal growth and enzyme expression were inhibited at a salinity of 35 g l(-1). These inhibitory effects directly decreased the degradation rate (>24%). The presence of MnSO4 as an inducer improved the degradation rate and enzyme expression. MnP and LiP activity also increased by seven- and fivefold, respectively. SM46 degraded BaP (38-89% over 30 days) in an acidic environment (pH 4.5) and under saline-alkaline stress conditions (pH 8.2). Investigating the metabolites produced revealed BaP-1,6-dione as the main product, indicating the important role of ligninolytic enzymes in initializing BaP cleavage. The other metabolites detected, naphthalene acetic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, and catechol, may have been ring fission products. The wide range of activities observed suggests that B. adusta SM46 is a potential agent for biodegrading BaP under saline conditions. PMID:26867600

  2. Atrazine and its metabolites degradation in mineral salts medium and soil using an enrichment culture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anup; Singh, Neera

    2016-03-01

    An atrazine-degrading enrichment culture was used to study degradation of atrazine metabolites viz. hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine in mineral salts medium. Results suggested that the enrichment culture was able to degrade only hydroxyatrazine, and it was used as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Hydroxyatrazine degradation slowed down when sucrose and/or ammonium hydrogen phosphate were supplemented as the additional sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. The enrichment culture could degrade high concentrations of atrazine (up to 110 μg/mL) in mineral salts medium, and neutral pH was optimum for atrazine degradation. Further, except in an acidic soil, enrichment culture was able to degrade atrazine in three soil types having different physico-chemical properties. Raising the pH of acidic soil to neutral or alkaline enabled the enrichment culture to degrade atrazine suggesting that acidic pH inhibited atrazine-degrading ability. The study suggested that the enrichment culture can be successfully utilized to achieve complete degradation of atrazine and its persistent metabolite hydroxyatrazine in the contaminated soil and water.

  3. Sensing pH with TMCs.

    PubMed

    Spalthoff, Christian; Göpfert, Martin C

    2016-07-01

    Transmembrane channel-like (TMC) proteins have been implicated in hair cell mechanotransduction, Drosophila proprioception, and sodium sensing in the nematode C. elegans. In this issue of Neuron, Wang et al. (2016) report that C. elegans TMC-1 mediates nociceptor responses to high pH, not sodium, allowing the nematode to avoid strongly alkaline environments in which most animals cannot survive. PMID:27387645

  4. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies.

  5. [Phosphatase activity in Amoeba proteus at low pH].

    PubMed

    Sopina, V A

    2009-01-01

    In free-living Amoeba proteus (strain B), three forms of tartrate-sensitive phosphatase were revealed using PAGE of the supernatant of ameba homogenates obtained with 1% Triton X-100 or distilled water and subsequent staining of gels with 2-naphthyl phosphate as substrate (pH 4.0). The form with the highest mobility in the ameba supernatant was sensitive to all tested phosphatase activity modulators. Two other forms with the lower mobilities were completely or significantly inactivated not only by sodium L-(+)-tartrate, but also by L-(+)-tartaric acid, sodium orthovanadate, ammonium molybdate, EDTA, EGTA, o-phospho-L-tyrosine, DL-dithiotreitol, H2O2, 2-mercaptoethanol, and ions of heavy metals - Fe2+, Fe3+, and Cu2+. Based on results of inhibitory analysis, lysosome location in the ameba cell, and wide substrate specificity of these two forms, it has been concluded that they belong to nonspecific acid phosphomonoesterases (AcP, EC 3.1.3.2). This AcP is suggested to have both phosphomonoesterase and phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase activitis. Two ecto-phosphatases were revealed in the culture medium, in which amebas were cultivated. One of them was inhibited by the same reagents as the ameba tartrate-sensitive AcP and seems to be the AcP released into the culture medium in the process of exocytosis of the content of food vacuoles. In the culture medium, apart from this AcP, another phosphatase was revealed, which was not inhibited by any tested inhibitors of AcP and alkaline phosphatase. It cannot be ruled out that this phosphatase belong to the ecto-ATPases found in many protists; however, its ability to hydrolyze ATP has not yet been proven.

  6. Tolerance of Chemoorganotrophic Bioleaching Microorganisms to Heavy Metal and Alkaline Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Monballiu, Annick; Cardon, Nele; Tri Nguyen, Minh; Cornelly, Christel; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Chiang, Yi Wai

    2015-01-01

    The bioleaching potential of the bacterium Bacillus mucilaginosus and the fungus Aspergillus niger towards industrial residues was investigated by assessing their response towards various heavy metals (including arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, nickel, lead, and zinc) and elevated pH. The plate diffusion method was performed for each metal to determine the toxicity effect. Liquid batch cultures were set up for more quantitative evaluation as well as for studying the influence of basicity. Growth curves were prepared using bacterial/fungal growth counting techniques such as plate counting, optical density measurement, and dry biomass determination. Cadmium, nickel, and arsenite had a negative influence on the growth of B. mucilaginosus, whereas A. niger was sensitive to cadmium and arsenate. However, it was shown that growth recovered when microorganisms cultured in the presence of these metals were inoculated onto metal-free medium. Based on the findings of the bacteriostatic/fungistatic effect of the metals and the adaptability of the microorganisms to fairly elevated pH values, it is concluded that both strains have potential applicability for further research concerning bioleaching of alkaline waste materials. PMID:26236176

  7. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  8. Effect of pH on the Preparation of {alpha}-Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate from FGD Gypsum with the Hydrothermal Method

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, B.H.; Shen, Z.X.; Wu, Z.B.; Yang, L.C.; Ma, X.F.

    2008-12-15

    pH is one of the most important parameters that determine the crystallization process, but it is always neglected in the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) from calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) with the hydrothermal method. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, which is mainly composed of DH, was used as raw material to obtain {alpha}-HH through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The initial pH values of the suspensions were adjusted from 1.2 to 8.0 to explore the influence of pH on the dehydration process and the product characteristics. The results showed that {alpha}-HH crystal was the only dehydration product with the pH ranging from 1.2 to 8.0. With the increase of initial pH, the dehydration rate decreased and the formed {alpha}-HH crystal had a larger particle size. The length/width ratio decreased markedly from 4.8 to 2.9 as the initial pH increased from 1.2 to 7.3. pH had a profound influence on the dehydration of DH and the morphology of alpha-HH via its effect on the supersaturation and perhaps also the precipitation of Ca(OH){sub 2} in an alkaline environment.

  9. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  10. Design factors and performance efficiencies of successive alkalinity producing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jage, C.R.; Zipper, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    Successive Alkalinity Producing Systems (SAPS) are passive treatment wetlands that have been used successfully in renovating acidic mine drainage (AMD) for several years. Unfortunately, design parameters and treatment efficiency of these systems vary widely due to a lack of clear, consistent design and construction guidelines. This study is investigating ten operating SAPS systems in Virginia and West Virginia for the purpose of identifying the relationship of design and construction factors to system performance. Influent and effluent water samples were collected for a period of two years or longer by the operators of each system. Each sample was analyzed for pH, alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, total iron, total manganese, and aluminum. The individual systems were also characterized according to system age, size, and construction materials. Residence times for the ten systems ranged from 4.5 hours to 13.31 days. On average, they were able to raise the pH 0.65 units and generate a net alkalinity of 84.84 mg/l as CaCO{sub 3}. Iron and manganese removal did occur in the SAPS cells, but the majority of the removal took place in post-SAPS settling ponds. Net alkalinity generation was positively correlated with residence time and iron removal rates suggesting a synergistic effect. Seasonal variation in alkalinity production was also noted, possibly indicating changes in alkalinity generation rates by dissimilatory sulfate reduction. These data provide the foundation for the development of a user-oriented SAPS design model based solely on influent AMD chemistry and final treatment goals as input parameters.

  11. Long-term alkalinity decrease and acidification of estuaries in northwestern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinping; Pollack, Jennifer Beseres; McCutcheon, Melissa R; Montagna, Paul A; Ouyang, Zhangxian

    2015-03-17

    More than four decades of alkalinity and pH data (late 1960s to 2010) from coastal bays along the northwestern Gulf of Mexico were analyzed for temporal changes across a climatic gradient of decreasing rainfall and freshwater inflow, from northeast to southwest. The majority (16 out of 27) of these bays (including coastal waters) showed a long-term reduction in alkalinity at a rate of 3.0-21.6 μM yr(-1). Twenty-two bays exhibited pH decreases at a rate of 0.0014-0.0180 yr(-1). In contrast, a northernmost coastal bay exhibited increases in both alkalinity and pH. Overall, the two rates showed a significant positive correlation, indicating that most of these bays, especially those at lower latitudes, have been experiencing long-term acidification. The observed alkalinity decrease may be caused by reduced riverine alkalinity export, a result of precipitation decline under drought conditions, and freshwater diversion for human consumption, as well as calcification in these bays. A decrease in alkalinity inventory and accompanying acidification may have negative impacts on shellfish production in these waters. In addition, subsequent reduction in alkalinity export from these bays to the adjacent coastal ocean may also decrease the buffer capacity of the latter against future acidification.

  12. An alkaline follicular fluid fraction induces capacitation and limited release of oviduct epithelium-bound stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Leemans, Bart; Gadella, Bart M; Stout, Tom A E; Nelis, Hilde; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Van Soom, Ann

    2015-09-01

    Induction of hyperactivated motility is considered essential for triggering the release of oviduct-bound mammalian spermatozoa in preparation for fertilization. In this study, oviduct-bound stallion spermatozoa were exposed for 2 h to: i) pre-ovulatory and ii) post-ovulatory oviductal fluid; iii) 100% and iv) 10% follicular fluid (FF); v) cumulus cells, vi) mature equine oocytes, vii) capacitating and viii) non-capacitating medium. None of these triggered sperm release or hyperactivated motility. Interestingly, native FF was detrimental to sperm viability, an effect that was negated by heat inactivation, charcoal treatment and 30 kDa filtration alone or in combination. Moreover, sperm suspensions exposed to treated FF at pH 7.9 but not pH 7.4 showed Ca(2+)-dependent hypermotility. Fluo-4 AM staining of sperm showed elevated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in hyperactivated stallion spermatozoa exposed to treated FF at pH 7.9 compared to a modest response in defined capacitating conditions at pH 7.9 and no response in treated FF at pH 7.4. Moreover, 1 h incubation in alkaline, treated FF induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in 20% of spermatozoa. None of the conditions tested induced widespread release of sperm pre-bound to oviduct epithelium. However, the hyperactivating conditions did induce release of 70-120 spermatozoa per oviduct explant, of which 48% showed protein tyrosine phosphorylation and all were acrosome-intact, but capable of acrosomal exocytosis in response to calcium ionophore. We conclude that, in the presence of elevated pH and extracellular Ca(2+), a heat-resistant, hydrophilic, <30 kDa component of FF can trigger protein tyrosine phosphorylation, elevated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and hyperactivated motility in stallion sperm, but infrequent release of sperm pre-bound to oviduct epithelium.

  13. Energetics of Amino Acid Synthesis in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline hydrothermal systems have received considerable attention as candidates for the origin and evolution of life on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the thermodynamic properties of amino acids, which are necessary components for life, at high temperatures and alkaline pH. These properties were estimated using experimental high-temperature volume and heat capacity data reported in the literature for several amino acids, together with correlation algorithms and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. This approach enabled determination of a complete set of the standard molal thermodynamic data and the revised HKF parameters for the 20 protein amino acids in their zwitterionic and ionization states. The obtained dataset was then used to evaluate the energetics of amino acid syntheses from simple inorganic precursors (CO2, H2, NH3 and H2S) in a simulated alkaline hydrothermal system on the Hadean Earth. Results show that mixing between CO2-rich seawater and the H2-rich hydrothermal fluid can produce energetically favorable conditions for amino acid syntheses, particularly in the lower-temperature region of such systems. Together with data related to the pH and temperature dependences of the energetics of amino acid polymerizations presented in earlier reports, these results suggest the following. Hadean alkaline hydrothermal settings, where steep pH and temperature gradients may have existed between cool, slightly acidic Hadean ocean water and hot, alkaline hydrothermal fluids at the vent-ocean interface, may be energetically the most suitable environment for the synthesis and polymerization of amino acids.

  14. Alkaline nanoparticle coatings improve resin bonding of 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate-conditioned zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Mengke; Lu, Zhicen; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Huaiqin; Xie, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Creating an alkaline environment prior to 10-methacryloyloxydecyldihydrogenphosphate (MDP) conditioning improves the resin bonding of zirconia. The present study evaluated the effects of four alkaline coatings with different water solubilities and pH values on resin bonding of MDP-conditioned zirconia. Two alkaline nanoparticle coatings were studied in particular. Thermodynamics calculations were performed to evaluate the strengths of MDP-tetragonal phase zirconia chemical bonds at different pH values. Zirconia surfaces with and without alkaline coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM)/energy dispersive spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; alkaline coatings included NaOH, Ca(OH)2, nano-MgO, and nano-Zr(OH)4. A shear bond strength (SBS) test was performed to evaluate the effects of the four alkaline coatings on bonding; the alkaline coatings were applied to the surfaces prior to conditioning the zirconia with MDP-containing primers. Gibbs free energies of the MDP-tetragonal zirconia crystal model coordination reaction in different pH environments were −583.892 (NaOH), −569.048 [Ca(OH)2], −547.393 (MgO), and −530.279 kJ/mol [Zr(OH)4]. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that the alkaline coatings improved bonding in the following order: NaOH > Ca(OH)2 > MgO > Zr(OH)4. Statistical analysis of SBS tests showed a different result. SBSs were significantly different in groups that had different alkaline coatings, but it was not influenced by different primers. All four alkaline coatings increased SBS compared to control groups. Of the four coatings, nano-Zr(OH)4 and -MgO showed higher SBS. Therefore, preparing nano-Zr(OH)4 or -MgO coatings prior to conditioning with MDP-containing primers may potentially improve resin bonding of zirconia in the clinic. PMID:27785013

  15. Mineralization of paracetamol in aqueous medium by anodic oxidation with a boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi; Arias, Conchita; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Garrido, José Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The degradation of 100ml of solutions with paracetamol (N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide) up to 1 g l(-1) in the pH range 2.0-12.0 has been studied by anodic oxidation in a cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a graphite cathode, both of 3-cm2 area, by applying a current of 100, 300 and 450 mA between 25 and 45 degrees C. Complete mineralization is always achieved due to the great concentration of hydroxyl radical (*OH) generated at the BDD surface, with release of NH4+ and NO3- ions. The mineralization rate is pH-independent, increases with increasing applied current and temperature, but decreases when drug concentration raises from 315 mg l(-1). Reversed-phase chromatography revealed a similar complex paracetamol decay in acid and alkaline media. Ion-exclusion chromatography allowed the detection of oxalic and oxamic acids as ultimate carboxylic acids. When the same solutions have been comparatively treated with a Pt anode, a quite poor mineralization is found because of the production of much lower *OH concentration. Under these conditions, the degradation rate is enhanced in alkaline medium and polymerization of intermediates is favored in concentrated solutions. Paracetamol can be completely destroyed with Pt and its kinetics follows a pseudo-first-order reaction with a constant rate independent of pH.

  16. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  17. Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Ian F.; Nesbit, Lance A.

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular pH (pHe) of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (P < 0.01). Tumor pHe buffering may reduce optimal conditions for enzymes involved in tumor invasion such as cathepsins and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). To address this, we tested the effect of transient alkalinization on cathepsin and MMP activity using enzyme activatable fluorescence agents in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 mammary xenografts. Transient alkalinization significantly reduced the fluorescent signal of protease-specific activatable agents in vivo (P ≤ 0.003). Alkalinization, however, did not affect expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). The findings suggest a possible mechanism in a live model system for breast cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion. PMID:23936808

  18. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  19. Ocean Acidification: Coccolithophore's Light Controlled Effect on Alkalinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, W.

    2015-12-01

    Coccolithophorids, which play a significant role in the flux of calcite and organic carbon from the photic region to deeper pelagic and benthic zones, are potentially far more useful than siliceous phytoplankton for ocean fertilization projects designed to sequester CO2. However, the production of H+ ions during calcification (HCO3 + Ca+ —> CaCO3 + H+) has resulted in localized acidification around coccolithophore blooms. It has been hypothesized that under the correct light conditions photosynthesis could proceed at a rate such that CO2 is removed in amounts equimolar or greater than the H+ produced by calcification, allowing stable or increasing alkalinity despite ongoing calcification. Previously, this effect had not been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. Fifteen Emiliania huxleyi cultures were separated into equal groups with each receiving: 0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 hours of light each day for 24 days. Daily pH, cell density, and temperature measurements revealed a strong positive correlation between light exposure and pH, and no significant decline in pH in any of the cultures. Alkalinity increases were temperature independent and not strongly correlated with cell density, implying photosynthetic removal of carbon dioxide as the root cause. The average pH across living cultures increased from 7.9 to 8.3 over the first week and changed little for the reminder of the 24-day period. The results demonstrate coccolithophorids can increase alkalinity across a broad range of cell densities, despite the acidification inherent to the calcification process. If the light-alkalinity effect reported here proves scalable to larger cultures, Emiliania huxleyi are a strong candidate for carbon sequestration via targeted ocean fertilization.

  20. [Contrastive analysis on soil alkalinization predicting models based on measured reflectance and TM image reflectance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-Gang; Long, Tao; Lu, Wen-Juan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the monitored data of soil pH and measured Vis-NIR reflectance on spot in Qitai oasis alkalinized area in Xinjiang, as well as comparison of the relationship between measured reflectance and soil pH and the relationship between TM reflectance and soil pH, both of the reflectance multivariate linear regression models were built to evaluate soil alkalinization level, and the model accuracy of pH fitting was discussed with error inspection of post-sample. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between soil pH and reflectance. With pH rising the reflectance increased concurrently. So the alkalinization soil characterized by hardening had good spectral response characteristics. Both measured reflectance and TM image reflectance had good potential ability for change detection of the alkalinization soil. The pH predicting model of measured reflectance had higher accuracy and the major error was from different hardening state. If building model by TM reflectance directly, the accuracy of fitting was lower because of the vegetation information in image spectrum. With the vegetation factor removed with NDVI, the accuracy of TM predicting model was near the accuracy of measured reflectance predicting model, and both of the model levels were good. PMID:21428094

  1. [Contrastive analysis on soil alkalinization predicting models based on measured reflectance and TM image reflectance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-Gang; Long, Tao; Lu, Wen-Juan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the monitored data of soil pH and measured Vis-NIR reflectance on spot in Qitai oasis alkalinized area in Xinjiang, as well as comparison of the relationship between measured reflectance and soil pH and the relationship between TM reflectance and soil pH, both of the reflectance multivariate linear regression models were built to evaluate soil alkalinization level, and the model accuracy of pH fitting was discussed with error inspection of post-sample. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between soil pH and reflectance. With pH rising the reflectance increased concurrently. So the alkalinization soil characterized by hardening had good spectral response characteristics. Both measured reflectance and TM image reflectance had good potential ability for change detection of the alkalinization soil. The pH predicting model of measured reflectance had higher accuracy and the major error was from different hardening state. If building model by TM reflectance directly, the accuracy of fitting was lower because of the vegetation information in image spectrum. With the vegetation factor removed with NDVI, the accuracy of TM predicting model was near the accuracy of measured reflectance predicting model, and both of the model levels were good.

  2. High-Efficiency Artificial Photosynthesis Using a Novel Alkaline Membrane Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri; Haines, Brennan; Blosiu, Julian; Marzwell, Neville

    2009-01-01

    A new cell designed to mimic the photosynthetic processes of plants to convert carbon dioxide into carbonaceous products and oxygen at high efficiency, has an improved configuration using a polymer membrane electrolyte and an alkaline medium. This increases efficiency of the artificial photosynthetic process, achieves high conversion rates, permits the use of inexpensive catalysts, and widens the range of products generated by this type of process. The alkaline membrane electrolyte allows for the continuous generation of sodium formate without the need for any additional separation system. The electrolyte type, pH, electrocatalyst type, and cell voltage were found to have a strong effect on the efficiency of conversion of carbon dioxide to formate. Indium electrodes were found to have higher conversion efficiency compared to lead. Bicarbonate electrolyte offers higher conversion efficiency and higher rates than water solutions saturated with carbon dioxide. pH values between 8 and 9 lead to the maximum values of efficiency. The operating cell voltage of 2.5 V, or higher, ensures conversion of the carbon dioxide to formate, although the hydrogen evolution reaction begins to compete strongly with the formate production reaction at higher cell voltages. Formate is produced at indium and lead electrodes at a conversion efficiency of 48 mg of CO2/kilojoule of energy input. This efficiency is about eight times that of natural photosynthesis in green plants. The electrochemical method of artificial photosynthesis is a promising approach for the conversion, separation and sequestration of carbon dioxide for confined environments as in space habitats, and also for carbon dioxide management in the terrestrial context. The heart of the reactor is a membrane cell fabricated from an alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane and catalyst- coated electrodes. This cell is assembled and held in compression in gold-plated hardware. The cathode side of the cell is supplied with carbon

  3. Control of intracellular pH and growth by fibronectin in capillary endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.; Prusty, D.; Frangioni, J. V.; Cragoe, E. J. Jr; Lechene, C.; Schwartz, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the mechanism by which fibronectin (FN) regulates capillary endothelial cell proliferation. Endothelial cell growth can be controlled in chemically-defined medium by varying the density of FN coated on the substratum (Ingber, D. E., and J. Folkman. J. Cell Biol. 1989. 109:317-330). In this system, DNA synthetic rates are stimulated by FN in direct proportion to its effect on cell extension (projected cell areas) both in the presence and absence of saturating amounts of basic FGF. To investigate direct growth signaling by FN, we carried out microfluorometric measurements of intracellular pH (pHi), a cytoplasmic signal that is commonly influenced by soluble mitogens. pHi increased 0.18 pH units as FN coating densities were raised and cells progressed from round to spread. Intracellular alkalinization induced by attachment to FN was rapid and followed the time course of cell spreading. When measured in the presence and absence of FGF, the effects of FN and FGF on pHi were found to be independent and additive. Furthermore, DNA synthesis correlated with pHi for all combinations of FGF and FN. Ethylisopropylamiloride, a specific inhibitor of the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter, completely suppressed the effects of FN on both pHi and DNA synthesis. However, cytoplasmic pH per se did not appear to be a critical determinant of growth since DNA synthesis was not significantly inhibited when pHi was lowered over the physiological range by varying the pH of the medium. We conclude that FN and FGF exert their growth-modulating effects in part through activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger, although they appear to trigger this system via separate pathways.

  4. Buffering of alkaline steel slag leachate across a natural wetland.

    PubMed

    Mayes, William M; Younger, Paul L; Aumônier, Jonathan

    2006-02-15

    Buffering of high-pH (>12) steel slag leachate is documented across a small, natural calcareous wetland. The alkaline leachate is supersaturated with respect to calcite upstream of the wetland (Sl(calcite) values +2.3) and becomes less saturated with progress across the wetland, to Sl(calcite) values of +0.27 at the wetland outlet. Reduction in pH across the wetland (to around pH 8 at the wetland outlet) was observed to be more pronounced over summer months, possibly due to increased microbial activity, possibly further assisted by greater flow baffling by emergent vegetation. Calculated calcite precipitation rates downstream of the leachate source, estimated from hydrochemical data, flow, and surface area, were on the order of 0.4-15 g m(-2) day(-1), while direct measurements (using immersed limestone blocks) showed calcite precipitation values in the range 3-10 g m(-2) day(-1). Precipitation rate was highest in the pH range where the carbonate ion is a dominant constituent of sample alkalinity (pH 9.5-11) and at the locations where wetland biota became established downstream of the leachate emergence. These data provide valuable insights into the potential for using constructed wetlands for the passive treatment of high pH steel slag leachates.

  5. Priming effect of abscisic acid on alkaline stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-Xing; Lv, Bing-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Ming; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Yang, Hao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Saline-alkaline stress is characterized by high salinity and high alkalinity (high pH); alkaline stress has been shown to be the primary factor inhibiting rice seedling growth. In this study, we investigated the potential priming effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on tolerance of rice seedlings to alkaline stress simulated by Na2CO3. Seedlings were pretreated with ABA at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, and 50 μM by root-drench for 24 h and then transferred to a Na2CO3 solution that did not contain ABA. Compared to control treatment, pretreatment with ABA substantially improved the survival rate of rice seedlings and increased biomass accumulation after 7 days under the alkaline condition. ABA application at 10 μM also alleviated the inhibitory effects of alkaline stress on the total root length and root surface area. Physiologically, ABA increased relative water content (RWC) and decreased cell membrane injury degree (MI) and Na(+)/K(+) ratios. In contrast, fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) decreased the RWC and increased MI in shoots under the alkaline conditions. These data suggest that ABA has a potent priming effect on the adaptive response to alkaline stress in rice and may be useful for improving rice growth in saline-alkaline paddy fields.

  6. Priming effect of abscisic acid on alkaline stress tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Li-Xing; Lv, Bing-Sheng; Wang, Ming-Ming; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Yang, Hao-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2015-05-01

    Saline-alkaline stress is characterized by high salinity and high alkalinity (high pH); alkaline stress has been shown to be the primary factor inhibiting rice seedling growth. In this study, we investigated the potential priming effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on tolerance of rice seedlings to alkaline stress simulated by Na2CO3. Seedlings were pretreated with ABA at concentrations of 0 (control), 10, and 50 μM by root-drench for 24 h and then transferred to a Na2CO3 solution that did not contain ABA. Compared to control treatment, pretreatment with ABA substantially improved the survival rate of rice seedlings and increased biomass accumulation after 7 days under the alkaline condition. ABA application at 10 μM also alleviated the inhibitory effects of alkaline stress on the total root length and root surface area. Physiologically, ABA increased relative water content (RWC) and decreased cell membrane injury degree (MI) and Na(+)/K(+) ratios. In contrast, fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) decreased the RWC and increased MI in shoots under the alkaline conditions. These data suggest that ABA has a potent priming effect on the adaptive response to alkaline stress in rice and may be useful for improving rice growth in saline-alkaline paddy fields. PMID:25780993

  7. Eco-physiological characteristics of alfalfa seedlings in response to various mixed salt-alkaline stresses.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong-Lin; Gao, Zhan-Wu; Gao, Ying; Liu, Guo-Fang; Sheng, Lian-Xi; Wang, De-Li

    2008-01-01

    Soil salinization and alkalization frequently co-occur in nature, but little is known about the mixed effects of salt-alkaline stresses on plants. An experiment with mixed salts (NaCl, Na(2)SO(4), NaHCO(3) and Na(2)CO(3)) and 30 salt-alkaline combinations (salinity 24-120 mmol/L and pH 7.03-10.32) treating Medicago sativa seedlings was conducted. The results demonstrated that salinity and alkalinity significantly affected total biomass and biomass components of seedlings. There were interactive effects of salt composition and concentration on biomass (Palkalinity stresses led to changes in the root activity along the salinity gradient (Palkalinity on seedling survival rate were more significant than those of salinity, and the seedlings demonstrated some physiological responses (leaf electrolyte leakage rate and proline content) in order to adapt to mixed salt-alkaline stresses. It was concluded that the mixed salt-alkaline stresses, which differ from either salt or alkali stress, emphasize the significant interaction between salt concentration (salinity) and salt component (alkalinity). Further, the effects of the interaction between high alkalinity and salinity are more severe than those of either salt or alkali stress, and such a cooperative interaction results in more sensitive responses of ecological and physiological characteristics in plants. PMID:18666949

  8. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  9. Dolomite Dissolution in Alkaline Cementious Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermayr, Florian; Klammer, Dietmar; Köhler, Stephan; Dietzel, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Chemical alteration of concrete has gained much attention over the past years as many cases of deterioration due to sulphate attack, thaumasite formation (TSA) or alkali silica reactions (ASR) have been reported in various constructions (Schmidt et al, 2009). Much less is known about the so called alkali carbonate reaction (ACR). It is believed that dolomite aggregates can react with the alkalis from the cement, dissolve and form calcite and brucite (Katayama, 2004). Due to very low solubility of dolomite in alkaline solutions this reaction seems doubtful. In this study we are trying to gain new insides about the conditions that can lead to the dissolution of dolomite in concrete. Therefore we investigated concrete samples from Austrian tunnels that show partially dissolved dolomite aggregates. Petrological analysis such as microprobe, SEM and Raman spectroscopy as well as a hydrochemical analysis of interstitial solutions and ground water and modelling with PhreeqC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999) are carried out. In addition a series of batch experiments is set up. Modelling approaches by PhreeqC show a thermodynamically possibility in the alkaline range when additional Ca2+ in solution causes dolomite to become more and more undersaturated as calcite gets supersaturated. Interacting ground water is enriched in Ca2+and saturated with respect to gypsum as marine evaporites are found in situ rocks. Furthermore it is more likely that Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) plays a more important role than Na and K in the cement. Portlandite acts as an additional Ca2+ source and is much more abundant than the alkalies. Some interstitial solutions are dominated mainly by Na+ and SO42- and reach concentrations up to 30 g/l TDS. It is believed that solutions can even reach thenardite saturation as efflorescences are found on the tunnel walls. In consequence dolomite solubility increases with increasing ionic strength. pH > 11 further accelerate the process of dedolomitization by the removal

  10. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2 litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen.

  11. Bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost using calcium lime and ash.

    PubMed

    Hijikata, Nowaki; Tezuka, Rui; Kazama, Shinobu; Otaki, Masahiro; Ushijima, Ken; Ito, Ryusei; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the bactericidal and virucidal mechanisms in the alkaline disinfection of compost with calcium lime and ash were investigated. Two indicator microorganisms, Escherichia coli and MS2 coliphage, were used as surrogates for enteric pathogens. The alkaline-treated compost with calcium oxide (CaO) or ash resulted primarily in damage to the outer membrane and enzyme activities of E. coli. The alkaline treatment of compost also led to the infectivity loss of the coliphage because of the partial capsid damage and RNA exteriorization due to a raised pH, which is proportional to the amount of alkaline agents added. These results indicate that the alkaline treatment of compost using calcium oxide and ash is effective and can contribute to the safe usage of compost from a mixing type dry toilet. PMID:27562698

  12. Increased performance of hydrogen production in microbial electrolysis cells under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Rago, Laura; Baeza, Juan A; Guisasola, Albert

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the first successful enrichment and operation of alkaline bioelectrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells, MFC, and microbial electrolysis cells, MEC). Alkaline (pH=9.3) bioelectrochemical hydrogen production presented better performance (+117%) compared to conventional neutral conditions (2.6 vs 1.2 litres of hydrogen gas per litre of reactor per day, LH2·L(-1)REACTOR·d(-1)). Pyrosequencing results of the anodic biofilm showed that while Geobacter was mainly detected under conventional neutral conditions, Geoalkalibacter sp. was highly detected in the alkaline MFC (21%) and MEC (48%). This is the first report of a high enrichment of Geoalkalibacter from an anaerobic mixed culture using alkaline conditions in an MEC. Moreover, Alkalibacter sp. was highly present in the anodic biofilm of the alkaline MFC (37%), which would indicate its potentiality as a new exoelectrogen. PMID:26855359

  13. Cortisol modification of HeLa 65 alkaline phosphatase. Decreased phosphate content of the induced enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bazzell, K L; Price, G; Tu, S; Griffin, M

    1976-01-15

    Alkaline phosphatase activity of HeLa cells is increased 5-20-fold during growth in medium with cortisol. The increase in enzyme activity is due to an enhanced catalytic efficiency rather than an increase in alkaline phosphatase protein in induced cells. In the present study the chemical composition of control and induced forms of alkaline phosphatase were investigated to determine the enzyme modification that may be responsible for the increased catalytic activity. HeLa alkaline phosphatase is a phosphoprotein and the induced form of the enzyme has approximately one-half of the phosphate residues associated with control enzyme. The decrease in phosphate residues of the enzyme apparently alters its catalytic activity. Other chemical components of purified alkaline phosphatase from control and induced cells are similar; these include sialic acid, hexosamine and sulfhydryl residues. PMID:1248469

  14. Simplified seawater alkalinity analysis: Use of linear array spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wensheng; Byrne, Robert H.

    1998-08-01

    Modified spectrophotometric procedures are presented for the determination of seawater total alkalinity using rapid scan linear array spectrometers. Continuous monitoring of solution pH allows titrations to be terminated at relatively high pH, whereby excess acid terms are very small. Excess acid concentrations are quantified using the sulfonephthalein indicators, bromocresol green and bromocresol purple. The outlined spectrophotometric procedures require no thermal equilibration of samples. Using bromocresol green, solution pH T ([H +] T in moles per kg of solution) is given as: pHT=4.2699+0.002578(35- S)+ log((R(25)-0.00131)/(2.3148-0.1299 R(25))) - log(1-0.001005S) and R(25)= R( t){1+0.00909(25- t)}, where 29⩽S⩽37, 13° C⩽t⩽32° C, and R( t) is the absorbance ratio ( A616/ A444) at temperature t and salinity S. Using bromocresol purple, the solution pH T is given as pH T=5.8182+0.00129(35- S)+log(( R(25)-0.00381)/(2.8729-0.05104 R(25))) and R(25)= R( t){1+0.01869(25- t)}, where 29⩽S⩽37, 13° C⩽t⩽32° C, and R( t)= A589/ A432. Alkalinity measurements using bromocresol purple had a precision on the order of 0.3 μmol kg -1 and were within 0.3-0.9 μmol kg -1 of the alkalinities of certified seawater reference materials.

  15. Enhancing alkaline hydrogen evolution reaction activity through Ni-Mn3O4 nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Liu, Peng Fei; Zhang, Le; Zu, Meng Yang; Yang, Yun Xia; Yang, Hua Gui

    2016-08-18

    Developing efficient, stable and cost-effective electrocatalysts towards hydrogen production in alkaline environments is vital to improve energy efficiency for water splitting. In this work, we prepared Ni-Mn3O4 nanocomposites on Ni foam which exhibit an excellent hydrogen evolution reaction catalytic activity with a current density (j) of 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential (η) of 91 mV and show good stability in an alkaline medium. PMID:27500290

  16. Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats.

    PubMed

    Merne, M E; Syrjänen, K J; Syrjänen, S M

    2001-08-01

    Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined.

  17. Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhuang, Haifeng; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient.

  18. Inhibition of light-induced pH increase and O2 evolution of marine microalgae by water-soluble components of crude and refined oils.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J E; Calder, J A

    1978-01-01

    Light-induced alkalinization of the extracellular medium was found to be a common feature of the primary photosynthetic process of several marine microalgae. The light-induce PH increase of suspensions of whole cells was immediately and severely inhibited by a single dose of water-soluble components from crude and fuel oils. Differential effects on the rates of microalgal photosynthetic O2 evolution and cell suspension pH increase suggest different toxicity mechanisms of the water-soluble components of no. 2 fuel oil as compared with Southern Louisiana and Jay Crude oils. These short-term studies on the nature of sublethal petroleum toxicity to microalgae indicate that the primary effect may be through direct action on the energy-yielding electron transport systems. PMID:26309

  19. Influence of the TiO2 content on the chromatographic performance and high pH stability of C18 titanized phases.

    PubMed

    Silva, César R; Airoldi, Claudio; Collins, Kenneth E; Collins, Carol H

    2006-05-01

    To extend pH stability, protective metal oxide layers, such as titanium oxide, that are more stable in alkaline medium, can be chemically bonded to the chromatographic silica surface prior to reaction with silanes. In the present work, the influence of the titanium oxide content on the chromatographic performance was investigated by synthesizing a C18 phase onto a doubly-titanized silica support and comparing its chromatographic performance with a C18 phase on singly-titanized silica. The Engelhardt and Tanaka test mixtures were used for chromatographic characterizations using short HPLC columns. The column lifetimes of these titanized phases were also compared by performing accelerated aging tests at 50 degrees C using aggressive phosphate mobile phases at pH 10.

  20. Development of alkaline solution separations for potential partitioning of used nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, Gordon D; Runde, Wolfgang H; Goff, George S

    2009-01-01

    The processing of used nuclear fuel in alkaline solution provides potentially useful new selectivity for separating the actinides from each other and f rom the fission products. Over the ast decade, several research teams around the world have considered dissolution of used fuel in alkaline solution and further partitioning in this medium as an alternative to acid dissolution. The chemistry of the actinides and fission products in alkaline soilltion requires extensive investigation to more carefully evaluate its potential for developing useful separation methods for used nuclear fueI.

  1. [Effects of the thiol reagent dithiothreitol on the oxidation-reduction potential and the growth of Escherichia coli in anaerobic conditions at different pH].

    PubMed

    Kirakosian, G; Bagramian, K; Trchunian, A

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the oxidation-reduction potential of medium during the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria under anaerobic conditions in the pH range 5.5-7.5 were studied. It was shown that dithiothreitol, a reducer of thiol groups, at a concentration of 3 mM decreased the initial value of oxidation-reduction potential to negative values of -60 to -220 mV, increased the duration of the lag growth phase, decreased the growth rate, and lowered the acidification of the medium and accumulation of potassium ions independently of pH. The value of the potential in the presence of 3 mM dithiothreitol decreased by 15-20 mV both at alkaline and acidic pH. Dithiothreitol at a concentration of 10 mM stopped molecular hydrogen production at pH 5.5 only. The effects of dithiothreitol on the oxidation-reduction potential and bacterial growth were probably associated with changes in the state of thiol groups in membrane proteins, which affects the generation of membrane potential, proton secretion from cells, K+ accumulation in bacteria, and the activity of membrane-associated enzymes.

  2. The effect of solution pH on the electrochemical performance of nanocrystalline metal ferrites MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, E. M.; Rashad, M. M.; Khalil, H. F. Y.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Hussein, M. R.; El-Sabbah, M. M. B.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline metal ferrite MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films have been synthesized via electrodeposition-anodization process. Electrodeposited (M)Fe2 alloys were obtained from aqueous sulfate bath. The formed alloys were electrochemically oxidized (anodized) in aqueous (1 M KOH) solution, at room temperature, to the corresponding hydroxides. The parameters controlling the current efficiency of the electrodeposition of (M)Fe2 alloys such as the bath composition and the current density were studied and optimized. The anodized (M)Fe2 alloy films were annealed in air at 400 °C for 2 h. The results revealed the formation of three ferrite thin films were formed. The crystallite sizes of the produced films were in the range between 45 and 60 nm. The microstructure of the formed film was ferrite type dependent. The corrosion behavior of ferrite thin films in different pH solutions was investigated using open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The open circuit potential indicates that the initial potential E im of ZnFe2O4 thin films remained constant for a short time, then sharply increased in the less negative direction in acidic and alkaline medium compared with Ni and Cu ferrite films. The values of the corrosion current density I corr were higher for the ZnFe2O4 films at pH values of 1 and 12 compared with that of NiFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 which were higher only at pH value 1. The corrosion rate was very low for the three ferrite films when immersion in the neutral medium. The surface morphology recommended that Ni and Cu ferrite films were safely used in neutral and alkaline medium, whereas Zn ferrite film was only used in neutral atmospheres.

  3. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  4. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  5. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation.

    PubMed

    Rao, Alexandra M F; Malkin, Sairah Y; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J R

    2014-07-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer. PMID:25431515

  6. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Alexandra M.F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer. PMID:25431515

  7. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Alexandra M. F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2014-07-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  8. Variation in pH optima of hydrolytic enzyme activities in tropical rain forest soils.

    PubMed

    Turner, Benjamin L

    2010-10-01

    Extracellular enzymes synthesized by soil microbes play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the environment. The pH optima of eight hydrolytic enzymes involved in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, were assessed in a series of tropical forest soils of contrasting pH values from the Republic of Panama. Assays were conducted using 4-methylumbelliferone-linked fluorogenic substrates in modified universal buffer. Optimum pH values differed markedly among enzymes and soils. Enzymes were grouped into three classes based on their pH optima: (i) enzymes with acidic pH optima that were consistent among soils (cellobiohydrolase, β-xylanase, and arylsulfatase), (ii) enzymes with acidic pH optima that varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima in the most acidic soils (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase), and (iii) enzymes with an optimum pH in either the acid range or the alkaline range depending on soil pH (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase). The optimum pH values of phosphomonoesterase were consistent among soils, being 4 to 5 for acid phosphomonoesterase and 10 to 11 for alkaline phosphomonoesterase. In contrast, the optimum pH for phosphodiesterase activity varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima (3.0) in the most acidic soils and the most alkaline pH optima (pH 10) in near-neutral soils. Arylsulfatase activity had a very acidic optimum pH in all soils (pH ≤3.0) irrespective of soil pH. The differences in pH optima may be linked to the origins of the enzymes and/or the degree of stabilization on solid surfaces. The results have important implications for the interpretation of hydrolytic enzyme assays using fluorogenic substrates.

  9. Variation in pH Optima of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in Tropical Rain Forest Soils ▿

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular enzymes synthesized by soil microbes play a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in the environment. The pH optima of eight hydrolytic enzymes involved in the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, were assessed in a series of tropical forest soils of contrasting pH values from the Republic of Panama. Assays were conducted using 4-methylumbelliferone-linked fluorogenic substrates in modified universal buffer. Optimum pH values differed markedly among enzymes and soils. Enzymes were grouped into three classes based on their pH optima: (i) enzymes with acidic pH optima that were consistent among soils (cellobiohydrolase, β-xylanase, and arylsulfatase), (ii) enzymes with acidic pH optima that varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima in the most acidic soils (α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase), and (iii) enzymes with an optimum pH in either the acid range or the alkaline range depending on soil pH (phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase). The optimum pH values of phosphomonoesterase were consistent among soils, being 4 to 5 for acid phosphomonoesterase and 10 to 11 for alkaline phosphomonoesterase. In contrast, the optimum pH for phosphodiesterase activity varied systematically with soil pH, with the most acidic pH optima (3.0) in the most acidic soils and the most alkaline pH optima (pH 10) in near-neutral soils. Arylsulfatase activity had a very acidic optimum pH in all soils (pH ≤3.0) irrespective of soil pH. The differences in pH optima may be linked to the origins of the enzymes and/or the degree of stabilization on solid surfaces. The results have important implications for the interpretation of hydrolytic enzyme assays using fluorogenic substrates. PMID:20709838

  10. AcalPred: a sequence-based tool for discriminating between acidic and alkaline enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The structure and activity of enzymes are influenced by pH value of their surroundings. Although many enzymes work well in the pH range from 6 to 8, some specific enzymes have good efficiencies only in acidic (pH<5) or alkaline (pH>9) solution. Studies have demonstrated that the activities of enzymes correlate with their primary sequences. It is crucial to judge enzyme adaptation to acidic or alkaline environment from its amino acid sequence in molecular mechanism clarification and the design of high efficient enzymes. In this study, we developed a sequence-based method to discriminate acidic enzymes from alkaline enzymes. The analysis of variance was used to choose the optimized discriminating features derived from g-gap dipeptide compositions. And support vector machine was utilized to establish the prediction model. In the rigorous jackknife cross-validation, the overall accuracy of 96.7% was achieved. The method can correctly predict 96.3% acidic and 97.1% alkaline enzymes. Through the comparison between the proposed method and previous methods, it is demonstrated that the proposed method is more accurate. On the basis of this proposed method, we have built an online web-server called AcalPred which can be freely accessed from the website (http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/AcalPred). We believe that the AcalPred will become a powerful tool to study enzyme adaptation to acidic or alkaline environment.

  11. AcalPred: A Sequence-Based Tool for Discriminating between Acidic and Alkaline Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The structure and activity of enzymes are influenced by pH value of their surroundings. Although many enzymes work well in the pH range from 6 to 8, some specific enzymes have good efficiencies only in acidic (pH<5) or alkaline (pH>9) solution. Studies have demonstrated that the activities of enzymes correlate with their primary sequences. It is crucial to judge enzyme adaptation to acidic or alkaline environment from its amino acid sequence in molecular mechanism clarification and the design of high efficient enzymes. In this study, we developed a sequence-based method to discriminate acidic enzymes from alkaline enzymes. The analysis of variance was used to choose the optimized discriminating features derived from g-gap dipeptide compositions. And support vector machine was utilized to establish the prediction model. In the rigorous jackknife cross-validation, the overall accuracy of 96.7% was achieved. The method can correctly predict 96.3% acidic and 97.1% alkaline enzymes. Through the comparison between the proposed method and previous methods, it is demonstrated that the proposed method is more accurate. On the basis of this proposed method, we have built an online web-server called AcalPred which can be freely accessed from the website (http://lin.uestc.edu.cn/server/AcalPred). We believe that the AcalPred will become a powerful tool to study enzyme adaptation to acidic or alkaline environment. PMID:24130738

  12. Metal bioavailability and toxicity to fish in low-alkalinity lakes - a critical-review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spry, D.J.; Wiener, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Fish in low-alkalinity lakes having ph of 6.0-6.5 Or less often have higher body or tissue burdens of mercury, cadmium, and lead than do fish in nearby lakes with higher ph. The greater bioaccumulation of these metals in such waters seems to result partly from the greater aqueous abundances of biologically available forms (ch3hg+, cd2+, and pb2+) at low ph. In addition, the low concentrations of aqueous calcium in low-alkalinity lakes increase the permeability of biological membranes to these metals, which in fish may cause greater uptake from both water and food. Fish exposed to aqueous inorganic aluminum in the laboratory and field accumulate the metal in and on the epithelial cells of the gills; however, there is little accumulation of aluminum in the blood or internal organs. In low-ph water, both sublethal and lethal toxicity of aluminum has been clearly demonstrated in both laboratory and field studies at environmental concentrations. In contrast, recently measured aqueous concentrations of total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and lead in low-alkalinity lakes are much lower than the aqueous concentrations known to cause acute or chronic toxicity in fish, although the vast majority of toxicological research has involved waters with much higher ionic strength than that in low-alkalinity lakes. Additional work with fish is needed to better assess (1) the toxicity of aqueous metals in low-alkalinity waters, and (2) the toxicological significance of dietary methylmercury and cadmium.

  13. Emulsion-based encapsulation and delivery of nanoparticles for the controlled release of alkalinity within the subsurface environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsburg, C. A.; Muller, K.; Gill, J.

    2012-12-01

    where acid fluxes are lower. The ability of emulsions to sustain alkalinity release within porous media was preliminarily examined using a series of 1-D column experiments. Emulsions were introduced for 2 pore volumes in a medium sand at Darcy velocities of approximately 0.8 cm/hr. Following the emulsion pulse, a pH 4 solution (adjusted with HCl) was introduced into the column and the effluent was monitored for pH, oil content, and droplet size distributions. All un-retained emulsion (~20% wt. was retained) was flushed from the column within approximately 2 pore volumes of terminating the emulsion pulse. The effluent pH at quasi-steady state and the reactive life of the emulsion depended on the retention characteristics, as well as the type and loading of nanoparticles employed within the emulsion. For the scenarios considered here, quasi-steady effluent pHs were observed to be between 6.5 and 10, and reactive lifetimes (i.e., the number of pore volumes for which the retained emulsion resulted in the effluent pH exceeding that of the influent) were between 15 and 100 pore volumes. These results demonstrate the ability of the emulsion to offer longer-term release and highlight the ability to tune the alkalinity release rate to match site characteristics by adjusting the emulsion content. Current research is directed toward evaluation release properties in heterogeneous aquifer cell experiments.

  14. Physiological and molecular features of Puccinellia tenuiflora tolerating salt and alkaline-salt stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Wei, Liqin; Wang, Zizhang; Wang, Tai

    2013-03-01

    Saline-alkali soil seriously threatens agriculture productivity; therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to alkaline-salt stress has become a major challenge. Halophytic Puccinellia tenuiflora can tolerate salt and alkaline-salt stress, and is thus an ideal plant for studying this tolerance mechanism. In this study, we examined the salt and alkaline-salt stress tolerance of P. tenuiflora, and analyzed gene expression profiles under these stresses. Physiological experiments revealed that P. tenuiflora can grow normally with maximum stress under 600 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L Na2 CO3 (pH 11.0) for 6 d. We identified 4,982 unigenes closely homologous to rice and barley. Furthermore, 1,105 genes showed differentially expressed profiles under salt and alkaline-salt treatments. Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in functions of photosynthesis, oxidation reduction, signal transduction, and transcription regulation. Almost all genes downregulated under salt and alkaline-salt stress were related to cell structure, photosynthesis, and protein synthesis. Comparing with salt stress, alkaline-salt stress triggered more differentially expressed genes and significantly upregulated genes related to H(+) transport and citric acid synthesis. These data indicate common and diverse features of salt and alkaline-salt stress tolerance, and give novel insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant salt and alkaline-salt tolerance.

  15. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  16. Impacts of variable pH on stability and nutrient removal efficiency of aerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Lashkarizadeh, Monireh; Munz, Giulio; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    The impact of pH variation on aerobic granular sludge stability and performance was investigated. A 9-day alkaline (pH=9) and acidic (pH=6) pH shocks were imposed on mature granules with simultaneous chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The imposed alkaline pH shock (pH 9) reduced nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency from 88% and 98% to 66% and 50%, respectively, with no further recovery. However, acidic pH shock (pH 6) did not have a major impact on nutrient removal and the removal efficiencies recovered to their initial values after 3 days of operation under the new pH condition. Operating the reactors under alkaline pH induced granules breakage and resulted in an increased solids concentration in the effluent and a significant decrease in the size of the bio-particles, while acidic pH did not have significant impacts on granules stability. Changes in chemical structure and composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix were suggested as the main factors inducing granules instability under high pH. PMID:26744935

  17. Alkalinization by chloride/bicarbonate pathway in larval mosquito midgut

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Harvey, William R.; Linser, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    The midgut of mosquito larvae maintains a specific lumen alkalinization profile with large longitudinal gradients (pH ≈ 3 units⋅mm−1) in which an extremely alkaline (pH ≈ 11) anterior midgut lies between near-neutral posterior midgut and gastric cecum (pH 7–8). A plasma membrane H+ V-ATPase energizes this alkalinization but the ion carriers involved are unknown. Capillary zone electrophoresis of body samples with outlet conductivity detection showed a specific transepithelial distribution of chloride and bicarbonate/carbonate ions, with high concentrations of both anions in the midgut tissue: 68.3 ± 5.64 and 50.8 ± 4.21 mM, respectively. Chloride was higher in the hemolymph, 57.6 ± 7.84, than in the lumen, 3.51 ± 2.58, whereas bicarbonate was higher in the lumen, 58.1 ± 7.34, than the hemolymph, 3.96 ± 2.89. Time-lapse video assays of pH profiles in vivo revealed that ingestion of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide and the ion exchange inhibitor DIDS (4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid), at 10−4 M eliminates lumen alkalinization. Basal application of these inhibitors in situ also reduced gradients recorded with self-referencing pH-sensitive microelectrodes near the basal membrane by ≈65% and 85% respectively. Self-referencing chloride-selective microelectrodes revealed a specific spatial profile of transepithelial chloride transport with an efflux maximum in anterior midgut. Both acetazolamide and DIDS reduced chloride effluxes. These data suggest that an H+ V-ATPase-energized anion exchange occurs across the apical membrane of the epithelial cells and implicate an electrophoretic Cl−/HCO\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{_{3}^{-}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} exchanger and carbonic anhydrase as

  18. A Constructed Alkaline Consortium and Its Dynamics in Treating Alkaline Black Liquor with Very High Pollution Load

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyu; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Xia; Feng, Jinhui; Zhao, Liping; Xu, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial community was found accidentally in a black liquor storing pool in a paper pulp mill of China. The community was effective in pH decreasing, color and COD removing from the high alkaline and high COD black liquor. Findings Thirty-eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the black liquor storing pool, and were grouped as eleven operational taxonomy units (OTUs) using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles (RAPD). Eleven representative strains of each OTU, which were identified as genera of Halomonas and Bacillus, were used to construct a consortium to treat black liquor with a high pH value of 11.0 and very high COD pollution load of 142,600 mg l−1. After treatment by the constructed consortium, about 35.4% of color and 39,000 mg l−1 (27.3%) CODcr were removed and the pH decreased to 7.8. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis suggested a two-stage treatment mechanism to elucidate the interspecies collaboration: Halomonas isolates were important in the first stage to produce organic acids that contributed to the pH decline, while Bacillus isolates were involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives in the second stage under lower pH conditions. Conclusions/Significance Tolerance to the high alkaline environment and good controllability of the simple consortium suggested that the constructed consortium has good potential for black liquor treatment

  19. [Impacts of different alkaline soil on canopy spectral characteristics of overlying vegetation].

    PubMed

    Jia, Ke-Li; Zhang, Jun-Hua

    2014-03-01

    The relationship between alkalinity and pH of the soil, reflectance spectra and red-edge parameters of the sunflower canopy in different growth periods under different alkalinity soil were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the spectral reflectance of the sunflower canopy in different stage under different alkalinity soil is the same as the spectral reflectance characters of the other greenery canopy. Along with the advancement of the sunflower growth period, sunflower canopy spectral reflectance increases gradually at different stages, the spectral reflectance is higher at flowering stage than 7-leaf stage and budding stage, and there exists a high reflection peak at 809nm at flowering period. At the same time, the spectral reflectance is affected by salinity-alkalinity stress at different stages, in the near infrared shortwave band, the spectral reflectance of the sunflower canopy in different stage increases with the decreases in soil alkalinity. When the derivatives are applied to determine the wavelength of the red-edge, there is a shift phenomenon of the red edge. The red edges were at 702-720 nm during every growth period of the sunflower. The "blue shift" phenomenon is also emerged for red edge position and red edge sloped with the increase in the soil alkalinity. Conversely, at the same growth periods, the red edge positions and red edge slope move to longer wave bands with the decrease in soil alkalinity. There is a "red shift" phenomenon before flowering period and "blue shift" phenomenon after flowering period for the red edge position and red edge slope of canopy spectrum at the same soil alkalinity. Respectively. The red edges at different growth stages of the sunflower show very significant positive correlation and quadratic polynomial to alkalinity and pH of the soil. Therefore, we thought used the red edge features of greenery could indicate the soil alkalization degree, it providing scientific basis for monitoring soil alkalization

  20. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested

  1. An acid/alkaline stress and the addition of amino acids induce a prolonged viability of Lactobacillus plantarum loaded into alginate gel.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2010-08-15

    This study reports on the investigation on the effects of the conditions used throughout the step of biomass production on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum loaded into alginate gels. L. plantarum was grown under different conditions (MRS or a laboratory medium-LB(2)-at acidic or alkaline pHs, with NaCl, phenols, vitamins or amino acids) and immobilized in sodium alginate; cell number was evaluated throughout the storage and death (delta(stand)) and first-reduction times (delta) were calculated. The storage of alginate gels at 4 degrees C prolonged cell viability up to 60 days (ca. 20 days for cells produced in MRS and stored at 30 degrees C); however, a similar prolongation was achieved for cells produced in LB(2) adjusted to pH 5.0 and 9.0 or added with amino acids (death time>50-60 days).

  2. Field Test of Limestone as a Treatment Medium for Groundwater at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2001-04-10

    Groundwater downgradient from the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Site is contaminated with acids, metals, radionuclides, and tritium originally released as part of low-level waste streams from the Radiochemical Separations Areas processing facilities. To stem the flux of tritium discharged from the basin area, a series of wells was installed to extract the groundwater and re-inject it upgradient of the seepage basins. Tritium is captured in an extraction-re-injection cycle that allows it to decay. To meet regulatory criteria for re-injection, metals and radionuclides must be treated and removed. One method under consideration for this removal is in-situ contact with limestone. Equilibration of the groundwater with limestone raises the pH to approximately 8. At this pH, metals and radionuclides can be removed by direct precipitation, co-precipitation, and enhanced adsorption. A pilot test was performed to provide data required to assess the applicability of limestone in groundwater treatment. The demonstration unit consisted of several columns of limestone with different total column lengths and thus different residence times. Ground water from the basins was passed through each of the columns and analyzed for metals, radionuclides, ions, pH, and alkalinity. The results from both the laboratory and field tests show the limestone's effectiveness as an in-situ treatment medium.

  3. Characterizing the Effects of Inorganic Acid and Alkaline Shock on the Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome and Messenger RNA Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kelsi L.; Roux, Christelle M.; Olson, Matthew W.; Luong, Thanh T.; Lee, Chia Y.; Olson, Robert; Dunman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis can be partially attributed to its ability to adapt to otherwise deleterious host-associated stresses. Here, Affymetrix GeneChips® were used to examine the S. aureus responses to inorganic acid and alkaline shock and to assess whether stress dependent changes in mRNA turnover are likely to facilitate the organism’s ability to tolerate pH challenge. Results indicate that S. aureus adapts to pH shock by eliciting responses expected of cells coping with pH alteration, including neutralizing cellular pH, DNA repair, amino acid biosynthesis and virulence factor expression. Further, the S. aureus response to alkaline conditions is strikingly similar to that of stringent response induced cells. Indeed, we show that alkaline shock stimulates accumulation of the stringent response activator (p)ppGpp. Results also revealed that pH shock significantly alters the mRNA properties of the cell. A comparison of the mRNA degradation properties of transcripts whose titers either increased or decreased in response to sudden pH change revealed that alterations in mRNA degradation may, in part, account for the changes in the mRNA levels of factors predicted to mediate pH tolerance. A set of small stable RNA molecules were induced in response to acid or alkaline shock conditions and may mediate adaptation to pH stress. PMID:21039920

  4. Ethanol production from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Klebsiella variicola shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshihiro; Nishikawa, Chiaki; Seta, Kohei; Shigeno, Toshiya; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-05-25

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF) waste contains large amounts of crude glycerol as a by-product, and has a high alkaline pH. With regard to microbial conversion of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol, bacteria that can produce ethanol at alkaline pH have not been reported to date. Isolation of bacteria that shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions is essential to effective production of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol. In this study, we isolated the Klebsiella variicola TB-83 strain, which demonstrated maximum ethanol productivity at alkaline pH. Strain TB-83 showed effective usage of crude glycerol with maximum ethanol production at pH 8.0-9.0, and the culture pH was finally neutralized by formate, a by-product. In addition, the ethanol productivity of strain TB-83 under various culture conditions was investigated. Ethanol production was more efficient with the addition of yeast extract. Strain TB-83 produced 9.8 g/L ethanol (0.86 mol/mol glycerol) from cooking oil-derived BDF waste. Ethanol production from cooking oil-derived BDF waste was higher than that of new frying oil-derived BDF and pure-glycerol. This is the first report to demonstrate that the K. variicola strain TB-83 has the ability to produce ethanol from glycerol at alkaline pH.

  5. White-rot fungi capable of decolourising textile dyes under alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Cristiane A; Santos, Cledir; Kozakiewicz, Zofia; Lima, Nelson

    2013-05-01

    Twelve white-rot fungal strains belonging to seven different species were screened on plates under alkaline condition to study the decolourisation of the textile dyes Reactive Black 5 and Poly R-478. Three strains of Trametes versicolor (Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM) 94.04, 04.100 and 04.101) and one strain of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (MUM 94.15) showed better decolourisation results. These four strains were used for decolourisation studies in liquid culture medium. All four selected strains presented more efficient decolourisation rates on Reactive Black 5 than on Poly R-478. For both dyes on solid and liquid culture media, the decolourisation capability exhibited by these strains depended on dye concentration and pH values of the media. Finally, the decolourisation of Reactive Black 5 by T. versicolor strains MUM 94.04 and 04.100 reached 100 %. In addition, the highest white-rot fungi ligninolytic enzyme activities were found for these two strains.

  6. Intracellular pH and the Control of Multidrug Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sanford; Roy, Deborshi; Schindler, Melvin

    1994-02-01

    Many anticancer drugs are classified as either weak bases or molecules whose binding to cellular structures is pH dependent. Accumulation of these drugs within tumor cells should be affected by transmembrane pH gradients. Indeed, development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells has been correlated with an alkaline shift of cytosolic pH. To examine the role of pH in drug partitioning, the distribution of two drugs, doxorubicin and daunomycin, was monitored in fibroblasts and myeloma cells. In both cell types the drugs rapidly accumulated within the cells. The highest concentrations were measured in the most acidic compartments-e.g., lysosomes. Modifying the cellular pH in drug-sensitive cells to mimic reported shifts in MDR caused an immediate change in the cellular drug concentration. Drug accumulation was enhanced by acidic shifts and reversed by alkaline shifts. All of these effects were rapid and reversible. These results demonstrate that the alkaline shift observed in MDR is sufficient to prevent the accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs independent of active drug efflux.

  7. Evaluation of fluorimetric pH sensors for bioprocess monitoring at low pH.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Nils H; Schmidt, Michael; Krause, Christian; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Optical chemical sensors are the standard for pH monitoring in small-scale bioreactors such as microtiter plates, shaking flasks or other single-use bioreactors. The dynamic pH range of the so far commercially available fluorescent pH sensors applied in small-scale bioreactors is restricted to pH monitoring around neutral pH, although many fermentation processes are performed at pH < 6 on industrial scale. Thus, two new prototype acidic fluorescence pH sensors immobilized in single-use stirred-tank bioreactors, one with excitation at 470 nm and emission at 550 nm (sensor 470/550) and the other with excitation at 505 nm and emission at 600 nm (sensor 505/600), were characterized with respect to dynamic ranges and operational stability in representative fermentation media. Best resolution and dynamic range was observed with pH sensor 505/600 in mineral medium (dynamic range of 3.9 < pH < 7.2). Applying the same pH sensors to complex medium results in a drastic reduction of resolution and dynamic ranges. Yeast extract in complex medium was found to cause background fluorescence at the sensors' operating wavelength combinations. Optical isolation of the sensor by adding a black colored polymer layer above the sensor spot and fixing an aperture made of adhesive photoresistant foil between the fluorescence reader and the transparent bottom of the polystyrene reactors enabled full re-establishment of the sensor's characteristics. Reliability and operational stability of sensor 505/600 was shown by online pH monitoring (4.5 < pH < 5.8) of parallel anaerobic batch fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) with offline pH measurements with a standard glass electrode as reference. PMID:25969385

  8. Alkaline protease production, extraction and characterization from alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis KBDL4: a Lonar soda lake isolate.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Anupama P; Deshmukh, Kshipra B

    2012-08-01

    A bacterium producing an alkaline protease was isolated from the Lonar soda lake, Buldhana district (19 degrees 58' N; 76 degrees 31' E), Maharashtra, India. The most appropriate medium for the growth and protease production was composed of (g/L): casein 10; yeast extract 4; KH2PO4 0.5, K2HPO4 0.5 and CaCl2 0.5. The enzyme showed maximum activity with and without 5 mM Ca2+ at 70 and 60 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme retained 40 and 82% of its initial activity after heating for 60 min at 60 degrees C, in absence and presence of 5 mM CaCl2 respectively. The enzyme remained active and stable at pH 8-12, with an optimum at pH 10. The enzyme showed stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants, and oxidizing agents. It also showed excellent stability and compatibility with commonly used laundry detergents. Wash performance analysis revealed that enzyme could effectively remove blood stains. It also showed decomposition of gelatinous coating on X- ray film.

  9. Alkaline protease production, extraction and characterization from alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis KBDL4: a Lonar soda lake isolate.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Anupama P; Deshmukh, Kshipra B

    2012-08-01

    A bacterium producing an alkaline protease was isolated from the Lonar soda lake, Buldhana district (19 degrees 58' N; 76 degrees 31' E), Maharashtra, India. The most appropriate medium for the growth and protease production was composed of (g/L): casein 10; yeast extract 4; KH2PO4 0.5, K2HPO4 0.5 and CaCl2 0.5. The enzyme showed maximum activity with and without 5 mM Ca2+ at 70 and 60 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme retained 40 and 82% of its initial activity after heating for 60 min at 60 degrees C, in absence and presence of 5 mM CaCl2 respectively. The enzyme remained active and stable at pH 8-12, with an optimum at pH 10. The enzyme showed stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants, and oxidizing agents. It also showed excellent stability and compatibility with commonly used laundry detergents. Wash performance analysis revealed that enzyme could effectively remove blood stains. It also showed decomposition of gelatinous coating on X- ray film. PMID:23016494

  10. The Buffering Balance: Modeling Arctic river total-, inorganic-, and organic-alkalinity fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, C. W.; Salisbury, J.; Wollheim, W. M.; Mineau, M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    River-borne inputs of alkalinity influence the pH and pCO2 of coastal ocean waters, and changes in alkalinity inputs also have implications for responses to climate-driven ocean acidification. Recent work has shown that alkalinity fluxes from rivers are not always dominated by inorganic carbon species, and can instead be composed somewhat or mostly of non-carbonate, presumably organic species. Concentrations and proportions of organic alkalinity (O-Alk) are correlated to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and fluxes, which are predicted to rise as Arctic permafrost thaws and the hydrologic cycle intensifies. We have scaled results from watershed studies to develop a process-based model to simulate and aggregate Arctic river exports of total alkalinity, DOC, and O-Alk to the coastal sea. Total alkalinity, DOC, and O-Alk were loaded to a river network and routed through a 6-minute hydrologic model (FrAMES). We present results contrasting poorly buffered (e.g. the Kolyma river) and highly buffered (e.g. the Yukon river) systems, the impact of O-Alk on river pH and pCO2, and examine the seasonalities of inorganic and organic influences on coastal ocean carbonate chemistry.

  11. Monoclonal antibody to alkaline phosphatase from the intestinal mucosa of the harp seal, Phoca groenlandica.

    PubMed

    Sakharov IYu; Mechetner, E B; Stepanova, I E; Shekhonin, B V; Pletjushkina OYu

    1992-04-01

    1. Hybridoma secreting a monoclonal antibody APP.1 to the harp seal alkaline phosphatase (A1Ph) was obtained by fusing murine myeloma Sp 2/0 cells with the splenocytes of BALB/c mice immunized with purified isozyme K. 2. The antibody has no effect on the enzyme activity and shows a high affinity for harp seal A1Ph (KD = 8.5 x 10(-10) M). The antibody has similar affinities for the AlPh of harp seal, fur seal, common seal and deer. 3. The antibody APP.1 was coupled to Sepharose and employed in chromatographic purification of the harp seal intestinal AlPh. Alkaline phosphatase isolated on this immunosorbent has a spec. act. of 20,800 units per mg of protein. 4. The antibody-enzyme complex gives an excellent immunocytochemical labeling of tissue sections, cell cultures and smears.

  12. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  13. Identification of a novel carotenoid, 2'-isopentenylsaproxanthin, by Jejuia pallidilutea strain 11shimoA1 and its increased production under alkaline condition.

    PubMed

    Takatani, N; Nishida, K; Sawabe, T; Maoka, T; Miyashita, K; Hosokawa, M

    2014-08-01

    Carotenoids are a class of naturally occurring pigment, carrying out important biological functions in photosynthesis and involved in environmental responses including nutrition in organisms. Saproxanthin and myxol, which have monocyclic carotenoids with a γ-carotene skeleton, have been reported to show a stronger antioxidant activity than those with β-carotene and zeaxanthin. In this research, a yellow-orange bacterium of strain 11shimoA1 (JCM19538) was isolated from a seaweed collected at Nabeta Bay (Shizuoka, Japan). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain 11shimoA1 revealed more than 99.99 % similarity with those of Jejuia pallidilutea strains in the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain 11shimoA1 synthesized two types of carotenoids. One of them was (3R, 3'R)-zeaxanthin with dicyclic structure and another was identified as (3R, 2'S)-2'-isopentenylsaproxanthin, a novel monocyclic carotenoid with pentenyl residue at C-2' position of saproxanthin, using FAB-MS, (1)H NMR, and CD analyses. Culturing strain 11shimoA1 in an alkaline medium at pH 9.2 resulted in a markedly increased in production of 2'-isopentenylsaproxanthin per dry cell weight, but a decreased in zeaxanthin production as compared to their respective production levels in medium with pH 7.0. These carotenoids are likely to play some roles in the adaptation of the bacterium to the environmental conditions. PMID:24723292

  14. On the apparent CO2 absorption by alkaline soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wang, W. F.

    2014-02-01

    Alkaline soils in the Gubantonggut Desert were recently demonstrated socking away large quantities of CO2 in an abiotic form. This demands a better understanding of abiotic CO2 exchange in alkaline sites. Reaction of CO2 with the moisture or dew in the soil was conjectured as a potential mechanism. The main goal of this study is to determine the extent to which the dew deposition modulates Land-Atmosphere CO2 exchange at highly alkaline sites (pH ~ 10). Experiments were conducted at the most barren sites (canopy coverage < 5%) to cut down uncertainty. Dew quantities and soil CO2 fluxes were measured using a micro-lysimeters and an automated flux system (LI-COR, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA), respectively. There is an evident increase of dew deposition in nocturnal colder temperatures and decrease in diurnal warmer temperatures. Variations of soil CO2 flux are almost contrary, but the increase in diurnal warmer temperatures is obscure. It was shown that the accumulation and evaporation of dew in the soil motivates the apparent absorption and release of CO2. It was demonstrated that dew amounts in the soil has an exponential relation with the part in Fc beyond explanations of the worldwide utilized Q10 model. Therefore dew deposition in highly alkaline soils exerted a potential CO2 sink and can partly explain the apparent CO2 absorption. This implied a crucial component in the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) at alkaline sites which occupies approximately 5% of the Earth's land surface (7 million km). Further explorations for its mechanisms and representativeness over other arid climate systems have comprehensive perspectives in the quaternary research.

  15. [DNA degradation during standard alkaline of thermal denaturation].

    PubMed

    Drozhdeniuk, A P; Sulimova, G E; Vaniushin, B F

    1976-01-01

    Essential degradation 8 DNA (up to 10 per cent) with liberation of acid-soluble fragments takes place on the standard alkaline (0,01 M sodium phosphate, pH 12, 60 degrees, 15 min) or thermal (0.06 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, 102 degrees C, 15 min) denaturation. This degradation is more or less selective: fraction of low molecular weight fragments, isolated by hydroxyapatite cromatography and eluted by 0.06 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 is rich in adenine and thymine and contains about 2 times less 5-methylcytosine than the total wheat germ DNA. The degree of degradation of DNA on thermal denaturation is higher than on alkaline degradation. Therefore while studying reassociation of various DNA, one and the same standard method of DNA denaturation should be used. Besides, both the level of DNA degradation and the nature of the resulting products (fragments) should be taken into account.

  16. Molecular Components of the Neurospora crassa pH Signaling Pathway and Their Regulation by pH and the PAC-3 Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Virgilio, Stela; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Bernardes, Natália Elisa; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; Takeda, Agnes Alessandra Sekijima; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pH induces a stress response triggering a signaling pathway whose components have been identified and characterized in several fungi. Neurospora crassa shares all six components of the Aspergillus nidulans pH signaling pathway, and we investigate here their regulation during an alkaline pH stress response. We show that the N. crassa pal mutant strains, with the exception of Δpal-9, which is the A. nidulans palI homolog, exhibit low conidiation and are unable to grow at alkaline pH. Moreover, they accumulate the pigment melanin, most likely via regulation of the tyrosinase gene by the pH signaling components. The PAC-3 transcription factor binds to the tyrosinase promoter and negatively regulates its gene expression. PAC-3 also binds to all pal gene promoters, regulating their expression at normal growth pH and/or alkaline pH, which indicates a feedback regulation of PAC-3 in the pal gene expression. In addition, PAC-3 binds to the pac-3 promoter only at alkaline pH, most likely influencing the pac-3 expression at this pH suggesting that the activation of PAC-3 in N. crassa results from proteolytic processing and gene expression regulation by the pH signaling components. In N. crassa, PAC-3 is proteolytically processed in a single cleavage step predominately at alkaline pH; however, low levels of the processed protein can be observed at normal growth pH. We also demonstrate that PAC-3 preferentially localizes in the nucleus at alkaline pH stress and that the translocation may require the N. crassa importin-α since the PAC-3 nuclear localization signal (NLS) has a strong in vitro affinity with importin-α. The data presented here show that the pH signaling pathway in N. crassa shares all the components with the A. nidulans and S. cerevisiae pathways; however, it exhibits some properties not previously described in either organism. PMID:27557053

  17. Molecular Components of the Neurospora crassa pH Signaling Pathway and Their Regulation by pH and the PAC-3 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Stela; Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Bernardes, Natália Elisa; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; Takeda, Agnes Alessandra Sekijima; Fontes, Marcos Roberto de Mattos; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pH induces a stress response triggering a signaling pathway whose components have been identified and characterized in several fungi. Neurospora crassa shares all six components of the Aspergillus nidulans pH signaling pathway, and we investigate here their regulation during an alkaline pH stress response. We show that the N. crassa pal mutant strains, with the exception of Δpal-9, which is the A. nidulans palI homolog, exhibit low conidiation and are unable to grow at alkaline pH. Moreover, they accumulate the pigment melanin, most likely via regulation of the tyrosinase gene by the pH signaling components. The PAC-3 transcription factor binds to the tyrosinase promoter and negatively regulates its gene expression. PAC-3 also binds to all pal gene promoters, regulating their expression at normal growth pH and/or alkaline pH, which indicates a feedback regulation of PAC-3 in the pal gene expression. In addition, PAC-3 binds to the pac-3 promoter only at alkaline pH, most likely influencing the pac-3 expression at this pH suggesting that the activation of PAC-3 in N. crassa results from proteolytic processing and gene expression regulation by the pH signaling components. In N. crassa, PAC-3 is proteolytically processed in a single cleavage step predominately at alkaline pH; however, low levels of the processed protein can be observed at normal growth pH. We also demonstrate that PAC-3 preferentially localizes in the nucleus at alkaline pH stress and that the translocation may require the N. crassa importin-α since the PAC-3 nuclear localization signal (NLS) has a strong in vitro affinity with importin-α. The data presented here show that the pH signaling pathway in N. crassa shares all the components with the A. nidulans and S. cerevisiae pathways; however, it exhibits some properties not previously described in either organism. PMID:27557053

  18. XANES Demonstrates the Release of Calcium Phosphates from Alkaline Vertisols to Moderately Acidified Solution.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Karl O; Tighe, Matthew K; Guppy, Christopher N; Milham, Paul J; McLaren, Timothy I; Schefe, Cassandra R; Lombi, Enzo

    2016-04-19

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) minerals may comprise the main phosphorus (P) reserve in alkaline soils, with solubility dependent on pH and the concentration of Ca and/or P in solution. Combining several techniques in a novel way, we studied these phenomena by progressively depleting P from suspensions of two soils (low P) using an anion-exchange membrane (AEM) and from a third soil (high P) with AEM together with a cation-exchange membrane. Depletions commenced on untreated soil, then continued as pH was manipulated and maintained at three constant pH levels: the initial pH (pHi) and pH 6.5 and 5.5. Bulk P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed that the main forms of inorganic P in each soil were apatite, a second more soluble CaP mineral, and smectite-sorbed P. With moderate depletion of P at pHi or pH 6.5, CaP minerals became more prominent in the spectra compared to sorbed species. The more soluble CaP minerals were depleted at pH 6.5, and all CaP minerals were exhausted at pH 5.5, showing that the CaP species present in these alkaline soils are soluble with decreases of pH in the range achievable by rhizosphere acidification. PMID:26974327

  19. Column leaching test to evaluate the use of alkaline industrial wastes to neutralize acid mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Doye, I.; Duchesne, J.

    2005-08-01

    Acid mine drainage is a serious environmental problem caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals that releases highly acidic, sulfate, and metals-rich drainage. In this study, alkaline industrial wastes were mixed with acid mine tailings in order to obtain neutral conditions. A series of column leaching tests were performed to evaluate the behavior of reactive mine tailings amended with alkaline-additions under dynamic conditions. Column tests were conducted of oxidized mine tailings combined with cement kiln dust, red mud bauxite, and mixtures of cement kiln dust with red mud bauxite. The pH results show the addition of 10% of alkaline materials permits the maintenance of near neutral conditions. In the presence of 10% alkaline material, the concentration of toxic metals such as Al, Cu, Fe, Zn are significantly reduced as well as the number of viable cells (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) compared to control samples.

  20. Permeability Modification Using a Reactive Alkaline-Soluble Biopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Snadra L. Fox; X. Xie; K. D. Schaller; E. P. Robertson; G. A. Bala

    2003-10-01

    Polymer injection has been used in reservoirs to alleviate contrasting permeability zones. Current technology relies on the use of cross-linking agents to initiate gelation. The use of biological polymers are advantageous in that they can block high permeability areas, are environmentally friendly, and have potential to form reversible gels without the use of hazardous cross-linkers. Recent efforts at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have produced a reactive alkaline-soluble biopolymer from Agrobacterium sp. ATCC no. 31749 that gels upon decreasing the pH of the polymeric solution. The focus of this study was to determine the impact an alkaline-soluble biopolymer can have on sandstone permeability. Permeability modification was investigated by injecting solubilized biopolymer into Berea sandstone cores and defining the contribution of pH, salt, temperature, and Schuricht crude oil on biopolymer gelation. The biopolymer was soluble in KOH at a pH greater than 11.4 and gelled when the pH dropped below 10.8. The Berea sandstone core buffered the biopolymer solution, decreasing the pH sufficiently to form a gel, which subsequently decreased the permeability. The effluent pH of the control cores injected with 0.01 {und M} KOH (pH 12.0) and 0.10{und M} KOH (pH 13.0) decreased to 10.6 and 12.7, respectively. The permeability of the sandstone core injected with biopolymer was decreased to greater than 95% of the original permeability at 25 C in the presence of 2% NaCl, and Schuricht crude oil; however, the permeability increased when the temperature of the core was increased to 60 C. Residual resistance factors as high as 792 were seen in Berea cores treated with biopolymer. The buffering capacity of sandstone has been demonstrated to reduce the pH of a biopolymer solution sufficiently to cause the polymer to form a stable in-situ gel. This finding could potentially lead to alternate technology for permeability modification, thus

  1. Phosphate Sorption and Desorption on Pyrite in Primitive Aqueous Scenarios: Relevance of acidic → Alkaline Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza-Barros, Fernando; Braz-Levigard, Raphael; Ching-San, Yonder; Monte, Marisa M. B.; Bonapace, José A. P.; Montezano, Viviane; Vieyra, Adalberto

    2007-02-01

    Phosphate (P i) sorption assays onto pyrite in media simulating primeval aquatic scenarios affected by hydrothermal emissions, reveal that acidic conditions favour P i sorption whereas mild alkaline media as well as those simulating sulfur oxidation to SO2- 4 revert this capture process. Several mechanisms relevant to P i availability in prebiotic eras are implicated in the modulation of these processes. Those favouring sorption are: (a) hydrophobic coating of molecules, such as acetate that could be formed in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents; (b) water and Mg2+ bridging in the interface mineral-aqueous media; (c) surface charge neutralization by monovalent cations (Na+ and K+). The increase of both the medium pH and the SO2- 4 trapping by the mineral interface would provoke the release of sorbed P i due to charge polarization. Moreover it is shown that P i self-modulates its sorption, a mechanism that depends on the abundance of SO2- 4 in the interface. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms of P i capture, release and trapping arises from the need of abundant presence of this molecule for primitive phosphorylations, since similarly to contemporary aqueous media inorganic phosphate concentrations in primitive seas should have been low. It is proposed that the presence of sulphide minerals with high affinity to P i could have trapped this molecule in an efficient manner, allowing its concentration in specific niches. In these niches, the conditions studied in the present work would have been relevant for its availability in soluble form, specially in primitive insulated systems with pH gradients across the wall.

  2. Phosphate sorption and desorption on pyrite in primitive aqueous scenarios: relevance of acidic --> alkaline transitions.

    PubMed

    de Souza-Barros, Fernando; Braz-Levigard, Raphael; Ching-San, Yonder; Monte, Marisa M B; Bonapace, José A P; Montezano, Viviane; Vieyra, Adalberto

    2007-02-01

    Phosphate (P(i)) sorption assays onto pyrite in media simulating primeval aquatic scenarios affected by hydrothermal emissions, reveal that acidic conditions favour P(i) sorption whereas mild alkaline media--as well as those simulating sulfur oxidation to SO(2-) (4)--revert this capture process. Several mechanisms relevant to P(i) availability in prebiotic eras are implicated in the modulation of these processes. Those favouring sorption are: (a) hydrophobic coating of molecules, such as acetate that could be formed in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents; (b) water and Mg(2+) bridging in the interface mineral-aqueous media; (c) surface charge neutralization by monovalent cations (Na+ and K+). The increase of both the medium pH and the SO(2-) (4) trapping by the mineral interface would provoke the release of sorbed P(i) due to charge polarization. Moreover it is shown that P(i) self-modulates its sorption, a mechanism that depends on the abundance of SO(2-) (4) in the interface. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms of P(i) capture, release and trapping arises from the need of abundant presence of this molecule for primitive phosphorylations, since--similarly to contemporary aqueous media--inorganic phosphate concentrations in primitive seas should have been low. It is proposed that the presence of sulphide minerals with high affinity to P(i) could have trapped this molecule in an efficient manner, allowing its concentration in specific niches. In these niches, the conditions studied in the present work would have been relevant for its availability in soluble form, specially in primitive insulated systems with pH gradients across the wall.

  3. A psychrotolerant strain of Serratia marcescens (MTCC 4822) produces laccase at wide temperature and pH range.

    PubMed

    Kaira, Gaurav Singh; Dhakar, Kusum; Pandey, Anita

    2015-12-01

    A psychrotolerant bacterial strain of Serratia marcescens, originally isolated from a glacial site in Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), has been investigated for laccase production under different culture conditions. The bacterial strain was found to grow between 4 to 45°C (opt. 25°C) and 3 to 14 pH (opt. 5 pH) on prescribed growth medium, coinciding with production of laccase in laccase producing medium. However, the production of laccase was more consistent toward alkaline pH. Laccase enzyme was partially purified using gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of laccase was determined ~53 kDa on native PAGE. The Km and Vmax values were determined to be 0.10 mM and 50.00 μM min(-1), respectively, with ABTS. Inoculum size (4.0% v/v at 1.5 O.D.) resulted in significantly higher production of laccase. Carbon and nitrogen sources also affected the laccase production significantly. All the carbon sources enhanced laccase production, xylose being the best enhancer (P < 0.01). Among nitrogen sources, organic sources were found to act as inhibitors (P < 0.01), and among the in-organic sources only sodium nitrate enhanced the laccase production. Low molecular weight organic solvents significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced laccase production up to 24 h of incubation with a decline in later incubation period. Production of laccase by the psychrotolerant bacterium in wide range of temperature and pH is likely to have inference in biotechnological processes.

  4. The Martian ocean: First acid, then alkaline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    In Mars' distant past, carbon dioxide and water may have been plentiful. Values of total outgassed CO2 from several to about 10 bar are consistent with present knowledge, and this amount of CO2 implies an amount of water outgassed equal to an equivalent depth of 500 to 1000 m. It is quite reasonable, therefore, to envision an early Mars in which there was a body or bodies of liquid water, perhaps in the northern plains, and a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Under such conditions, the pH of the water will be low, due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the water to form carbonic acid. This acidic water is capable of weathering the available rock quite intensely, particularly because this rock is likely to be heavily fractured (from meteorite bombardment) or even consist of fine particles (such as pyroclastic deposits). As time goes on, however, the carbon dioxide atmosphere will rapidly pass through the ocean to form carbonate deposits. As the density of the atmosphere decreases, so will the flux of carbonic acid into the ocean. Without this input of carbonic acid, the effect of the dissolved weathering products will be to increase the pH of the water. The ocean will then become alkaline. To study this process, I have developed a geochemical cycle model for the atmosphere-hydrosphere-regolith system of Mars. The treatment of geochemical cycles as complex kinetic chemical reactions has been undertaken for terrestrial systems in recent years with much success. This method is capable of elegantly handling the interactions between the simultaneous chemical reactions needed to understand such a system.

  5. The Martian ocean: First acid, then alkaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, M. W.

    1993-09-01

    In Mars' distant past, carbon dioxide and water may have been plentiful. Values of total outgassed CO2 from several to about 10 bar are consistent with present knowledge, and this amount of CO2 implies an amount of water outgassed equal to an equivalent depth of 500 to 1000 m. It is quite reasonable, therefore, to envision an early Mars in which there was a body or bodies of liquid water, perhaps in the northern plains, and a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Under such conditions, the pH of the water will be low, due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the water to form carbonic acid. This acidic water is capable of weathering the available rock quite intensely, particularly because this rock is likely to be heavily fractured (from meteorite bombardment) or even consist of fine particles (such as pyroclastic deposits). As time goes on, however, the carbon dioxide atmosphere will rapidly pass through the ocean to form carbonate deposits. As the density of the atmosphere decreases, so will the flux of carbonic acid into the ocean. Without this input of carbonic acid, the effect of the dissolved weathering products will be to increase the pH of the water. The ocean will then become alkaline. To study this process, I have developed a geochemical cycle model for the atmosphere-hydrosphere-regolith system of Mars. The treatment of geochemical cycles as complex kinetic chemical reactions has been undertaken for terrestrial systems in recent years with much success. This method is capable of elegantly handling the interactions between the simultaneous chemical reactions needed to understand such a system.

  6. Decrease of time for pathogen inactivation in alkaline disinfection systems using pressure.

    PubMed

    Fitzmorris, Kari B; Reimers, Robert S; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A; Little, M Dale

    2007-04-01

    From field studies conducted by Tulane University (New Orleans, Louisiana), efficiency of advanced alkaline disinfection in closed systems was found to depend on ammonia concentration, pH, exposure time, temperature, total solids content, pretreatment storage time, and mixing effectiveness. In this study of a closed alkaline system, an additional pathogen stressor pressure was tested. The effect of the alkaline dosing has been assessed for dewatered raw and aerobically and anaerobically digested municipal sludge cake that produce un-ionized ammonia at concentrations of 0.05 to 2% on a dry-weight basis. Inactivation of Ascaris suum eggs increased from 50 to 99% as the temperature was increased from 40 to 55 degrees C, thus achieving Class A levels. The systems studied were compared with an alkaline process operated under open conditions, which limited the concentrations of ammonia available because of Henry's Law. Under a closed pressurized system, the effect of un-ionized ammonia was greatly increased, and the resulting time required for inactivation was reduced from hours or days to minutes. In the next few years, it is expected that alkaline disinfection of biosolids will be optimized in relation to the factors stated above, at much lower doses of the alkaline agents. The closed-system alkaline processes that will be developed will be more energy-efficient, cost-effective, and have full control of potential odorous emissions.

  7. Oscillatory increases in alkalinity anticipate growth and may regulate actin dynamics in pollen tubes of lily.

    PubMed

    Lovy-Wheeler, Alenka; Kunkel, Joseph G; Allwood, Ellen G; Hussey, Patrick J; Hepler, Peter K

    2006-09-01

    Lily (Lilium formosanum or Lilium longiflorum) pollen tubes, microinjected with a low concentration of the pH-sensitive dye bis-carboxyethyl carboxyfluorescein dextran, show oscillating pH changes in their apical domain relative to growth. An increase in pH in the apex precedes the fastest growth velocities, whereas a decline follows growth, suggesting a possible relationship between alkalinity and cell extension. A target for pH may be the actin cytoskeleton, because the apical cortical actin fringe resides in the same region as the alkaline band in lily pollen tubes and elongation requires actin polymerization. A pH-sensitive actin binding protein, actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), together with actin-interacting protein (AIP) localize to the cortical actin fringe region. Modifying intracellular pH leads to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, especially in the apical domain. Acidification causes actin filament destabilization and inhibits growth by 80%. Upon complete growth inhibition, the actin fringe is the first actin cytoskeleton component to disappear. We propose that during normal growth, the pH increase in the alkaline band stimulates the fragmenting activity of ADF/AIP, which in turn generates more sites for actin polymerization. Increased actin polymerization supports faster growth rates and a proton influx, which inactivates ADF/AIP, decreases actin polymerization, and retards growth. As pH stabilizes and increases, the activity of ADF/AIP again increases, repeating the cycle of events. PMID:16920777

  8. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-04-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent

  9. Effect of pH on fecal recovery of energy derived from volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kien, C L; Liechty, E A

    1987-01-01

    We assessed the effect of pH on volatilization of short-chain fatty acids during lyophilization. Acetic, propionic, valeric, and butyric acids were added to a fecal homogenate in amounts sufficient to raise the energy density by 18-27%. Fecal homogenate samples were either acidified (pH 2.8-3.2), alkalinized (pH 7.9-8.7), or left unchanged (4.0-4.8) prior to lyophilization and subsequent bomb calorimetry. Alkalinizing the fecal samples prevented the 20% loss of energy derived from each of these volatile fatty acids observed in samples either acidified or without pH adjustment. These data suggest that in energy balance studies involving subjects with active colonic fermentation, fecal samples should be alkalinized prior to lyophilization and bomb calorimetry. PMID:3681570

  10. Rapid changes of precipitation pH in Qinghai Province, the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, David D; Jim, C Y; Peart, M R; Shi, Changxing

    2003-04-15

    Rainfall monitoring programs were conducted in two industrial cities of China's Qinghai Province, Xining and Germu, in some periods of the 1980s and 1990s. The results show that the natural precipitation in this area is originally alkaline. Compared with the late 1980s records, pH values declined significantly from approximately 8 in the 1980s to below 7 in mid-1990s. Such rapid and drastic changes were attributed to fast industrial development that released a large amount of pollutants. Subsequent tough control on pollutant emission partly restored pH values back to above 7 in the late 1990s. The pH and rainfall chemical analyses indicate that alkaline rain in this continental arid region is caused by airborne dusts which originate from local alkaline soils. With decrease of pH value, the total ionic concentration of rainwater is increased because acids were added to the rainwater.

  11. Effect of pH on fecal recovery of energy derived from volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kien, C L; Liechty, E A

    1987-01-01

    We assessed the effect of pH on volatilization of short-chain fatty acids during lyophilization. Acetic, propionic, valeric, and butyric acids were added to a fecal homogenate in amounts sufficient to raise the energy density by 18-27%. Fecal homogenate samples were either acidified (pH 2.8-3.2), alkalinized (pH 7.9-8.7), or left unchanged (4.0-4.8) prior to lyophilization and subsequent bomb calorimetry. Alkalinizing the fecal samples prevented the 20% loss of energy derived from each of these volatile fatty acids observed in samples either acidified or without pH adjustment. These data suggest that in energy balance studies involving subjects with active colonic fermentation, fecal samples should be alkalinized prior to lyophilization and bomb calorimetry.

  12. Alkaline approach to treating cooling towers for control of Legionella pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    States, S.J.; Conley, L.F.; Towner, S.G.; Wolford, R.S.; Stephenson, T.E.; McNamara, M.; Wadowsky, R.M.; Yee, R.B.

    1987-08-01

    Earlier field and laboratory studies have shown that Legionella species survive and multiply in the pH range 5.5 to 9.2. Additionally, the technical feasibility of operating cooling towers at elevated alkalinities and pH has previously been documented by published guidelines. The guidelines indicate that these conditions facilitate corrosion control and favor chlorine persistence which enhances the effectiveness of continuous chlorination in biofouling control. This information suggest that control of Legionella species in cooling towers can be accomplished by operating the towers under alkaline conditions. To test this possibility, we collected water samples over a period of months from a hospital cooling tower. The samples were analyzed for a variety of chemical parameters. Subsamples were pasteurized and inoculated with non-agar-passaged Legionella pneumophila which had been maintained in tap water. Correlation of subsequent Legionella growth with corresponding pH and alkalinity values revealed statistically significant inverse associations. These data support the hypothesis that operating cooling towers outside of the optimal conditions for Legionella growth (e.g., at elevated alkalinities and a pH greater than 9) may be a useful approach to controlling growth in this habitat.

  13. Long-term evolution of highly alkaline steel slag drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Riley, Alex L; Mayes, William M

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of slag generated by the steel industry can have negative consequences upon the surrounding aquatic environment by the generation of high pH waters, leaching of potentially problematic trace metals, and rapid rates of calcite precipitation which smother benthic habitats. A 36-year dataset was collated from the long-term ambient monitoring of physicochemical parameters and elemental concentrations of samples from two steel slag leachate-affected watercourses in northern England. Waters were typified by elevated pH (>10), high alkalinity, and were rich in dissolved metals (e.g. calcium (Ca), aluminium (Al), and zinc (Zn)). Long-term trend analysis was performed upon pH, alkalinity, and Ca concentration which, in addition to Ca flux calculations, were used to highlight the longevity of pollution arising as a result of the dumping and subsequent leaching of steel slags. Declines in calcium and alkalinity have been modest over the monitoring period and not accompanied by significant declines in water pH. If the monotonic trends of decline in alkalinity and calcium continue in the largest of the receiving streams, it will be in the region of 50-80 years before calcite precipitation would be expected to be close to baseline levels, where ecological impacts would be negligible.

  14. Flow modeling of alkaline dissolution by a thermodynamic or by a kinetic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Labrid, J.; Bazin, B. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents a calculation of the propagation of basic pH in a reservoir rock based on either a kinetically controlled reaction or a thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. Results demonstrate that the kinetic approach is the only way to analyze the interactions of alkaline chemicals with clayey sandstones properly.

  15. Studies on alkaline serine protease produced by Bacillus clausii GMBE 22.

    PubMed

    Kazan, Dilek; Bal, Hulya; Denizci, Aziz Akin; Ozturk, Nurcin Celik; Ozturk, Hasan Umit; Dilgimen, Aydan Salman; Ozturk, Dilek Coskuner; Erarslan, Altan

    2009-01-01

    An alkali tolerant Bacillus strain having extracellular serine alkaline protease activity was newly isolated from compost and identified as Bacillus clausii GMBE 22. An alkaline protease (AP22) was 4.66-fold purified in 51.5% yield from Bacillus clausii GMBE 22 by ethanol precipitation and DEAE-cellulose anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was identified as serine protease by LC-ESI-MS analysis. Its complete inhibition by phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride (PMSF) also justified that it is a serine alkaline protease. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 25.4 kDa. Optimal temperature and pH values are 60 degrees C and 12.0, respectively. The enzyme showed highest specificity to N-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA. The K(m) and k(cat) values for hydrolysis of this substrate are 0.347 mM and 1141 min(-1) respectively. The enzyme was affected by surface active agents to varying extents. The enzyme is stable for 2 h at 30 degrees C and pH 10.5. AP22 is also stable for 5 days over the pH range 9.0-11.0 at room temperature. AP22 has good pH stability compared with the alkaline proteases belonging to other strains of Bacillus clausii reported in the literature. PMID:19431045

  16. Alkaline fixation drastically improves the signal of in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Basyuk, Eugenia; Bertrand, Edouard; Journot, Laurent

    2000-01-01

    In situ hybridization (ISH) is widely used to detect DNA and RNA sequences within the cell and tissue sections. The important step in performing this technique is tissue fixation. We investigated the influence of the pH of the fixative on the outcome of ISH. Our studies indicate that alkaline formaldehyde dramatically increases the ISH signal with RNA probes. The increase in signal was observed for detection of low as well as for high abundance messages. The sensitivity of the method was increased 5- to 6-fold. PMID:10773094

  17. Reduction of Proteinuria through Podocyte Alkalinization*

    PubMed Central

    Altintas, Mehmet M.; Moriwaki, Kumiko; Wei, Changli; Möller, Clemens C.; Flesche, Jan; Li, Jing; Yaddanapudi, Suma; Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Gödel, Markus; Huber, Tobias B.; Preston, Richard A.; Jiang, Jean X.; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Sever, Sanja; Reiser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Podocytes are highly differentiated cells and critical elements for the filtration barrier of the kidney. Loss of their foot process (FP) architecture (FP effacement) results in urinary protein loss. Here we show a novel role for the neutral amino acid glutamine in structural and functional regulation of the kidney filtration barrier. Metabolic flux analysis of cultured podocytes using genetic, toxic, and immunologic injury models identified increased glutamine utilization pathways. We show that glutamine uptake is increased in diseased podocytes to couple nutrient support to increased demand during the disease state of FP effacement. This feature can be utilized to transport increased amounts of glutamine into damaged podocytes. The availability of glutamine determines the regulation of podocyte intracellular pH (pHi). Podocyte alkalinization reduces cytosolic cathepsin L protease activity and protects the podocyte cytoskeleton. Podocyte glutamine supplementation reduces proteinuria in LPS-treated mice, whereas acidification increases glomerular injury. In summary, our data provide a metabolic opportunity to combat urinary protein loss through modulation of podocyte amino acid utilization and pHi. PMID:24817115

  18. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, C.L.W.

    1995-07-25

    A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

  19. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

  20. Relation of pH to toxicity of lampricide TFM in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.; Rach, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the control of larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus ) with 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) in tributaries of the Great Lakes, occasional kills of other fishes have caused concern about the effects of the chemical on non-target organisms. Stream treatment rates have been based on previous application rates, alkalinity measurements, results of on-site toxicity tests, or combinations of these. Laboratory studies in 1987 showed that pH is the primary factor that affects the toxicity of TFM (the lower the pH, the greater the toxicity): even small changes in pH alter the toxicity, whereas substantial changes in alkalinity have little effect. In 12-h exposures, the 96-h LC50 for TFM to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri ) ranged from about 0.9 mg/L at pH 6.5 to > 100 mg/L at pH 9.5, but (at pH 7.5) the LC50's differed little at total alkalinities of about 18 mg/L and 207 mg/L. Decreases in pH as small as 0.5 pH unit caused nontoxic solutions to become toxic to rainbow trout. Some kills of non-target fish during stream treatments were reportedly caused by decreases in pH, and (conversely) that some stream treatments for sea lampreys were ineffective because pH increased.

  1. Biocontrol activity of an alkaline serine protease from Aureobasidium pullulans expressed in Pichia pastoris against four postharvest pathogens on apple.

    PubMed

    Banani, Houda; Spadaro, Davide; Zhang, Dianpeng; Matic, Slavica; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2014-07-16

    The yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans PL5 is a microbial antagonist against postharvest pathogens of fruits. The strain is able to produce hydrolases, including glucanases, chitinases and proteases. The alkaline serine protease gene ALP5 from A. pullulans was cloned, inserted into the vector pPIC9 to construct pPIC9/ALP5, and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strain KM71. ALP5 had a molecular mass of 42.9kDa after 5days growth with 1% methanol induction at 28°C. The recombinant protease expressed in P. pastoris showed its highest activity under alkaline conditions (at pH10) and a temperature of 50°C. The antifungal activity of the recombinant protease was investigated against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructicola and Alternaria alternata in vitro and on apple. The recombinant protease reduced significantly the spore germination and the germ tube length of the tested pathogens in PDB medium. The highest level of protease efficacy was observed against M. fructicola and B. cinerea, whereas a lower efficacy was observed against P. expansum and A. alternata indicating a possible effect of the pathogen cell wall composition on the proteolytic activity of the recombinant protease. The presence of protease was able to cause the swelling of the hyphae of B. cinerea, under an optical microscope. The recombinant protease expressed in P. pastoris was more active against the pathogens in vitro than the same enzyme expressed in E. coli in previous studies. The efficacy of ALP5 was also evaluated against the pathogens in vivo on cv Golden Delicious apples. The protease was more efficient in controlling M. fructicola, B. cinerea and P. expansum than A. alternata. However, the extent of the activity was dependent on the enzyme concentration and the length of fruit storage. This study demonstrated the capacity of the alkaline serine protease to keep its enzymatic activity for some days in the unfavorable environment of the fruit wounds. The alkaline

  2. Simulation of hydrogen sulphide absorption in alkaline solution using a packed column.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Mohamed; Biard, Pierre-François; Couvert, Annabelle; Ben Amor, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a simulation tool was developed for hydrogen sulphide (H₂S) removal in an alkaline solution in packed columns working at countercurrent. Modelling takes into account the mass-transfer enhancement due to the reversible reactions between H₂S and the alkaline species (CO(²⁻)(3), HCO⁻(3), and HO⁻) in the liquid film. Many parameters can be controlled by the user such as the gas and liquid inlet H₂S concentrations, the gas and liquid flow rates, the scrubbing liquid pH, the desired H₂S removal efficiency, the temperature, the alkalinity, etc. Since the influence of the hydrodynamic and mass-transfer performances in a packed column is well known, the numerical resolutions performed were dedicated to the study of the influence of the chemical conditions (through the pH and the alkalinity), the temperature and the liquid-to-gas mass flow rate ratio (L/G). A packed column of 3 m equipped with a given random packing material working at countercurrent and steady state has been modelled. The results show that the H₂S removal efficiency increases with the L/G, the pH, the alkalinity and more surprisingly with the temperature. Alkalinity has a very significant effect on the removal efficiency through the mass-transfer enhancement and buffering effect, which limits pH decreasing due to H₂S absorption. This numerical resolution provides a tool for designers and researchers involved in H₂S treatment to understand deeper the process and optimize their processes.

  3. A broad pH range indicator-based spectrophotometric assay for true lipases using tributyrin and tricaprylin.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Ruiz, María de Los Angeles; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Carrière, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Jorge A

    2015-05-01

    A continuous assay is proposed for the screening of acidic, neutral, or alkaline lipases using microtiter plates, emulsified short- and medium-chain TGs, and a pH indicator. The lipase activity measurement is based on the decrease of the pH indicator optical density due to protonation which is caused by the release of FFAs during the hydrolysis of TGs and thus acidification. Purified lipases with distinct pH optima and an esterase were used to validate the method. The rate of lipolysis was found to be linear with time and proportional to the amount of enzyme added in each case. Specific activities measured with this microplate assay method were lower than those obtained by the pH-stat technique. Nevertheless, the pH-dependent profiles of enzymatic activity were similar with both assays. In addition, the substrate preference of each enzyme tested was not modified and this allowed discriminating lipase and esterase activities using tributyrin (low water solubility) and tricaprylin (not water soluble) as substrates. This continuous lipase assay is compatible with a high sample throughput and can be applied for the screening of lipases and lipase inhibitors from biological samples.

  4. A broad pH range indicator-based spectrophotometric assay for true lipases using tributyrin and tricaprylin.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Ruiz, María de Los Angeles; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Carrière, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Jorge A

    2015-05-01

    A continuous assay is proposed for the screening of acidic, neutral, or alkaline lipases using microtiter plates, emulsified short- and medium-chain TGs, and a pH indicator. The lipase activity measurement is based on the decrease of the pH indicator optical density due to protonation which is caused by the release of FFAs during the hydrolysis of TGs and thus acidification. Purified lipases with distinct pH optima and an esterase were used to validate the method. The rate of lipolysis was found to be linear with time and proportional to the amount of enzyme added in each case. Specific activities measured with this microplate assay method were lower than those obtained by the pH-stat technique. Nevertheless, the pH-dependent profiles of enzymatic activity were similar with both assays. In addition, the substrate preference of each enzyme tested was not modified and this allowed discriminating lipase and esterase activities using tributyrin (low water solubility) and tricaprylin (not water soluble) as substrates. This continuous lipase assay is compatible with a high sample throughput and can be applied for the screening of lipases and lipase inhibitors from biological samples. PMID:25748441

  5. A broad pH range indicator-based spectrophotometric assay for true lipases using tributyrin and tricaprylin[S

    PubMed Central

    Camacho-Ruiz, María de los Angeles; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Carrière, Frédéric; Rodriguez, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    A continuous assay is proposed for the screening of acidic, neutral, or alkaline lipases using microtiter plates, emulsified short- and medium-chain TGs, and a pH indicator. The lipase activity measurement is based on the decrease of the pH indicator optical density due to protonation which is caused by the release of FFAs during the hydrolysis of TGs and thus acidification. Purified lipases with distinct pH optima and an esterase were used to validate the method. The rate of lipolysis was found to be linear with time and proportional to the amount of enzyme added in each case. Specific activities measured with this microplate assay method were lower than those obtained by the pH-stat technique. Nevertheless, the pH-dependent profiles of enzymatic activity were similar with both assays. In addition, the substrate preference of each enzyme tested was not modified and this allowed discriminating lipase and esterase activities using tributyrin (low water solubility) and tricaprylin (not water soluble) as substrates. This continuous lipase assay is compatible with a high sample throughput and can be applied for the screening of lipases and lipase inhibitors from biological samples. PMID:25748441

  6. Effects of adenosine triphosphate and alkaline phosphatase on solubilized 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Faure, R; Dussault, J H

    1988-09-01

    The T3-binding activity of salt-extractable nuclear proteins from rat liver was affected when ATP (2-10 mM; pH 8.0) was added concomitantly with T3 in the incubation medium. Scatchard analysis revealed that the equilibrium association constant was significantly reduced [5 mM ATP, 0.3 +/- 0.1 (+/- SE) 10(10) M-1; control, 1.1 +/- 0.15 X 10(10) M-1], but the maximum binding capacity remained unchanged. Similar values of inhibition were obtained when unbound receptors were preincubated with ATP. ATP achieved its maximal effect after 45 min of incubation at 30 C. Dilution experiments indicated that the effect of ATP was reversible. The inhibiting potency of nucleoside triphosphates at pH 8.0 was in the following order: ATP = CTP greater than GTP, whereas UTP had no effect. Nonhydrolyzable analogs of ATP were also inhibitory, and HPLC fractionation showed an approximately 98% recovery of ATP after incubation with nuclear extract. The adenine ring with at least two phosphates was essential, since ADP was as potent as ATP, whereas AMP had no effect. When the pH of the incubation medium was lowered to 7.3, the T3-binding activity was inhibited by ATP in the 0.1-1 mM range. Magnesium (3 mM) greatly increases the ATP effect at pH 7.3, but not at pH 8. The T3-binding activity was also drastically reduced when calf intestine alkaline phosphatase was added concomitantly in the incubation medium. Eight micrograms per ml enzyme were necessary to inhibit the T3 specific binding by 50% (30 C for 45 min). Scatchard analysis showed that the receptor affinity for T3 was decreased (control, 1.1 +/- 0.02 x 10(10) M-1; alkaline phosphatase, 0.41 +/- 0.03 x 10(10) M-1; n = 6), whereas the maximum binding capacity remained unchanged. Incubations performed with increasing concentrations of beta-mercaphoethanol (2.5, 5, 10, and 25 mM) revealed that the phosphatase inhibitory effect is thiol dependent. The inhibition was maximal at 2.5 mM and progressively decreased at 5 and 10 mM. No

  7. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  8. pH in atomic scale simulations of electrochemical interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Chan, Karen; Ahmed, Rizwan; Tripković, Vladimir; Björketun, Mårten E

    2013-07-01

    Electrochemical reaction rates can strongly depend on pH, and there is increasing interest in electrocatalysis in alkaline solution. To date, no method has been devised to address pH in atomic scale simulations. We present a simple method to determine the atomic structure of the metal|solution interface at a given pH and electrode potential. Using Pt(111)|water as an example, we show the effect of pH on the interfacial structure, and discuss its impact on reaction energies and barriers. This method paves the way for ab initio studies of pH effects on the structure and electrocatalytic activity of electrochemical interfaces. PMID:23703376

  9. Proton Transport and pH Control in Fungi.

    PubMed

    Kane, Patricia M

    2016-01-01

    Despite diverse and changing extracellular environments, fungi maintain a relatively constant cytosolic pH and numerous organelles of distinct lumenal pH. Key players in fungal pH control are V-ATPases and the P-type proton pump Pma1. These two proton pumps act in concert with a large array of other transporters and are highly regulated. The activities of Pma1 and the V-ATPase are coordinated under some conditions, suggesting that pH in the cytosol and organelles is not controlled independently. Genomic studies, particularly in the highly tractable S. cerevisiae, are beginning to provide a systems-level view of pH control, including transcriptional responses to acid or alkaline ambient pH and definition of the full set of regulators required to maintain pH homeostasis. Genetically encoded pH sensors have provided new insights into localized mechanisms of pH control, as well as highlighting the dynamic nature of pH responses to the extracellular environment. Recent studies indicate that cellular pH plays a genuine signaling role that connects nutrient availability and growth rate through a number of mechanisms. Many of the pH control mechanisms found in S. cerevisiae are shared with other fungi, with adaptations for their individual physiological contexts. Fungi deploy certain proton transport and pH control mechanisms not shared with other eukaryotes; these regulators of cellular pH are potential antifungal targets. This review describes current and emerging knowledge proton transport and pH control mechanisms in S. cerevisiae and briefly discusses how these mechanisms vary among fungi.

  10. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Sandoval-Yuriar, Alonso; Jiménez-Bueno, Norma G.; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC) ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5), indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances) clearly clustered the communities by pH. PMID:26074731

  11. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Sandoval-Yuriar, Alonso; Jiménez-Bueno, Norma G; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc

    2015-01-01

    In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC) ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5), indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances) clearly clustered the communities by pH.

  12. Acidic minespoil reclamation with alkaline biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Drill, C.; Lindsay, B.J.; Logan, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    The effectiveness of an alkaline stabilized biosolids product, N-Viro Soil (NVS), was studied at a wild animal preserve in Cumberland, OH. The preserve occupies land that was strip mined for high-sulfur coal. While most of the land has been conventionally reclaimed, several highly acidic hot spots remain. Two of these hot spots were studied through concurrent field, greenhouse, and laboratory projects. In April 1995, NVS was applied at rates ranging from 0--960 mt/ha (wet wt.) to plots at the two sites. The plots were seeded using a standard reclamation mix and soil samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics before and after application and also in 1996 and 1997. Soil pH increased from 3.5 to about 11 in the amended plots and soil EC values increased from 21.0 mmho/cm to a maximum of 6.0 mmho/cm in the amended plots immediately after application. Soil Cu and Zn concentrations also increased in the NVS amended plots, but this did not affect plant germination or growth. By the summer of 1996, soil pH values had decreased to 7.3--8.7 and EC values decreased to 0.34--1.36 mmho/cm to the amended plots. Soil samples were collected in September 1995 for physical analyses. N-Viro Soil improved the moisture retention and water conductivity properties of the spoil. The plots were monitored for growth during the summer of 1995 and plant biomass and soil samples were taken in 1996 and 1997 for trace element and nutrient analysis. NVS did not significantly increase trace element concentrations in the biomass. The addition of NVS to acid mine spoil improves the chemical and physical properties of the spoil material thus aiding vegetative establishment and growth. NVS improves the chemical nature of the spoil by increasing pH and providing micro and macronutrients and improves the physical properties of the spoil with the addition of organic matter.

  13. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  14. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more than two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  15. The Potential of Soft Soil Improvement Through a Coupled Technique Between Electro Kinetic and Alkaline Activation of Soft Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, G. E.; Ismail, H. B.; Huat, B. K.; Afshin, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2016-07-01

    Soil stabilization techniques have been in development for decades with different rates of success. Alkaline activation of soft soil is one of those techniques that has proved to deliver some of the best shear strength values with minor drawbacks in comparison with conventional soil stabilization methods. However, environmental considerations have not been taken into account, as major mineral glassy phase activators are poisoning alkaline solutions, such as sodium-, potassium-hydroxide, and sodium-, potassium-silicate, which poses serious hazards to man and environment. This paper addresses the ways of discarding the involvement of the aforementioned alkaline solutions in soft soil stabilization by investigating the potential of a coupled electro kinetic alkaline activation technique for soft soil strengthening, through which the provision of alkaline pH is governed by electro kinetic potential. Uncertainties in regard to the dissolution of aluminosilicate as well as the dominance of acidic front are challenges that need to be overcome.

  16. Production of Alkaline Protease by Solvent-Tolerant Alkaliphilic Bacillus circulans MTCC 7942 Isolated from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Habitat: Process Parameters Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Ulhas; Chaudhari, Ambalal

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, a newly isolated organic solvent-tolerant and alkaliphilic bacterial strain was reported from a hydrocarbon (gasoline and diesel) contaminated soil collected from the petrol station, Shirpur (India). The strain was identified as Bacillus circulans MTCC 7942, based on phenotype, biochemical, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. The capability of Bacillus circulans to secrete an extracellular, thermostable, alkaline protease and grow in the presence of organic solvents was explored. Bacillus circulans produced maximum alkaline protease (412 U/mL) in optimized medium (g/L): soybean meal, 15; starch, 10; KH2PO4, 1; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.05; CaCl2, 1; Na2CO3, 8; pH 10.0 at 37°C and 100 rpm. The competence of strain to grow in various organic solvents—n-octane, dodecane, n-decane, N,N-dimethylformamide, n-hexane, and dimethyl sulfoxide, establishes its potential as solvent-stable protease source for the possible applications in nonaqueous reactions and fine chemical synthesis. PMID:25937965

  17. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films.

  18. Studies on alkaline band formation in Chara corallina: ameliorating effect of Ca2+ on inhibition induced by osmotic shock.

    PubMed

    Shimmen, Teruo; Yonemura, Satoko; Negoro, Mio; Lucas, William J

    2003-09-01

    Although the decrease in cell turgor by application of sorbitol to the external medium did not inhibit the alkaline band formation in Chara corallina, recovery of normal turgor severely inhibited it. Alkaline-loading analysis suggested that the inhibition of alkaline band formation was caused by inhibition of HCO(3)(-) influx but not that of OH(-) efflux. In the presence of 10 mM CaCl(2), the capacity of alkaline band formation was maintained during osmotic treatment. Cells could not form alkaline bands, when plasmolysis was induced by application of sorbitol at a higher concentration. Addition of 10 mM CaCl(2) could ameliorate the inhibition caused by plasmolyis.

  19. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of "deceleration aging factor" as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models.

  20. Tracer monitored titrations: measurement of total alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Martz, Todd R; Dickson, Andrew G; DeGrandpre, Michael D

    2006-03-15

    We introduce a new titration methodology, tracer monitored titration (TMT), in which analyses are free of volumetric and gravimetric measurements and insensitive to pump precision and reproducibility. Spectrophotometric monitoring of titrant dilution, rather than volume increment, lays the burden of analytical performance solely on the spectrophotometer. In the method described here, the titrant is a standardized mixture of acid-base indicator and strong acid. Dilution of a pulse of titrant in a titration vessel is tracked using the total indicator concentration measured spectrophotometrically. The concentrations of reacted and unreacted indicator species, derived from Beer's law, are used to calculate the relative proportions of titrant and sample in addition to the equilibrium position (pH) of the titration mixture. Because the method does not require volumetric or gravimetric additions of titrant, simple low-precision pumps can be used. Here, we demonstrate application of TMT for analysis of total alkalinity (A(T)). High-precision, high-accuracy seawater A(T) measurements are crucial for understanding, for example, the marine CaCO3 budget and saturation state, anthropogenic CO2 penetration into the oceans, calcareous phytoplankton blooms, and coral reef dynamics. We present data from 286 titrations on three types of total alkalinity standards: Na2CO3 in 0.7 mol kg x soln(-1) NaCl, NaOH in 0.7 mol kg x soln(-1) NaCl, and a seawater Certified Reference Material (CRM). Based on Na2CO3 standards, the accuracy and precision are +/-0.2 and +/-0.1% (4 and 2 micromol kg x soln(-1) for A(T) approximately 2100-2500 micromol kg x soln(-1), n = 242), using low-precision solenoid pumps to introduce sample and titrant. Similar accuracy and precision were found for analyses run 42 days after the initial experiments. Excellent performance is achieved by optimizing the spectrophotometric detection system and relying upon basic chemical thermodynamics for calculating the

  1. Electrochemical incineration of diclofenac in neutral aqueous medium by anodic oxidation using Pt and boron-doped diamond anodes.

    PubMed

    Brillas, Enric; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Skoumal, Marcel; Arias, Conchita

    2010-04-01

    The degradation of diclofenac, a common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, in aqueous medium has been studied by anodic oxidation (AO) using an undivided cell with a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. Operating without pH regulation, AO with Pt acidifies the solution with precipitation of its protonated form, whereas using BDD, the solution becomes alkaline and only attains partial mineralization. Total incineration of low contents of the drug is feasible by AO with BDD in a neutral buffer medium of pH 6.5. Comparative treatment with Pt gives poor decontamination. The diclofenac decay always follows a pseudo first-order reaction. The increase in current for AO with BDD accelerates the degradative process, but decreases its efficiency. 2-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 2,6-dichloroaniline and 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone have been identified as aromatic intermediates. For AO with Pt, high amounts of malic, succinic, tartaric and oxalic acids are accumulated in the bulk and the N-derivatives produced are rapidly destroyed with loss of NH4+. When BDD is employed, some carboxylic acids are also accumulated in small extent, with a larger persistence of oxalic and oxamic acids. The process involves the formation of different N-derivatives that slowly release NH4+ and NO3(-) ions. Chloride ion is lost in all cases.

  2. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding with weak alkalis

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of Project BE4B in FY90 was to develop cost-effective and efficient chemical flooding formulations using surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemical systems. Chemical systems were studied that mitigate the deleterious effects of divalent ions. The experiments were conducted with carbonate mixtures and carbonate/phosphate mixtures of pH 10.5, where most of the phosphate ions exist as the monohydrogen phosphate species. Orthophosphate did not further reduce the deleterious effect of divalent ions on interfacial tension behavior in carbonate solutions, where the deleterious effect of the divalent ions is already very low. When added to a carbonate mixture, orthophosphate did substantially reduce the adsorption of an atomic surfactant, which was an expected result; however, there was no correlation between the amount of reduction and the divalent ion levels. For acidic oils, a variety of surfactants are available commercially that have potential for use between pH 8.3 and pH 9.5. Several of these surfactants were tested with oil from Wilmington (CA) field and found to be suitable for use in that field. Two low-acid crude oils, with acid numbers of 0.01 and 0.27 mg KOH/g of oil, were studied. It was shown that surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding does have merit for use with these low-acid crude oils. However, each low-acid oil tested was found to behave differently, and it was concluded that the applicability of the method must be experimentally determined for any given low-acid crude oil. 19 refs., 10 figs. 4 tabs.

  3. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  4. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  5. The design of alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, K.

    1990-01-01

    Alkaline fuel cells recently developed have yielded satisfactory operation even in the cases of their use of mobile and matrix-type electrolytes; the advantages of realistic operation have been demonstrated by a major West German manufacturer's 100 kW alkaline fuel cell apparatus, which was operated in the role of an air-independent propulsion system. Development has begun for a spacecraft alkaline fuel cell of the matrix-electrolyte configuration.

  6. Long-term stability monitoring of pH reference materials using primary pH method.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri; Dias, Júlio Cesar

    2015-04-01

    This work presents the results from a series of stability studies for some batches of different aqueous pH reference materials, packed in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles, taking primary pH measurements over long periods (time lengths from 18.4 to 21.0 months). The results obtained over time for acid and neutral buffer solutions (nominal pH values of 1.68, 4.00, and 6.86 at 25 °C), considering their uncertainties, were statistically similar, demonstrating the high stability of these materials. On the other hand, for the alkaline buffer solutions (nominal pH values of 9.18 and 10.01 at 25 °C), there was a clear decrease in the results over time, with pH variation rates around -8.5 × 10(-4) per month. The results showed that reference materials of the acid and neutral buffer solutions can be easily provided with small uncertainty values and long shelf lives in simple HDPE bottles closed under air atmosphere, whereas reference materials of the alkaline buffer solutions must have more limited shelf lives and higher uncertainty values (taking into account the pH decrease over time) or must be provided in special packaging (such as ampoules) to prevent carbon dioxide interference. PMID:25318462

  7. Investigation of gelling behavior of thiolated chitosan in alkaline condition and its application in stent coating.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Kong, Ming; Feng, Chao; Cheng, Xiaojie; Liu, Ya; Chen, Xiguang

    2016-01-20

    The gelling behaviors of thiolated chitosan (TCS) in alkaline condition were investigated. Thioglycolic acid was conjugated onto chitosan backbone through amide bond formation. The variations of thiol group content were monitored in presence of H2O2 or different pH values (pH 7.0, 8.0, 9.0) in dialysis mode. Different from the decreasing thiol group content upon time in acidic condition, increasing amount of thiol groups was detected in alkaline pH during 120 min dialysis attributed to alkaline hydrolysis of intra-molecular disulfide bonds. The extent of which was larger at higher pH values. Higher degree of thiolation, thiomer concentration or pH values promoted gelation of TCS. Entanglement and coagulation of chitosan molecule chains and re-arrangement of disulfide bonds acted closely and dynamically in the gelation process. Disulfide bonds, especially inter-molecular type, are formed by synergetic effects of thiol/disulfide interchange and thiol/thiol oxidation reactions. TCS coated vascular stent displayed wave-like microstructure of parallel ridges and grooves, which favored HUVECs adhesion and proliferation. The biocompatibility, peculiar morphology and thiol moieties of TCS as stent coating material appear application potential for vascular stent. PMID:26572360

  8. Effect of pH on Paramagnetic Centers in Cladosporium cladosporioides Melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilawa, B.; Buszman, E.; Gondzik, A.; Wilczyński, S.; Zdybel, M.; Witoszyńska, T.; Wilczok, T.

    2006-07-01

    Paramagnetic centers in melanin existing in pigmented soil fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides cultured at acidic (4, 5, 6), neutral (7), and alkaline (8) pH were studied by EPR method. o-semiquinone free radicals (g: 2.0032-2.0040) concentration in melanin biopolymer increased for pH from 4 to 6, decreased at pH 7, and reached the maximum value at pH 8. It may be expected that melanin free radicals reactions with small molecules (metal ions, drugs) are the most effective at pH between 6 and 8. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes exist in the all studied melanin samples.

  9. NaRALF, a peptide signal essential for the regulation of root hair tip apoplastic pH in Nicotiana attenuata, is required for root hair development and plant growth in native soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinsong; Kurten, Erin L; Monshausen, Gabriele; Hummel, Grégoire M; Gilroy, Simon; Baldwin, Ian T

    2007-12-01

    Rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) is a 49-amino-acid peptide that rapidly alkalinizes cultivated tobacco cell cultures. In the native tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, NaRALF occurs as a single-copy gene and is highly expressed in roots and petioles. Silencing the NaRALF transcript by transforming N. attenuata with an inverted-repeat construct generated plants (irRALF) with normal wild-type (WT) above-ground parts, but with roots that grew longer and produced trichoblasts that developed into abnormal root hairs. Most trichoblasts produced a localized 'bulge' without commencing root hair tip growth; fewer trichoblasts grew, but were only 10% as long as those of WT plants. The root hair phenotype was associated with slowed apoplastic pH oscillations, increased pH at the tips of trichoblasts and decreased accumulation of reactive oxygen species in the root hair initiation zone. The root hair growth phenotype was partially restored when irRALF lines were grown in a low-pH-buffered medium, and reproduced in WT plants grown in a high-pH-buffered medium. When irRALF plants were grown in pH 5.6, 6.7 and 8.1 soils together with WT plants in glasshouse experiments, they were out-competed by WT plants in basic, but not acidic, soils. When WT and irRALF lines were planted into the basic soils of the native habitat of N. attenuata in the Great Basin Desert, irRALF plants had smaller leaves, shorter stalks, and produced fewer flowers and seed capsules than did WT plants. We conclude that NaRALF is required for regulating root hair extracellular pH, the transition from root hair initiation to tip growth and plant growth in basic soils.

  10. Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Thermostable, Alkaline Tolerant α-Amylase from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, N; Thavasi, R; Vijayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T

    2011-10-01

    Thermostable alkaline α-amylase producing bacterium Bacilluscereus strain isolated from Cuddalore harbour waters grew maximally in both shake flask and fermentor, and produced α-amylase at 35°C, pH 7.5 and 1.0% of substrate concentrations. α-Amylase activity was maximum at 65°C, pH 8.0, 89% of its activity was sustained even at pH 11.0. Added with MnCl(2,) α-amylase activity showed 4% increase but it was inhibited by EDTA. The molecular weight of the purified α-amylase is 42 kDa.

  11. Simple Experiments To Demonstrate Proton Flux in Pseudomonas after Alkaline or Acidic Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Previtali, Gabriela; Giordano, Walter; Domenech, Carlos E.

    2003-12-01

    This laboratory introduces chemistry students to the ability of microorganisms to adapt to acidic or alkaline environmental conditions. A laboratory experiment to ascertain the bacterial response to the stress produced by suspension in different pH solutions has been developed. The experiment may be performed in several versions depending on the availability of lab equipment and the chemistry level of the students. This laboratory experiment has the pedagogical advantage of giving chemistry students experience with the application of various pH levels to a biological system and enables the students to expand their understanding of pH to mean more than a strictly chemical concept.

  12. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  13. Dipstick Spot urine pH does not accurately represent 24 hour urine PH measured by an electrode

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Mohamed; Sarkissian, Carl; Jianbo, Li; Calle, Juan; Monga, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether spot urine pH measured by dipstick is an accurate representation of 24 hours urine pH measured by an electrode. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed urine pH results of patients who presented to the urology stone clinic. For each patient we recorded the most recent pH result measured by dipstick from a spot urine sample that preceded the result of a 24-hour urine pH measured by the use of a pH electrode. Patients were excluded if there was a change in medications or dietary recommendations or if the two samples were more than 4 months apart. A difference of more than 0.5 pH was considered an inaccurate result. Results A total 600 patients were retrospectively reviewed for the pH results. The mean difference in pH between spot urine value and the 24 hours collection values was 0.52±0.45 pH. Higher pH was associated with lower accuracy (p<0.001). The accuracy of spot urine samples to predict 24-hour pH values of <5.5 was 68.9%, 68.2% for 5.5 to 6.5 and 35% for >6.5. Samples taken more than 75 days apart had only 49% the accuracy of more recent samples (p<0.002). The overall accuracy is lower than 80% (p<0.001). Influence of diurnal variation was not significant (p=0.588). Conclusions Spot urine pH by dipstick is not an accurate method for evaluation of the patients with urolithiasis. Patients with alkaline urine are more prone to error with reliance on spot urine pH. PMID:27286119

  14. Permeability Modification Using a Reactive Alkaline-Soluble Biopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Sandra L. Fox; Xina Xie; Greg Bala

    2004-11-01

    Polymer injection has been used in reservoirs to alleviate contrasting permeability zones to enhance oil recovery (EOR). Polymer technology relies mainly on the use of polyacrylamides cross-linked by a hazardous metal or organic. Contemporary polymer plugging has investigated the stimulation of in-situ microorganisms to produce polymers (Jenneman et. al., 2000) and the use of biocatalysts to trigger gelling (Bailey et. al., 2000). The use of biological polymers are advantageous in that they can block high permeability areas, are environmentally friendly, and have potential to form reversible gels without the use of hazardous cross-linkers. Recent efforts have produced a reactive alkaline-soluble biopolymer from Agrobacterium species ATCC # 31749 that gels upon decreasing the pH of the polymeric solution. Microbial polymers are of interest due to their potential cost savings, compared to conventional use of synthetic chemical polymers. Numerous microorganisms are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. One microbiological polymer of interest is curdlan, â - (1, 3) glucan, which has demonstrated gelling properties by a reduction in pH. The focus of this study was to determine the impact an alkaline-soluble biopolymer can have on sandstone permeability.

  15. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Stolyar, Sergey; He, Qiang; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Borglin, Sharon E.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Huang, Katherine; Alm, Eric; Hazen, Terry C.; Zhou, Jizhong; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Stahl, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotide microarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarray data to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The data showed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generally similar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled by unique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma S and sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to be absent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E. coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPase genes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone and protease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) was also elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellum synthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identified regulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of a D. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system. Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated in alkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protective involvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, and two putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 and DVU2580). PMID:17921288

  16. Interfacial activity in alkaline flooding enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization of long-chained organic acids in the crude oil to form soaps was shown to be primarily responsible for the lowering of oil-water interfacial tension at alkaline pH. These active acids can be concentrated by silica gel chromatography into a minor polar fraction. An equilibrium chemical model was proposed based on 2 competing reactions: the ionization of acids to form active anions, and the formation of undissociated soap between acid anions and sodium ions. It correlates the interfacial activity with the interfacial concentration of active acid anions which is expressed in terms of the concentrations of the chemical species in the system. The model successfully predicts the observed oil-alkaline solution interfacial phenomenon, including its dependence on pH, alkali and salt concentrations, type of acid present and type of soap formed. Flooding at different alkali concentrations to activate different acid species present in the crude was shown to give better recovery than flooding at a single high alkali concentration. Treating the crude oil with a dilute solution of mineral acids liberates additional free active acids and yields better interfacial activity during subsequent alkali contact.

  17. The Origin of Life in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    PubMed

    Sojo, Victor; Herschy, Barry; Whicher, Alexandra; Camprubí, Eloi; Lane, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 70 years, prebiotic chemists have been very successful in synthesizing the molecules of life, from amino acids to nucleotides. Yet there is strikingly little resemblance between much of this chemistry and the metabolic pathways of cells, in terms of substrates, catalysts, and synthetic pathways. In contrast, alkaline hydrothermal vents offer conditions similar to those harnessed by modern autotrophs, but there has been limited experimental evidence that such conditions could drive prebiotic chemistry. In the Hadean, in the absence of oxygen, alkaline vents are proposed to have acted as electrochemical flow reactors, in which alkaline fluids saturated in H2 mixed with relatively acidic ocean waters rich in CO2, through a labyrinth of interconnected micropores with thin inorganic walls containing catalytic Fe(Ni)S minerals. The difference in pH across these thin barriers produced natural proton gradients with equivalent magnitude and polarity to the proton-motive force required for carbon fixation in extant bacteria and archaea. How such gradients could have powered carbon reduction or energy flux before the advent of organic protocells with genes and proteins is unknown. Work over the last decade suggests several possible hypotheses that are currently being tested in laboratory experiments, field observations, and phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral metabolism. We analyze the perplexing differences in carbon and energy metabolism in methanogenic archaea and acetogenic bacteria to propose a possible ancestral mechanism of CO2 reduction in alkaline hydrothermal vents. Based on this mechanism, we show that the evolution of active ion pumping could have driven the deep divergence of bacteria and archaea.

  18. Catalytic Diversity in Alkaline Hydrothermal Vent Systems on Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Ryan D.; Barge, Laura; Chin, Keith B.; Doloboff, Ivria J.; Flores, Erika; Hammer, Arden C.; Sobron, Pablo; Russell, Michael J.; Kanik, Isik

    2016-10-01

    Hydrothermal systems formed by serpentinization can create moderate-temperature, alkaline systems and it is possible that this type of vent could exist on icy worlds such as Europa which have water-rock interfaces. It has been proposed that some prebiotic chemistry responsible for the emergence of life on Earth and possibly other wet and icy worlds could occur as a result ofredox potential and pH gradients in submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents (Russell et al., 2014). Hydrothermal chimneys formed in laboratory simulations of alkaline vents under early Earth conditions have precipitate membranes that contain minerals such as iron sulfides, which are hypothesized to catalyze reduction of CO2 (Yamaguchi et al. 2014, Roldan et al. 2014) leading to further organic synthesis. This CO2 reduction process may be affected by other trace components in the chimney, e.g. nickel or organic molecules. We have conducted experiments to investigate catalytic properties of iron and iron-nickel sulfides containing organic dopants in slightly acidic ocean simulants relevant to early Earth or possibly ocean worlds. We find that the electrochemical properties of the chimney as well as the morphology/chemistry of the precipitate are affected by the concentration and type of organics present. These results imply that synthesis of organics in water-rock systems on ocean worlds may lead to hydrothermal precipitates which can incorporate these organic into the mineral matrix and may affect the role of gradients in alkal