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Sample records for alkaline paddy soil

  1. Speciation and Release Kinetics of Cadmium in an Alkaline Paddy Soil Under Various Flooding Periods and Draining Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    S Khaokaew; R Chaney; G Landrot; M Ginder-Vogel; D Sparks

    2011-12-31

    This study determined Cd speciation and release kinetics in a Cd-Zn cocontaminated alkaline paddy soil, under various flooding periods and draining conditions, by employing synchrotron-based techniques, and a stirred-flow kinetic method. Results revealed that varying flooding periods and draining conditions affected Cd speciation and its release kinetics. Linear least-squares fitting (LLSF) of bulk X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of the air-dried, and the 1 day-flooded soil samples, showed that at least 50% of Cd was bound to humic acid. Cadmium carbonates were found as the major species at most flooding periods, while a small amount of cadmium sulfide was found after the soils were flooded for longer periods. Under all flooding and draining conditions, at least 14 mg/kg Cd was desorbed from the soil after a 2-hour desorption experiment. The results obtained by micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-XRF) spectroscopy showed that Cd was less associated with Zn than Ca, in most soil samples. Therefore, it is more likely that Cd and Ca will be present in the same mineral phases rather than Cd and Zn, although the source of these two latter elements may originate from the same surrounding Zn mines in the Mae Sot district.

  2. [Microbial metabolism in typical flooded paddy soils ].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuanfeng; Wu, Yucheng; Wang, Shuwei; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Yongguan; Jia, Zhongjun

    2014-09-04

    [OBJECTIVE] The object of this study is to reveal the composition of active microorganism and their metabolic activities in flooded paddy soils with long-term fertilization ( Mineral nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, NPK) and without fertilizer (Control check, CK) by environmental transcriptomics. [METHODS] Flooded soil microcosms were incubated in the laboratory for two weeks, then total RNA were extracted from the soil for transcriptome sequencing. Resulting fastq files were uploaded to the Metagenomics Analysis Server (MG-RAST) for taxonomic analysis, gene annotation and function classification. [RESULTS] Transcripts from diverse active microorganism, including bacteria ( > 95% ) , archaea, eukaryotes and viruses, were detected in both flooded paddy soils of CK and NPK treatments. Most of the transcripts (active genes) of bacteria and archaea were derived from Proteobacteria (more than 50% of total bacterial transcripts) and Thaumarchaaeota (about 70% of total archaeal transcripts ) respectively in both treatments. Transcriptional activity of Acidobacteria in NPK treatment paddy soil was significantly higher than that in CK treatment paddy soil. As for other phyla of bacteria and archaea, there were no significant differences of transcriptional activity of them between CK and NPK treatment paddy soils. The highest expressed gene in both CK and NPK treatment paddy soils is ABC transporter encoding gene which related to the transmembrane transport of substances. Based on gene function category of COG (Clusters of Orthologous Genes), Subsystem and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) database, we found that the main metabolic activities of microorganisms in both CK and NPK treatment paddy soils were related to energy production and conversion, carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism and amino acid metabolism, and the dominant KEGG pathways were oxidative phosphorylation and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. [ CONCLUSION] Composition of active

  3. [Emission of volatile sulfur gases from Chinese paddy soils].

    PubMed

    Qiao, W; Yang, Z; Cao, J; Li, Z

    2001-09-01

    In the paper, emission of volatile sulfur gases from paddy soil was discussed in a growth period of paddy rice by constructing a field sampling system. The result showed that COS, CS2, DMS and DMDS were mainly emitted from paddy soil. The order of emission fluxes was 81.11, 6.33 and 10.71 mg.(m2.a)-1. Sulphur emission fluxes of Chinese paddy soil was 0.013662 Tg/a, and those of world paddy soil was 0.07992 Tg/a.

  4. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  5. Distribution of tetraether lipids in agricultural soils - differentiation between paddy and upland management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Niggemann, C.; Utami, S. R.; Marxen, A.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Bauersachs, T.; Schwark, L.

    2015-10-01

    Insufficient knowledge of the composition and variation of isoprenoid and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in agricultural soils exists, despite of the potential effect of different management types (e.g. soil/water and redox conditions, cultivated plants) on GDGT distribution. Here, we determined the influence of different soil management types on the GDGT composition in paddy (flooded) and adjacent upland (non-flooded) soils, and if available also forest, bushland and marsh soils. To compare the local effects on GDGT distribution patterns, we collected comparable soil samples in various locations from tropical (Indonesia, Vietnam and Philippines) and subtropical (China and Italy) sites. We found that differences in the distribution of isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) as well as of branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) are predominantly controlled by management type and only secondarily by climatic exposition. In general upland soil had higher crenarchaeol contents than paddy soil, which on the contrary was more enriched in GDGT-0. The GDGT-0 / crenarchaeol ratio was 3-27 times higher in paddy soil and indicates the enhanced presence of methanogenic archaea, which were additionally linked to the number of rice cultivation cycles per year (higher number of cycles was coupled with an increase in the ratio). The TEX86 values were 1.3 times higher in upland, bushland and forest soils than in paddy soils. In all soils brGDGT predominated over iGDGTs, with the relative abundance of brGDGTs increasing from subtropical to tropical soils. Higher BIT values in paddy soils compared to upland soils together with higher BIT values in soil from subtropical climates indicate effects on the amounts of brGDGT through differences in management as well as climatic zones. In acidic soil CBT values correlated well with soil pH. In neutral to alkaline soils, however, no apparent correlation but an offset between paddy and upland managed soils was detected, which may suggest that soil

  6. Distribution of tetraether lipids in agricultural soils - differentiation between paddy and upland management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Niggemann, Cornelia; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Marxen, Anika; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Schwark, Lorenz

    2016-03-01

    GDGT predominated over iGDGTs with the relative abundance of brGDGTs increasing from subtropical to tropical soils. Higher branched vs. isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) values in paddy soils compared to upland soils together with higher BIT values in soils from subtropical climates indicated effects on the amounts of brGDGT induced by differences in management as well as climate. In acidic soils cyclization ratio of branched tetraethers (CBT) values correlated well with soil pH. In neutral to alkaline soils, however, no correlation but an offset in CBT between paddy and upland managed soils was detected. This is interpreted as indicating soil moisture exerting an additional control on the CBT in these soils. Lower modified methylation index of branched tetraether (MBT') values and temperatures calculated from this (TMC) in paddy soils compared to upland soils are attributed to a management-induced (e.g. enhanced soil moisture via flooding) effect on mean annual soil temperature (MST).

  7. Enzyme dynamics in paddy soils of the rice district (NE Italy) under different cropping patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Kato, Yoichi; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    The recent widespread interest on soil enzymes is due to the need to develop sensitive indicators of soil quality that reflect the effects of land management on soil and assist land managers in promoting long-term sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems. The activities of six important enzymes involved in C, N, P, and S cycling were investigated in a paddy soil from the Veneto region, Italy, in four different rotation systems (rice-rice-rice: R-R-R; soya-rice-rice: S-R-R; fallow-rice: F-R; pea-soya-rice: P-S-R) with three replications in April (after field preparation, field moist condition), June (after seedling, waterlogged soil condition), August (after tillering stage of rice, waterlogged soil condition) and October (after rice harvesting, drained soil condition) over the 2012 growing season. Our results demonstrated that enzyme activities varied with rotation systems and growth stages in paddy soil. Compared with field moist soil, drained soil condition resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) of β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, alkaline and acid phosphatases, leucine aminopeptidase (except of fallow-rice), and chitinase activities in all rotations, while compared with drained soil, early waterlogging (in month of June) significantly decreased (P moist soil> late waterlogged>early waterlogged. There was an inhibitory effect of waterlogging (except P-S-R rotation) for both alkaline and acid phosphatases due to high pH and redox conditions. However, the response of enzymes to waterlogging differed with the chemical species and the cropping pattern. The best rotation system for chitinase, leucine aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase activity (C and N cycles) proved R-R-R, while for arylsulfatase, alkaline and acid phosphatases (P and S cycles) it was the S-R-R. Key Words: enzyme activity, paddy soil, Crop Rotation System, Italy __ Corresponding Author: Mandana Nadimi-Goki, Tel.: +39 3891356251 E-mail address: mandy.nadimi@gmail.com

  8. Soil type-depending effect of paddy management: composition and distribution of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, Livia; Kölbl, Angelika; Lehndorff, Eva; Houtermans, Miriam; Schad, Peter; Zhang, Gang-Lin; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    Paddy soil management is assumed to promote soil organic matter accumulation and specifically lignin caused by the resistance of the aromatic lignin structure against biodegradation under anaerobic conditions during inundation of paddy fields. The present study investigates the effect of paddy soil management on soil organic matter composition compared to agricultural soils which are not used for rice production (non-paddy soils). A variety of major soil types, were chosen in Indonesia (Java), including Alisol, Andosol and Vertisol sites (humid tropical climate of Java, Indonesia) and in China Alisol sites (humid subtropical climate, Nanjing). This soils are typically used for rice cultivation and represent a large range of soil properties to be expected in Asian paddy fields. All topsoils were analysed for their soil organic matter composition by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and lignin-derived phenols by CuO oxidation method. The soil organic matter composition, revealed by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance, was similar for the above named different parent soil types (non-paddy soils) and was also not affected by the specific paddy soil management. The contribution of lignin-related carbon groups to total SOM was similar in the investigated paddy and non-paddy soils. A significant proportion of the total aromatic carbon in some paddy and non-paddy soils was attributed to the application of charcoal as a common management practise. The extraction of lignin-derived phenols revealed low VSC (vanillyl, syringyl, cinnamyl) values for all investigated soils, being typical for agricultural soils. An inherent accumulation of lignin-derived phenols due to paddy management was not found. Lignin-derived phenols seem to be soil type-dependent, shown by different VSC concentrations between the parent soil types. The specific paddy management only affects the lignin-derived phenols in Andosol-derived paddy soils which are characterized by

  9. Microbial lipids in Paddy Soils of the Yangtze Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Niggemann, Cornelia; Bannert, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Cao, Zhihong; Schwark, Lorenz

    2010-05-01

    Geobiochemical studies of rice paddy soils and their effect on the global carbon cycle are of paramount importance. Paddy soils comprise manmade wetlands because soil flooding is a prerequisite for lowland rice cultivation. Except for sulphate-rich substrates, rice growth is not very sensitive to soil conditions prevailing prior to conversion of marine tidal flat sediments to paddy cultivation. Thus, soil management practices, such as artificial submergence or drainage, ploughing and puddling (i.e. ploughing a submerged soil), manuring, liming, and fertilization, are the major driving factors of paddy soil development. Soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and humification proceeds in hydromorphic soils at a slower rate than in well-drained, aerated soils. Rice paddy soils thus also represent a suitable model system to study fundamental aspects of redox sensitive soil processes. These processes are of special interest because in flooded rice fields the anaerobic fermentation of SOM leads to the release of methane and to denitrification losses of inorganic nitrogen. Here we present results from a chronosequence study of paddy soils with different and well known starting dates of cultivation, in the Zhejiang province (Yangtze River delta) by land reclamation through the building of protective dikes over the past 2000 years. We here describe the biomarker geochemistry of six paddy soils that developed on marine tidal sediments and where cultivation started 50, 100, 300, 700, 1000 or 2000 years before present. As reference substrates recent marine and lacustrine sediments were selected. The differentiation of the lipid biomass was achieved by investigating glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT). These specific organic geochemical biomarkers allow for determining the abundance of fossil microbial consortia (archaea and bacteria input) into paddy soils, justified by the diversity of the archaeal and bacterial cell membrane constituents. The dominant proportion of

  10. Arsenic mobilization and immobilization in paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, A.; Hohmann, C.; Zhu, Y. G.; Morin, G.

    2010-05-01

    Arsenic is oftentimes of geogenic origin and in many cases bound to iron(III) minerals. Iron(III)-reducing bacteria can harvest energy by coupling the oxidation of organic or inorganic electron donors to the reduction of Fe(III). This process leads either to dissolution of Fe(III)-containing minerals and thus to a release of the arsenic into the environment or to secondary Fe-mineral formation and immobilisation of arsenic. Additionally, aerobic and anaerobic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria have the potential to co-precipitate or sorb arsenic during iron(II) oxidation at neutral pH that is usually followed by iron(III) mineral precipitation. We are currently investigating arsenic immobilization by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria and arsenic co-precipitation and immobilization by anaerobic iron(II)-oxidizing bacteria in batch, microcosm and rice pot experiments. Co-precipitation batch experiments with pure cultures of nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are used to quantify the amount of arsenic that can be immobilized during microbial iron mineral precipitation, to identify the minerals formed and to analyze the arsenic binding environment in the precipitates. Microcosm and rice pot experiments are set-up with arsenic-contaminated rice paddy soil. The microorganisms (either the native microbial population or the soil amended with the nitrate-dependent iron(II)-oxidizing Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1) are stimulated either with iron(II), nitrate, or oxygen. Dissolved and solid-phase arsenic and iron are quantified. Iron and arsenic speciation and redox state in batch and microcosm experiments are determined by LC-ICP-MS and synchrotron-based methods (EXAFS, XANES).

  11. Arsenic bioavailability to rice is elevated in Bangladeshi paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Khan, K Asaduzzaman; Stroud, Jacqueline L; Zhu, Yong-Guan; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2010-11-15

    Some paddy soils in the Bengal delta are contaminated with arsenic (As) due to irrigation of As-laden groundwater, which may lead to yield losses and elevated As transfer to the food chain. Whether these soils have a higher As bioavailability than other soils containing either geogenic As or contaminated by mining activities was investigated in a pot experiment. Fourteen soils varying in the source and the degree (4-138 mg As kg 1⁻¹) of As contamination were collected, 10 from Bangladeshi paddy fields (contaminated by irrigation water) and two each from China and the UK (geogenic or mining impacted), for comparison. Bangladeshi soils had higher percentages of the total As extractable by ammonium phosphate (specifically sorbed As) than other soils and also released more As into the porewater upon flooding. Porewater As concentrations increased with increasing soil As concentrations more steeply in Bangladeshi soils, with arsenite being the dominant As species. Rice growth and grain yield decreased markedly in Bangladeshi soils containing > 13 mg As kg 1⁻¹, but not in the other soils. Phosphate-extractable or porewater As was a better indicator of As bioavailability than total soil As. Rice straw As concentrations increased with increasing soil As concentrations; however, As phytotoxicity appeared to result in lower grain As concentrations. The relative proportions of inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in grain varied among soils, and the percentage DMA was larger in greenhouse-grown plants than grain samples collected from the paddy fields of the same soil and the same rice cultivar, indicating a strong environmental influence on As species found in rice grain. This study shows that Bangladeshi paddy soils contaminated by irrigation had a higher As bioavailability than other soils, resulting in As phytotoxicity in rice and substantial yield losses.

  12. Chemical and biological properties of wheat soil in response to paddy straw incorporation and its biodegradation by fungal inoculants.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata

    2007-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the relative contribution of organic fertilizers (paddy straw, microbial inoculants and vermicompost) and inorganic fertilizers (urea and superphosphate) in improving pH, C, N, humus, microbial biomass, dehydrogenase, phosphatase, cellulase, beta-glucosidase and xylanase activities of soil under wheat crop. Vermicompost fertilization resulted in highest microbial biomass, available phosphorus, and nitrogen content of wheat soil. It was also found effective in minimizing the alkalinity of soil compared to other treatments as indicated by pH change. However incorporation of paddy straw in conjunction with N(60)P(60) and T. reesei inoculation resulted in maximum dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and highest humus content of soil. Mixed inoculation of A. awamori and T. reesei did not prove effective in improving the soil biochemical properties in comparison to single inoculation of T. reesei. Results showed that in situ incorporation of paddy straw in combination with N(60)P(60) and T. reesei inoculation can be used as an effective measure for valuable disposal of paddy straw and to improve the soil health by reducing mineral fertilization.

  13. Soil type-depending effect of paddy management: Organic carbon distribution and stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kölbl, Angelika; Drechsler, Susanne; Wissing, Livia; Schad, Peter; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Cao, Zhihong; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2013-04-01

    Paddy soils may originate from many different types of soil but are highly modified by human activities. These soils are mostly managed under submerged conditions, a management which is assumed to favour carbon sequestration. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the impact of paddy management on soil organic carbon distributions and stocks in major soil types that are typically used for rice cultivation in Asia. Fluvisol and Acrisol sites (sub-tropical monsoon climate, PR China) as well as Andosol, Vertisol and Ferralsol sites (tropical climate of Java, Indonesia) were compared, as they represent a large range of soil properties to be expected in Asian paddy fields. Paddy rice at all of these sites is cultivated under flooded conditions followed by an upland crop. To evaluate the impact of paddy management, paddy soils as well as adjacent agricultural soils which are not used for paddy rice production (non-paddy soils) were chosen. At each site, three soil profiles of paddy and non-paddy soils were sampled horizontally. All samples were analysed for bulk density and organic carbon (OC) concentrations, and the corresponding OC stocks were calculated. Paddy soils derived from Fluvisols and Acrisols(PR China) showed clearly higher OC concentrations in the topsoils, leading to higher cumulative OC stocks in paddy soils compared to the respective non-paddy soils. However, other soil types did not show the expected higher OC sequestration under paddy management. For example, paddy soils derived from Ferralsols and Vertisols of Java are characterised by very similar OC concentrations and OC stocks as compared to their respective non-paddy soils. Also paddy and non-paddy soils derived from Andosols (Java) showed similar OC concentrations and depth distributions; only the slightly higher bulk density values under paddy management lead to slightly higher OC stocks in these soils. As clearly shown by our results, we cannot necessarily assume that rice production

  14. Soil removal as a decontamination practice and radiocesium accumulation in tadpoles in rice paddies at Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Nunokawa, Masanori; Wakahara, Taeko; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the biological accumulation of radiocesium in tadpoles [Rana (Pelophylax) porosa porosa] in rice paddies with and without decontamination practice at Fukushima. Radiocesium was accumulated in surface part of soils both in the control and decontaminated paddies one year after decontamination. Mean (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in tadpoles in the control and decontaminated paddies were 3000 and 4500, and 600 and 890 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Radiocesium concentrations in surface soil (0-5 cm depth) and tadpoles in the decontaminated paddy were five times smaller than in the control paddy. These results suggest that decontamination practice can reduce radiocesium concentrations in both soil and tadpoles. However, at the decontaminated paddy, radiocesium concentrations in surface soils became 3.8 times greater one year after decontamination, which indicates that monitoring the subsequent movement of radiocesium in rice paddies and surrounding areas is essential for examining contamination propagation.

  15. Periphyton: an important regulator in optimizing soil phosphorus bioavailability in paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonghong; Liu, Junzhuo; Lu, Haiying; Wu, Chenxi; Kerr, Philip

    2016-11-01

    Periphyton is ubiquitous in paddy field, but its importance in influencing the bioavailability of phosphorus (P) in paddy soil has been rarely recognized. A paddy field was simulated in a greenhouse to investigate how periphyton influences P bioavailability in paddy soil. Results showed that periphyton colonizing on paddy soil greatly reduced P content in paddy floodwater but increased P bioavailability of paddy soil. Specifically, all the contents of water-soluble P (WSP), readily desorbable P (RDP), algal-available P (AAP), and NaHCO3-extractable P (Olsen-P) in paddy soil increased to an extent compared to the control (without periphyton) after fertilization. In particular, Olsen-P was the most increased P species, up to 216 mg kg(-1) after fertilization, accounting for nearly 60 % of total phosphorus (TP) in soil. The paddy periphyton captured P up to 1.4 mg g(-1) with Ca-P as the dominant P fraction and can be a potential crop fertilizer. These findings indicated that the presence of periphyton in paddy field benefited in improving P bioavailability for crops. This study provides valuable insights into the roles of periphyton in P bioavailability and migration in a paddy ecosystem and technical support for P regulation.

  16. [Response of mineralization of dissolved organic carbon to soil moisture in paddy and upland soils in hilly red soil region].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Bi; Wang, Ai-Hua; Hu, Le-Ning; Huang, Yuan; Li, Yang; He, Xun-Yang; Su, Yi-Rong

    2014-03-01

    Typical paddy and upland soils were collected from a hilly subtropical red-soil region. 14C-labeled dissolved organic carbon (14C-DOC) was extracted from the paddy and upland soils incorporated with 14C-labeled straw after a 30-day (d) incubation period under simulated field conditions. A 100-d incubation experiment (25 degrees C) with the addition of 14C-DOC to paddy and upland soils was conducted to monitor the dynamics of 14C-DOC mineralization under different soil moisture conditions [45%, 60%, 75%, 90%, and 105% of the field water holding capacity (WHC)]. The results showed that after 100 days, 28.7%-61.4% of the labeled DOC in the two types of soils was mineralized to CO2. The mineralization rates of DOC in the paddy soils were significantly higher than in the upland soils under all soil moisture conditions, owing to the less complex composition of DOC in the paddy soils. The aerobic condition was beneficial for DOC mineralization in both soils, and the anaerobic condition was beneficial for DOC accumulation. The biodegradability and the proportion of the labile fraction of the added DOC increased with the increase of soil moisture (45% -90% WHC). Within 100 days, the labile DOC fraction accounted for 80.5%-91.1% (paddy soil) and 66.3%-72.4% (upland soil) of the cumulative mineralization of DOC, implying that the biodegradation rate of DOC was controlled by the percentage of labile DOC fraction.

  17. [Comparisons of Microbial Numbers, Biomasses and Soil Enzyme Activities Between Paddy Field and Drvland Origins in Karst Cave Wetland].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen-jiang; Zeng, Hong-hu; Li, Qiang; Cheng, Ya-ping; Tang, Hua-feng; Li, Min; Huang, Bing-fu

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare microbial number, microbial biomass as well as soil enzyme activity between paddy field and dryland originated karst wetland ecosystems. The soil samples (0-20 cm) of uncultivated wetland, paddy field and dryland were collected in Huixian karst cave wetland, Guilin, China. Microbial numbers and biomass were detected using dilute plate incubation counting and chloroform fumigation-extraction, respectively. Microbial DNA was extracted according to the manufacturer's instructions of the kit. Microbial activity was examined using soil enzyme assays as well. The result showed that the bacteria number in paddy filed was (4.36 +/- 2.25) x 10(7) CFU x g(-1), which was significantly higher than those in wetland and dryland. Fungi numbers were (6.41 +/- 2.16) x 10(4) CFU x g(-1) in rice paddy and (6.52 +/- 1.55) x 10(4) CFU x g(-1) in wetland, which were higher than that in dryland. Actinomycetes number was (2.65 +/- 0.72) x 10(6) CFU x g(-1) in dryland, which was higher than that in wetland. Microbial DNA concentration in rice paddy was (11.92 +/- 3.69) microg x g(-1), which was higher than that in dryland. Invertase activity was (66.87 +/- 18.61) mg x (g x 24 h)(-1) in rice paddy and alkaline phosphatase activity was (2.07 +/- 0.99) mg x (g x 2 h)(-1) in wetland, both of which were higher than those in dryland. Statistical analysis showed there was a significant positive correlation of microbial DNA content, alkaline phosphatase activity and microbial carbon with soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, soil moisture, exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+, as well as a significant positive correlation of intervase activity with the former three microbial factors. The above results indicated that microbial biomass and function responded much more sensitively to land-use change than microbial number in karst cave wetland system. Soil moisture, SOC and some factors induced by land-use change

  18. Arsenic release from paddy soils during monsoon flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Linda C.; Hug, Stephan J.; Dittmar, Jessica; Voegelin, Andreas; Kretzschmar, Ruben; Wehrli, Bernhard; Cirpka, Olaf A.; Saha, Ganesh C.; Ashraf Ali, M.; Badruzzaman, A. Borhan M.

    2010-01-01

    Bangladesh relies heavily on groundwater for the irrigation of dry-season rice. However, the groundwater used for irrigation often contains high concentrations of arsenic, potentially jeopardizing the future of rice production in the country. In seasonally flooded fields, topsoil arsenic concentrations decrease during the monsoon season, suggesting that flooding attenuates arsenic accumulation in the soils. Here we examine the chemistry of soil porewater and floodwater during the monsoon season in rice paddies in Munshiganj, Bangladesh, to assess whether flooding releases significant quantities of arsenic from the soils. We estimate that between 51 and 250mgm-2 of soil arsenic is released into floodwater during the monsoon season. This corresponds to a loss of 13-62% of the arsenic added to soils through irrigation each year. The arsenic was distributed throughout the entire floodwater column by vertical mixing and was laterally removed when the floodwater receded. We conclude that monsoon floodwater removes a large amount of the arsenic added to paddy soils through irrigation, and suggest that non-flooded soils are particularly at risk of arsenic accumulation.

  19. Phylogenetically Distinct Phylotypes Modulate Nitrification in a Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Wang, Baozhan

    2015-01-01

    Paddy fields represent a unique ecosystem in which regular flooding occurs, allowing for rice cultivation. However, the taxonomic identity of the microbial functional guilds that catalyze soil nitrification remains poorly understood. In this study, we provide molecular evidence for distinctly different phylotypes of nitrifying communities in a neutral paddy soil using high-throughput pyrosequencing and DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP). Following urea addition, the levels of soil nitrate increased significantly, accompanied by an increase in the abundance of the bacterial and archaeal amoA gene in microcosms subjected to SIP (SIP microcosms) during a 56-day incubation period. High-throughput fingerprints of the total 16S rRNA genes in SIP microcosms indicated that nitrification activity positively correlated with the abundance of Nitrosospira-like ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), soil group 1.1b-like ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Pyrosequencing of 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that 13CO2 was assimilated by these functional groups to a much greater extent than by marine group 1.1a-associated AOA and Nitrobacter-like NOB. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that active AOB communities were closely affiliated with Nitrosospira sp. strain L115 and the Nitrosospira multiformis lineage and that the 13C-labeled AOA were related to phylogenetically distinct groups, including the moderately thermophilic “Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis,” uncultured fosmid 29i4, and acidophilic “Candidatus Nitrosotalea devanaterra” lineages. These results suggest that a wide variety of microorganisms were involved in soil nitrification, implying physiological diversification of soil nitrifying communities that are constantly exposed to environmental fluctuations in paddy fields. PMID:25724959

  20. Effects of soil acidification and liming on the phytoavailability of cadmium in paddy soils of central subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Qihong; Huang, Daoyou

    2016-12-01

    Intensive and paired soil and rice grain survey and multiple-field liming experiments were conducted to assess soil acidification in the past 30 years, quantify the relationships of Cd phytoavailability with soil acidity, and determine efficacies of liming on soil acidity and Cd phytoavailability in paddy soils of central subtropical China at a regional scale. Soil pH, total and extractable Cd (Cdtot and Cdext), rice grain Cd were determined, and all measured data were analyzed separately in groups of 0.1 pH units intervals. Paddy soil pH averagely declined at 0.031 unit yr(-1) between 1980s and 2014 (P < 0.01). Piecewise means of log Cd transfer ratio kept around -0.062 between soil pH 4.0 and 5.5 and around -1.31 between pH 6.9 and 7.3, whereas linearly decreased by a factor of 0.76 with pH 5.5-6.9, and by a factor of 1.38 with pH 7.3-8.2 (P < 0.01), respectively. Similar responses to soil pH were observed for soil Cdext to Cdtot ratio. However, the former exhibited a lag effect to soil acidification in the acidic soils and a leading effect in alkaline soils. Liming increased soil pH by 0.50 units, and decreased rice grain Cd by 35.3% and log Cd transfer ratio by a factor of 0.76 (P < 0.01). The piecewise relationship based on the survey precisely predicted the changes in Cd transfer ratio across the multiple-field liming experiments. In conclusion, soil acidification occurred and accelerated in the past 30 years, and piecewise-linearly increased Cd phytoavailability of paddy soils in central subtropical China. Mitigating soil acidification, i.e. liming, should be preferentially implemented to minimize Cd phytoavailability.

  1. Soil mineral surfaces of paddy soils are accessible for organic carbon accumulation after decalcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissing, Livia

    2013-04-01

    We studied organic carbon (OC) accumulation due to organo-mineral associations during soil development on calcareous parent material. Two chronosequences in Zhejiang Province, PR China, were investigated; one under paddy cultivation with a maximum soil age of 2000 years, and the other under upland crops where the oldest soil was 700 years old. Bulk soils and soil fractions of the uppermost A horizons were analyzed for OC concentrations and radio carbon contents. Total pedogenic iron (Fed) concentration was determined by dithionite extraction and the proportion of oxalate extractable iron (Feox) was extracted by using the method of Schwertmann (1964). The specific surface area (SSA) of soil minerals was measured by the BET-N2 method (Brunauer et al., 1938) under four conditions: untreated, after organic matter removal, after iron removal and after removal of both. Within 700/2000 years of pedogenesis, we observed no change in clay mineral composition and no additional formation of the SSA of soil minerals. But the soils differed in the degree of decalcification, OC accumulation and in the formation of iron. Paddy soil management led to an enhanced decalcification and larger OC accumulation. Management-induced redox cycles caused larger proportions of Feox in paddy soils. Their large SSA, added to the surface area of clay minerals, provided additional options for OC covering. Unexpectedly, there was no evidence of formation of secondary minerals during soil development, which could provide new surfaces for OC accumulation. However, the study revealed higher OC coverings of mineral surfaces after decalcification in paddy soils. As carbonate and Ca2+ ions seemed to interconnect clay minerals, making their surface accessible to OC, the faster dissolution of carbonate and leaching of Ca2+ ions in paddy soils made additional clay mineral surfaces available to OC. In contrast, the surface area of minerals in non-paddy soils, in which decalcification was much lower, seemed

  2. [Straw return to rice paddy: soil carbon sequestration and increased methane emission].

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Han, Bing; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the long-term datasets of soil organic matter content and the observation data of rice paddies' methane (CH4) emission collected from the agricultural experiment stations across the country, the rice paddies in China were divided into single cropping and double cropping regions. The soil carbon sequestration potential of straw return in three types of rice paddies in the two regions, i. e., single cropping rice paddies, upland/paddy alternated rice paddies, and double cropping rice paddies, was evaluated, based on the datasets of soil organic matter content; and the total CH4 emission from rice paddies without straw return was estimated, with reference to the experimental data of paddies' CH4 emission and by the method of mean emission coefficient. The total CH4 emission from our paddies after straw return and the global warming potential of the increased CH4 emission were also estimated by using the related methods and parameters given by IPCC. It was estimated that the full popularization of straw return to China's rice paddies would sequester 10.48 Tg x a(-1) of C, and the contribution to the global warming mitigation was 38.43 Tg CO2-eqv x a(-1). In the meanwhile, the CH4 emission from our rice paddies would be increased from 5.796 Tg x a(-1) to 9.114 Tg x a(-1), and the increased 3.318 Tg x a(-1) of CH4 emission would lead to a global warming potential of 82.95 Tg CO2 -eqv x a(-1), which was 2.158 times of the mitigation from carbon sequestration in rice paddies. Therefore, the increased CH4 emission due to straw return should be regarded as an important greenhouse gas leakage, since it could greatly offset the mitigation benefits of soil carbon sequestration in China's rice paddies.

  3. Microbial communities play important roles in modulating paddy soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-02-04

    We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production.

  4. Microbial communities play important roles in modulating paddy soil fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-02-01

    We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production.

  5. Microbial communities play important roles in modulating paddy soil fertility

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xuesong; Fu, Xiaoqian; Yang, Yun; Cai, Peng; Peng, Shaobing; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    We studied microbial communities in two paddy soils, which did not receive nitrogen fertilization and were distinguished by the soil properties. The two microbial communities differed in the relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria and total microbial biomass. Variability in microbial communities between the two fields was related to the levels of phosphorus and soil moisture. Redundancy analysis for individual soils showed that the bacterial community dynamics in the high-yield soil were significantly correlated with total carbon, moisture, available potassium, and pH, and those in the low-yield cores were shaped by pH, and nitrogen factors. Biolog Eco-plate data showed a more active microbial community in the high yield soil. The variations of enzymatic activities in the two soils were significantly explained by total nitrogen, total potassium, and moisture. The enzymatic variability in the low-yield soil was significantly explained by potassium, available nitrogen, pH, and total carbon, and that in the high-yield soil was partially explained by potassium and moisture. We found the relative abundances of Gram-negative bacteria and Actinomycetes partially explained the spatial and temporal variations of soil enzymatic activities, respectively. The high-yield soil microbes are probably more active to modulate soil fertility for rice production. PMID:26841839

  6. Phosphorus content as a function of soil aggregate size and paddy cultivation in highly weathered soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Baozhen; Ge, Tida; Xiao, Heai; Zhu, Zhenke; Li, Yong; Shibistova, Olga; Liu, Shoulong; Wu, Jinshui; Inubushi, Kazuyuki; Guggenberger, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Red soils are the major land resource in subtropical and tropical areas and are characterized by low phosphorus (P) availability. To assess the availability of P for plants and the potential stability of P in soil, two pairs of subtropical red soil samples from a paddy field and an adjacent uncultivated upland were collected from Hunan Province, China. Analysis of total P and Olsen P and sequential extraction was used to determine the inorganic and organic P fractions in different aggregate size classes. Our results showed that the soil under paddy cultivation had lower proportions of small aggregates and higher proportions of large aggregates than those from the uncultivated upland soil. The portion of >2-mm-sized aggregates increased by 31 and 20 % at Taoyuan and Guiyang, respectively. The total P and Olsen P contents were 50-150 and 50-300 % higher, respectively, in the paddy soil than those in the upland soil. Higher inorganic and organic P fractions tended to be enriched in both the smallest and largest aggregate size classes compared to the middle size class (0.02-0.2 mm). Furthermore, the proportion of P fractions was higher in smaller aggregate sizes (<2 mm) than in the higher aggregate sizes (>2 mm). In conclusion, soils under paddy cultivation displayed improved soil aggregate structure, altered distribution patterns of P fractions in different aggregate size classes, and to some extent had enhanced labile P pools.

  7. Heavy metals accumulation in parts of paddy Oryza sativa L. grown in paddy field adjacent to ultrabasic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadif, Waqeed Mahdi; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Sahid, Ismail; Bhuiyan, Atiqur Rahman; Ibrahim, Izyanti

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals from soil around the root zone to various parts of the paddy plant, namely the roots, stems, leaves and rice grains. This study was conducted in 2014 in paddy field adjacent to ultrabasic soil (field 1 and 2) located in Ranau, Sabah and one field (Field 3) taken as control located at the UKM experimental plot in peninsular of Malaysia. The plant species used in the present investigation is Paddy Batu. The heavy metals studied were Chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni). Heavy metals in soil and plant were extracted by wet digestion method. Heavy metals present in paddy plants and soils extract were measured using the ICP-MS. Heavy metals concentrations in the plant parts in descending order is the root > leaves > stem > rice grain. Lower concentration of all heavy metals in soils and plant parts was shown by the control site (Field 3) in UKM Bangi. Higher concentration of heavy metals occurred in the roots compared to other above ground parts (stem, leaves, and grains) of the paddy plant in all of the paddy field. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of heavy metals in all locations were recorded in descending order as Ni > Cr > Fe, the BAF values for all metals in the rice grains were low, whereas the BAF values were recorded high for Ni in all locations. The results also showed that Fe was the most predominant metal ion in the roots, followed by Ni then Cr.

  8. CADMIUM SOLUBILITY IN PADDY SOILS: EFFECTS OF SOIL OXIDATION, METAL SULFIDES AND COMPETITIVE IONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element for human nutrition and is an agricultural soil contaminant. Cadmium solubility in paddy soils affects Cd accumulation in the grain of rice. This is a human health risk, exacerbated by the fact that rice grains are deficient in iron (Fe) an...

  9. Effects of sulfur in flooded paddy soils: Implications for iron chemistry and arsenic mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avancha, S.; Boye, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the Mekong delta in Cambodia, naturally occurring arsenic (amplified by erosion in the Himalaya Mountains) in paddy soils is mobilized during the seasonal flooding. As a consequence, rice grown on the flooded soils may take up arsenic and expose people eating the rice to this carcinogenic substance. Iron and sulfur both interact strongly with arsenic in paddy soils: iron oxides are strong adsorbents for arsenic in oxic conditions, and sulfur (in the form of sulfide) is a strong adsorbent under anoxic conditions. In the process of reductive dissolution of iron oxides, arsenic, which had been adsorbed to the iron oxides, is released. Therefore, higher levels of reduced iron (ferrous iron) will likely correlate with higher levels of mobilized arsenic. However, the mobilized arsenic may then co-precipitate with or adsorb to iron sulfides, which form under sulfate-reducing conditions and with the aid of certain microbes already present in the soil. In a batch experiment, we investigated how these processes correlate and which has the greatest influence on arsenic mobilization and potential plant availability. The experiment was designed to measure the effects of various sources of sulfur (dried rice straw, charred rice straw, and gypsum) on the iron and arsenic release in an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil from Cambodia under flooded conditions. The two types of rice straw were designed to introduce the same amount of organic sulfur (7.7 μg/g of soil), but different levels of available carbon, since carbon stimulates microbial activity in the soil. In comparison, two different levels of gypsum (calcium sulfate) were used, 7.7 and 34.65 μg/g of soil, to test the effect of directly available inorganic sulfate without carbon addition. The soil was flooded with a buffer solution at pH 7.07 in airtight serum vials and kept as a slurry on a shaker at 25 °C. We measured pH, alkalinity, ferrous iron, ferric iron, sulfide, sulfate, total iron, sulfur, and arsenic in the

  10. Solubility and Leaching Risks of Organic Carbon in Paddy Soils as Affected by Irrigation Managements

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shihong; Wei, Qi; Gao, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Influence of nonflooding controlled irrigation (NFI) on solubility and leaching risk of soil organic carbon (SOC) were investigated. Compared with flooding irrigation (FI) paddies, soil water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in NFI paddies increased in surface soil but decreased in deep soil. The DOC leaching loss in NFI field was 63.3 kg C ha−1, reduced by 46.4% than in the FI fields. It indicated that multi-wet-dry cycles in NFI paddies enhanced the decomposition of SOC in surface soils, and less carbon moved downward to deep soils due to less percolation. That also led to lower SOC in surface soils in NFI paddies than in FI paddies, which implied that more carbon was released into the atmosphere from the surface soil in NFI paddies. Change of solubility of SOC in NFI paddies might lead to potential change in soil fertility and sustainability, greenhouse gas emission, and bioavailability of trace metals or organic pollutants. PMID:23935423

  11. Solubility and leaching risks of organic carbon in paddy soils as affected by irrigation managements.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong; Peng, Shizhang; Wei, Qi; Gao, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Influence of nonflooding controlled irrigation (NFI) on solubility and leaching risk of soil organic carbon (SOC) were investigated. Compared with flooding irrigation (FI) paddies, soil water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in NFI paddies increased in surface soil but decreased in deep soil. The DOC leaching loss in NFI field was 63.3 kg C ha⁻¹, reduced by 46.4% than in the FI fields. It indicated that multi-wet-dry cycles in NFI paddies enhanced the decomposition of SOC in surface soils, and less carbon moved downward to deep soils due to less percolation. That also led to lower SOC in surface soils in NFI paddies than in FI paddies, which implied that more carbon was released into the atmosphere from the surface soil in NFI paddies. Change of solubility of SOC in NFI paddies might lead to potential change in soil fertility and sustainability, greenhouse gas emission, and bioavailability of trace metals or organic pollutants.

  12. Organic and inorganic carbon in paddy soil as evaluated by mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Changwen, Du; Jianmin, Zhou; Goyne, Keith W

    2012-01-01

    Paddy soils are classified as wetlands which play a vital role in climatic change and food production. Soil carbon (C), especially soil organic C (SOC), in paddy soils has been received considerable attention as of recent. However, considerably less attention has been given to soil inorganic carbon (SIC) in paddy soils and the relationship between SOC and SIC at interface between soil and the atmosphere. The objective of this research was to investigate the utility of applying Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) to explore SOC and SIC present near the surface (0-10 µm) of paddy soils. The FTIR-PAS spectra revealed an unique absorption region in the wavenumber range of 1,350-1,500 cm(-1) that was dominated by C-O (carbonate) and C-H bending vibrations (organic materials), and these vibrations were used to represented SIC and SOC, respectively. A circular distribution between SIC and SOC on the surface of paddy soils was determined using principal component analysis (PCA), and the distribution showed no significant relationship with the age of paddy soil. However, SIC and SOC were negatively correlated, and higher SIC content was observed near the soil surface. This relationship suggests that SIC in soil surface plays important roles in the soil C dynamics.

  13. Organic and Inorganic Carbon in Paddy Soil as Evaluated by Mid-Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Changwen, Du; Jianmin, Zhou; Goyne, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Paddy soils are classified as wetlands which play a vital role in climatic change and food production. Soil carbon (C), especially soil organic C (SOC), in paddy soils has been received considerable attention as of recent. However, considerably less attention has been given to soil inorganic carbon (SIC) in paddy soils and the relationship between SOC and SIC at interface between soil and the atmosphere. The objective of this research was to investigate the utility of applying Fourier transform mid-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) to explore SOC and SIC present near the surface (0–10 µm) of paddy soils. The FTIR-PAS spectra revealed an unique absorption region in the wavenumber range of 1,350–1,500 cm−1 that was dominated by C-O (carbonate) and C-H bending vibrations (organic materials), and these vibrations were used to represented SIC and SOC, respectively. A circular distribution between SIC and SOC on the surface of paddy soils was determined using principal component analysis (PCA), and the distribution showed no significant relationship with the age of paddy soil. However, SIC and SOC were negatively correlated, and higher SIC content was observed near the soil surface. This relationship suggests that SIC in soil surface plays important roles in the soil C dynamics. PMID:22912863

  14. A simple evaluation of soil quality of waterlogged purple paddy soils with different productivities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanjun; Zhou, Wei; Lv, Jialong; He, Ping; Liang, Guoqing; Jin, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of soil quality can be crucial for designing efficient farming systems and ensuring sustainable agriculture. The present study aimed at evaluating the quality of waterlogged purple paddy soils with different productivities in Sichuan Basin. The approach involved comprehensive analyses of soil physical and chemical properties, as well as enzyme activities and microbial community structure measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). A total of 36 soil samples were collected from four typical locations, with 12 samples representing high productivity purple paddy soil (HPPS), medium productivity purple paddy soil (MPPS) and low productivity purple paddy soil (LPPS), respectively. Most measured soil properties showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among HPPS, MPPS and LPPS. Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to identify appropriate soil quality indicators. A minimum data set (MDS) including total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), acid phosphatase (ACP), total bacteria (TB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was established and accounted for 82.1% of the quality variation among soils. A soil quality index (SQI) was developed based on the MDS method, whilst HPPS, MPPS and LPPS received mean SQI scores of 0.725, 0.536 and 0.425, respectively, with a ranking of HPPS > MPPS > LPPS. HPPS showed relatively good soil quality characterized by optimal nutrient availability, enzymatic and microbial activities, but the opposite was true of LPPS. Low levels of TN, AP and soil microbial activities were considered to be the major constraints limiting the productivity in LPPS. All soil samples collected were rich in available N, K, Si and Zn, but deficient in available P, which may be the major constraint for the studied regions. Managers in our study area should employ more appropriate management in the LPPS to improve its rice productivity, and particularly to any potential limiting factor.

  15. A Simple Evaluation of Soil Quality of Waterlogged Purple Paddy Soils with Different Productivities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanjun; Zhou, Wei; Lv, Jialong; He, Ping; Liang, Guoqing; Jin, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of soil quality can be crucial for designing efficient farming systems and ensuring sustainable agriculture. The present study aimed at evaluating the quality of waterlogged purple paddy soils with different productivities in Sichuan Basin. The approach involved comprehensive analyses of soil physical and chemical properties, as well as enzyme activities and microbial community structure measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). A total of 36 soil samples were collected from four typical locations, with 12 samples representing high productivity purple paddy soil (HPPS), medium productivity purple paddy soil (MPPS) and low productivity purple paddy soil (LPPS), respectively. Most measured soil properties showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among HPPS, MPPS and LPPS. Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to identify appropriate soil quality indicators. A minimum data set (MDS) including total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), acid phosphatase (ACP), total bacteria (TB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was established and accounted for 82.1% of the quality variation among soils. A soil quality index (SQI) was developed based on the MDS method, whilst HPPS, MPPS and LPPS received mean SQI scores of 0.725, 0.536 and 0.425, respectively, with a ranking of HPPS > MPPS > LPPS. HPPS showed relatively good soil quality characterized by optimal nutrient availability, enzymatic and microbial activities, but the opposite was true of LPPS. Low levels of TN, AP and soil microbial activities were considered to be the major constraints limiting the productivity in LPPS. All soil samples collected were rich in available N, K, Si and Zn, but deficient in available P, which may be the major constraint for the studied regions. Managers in our study area should employ more appropriate management in the LPPS to improve its rice productivity, and particularly to any potential limiting factor. PMID:25997107

  16. Community structure and soil pH determine chemoautotrophic carbon dioxide fixation in drained paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Long, Xi-En; Yao, Huaiying; Wang, Juan; Huang, Ying; Singh, Brajesh K; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-06-16

    Previous studies suggested that microbial photosynthesis plays a potential role in paddy fields, but little is known about chemoautotrophic carbon fixers in drained paddy soils. We conducted a microcosm study using soil samples from five paddy fields to determine the environmental factors and quantify key functional microbial taxa involved in chemoautotrophic carbon fixation. We used stable isotope probing in combination with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and molecular approaches. The amount of microbial (13)CO2 fixation was determined by quantification of (13)C-enriched fatty acid methyl esters and ranged from 21.28 to 72.48 ng of (13)C (g of dry soil)(-1), and the corresponding ratio (labeled PLFA-C:total PLFA-C) ranged from 0.06 to 0.49%. The amount of incorporationof (13)CO2 into PLFAs significantly increased with soil pH except at pH 7.8. PLFA and high-throughput sequencing results indicated a dominant role of Gram-negative bacteria or proteobacteria in (13)CO2 fixation. Correlation analysis indicated a significant association between microbial community structure and carbon fixation. We provide direct evidence of chemoautotrophic C fixation in soils with statistical evidence of microbial community structure regulation of inorganic carbon fixation in the paddy soil ecosystem.

  17. Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadimi-Goki, Mandana; Bini, Claudio; Haefele, Stephan; Abooei, Monireh

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of soil quality indicators in paddy soils under different crop rotation systems Soil quality, by definition, reflects the capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and promote plant and animal health. Soil quality assessment is an essential issue in soil management for agriculture and natural resource protection. This study was conducted to detect the effects of four crop rotation systems (rice-rice-rice, soya-rice-rice, fallow-rice and pea-soya-rice) on soil quality indicators (soil moisture, porosity, bulk density, water-filled pore space, pH, extractable P, CEC, OC, OM, microbial respiration, active carbon) in paddy soils of Verona area, Northern Italy. Four adjacent plots which managed almost similarly, over five years were selected. Surface soil samples were collected from each four rotation systems in four times, during growing season. Each soil sample was a composite of sub-samples taken from 3 points within 350 m2 of agricultural land. A total of 48 samples were air-dried and passed through 2mm sieve, for some chemical, biological, and physical measurements. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS. Statistical results revealed that frequency distribution of most data was normal. The lowest CV% was related to pH. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and comparison test showed that there are significant differences in soil quality indicators among crop rotation systems and sampling times. Results of multivariable regression analysis revealed that soil respiration had positively correlation coefficient with soil organic matter, soil moisture and cation exchange capacity. Overall results indicated that the rice rotation with legumes such as bean and soybean improved soil quality over a long time in comparison to rice-fallow rotation, and this is reflected in rice yield. Keywords: Soil quality, Crop Rotation System, Paddy Soils, Italy

  18. Differential Assemblage of Functional Units in Paddy Soil Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yongkyu; Liesack, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Flooded rice fields are not only a global food source but also a major biogenic source of atmospheric methane. Using metatranscriptomics, we comparatively explored structural and functional succession of paddy soil microbiomes in the oxic surface layer and anoxic bulk soil. Cyanobacteria, Fungi, Xanthomonadales, Myxococcales, and Methylococcales were the most abundant and metabolically active groups in the oxic zone, while Clostridia, Actinobacteria, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Anaerolineae, and methanogenic archaea dominated the anoxic zone. The protein synthesis potential of these groups was about 75% and 50% of the entire community capacity, respectively. Their structure-function relationships in microbiome succession were revealed by classifying the protein-coding transcripts into core, non-core, and taxon-specific transcripts based on homologous gene distribution. The differential expression of core transcripts between the two microbiomes indicated that structural succession is primarily governed by the cellular ability to adapt to the given oxygen condition, involving oxidative stress, nitrogen/phosphorus metabolism, and fermentation. By contrast, the non-core transcripts were expressed from genes involved in the metabolism of various carbon sources. Among those, taxon-specific transcripts revealed highly specialized roles of the dominant groups in community-wide functioning. For instance, taxon-specific transcripts involved in photosynthesis and methane oxidation were a characteristic of the oxic zone, while those related to methane production and aromatic compound degradation were specific to the anoxic zone. Degradation of organic matters, antibiotics resistance, and secondary metabolite production were detected to be expressed in both the oxic and anoxic zones, but by different taxonomic groups. Cross-feeding of methanol between members of the Methylococcales and Xanthomonadales was suggested by the observation that in the oxic zone, they both

  19. Development of bulk density, total C distribution and OC saturation in fine mineral fractions during paddy soil evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissing, Livia; Kölbl, Angelika; Cao, Zhi-Hong; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2010-05-01

    Paddy soils are described as important accumulator for OM (Zhang and He, 2004). In southeast China, paddy soils have the second highest OM stocks (Zhao et al, 1997) and thus a large proportion of the terrestrial carbon is conserved in wetland rice soils. The paddy soil management is believed to be favorable for accumulation of organic matter, as its content in paddy soils is statistically higher than that of non-paddy soils (Cai, 1996). However, the mechanism of OM storage and the development of OM distribution during paddy soil evolution is largely unknown. The aim of the project is to identify the role of organo-mineral complexes for the stabilization of organic carbon during management-induced paddy soil formation in a chronosequence ranging from 50 to 2000 years of paddy soil use. The soil samples were analysed for bulk density, total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) concentrations of bulk soils and the concentration of organic carbon as well as the organic carbon stocks of physical soil fractions. First results indicate distinctly different depth distributions between paddy and non-paddy (control) sites. The paddy soils are characterized by relatively low bulk densities in the puddled layer (between 0.9 and 1.3 g cm-3) and high values in the plough pan (1.4 to 1.6 g cm-3) and the non-paddy soils by relatively homogeneous values throughout the profiles (1.3 to 1.4 g cm-3). In contrast to the carbonate-rich non-paddy sites, we found a significant loss of carbonates during paddy soil formation, resulting in decalcification of the upper 20 cm after 100 yr of paddy soil use, and decalcification of the total soil profile in 700, 1000 and 2000 yr old paddy soils. The calculation of the organic carbon stocks of each horizon indicate that paddy sites always have higher values in topsoils compared to non-paddy sites, and show increasing values with increasing soil age. The capacity of fine mineral fractions to preserve OC was calculated according to

  20. Fly ash application in nutrient poor agriculture soils: impact on methanotrophs population dynamics and paddy yields.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2013-03-01

    There are reports that the application of fly ash, compost and press mud or a combination thereof, improves plant growth, soil microbial communities etc. Also, fly ash in combination with farmyard manure or other organic amendments improves soil physico-chemical characteristics, rice yield and microbial processes in paddy fields. However, the knowledge about the impact of fly ash inputs alone or in combination with other organic amendments on soil methanotrophs number in paddy soils is almost lacking. We hypothesized that fly ash application at lower doses in paddy agriculture soil could be a potential amendment to elevate the paddy yields and methanotrophs number. Here we demonstrate the impact of fly ash and press mud inputs on number of methanotrophs, antioxidants, antioxidative enzymatic activities and paddy yields at agriculture farm. The impact of amendments was significant for methanotrophs number, heavy metal concentration, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzymatic activities and paddy yields. A negative correlation was existed between higher doses of fly ash-treatments and methanotrophs number (R(2)=0.833). The content of antioxidants and enzymatic activities in leaves of higher doses fly ash-treated rice plants increased in response to stresses due to heavy metal toxicity, which was negatively correlated with rice grain yield (R(2)=0.944) and paddy straw yield (R(2)=0.934). A positive correlation was noted between heavy metals concentrations and different antioxidant and enzymatic activities across different fly ash treated plots.The data of this study indicate that heavy metal toxicity of fly ash may cause oxidative stress in the paddy crop and the antioxidants and related enzymes could play a defensive role against phytotoxic damages. We concluded that fly ash at lower doses with press mud seems to offer the potential amendments to improving soil methanotrophs population and paddy crop yields for the nutrient poor agriculture soils.

  1. Impact of triazophos insecticide on paddy soil environment.

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Abid, Subhani; Huang, Chang-Yong; Xie, Zheng-Miao

    2002-07-01

    A laboratory incubation study was carried out to elucidate the dynamic response of insecticide (triazophos) on a paddy field soil health under controlled moisture (flooded soil) and temperature (25 degrees C). The insecticide was applied at five levels that were 0.0 (control), 0.5 field rate (FR), 1.0 FR, 5.0 FR, and 10.0 FR, where FR was 1500 ml/hm2, and the parameters were studied at 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days after treatments' addition. The electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity exhibited a negative correlation with insecticide concentrations, and the activity affected adversely as the concentration increased. The higher doses of 5 and 10 field rates significantly reduced the ETS activity, while lower rates failed to produce any significant inhibiting effect against the control. The toxicity of insecticide decreased towards decreasing the ETS activity with the advancement of incubation period. The insecticide caused an improvement in the soil phenol content and it increased with increasing concentration of insecticide. The insecticide incorporation applied at various concentrations did not produce any significant change in soil protein content and it remained stable throughout the incubation period of 21-days. The response of biomass phospholipid content was nearly similar to ETS activity. The phospholipid content was decreased with the addition of insecticide and the toxicity was in the order: 10 FR (field rate) > 5 FR > 1.0 FR > 0.5 FR > control and it also decreased with incubation period.

  2. [Influence of double rice cropping system innovation on paddy soil profile form and soil characteristics].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xi-Bai; Sun, Nan; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Li, Lian-Fang; Wang, Bo-Ren; Bai, Ling-Yu

    2008-05-01

    Field experiments were conducted on the double rice cropping paddy field in red soil area to evaluate the influence of cropping system innovation on soil profile form and related soil characteristics. Four cropping systems of rice-rice-Chinese Milkvetch (Astragalus sinicus Linn.), forage, paddy-upland rotation, and upland were substituted for the double rice cropping system. The results indicated that compared with those under double rice cropping system, the thickness of cultivated horizon under upland cropping system increased by 4 cm, that of plow pan declined by 2 cm, > 2 mm aggregates in wet-sieved particle-size fractions increased by 6.94%, wet-sieved mean-mass diameter increased by 0.37 mm, contents of humic acid carbon and fulvic acid carbon increased by 0.15 and 0.49 g kg(-1), respectively, and quotient of aggregates water stability was 0.78 times higher. Under paddy-upland rotation, the quotient of aggregates water stability was higher (95.86), while soil nutrient contents changed a little. Under rice-rice-Chinese Milkvetch system, soil organic matter content increased by 1.3 g kg(-1), quotient of aggregates water stability declined by 8.82, but other parameters had less changes. Under forage system, the thickness of cultivated and transitional horizons increased by 2 cm and 9 cm, respectively, quotient of aggregates water stability increased by 1.39, while the contents of soil organic matter and total potassium decreased by 5.6 and 2.8 g kg(-1), respectively. Among all test cropping systems, forage system had the greatest changes in soil characteristics. It was completely feasible to substitute the local double rice cropping system for paddy-upland rotation or upland cropping, particularly in the areas where full irrigation was not available. However, attention should be paid to the decrease of soil potassium content when the cropping system innovation was practiced.

  3. Soil microbial C:N ratio is a robust indicator of soil productivity for paddy fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Wu, Jinshui; Shen, Jianlin; Liu, Shoulong; Wang, Cong; Chen, Dan; Huang, Tieping; Zhang, Jiabao

    2016-10-01

    Maintaining good soil productivity in rice paddies is important for global food security. Numerous methods have been developed to evaluate paddy soil productivity (PSP), most based on soil physiochemical properties and relatively few on biological indices. Here, we used a long-term dataset from experiments on paddy fields at eight county sites and a short-term dataset from a single field experiment in southern China, and aimed at quantifying relationships between PSP and the ratios of carbon (C) to nutrients (N and P) in soil microbial biomass (SMB). In the long-term dataset, SMB variables generally showed stronger correlations with the relative PSP (rPSP) compared to soil chemical properties. Both correlation and variation partitioning analyses suggested that SMB N, P and C:N ratio were good predictors of rPSP. In the short-term dataset, we found a significant, negative correlation of annual rice yield with SMB C:N (r = ‑0.99), confirming SMB C:N as a robust indicator for PSP. In treatments of the short-term experiment, soil amendment with biochar lowered SMB C:N and improved PSP, while incorporation of rice straw increased SMB C:N and reduced PSP. We conclude that SMB C:N ratio does not only indicate PSP but also helps to identify management practices that improve PSP.

  4. Soil microbial C:N ratio is a robust indicator of soil productivity for paddy fields

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Wu, Jinshui; Shen, Jianlin; Liu, Shoulong; Wang, Cong; Chen, Dan; Huang, Tieping; Zhang, Jiabao

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining good soil productivity in rice paddies is important for global food security. Numerous methods have been developed to evaluate paddy soil productivity (PSP), most based on soil physiochemical properties and relatively few on biological indices. Here, we used a long-term dataset from experiments on paddy fields at eight county sites and a short-term dataset from a single field experiment in southern China, and aimed at quantifying relationships between PSP and the ratios of carbon (C) to nutrients (N and P) in soil microbial biomass (SMB). In the long-term dataset, SMB variables generally showed stronger correlations with the relative PSP (rPSP) compared to soil chemical properties. Both correlation and variation partitioning analyses suggested that SMB N, P and C:N ratio were good predictors of rPSP. In the short-term dataset, we found a significant, negative correlation of annual rice yield with SMB C:N (r = −0.99), confirming SMB C:N as a robust indicator for PSP. In treatments of the short-term experiment, soil amendment with biochar lowered SMB C:N and improved PSP, while incorporation of rice straw increased SMB C:N and reduced PSP. We conclude that SMB C:N ratio does not only indicate PSP but also helps to identify management practices that improve PSP. PMID:27739462

  5. Microbial phototrophic fixation of atmospheric CO2 in China subtropical upland and paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Tida; Wu, Xiaohong; Chen, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Hongzhao; Zou, Ziying; Li, Baozhen; Zhou, Ping; Liu, Shoulong; Tong, Chengli; Brookes, Phil; Wu, Jinshui

    2013-07-01

    Autotrophic microorganisms, which can fix atmospheric CO2 to synthesize organic carbon, are numerous and widespread in soils. However, the extent and the mechanism of CO2 fixation in soils remain poorly understood. We incubated five upland and five paddy soils from subtropical China in an enclosed, continuously 14CO2-labeled, atmosphere and measured 14CO2 incorporated into soil organic matter (SOC14) and microbial biomass (MBC14) after 110 days. The five upland soils supported dominant crops soils (maize, wheat, sweet potato, and rapeseed) in the region, while all paddy soils were cultivated in a regime consisting of permanently-flooded double-cropping rice cultivation. The upland and paddy soils represented typical soil types (fluvisols and ultisols) and three landforms (upland, hill, and low mountain), ranging in total carbon from low (<10 g kg-1 soil organic carbon) to medium (10-20 g kg-1) to high (>20 g kg-1). Substantial amounts of 14CO2 were fixed into SOC14 (mean 20.1 ± 7.1 mg C kg-1 in upland soil, 121.1 ± 6.4 mg C kg-1 in paddy soil) in illuminated soils (12 h light/12 h dark), whereas no 14C was fixed in soils incubated in continuous darkness. We concluded that the microbial CO2 fixation was almost entirely phototrophic rather than chemotrophic. The rate of SOC14 synthesis was significantly higher in paddy soils than in upland soils. The SOC14 comprised means of 0.15 ± 0.01% (upland) and 0.65 ± 0.03% (paddy) of SOC. The extent of 14C immobilized as MBC14 and that present as dissolved organic C (DOC14) differed between soil types, accounting for 15.69-38.76% and 5.54-18.37% in upland soils and 15.57-40.03% and 3.67-7.17% of SOC14 in paddy soils, respectively. The MBC14/MBC and DOC14/DOC were 1.76-5.70% and 1.69-5.17% in the upland soils and 4.23-28.73% and 5.65-14.30% in the paddy soils, respectively. Thus, the newly-incorporated C stimulated the dynamics of DOC and MBC more than the dynamics of SOC. The SOC14 and MBC14 concentrations were highly

  6. Effect of aquatic weeds on methane emission from submerged paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Inubushi, K; Sugii, H; Nishino, S; Nishino, E

    2001-06-01

    Paddy fields are one of the dominant anthropogenic sources of methane emission to the atmosphere, and the main passageway of methane from paddy soil is through the rice plant. However, the effect of aquatic weeds on methane emission from rice paddies has not been properly evaluated yet. Methane emission from weeded pots and unweeded ones with anaerobic paddy soil was measured throughout the period of rice growth. More than double the amount of methane was emitted from weeded pots compared with unweeded ones. Peroxidase activity of rice root was not different between weeded and unweeded pots. However, methanogenic bacteria populations were higher in weeded pots than in unweeded ones, while methane oxidation activity, measured by the propylene oxidation technique, was higher in unweeded pots than in weeded ones. Methane oxidation activity of roots from three typical aquatic weeds in paddy fields, Lipocarpha sp., Rotala indica, and Ludwigia epilobioides, was higher than that of rice plants, while lower stems of these aquatic plants showed similar or lower activity compared with the same areas of rice plants. These results indicate that the role of aquatic weeds in paddy soil in methane emission should not be overlooked in evaluating mitigation options for reducing methane emission from paddy fields.

  7. Inhibition experiments on nitrous oxide emission from paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xingkai; Boeckx, Pascal; Zhou, Likai; Van Cleemput, Oswald

    2002-08-01

    Rice fields using nitrogen-based fertilizers play an important role in the global N2O budget. However, our knowledge is still limited with regard to the mechanisms affecting the N2O emission and to the measures that can reduce the emission. This paper reports a study of N2O emission from paddy soils. The effects of urea, hydroquinone (HQ, a urease inhibitor), and dicyandiamide (DCD, a nitrification inhibitor) have been studied in pot experiments with and without rice plants and with and without addition of wheat straw. With no wheat straw amendment, all treatments with inhibitors, especially with HQ + DCD, had a much smaller N2O emission during the rice growing period than the urea treatment, whereas a substantially increased N2O emission was observed from a rice-free soil with inhibitors. The N2O emission from the rice-planted soil was exponentially positive correlated with the NO3--N concentration in the rice aboveground biomass. By comparing the total N2O emission from the rice-free soil and from the rice-planted soil, we found that urea application alone might induce an apparent plant-mediated N2O emission, being 0.39 +/- 0.08% of the applied urea N. Wheat straw incorporated into the flooded surface layer soil could increase the plant-mediated N2O emission significantly. However, application of HQ + DCD could reduce this emission (0.27 +/- 0.08% of the applied urea N, compared with 0.89 +/- 0.18% in the urea treatment). It also reduced the N2O emission from the rice-free soil and from the rice-planted soil. Stepwise regression analysis indicates that denitrification in the flooded surface layer soil was the main source of N2O emission from this wetland rice cultivation, particularly when wheat straw was added. A significantly nonlinear negative relation was found between the N2O emission and the CH4 emission when no wheat straw was added, but it was hard to quantify this trade-off relation when wheat straw was incorporated into the flooded surface layer soil.

  8. Intra- versus inter-site macroscale variation in biogeochemical properties along a paddy soil chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Niggemann, C.; Bannert, A.; Schloter, M.; Lehndorff, E.; Schwark, L.

    2012-03-01

    In order to assess the intrinsic heterogeneity of paddy soils, a set of biogeochemical soil parameters was investigated in five field replicates of seven paddy fields (50, 100, 300, 500, 700, 1000, and 2000 yr of wetland rice cultivation), one flooded paddy nursery, one tidal wetland (TW), and one freshwater site (FW) from a coastal area at Hangzhou Bay, Zhejiang Province, China. All soils evolved from a marine tidal flat substrate due to land reclamation. The biogeochemical parameters based on their properties were differentiated into (i) a group behaving conservatively (TC, TOC, TN, TS, magnetic susceptibility, soil lightness and colour parameters, δ13C, δ15N, lipids and n-alkanes) and (ii) one encompassing more labile properties or fast cycling components (Nmic, Cmic, nitrate, ammonium, DON and DOC). The macroscale heterogeneity in paddy soils was assessed by evaluating intra- versus inter-site spatial variability of biogeochemical properties using statistical data analysis (descriptive, explorative and non-parametric). Results show that the intrinsic heterogeneity of paddy soil organic and minerogenic components per field is smaller than between study sites. The coefficient of variation (CV) values of conservative parameters varied in a low range (10% to 20%), decreasing from younger towards older paddy soils. This indicates a declining variability of soil biogeochemical properties in longer used cropping sites according to progress in soil evolution. A generally higher variation of CV values (>20-40%) observed for labile parameters implies a need for substantially higher sampling frequency when investigating these as compared to more conservative parameters. Since the representativeness of the sampling strategy could be sufficiently demonstrated, an investigation of long-term carbon accumulation/sequestration trends in topsoils of the 2000 yr paddy chronosequence under wetland rice cultivation restricted was conducted. Observations cannot be extrapolated to

  9. Cadmium (Cd) distribution and contamination in Chinese paddy soils on national scale.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Tian, Guangjin; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Chi; Kong, Lingqiang

    2016-09-01

    Rice is a staple food by an increasing number of people in China. As more issues have arisen in China due to rice contaminated by cadmium (Cd), Cd contamination in arable soils has become a severe problem. In China, many studies have examined Cd contamination in arable soils on a national scale, but little studies have focused on the distribution of Cd in paddy fields. This study explored the spatial pattern of Cd in paddy soils in China, made a preliminary evaluation of the potential risk, and identified the most critically contaminated regions based on the domestic rough rice trade flow. The results showed that Cd concentrations in paddy soils in China ranged from 0.01 to 5.50 mg/kg, with a median value of 0.23 mg/kg. On average, the highest Cd concentrations were in Hunan (0.73 mg/kg), Guangxi (0.70 mg/kg), and Sichuan (0.46 mg/kg) provinces. Cd concentrations in paddy soils in central and western regions were higher than those in eastern regions, especially the southeastern coastal regions. Of the administrative regions, Cd standard exceedance rate was 33.2 %, and the heavy pollution rate was 8.6 %. Regarding to Cd of paddy soil, soil environmental quality was better in Northeast China Plain than in Yangtze River Basin and southeastern coastal region. Mining activities were the main anthropogenic pollution source of Cd in Chinese paddy soil. Based on rice trade, more of the Chinese population would be exposed to Cd through intake of rice produced in Hunan province. Certain regions that output rice, especially Hunan province, should be given priority in the management and control of Cd contamination in paddy soil.

  10. Changes in the Mineral Assemblage of Paddy Soils upon Redox Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelsang, Vanessa; Fiedler, Sabine; Jahn, Reinhold

    2010-05-01

    Rice is one of the major cereal crops of global agriculture. World wide more than 10% of the arable land is used for rice production, mainly under temporarily waterlogged conditions. This leads to distinct redox cycles, governing the biogeochemistry of paddy soils. Yet, long-term effects of alternating redox conditions on the soil mineral matrix and properties are still not fully understood. The objective of the project is to elucidate the processes of mineral transformation as related to changing redox conditions and to time of rice cultivation. Long-term effects of rice cultivation on the mineral assemblage were studied along a chronosequence of paddy soils (100, 700 and 2000a paddy soils) developed in comparable parent material in the province of Zhejiang, China. Top soils were analysed for the mineral assemblage and physicochemical properties using x-ray diffraction and chemical analyses, respectively. All studied clay fractions showed a similar clay mineral assemblage (illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite). Differences among the paddy sites though could not be related to the time of cultivation. The CECpot of the clay fraction slightly increased from 100 to 2000 a paddy usage, which was partly attributed to a concurrent increase of Corg. With age the Feo/Fed-ratio in both the Alp and Ardp-horizon increased, with a maximum in the Ardp of the 2000 a paddy field. We conclude, that due to an increasing number of redox-cycles, long-term cultivation enhances the formation of microcrystalline Fe-hydroxides in the A-horizons of paddy soils. Chronological changes in the clay mineral assemblage could not be observed in this study.

  11. Effects of Land Use Changes from Paddy Fields on Soil Bacterial Communities in a Hilly and Mountainous Area

    PubMed Central

    Rokunuzzaman, Md; Ueda, Yumiko; Chen, Li; Tanaka, Sota; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2016-01-01

    Soil bacterial community structures in terraced rice fields and abandoned lands in a hilly and mountainous area were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequences. The DGGE band patterns of each soil were similar. Based on pyrosequencing data, the richness and diversity of bacterial species were slightly higher in paddy fields than in other soils. A beta-diversity analysis clearly indicated that the bacterial community structure in paddy fields differed from those in non-paddy field lands and crop fields that had not been used as a paddy field. These results may reflect the history of land use. PMID:27098398

  12. Fate of 14C-labeled dissolved organic matter in paddy and upland soils in responding to moisture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangbi; Wang, Aihua; Li, Yang; Hu, Lening; Zheng, Hua; He, Xunyang; Ge, Tida; Wu, Jinshui; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Su, Yirong

    2014-08-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) content in paddy soils is higher than that in upland soils in tropical and subtropical China. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration, however, is lower in paddy soils. We hypothesize that soil moisture strongly controls the fate of DOM, and thereby leads to differences between the two agricultural soils under contrasting management regimens. A 100-day incubation experiment was conducted to trace the fate and biodegradability of DOM in paddy and upland soils under three moisture levels: 45%, 75%, and 105% of the water holding capacity (WHC). (14)C labeled DOM, extracted from the (14)C labeled rice plant material, was incubated in paddy and upland soils, and the mineralization to (14)CO2 and incorporation into microbial biomass were analyzed. Labile and refractory components of the initial (14)C labeled DOM and their respective half-lives were calculated by a double exponential model. During incubation, the mineralization of the initial (14)C labeled DOM in the paddy soils was more affected by moisture than in the upland soils. The amount of (14)C incorporated into the microbial biomass (2.4-11.0% of the initial DOM-(14)C activity) was less affected by moisture in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. At any of the moisture levels, 1) the mineralization of DOM to (14)CO2 within 100 days was 1.2-2.1-fold higher in the paddy soils (41.9-60.0% of the initial DOM-(14)C activity) than in the upland soils (28.7-35.7%), 2) (14)C activity remaining in solution was significantly lower in the paddy soils than in the upland soils, and 3) (14)C activity remaining in the same agricultural soil solution was not significantly different among the three moisture levels after 20 days. Therefore, moisture strongly controls DOM fate, but moisture was not the key factor in determining the lower DOM in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. The UV absorbance of DOM at 280 nm indicates less aromaticity of DOM from the paddy soils than from the

  13. Mitigating methane emission from paddy soil with rice-straw biochar amendment under projected climate change.

    PubMed

    Han, Xingguo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Mengxiong; Dong, Da; Zhong, Ting; Thies, Janice E; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-04-19

    Elevated global temperatures and increased concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere associated with climate change will exert profound effects on rice cropping systems, particularly on their greenhouse gas emitting potential. Incorporating biochar into paddy soil has been shown previously to reduce methane (CH4) emission from paddy rice under ambient temperature and CO2. We examined the ability of rice straw-derived biochar to reduce CH4 emission from paddy soil under elevated temperature and CO2 concentrations expected in the future. Adding biochar to paddy soil reduced CH4 emission under ambient conditions and significantly reduced emissions by 39.5% (ranging from 185.4 mg kg(-1) dry weight soil, dws season(-1) to 112.2 mg kg(-1) dws season(-1)) under simultaneously elevated temperature and CO2. Reduced CH4 release was mainly attributable to the decreased activity of methanogens along with the increased CH4 oxidation activity and pmoA gene abundance of methanotrophs. Our findings highlight the valuable services of biochar amendment for CH4 control from paddy soil in a future that will be shaped by climate change.

  14. Mitigating methane emission from paddy soil with rice-straw biochar amendment under projected climate change

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xingguo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Mengxiong; Dong, Da; Zhong, Ting; Thies, Janice E.; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Elevated global temperatures and increased concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere associated with climate change will exert profound effects on rice cropping systems, particularly on their greenhouse gas emitting potential. Incorporating biochar into paddy soil has been shown previously to reduce methane (CH4) emission from paddy rice under ambient temperature and CO2. We examined the ability of rice straw-derived biochar to reduce CH4 emission from paddy soil under elevated temperature and CO2 concentrations expected in the future. Adding biochar to paddy soil reduced CH4 emission under ambient conditions and significantly reduced emissions by 39.5% (ranging from 185.4 mg kg−1 dry weight soil, dws season−1 to 112.2 mg kg−1 dws season−1) under simultaneously elevated temperature and CO2. Reduced CH4 release was mainly attributable to the decreased activity of methanogens along with the increased CH4 oxidation activity and pmoA gene abundance of methanotrophs. Our findings highlight the valuable services of biochar amendment for CH4 control from paddy soil in a future that will be shaped by climate change. PMID:27090814

  15. Mitigating methane emission from paddy soil with rice-straw biochar amendment under projected climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xingguo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Mengxiong; Dong, Da; Zhong, Ting; Thies, Janice E.; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-04-01

    Elevated global temperatures and increased concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere associated with climate change will exert profound effects on rice cropping systems, particularly on their greenhouse gas emitting potential. Incorporating biochar into paddy soil has been shown previously to reduce methane (CH4) emission from paddy rice under ambient temperature and CO2. We examined the ability of rice straw-derived biochar to reduce CH4 emission from paddy soil under elevated temperature and CO2 concentrations expected in the future. Adding biochar to paddy soil reduced CH4 emission under ambient conditions and significantly reduced emissions by 39.5% (ranging from 185.4 mg kg‑1 dry weight soil, dws season‑1 to 112.2 mg kg‑1 dws season‑1) under simultaneously elevated temperature and CO2. Reduced CH4 release was mainly attributable to the decreased activity of methanogens along with the increased CH4 oxidation activity and pmoA gene abundance of methanotrophs. Our findings highlight the valuable services of biochar amendment for CH4 control from paddy soil in a future that will be shaped by climate change.

  16. Microprofiling of nitrogen patches in paddy soil: Analysis of spatiotemporal nutrient heterogeneity at the microscale.

    PubMed

    Li, Yilin; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2016-06-06

    Flooded paddy soil ecosystems in the tropics support the cultivation of the majority of the world's leading crop, rice, and nitrogen (N) availability in the paddy-soil rooting zone limits rice production more than any other nutritional factor. Yet, little is known about the dynamic response of paddy soil to N-fertiliser application, in terms of horizontal and vertical patchiness in N distribution and transformation. Here, we present a microscale analysis of the profile of ammonium (NH4(+)) and nitrate (NO3(-)), nitrification, oxygen (O2water and O2soil), and pH (pHwater and pHsoil) in paddy soils, collected from two representative rice-production areas in subtropical China. NH4(+) and NO3(-) exhibited dramatic spatiotemporal profiles within N patches on the microscale. We show that pHsoil became constant at 1.0-3.5 mm depth, and O2soil became undetectable at 1.7-4.0 mm. Fertiliser application significantly increased pH, and decreased O2, within N patches. Path analysis showed that the factors governing nitrification scaled in the order: pHwater > pHsoil > NH4(+) > O2water > NO3(-) > O2soil. We discuss the soil properties that decide the degree of nutrient patchiness within them and argue that such knowledge is critical to intelligent appraisals of nutrient-use efficiencies in the field.

  17. Persistence of acetamiprid in paddy and soil under West Bengal agro-climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soumen; Mondal, Rahul; Mukherjee, Subhadeep; Sarkar, Mitali; Kole, Ramen Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Acetamiprid insecticide has been widely used to control paddy insects. In order to find out the dissipation of acetamiprid residues in paddy (variety: Satabdi), field studies were conducted in Nadia, West Bengal. Acetamiprid (20% SP) was applied twice at 10 g (T1), 20 g (T2) and 40 g (T3) a.i. ha(-1) with three replications along with untreated control (T4). Residue analysis of acetamiprid in paddy (leaf, grain, husk and straw) and soil was conducted utilizing high-pressure liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with UV detector at LOQ of 0.05 mg kg(-1). The recoveries of acetamiprid from fortified paddy sample were obtained in the range of 81.8 to 93.1% (for leaf, grain, husk and straw), and for soil, it was 87.2 to 94.3% at the LOQ level and upper two levels of LOQ. The initial residue of acetamiprid (0.11-0.99 mg kg(-1)) dissipated following the first-order reaction kinetics with the half-life of 1.5 to 1.8 days in paddy leaf and 1.3 to 1.4 days in soil. In harvested samples of paddy straw, grain and soil, the residue was found below LOQ. Because of the rapid dissipation, acetamiprid may be considered to have low risk to the ecosystem. Therefore, the use of acetamiprid for plant protection in paddy may be considered safe for food and environmental health.

  18. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of arsenic in irrigated rice fields in Bangladesh. 2. Paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Jessica; Voegelin, Andreas; Roberts, Linda C; Hug, Stephan J; Saha, Ganesh C; Ali, M Ashraf; Badruzzaman, A Borhan M; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-09-01

    Arsenic-rich groundwater from shallow tube wells is widely used for the irrigation of boro rice in Bangladesh and West Bengal. In the long term this may lead to the accumulation of As in paddy soils and potentially have adverse effects on rice yield and quality. In the companion article in this issue, we have shown that As input into paddy fields with irrigation water is laterally heterogeneous. To assess the potential for As accumulation in soil, we investigated the lateral and vertical distribution of As in rice field soils near Sreenagar (Munshiganj, Bangladesh) and its changes over a 1 year cycle of irrigation and monsoon flooding. At the study site, 18 paddy fields are irrigated with water from a shallow tube well containing 397 +/- 7 microg L(-1) As. The analysis of soil samples collected before irrigation in December 2004 showed that soil As concentrations in paddy fields did not depend on the length of the irrigation channel between well and field inlet. Within individual fields, however, soil As contents decreased with increasing distance to the water inlet, leading to highly variable topsoil As contents (11-35 mg kg(-1), 0-10 cm). Soil As contents after irrigation (May 2005) showed that most As input occurred close to the water inlet and that most As was retained in the top few centimeters of soil. After monsoon flooding (December 2005), topsoil As contents were again close to levels measured before irrigation. Thus, As input during irrigation was at least partly counteracted by As mobilization during monsoon flooding. However, the persisting lateral As distribution suggests net arsenic accumulation over the past 15 years. More pronounced As accumulation may occur in regions with several rice crops per year, less intense monsoon flooding, or different irrigation schemes. The high lateral and vertical heterogeneity of soil As contents must be taken into account in future studies related to As accumulation in paddy soils and potential As transfer into rice.

  19. pH regulates ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in paddy soils in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Weng, Bo-Sen; Huang, Fu-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Xiao-Ru

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in nitrogen cycling. However, the effects of environmental factors on the activity, abundance, and diversity of AOA and AOB and the relative contributions of these two groups to nitrification in paddy soils are not well explained. In this study, potential nitrification activity (PNA), abundance, and diversity of amoA genes from 12 paddy soils in Southern China were determined by potential nitrification assay, quantitative PCR, and cloning. The results showed that PNA was highly variable between paddy soils, ranging from 4.05 ± 0.21 to 9.81 ± 1.09 mg NOx-N kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), and no significant correlation with soil parameters was found. The abundance of AOA was predominant over AOB, indicating that AOA may be the major members in aerobic ammonia oxidation in these paddy soils. Community compositions of AOA and AOB were highly variable among samples, but the variations were best explained by pH. AOA sequences were affiliated to the Nitrosopumilus cluster and Nitrososphaera cluster, and AOB were classified into the lineages of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas, with Nitrosospira being predominant over Nitrosomonas, accounting for 83.6 % of the AOB community. Moreover, the majority of Nitrosomonas was determined in neutral soils. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis further demonstrated that AOA and AOB community structures were significantly affected by pH, soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and C/N ratio, suggesting that these factors exert strong effects on the distribution of AOB and AOA in paddy soils in Southern China. In conclusion, our results imply that soil pH was a key explanatory variable for both AOA and AOB community structure and nitrification activity.

  20. Similarities in chemical composition of soil organic matter across a millennia-old paddy soil chronosequence as revealed by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation in paddy soils has aroused considerable attention due to its vital significance in global food, energy, climate, and environmental issues. Considerable progress has been made toward the understanding of changes in the quantity of SOM in paddy soils over a mille...

  1. [Dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the paddy-soil system during the crop rotation process].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xing-chun; Ye, Chuan-yong; Chen, Su-hua; Yang, Yong-liang; Wu, Zhen-yan

    2010-07-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the paddy root-soil system were determined to study the dynamic and the influencing factors during crop rotation period. It showed that the dynamic of PAHs in paddy roots was most correlative with the factor of root surface area, but less correlated with PAHs in air and particles, which indicates that the physiological characters rather than the environment media are the main factors influencing the PAHs accumulation in paddy roots. According to the EPA risk standard about BaP and sigma PAHs, the PAHs accumulation in the paddy seeds won't decrease the food security to human being. The PAHs concentrations in paddy soil showed a declined trend during the period of paddy growth, which was affected not only by the processes of water elution and microbe degradation, but also depended on the absorption rate of paddy roots. When the crop rotation begins and paddy planting rolls into the next growing period, the PAHs in the paddy soil will again increase into a higher level which is correlated with the TOC content in the soil.

  2. Geographical Distribution of Methanogenic Archaea in Nine Representative Paddy Soils in China

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Qianhui; Zhong, Linghao; Deng, Ye; Shi, Yu; Wang, Baozhan; Jia, Zhongjun; Lin, Xiangui; Feng, Youzhi

    2016-01-01

    Paddy field methanogenic archaea are responsible for methane (CH4) production and contribute significantly to climate change. The information regarding the spatial variations in the abundance, the diversity and the composition of such ecologically important microbes, however, is quite limited at large scale. In this investigation, we studied the abundance, alpha diversity and geographical distribution of methanogenic archaeal communities in nine representative paddy sites, along a large latitudinal gradient in China, using pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR. It is found that all paddy soils harbor constant methanogenic archaeal constituents, which is dominated by family Methanocellaceae (37.3%), Methanobacteriaceae (22.1%), Methanosaetaceae (17.2%), and Methanosarcinaceae (9.8%). Methanogenic archaeal abundance is primarily influenced by soil C (R = 0.612, P = 0.001) and N (R = 0.673, P = 0.001) contents, as well as alpha diversity by soil pH (PD: R = -0.552, P = 0.006; Chao1: R = -0.615, P = 0.002). Further exploration revealed that both spatial distance (R = 0.3469, P = 0.001, partial mental test) and soil chemical variables mainly about soil C and N (R = 0.2847, P = 0.001) are the two major factors affecting methanogenic archaeal community composition distribution in paddy soils. This finding will allow us to develop a better picture of the biogeographic ranges of these ecologically important microbes and get deeper insights into their ecology. PMID:27679621

  3. Soil Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Paddy-Upland Rotation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Teng-Fei; Chen, Yong; Westby, Anthony P.; Ren, Wan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Paddy-upland rotation is an unavoidable cropping system for Asia to meet the increasing demand for food. The reduction in grain yields has increased the research interest on the soil properties of rice-based cropping systems. Paddy-upland rotation fields are unique from other wetland or upland soils, because they are associated with frequent cycling between wetting and drying under anaerobic and aerobic conditions; such rotations affect the soil C and N cycles, make the chemical speciation and biological effectiveness of soil nutrient elements varied with seasons, increase the diversity of soil organisms, and make the soil physical properties more difficult to analyze. Consequently, maintaining or improving soil quality at a desirable level has become a complicated issue. Therefore, fully understanding the soil characteristics of paddy-upland rotation is necessary for the sustainable development of the system. In this paper, we offer helpful insight into the effect of rice-upland combinations on the soil chemical, physical, and biological properties, which could provide guidance for reasonable cultivation management measures and contribute to the improvement of soil quality and crop yield. PMID:24995366

  4. Selenium inhibits sulfate-mediated methylmercury production in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Jie; Dang, Fei; Zhao, Jia-Ting; Zhong, Huan

    2016-06-01

    There is increasing interest in understanding factors controlling methylmercury (MeHg) production in mercury-contaminated rice paddy soil. Sulfate has been reported to affect MeHg biogeochemistry under anoxic conditions, and recent studies revealed that selenium (Se) could evidently reduce MeHg production in paddy soil. However, the controls of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in paddy soil under fluctuating redox conditions remain largely unknown. Microcosm experiments were conducted to explore the effects of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in rice paddy soil. Soil was added with 0-960 mg/kg sulfate, in the presence or absence of 3.0 mg/kg selenium (selenite or selenate), and incubated under anoxic (40 days) or suboxic conditions (5 days), simulating fluctuating redox conditions in rice paddy field. Sulfate addition moderately affected soil MeHg concentrations under anoxic conditions, while reoxidation resulted in evidently higher (18-40%) MeHg levels in sulfate amended soils than the control. The observed changes in net MeHg production were related to dynamics of sulfate and iron. However, Se could inhibit sulfate-mediated MeHg production in the soils: Se addition largely reduced net MeHg production in the soils (23-86%, compared to the control), despite of sulfate addition. Similarly, results of the pot experiments (i.e., rice cultivation in amended soils) indicated that soil MeHg levels were rather comparable in Se-amended soils during rice growth period, irrespective of added sulfate doses. The more important role of Se than sulfate in controlling MeHg production was explained by the formation of HgSe nanoparticles irrespective of the presence of sulfate, confirmed by TEM-EDX and XANES analysis. Our findings regarding the effects of sulfate and Se on net MeHg production in rice paddy soil together with the mechanistic explanation of the processes advance our understanding of MeHg dynamics and risk in soil-rice systems.

  5. Sequestration of organic nitrogen in a paddy soil chronosequence as assessed by amino sugars molecular markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Philipp; Lehndorff, E.; Cao, Z.; Amelung, W.

    2010-05-01

    Available nitrogen is a limiting factor in paddy rice systems due to ammonia volatilization, denitrification and stabilization in organic complexes. Soil organic nitrogen (SON) might therefore constitute a critical component of the nitrogen cycle in rice systems. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of microorganisms for the sequestration of paddy N in organic forms. For this purpose we analyzed amino sugars as markers for the residues of bacteria and fungi in a chronosequence of soils that were used for paddy rice production for a period of 0 to 2000 years in the Hangzhou bay area in Southeast China. Within the soil profile, amino sugar concentrations were generally highest in the puddled Ap horizon and decreased with increasing depth along with organic carbon concentrations regardless of the time of rice cultivation. Nevertheless, a sharp increase of total amino sugar concentration from 0.1 g kg-1 to 0.3 g kg-1 was observed in the Ah horizon when comparing tidal wetland to salt marsh that had been impoldered 30 years ago, indicating an increasing importance of microbial residues in SON stabilization following the conversion of the semiaquatic marsh to a terrestrial system. With increased time of paddy rice cropping, amino sugar concentrations continued to increase up to a maximum of 2.1 g kg-1 after 300 years of paddy cultivation but declined again to 1 g kg-1 in soils with 700-2000 years history of cultivation despite increasing organic matter accumulation. Changes in the composition of the amino sugars were also most pronounced at initial stages of paddy rice management. The proportions of glucosamine (abundant in fungal chitin) decreased during the first 50 years of cultivation relative to mainly galactosamine (abundant in bacterial gums) and muramic acid (abundant in bacterial peptidoglycan), that remained at constantly low levels. At later stages of paddy rice cultivation, the ratios of glucosamine to galactosamine and to muramic acid re

  6. [Characteristics and Inputs of Cd Contamination in Paddy Soils in Typical Mining and Industrial Areas in Youxian County, Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang Mei-e; Chen, Wei-ping; Niu, Jun-jie

    2015-04-01

    In order to explore input pathways and pollution characteristics of Cd contamination in paddy soil in Youxian, Hunan Province, Cd contents in paddy soils, sediments of irrigation canals, typical mineral and industrial products such as coal, gangue and cement were analyzed. It was suggested that the average contents of Cd both in surface paddy soil and the corresponding natural soil were higher than the soil quality standard 0.3 mg x kg(-1). Cd contents in gangue and cement were similar as those in the corresponding natural soils. The atmosphere deposition of Cd was the highest in factory area. The profiles of Cd in 0-100 cm paddy soil and 0-40 cm in natural soils varied significantly from the upper to the lower layer. Cd contents in 0-40 cm layer in paddy soil were much higher than those in corresponding natural soils in mineral and mineral-factory areas. The potentiality for downward movement of Cd in soils in mineral area was the highest among the three studied areas. It suggested Cd contents in surface paddy soil were higher in upwind areas than those in downwind areas in mineral-factory and factory areas. It could be concluded that the main input pathways of Cd in mineral and mineral-factory. areas were from irrigation water, while contribution of atmosphere deposition in mineral-factory and factory areas was also very significant.

  7. Effect of drying on heavy metal fraction distribution in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanbing; Huang, Biao; Darilek, Jeremy Landon

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how redox conditions affect soil heavy metal fractions in rice paddies is important due to its implications for heavy metal mobility and plant uptake. Rice paddy soil samples routinely undergo oxidation prior to heavy metal analysis. Fraction distribution of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd from paddy soil with a wide pH range was investigated. Samples were both dried according to standard protocols and also preserved under anaerobic conditions through the sampling and analysis process and heavy metals were then sequentially extracted for the exchangeable and carbonate bound fraction (acid soluble fraction), iron and manganese oxide bound fraction (reducible fraction), organic bound fraction (oxidizable fraction), and residual fraction. Fractions were affected by redox conditions across all pH ranges. Drying decreased reducible fraction of all heavy metals. Curesidual fraction, Pboxidizable fraction, Cdresidual fraction, and Niresidual fraction increased by 25%, 33%, 35%, and >60%, respectively. Pbresidual fraction, Niacid soluble fraction, and Cdoxidizable fraction decreased 33%, 25%, and 15%, respectively. Drying paddy soil prior to heavy metal analysis overestimated Pb and underestimated Cu, Ni, and Cd. In future studies, samples should be stored after injecting N2 gas to maintain the redox potential of soil prior to heavy metal analysis, and investigate the correlation between heavy metal fraction distribution under field conditions and air-dried samples.

  8. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of “loading capacity” (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale. PMID:26675587

  9. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-12-17

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of "loading capacity" (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale.

  10. [Research on characteristics of soil clay mineral evolution in paddy field and dry land by XRD spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-dan; Li, Qiao; Luo, Xiang-li; Jiang, Hai-chao; Zheng, Qing-fu; Zhao, Lan-po; Wang, Ji-hong

    2014-08-01

    The present paper took the typical saline-alkali soil in Jilin province as study object, and determinated the soil clay mineral composition characteristics of soil in paddy field and dry land. Then XRD spectrum was used to analyze the evolutionary mechanism of clay mineral in the two kinds of soil. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better than those in dry land, and paddy field would promote the weathering of mineral particles in saline-alkali soil and enhance the silt content. Paddy field soil showed a strong potassium-removal process, with a higher degree of clay mineral hydration and lower degree of illite crystallinity. Analysis of XRD spectrum showed that the clay mineral composition was similar in two kinds of soil, while the intensity and position of diffraction peak showed difference. The evolution process of clay mineral in dry land was S/I mixture-->vermiculite, while in paddy field it was S/I mixture-->vermiculite-->kaolinite. One kind of hydroxylated 'chlorite' mineral would appear in saline-alkali soil in long-term cultivated paddy field. Taking into account that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better then those in dry land, we could know that paddy field could help much improve soil structure, cultivate high-fertility soil and improve saline-alkali soil. This paper used XRD spectrum to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two'kinds of land use comparatively, and was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  11. [Effects of soil texture and water content on the mineralization of soil organic carbon in paddy soils].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-lin; Wu, Jin-shui; Ge, Ti-da; Tang, Guo-yong; Tong, Cheng-li

    2009-01-01

    To understand how soil texture and water content affect the mineralization of organic C in paddy soil, 3 selected soils (sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay) were incubated (25 degrees C) with 14 C-labelled rice straw (1.0 g x kg(-1)) at water content varied from 45% to 105% of water holding capacity (WHC). Data indicated that, in the sandy loam and clay loam, the mineralization rate of 14 C-labelled rice straw reached the maximum at 75% WHC, as 53% and 58% of the straw C mineralized in the incubation period of 160 d, whereas in the silty clay, it increased gradually (from 41.8% to 49.0%) as water content increased up to 105% WHC. For all of the three soils, the mineralization rate of soil native organic C reached the maximum at 75% WHC, with 5.8% of the organic C mineralized in the same period for the sandy loam, and 8.0% and 4.8% for the clay loam and silty clay, respectively. As water content increased further, the mineralization rate of native organic C in the three soils significantly declined. The mineralization rate of added rice straw and native organic C in all the three soils, was well fitted with a conic curve. These results suggest that water-logging can decrease the mineralization of organic C in paddy soils.

  12. Aging well: methanotrophic potential and community structure along a paddy soil chronosequence of 2000 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Adrian; Frenzel, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Given that rice paddies are anthropogenic methane sources and the inevitable need to increase rice production to sustain human population growth, it is pertinent to identify the effects of long term agriculture on the selection of methanotrophs. Methanotrophs play a crucial role in mitigating methane emission from rice paddies. Therefore, we analyzed the methanotroph community along a chronosequence of paddy soils from China covering recently reclaimed sites to paddies under permanent agriculture since 2000 years (Cheng et al., 2009; doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.03.016). Maximum potential methane oxidation rate (PMOR) increased monotonically with age. Our results also showed that long-term agriculture imposes a selection pressure on different groups of methanotrophs. In contrast to younger soils, type Ib methanotrophs were observed to multiply in correspondence with increasing PMOR in ancient soils, while other groups showed a relatively stable community composition as revealed by pmoA-based fingerprints (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR. Cloning and sequencing the pmoA (a key gene in methane oxidation), the soils were found to harbour known and putative methanotrophs, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, and interestingly, sequences affiliated to Crenothrix, a methane oxidizer with an unusual pmoA (Stoecker et al., 2006; doi:10.1073/pnas.0506361103). In summary, long-term agriculture shapes the community and allows for an elevated level of potential methane oxidation.

  13. [Effects of different fertilizer species on carbon and nitrogen leaching in a reddish paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Yu; Zou, Jing-Dong; Xu, Li-Li; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Feng-Ting; Dai, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Zhong-Qiang; Sun, Xiao-Min

    2014-08-01

    Enhanced fertilization could decrease nitrogen utilization rate and increase carbon and nitrogen leaching, leading to water pollution in agricultural ecosystem. A long-term field experiment had been established on a reddish paddy soil of Qianyanzhou Ecological Experimental Station (114 degrees 53'E, 26 degrees 48'N) in Jiangxi Province in 1998. Soil solution samples were collected by clay tube and vacuum pump. Four fertilizer species treatments were selected: control with no fertilizer (CK), straw return (ST), nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium mineral fertilizers (NPK) and pig manure (OM), aiming to evaluate the effects of different species of fertilizer on carbon and nitrogen leaching in a double rice cropping system. The results showed that: (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+) -N) was the major type of N in soil leachate in reddish paddy soil. The application of NPK could significantly increase the ammonium nitrogen concentration (1.2 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.1 mg x L(-1)) compared with the CK, ST and OM treatments, and the application of OM could significantly increase the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (27.3 mg x L(-1) +/- 1.6 mg x L(-1)) in soil leachate. The carbon and nitrogen leaching were more notable in the vegetative growth stage than the reproductive growth stage of rice (P < 0.05); (2) the long-term application of NPK and OM increased the NH4(+) -N, DOC, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents. The NPK was best beneficial to improve TN contents and OM to improve SOC contents. (3) The DOC contents in soil leachate and SOC in paddy soil had a positive correlation (P < 0.01), while NH4(+) -N contents in soil leachate and TN contents in paddy soil had a positive correlation (P < 0.01).

  14. Lignin decomposition and microbial community in paddy soils: effects of alternating redox conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerli, Chiara; Liu, Qin; Hanke, Alexander; Kaiser, Klaus; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    Paddy soils are characterised by interchanging cycles of anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Such fluctuations cause continuous changes in soil solution chemistry as well as in the composition and physiological responses of the microbial community. Temporary deficiency in oxygen creates conditions favourable to facultative or obligates anaerobic bacteria, while aerobic communities can thrive in the period of water absence. These alterations can strongly affect soil processes, in particular organic matter (OM) accumulation and mineralization. In submerged soils, lignin generally constitutes a major portion of the total OM because of hampered degradation under anoxic conditions. The alternating redox cycles resulting from paddy soil management might promote both degradation and preservation of lignin, affecting the overall composition and reactivity of total and dissolved OM. We sampled soils subjected to cycles of anoxic (rice growing period) and oxic (harvest and growth of other crops) conditions since 700 and 2000 years. We incubated suspended Ap material, sampled from the two paddy plus two corresponding non-paddy control soils under oxic and anoxic condition, for 3 months, interrupted by a short period of three weeks (from day 21 to day 43) with reversed redox conditions. At each sampling time (day 2, 21, 42, 63, 84), we determined lignin-derived phenols (by CuO oxidation) as well as phospholipids fatty acids contents and composition. We aimed to highlight changes in lignin decomposition as related to the potential rapid changes in microbial community composition. Since the studied paddy soils had a long history of wet rice cultivation, the microbial community should be well adapted to interchanging oxic and anoxic cycles, therefore fully expressing its activity at both conditions. In non-paddy soil changes in redox conditions caused modification of quantity and composition of the microbial community. On the contrary, in well-established paddy soils the microbial

  15. Rice (Oryza sativa L) plantation affects the stability of biochar in paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengxiong; Feng, Qibo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Hailong; Gielen, Gerty; Wu, Weixiang

    2015-05-05

    Conversion of rice straw into biochar for soil amendment appears to be a promising method to increase long-term carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The stability of biochar in paddy soil, which is the major determining factor of carbon sequestration effect, depends mainly on soil properties and plant functions. However, the influence of plants on biochar stability in paddy soil remains unclear. In this study, bulk and surface characteristics of the biochars incubated without rice plants were compared with those incubated with rice plants using a suite of analytical techniques. Results showed that although rice plants had no significant influence on the bulk characteristics and decomposition rates of the biochar, the surface oxidation of biochar particles was enhanced by rice plants. Using (13)C labeling we observed that rice plants could significantly increase carbon incorporation from biochar into soil microbial biomass. About 0.047% of the carbon in biochar was incorporated into the rice plants during the whole rice growing cycle. These results inferred that root exudates and transportation of biochar particles into rice plants might decrease the stability of biochar in paddy soil. Impact of plants should be considered when predicting carbon sequestration potential of biochar in soil systems.

  16. Microprofiling of nitrogen patches in paddy soil: Analysis of spatiotemporal nutrient heterogeneity at the microscale

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yilin; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Shi, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Flooded paddy soil ecosystems in the tropics support the cultivation of the majority of the world’s leading crop, rice, and nitrogen (N) availability in the paddy-soil rooting zone limits rice production more than any other nutritional factor. Yet, little is known about the dynamic response of paddy soil to N-fertiliser application, in terms of horizontal and vertical patchiness in N distribution and transformation. Here, we present a microscale analysis of the profile of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3−), nitrification, oxygen (O2water and O2soil), and pH (pHwater and pHsoil) in paddy soils, collected from two representative rice-production areas in subtropical China. NH4+ and NO3− exhibited dramatic spatiotemporal profiles within N patches on the microscale. We show that pHsoil became constant at 1.0–3.5 mm depth, and O2soil became undetectable at 1.7–4.0 mm. Fertiliser application significantly increased pH, and decreased O2, within N patches. Path analysis showed that the factors governing nitrification scaled in the order: pHwater > pHsoil > NH4+ > O2water > NO3− > O2soil. We discuss the soil properties that decide the degree of nutrient patchiness within them and argue that such knowledge is critical to intelligent appraisals of nutrient-use efficiencies in the field. PMID:27265522

  17. Microprofiling of nitrogen patches in paddy soil: Analysis of spatiotemporal nutrient heterogeneity at the microscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yilin; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Shi, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Flooded paddy soil ecosystems in the tropics support the cultivation of the majority of the world’s leading crop, rice, and nitrogen (N) availability in the paddy-soil rooting zone limits rice production more than any other nutritional factor. Yet, little is known about the dynamic response of paddy soil to N-fertiliser application, in terms of horizontal and vertical patchiness in N distribution and transformation. Here, we present a microscale analysis of the profile of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3‑), nitrification, oxygen (O2water and O2soil), and pH (pHwater and pHsoil) in paddy soils, collected from two representative rice-production areas in subtropical China. NH4+ and NO3‑ exhibited dramatic spatiotemporal profiles within N patches on the microscale. We show that pHsoil became constant at 1.0–3.5 mm depth, and O2soil became undetectable at 1.7–4.0 mm. Fertiliser application significantly increased pH, and decreased O2, within N patches. Path analysis showed that the factors governing nitrification scaled in the order: pHwater > pHsoil > NH4+ > O2water > NO3‑ > O2soil. We discuss the soil properties that decide the degree of nutrient patchiness within them and argue that such knowledge is critical to intelligent appraisals of nutrient-use efficiencies in the field.

  18. Do microorganism stoichiometric alterations affect carbon sequestration in paddy soil subjected to phosphorus input?

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhiJian; Li, HongYi; Hu, Jiao; Li, Xia; He, Qiang; Tian, GuangMing; Wang, Hang; Wang, ShunYao; Wang, Bei

    2015-04-01

    Ecological stoichiometry provides a powerful tool for integrating microbial biomass stoichiometry with ecosystem processes, opening far-reaching possibilities for linking microbial dynamics to soil carbon (C) metabolism in response to agricultural nutrient management. Despite its importance to crop yield, the role of phosphorus (P) with respect to ecological stoichiometry and soil C sequestration in paddy fields remains poorly understood, which limits our ability to predict nutrient-related soil C cycling. Here, we collected soil samples from a paddy field experiment after seven years of superphosphate application along a gradient of 0, 30, 60, and 90 (P-0 through P-90, respectively) kg.ha-1.yr-1 in order to evaluate the role of exogenous P on soil C sequestration through regulating microbial stoichiometry. P fertilization increased soil total organic C and labile organic C by 1-14% and 4-96%, respectively, while rice yield is a function of the activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase (BG), acid phosphatase (AP), and the level of available soil P through a stepwise linear regression model. P input induced C limitation, as reflected by decreases in the ratios of C:P in soil and microbial biomass. An eco-enzymatic ratio indicating microbial investment in C vs. P acquisition, i.e., ln(BG): ln(AP), changed the ecological function of microbial C acquisition, and was stoichiometrically related to P input. This mechanism drove a shift in soil resource availability by increasing bacterial community richness and diversity, and stimulated soil C sequestration in the paddy field by enhancing C-degradation-related bacteria for the breakdown of plant-derived carbon sources. Therefore, the decline in the C:P stoichiometric ratio of soil microorganism biomass under P input was beneficial for soil C sequestration, which offered a "win-win" relationship for the maximum balance point between C sequestration and P availability for rice production in the face of climate change.

  19. Carbon dioxide flux from rice paddy soils in central China: effects of intermittent flooding and draining cycles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wan, Kai-yuan; Tao, Yong; Li, Zhi-guo; Zhang, Guo-shi; Li, Shuang-lai; Chen, Fang

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to (i) examine the diurnal and seasonal soil carbon dioxide (CO(2)) fluxes pattern in rice paddy fields in central China and (ii) assess the role of floodwater in controlling the emissions of CO(2) from soil and floodwater in intermittently draining rice paddy soil. The soil CO(2) flux rates ranged from -0.45 to 8.62 µmol.m(-2).s(-1) during the rice-growing season. The net effluxes of CO(2) from the paddy soil were lower when the paddy was flooded than when it was drained. The CO(2) emissions for the drained conditions showed distinct diurnal variation with a maximum efflux observed in the afternoon. When the paddy was flooded, daytime soil CO(2) fluxes reversed with a peak negative efflux just after midday. In draining/flooding alternating periods, a sudden pulse-like event of rapidly increasing CO(2) efflux occured in response to re-flooding after draining. Correlation analysis showed a negative relation between soil CO(2) flux and temperature under flooded conditions, but a positive relation was found under drained conditions. The results showed that draining and flooding cycles play a vital role in controlling CO(2) emissions from paddy soils.

  20. Mercury Fractionation in Superficial Sediment and Paddy Soil Samples from Tianjin, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Zhaoji; Fei, Yuhong; Wu, Guoqing; Qian, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Sediment and soil samples from the Beitang River (BR) and the Haihe River (HR) in Tianjin were analyzed to investigate the extent of mercury contamination. The results show that total mercury (THg) contents in the BR and HR sediments were 2241 ± 1024 and 653 ± 450 ng g(-1), and THg in rice paddy soils were 907 ± 345 and 328 ± 286 ng g(-1), respectively. Industrial and domestic sewage were regarded as the main sources of mercury in the two river basins. Sediment-bound mercury in the BR and the HR were found to be predominantly associated with the organic-bound fraction (55 %) and residual fraction and (54 %), while soil-bound mercury was mainly in organic-bound fraction in paddy soils (61 % and 57 %, respectively). The availability of this element (soluble and exchangeable and specifically sorbed fraction) seemed restricted, but significantly higher in the paddy soils than in sediments. Higher soluble and exchangeable, specifically sorbed fraction and organic-bound fraction may promote the higher toxic methylmercury and bioavailable fraction formation in the soils during the rice cultivation.

  1. [Variation characteristics of soil carbon sequestration under long-term different fertilization in red paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Yang-zhu; Gao, Ju-sheng; Zhang, Wen-ju; Liu, Shu-jun

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) content, the saturation capacity of soil carbon sequestration and its cooperation with carbon input (crop source and organic fertilizer source carbon) under long-term (1982-2012) different fertilization in red paddy soil. The results showed that fertilization could increase SOC content. The SOC content of all the fertilization treatments demonstrated a trend of stabilization after applying fertilizer for 30 years. The SOC content in the treatments applying organic manure with mineral fertilizers was between 21.02 and 21.24 g · kg(-1), and the increase rate ranged from 0.41 to 0.59 g · kg(-1) · a(-1). The SOC content in the treatments applying mineral fertilizers only was 15.48 g · kg(-1). The average soil carbon sequestration in the treatments that applied organic manure with mineral fertilizers ranged from 43.61 to 48.43 t C · hm(-2), and the average SOC storage over the years in these treatments was significantly greater than those applying mineral fertilizers only. There was an exponentially positive correlation between C sequestration efficiency and annual average organic C input. It must input exogenous organic carbon at least at 0. 12 t C · hm(-2) · a(-1) to maintain the balance of soil organic carbon under the experimental conditions.

  2. Arsenic in Bangladeshi soils related to physiographic region, paddy management, and mirco- and macro-elemental status.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M Tanvir A; Deacon, Claire M; Jones, Gerrad D; Imamul Huq, S M; Williams, Paul N; Manzurul Hoque, A F M; Winkel, Lenny H E; Price, Adam H; Norton, Gareth J; Meharg, Andrew A

    2017-07-15

    While the impact of arsenic in irrigated agriculture has become a major environmental concern in Bangladesh, to date there is still a limited understanding of arsenic in Bangladeshi paddy soils at a landscape level. A soil survey was conducted across ten different physiographic regions of Bangladesh, which encompassed six types of geomorphology (Bil, Brahmaputra floodplain, Ganges floodplain, Meghna floodplain, Karatoya-Bangali floodplain and Pleistocene terrace). A total of 1209 paddy soils and 235 matched non-paddy soils were collected. The source of irrigation water (groundwater and surface water) was also recorded. The concentrations of arsenic and sixteen other elements were determined in the soil samples. The concentration of arsenic was higher in paddy soils compared to non-paddy soils, with soils irrigated with groundwater being higher in arsenic than those irrigated with surface water. There was a clear difference between the Holocene floodplains and the Pleistocene terraces, with Holocene floodplain soils being higher in arsenic and other elements. The results suggest that arsenic is most likely associated with less well weathered/leached soils, suggesting it is either due to the geological newness of Holocene sediments or differences between the sources of sediments, which gives rise to the arsenic problems in Bangladeshi soils.

  3. Coal fly ash and phospho-gypsum mixture as an amendment to improve rice paddy soil fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.B.; Ha, H.S.; Lee, C.H.; Kim, P.J.

    2008-04-15

    Rice is a plant that requires high levels of silica (Si). As a silicate NOD source to rice, coal fly ash (hereafter, fly ash), which has an alkaline pH and high available silicate and boron (B) contents, was mixed with phosphor-gypsum (hereafter, gypsum, 50%, wt wt{sup -1}), a by-product from the production of phosphate fertilizer, to improve the fly ash limitation. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of the mixture on soil properties and rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in silt loam (SiL) and loamy sand (LS) soils to which 0 (FG 0), 20 (FG 20), 40 (FG 40), and 60 (FG 60) Mg ha{sup -1} were added. The mixture increased the amount of available silicate and exchangeable calcium (Ca) contents in the soils and the uptake of silicate by rice plant. The mixture did not result in accumulation of heavy metals in soil and an excessive uptake of heavy metals by the rice grain. The available boron content in soil increased with the mixture application levels up to 1.42 mg kg{sup -1} following the application of 60 Mg ha{sup -1} but did not show toxicity. The mixture increased significantly rice yield and showed the highest yields following the addition of 30-40 Mg ha{sup -1} in two soils. It is concluded that the fly ash and gypsum mixture could be a good source of inorganic soil amendments to restore the soil nutrient balance in rice paddy soil.

  4. Abundance, composition and activity of denitrifier communities in metal polluted paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification is one of the most important soil microbial processes leading to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential changes with metal pollution in soil microbial community for N2O production and reduction are not well addressed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected both from polluted and non-polluted rice paddy fields and denitrifier communities were characterized with molecular fingerprinting procedures. All the retrieved nirK sequences could be grouped into neither α- nor β- proteobacteria, while most of the nosZ sequences were affiliated with α-proteobacteria. The abundances of the nirK and nosZ genes were reduced significantly in the two polluted soils. Thus, metal pollution markedly affected composition of both nirK and nosZ denitrifiers. While the total denitrifying activity and N2O production rate were both reduced under heavy metal pollution of the two sites, the N2O reduction rate showed no significant change. These findings suggest that N2O production activity could be sensitive to heavy metal pollution, which could potentially lead to a decrease in N2O emission in polluted paddies. Therefore, metal pollution could have potential impacts on soil N transformation and thus on N2O emission from paddy soils.

  5. Abundance, composition and activity of denitrifier communities in metal polluted paddy soils

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification is one of the most important soil microbial processes leading to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential changes with metal pollution in soil microbial community for N2O production and reduction are not well addressed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected both from polluted and non-polluted rice paddy fields and denitrifier communities were characterized with molecular fingerprinting procedures. All the retrieved nirK sequences could be grouped into neither α- nor β- proteobacteria, while most of the nosZ sequences were affiliated with α-proteobacteria. The abundances of the nirK and nosZ genes were reduced significantly in the two polluted soils. Thus, metal pollution markedly affected composition of both nirK and nosZ denitrifiers. While the total denitrifying activity and N2O production rate were both reduced under heavy metal pollution of the two sites, the N2O reduction rate showed no significant change. These findings suggest that N2O production activity could be sensitive to heavy metal pollution, which could potentially lead to a decrease in N2O emission in polluted paddies. Therefore, metal pollution could have potential impacts on soil N transformation and thus on N2O emission from paddy soils. PMID:26739424

  6. Abundance, composition and activity of denitrifier communities in metal polluted paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing

    2016-01-07

    Denitrification is one of the most important soil microbial processes leading to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential changes with metal pollution in soil microbial community for N2O production and reduction are not well addressed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected both from polluted and non-polluted rice paddy fields and denitrifier communities were characterized with molecular fingerprinting procedures. All the retrieved nirK sequences could be grouped into neither α- nor β- proteobacteria, while most of the nosZ sequences were affiliated with α-proteobacteria. The abundances of the nirK and nosZ genes were reduced significantly in the two polluted soils. Thus, metal pollution markedly affected composition of both nirK and nosZ denitrifiers. While the total denitrifying activity and N2O production rate were both reduced under heavy metal pollution of the two sites, the N2O reduction rate showed no significant change. These findings suggest that N2O production activity could be sensitive to heavy metal pollution, which could potentially lead to a decrease in N2O emission in polluted paddies. Therefore, metal pollution could have potential impacts on soil N transformation and thus on N2O emission from paddy soils.

  7. Emission of biogenic sulfur gases from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Yang; Li Kong

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic sulfur gases emitted from terrestrial ecosystem may play in important role in global sulfur cycle and have a profound influence on global climate change. But very little is known concerning emissions from paddy soil and rice plant, which are abundant in many parts of the world. As a big agricultural country, this is about 33 million hectare rice planted in China. With laboratory incubation and closed chamber method in the field, the biogenic sulfur gases emitted from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant were detected in both conditions: hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), methyl mercaptan (MSH), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Among which, DMS was predominant part of sulfur emission. Emission of sulfur gases from different paddy field exhibit high spatial and temporal variability. The application of fertilizer and organic manure, total sulfur content in wetland, air temperature were positively correlated to the emission of volatile sulfur gases from paddy soil. Diurnal and seasonal variation of total volatile sulfur gases and DMS indicate that their emissions were greatly influenced by the activity of the rice plant. The annual emission of total volatile sulfur gases, from Nanjing paddy field is ranged from 4.0 to 9.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}, that of DMS is ranged from 3.1 to 6.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}. Rice plant could absorb COS gas, that may be one of the sinks of COS.

  8. Baseline soil variation is a major factor in arsenic accumulation in Bengal Delta paddy rice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Adomako, Eureka E; Solaiman, A R M; Islam, M Rafiqul; Deacon, Claire; Williams, P N; Rahman, G K M M; Meharg, Andrew A

    2009-03-15

    Factors responsible for paddy soil arsenic accumulation in the tubewell irrigated systems of the Bengal Delta were investigated. Baseline (i.e., nonirrigated) and paddy soils were collected from 30 field systems across Bangladesh. For each field, soil sampled at dry season (Boro) harvest i.e., the crop cycle irrigated with tubewell water, was collected along a 90 m transect away from the tubewell irrigation source. Baseline soil arsenic levels ranged from 0.8 to 21. mg/kg, with lower values found on the Pliestocene Terrace around Gazipur (average, 1.6 +/- 0.2 mg/kg), and higher levels found in Holecene sediment tracts of Jessore and Faridpur (average, 6.6 +/- 1.0 mg/kg). Two independent approaches were used to assess the extent of arsenic build-up in irrigated paddy soils. First, arsenic build-up in paddy soil at the end of dry season production (irrigated - baseline soil arsenic) was regressed against number of years irrigated and tubewell arsenic concentration. Years of irrigation was not significant (P = 0.711), indicating no year-on-year arsenic build-up, whereas tubewell As concentration was significant (P = 0.008). The second approach was analysis of irrigated soils for 20 fields over 2 successive years. For nine of the fields there was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in soil arsenic from year 1 to 2, one field had a significant increase, whereas there was no change for the remaining 10. Over the dry season irrigation cycle, soil arsenic built-up in soils at a rate dependent on irrigation tubewell water, 35* (tubewell water concentration in mg/kg, triple bond mg/L). Grain arsenic rises steeply at low soil/shoot arsenic levels, plateauing out at concentratations. Baseline soil arsenic at Faridpur sites corresponded to grain arsenic levels at the start of this saturation phase. Therefore, variation in baseline levels of soil arsenic leads to a large range in grain arsenic. Where sites have high baseline soil arsenic, further additional arsenic from irrigation

  9. Transformation of marine sediment to paddy soil: Primary marine, lacustrine, and land plant lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Niggemann, Cornelia; Cao, Zhihong; Schwark, Lorenz

    2010-05-01

    More than fifty percent of the world's population feeds on rice. The continuous population increase and urban sprawl leads to an ever-increasing demand for new rice cultivation area, in particular China. For centuries suitable coastal areas in China have been exploited for land reclamation, i.e. conversion of coastal marine and lacustrine marshlands into rice paddy fields. Flooded rice paddies are considered one of the major biogenic sources of methane into the atmospheric. Methane is thought to be about 30 times more efficient as greenhouse gas, when compared to carbon dioxide. Overall, rice fields are assumed to contribute app. 10-25% to global CH4 production. It is thus paramount importance to study the effects of increasing rice cultivation and land reclamation in China. For global carbon cycle investigation, it is crucial whether paddy soils, due to their large extent and higher carbon turnover, serve as carbon (CO2) sinks or sources. Here we present results from a chronosequence study of paddy soils with different and well known starting dates of cultivation, in the Zhejiang province (Yangtze River delta) by land reclamation through the building of protective dikes over the past 2000 years. Two end members of natural sediments subjected to land reclamation, a marine tidal mudflat in the Yangtze delta and a coastal lake, represent the substrate on which the paddy soil evolution started. Dike systems were constructed 2000, 1000, 700, 300, 100, and 50 years before present. We are thus able to follow the evolution of rice paddy soils developed on marine sediments using eight well defined tie-points. This chronosequence is then used for assessing the relative proportion of primary marine or lacustrine organic matter preserved in present day soils and to identify the amount and composition of organic matter added since cultivation started. Paddy soil management introduces rice plants debris and exudates as well as rice-associated microbial biomass (covered in a

  10. Mercury methylation in paddy soil: source and distribution of mercury species at a Hg mining area, Guizhou Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Anderson, Christopher W. N.; Qiu, Guangle; Meng, Bo; Wang, Dingyong; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy plantation is the dominant agricultural land use throughout Asia. Rice paddy fields have been identified as important sites for methylmercury (MeHg) production in the terrestrial ecosystem and a primary pathway of MeHg exposure to humans in mercury (Hg) mining areas. We compared the source and distribution of Hg species in different compartments of the rice paddy during a complete rice-growing season at two different typical Hg-contaminated mining sites in Guizhou province, China: an abandoned site with a high Hg concentration in soil but a low concentration in the atmosphere and a current-day artisanal site with a low concentration in soil but a high concentration in the atmosphere. Our results showed that the flux of new Hg to the ecosystem from irrigation and atmospheric deposition was insignificant relative to the pool of old Hg in soil; the dominant source of MeHg to paddy soil is in situ methylation of inorganic Hg (IHg). Elevated MeHg concentrations and the high proportion of Hg as MeHg in paddy water and the surface soil layer at the artisanal site demonstrated active Hg methylation at this site only. We propose that the in situ production of MeHg in paddy water and surface soil is dependent on elevated Hg in the atmosphere and the consequential deposition of new Hg into a low-pH anoxic geochemical system. The absence of depth-dependent variability in the MeHg concentration in soil cores collected from the abandoned Hg mining site, consistent with the low concentration of Hg in the atmosphere and high pH of the paddy water and irrigation water, suggested that net production of MeHg at this site was limited. We propose that the concentration of Hg in ambient air is an indicator for the risk of MeHg accumulation in paddy rice.

  11. Effect of ferrihydrite biomineralization on methanogenesis in an anaerobic incubation from paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Li; Xu, Jielong; Tang, Jia; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-05-01

    Microbial reduction of Fe(III) can be one of the major factors controlling methane production from anaerobic sedimentary environments, such as paddy soils and wetlands. Although secondary iron mineralization following Fe(III) reduction is a process that occurs naturally over time, it has not yet been considered in methanogenic systems. This study performed a long-term anaerobic incubation of a paddy soil and ferrihydrite-supplemented soil cultures to investigate methanogenesis during ferrihydrite biomineralization. The results revealed that the long-term effect of ferrihydrite on methanogenesis may be enhancement rather than suppression documented in previous studies. During initial microbial ferrihydrite reduction, methanogenesis was suppressed; however, the secondary minerals of magnetite formation was simultaneous with facilitated methanogenesis in terms of average methane production rate and acetate utilization rate. In the phase of magnetite formation, microbial community analysis revealed a strong stimulation of the bacterial Geobacter, Bacillus, and Sedimentibacter and the archaeal Methanosarcina in the ferrihydrite-supplemented cultures. Direct electric syntrophy between Geobacter and Methanosarcina via conductive magnetite is the plausible mechanism for methanogenesis acceleration along with magnetite formation. Our data suggested that a change in iron mineralogy might affect the conversion of anaerobic organic matter to methane and might provide a fresh perspective on the mitigation of methane emissions from paddy soils by ferric iron fertilization.

  12. Microbial characteristics of purple paddy soil in response to Pb pollution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Yue-Qiang; Zhang, La-Mei; Zhou, Xin-Bin; Shi, Xiao-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The study focused on the change of microbial characteristics affected by Plumbum pollution with purple paddy soil in an incubation experiment. The results showed that low concentration of Plumbum had little effect on most of microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activity. However, denitrifying activity was inhibited severely, and inhibition rate was up to 98%. Medium and high concentration of Plumbum significantly reduced the amounts and activity of all microorganisms and enzymatic activity, which increased with incubation time. Negative correlations were found between Plumbum concentrations and microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activities except fungi and actinomyces. Thus they can be used to indicate the Plumbum pollution levels to some extent. LD(50) of denitrifying bacteria (DB) and ED50 of denitrifying activity were 852mg/kg and 33.5mg/kg. Across all test soil microbes, denitrifying bacteria was most sensitive to Plumbum pollution in purple paddy soil. Value of early warning showed that anaerobic cellulose-decomposing bacteria (ACDB) and actinomyces were also sensitive to Plumbum pollution. We concluded that denitrifying activity, actinomyces, ACDB or DB can be chosen as predictor of Plumbum contamination in purple paddy soil.

  13. Distribution and identification of proteolytic Bacillus spp. in paddy field soil under rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Hayano, K

    1993-07-01

    Proteolytic bacteria in paddy field soils under rice cultivation were characterized and enumerated using azocoll agar plates. Bacillus spp. were the proteolytic bacteria that were most frequently present, comprising 59% of the isolates. They were always the numerically dominant proteolytic bacteria isolated from three kinds of fertilizer treatments (yearly application of rice-straw compost and chemical fertilizer, yearly application of chemical fertilizer, and no fertilizer application) and at three different stages of rice development (vegetative growth stage, maximal tillering stage, and harvest stage). Of the 411 proteolytic bacteria isolated, 124 isolates had stronger proteolytic activity than others on the basis of gelatin liquefaction tests and most of them were Bacillus spp. (100% in 1989 and 92.4% in 1991). Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus were the main bacteria of this group and Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus megaterium were also present. We conclude that these Bacillus spp. are the primary source of soil protease in these paddy fields.

  14. Variations in soil microbial community structure induced by the conversion from paddy fields to upland fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, X.

    2015-12-01

    Land-use conversion is an important factor influencing the carbon and nitrogen gas exchange between land and atmosphere, and soil microorganisms is main driver of soil carbon and nitrogen gas production. Understanding the effect of land-use conversion on soil microbial communities and its influencing factor is important for greenhouse gas emission reduction and soil organic carbon and nitrogen sequestration and stability. The influence of land use conversion on soil process was undergoing a dynamic change, but little research has been done to understand the effect on soil microbial communities during the initial years after land conversion. In the study, the influences of land-use conversion from double rice cropping (RR) to maize-maize (MM) and soybean-peanut (SP) double cropping systems on soil physical and chemical properties, and microbial community structure was studied after two years of the conversion in southern China. The results showed that land use conversion significantly changed soil properties, microbial communities and biomass. Soil pH significantly decreased by 0.50 and 0.52 after conversion to MM and SP, respectively. Soil TN and NH4-N also significantly decreased by 9%-15% and 60% after conversion to upland fields, respectively. The total PLFAs, bacterial, gram-positive bacterial (G+), gram-negative bacterial (G-) and actinomycetic PLFAs decreased significantly. The ng g-1 soil concentration of monounsaturated chain PLFAs 16:1ω7c and 18:1ω9t were significantly higher at paddy fields than at upland fields. No significant differences in soil properties, microbial communities and biomass were found between conversed MM and SP. Our results indicated that land use conversion, not crop type conversed had a significant effects on soil properties and microbial communities at the initial of land conversion. And soil pH was the key factor regulating the variations in soil microbial community structure after land use conversion from paddy to upland fields.

  15. Identification and isolation of active N2O reducers in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Ohno, Hiroki; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Otsuka, Shigeto; Senoo, Keishi

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved N(2)O is occasionally detected in surface and ground water in rice paddy fields, whereas little or no N(2)O is emitted to the atmosphere above these fields. This indicates the occurrence of N(2)O reduction in rice paddy fields; however, identity of the N(2)O reducers is largely unknown. In this study, we employed both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches to identify N(2)O reducers in rice paddy soil. In a soil microcosm, N(2)O and succinate were added as the electron acceptor and donor, respectively, for N(2)O reduction. For the stable isotope probing (SIP) experiment, (13)C-labeled succinate was used to identify succinate-assimilating microbes under N(2)O-reducing conditions. DNA was extracted 24  h after incubation, and heavy and light DNA fractions were separated by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analysis targeting the 16S rRNA and the N(2)O reductase gene were performed. For culture-dependent analysis, the microbes that elongated under N(2)O-reducing conditions in the presence of cell-division inhibitors were individually captured by a micromanipulator and transferred to a low-nutrient medium. The N(2)O-reducing ability of these strains was examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results of the SIP analysis suggested that Burkholderiales and Rhodospirillales bacteria dominated the population under N(2)O-reducing conditions, in contrast to the control sample (soil incubated with only (13)C-succinate). Results of the single-cell isolation technique also indicated that the majority of the N(2)O-reducing strains belonged to the genera Herbaspirillum (Burkholderiales) and Azospirillum (Rhodospirillales). In addition, Herbaspirillum strains reduced N(2)O faster than Azospirillum strains. These results suggest that Herbaspirillum spp. may have an important role in N(2)O reduction in rice paddy soils.

  16. Stability of soil organic matter accumulated under long-term use as a rice paddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Shiko; Zou, Ping; Ando, Ho; Fu, Jianrong; Cao, Zhihong; Nakamura, Toshio; Sugiura, Yuki; Watanabe, Akira

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanism responsible for the enhanced accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM) under long-term use as a rice paddy, soil samples from the plow layer from 16 fields that have been used for irrigated rice production from 5 to 2000 years in the Hangzhou Bay, China, were analyzed. The humin in silt/clay particles was isolated as a representative relatively stable SOM pool, and isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and 14C concentration), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and biodegradability in an incubation were examined. The amounts of C and N in the bulk soil, silt/clay, and silt/clay-humin increased with increasing period of use as a rice paddy within the east and west zones, respectively. The degree of humification determined for humic acids indicated that the progression of humification did not contribute to the accumulation of C beyond 100 years. The δ15N of silt/clay-humin suggested an increase in organic N derived from chemical fertilizer or recent biological fixation with increasing amount of this fraction. The 14C concentration showed a negative correlation with the amount of silt/clay-humin C. The structural property with regard to 13C NMR spectra and biodegradability of the silt/clay-humin remained constant with the length of use as a rice paddy or 14C concentration. These results suggest that the larger C or N accumulation in the soils with a longer rice paddy history can be attributed to an enhancement in the accumulation of recently generated SOM rather than the stable accumulation of humus over the years.

  17. Biodegradation of Cry1Ab protein from Bt transgenic rice in aerobic and flooded paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Ye, Qingfu; Gan, Jay; Wu, Licheng

    2007-03-07

    Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from Bt transgenic rice was examined under both aerobic and flooded conditions in five paddy soils and in aqueous solutions. The hydrolysis rate of Cry1Ab protein in aqueous solutions was correlated inversely with the solution pH in the range of 4.0 to 8.0, and positively with the initial concentration of Cry1Ab protein. Rapid degradation of Cry1Ab protein occurred in paddy soils under aerobic conditions, with half-lives ranging from 19.6 to 41.3 d. The degradation was mostly biotic and not related to any specific soil property. Degradation of the Cry1Ab protein was significantly prolonged under flooded conditions compared with aerobic conditions, with half-lives extended to 45.9 to 141 d. These results suggest that the toxin protein, when introduced into a paddy field upon harvest, will probably undergo rapid removal after the field is drained and exposed to aerobic conditions.

  18. Seasonal and diurnal variations in net carbon dioxide flux throughout the year from soil in paddy field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Seiichi; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Minamikawa, Kazunori; Yagi, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    contrast to upland croplands, carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from soils has rarely been investigated previously in fields with paddy rice cultivation. In this study, we hypothesized that CO2 emission from paddy soils is suppressed to be a low level due the soil submergence for months for paddy rice cultivation and conducted a continuous measurement of net CO2 flux from the soil/water surface of a paddy field throughout the year, including both the submerged and drained periods. The net CO2 flux was generally near zero during the submerged period with paddy rice cultivation and showed a slight CO2 influx in the daytime and efflux at nighttime, indicating dominance of photosynthetic CO2 uptake and respiratory CO2 release by aquatic weeds and algae in paddy water. The diurnal variations in net CO2 flux and dissolved CO2 concentration had negative correlations with the pH of paddy water. A remarkably high CO2 efflux was observed during the period with intermittent drainage in summer. Unexpectedly, the cumulative CO2 emissions throughout the year were not considerably lower than those reported in upland croplands ranging from 1309 to 2160 g CO2 m-2 yr-1, of which 41-48% was emitted from the first drainage in summer to the rice harvest in autumn. In summary, in this study, we revealed that CO2 emission from soil in paddy fields is strictly suppressed during the submerged period, but considerably enhanced by the succeeding drainage, which may negate the suppressed CO2 emission during the submerged period.

  19. Spatial variability of soil nutrient in paddy plantation: Sites FELCRA Seberang Perak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, H.; Adnan, N. A.; Mispan, M. R.; Athirah. A, A.

    2016-06-01

    The conventional methods currently used for rice cultivation in Malaysia are unable to give maximum yield although the yield production of paddy is increasing. This is due to the conversional method being unable to include soil properties as one of their parameters in agriculture management. Soil properties vary spatially in farm scale due to differences in topography, parent material, vegetation or land management and soil characteristics; also plantation productivity varies significantly over small spatial scales. Knowledge of spatial variability in soil fertility is important for site specific nutrient management. Analysis of spatial variability of soil nutrient of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were conducted in this study with the aid of GIS (i.e ArcGIS) and statistical softwares. In this study different temporal and depths of soil nutrient were extracted on the field and further analysis of N,P,K content were analysed in the chemical laboratory and using spatially technique in GIS sofware. The result indicated that for the Seberang Perak site of 58 hactares area, N and K are met minimum requirements nutrient content as outlines by the MARDI for paddy cultivation. However, P indicated poor condition in the study area; therefore the soil needs further attention and treatment.

  20. [Effects of Tillage on Distribution of Heavy Metals and Organic Matter Within Purple Paddy Soil Aggregates].

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiong-bin; Zhao, Xiu-lan; Chang, Tong-ju; Lu, Ji-wen

    2016-05-15

    A long-term experiment was utilized to study the effects of tillage methods on the contents and distribution characteristics of organic matter and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe and Mn) in aggregates with different sizes (including 1-2, 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 mm and < 0.05 mm) in a purple paddy soil under two tillage methods including flooded paddy field (FPF) and paddy-upland rotation (PR). The relationship between heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates was also analyzed. The results showed that the aggregates of two tillage methods were dominated by 0.05-0.25 mm and < 0.05 mm particle size, respectively. The contents of organic matter in each aggregate decreased with the decrease of aggregate sizes, however, compared to PR, FPF could significantly increase the contents of organic matter in soils and aggregates. The tillage methods did not significantly affect the contents of heavy metals in soils, but FPF could enhance the accumulation and distribution of aggregate, organic matter and heavy metals in aggregates with diameters of 1-2 mm and 0.25-1 mm. Correlation analysis found that there was a negative correlation between the contents of heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates, but a positive correlation between the amounts of heavy metal and organic matter accumulated in soil aggregates. From the slope of the correlation analysis equations, we could found that the sensitivities of heavy metals to the changes of soil organic matters followed the order of Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > Fe > Cd under the same tillage. When it came to the same heavy metal, it was more sensitive in PR than in FPF.

  1. Metagenomic analysis revealed highly diverse microbial arsenic metabolism genes in paddy soils with low-arsenic contents.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke-Qing; Li, Li-Guan; Ma, Li-Ping; Zhang, Si-Yu; Bao, Peng; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2016-04-01

    Microbe-mediated arsenic (As) metabolism plays a critical role in global As cycle, and As metabolism involves different types of genes encoding proteins facilitating its biotransformation and transportation processes. Here, we used metagenomic analysis based on high-throughput sequencing and constructed As metabolism protein databases to analyze As metabolism genes in five paddy soils with low-As contents. The results showed that highly diverse As metabolism genes were present in these paddy soils, with varied abundances and distribution for different types and subtypes of these genes. Arsenate reduction genes (ars) dominated in all soil samples, and significant correlation existed between the abundance of arr (arsenate respiration), aio (arsenite oxidation), and arsM (arsenite methylation) genes, indicating the co-existence and close-relation of different As resistance systems of microbes in wetland environments similar to these paddy soils after long-term evolution. Among all soil parameters, pH was an important factor controlling the distribution of As metabolism gene in five paddy soils (p = 0.018). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using high-throughput sequencing and metagenomics approach in characterizing As metabolism genes in the five paddy soil, showing their great potential in As biotransformation, and therefore in mitigating arsenic risk to humans.

  2. Long-term balanced fertilization increases the soil microbial functional diversity in a phosphorus-limited paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Ding, Long-Jun; Xue, Kai; Yao, Huai-Ying; Quensen, John; Bai, Shi-Jie; Wei, Wen-Xue; Wu, Jin-Shui; Zhou, Jizhong; Tiedje, James M; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of long-term chemical fertilization on soil microbial communities has been one of the frontier topics of agricultural and environmental sciences and is critical for linking soil microbial flora with soil functions. In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and a functional gene array, geochip 4.0, were used to investigate the shifts in microbial composition and functional gene structure in paddy soils with different fertilization treatments over a 22-year period. These included a control without fertilizers; chemical nitrogen fertilizer (N); N and phosphate (NP); N and potassium (NK); and N, P and K (NPK). Based on 16S rRNA gene data, both species evenness and key genera were affected by P fertilization. Functional gene array-based analysis revealed that long-term fertilization significantly changed the overall microbial functional structures. Chemical fertilization significantly increased the diversity and abundance of most genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling, especially for the treatments NK and NPK. Significant correlations were found among functional gene structure and abundance, related soil enzymatic activities and rice yield, suggesting that a fertilizer-induced shift in the microbial community may accelerate the nutrient turnover in soil, which in turn influenced rice growth. The effect of N fertilization on soil microbial functional genes was mitigated by the addition of P fertilizer in this P-limited paddy soil, suggesting that balanced chemical fertilization is beneficial to the soil microbial community and its functions.

  3. Acid drainage from coal mining: Effect on paddy soil and productivity of rice.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Burhan U; Malang, Akbar; Webster, Richard; Mohapatra, Kamal P; Verma, Bibhash C; Kumar, Manoj; Das, Anup; Islam, Mokidul; Hazarika, Samarendra

    2017-04-01

    Overburden and acid drainage from coal mining is transforming productive agricultural lands to unproductive wasteland in some parts of Northeast India. We have investigated the adverse effects of acid mine drainage on the soil of rice paddy and productivity by comparing them with non-mined land and abandoned paddy fields of Jaintia Hills in Northeast India. Pot experiments with a local rice cultivar (Myngoi) as test crop evaluated biological productivity of the contaminated soil. Contamination from overburden and acid mine drainage acidified the soil by 0.5 pH units, increased the exchangeable Al(3+) content 2-fold and its saturation on clay complexes by 53%. Available sulfur and extractable heavy metals, namely Fe, Mn and Cu increased several-fold in excess of critical limits, while the availability of phosphorus, potassium and zinc contents diminished by 32-62%. The grain yield of rice was 62% less from fields contaminated with acid mine drainage than from fields that have not suffered. Similarly, the amounts of vegetation, i.e. shoots and roots, in pots filled with soil from fields that received acid mine drainage were 59-68% less than from uncontaminated land (average shoot weight: 7.9±2.12gpot(-1); average root weight: 3.40±1.15gpot(-1)). Paddy fields recovered some of their productivity 4years after mining ceased. Step-wise multiple regression analysis affirmed that shoot weight in the pots and grain yield in field were significantly (p<0.01) and positively influenced by the soil's pH and its contents of K, N and Zn, while concentration of S in excess of threshold limits in contaminated soil significantly (p<0.01) reduced the weight of shoots in the pots and grain yield in the field.

  4. Reducing phosphorus release from paddy soils by a fly ash-gypsum mixture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hoon; Lee, Yong Bok; Lee, Hyup; Kim, Pil Joo

    2007-07-01

    A mixture of fly ash and phospho-gypsum (50:50, wtwt(-1)) was selected to study its potential to supply Ca and Si to rice while reducing B toxicity. We expected that the high Ca content in this mixture might convert water-soluble P to less soluble forms and thereby reduce the loss of soil P to surface runoff. The mixture was applied at rates of 0, 20, 40, and 60 Mgha(-1) in two paddy soils of contrasting textures (silt loam in Yehari and loamy sand in Daegok). The mixture significantly reduced water-soluble phosphate (W-P) in the surface soils by shifting from W-P and iron bound-P (Fe-P) to calcium bound-P (Ca-P) and aluminum bound-P (Al-P) during rice cultivation in both soils. Lancaster and Mehlich 3 extractable P increased significantly with application rate due to high contents of P and Si in the mixture. Mixtures of fly ash and phospho-gypsum should reduce P loss from rice paddy soils and increase soil fertility.

  5. Pedobacter oryzae sp. nov., isolated from rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yeji; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Se Hee; Seong, Chi-Nam; Lee, Sang-Suk; Jeon, Che Ok

    2009-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain N7(T), was isolated from a rice paddy in South Korea. Cells of strain N7(T) were non-motile, non-spore-forming rods. Growth was observed at 15-35 degrees C (optimum of 25-30 degrees C) and between pH 6.0 and 8.0 (optimum of pH 6.5-7.5). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7. The major cellular fatty acids of strain N7(T) were summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH), iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(15 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.7 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that strain N7(T) formed a distinct phyletic line within the genus Pedobacter. Phylogenetic distances from strains of other Pedobacter species with validly published names were greater than 5.0 % (i.e. <95.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities). On the basis of phenotypic and molecular data, it is clear that strain N7(T) represents a novel species within the genus Pedobacter, for which the name Pedobacter oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N7(T) (=KACC 12821(T) =DSM 19973(T)).

  6. Incorporating rice residues into paddy soils affects methylmercury accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huike; Zhong, Huan; Wu, Jialu

    2016-06-01

    Paddy fields are characterized by frequent organic input (e.g., fertilization and rice residue amendment), which may affect mercury biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation. To explore potential effects of rice residue amendment on methylmercury (MMHg) accumulation in rice, a mercury-contaminated paddy soil was amended with rice root (RR), rice straw (RS) or composted rice straw (CS), and planted with rice. Incorporating RS or CS increased grain MMHg concentration by 14% or 11%. The observed increases could be attributed to the elevated porewater MMHg levels and thus enhanced MMHg uptake by plants, as well as increased MMHg translocation to grain within plants. Our results indicated for the first time that rice residue amendment could significantly affect MMHg accumulation in rice grain, which should be considered in risk assessment of MMHg in contaminated areas.

  7. Evaluation of potential effects of soil available phosphorus on soil arsenic availability and paddy rice inorganic arsenic content.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Hou, Qingye; Yang, Zhongfang; Zhong, Cong; Zheng, Guodong; Yang, Zhiqiang; Li, Jie

    2014-05-01

    The transfer of arsenic from paddy field to rice is a major exposure route of the highly toxic element to humans. The aim of our study is to explore the effects of soil available phosphorus on As uptake by rice, and identify the effects of soil properties on arsenic transfer from soil to rice under actual field conditions. 56 pairs of topsoil and rice samples were collected. The relevant parameters in soil and the inorganic arsenic in rice grains were analyzed, and then all the results were treated by statistical methods. Results show that the main factors influencing the uptake by rice grain include soil pH and available phosphorus. The eventual impact of phosphorus is identified as the suppression of As uptake by rice grains. The competition for transporters from soil to roots between arsenic and phosphorus in rhizosphere soil has been a dominant feature.

  8. Estimation of Korean paddy field soil properties using optical reflectance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An optical sensing approach based on diffuse reflectance has shown potential for rapid and reliable on-site estimation of soil properties. Important sensing ranges and the resulting regression models useful for soil property estimation have been reported. In this study, a similar approach was applie...

  9. Stabilization by hydrophobic protection as a molecular mechanism for organic carbon sequestration in maize-amended rice paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Song, X Y; Spaccini, R; Pan, G; Piccolo, A

    2013-08-01

    The hydrophobic components of soil organic matter (SOM) are reckoned to play an important role in the stabilization of soil organic carbon (SOC). The contribution of hydrophobic substances to SOC sequestration was evaluated in four different paddy soils in the South of China, following a 6-month incubation experiment with maize straw amendments. Soil samples included: a well developed paddy soil (TP) derived from clayey lacustrine deposits in the Tai Lake plain of Jiangsu; an acid clayey paddy soil (RP) derived from red earth in the rolling red soil area of Jiangxi; a weakly developed neutral paddy soil (PP) formed on Jurassic purple shale from Chongq; and a calcic Fluvisol (MS) derived from riverine sediments from a wetland along the Yangtze valley of Anhui, China. The SOC molecular composition after 30 and 180 days of incubation, was determined by off-line thermochemolysis followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Lignin, lipids and carbohydrates were the predominant thermochemolysis products released from the treated soils. A selective preservation of hydrophobic OM, including lignin and lipids, was shown in maize amended soils with prolonged incubation. The decomposition of lignin and lipids was significantly slower in the TP and RP soils characterized by a larger content of extractable iron oxyhydrates (Fed) and lower pH. The overall increase in hydrophobic substances in maize incubated samples was correlated, positively, with total content of clay and Fed, and, negatively, with soil pH. Moreover, yields of both lignin and lipid components showed a significant relationship with SOC increase after incubation. These findings showed that the larger the lipid and lignin content of SOM, the greater was the stability of SOC, thereby suggesting that OM hydrophobic components may have an essential role in controlling the processes of OC sequestration in paddy soils of South China.

  10. Silica fertilization and nano-MnO₂ amendment on bacterial community composition in high arsenic paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jihai; He, Yaxian; Zhang, Huiling; Chen, Anwei; Lei, Ming; Chen, Junfeng; Peng, Liang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2016-03-01

    Silica fertilization and nano-MnO2 amendment are reported as useful approaches in lowering the accumulation of arsenic in rice grains, but the effects of silica fertilization or nano-MnO2 amendment on microbial community in the paddy soils containing high concentration of arsenic are still unknown. In order to elucidate this question, the structures and composition of microbial community in the paddy soils, in response to silica fertilization and nano-MnO2 amendment, were investigated using pyrosequencing technique. The results indicated that Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria were the main dominating phyla in these paddy soils. A decrease in the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria, but an increase in the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was observed after silica fertilization and nano-MnO2 amendment. The changes of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Cyanobacteria were strongly correlated with pH and the concentration of bioavailable arsenic in the paddy soils. The α-diversity of bacteria in the paddy soils increased in response to silica fertilization at low amendment level, but decreased under silica or nano-MnO2 amendment at high amendment level. Results of β-diversity analysis indicated that the microbial communities in the control treatment shared more similarity with that of those received low level of nano-MnO2 amendment, and the two silica fertilization treatments also shared more similarity with each other.

  11. Heavy metal speciation and risk assessment in dry land and paddy soils near mining areas at Southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guannan; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Erxi; Hou, Jing; Liu, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils has been a long-standing environmental problem in many parts of the world, and poses enormous threats to ecosystem and human health. Speciation of heavy metals in soils is crucial to assessing environmental risks from contaminated soils. In this study, total concentrations and speciation of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured for agricultural soils near mines along the Diaojiang River in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomy Region, China. The sources of heavy metals in soils also were identified to assess their effect on speciation distribution of soil heavy metals. Furthermore, the speciation distribution of Cd and Zn, main soil heavy metal pollutants, in dry land and paddy soils were compared. Results showed that there were two severely polluted regions near mine area reaching alarming pollution level. As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were more affected by mining activities, showing very strong pollution level in soils. The mean percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fraction was highest and up to 46.8 % for Cd, indicating a high environmental risk. Greater bioavailable fractions of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were found in soils heavily polluted by mining activities, whereas Cr and Ni as geogenic elements in the stable residual fraction. In addition, in the dry land soils, reducible fraction proportion of Cd was higher than that in the paddy soils, whereas exchangeable and carbonate fraction of Cd was lower than that in the paddy soils. Oxidizable fraction of Zn was higher in the paddy soils than that in the dry land soils. The results indicate that the sources of soil heavy metals and land types affect heavy metal speciation in the soil and are significant for environmental risk assessment of soil heavy metal pollutions.

  12. Radiocesium sorption in relation to clay mineralogy of paddy soils in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Atsushi; Ogasawara, Sho; Sano, Oki; Ito, Toyoaki; Yanai, Junta

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between Radiocesium Interception Potential (RIP) and mineralogical characteristics of the clay fraction isolated from 97 paddy soils (Hama-dori, n = 25; Naka-dori, n = 36; Aizu, n = 36) in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan were investigated to clarify the mineralogical factors controlling the (137)Cs retention ability of soils (half-life 30.1 y). Of all the fission products released by the Fukushima accident, (137)Cs is the most important long-term contributor to the environmental contamination. The RIP, a quantitative index of the (137)Cs retention ability, was determined for the soil clays. The composition of clay minerals in the soil clays was estimated from peak areas obtained using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The predominant clay mineral was smectite in soils from Hama-dori and Aizu, while this was variable for those from Naka-dori. Native K content of the soil clays was found to be an indicator of the amount of micaceous minerals. The average RIP for the 97 soil clays was 7.8 mol kg(-1), and ranged from 2.4 mol kg(-1) to 19.4 mol kg(-1). The RIP was significantly and positively correlated with native K content for each of the geographical regions, Hama-dori (r = 0.76, p < 0.001), Naka-dori (r = 0.43, p < 0.05), and Aizu (r = 0.76, P < 0.001), while it was not related to the relative abundance of smectite. The linear relationship between RIP and native K content not only indicate a large contribution of micaceous minerals to the (137)Cs retention ability of the soil clays, but also could be used to predict the (137)Cs retention ability of soil clays for other paddy fields in Fukushima and other areas.

  13. Effect of simulated tillage on microbial autotrophic CO2 fixation in paddy and upland soils

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Tida; Wu, Xiaohong; Liu, Qiong; Zhu, Zhenke; Yuan, Hongzhao; Wang, Wei; Whiteley, A. S.; Wu, Jinshui

    2016-01-01

    Tillage is a common agricultural practice affecting soil structure and biogeochemistry. To evaluate how tillage affects soil microbial CO2 fixation, we incubated and continuously labelled samples from two paddy soils and two upland soils subjected to simulated conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) treatments. Results showed that CO2 fixation (14C-SOC) in CT soils was significantly higher than in NT soils. We also observed a significant, soil type- and depth-dependent effect of tillage on the incorporation rates of labelled C to the labile carbon pool. Concentrations of labelled C in the carbon pool significantly decreased with soil depth, irrespective of tillage. Additionally, quantitative PCR assays revealed that for most soils, total bacteria and cbbL-carrying bacteria were less abundant in CT versus NT treatments, and tended to decrease in abundance with increasing depth. However, specific CO2 fixation activity was significantly higher in CT than in NT soils, suggesting that the abundance of cbbL-containing bacteria may not always reflect their functional activity. This study highlights the positive effect of tillage on soil microbial CO2 fixation, and the results can be readily applied to the development of sustainable agricultural management. PMID:26795428

  14. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  15. Field screening of cowpea cultivars for alkaline soil tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  16. [Influence of paddy rice-upland crop rotation of cold-waterlogged paddy field on crops produc- tion and soil characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Qing-hua; Lin, Cheng; He, Chun-mei; Zhong, Shao-jie; Li, Yu; Lin, Xin-jian; Huang, Jian-cheng

    2015-05-01

    Two consecutive years (4-crop) experiments were conducted to study the influence of different paddy rice-upland crop rotation in cold-waterlogged paddy field on the growth of crops and soil characteristics. The result showed that compared with the rice-winter fallow (CK) pattern, the two-year average yield of paddy rice under four rotation modes, including rape-rice (R-R), spring corn-rice (C-R), Chinese milk vetch-rice (M-R) and bean-rice (B-R), were increased by 5.3%-26.7%, with significant difference observed in C-R and R-R patterns. Except for M-R pattern, the annual average total economic benefits were improved by 79.0%-392.4% in all rotation pattern compared with the CK, and the ration of output/input was enhanced by 0.06-0.72 unit, with the most significant effect found in the C-R pattern. Likewise, compared with the CK, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of rice plant were all increased during the full-tillering stage of rice in all rotation patterns. The rusty lines and rusty spots of soils were more obvious compared with the CK during the rice harvest, particularly in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns. The ratio of water-stable soil macro aggregates of plough layer of soil (> 2 mm) decreased at different levels in all rotation patterns while the ratios of middle aggregate (0.25-2 mm, expect for M-R) and micro aggregate of soil (< 0.25 mm) were opposite. There was a decreasing trend for soil active reducing agents in all rotation patterns, whereas the available nutrient increased. The amounts of soil bacteria in C-R and B-R patterns, fungi in B-R rotation pattern, cellulose bacteria in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns and N-fixing bacteria in B-R pattern were improved by 285.7%-403.0%, 221.7%, 64.6-92.2% and 162.2%, respectively. Moreover, the differences in all microorganisms were significant. Thus, based on the experimental results of cold-waterlogged paddy field, it was concluded that changing from single cropping rice system

  17. [Dynamics of active organic carbon in a paddy soil under different rice farming modes].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ming; Cao, Cou-Gui; Jiang, Yang; Wang, Jin-Ping; Yue, Li-Xin; Cai, Ming-Li

    2010-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in a paddy soil under integrated rice-duck farming (RD), intermittent irrigation (RW), and conventional flooded irrigation (CK), the three rice farming modes typical in southern China. Under these three farming modes, the soil DOC and MBC contents reached the highest during the period from rice booting to heading, while the soil ROC content had less change during the whole rice growth period. Two-factor variance analysis showed that soil MBC was greatly affected by rice growth stage, soil DOC was greatly affected by rice growth stage and farming mode, and soil ROC was mainly affected by farming mode. Comparing with CK, RD significantly increased the soil DOC and ROC contents and their availability, while RW significantly decreased the soil DOC content and its availability but increased the soil ROC content and its availability. No significant differences were observed in the soil MBC and microbial quotient among RD, RW, and CK.

  18. Methane production and methanogenic archaeal communities in two types of paddy soil amended with different amounts of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Bao, Qiong-Li; Xiao, Ke-Qing; Chen, Zheng; Yao, Huai-Ying; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-05-01

    Soil type and returning straw to the field are the important factors that regulate CH4 formation in paddy soil, and the variations of biogeochemical parameters and methanogens communities play important roles in the formation of CH4 . In the present study, two paddy soil types [silt loam soil (JX) and silty clay loam soil (GD)] with different amounts of rice straw additions were incubated under anaerobic conditions to investigate the relationship between CH4 production, biogeochemical variations, and methanogenic archaeal communities. Straw incorporation significantly stimulated CH4 production in two soil types. CH4 production in JX soil was higher than the GD soil with equal straw addition. Significant differences between biogeochemical parameters and methanogenic archaeal communities were observed between two soil types. Straw addition increased archaeal 16S rRNA genes and mcrA genes copy numbers, especially in JX soil. Multiple regression analysis indicated that variations in H2 , sulfate, Fe (II) concentrations, archaeal 16S rRNA genes and mcrA genes copy numbers, methanogens diversity index, and the relative abundance of Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriaceae together influenced CH4 production in two soil types. These results indicated that methane production was influenced by the comprehensive effects of biotic and abiotic factors in paddy soils.

  19. Variability in responses of bacterial communities and nitrogen oxide emission to urea fertilization among various flooded paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ding, Long-Jun; Xu, Hui-Juan; Li, Hong-Bo; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-03-01

    Fertilization affects bacterial communities and element biogeochemical cycling in flooded paddy soils and the effect might differ among soil types. In this study, five paddy soils from Southern China were subjected to urea addition to explore impacts of fertilization on nitrogen oxide (N2O) emission and bacterial community composition under the flooding condition. 16S rRNA gene-based illumina sequencing showed no obvious shifts in bacterial community composition of five soils after urea addition. However, some genera were affected by fertilization addition and the influenced genera varied among soils. During the late period (day 8-19) of flooding incubation without urea addition, N2O emission rates were elevated for all soils. However, urea effects on N2O emission were different among flooded soils. For soils where nirS and nirK gene abundances increased with urea addition, N2O emission was significantly increased compared to control treatment. Redundancy analysis showed that dissolved organic carbon, ammonium (NH4 (+)), ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) and nitrate (NO3 (-)) in pore water explained 33.4% of the variation in soil bacterial community composition, implying that urea regimes influenced the relative abundance of some bacterial populations possibly by regulating soil characteristics and then influencing N2O emission. These results provided insights into soil type-dependent effect of fertilization on the overall bacterial communities and nitrogen oxide emission in flooded paddy soils.

  20. Evaluating the Effects of Metals on Microorganisms in Flooded Paddy Soils Using the SEM/AVS-Based Approach and Measurements of Exchangeable Metal Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kunito, Takashi; Toya, Hitomi; Sumi, Hirotaka; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Toda, Hideshige; Nagaoka, Kazunari; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    We examined possible adverse effects of heavy metals on microbial activity, biomass, and community composition using the simultaneously extracted metals (SEM)/acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)-based approach and measurements of exchangeable metal concentrations in three paddy soils (wastewater-contaminated soil, mine-contaminated soil, and noncontaminated soil) incubated for 60 days under flooded conditions. Incubation under flooding increased pH and decreased Eh in all samples. AVS increased when Eh decreased to approximately -200 mV for the mine-contaminated and noncontaminated soils, while the wastewater-contaminated soil originally had a high concentration of AVS despite its air-dried condition. Addition of rice straw or alkaline material containing calcium carbonate and gypsum increased AVS levels under flooded conditions. We observed no apparent relationship between soil enzyme activity (β-D-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) and concentrations of SEM, [∑SEM - AVS], and exchangeable metals. Bacterial and fungal community composition, assessed using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis targeting rRNA genes, was largely influenced by site of collection and incubation time, but metal contamination did not influence community composition. We observed significant negative correlations between biomass C and [∑SEM - AVS] and between biomass C and ∑SEM, suggesting that [∑SEM - AVS] and ∑SEM might reflect the bioavailability of organic matter to microorganisms in these soils.

  1. Speciation and release kinetics of zinc in contaminated paddy soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is an important nutrient for plants, but it can be toxic at high concentrations. The solubility and speciation of Zn is controlled by many factors, especially soil pH and Eh, which can vary in lowland rice culture. This study determined Zn speciation and release kinetics in Cd-Zn co-contamina...

  2. Transport of Soil Halides through Rice Paddies: A Viable Mechanism for Rapid Dispersion of the Soil Halide Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redeker, K. R.; Manley, S.; Wang, N.; Cicerone, R.

    2002-05-01

    On short time scales (1-10 years) soil halide concentrations have been assumed to be primarily driven by leaching and deposition processes. Recent results however, have shown that terrestrial plants volatilize soil halides in the form of methyl halides. Emissions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and methyl iodide represent major pathways for delivery of inorganic halogen radicals to the atmosphere. Inorganic halogen radicals destroy ozone in the stratosphere and modify the oxidative capacity of the lower atmosphere. We have previously shown that rice paddies emit methyl halides and that emissions depend on growth stage of the rice plant as well as field water management. We show here that rice grown in a greenhouse at UCI is capable of volatilizing and/or storing up to 30%, 5%, and 10% of the available chloride, bromide and iodide within the top meter of soil. The percent of plant tissue halide volatilized as methyl halide over the course of the season is calculated to be 0.05%, 0.25% and 85.0% for chloride, bromide and iodide. We compare our greenhouse soil halide concentrations to other commercial rice fields around the world and estimate the e-folding time for soil halides within each region. We suggest that rice agriculture is the driving removal mechanism for halides within rice paddies and that terrestrial plants play a larger role in global cycling of halides than previously estimated.

  3. [Effects of temperature on organic carbon mineralization in paddy soils with different clay content].

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiu-E; Tong, Cheng-Li; Sun, Zhong-Lin; Tang, Guo-Yong; Xiao, He-Ai; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2007-10-01

    An incubation test with three kinds of paddy soil (sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay soils) in subtropical region was conducted at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees C to examine the response of the mineralization of soil organic carbon (SOC) to temperature change. The results showed that during the period of 160 d incubation, the accumulative mineralized amount of SOC in sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay soils at 30 degrees C was 3.5, 5.2 and 4.7 times as much as that at 10 degrees C, respectively. The mineralization rate was lower and relatively stable at lower temperatures (< or = 20 C), but was higher at the beginning of incubation and decreased and became stable as the time prolonged at higher temperatures (> or = 25 degrees C). During incubation, the temperature coefficient (Q10) of SOC mineralization in test soils fluctuated, with an average Q10 in sandy loam, clay loam, and silty clay soils being 1.92, 2.37 and 2.32, respectively. There was a positive exponential correlation between SOC mineralization constant k and temperature (P < 0.01), and the response of SOC mineralization to temperature change was in the order of clay loam soil > silty clay soil > sandy loam soil.

  4. [Characteristics of soil organic carbon mineralization at different temperatures in paddy soils under long-term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Jin-Song; Xiang, Rong-Biao; Hu, Rong-Gui; Zhang, Shui-Qing; Wang, Mi-Lan; Lu, Zhao-Qi

    2014-05-01

    Dynamics of soil organic carbon mineralization affected by long-term fertilizations and temperature in relation to different soil carbon fractions were investigated in paddy soils. Soil samples were collected from the plough layer of 3 long-term national experimental sites in Xinhua, Ningxiang and Taojiang counties of Hunan Province. Mineralization of soil organic C was estimated by 33-day aerobic incubation at different temperatures of 10, 20 and 30 degrees C. The results showed that the rates of CO2 production were higher during the earlier phase (0-13 d) in all treatments, and then decreased according to a logarithm function. Higher incubation temperature strengthened C mineralization in the different treatments. The quantities of cumulative CO2 production in NPK with manure or straw treatments were greater than in inorganic fertilizers treatments. The Q10 values in the different soil treatments ranged from 1.01-1.53. There were significantly positive correlations between the Q10 values and soil total organic carbon (TOC), easy oxidation organic carbon (EOOC), humic acid carbon (C(HA)), fulvic acid carbon (CFA). The cumulative amount of mineralized C was significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass carbon (MBC) at 10 and 20 degrees C, but not significantly at 30 degrees C. Significant correlations were found between the cumulative amount of mineralized C and different soil carbon fractions and C(HA)/C(FA). The correlations of differ- ent soil carbon fractions with the ratio of cumulative mineralized C to TOC were negatively correlated at 10 degrees C, but not significantly at 20 and 30 degrees C. These results suggested that the application of NPK with manure or straw would be helpful to increase the sequestration of C in paddy soils and reduce its contribution of CO2 release in the atmosphere.

  5. Arsenic dissolution from Japanese paddy soil by a dissimilatory arsenate-reducing bacterium Geobacter sp. OR-1.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Makino, Tomoyuki; Sakurai, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Kenta; Kudo, Keitaro; Homma, Eri; Dong, Dian Tao; Amachi, Seigo

    2013-06-18

    Dissimilatory As(V) (arsenate)-reducing bacteria may play an important role in arsenic release from anoxic sediments in the form of As(III) (arsenite). Although respiratory arsenate reductase genes (arrA) closely related to Geobacter species have been frequently detected in arsenic-rich sediments, it is still unclear whether they directly participate in arsenic release, mainly due to lack of pure cultures capable of arsenate reduction. In this study, we isolated a novel dissimilatory arsenate-reducing bacterium, strain OR-1, from Japanese paddy soil, and found that it was phylogenetically closely related to Geobacter pelophilus. OR-1 also utilized soluble Fe(III), ferrihydrite, nitrate, and fumarate as electron acceptors. OR-1 catalyzed dissolution of arsenic from arsenate-adsorbed ferrihydrite, while Geobacter metallireducens GS-15 did not. Furthermore, inoculation of washed cells of OR-1 into sterilized paddy soil successfully restored arsenic release. Arsenic K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis revealed that strain OR-1 reduced arsenate directly on the soil solid phase. Analysis of putative ArrA sequences from paddy soils suggested that Geobacter-related bacteria, including those closely related to OR-1, play an important role in arsenic release from paddy soils. Our results provide direct evidence for arsenic dissolution by Geobacter species and support the hypothesis that Geobacter species play a significant role in reduction and mobilization of arsenic in flooded soils and anoxic sediments.

  6. Effects of sulfate and selenite on mercury methylation in a mercury-contaminated rice paddy soil under anoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjie; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan; Wei, Zhongbo; Li, Ping

    2016-03-01

    Biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and selenium (Se) could play an important role in methylmercury (MeHg) dynamics in soil, while their potential effects on MeHg production in rice paddy soil are less understood. The main objective of this study was to explore the effects of sulfate and selenite on net MeHg production in contaminated rice paddy soil, characterized with massive MeHg production and thus MeHg accumulation in rice. A series of microcosm incubation experiments were conducted using a contaminated paddy soil amended with sulfate and/or selenite, in which sulfate-reducing bacteria were mainly responsible for MeHg production. Our results demonstrated that sulfate addition reduced solid and dissolved MeHg levels in soils by ≤18 and ≤25 %, respectively. Compared to sulfate, selenite was more effective in inhibiting net MeHg production, and the inhibitory effect depended largely on amended selenite doses. Moreover, sulfate input played a dual role in affecting Hg-Se interactions in soil, which could be explained by the dynamics of sulfate under anoxic conditions. Therefore, the effects of sulfate and selenium input should be carefully considered when assessing risk of Hg in anoxic environments (e.g., rice paddy field and wetland).

  7. Conversion of upland to paddy field specifically alters the community structure of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in an acid soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M. S.; Ren, G. D.; Lu, L.; Zheng, Y.; Peng, X. H.; Jia, Z. J.

    2013-08-01

    The function of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) depends on the major energy-generating compounds (i.e., ammonia and oxygen). The diversification of AOA and AOB communities along ecological gradients of substrate availability in a complex environment have been much debated but rarely tested. In this study, two ecosystems of maize and rice crops under different fertilization regimes were selected to investigate the community diversification of soil AOA and AOB upon conversion of an upland field to a paddy field and long-term field fertilization in an acid soil. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes demonstrated that the abundance of AOA was significantly stimulated after conversion of upland to paddy soils for more than 100 yr, whereas a slight decline in AOB numbers was observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints of amoA genes further revealed remarkable changes in the community compositions of AOA after conversion of aerobic upland to flooded paddy field. Sequencing analysis revealed that upland soil was dominated by AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage, whereas the marine group 1.1a-associated lineage predominated in AOA communities in paddy soils. Irrespective of whether the soil was upland or paddy soil, long-term field fertilization led to increased abundance of amoA genes in AOA and AOB compared with control treatments (no fertilization), whereas archaeal amoA gene abundances outnumbered their bacterial counterparts in all samples. Phylogenetic analyses of amoA genes showed that Nitrosospira cluster-3-like AOB dominated bacterial ammonia oxidizers in both paddy and upland soils, regardless of fertilization treatment. The results of this study suggest that the marine group 1.1a-associated AOA will be better adapted to the flooded paddy field than AOA ecotypes of the soil group 1.1b lineage, and indicate that long-term flooding is the dominant selective force driving the

  8. Effects of Carbon in Flooded Paddy Soils: Implications for Microbial Activity and Arsenic Mobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avancha, S.; Boye, K.

    2014-12-01

    In the Mekong delta in Cambodia, naturally occurring arsenic (originating from erosion in the Himalaya Mountains) in paddy soils is mobilized during the seasonal flooding. As a consequence, rice grown on the flooded soils may take up arsenic and expose people eating the rice to this carcinogenic substance. Microbial activity will enhance or decrease the mobilization of arsenic depending on their metabolic pathways. Among the microbes naturally residing in the soil are denitrifying bacteria, sulfate reducers, metal reducers (Fe, Mn), arsenic reducers, methanogens, and fermenters, whose activity varies based on the presence of oxygen. The purpose of the experiment was to assess how different amendments affect the microbial activity and the arsenic mobilization during the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism after flooding of naturally contaminated Cambodian soil. In a batch experiment, we investigated how the relative metabolic rate of naturally occurring microbes could vary with different types of organic carbon. The experiment was designed to measure the effects of various sources of carbon (dried rice straw, charred rice straw, manure, and glucose) on the microbial activity and arsenic release in an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil from Cambodia under flooded conditions. All amendments were added based on the carbon content in order to add 0.036 g of carbon per vial. The soil was flooded with a 10mM TRIS buffer solution at pH 7.04 in airtight 25mL serum vials and kept at 25 °C. We prepared 14 replicates per treatment to sample both gas and solution. On each sampling point, the solution replicates were sampled destructively. The gas replicates continued on and were sampled for both gas and solution on the final day of the experiment. We measured pH, total arsenic, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide at 8 hours, 1.5 days, 3.33 days, and 6.33 days from the start of the experiment.

  9. Adsorption-desorption characteristics of mercury in paddy soils of China.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y D; He, Z L; Yang, X E

    2008-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) has received considerable attention because of its association with various human health problems. Adsorption-desorption behavior of Hg at contaminated levels in two paddy soils was investigated. The two representative soils for rice production in China, locally referred to as a yellowish red soil (YRS) and silty loam soil (SLS) and classified as Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols in FAO/UNESCO nomenclature, were respectively collected from Jiaxin County and Xiasha District of Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province. The YRS adsorbed more Hg(2+) than the SLS. The characteristics of Hg adsorption could be described by the simple Langmuir adsorption equation (r2 = 0.999 and 0.999, P < 0.01, respectively, for the SLS and YRS). The maximum adsorption values (Xm) that were obtained from the simple Langmuir model were 111 and 213 mg Hg(2+) kg(-1) soil, respectively, for the SLS and YRS. Adsorption of Hg(2+) decreased soil pH by 0.75 unit for the SLS soil and 0.91 unit for the YRS soil at the highest loading. The distribution coefficient (kd) of Hg in the soil decreased exponentially with increasing Hg(2+) loading. After five successive desorptions with 0.01 mol L(-1) KCl solution (pH 5.4), 0 to 24.4% of the total adsorbed Hg(2+) in the SLS soil was desorbed and the corresponding value of the YRS soil was 0 to 14.4%, indicating that the SLS soil had a lower affinity for Hg(2+) than the YRS soil at the same Hg(2+) loading. Different mechanisms are likely involved in Hg(2+) adsorption-desorption at different levels of Hg(2+) loading and between the two soils.

  10. The key microorganisms for anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol in paddy soil as revealed by stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hui; Liu, Chengshuai; Li, Fangbai; Luo, Chunling; Chen, Manjia; Hu, Min

    2015-11-15

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common residual persistent pesticide in paddy soil and has resulted in harmful effect on soil ecosystem. The anaerobic microbial transformation of PCP, therefore, has been received much attentions, especially the functional microbial communities for the reductive transformation. However, the key functional microorganisms for PCP mineralization in the paddy soil still remain unknown. In this work, DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) was applied to explore the key microorganisms responsible for PCP mineralization in paddy soil. The SIP results indicated that the dominant bacteria responsible for PCP biodegradation belonged to the genus Dechloromonas of the class β-Proteobacteria. In addition, the increased production of (13)CH4 and (13)CO2 indicated that the addition of lactate enhanced the rate of biodegradation and mineralization of PCP. Two archaea classified as the genera of Methanosaeta and Methanocella of class Methanobacteria were enriched in the heavy fraction when with lactate, whereas no archaea was detected in the absence of lactate. These findings provide direct evidence for the species of bacteria and archaea responsible for anaerobic PCP or its breakdown products mineralization and reveal a new insight into the microorganisms linked with PCP degradation in paddy soil.

  11. Response of a rice paddy soil methanogen to syntrophic growth as revealed by transcriptional analyses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Yang, Yanxiang; Lü, Zhe; Lu, Yahai

    2014-08-01

    Members of Methanocellales are widespread in paddy field soils and play the key role in methane production. These methanogens feature largely in these organisms’ adaptation to low H2 and syntrophic growth with anaerobic fatty acid oxidizers. The adaptive mechanisms, however, remain unknown. In the present study, we determined the transcripts of 21 genes involved in the key steps of methanogenesis and acetate assimilation of Methanocella conradii HZ254, a strain recently isolated from paddy field soil. M. conradii was grown in monoculture and syntrophically with Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum (a propionate syntroph) or Syntrophothermus lipocalidus (a butyrate syntroph). Comparison of the relative transcript abundances showed that three hydrogenase-encoding genes and all methanogenesis-related genes tested were upregulated in cocultures relative to monoculture. The genes encoding formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase (Fwd), heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), and the membrane-bound energy-converting hydrogenase (Ech) were the most upregulated among the evaluated genes. The expression of the formate dehydrogenase (Fdh)-encoding gene also was significantly upregulated. In contrast, an acetate assimilation gene was downregulated in cocultures. The genes coding for Fwd, Hdr, and the D subunit of F420-nonreducing hydrogenase (Mvh) form a large predicted transcription unit; therefore, the Mvh/Hdr/Fwd complex, capable of mediating the electron bifurcation and connecting the first and last steps of methanogenesis, was predicted to be formed in M. conradii. We propose that Methanocella methanogens cope with low H2 and syntrophic growth by (i) stabilizing the Mvh/Hdr/Fwd complex and (ii) activating formatedependent methanogenesis.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in pentachlorophenol dissipation at the aerobic--anaerobic interfaces of flooded paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiajiang; Xu, Yan; Brookes, Philip C; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming

    2013-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) dissipation occurs naturally in flooded soils and although dissipation half-lives vary between soil profiles at the millimeter-scale the reason is poorly understood. Vertical variations of PCP dissipation were investigated in three typical Chinese paddy soils; Soil 1 (Umbraqualf), Soil 2 (Plinthudult) and Soil 3 (Tropudult). The soil depth was divided into a surface and a deep layer based upon different PCP dissipations in the surface layer of 40-93, 42-88 and 16-100% for Soils 1-3 respectively. In the deep layer, PCP was greatly dissipated in Soil 2, but much less in Soil 1 and Soil 3. Correlation analysis indicated that SO4(2-) and Fe(III) were negatively related to PCP dissipation. SO4(2-) and Cl(-) were highly mobile in the flooded soil profiles. Fe(III) reduction increased with increasing soil depth, and was inhibited by high SO4(2-) concentrations.

  13. Spatial variability of soil available Zn and Cu in paddy rice fields of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingmei; Xu, Jianming; Zhang, Minghua; Si, Bingcheng; Zhao, Keli

    2008-10-01

    As a source of nutrient supplements, the deficiency or excess of micronutrients in soil is directly connected to the plant uptake and, thereby, status of micronutrients in the human population. Proper management of micronutrients requires an understanding of the variations of soil micronutrients across the fields. This study is to investigate the spatial patterns of soil available Zn and Cu in paddy rice fields. Four hundred and sixty three soil samples were taken in Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou (HJH) watershed in Zhejiang Province, China, and available Zn and Cu were analyzed using an atomic adsorption spectrometer. Geostatistical semivariograms analysis indicated that the available Zn and Cu were best fitted to a spherical model with a range of 40.5 and 210.4 km, respectively. There were moderate spatial dependences for Zn and Cu over a long distance and the dependence were attributed to soil types and anthropogenic activities. The overlay analysis of spatial patterns and soil types gave us greater understanding about how intrinsic factors affect the spatial variation of available micronutrients. Based on the above, macroscopically regionalized management of soil available micronutrients and the implications to potential risk were discussed.

  14. Bacterial colonization of a fumigated alkaline saline soil.

    PubMed

    Bello-López, Juan M; Domínguez-Mendoza, Cristina A; de León-Lorenzana, Arit S; Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Gómez-Acata, Selene; Rodríguez-Valentín, Analine; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Victor M; Luna-Guido, Marco; Verhulst, Nele; Govaerts, Bram; Dendooven, Luc

    2014-07-01

    After chloroform fumigating an arable soil, the relative abundance of phylotypes belonging to only two phyla (Actinobacteria and Firmicutes) and two orders [Actinomycetales and Bacillales (mostly Bacillus)] increased in a subsequent aerobic incubation, while it decreased for a wide range of bacterial groups. It remained to be seen if similar bacterial groups were affected when an extreme alkaline saline soil was fumigated. Soil with electrolytic conductivity between 139 and 157 dS m(-1), and pH 10.0 and 10.3 was fumigated and the bacterial community structure determined after 0, 1, 5 and 10 days by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, while an unfumigated soil served as control. The relative abundance of the Firmicutes increased in the fumigated soil (52.8%) compared to the unfumigated soil (34.2%), while that of the Bacteroidetes decreased from 16.2% in the unfumigated soil to 8.8% in the fumigated soil. Fumigation increased the relative abundance of the genus Bacillus from 14.7% in the unfumigated soil to 25.7%. It was found that phylotypes belonging to the Firmicutes, mostly of the genus Bacillus, were dominant in colonizing the fumigated alkaline saline as found in the arable soil, while the relative abundance of a wide range of bacterial groups decreased.

  15. Effect of different fertilizer application on the soil fertility of paddy soils in red soil region of southern China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg(-1). Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region.

  16. Effect of Different Fertilizer Application on the Soil Fertility of Paddy Soils in Red Soil Region of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg−1. Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region. PMID:23028550

  17. Potential effects of earthworm activity on C and N dynamics in tropical paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Katharina; Zaitsev, Andrey S.; Wolters, Volkmar

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms are involved in key ecosystem processes and are generally considered important for sustainable crop production. However, their provision of essential ecosystem services and contribution to tropical soil carbon and nitrogen balance in rice-based agroecosystems are not yet completely understood. We carried out two microcosm experiments to quantify the impact of a tropical earthworm Pheretima sp. from the Philippines on C and N turnover in rice paddy soils. First one was conducted to understand the modulation impact of soil water saturation level and nitrogen fertilizer input intensity on C and N cycles. The second one focused on the importance of additional organic matter (rice straw) amendment on the earthworm modulation of mineralization in non-flooded conditions. We measured CO2, CH4 (Experiments 1 and 2) and N2O evolution (Experiment 2) from rice paddy soil collected at the fields of the International Rice Research Institute (Philippines). Further we analysed changes in soil C and N content as well as nutrient loss via leaching induced by earthworms (Experiment 2). Addition of earthworms resulted in the strong increase of CH4 release under flooded conditions as well as after rice straw amendment. Compared to flooded conditions, earthworms suppressed the distinct CO2 respiration maximum at intermediate soil water saturation levels. In the first few days after the experiment establishment (Experiment 1) intensive nitrogen application resulted in the suppression of CO2 emission by earthworms at non-flooded soil conditions. However, at the longer term perspective addressed in the second experiment (30 days) earthworm activity rather increased average soil respiration under intensive fertilization or rice straw amendment. The lowest N2O release rates were revealed in the microcosms with earthworm and straw treatments. The combined effect of N fertilizer and straw addition to microcosms resulted in the increased leachate volume due to earthworm bioturbation

  18. Mapping spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field based on electromagnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Huang, Jingyi; Shi, Zhou; Li, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    In coastal China, there is an urgent need to increase land area for agricultural production and urban development, where there is a rapid growing population. One solution is land reclamation from coastal tidelands, but soil salinization is problematic. As such, it is very important to characterize and map the within-field variability of soil salinity in space and time. Conventional methods are often time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, and unpractical. Fortunately, proximal sensing has become an important technology in characterizing within-field spatial variability. In this study, we employed the EM38 to study spatial variability of soil salinity in a coastal paddy field. Significant correlation relationship between ECa and EC1:5 (i.e. r >0.9) allowed us to use EM38 data to characterize the spatial variability of soil salinity. Geostatistical methods were used to determine the horizontal spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity over three consecutive years. The study found that the distribution of salinity was heterogeneous and the leaching of salts was more significant in the edges of the study field. By inverting the EM38 data using a Quasi-3D inversion algorithm, the vertical spatio-temporal variability of soil salinity was determined and the leaching of salts over time was easily identified. The methodology of this study can be used as guidance for researchers interested in understanding soil salinity development as well as land managers aiming for effective soil salinity monitoring and management practices. In order to better characterize the variations in soil salinity to a deeper soil profile, the deeper mode of EM38 (i.e., EM38v) as well as other EMI instruments (e.g. DUALEM-421) can be incorporated to conduct Quasi-3D inversions for deeper soil profiles.

  19. [Dynamic characteristics of phosphorus in purple paddy soil and its environmental Impact].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-ping; Shi, Xiao-jun

    2008-02-01

    The dynamic characteristics of phosphorus (P) in the surface water and runoff of paddy field with different P fertilizing treatments were investigated using the field experiment under the independent irrigation system as well as its environmental impact. The results showed that the concentration of total phosphorus (TP) in the surface water increased as the fertilizing amounts enhanced and reached the peak values after 24 h for all treatments in range of 0.928-3.824 mg/L. And the fluctuation of TP concentration in surface water was drastic during the first 30 days with the average contents of 0.259-1.433 mg/L which exceeded the critic values of eutrophication. Therefore, the field managements such as inter-tillage and drainage should be avoided during the time. After 40 days, the TP concentration declined slowly and then came to stabilization with low values after 60 days. The contents of different P forms in the runoff water increased with the improved amounts of precipitation and fertilizing and above 50% was dissolved phosphorus (DP). The DP was the dominant one in the P loss of the purple paddy soil and the loss load changed between 0.358 and 2.579 kg/hm2. Additionally, the P loss more easily occurred for the treatment of utilizing the cattle manure than that of straw, approximately 40% of loss load higher. Both the loss load and apparent P loss ratio evidently declined with the treatment of fertilizer combined with straw, suggesting that it was the better measure for reducing the P loss in the paddy field.

  20. [Effects of soil factors on vegetation community structure in an abandoned subtropical paddy wetland].

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Li, Yu-Yuan; Li, Zhong-Wu; Ye, Fang-Yi; Pan, Chun-Xiang; Xie, Xiao-Li

    2009-07-01

    Based on the investigation data from a subtropical wetland having been abandoned from paddy agriculture for one year, a redundancy analysis was conducted on the relationships between vegetation community and soil factors in the wetland. It was found that soil moisture regime, available K and P, and pH were the main factors affecting the distribution of plant species. The common plant species could be classified into three groups, i. e., Ludwigia prostrata - Murdannia triquetra group (G1), Hemarthria altissima - Rotala rotundifolia - Lapsana apogonoides group (G2), and Conyza canadensis - Polygonum hydropiper - Paspalum pasaloides group (G3). G1 mainly distributed on the soils with higher available K, G2 mainly distributed in periodically flooded area, while G3 mainly distributed in drainage area and was positively correlated to soil available P and pH. Species diversity and above-ground biomass had significant positive correlations with soil pH and total K, respectively, while evenness index was significantly negatively correlated with soil available N. No significant correlations were observed among other indices.

  1. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  2. Microbial utilization of rice straw and its derived biochar in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Khan, Sardar; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-07-15

    The application of straw and biochar to soil has received great attention because of their potential benefits such as fertility improvement and carbon (C) sequestration. The abiotic effects of these materials on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in the soil ecosystem have been previously investigated, however, the effects of straw or its derived biochar on the soil microbial community structure and function are not well understood. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was conducted using (13)C-labeled rice straw and its derived biochar ((13)C-labeled biochar) to deepen our understanding about soil microbial community dynamics and function in C sequestration and greenhouse gas emission in the acidic paddy soil amended with these materials. Regarding microbial function, biochar and straw applications increased CO2 emission in the initial stage of incubation and reached the highest level (0.52 and 3.96mgCkg(-1)soilh(-1)) at 1d and 3d after incubation, respectively. Straw amendment significantly (p<0.01) increased respiration rate, total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and (13)C-PLFA as compared to biochar amendment and the control. The amount and percent of Gram positive bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were also significantly (p<0.05) higher in (13)C-labeled straw amended soil than the (13)C-labeled biochar amended soil. According to the (13)C data, 23 different PLFAs were derived from straw amended paddy soil, while only 17 PLFAs were derived from biochar amendments. The profile of (13)C-PLFAs derived from straw amendment was significantly (p<0.01) different from biochar amendment. The PLFAs18:1ω7c and cy17:0 (indicators of Gram negative bacteria) showed high relative abundances in the biochar amendment, while 10Me18:0, i17:0 and 18:2ω6,9c (indicators of actinomycetes, Gram positive bacteria and fungi, respectively) showed high relative abundance in the straw amendments. Our results suggest that the function, size and structure of the microbial

  3. Methane emission from fields with three various rice straw treatments in Taiwan paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Liou, Rey-May; Huang, Shan-Ney; Lin, Chin-Wei; Chen, Shin-Hsiung

    2003-07-01

    Flooded rice fields are one of the major biogenic methane sources. In this study, the effects of straw residual treatments on methane emission from paddy fields were discussed. The experimental field was located at Tainan District Agricultural Improvement Station in Chia-Yi county (23 degrees 25'08''N, 120degrees16'26''E) of southern Taiwan throughout the first and the second crop seasons in 2000. The seasonal methane fluxes in the first crop season with rice stubble removed, rice straw burned and rice straw incorporated were 4.41, 3.78 and 5.27 g CH4 m(-2), and the values were 32.8, 38.9 and 75.1 g CH4 m(-2) in the second crop season, respectively. In comparison of three management methods of rice straw residue, the incorporation of rice straw residue should show a significant tendency for enhancing methane emission in the second crop season. Moreover, stubble removed and straw burned treatments significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 28 approximately 56% emissions compared to straw incorporated plot. Concerning for air quality had led to legislation restricting rice straw burning, removing of rice stubble might be an appropriate methane mitigation strategy in Taiwan paddy soils.

  4. Effectiveness of lime and peat applications on cadmium availability in a paddy soil under various moisture regimes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanhui; Xie, Tuanhui; Liang, Qiaofeng; Liu, Mengjiao; Zhao, Mingliu; Wang, Mingkuang; Wang, Guo

    2016-04-01

    In paddy soils, amendments and moisture play important role in the immobilization of cadmium (Cd). The effects of applying lime, peat, and a combination of both on soil Eh, pH, and Cd availability in contaminated soils were investigated under wetted (80 ± 5 % of water holding capacity) and flooded (completely submerged) conditions. In wetted soils, there was little change in Eh, compared to flooded soils where Eh reduced rapidly. Amendments of lime only or in a mixture with peat increased soil pH to different degrees, depending on the lime application rate. However, peat addition only slightly affected soil pH. The decreased Cd availability in flooded soils was related to submergence duration and was significantly lower than that in wetted soils after 14 days. Liming wetted and flooded soils decreased exchangeable Cd and increased carbonates or Fe-Mn oxides bound fractions, while peat addition transformed Cd from carbonates to organic matter bound fractions. The combined application of peat and lime generally showed better inhibitory effects on the availability of Cd than separately application of lime or peat. Higher application rates of lime, peat, or their mixture were more effective at reducing Cd contamination in flooded soil. This indicates that application of peat and lime mixture under flooded conditions was most effective for in situ remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. Further studies are required to assess the long-term effectiveness of the peat and lime mixture on Cd availability in paddy soils.

  5. Assessment of the air-soil partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a paddy field using a modified fugacity sampler.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Wang, Shaorui; Liu, Junwen; Pan, Suhong; Li, Jun; Ming, Lili; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2015-01-06

    Rice, one of the most widely cultivated crops, has received great attention in contaminant uptake from soil and air, especially for the special approaches used for its cultivation. The dry-wet alternation method can influence the air-soil partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the paddy ecosystem. Here, we modified a fugacity sampler to investigate the air-surface in situ partitioning of ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different growth stages in a suburban paddy field in South China. The canopy of rice can form a closed space, which acts like a chamber that can force the air under the canopy to equilibrate with the field surface. When we compared the fugacities calculated using a fugacity model of the partition coefficients to the measured fugacities, we observed similar trends in the variation, but significantly different values between different growing stages, especially during the flooding stages. However, the measured and calculated fugacity fractions were comparable when uncertainties in our calculations were considered, with the exception of the high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. The measured fugacity fractions suggested that the HMW PAHs were also closed to equilibrium between the paddy field and atmosphere. The modified fugacity sampler provided a novel way of accurately determining the in situ air-soil partitioning of SVOCs in a wet paddy field.

  6. phoD Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Diversity in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kertesz, Michael A.; Bünemann, Else K.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase enzymes are responsible for much of the recycling of organic phosphorus in soils. The PhoD alkaline phosphatase takes part in this process by hydrolyzing a range of organic phosphoesters. We analyzed the taxonomic and environmental distribution of phoD genes using whole-genome and metagenome databases. phoD alkaline phosphatase was found to be spread across 20 bacterial phyla and was ubiquitous in the environment, with the greatest abundance in soil. To study the great diversity of phoD, we developed a new set of primers which targets phoD genes in soil. The primer set was validated by 454 sequencing of six soils collected from two continents with different climates and soil properties and was compared to previously published primers. Up to 685 different phoD operational taxonomic units were found in each soil, which was 7 times higher than with previously published primers. The new primers amplified sequences belonging to 13 phyla, including 71 families. The most prevalent phoD genes identified in these soils were affiliated with the orders Actinomycetales (13 to 35%), Bacillales (1 to 29%), Gloeobacterales (1 to 18%), Rhizobiales (18 to 27%), and Pseudomonadales (0 to 22%). The primers also amplified phoD genes from additional orders, including Burkholderiales, Caulobacterales, Deinococcales, Planctomycetales, and Xanthomonadales, which represented the major differences in phoD composition between samples, highlighting the singularity of each community. Additionally, the phoD bacterial community structure was strongly related to soil pH, which varied between 4.2 and 6.8. These primers reveal the diversity of phoD in soil and represent a valuable tool for the study of phoD alkaline phosphatase in environmental samples. PMID:26253682

  7. [Effect of composting organic fertilizer supplies on hexachlorobenzene dechlorination in paddy soils].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-Ying; Jiang, Xin

    2013-04-01

    A rice pot experiment was conducted in two soils, Hydragric Acrisols (Ac) and Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols (An). Three treatments including control and additions of 1% or 2% composting organic fertilizer were designed for each soil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the reductive dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as affected by organic fertilizer supplies in planted paddy soils, and to analyze the relationship between methane production and HCB dechlorination. The results showed that the HCB residues were decreased by 28.6%-30.1% of the initial amounts in Ac, and 47.3% -61.0% in An after 18 weeks of experiment. The amount of HCB and its metabolite uptake by rice plants was only a few thousandths of the initial HCB amount in soils. The main product of HCB dechlorination was pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). The rates of HCB dechlorination in An were higher than those in Ac, which was mainly attributed to the higher pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of An. The applications of both 1% and 2% composting organic fertilizer showed significant inhibition on PeCB production after the 6th and 10th week in Ac and An, respectively. In both tested soils, no significant difference of PeCB production rates was observed between the applications of 1% and 2% composting organic fertilizer. The role of methanogenic bacteria in HCB dechlorination was condition-dependent.

  8. Stereoisomeric isolation and stereoselective fate of insecticide paichongding in flooded paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Juying; Zhang, Jianbo; Li, Chao; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Haiyan; Gan, Jay; Ye, Qingfu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Li, Zhong

    2013-11-19

    Chiral insecticide paichongding (IPP) is one of the prospective substitutes for imidacloprid used in China due to its higher activity against imidacloprid-resistant insects. However, little is known about the fate of IPP in soils, including especially the different behaviors among its stereoisomers. In this study, four stereoisomers of IPP were separated and applied in flooded soils. Kinetics of mineralization, extractable residues, and bound residues showed diastereoselectivity in IPP degradation, with enantiomers (5S,7R)-IPP (IPP-SR) and (5R,7S)-IPP (IPP-RS) being more readily mineralized and preferentially bound to soils than enantiomers (5R,7R)-IPP (IPP-RR) and (5S,7S)-IPP (IPP-SS). The overall mineralization was rather limited and did not exceed 4% of the spiked rate. Concurrent to the decreases of extractable residues, the fraction of bound residues increased with time and reached about 34% of the applied radioactivity for (14)C-IPP-SR and (14)C-IPP-RS as compared to about 23% for (14)C-IPP-RR or (14)C-IPP-SS. Soil properties such as organic matter content and pH likely contributed to the variability. Relatively rapid formation of bound residue suggests that IPP may be quickly detoxified in flooded paddy soil, decreasing the potential for off-site transport such as leaching or runoff, especially for enantiomers IPP-SR and IPP-RS.

  9. Effects of biochar addition on the sorption of polar herbicides in paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Jaramillo, Manuel; Cox, Lucía; Hermosín, Mari Carmen; Helmus, Rick; Parsons, John R.; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Organic amendments, and their water soluble fraction, induce an important impact on pesticide dissipation in soils, affecting their adsorption and transport processes through various chemical interactions. Although in most cases addition of organic amendments increases sorption, leaching of the pesticides can be either reduced or promoted. Because of that, their effect on pesticide behavior must be assessed in order to optimize their use. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the impact of biochar and biochar water extractable substances (BWES) on the sorption behavior of two polar herbicides, azimsulfuron and penoxsulam, in two amended and unamended paddy soils under flooded conditions. The adsorption - desorption of these herbicides was studied in soils amended with fresh biochar and in soils amended with a washed version of the biochar, simulating the conditions of a soil recently amended and a soil where biochar was applied longer time before and most part of the BWES has been already removed because of the flooded conditions. Therefore, sorption on biochar was assessed before and after removing 80% of its water extractable substances, separately and in combination with each soil (at 2 and 5% w/w). BWES were analyzed by high resolution mass spectrometry. The most abundant fractions present in the high mass range were nitrogen-containing molecules. The aromatic character of the DOC-extracts of the unamended and amended soils, based on the specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA280), was increased with the amendment in all the conditions tested. Adsorption data of both herbicides fitted very well to the Freundlich equation, with R2 values higher than 0.9 in all the conditions tested. Sorption isotherms were in all cases nonlinear, with Nf values <1, resembling L-type isotherms. Biochar had a very different effect on the sorptive properties of each soil. The highest sorption affinity of azimsulfuron to amended soils was observed for the soils

  10. Phyllosphere bacterial community of floating macrophytes in paddy soil environments as revealed by illumina high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    The phyllosphere of floating macrophytes in paddy soil ecosystems, a unique habitat, may support large microbial communities but remains largely unknown. We took Wolffia australiana as a representative floating plant and investigated its phyllosphere bacterial community and the underlying driving forces of community modulation in paddy soil ecosystems using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that the phyllosphere of W. australiana harbored considerably rich communities of bacteria, with Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes as the predominant phyla. The core microbiome in the phyllosphere contained genera such as Acidovorax, Asticcacaulis, Methylibium, and Methylophilus. Complexity of the phyllosphere bacterial communities in terms of class number and α-diversity was reduced compared to those in corresponding water and soil. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited structures significantly different from those in water and soil. These findings and the following redundancy analysis (RDA) suggest that species sorting played an important role in the recruitment of bacterial species in the phyllosphere. The compositional structures of the phyllosphere bacterial communities were modulated predominantly by water physicochemical properties, while the initial soil bacterial communities had limited impact. Taken together, the findings from this study reveal the diversity and uniqueness of the phyllosphere bacterial communities associated with the floating macrophytes in paddy soil environments.

  11. Phyllosphere Bacterial Community of Floating Macrophytes in Paddy Soil Environments as Revealed by Illumina High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wan-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The phyllosphere of floating macrophytes in paddy soil ecosystems, a unique habitat, may support large microbial communities but remains largely unknown. We took Wolffia australiana as a representative floating plant and investigated its phyllosphere bacterial community and the underlying driving forces of community modulation in paddy soil ecosystems using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that the phyllosphere of W. australiana harbored considerably rich communities of bacteria, with Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes as the predominant phyla. The core microbiome in the phyllosphere contained genera such as Acidovorax, Asticcacaulis, Methylibium, and Methylophilus. Complexity of the phyllosphere bacterial communities in terms of class number and α-diversity was reduced compared to those in corresponding water and soil. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited structures significantly different from those in water and soil. These findings and the following redundancy analysis (RDA) suggest that species sorting played an important role in the recruitment of bacterial species in the phyllosphere. The compositional structures of the phyllosphere bacterial communities were modulated predominantly by water physicochemical properties, while the initial soil bacterial communities had limited impact. Taken together, the findings from this study reveal the diversity and uniqueness of the phyllosphere bacterial communities associated with the floating macrophytes in paddy soil environments. PMID:25362067

  12. [Effects of biochar application on greenhouse gas emission from paddy soil and its physical and chemical properties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-xue; Wang, Yao-feng; Lü, Hao-hao; Chen, Yi; Tang, Xu; Wu, Chun-yan; Zhong, Zhe-ke; Yang, Sheng-mao

    2013-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rice straw returning and rice straw biochar and life rubbish biochar application on the greenhouse gas (CH4, CO2 and N2O) emission from paddy soil, its physical and chemical properties, and rice grain yield. Compared with rice straw returning, applying rice straw biochar decreased the cumulative CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy soil significantly by 64.2% - 78.5% and 16.3% - 18.4%, respectively. Whether planting rice or not, the cumulative N2O emission from paddy soil under the applications of rice straw biochar and life rubbish biochar was decreased significantly, compared with that without biochar amendment. Under the condition of no rice planting, applying life rubbish biochar reduced the cumulative CO2 emission significantly by 25.3%. Rice straw biochar was superior to life rubbish biochar in improving soil pH and available potassium content. Both rice straw biochar and life rubbish biochar could increase the soil organic carbon content significantly, but had less effects on the soil bulk density, total nitrogen and available phosphorus contents, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and grain yield. It was suggested that compared with rice straw returning, straw biochar was more effective in improving rice grain yield.

  13. [Effects of returning straw to soil and different tillage methods on paddy field soil fertility and microbial population].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Liu, Dai-Yin; Wu, Jin-Xiu; Wu, Ju-Xian; De, Chen-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2009-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a paddy field to study the effects of returning straw to soil and different tillage methods (no-tillage + returning straw, no-tillage, tillage + returning straw, and tillage) on the fertility level and microbial quantities of different soil layers. The results showed that in upper soil layer, the organic matter content in treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw' was 5.33, 2.79, and 5.37 g x kg(-1) higher than that in treatments 'no-tillage', 'tillage + returning straw', and 'tillage', respectively, and the contents of total and available N, P and K in treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw' were also the highest, followed by in treatments 'no-tillage' and 'tillage + returning straw', and in treatment 'tillage'. In deeper soil layer, all the fertility indices were higher in treatment 'tillage + returning straw'. Treatments of 'returning straw to soil' had the highest quantities of soil microbes. The quantities of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in upper soil layer were the highest in treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw', and thus, the cellulose decomposition intensity in this treatment at maturity period was 26.44%, 79.01%, and 98. 15% higher than that in treatments 'tillage + returning straw', 'no-tillage', and 'tillage', respectively. In deeper soil layer, the quantities of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were the highest in treatment 'tillage + returning straw'. Treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw' had the features of high fertility and abundant microbes in surface soil layer. The quantities of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the decomposition intensity of soil cellulose were significantly positively correlated with soil fertility level.

  14. [Long-term effects of tillage methods on heavy metal accumulation and availability in purple paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Chang, Tong-Ju; Cui, Xiao-Qiang; Ruan, Zhen; Zhao, Xiu-Lan

    2014-06-01

    A long-term experiment, conducted at Southwest University since 1990, was used to evaluate the effect of tillage methods on the total and available contents of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in the profile of purple paddy soil and the contents of those metals in root, stem leaf and brown rice. The experiment included five tillage methods: conventional tillage, paddy-upland rotation, no-tillage and fallow in winter, ridge-no-tillage and compartments-no-tillage. The results showed that the total concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in the soil profile had no significant differences among five treatments, but it was found that total Mn has a significant decline in 0-20 cm under conventional tillage, paddy-upland rotation and no-tillage and fallow in winter compared with ridge-no-tillage and compartments-no-tillage. The availability of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd decreased with the increase of soil depth in all treatments, but the availability of Mn was found to be the highest in the 20-40 cm layers except those in the paddy-upland rotation. In the ploughed layer, the contents of available Fe, Mn was the highest in paddy-upland rotation, while the contents of available Zn and Pb was the highest in conventional tillage, but tillage treatments had not significant influence to the contents of available Cu. Correlation analysis showed that available Fe was significantly negatively related to the pH values and significantly negatively related to the organic matter of soils, available Mn was significantly negatively related to the pH values and organic matter of soils, whereas the available Zn was significantly positively related to total Zn. The contents of Fe, Mn in rice root, the contents of Fe, Mn, Cu and Cd in rice straw and Cu in brown rice were higher under paddy-upland rotation, ridge-no-tillage and compartments-no-tillage than those in conventional tillage and no-tillage and fellow in winter. Paddy-upland rotation can significantly lower the migration

  15. Accumulation of mercury and cadmium in rice from paddy soil near a mercury mine.

    PubMed

    Li, W C; Ouyang, Y; Ye, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Paddy soil and rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Wanshan mining area in Guizhou Province, China, have been contaminated by toxic trace metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The present study examined correlations between the types and physicochemical parameters of the soil and the contents of trace metals and the different forms of Hg in rice. The health risks of consuming contaminated rice from the Wanshan mining area were also assessed. Sequential extraction procedures were used to investigate the chemical behavior of Hg in the soil. The results showed that Hg and Cd were the most abundant trace metals in the Wanshan mining area. The toxic methylmercury (MeHg) content was substantial in brown rice, and the total amounts of total Hg (THg), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-Hg, and water-soluble Hg varied in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. An antagonistic interaction between Mn in brown rice, straw, and husk and MeHg in brown rice was also shown. An analysis of calculated dietary intake, target hazard quotients, and hazard indexes showed a potential risk of transferring Hg, MeHg, and Cd to humans when rice from the Wanshan mining area is consumed. Therefore, it must be concluded that consuming contaminated rice near the Wanshan mining area is a potential threat to human health.

  16. Biochar amendment immobilizes lead in rice paddy soils and reduces its phytoavailability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Honghong; Liu, Yuting; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Shanli; Wang, Mingkuang; Xie, Tuanhui; Wang, Guo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine effects of rice straw biochar on Pb sequestration in a soil-rice system. Pot experiments were conducted with rice plants in Pb-contaminated paddy soils that had been amended with 0, 2.5, and 5% (w/w) biochar. Compared to the control treatment, amendment with 5% biochar resulted in 54 and 94% decreases in the acid soluble and CaCl2-extractable Pb, respectively, in soils containing rice plants at the maturity stage. The amount of Fe-plaque on root surfaces and the Pb concentrations of the Fe-plaque were also reduced in biochar amended soils. Furthermore, lead species in rice roots were determined using Pb L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and although Pb-ferrihydrite complexes dominated Pb inventories, increasing amounts of organic complexes like Pb-pectins and Pb-cysteine were found in roots from the 5% biochar treatments. Such organic complexes might impede Pb translocation from root to shoot and subsequently reduce Pb accumulation in rice with biochar amendment. PMID:27530495

  17. Bulliform Phytolith Research in Wild and Domesticated Rice Paddy Soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Huan, Xiujia; Lu, Houyuan; Wang, Can; Tang, Xiangan; Zuo, Xinxin; Ge, Yong; He, Keyang

    2015-01-01

    Bulliform phytoliths play an important role in researching rice origins as they can be used to distinguish between wild and domesticated rice. Rice bulliform phytoliths are characterized by numerous small shallow fish-scale decorations on the lateral side. Previous studies have shown that domesticated rice has a larger number of these decorations than wild rice and that the number of decorations ≥9 is a useful feature for identifying domesticated rice. However, this standard was established based on limited samples of modern rice plants. In this study, we analyzed soil samples from both wild and domesticated rice paddies. Results showed that, in wild rice soil samples, the proportion of bulliform phytoliths with ≥9 decorations was 17.46% ± 8.29%, while in domesticated rice soil samples, the corresponding proportion was 63.70% ± 9.22%. This suggests that the proportion of phytoliths with ≥9 decorations can be adopted as a criterion for discriminating between wild and domesticated rice in prehistoric soil. This indicator will be of significance in improving the application of fish-scale decorations to research into rice origins and the rice domestication process.

  18. Bulliform Phytolith Research in Wild and Domesticated Rice Paddy Soil in South China

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Xiujia; Lu, Houyuan; Wang, Can; Tang, Xiangan; Zuo, Xinxin; Ge, Yong; He, Keyang

    2015-01-01

    Bulliform phytoliths play an important role in researching rice origins as they can be used to distinguish between wild and domesticated rice. Rice bulliform phytoliths are characterized by numerous small shallow fish-scale decorations on the lateral side. Previous studies have shown that domesticated rice has a larger number of these decorations than wild rice and that the number of decorations ≥9 is a useful feature for identifying domesticated rice. However, this standard was established based on limited samples of modern rice plants. In this study, we analyzed soil samples from both wild and domesticated rice paddies. Results showed that, in wild rice soil samples, the proportion of bulliform phytoliths with ≥9 decorations was 17.46% ± 8.29%, while in domesticated rice soil samples, the corresponding proportion was 63.70% ± 9.22%. This suggests that the proportion of phytoliths with ≥9 decorations can be adopted as a criterion for discriminating between wild and domesticated rice in prehistoric soil. This indicator will be of significance in improving the application of fish-scale decorations to research into rice origins and the rice domestication process. PMID:26488583

  19. Biochar amendment immobilizes lead in rice paddy soils and reduces its phytoavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Honghong; Liu, Yuting; Chen, Yanhui; Wang, Shanli; Wang, Mingkuang; Xie, Tuanhui; Wang, Guo

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine effects of rice straw biochar on Pb sequestration in a soil-rice system. Pot experiments were conducted with rice plants in Pb-contaminated paddy soils that had been amended with 0, 2.5, and 5% (w/w) biochar. Compared to the control treatment, amendment with 5% biochar resulted in 54 and 94% decreases in the acid soluble and CaCl2-extractable Pb, respectively, in soils containing rice plants at the maturity stage. The amount of Fe-plaque on root surfaces and the Pb concentrations of the Fe-plaque were also reduced in biochar amended soils. Furthermore, lead species in rice roots were determined using Pb L3-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and although Pb-ferrihydrite complexes dominated Pb inventories, increasing amounts of organic complexes like Pb-pectins and Pb-cysteine were found in roots from the 5% biochar treatments. Such organic complexes might impede Pb translocation from root to shoot and subsequently reduce Pb accumulation in rice with biochar amendment.

  20. [Effects of Long-term Different Tillage Methods on Mercury and Methylmercury Contents in Purple Paddy Soil and Overlying Water].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-yue; Tang, Zhen-ya; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Yong-min; Wang, Ding-yong

    2016-03-15

    A long-term experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of tillage methods on mercury and methylmercury contents in the purple paddy soil and overlying water. The experiment included five tillage methods: no-tillage and fallow in winter, ridge-no-tillage, compartments-no-tillage, paddy-upland rotation and conventional tillage. The results showed that the content of total mercury in soil had the maximum value in the 10-20 cm layer of no-tillage and fallow in winter, ridge-no-tillage and compartments-no-tillage, and the enrichment effect of no-tillage and fallow in winter was especially significant. The concentration of total mercury in soil of paddy-upland rotation and conventional tillage decreased with the increase of the soil depth, and paddy-upland rotation was specifically beneficial to the migration of mercury. The distribution of soil methylmercury was similar to that of total mercury in the soil profile. The methylation ability of soil mercury in the surface and middle of the soil profile was weaker than that at the bottom, while there was an opposite trend for other tillage methods. The concentrations of dissolved mercury ( DHg) and dissolved methylmercury ( DMeHg) in the overlaying water declined with the rise of the water depth in all treatments. The content of DHg in sediment porewater was related to the value of soil total mercury, and they had the same distribution in the soil profile. The content of DMeHg and its proportion accounted for DHg in porewater owned their largest value in the 10-20 cm layer of no-tillage and fallow in winter and ridge-no-tillage, where showed the lowest value of DMeHg in porewater for paddy-upland rotation and conventional tillage. And the percentage of DMeHg in DHg in porewater grew with the increase of soil depth of the latter two methods. Noticeably, the concentration of DMeHg and its proportion accounted for DHg in porewater were both higher than the values in overlying water for all tillage methods.

  1. Direct interspecies electron transfer accelerates syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in paddy soil enrichments.

    PubMed

    Li, Huijuan; Chang, Jiali; Liu, Pengfei; Fu, Li; Ding, Dewen; Lu, Yahai

    2015-05-01

    Syntrophic interaction occurs during anaerobic fermentation of organic substances forming methane as the final product. H2 and formate are known to serve as the electron carriers in this process. Recently, it has been shown that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) occurs for syntrophic CH4 production from ethanol and acetate. Here, we constructed paddy soil enrichments to determine the involvement of DIET in syntrophic butyrate oxidation and CH4 production. The results showed that CH4 production was significantly accelerated in the presence of nanoFe3 O4 in all continuous transfers. This acceleration increased with the increase of nanoFe3 O4 concentration but was dismissed when Fe3 O4 was coated with silica that insulated the mineral from electrical conduction. NanoFe3 O4 particles were found closely attached to the cell surfaces of different morphology, thus bridging cell connections. Molecular approaches, including DNA-based stable isotope probing, revealed that the bacterial Syntrophomonadaceae and Geobacteraceae, and the archaeal Methanosarcinaceae, Methanocellales and Methanobacteriales, were involved in the syntrophic butyrate oxidation and CH4 production. Among them, the growth of Geobacteraceae strictly relied on the presence of nanoFe3 O4 and its electrical conductivity in particular. Other organisms, except Methanobacteriales, were present in enrichments regardless of nanoFe3 O4 amendment. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the nanoFe3 O4 -facilitated DIET occurred in syntrophic CH4 production from butyrate, and Geobacter species played the key role in this process in the paddy soil enrichments.

  2. Effects of redox conditions on the adsorption of dissolved organic matter to soil minerals and differently aged paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerwein, Meike; Hanke, Alexander; Kaiser, Klaus; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2010-05-01

    Effects of redox conditions on the adsorption of dissolved organic matter to soil minerals and differently aged paddy soils Meike Sauerwein1, Alexander Hanke2, Klaus Kaiser3, Karsten Kalbitz2 1) Dept. of Soil Ecology, Bayreuth Centre of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER), University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany, meike.sauerwein@gmail.com 2) Institute of ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity, University of Amsterdam, 1018 WV, Netherlands, a.hanke@uva.nl, k.kalbitz@uva.nl 3) Soil Sciences, Martin Luther University Halle, 06099 Halle, Germany, klaus.kaiser@landw.uni-halle.de Current knowledge on dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils is based mainly on observations and experiments in aerobic environments. Adsorption to soil minerals is an important mechanism of DOM retention and stabilization against microbial decay under oxic conditions. Under anoxic conditions where hydrous iron oxides, the potential main adsorbents of DOM, possibly dissolve, the importance of adsorption seems questionable. Therefore, we studied the adsorption of DOM to selected soil minerals and to mineral soils under oxic and anoxic conditions. In detail, we tested the following hypotheses: 1. Minerals and soils adsorb less DOM under anoxic conditions than under oxic ones. 2. The reduced adsorption under anoxic conditions is result of the smaller adsorption to hydrous Fe oxides whereas adsorption to clay minerals and Al hydroxides is not sensitive to changes in redox conditions 3. DOM adsorption will increase with the number of redox cycles, thus time of soil formation, due to increasing contents of poorly crystalline Fe oxides. This will, however, cause a stronger sensitivity to redox changes as poor crystalline Fe oxides are more reactive. 4. Aromatic compounds, being preferentially adsorbed under oxic conditions, will be less strongly adsorbed under anoxic conditions. We chose paddy soils as models because their periodically and regular exposure to changing redox cycles, with

  3. Risk assessment of Cd polluted paddy soils in the industrial and township areas in Hunan, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Peng, Chi

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination in rice in Youxian, Hunan, China is a major environmental health concern. In order to reveal the Cd contamination in rice and paddy soils and the health risks to the population consuming the local rice grain, field surveys were conducted in eight towns in Youxian, China. The Cd contents of paddy soils averaged 0.228-1.91 mg kg(-1), 90% exceeding the allowable limit of 0.3 mg kg(-1) stipulated by the China Soil Environmental Quality Standards. Low average pH values (for air dried oxidized soils) ranging from 4.98 to 6.02 in paddy soil were also found. More than seventy percent (39 of 53) of the grain samples exceeded the maximum safe concentration of Cd, 0.2 mg kg(-1) on a dry weight basis. Considering the high consumption of local rice (339 g capita(-1) DW d(-1)) and Cd levels measured, dietary ingestion of 78% of the sampled rice grains would have adverse health risks because the intake exposure of Cd was greater than the JECFA recommended exposures, 0.8 µg Cd BW kg(-1) day(-1) or 25 µg Cd BW kg(-1) month(-1).

  4. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Sandoval-Yuriar, Alonso; Jiménez-Bueno, Norma G; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc

    2015-01-01

    In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC) ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5), indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances) clearly clustered the communities by pH.

  5. Archaeal Communities in a Heterogeneous Hypersaline-Alkaline Soil

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E.; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Sandoval-Yuriar, Alonso; Jiménez-Bueno, Norma G.; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    In this study the archaeal communities in extreme saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, with electrolytic conductivities (EC) ranging from 0.7 to 157.2 dS/m and pH from 8.5 to 10.5 were explored. Archaeal communities in the 0.7 dS/m pH 8.5 soil had the lowest alpha diversity values and were dominated by a limited number of phylotypes belonging to the mesophilic Candidatus Nitrososphaera. Diversity and species richness were higher in the soils with EC between 9.0 and 157.2 dS/m. The majority of OTUs detected in the hypersaline soil were members of the Halobacteriaceae family. Novel phylogenetic branches in the Halobacteriales class were detected in the soil, and more abundantly in soil with the higher pH (10.5), indicating that unknown and uncharacterized Archaea can be found in this soil. Thirteen different genera of the Halobacteriaceae family were identified and were distributed differently between the soils. Halobiforma, Halostagnicola, Haloterrigena, and Natronomonas were found in all soil samples. Methanogenic archaea were found only in soil with pH between 10.0 and 10.3. Retrieved methanogenic archaea belonged to the Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales orders. The comparison of the archaeal community structures considering phylogenetic information (UniFrac distances) clearly clustered the communities by pH. PMID:26074731

  6. Aging effect on the leaching behavior of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Cd) in red paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Jinquan; Chen, Guiqiu; Nie, Xiaodong; Ma, Wenming; Yao, Hongbo; Zhen, Jiamei; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Aging effect can influence the fractions distribution and mobility of metals after they are added into soil. In this study, incubation and soil column experiments under simulated acid rain condition were conducted to evaluate aging effect on the leaching characteristic of Cu, Zn, and Cd in artificial polluted red paddy soil. Our results showed that aging effect reduced metal contents in exchangeable and HoAc soluble fractions. Power function was the most excellent to describe the variation of exchangeable fraction, while pseudo first- and second-order functions were more successful to describe the leaching characteristic of metals from soil columns. The leaching amount of the metals from the polluted soil only accounted for a small part of their total content in soil, and the leachability of Cu was the weakest. Both the exchangeable and HoAc soluble fraction were available as indicators to evaluate the leachability of metals in red paddy soil. The shorter time the soil was contaminated, the more amounts of metals released from the soil. The reduction of exchangeable fraction caused by aging effect was the main reason for the decrease of metal mobility in soil.

  7. Mechanism and kinetics of aluminum dissolution during copper sorption by acidity paddy soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peiya; Li, Yujiao; Wen, Qinliang; Dong, Changxun; Pan, Genxing

    2015-08-01

    Soil aggregates were prepared from a bulk soil collected from paddy soil in the Taihu Lake region and aluminum (Al) dissolution, solution pH changes during copper (Cu(2+)) sorption were investigated with static sorption and magnetic stirring. Kinetics of Cu(2+) sorption and Al dissolution were also studied by magnetic stirring method. No Al dissolution was observed until Cu(2+) sorption was greater than a certain value, which was 632, 450, 601 and 674 mg/kg for sand, clay, silt, and coarse silt fractions, respectively. Aluminum dissolution increased with increasing Cu(2+) sorption and decreasing solution pH. An amount of dissolved Al showed a significant positive correlation with non-specific sorption of Cu(2+) (R(2)>0.97), and it was still good under different pH values (R(2)>0.95). Copper sorption significantly decreased solution pH. The magnitude of solution pH decline increased as Cu(2+) sorption and Al dissolution increased. The sand and clay fraction had a less Al dissolution and pH drop due to the higher ferric oxide, Al oxide and organic matter contents. After sorption reaction for half an hour, the Cu(2+) sorption progress reached more than 90% while the Al dissolution progress was only 40%, and lagged behind the Cu(2+) sorption. It indicated that aluminum dissolution is associated with non-specific sorption.

  8. Conventional methanotrophs are responsible for atmospheric methane oxidation in paddy soils

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yuanfeng; Zheng, Yan; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Conrad, Ralf; Jia, Zhongjun

    2016-01-01

    Soils serve as the biological sink of the potent greenhouse gas methane with exceptionally low concentrations of ∼1.84 p.p.m.v. in the atmosphere. The as-yet-uncultivated methane-consuming bacteria have long been proposed to be responsible for this ‘high-affinity' methane oxidation (HAMO). Here we show an emerging HAMO activity arising from conventional methanotrophs in paddy soil. HAMO activity was quickly induced during the low-affinity oxidation of high-concentration methane. Activity was lost gradually over 2 weeks, but could be repeatedly regained by flush-feeding the soil with elevated methane. The induction of HAMO activity occurred only after the rapid growth of methanotrophic populations, and a metatranscriptome-wide association study suggests that the concurrent high- and low-affinity methane oxidation was catalysed by known methanotrophs rather than by the proposed novel atmospheric methane oxidizers. These results provide evidence of atmospheric methane uptake in periodically drained ecosystems that are typically considered to be a source of atmospheric methane. PMID:27248847

  9. Conventional methanotrophs are responsible for atmospheric methane oxidation in paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuanfeng; Zheng, Yan; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Conrad, Ralf; Jia, Zhongjun

    2016-06-01

    Soils serve as the biological sink of the potent greenhouse gas methane with exceptionally low concentrations of ~1.84 p.p.m.v. in the atmosphere. The as-yet-uncultivated methane-consuming bacteria have long been proposed to be responsible for this `high-affinity' methane oxidation (HAMO). Here we show an emerging HAMO activity arising from conventional methanotrophs in paddy soil. HAMO activity was quickly induced during the low-affinity oxidation of high-concentration methane. Activity was lost gradually over 2 weeks, but could be repeatedly regained by flush-feeding the soil with elevated methane. The induction of HAMO activity occurred only after the rapid growth of methanotrophic populations, and a metatranscriptome-wide association study suggests that the concurrent high- and low-affinity methane oxidation was catalysed by known methanotrophs rather than by the proposed novel atmospheric methane oxidizers. These results provide evidence of atmospheric methane uptake in periodically drained ecosystems that are typically considered to be a source of atmospheric methane.

  10. Evaluation of soil characteristics potentially affecting arsenic concentration in paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Katja; Schenk, Manfred K

    2009-10-01

    Paddy rice may contribute considerably to the human intake of As. The knowledge of soil characteristics affecting the As content of the rice plant enables the development of agricultural measures for controlling As uptake. During field surveys in 2004 and 2006, plant samples from 68 fields (Italy, Po-area) revealed markedly differing As concentration in polished rice. The soil factors total As(aqua regia), pH, grain size fractions, total C, plant available P(CAL), poorly crystalline Fe(oxal.) and plant available Si(Na-acetate) content that potentially affect As content of rice were determined. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant positive influence of the total As(aqua regia) and plant available P(CAL) content and a negative influence of the poorly crystalline Fe(oxal.) content of the soil on the As content in polished rice and rice straw. Si concentration in rice straw varied widely and was negatively related to As content in straw and polished rice.

  11. Increase of As release and phytotoxicity to rice seedlings in As-contaminated paddy soils by Si fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Hsing; Huang, Hsuan-Han; Syu, Chien-Hui; Lin, Tzu-Huei; Lee, Dar-Yuan

    2014-07-15

    Silicon (Si) was shown to be able to reduce arsenic (As) uptake by rice in hydroponic culture or in low As soils using high Si application rates. However, the effect of Si application on As uptake of rice grown in As-contaminated soils using Si fertilizer recommendation rate has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of Si application using Si fertilizer recommendation rate on As release and phytotoxicity in soils with different properties and contents of As was examined. The results show that the concentrations of As in soil solutions increased after Si applications due to competitive adsorption between As and Si on soil solids and the Si concentrations in soil solutions were also elevated to beneficial levels for rice growth. The rice seedlings accumulated more As and its growth was inhibited by Si application in As contaminated/spiked soils. The results indicate that there is an initial aggravation in As toxicity before the beneficial effects of Si fertilizing to rice were revealed when Si application based on fertilizer recommendation rate to As-contaminated paddy soils. Therefore, for As-contaminated paddy soils with high levels of As, the application of Si fertilizer could result in increasing As phytotoxicity and uptake by rice.

  12. Influence of biotic and abiotic processes on the immobilization and distribution of applied N in fertilized paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucu, Maria Alexandra; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Divotti, Federica; Chierotti, Michele; Celi, Luisella

    2013-04-01

    Poor fertilizer-N use efficiency is characteristic of irrigated rice agro-ecosystems with recoveries ranging from 40-60% of applied N. This has been largely attributed to a greater degree of N immobilization and important losses of applied fertilizer-N as a consequence of the alternating soil redox conditions to which paddy soils are subjected during the cropping season. This work aims at providing a better understanding of biotic and abiotic processes controlling N immobilization in these soils, necessary to improve fertilizer-N management and the sustainability of rice agro-ecosystems. To evaluate the relative contribution of biotic and abiotic processes affecting N immobilization, a typical paddy soil was incubated for 30 days under (i) sterile or non-sterile anoxic conditions, (ii) with or without the addition of rice straw. Gamma radiation was utilized to sterilize the soils without affecting soil properties, while anaerobic conditions were ensured by incubating the soils under water saturated conditions. Enriched ammonium-15N was applied to evaluate the immobilization of fertilizer-N while the distribution of immobilized N among soil fractions was assessed by combining aggregate size and organic matter density fractionation. Results have evidenced a rapid immobilization of ~40% of applied N in both sterilized and non-sterilized treatments. Most of this N (~87%) was associated with the finest soil fractions (

  13. Methane emission from fields with differences in nitrogen fertilizers and rice varieties in Taiwan paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Liou, Rey-May; Huang, Shan-Ney; Lin, Chin-Wei

    2003-01-01

    Flooded rice fields are one of the major biogenic methane sources. In this study, methane emission rates were measured after transplanting in paddy fields with application of two kinds of nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, NH4+-N and potassium nitrate, NO3(-)-N) and with two kinds of rice varieties (Japonica and Indica). The experiment was conducted in fields located at Tainan District Agricultural Improvement Station in Chia-Yi county (23 degrees 25'08"N, 120 degrees 16'26"E) of southern Taiwan throughout the first and the second crop seasons in 1999. The seasonal methane flux in the first crop season with NH4+-N and NO3(-)-N ranged from 2.48 to 2.78 and from 8.65 to 9.22 g CH4 m(-2); and the values ranged 24.6-34.2 and 36.4-52.6 g CH4 m(-2) in the second crop season, respectively. In the first crop season, there were significantly increased 3.1-3.7-fold in methane emission fluxes due to plantation of Indica rice. In comparison of two rice varieties, the Indica rice variety showed a tendency for larger methane emission than the Japonica rice variety in the second crop season. Moreover, ammonium sulfate treatment significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 37-85% emissions compared to potassium nitrate plots. It was concluded that the CH4 emission was markedly dependent on the type of nitrogen fertilizer and rice variety in Taiwan paddy soils.

  14. The dynamics of nitrogen derived from a chemical nitrogen fertilizer with treated swine slurry in paddy soil-plant systems

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonhee

    2017-01-01

    A well-managed chemical nitrogen (N) fertilization practice combined with treated swine slurry (TSS) is necessary to improve sustainability and N use efficiency in rice farming. However, little is known about the fate of N derived from chemical N fertilizer with and without TSS in paddy soil-plant systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the contribution of applied N fertilizer to N turnover in rice paddy soil with different N fertilization practices that were manipulated by the quantity of treated swine slurry and chemical N fertilizer (i.e., HTSS+LAS, a high amount of TSS with a low amount of ammonium sulfate; LTSS+HAS, a low amount of TSS with a high amount of ammonium sulfate; AS, ammonium sulfate with phosphorus and potassium; C, the control) and (2) to compare the rice response to applied N derived from each N fertilization practice. Rice biomass yield, 15N recovery in both rice grain and stems, soil total N (TN), soil inorganic N, and soil 15N recovery were analyzed. Similar amounts of 15N uptake by rice in the TSS+AS plots were obtained, indicating that the effects of the different quantities of TSS on chemical fertilizer N recovery in rice during the experimental period were not significant. The soil 15N recoveries of HTSS+LAS, LTSS+HAS, and AS in each soil layer were not significantly different. For the HTSS+LAS, LTSS+HAS and AS applications, total 15N recoveries were 42%, 43% and 54%, respectively. Because the effects of reducing the use of chemical N fertilizer were attributed to enhancing soil quality and cost-effectiveness, HTSS+LAS could be an appropriate N fertilization practice for improving the long-term sustainability of paddy soil-plant systems. However, N losses, especially through the coupled nitrification-denitrification process, can diminish the benefits that HTSS+LAS offers. PMID:28339491

  15. Plant physiological and soil characteristics associated with methane and nitrous oxide emission from rice paddy.

    PubMed

    Baruah, K K; Gogoi, Boby; Gogoi, P

    2010-01-01

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are important greenhouse gases causing global warming and climate change. Efforts were made to analyze the CH4 and N2O flux in relation to plant and soil factors from rice (Oryza sativa L.) paddy. Ten popularly grown rice varieties namely Rashmisali, Bogajoha, Basmuthi, Lalkalamdani, Choimora (traditional varieties); Mahsuri, Moniram, Kushal, Gitesh and Profulla (high yielding varieties = HYV) were grown during monsoon season of July 2006. The CH4 and N2O emissions were measured the date of transplanting onwards at weekly interval along with soil and plant parameters. The seasonal integrated CH4 and N2O emission (Esif) from rice ranged from 8.13 g m(-2) to 13.00 g m(-2) and 121.63 mg N2O-N m(-2) to 189.46 mg N2O-N m(-2), respectively. Variety Gitesh emitted less N2O and CH4 amongst all the rice varieties. Both CH4 and N2O emission exhibited a significant positive correlation with leaf area, leaf number, tiller number and root dry weight. Soil organic carbon of the experimental field was associated with both CH4 and N2O emission whereas nitrate-N content of soil was associated with N2O emission. Methane emission showed significant positive correlations with soil temperature and crop photosynthetic rate. Traditional rice varieties with profuse vegetative growth recorded higher CH4 and N2O fluxes compared to HYVs. Gitesh and Kushal having low seasonal CH4 and N2O emission with higher yield potential can be recommended as low greenhouse gas emitting rice varieties.

  16. Soil microbial community composition and its role in carbon mineralization in long-term fertilization paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoqin; Wang, Huimin; Fu, Xiaoli

    2017-02-15

    Microbial communities are critical in mediating soil biological processes, including C mineralization; yet, the mechanism of microbial mediation for soil C mineralization remains poorly understood under the long-term fertilization. To identify the relative roles of microbes in C mineralization in the soil of rice paddies, we investigated the long-term (11years) effects of repeated N, P, and K fertilization on crop yield, soil properties and microbial communities and their relationships with C mineralization. The treatments included: no fertilization (control); normal fertilization (NPK); doubling the amount of N, P or K fertilizer (2NPK, N2PK, or NP2K); and doubling the amount of all three (2(NPK)). Long-term fertilization significantly increased rice yields by 3.4 to 4.8 times, and yield significantly improved by 23-32% with higher N fertilization. Increasing N fertilization significantly decreased total N and total P concentrations, while increasing P fertilization significantly increased soil pH, Olsen-P and total P concentrations. Increasing N and P fertilization changed soil microbial community compositions; pH and ratio of SOC and TN (C:N) were the most important contributors to the variance in microbial community composition. Increasing P fertilization decreased the abundance of Gram-positive and actinomycetes phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and significantly increased the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFA. However, the alterations in soil microbial abundance and community composition did not significantly influence the C mineralization, while it significantly was determined by C:N ratio and marginally by crop yield. The results suggest that substrate quality (C:N ratio) and availability (crop yield), having a closer relationship with C mineralization compared to soil microbial communities, should be preferentially considered to predicting C mineralization under long-term fertilization.

  17. Contrasting effects EDTA applications on the fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from straw-treated rice paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Kim, Pil Joo

    2016-03-24

    Submerged rice paddy soils are the major anthropogenic source of methane (CH4 ) emission to the atmosphere. Straw incorporation for sustaining soil organic C pool increases CH4 emission flux from rice paddy soils. Though the rate of nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission is much less than CH4 , the former has 298 times higher global warming potential (GWP) than equivalent quantity of carbon dioxide. Effect of chelating agent like EDTA on N2O emission and on GWP due to CH4 and N2 O emissions was not evaluated before. The emission of CH4 gas from submerged soil may be mitigated by EDTA application; however, it also increases concentration of nitrate-N in soil, the precursor of N2 O gas formation under anaerobic condition. In this experiment, irrespective of straw application, EDTA treated soils emitted less CH4 to the atmosphere than corresponding control. Though N2 O emission was increased from soil due to EDTA applications, total GWP was at least 15% reduced in EDTA treated soils during rice cultivation. The plant growth and rice grain yield was not affected by EDTA application. Therefore, EDTA application at 5.0 ppm might be used to reduce total global warming potential during rice cultivation.

  18. Modelling cadmium contamination in paddy soils under long-term remediation measures: Model development and stochastic simulations.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping

    2016-09-01

    A pollutant accumulation model (PAM) based on the mass balance theory was developed to simulate long-term changes of heavy metal concentrations in soil. When combined with Monte Carlo simulation, the model can predict the probability distributions of heavy metals in a soil-water-plant system with fluctuating environmental parameters and inputs from multiple pathways. The model was used for evaluating different remediation measures to deal with Cd contamination of paddy soils in Youxian county (Hunan province), China, under five scenarios, namely the default scenario (A), not returning paddy straw to the soil (B), reducing the deposition of Cd (C), liming (D), and integrating several remediation measures (E). The model predicted that the Cd contents of soil can lowered significantly by (B) and those of the plants by (D). However, in the long run, (D) will increase soil Cd. The concentrations of Cd in both soils and rice grains can be effectively reduced by (E), although it will take decades of effort. The history of Cd pollution and the major causes of Cd accumulation in soil were studied by means of sensitivity analysis and retrospective simulation.

  19. Effect of chemical amendments on remediation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) and soil quality improvement in paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Chul; Hong, Young Kyu; Oh, Se Jin; Oh, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Phil; Kim, Do Hyung; Yang, Jae E

    2017-04-01

    Remediation of potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) in paddy fields is fundamental for crop safety. In situ application of chemical amendments has been widely adapted because of its cost-effectiveness and environmental safety. The main purpose of this research was to (1) evaluate the reduction in dissolved concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) with the application of chemical amendments and (2) monitor microbial activity in the soil to determine the remediation efficiency. Three different chemical amendments, lime stone, steel slag, and acid mine drainage sludge, were applied to paddy fields, and rice (Oryza sativa L. Milyang 23) was cultivated. The application of chemical amendments immobilized both Cd and As in soil. Between the two PTEs, As reduction was significant (p < 0.05) with the addition of chemical amendments, whereas no significant reduction was observed for Cd than that for the control. Among six soil-related variables, PTE concentration showed a negative correlation with soil pH (r = -0.70 for As and r = -0.54 for Cd) and soil respiration (SR) (r = -0.88 for As and r = -0.45 for Cd). This result indicated that immobilization of PTEs in soil is dependent on soil pH and reduces PTE toxicity. Overall, the application of chemical amendments could be utilized for decreasing PTE (As and Cd) bioavailability and increasing microbial activity in the soil.

  20. The large-scale distribution of ammonia oxidizers in paddy soils is driven by soil pH, geographic distance, and climatic factors

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Zhang, Li-Mei; Yuan, Chao-Lei; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Paddy soils distribute widely from temperate to tropical regions, and are characterized by intensive nitrogen fertilization practices in China. Mounting evidence has confirmed the functional importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in soil nitrification, but little is known about their biogeographic distribution patterns in paddy ecosystems. Here, we used barcoded pyrosequencing to characterize the effects of climatic, geochemical and spatial factors on the distribution of ammonia oxidizers from 11 representative rice-growing regions (75–1945 km apart) of China. Potential nitrification rates varied greatly by more than three orders of magnitude, and were significantly correlated with the abundances of AOA and AOB. The community composition of ammonia oxidizer was affected by multiple factors, but changes in relative abundances of the major lineages could be best predicted by soil pH. The alpha diversity of AOA and AOB displayed contrasting trends over the gradients of latitude and atmospheric temperature, indicating a possible niche separation between AOA and AOB along the latitude. The Bray–Curtis dissimilarities in ammonia-oxidizing community structure significantly increased with increasing geographical distance, indicating that more geographically distant paddy fields tend to harbor more dissimilar ammonia oxidizers. Variation partitioning analysis revealed that spatial, geochemical and climatic factors could jointly explain majority of the data variation, and were important drivers defining the ecological niches of AOA and AOB. Our findings suggest that both AOA and AOB are of functional importance in paddy soil nitrification, and ammonia oxidizers in paddy ecosystems exhibit large-scale biogeographic patterns shaped by soil pH, geographic distance, and climatic factors. PMID:26388866

  1. Methanogenic degradation of lignin-derived monoaromatic compounds by microbial enrichments from rice paddy field soil.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro; Chino, Kanako; Kamimura, Naofumi; Masai, Eiji; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-09-24

    Anaerobic degradation of lignin-derived aromatics is an important metabolism for carbon and nutrient cycles in soil environments. Although there are some studies on degradation of lignin-derived aromatics by nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, knowledge on their degradation under methanogenic conditions are quite limited. In this study, methanogenic microbial communities were enriched from rice paddy field soil with lignin-derived methoxylated monoaromatics (vanillate and syringate) and their degradation intermediates (protocatechuate, catechol, and gallate) as the sole carbon and energy sources. Archaeal community analysis disclosed that both aceticlastic (Methanosarcina sp.) and hydrogenotrophic (Methanoculleus sp. and Methanocella sp.) methanogens dominated in all of the enrichments. Bacterial community analysis revealed the dominance of acetogenic bacteria (Sporomusa spp.) only in the enrichments on the methoxylated aromatics, suggesting that Sporomusa spp. initially convert vanillate and syringate into protocatechuate and gallate, respectively, with acetogenesis via O-demethylation. As the putative ring-cleavage microbes, bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes were dominantly detected from all of the enrichments, while the dominant phylotypes were not identical between enrichments on vanillate/protocatechuate/catechol (family Peptococcaceae bacteria) and on syringate/gallate (family Ruminococcaceae bacteria). This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation among acetogens, ring-cleaving fermenters/syntrophs and aceticlastic/hydrogenotrophic methanogens for degradation of lignin-derived aromatics under methanogenic conditions.

  2. Methanogenic degradation of lignin-derived monoaromatic compounds by microbial enrichments from rice paddy field soil

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Souichiro; Chino, Kanako; Kamimura, Naofumi; Masai, Eiji; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of lignin-derived aromatics is an important metabolism for carbon and nutrient cycles in soil environments. Although there are some studies on degradation of lignin-derived aromatics by nitrate- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, knowledge on their degradation under methanogenic conditions are quite limited. In this study, methanogenic microbial communities were enriched from rice paddy field soil with lignin-derived methoxylated monoaromatics (vanillate and syringate) and their degradation intermediates (protocatechuate, catechol, and gallate) as the sole carbon and energy sources. Archaeal community analysis disclosed that both aceticlastic (Methanosarcina sp.) and hydrogenotrophic (Methanoculleus sp. and Methanocella sp.) methanogens dominated in all of the enrichments. Bacterial community analysis revealed the dominance of acetogenic bacteria (Sporomusa spp.) only in the enrichments on the methoxylated aromatics, suggesting that Sporomusa spp. initially convert vanillate and syringate into protocatechuate and gallate, respectively, with acetogenesis via O-demethylation. As the putative ring-cleavage microbes, bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes were dominantly detected from all of the enrichments, while the dominant phylotypes were not identical between enrichments on vanillate/protocatechuate/catechol (family Peptococcaceae bacteria) and on syringate/gallate (family Ruminococcaceae bacteria). This study demonstrates the importance of cooperation among acetogens, ring-cleaving fermenters/syntrophs and aceticlastic/hydrogenotrophic methanogens for degradation of lignin-derived aromatics under methanogenic conditions. PMID:26399549

  3. Silicon improves maize photosynthesis in saline-alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiming; Song, Ri; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to determine the effects of Si application on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on saline-alkaline soil, including photosynthetic rate (P n ), stomatal conductance (g s ), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (C i ) of maize in the field with five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225 kg · ha(-1)) of Si supplying. Experimental results showed that the values of P n, g s, and C i of maize were significantly enhanced while the values of E of maize were dramatically decreased by certain doses of silicon fertilizers, which meant that Si application with proper doses significantly increased photosynthetic efficiency of maize in different growth stages under stressing environment of saline-alkaline soil. The optimal dose of Si application in this experiment was 150 kg · ha(-1) Si. It indicated that increase in maize photosynthesis under saline-alkaline stress took place by Si application with proper doses, which is helpful to improve growth and yield of maize.

  4. Silicon Improves Maize Photosynthesis in Saline-Alkaline Soils

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhiming; Song, Ri; Shao, Hongbo; Song, Fengbin; Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to determine the effects of Si application on photosynthetic characteristics of maize on saline-alkaline soil, including photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) of maize in the field with five levels (0, 45, 90, 150, and 225 kg·ha−1) of Si supplying. Experimental results showed that the values of Pn, gs, and Ci of maize were significantly enhanced while the values of E of maize were dramatically decreased by certain doses of silicon fertilizers, which meant that Si application with proper doses significantly increased photosynthetic efficiency of maize in different growth stages under stressing environment of saline-alkaline soil. The optimal dose of Si application in this experiment was 150 kg·ha−1 Si. It indicated that increase in maize photosynthesis under saline-alkaline stress took place by Si application with proper doses, which is helpful to improve growth and yield of maize. PMID:25629083

  5. Soil carbon cycle of different saline and alkaline soils under cotton fields in Tarim River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaoning; Zhao, Chengyi; Stahr, Karl; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Calcium carbonate is the most common form of carbon (C) in semiarid and arid soils. Depending on pH and salinity changes, soils can act as sink or source of atmospheric CO2 as well as contribute to C exchange between CO2 and CaCO3 leading to formation of pedogenic carbonates. However, the rates of these processes and the effects of environmental factors remains unknown. 14CO2 was used to assess carbonate recrystallization in 4 saline and alkaline soils (Aksu alkaline, Aksu saline, Yingbazar alkaline, Yingbazar saline) (EC = 0.32, 1.35, 1.72, 3.67 (1:20) mS cm-1, pH = 8.5, 8.2, 8.9, 7.9 respectively) and to trace the C exchange in the soils of the Tarim River basin depending on CO2 concentrations in soils (0.02%, 0.04%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 4%). 14C was traced in soil water and air as well as in carbonates. The highest 14C in 14CO2 (95% of the 14C input) was observed in Aksu alkaline soil and the highest 14C incorporation in CaCO3 (54%) was observed in Yingbazar saline soil. There were close negative linear relationships between initial CO2 concentrations (0.04%, 0.4% and 4%) and the 14C in Ca14CO3 and in 14CO2. The carbonate recrystallization rate increased with the CO2 concentration and were depended on the recrystalliztion period. The average carbonate recrystallization rate was highest at 4% CO2 concentration for Yingbazar saline soil (6.59×10-4 % per day) and the lowest at 0.04% CO2 concentration for Aksu alkaline soil (0.03×10-4 % per day). The carbonate recrystallization rate linearly increased with the soil EC and with 0.04% and 0.4% CO2 concentration , whereas the carbonate recrystallization rate decreased with pH. The highest CO2 concentration of 4% can 10 to 100 times shorten the full carbonate recrystallization of the remaining primary carbonates compared to lower CO2 concentrations 0.4% and 0.04% for complete (95%) recrystallization of soil carbonate. We conclude that microbial and root respiration affecting CO2 concentration in soil is the most important

  6. [Distribution characteristics of soil profile nitrous oxide concentration in paddy fields with different rice-upland crop rotation systems].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping-li; Zhang, Xiao-lin; Xiong, Zheng-qin; Huang, Tai-qing; Ding, Min; Wang, Jin-yang

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the dynamic distribution patterns of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the soil profiles in paddy fields with different rice-upland crop rotation systems, a special soil gas collection device was adopted to monitor the dynamics of N2O at the soil depths 7, 15, 30, and 50 cm in the paddy fields under both flooding and drainage conditions. Two rotation systems were installed, i.e., wheat-single rice and oilseed rape-double rice, each with or without nitrogen (N) application. Comparing with the control, N application promoted the N2O production in the soil profiles significantly (P < 0.01), and there existed significant correlations in the N2O concentration among the four soil depths during the whole observation period (P < 0.01). In the growth seasons of winter wheat and oilseed rape under drainage condition and with or without N application, the N2O concentrations at the soil depths 30 cm and 50 cm were significantly higher than those at the soil depths 7 cm and 15 cm; whereas in the early rice growth season under flooding condition and without N application, the N2O concentrations at the soil depth 7 cm and 15 cm were significantly higher than those at the soil depths 30 cm and 50 cm (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the N2O concentrations at the test soil depths among the other rice cropping treatments. The soil N2O concentrations in the treatments without N application peaked in the transitional period from the upland crops cropping to rice planting, while those in the treatments with N application peaked right after the second topdressing N of upland crops. Relatively high soil N2O concentrations were observed at the transitional period from the upland crops cropping to rice planting.

  7. Anaerobic arsenite oxidation by an autotrophic arsenite-oxidizing bacterium from an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Wuxian; Liu, Bingbing; He, Jian; Shen, Qirong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2015-05-19

    Microbe-mediated arsenic (As) redox reactions play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of As. Reduction of arsenate [As(V)] generally leads to As mobilization in paddy soils and increased As availability to rice plants, whereas oxidation of arsenite [As(III)] results in As immobilization. A novel chemoautotrophic As(III)-oxidizing bacterium, designated strain SY, was isolated from an As-contaminated paddy soil. The isolate was able to derive energy from the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions using O2 or NO3(-) as the respective electron acceptor. Inoculation of the washed SY cells into a flooded soil greatly enhanced As(III) oxidation to As(V) both in the solution and adsorbed phases of the soil. Strain SY is phylogenetically closely related to Paracoccus niistensis with a 16S rRNA gene similarity of 96.79%. The isolate contains both the denitrification and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase gene clusters, underscoring its ability to denitrify and to fix CO2 while coupled to As(III) oxidation. Deletion of the aioA gene encoding the As(III) oxidase subunit A abolished the As(III) oxidation ability of strain SY and led to increased sensitivity to As(III), suggesting that As(III) oxidation is a detoxification mechanism in this bacterium under aerobic and heterotrophic growth conditions. Analysis of the aioA gene clone library revealed that the majority of the As(III)-oxidizing bacteria in the soil were closely related to the genera Paracoccus of α-Proteobacteria. Our results provide direct evidence for As(III) oxidation by Paracoccus species and suggest that these species may play an important role in As(III) oxidation in paddy soils under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions.

  8. Forces and straw cutting performance of double disc furrow opener in no-till paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Weimin, Ding; Qishuo, Ding; Hussain, Mubshar; Jabran, Khawar

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage is an energy efficient and low cost tillage system to improve soil environment compared with conventional tillage systems. However, the rice residue management becomes an "impossible to achieve" task due to high soil moisture content at harvest time and the thickness of rice straw. Disc type furrow openers are used for both seed drilling as well as straw cutting during no tillage sowing. A study was conducted to evaluate the draft requirement and straw cutting performances of different sized furrow openers in no-till paddy soil conditions. Double disc furrow opener was tested on an in-field traction bench for three working depths, i.e. 30, 60 and 90 mm, and three forwarding speeds, i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. The draft and vertical forces on the disc were recorded with load cells. These sensors were connected to a data acquisition system developed with hardware and software. The results revealed that the size of the furrow opener, operating depth and the forwarding speed had significant effects (P<0.05) on the horizontal and vertical forces, and the straw cutting performance. Mean values of the draft were 648.9, 737.2 and 784.6 N for the opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm respectively, and the vertical forces for similar openers were 904.7, 1553.9 and 1620.4 N, respectively. Furthermore, the mean straw cutting efficiencies for the double disc opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm were 39.36, 78.47 and 65.46%, respectively. The opener with 450 mm diameter provided higher straw cutting efficiency as compared to 600 mm diameter disc, while lowest straw cutting efficiency was observed with 330 mm diameter disc. The 450 mm diameter opener provided the highest straw cutting efficiency (88.6%) at 90 mm working depth and expressed optimum performance compared with other furrow openers.

  9. Controlled-release urea commingled with rice seeds reduced emission of ammonia and nitrous oxide in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuechao; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuncong; Fan, Xiaohui; Geng, Yuqing

    2013-11-01

    Reduction of ammonia (NH) and nitrous oxide (NO) emission and enhanced nitrogen (N) fertilizer use efficiency have been investigated with different N fertilizer management and application methods for irrigated rice production. Few studies have examined NH and NO emissions from rice paddy soil when commingling controlled release urea with rice seeds. The objective of this study was to assess NH volatilization and NO emission from a novel controlled-release urea formulation (CRU-180) when commingled at the full application rate with seeds in a single application during the preparation of plant plugs at the nursery stage. The experiment was conducted as a factorial design with two fertilizer sources (conventional urea and CRU-180), four rates (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg N ha), and three replicates. The entire amount of CRU-180 was incorporated into each plug with germinated seed. The conventional urea was split into four applications based on the standard practice for fertilizer application. The CRU-180 treatments reduced the NH and NO concentration in the paddy flood water and paddy soil solution as compared with the conventional urea treatments. The percentage of applied N fertilizer emitted as NH volatilization and NO emission in the CRU-180 treatments was only about 10% of that from the conventional urea treatments at the same N application rate. The application of CRU-180 with seeds offers a novel N fertilizer management technique, a method to reduce environmental impacts associated with rice production and the cost of rice production.

  10. [Effects of long-term application of fertilizers on soil microbial biomass nitrogen and organic nitrogen components in subtropical paddy soils].

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Qin; Qiu, Shao-Jun; Tong, Cheng-Li; Ren, Xiu-E

    2007-08-01

    The effect of long-term fertilization on soil organic nitrogen components and microbial biomass nitrogen (B(N)) in paddy soils from two experiment sites in Hunan province were studied. Soil samples were collected from the plough layers of different fertilizer treatments. Soil B(N) was measured by the fumigation-extraction method, and soil organic N was fractionated by acid hydrolysis-distillation method according to the scheme of Bremner (1965). Results showed that the soil N increased 40 mg x kg(-1) every year at Ningxiang site (low N level) for 17 years under the application combined of fertilizers and manure, while that at Nanxian site (high N level) was 55 mg x kg(-1). Soil total nitrogen (T(N)), total hydrolysable nitrogen (THN) and microbial biomass nitrogen(B(N)) were increased by long-term combined application of chemical fertilizer and manure (NPKM). NPKM significantly increased the content of T(N), B(N), total hydrolysable nitrogen (THN), ammonia acid nitrogen (AAN), hydrolysable unidentified nitrogen (HUN) and the percentage of B(N) to T(N). Besides, NPKM increased the easily mineralizable B(N), AAN, and low decomposed HUN. There was positive correlated relationship between B(N) and THN and different THN components, and the effect of AAN and HUN on B(N) was biggest. It is obvious that NPKM increased soil fertility and enhanc the nitrogen-supplying capability of paddy soils. NPKM had the effect on increasing soil nitrogen capability of paddy soils, both easily decomposed fractions and difficultly decomposed ones.

  11. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Kim, P J; Inubushi, K

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK+fly ash, NPK+silicate slag, NPK+phosphogypsum(PG), NPK+blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK+revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK+silicate slag (50%)+RFS (50%), NPK+biochar, NPK+biochar+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+silicate slag+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+phosphogypsum (PG)+Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH4 emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N2O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH4 emissions were significantly increased by 9.5-14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0-12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0-30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43-50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries.

  12. Mucilaginibacter oryzae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a rice paddy.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yeji; Lee, Sang-Suk; Chung, Bok Sil; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Bae, Jin-Woo; Park, Soo Kwon; Jeon, Che Ok

    2009-06-01

    A Gram-negative-staining, non-spore-forming bacterium devoid of flagella, designated strain B9(T), was isolated from rice paddy soil associated with the roots of Oryza sativa collected from Jinju, South Korea. Cells were straight rods, were catalase- and oxidase-positive and were able to hydrolyse pectin, xylan and laminarin. Growth of strain B9(T) was observed between 15 and 35 degrees C (optimum 25-30 degrees C) and between pH 5.0 and 8.0 (optimum pH 6.5-7.5). Strain B9(T) contained menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as a major isoprenoid quinone and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH), iso-C(15 : 0) and C(16 : 0) as major fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.4 mol%. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain B9(T) belonged to the genus Mucilaginibacter, a member of the family Sphingobacteriaceae, and was most closely related to Mucilaginibacter kameinonensis SCK(T) (95.9 % sequence similarity). On the basis of chemotaxonomic data and molecular properties, strain B9(T) represents a novel species of the genus Mucilaginibacter, for which the name Mucilaginibacter oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B9(T) (=KACC 12816(T) =DSM 19975(T)).

  13. Redox-controlled changes in cadmium solubility and solid-phase speciation in a paddy soil as affected by reducible sulfate and copper.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Beate; Voegelin, Andreas; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2013-11-19

    The solubility of Cd in contaminated paddy soils controls Cd uptake by rice, which is an important food safety issue. We investigated the solution and solid-phase dynamics of Cd in a paddy soil spiked with ∼20 mg kg(-1) Cd during 40 days of soil reduction followed by 28 days of soil reoxidation as a function of the amounts of sulfate available for microbial reduction and of Cu that competes with Cd for precipitation with biogenic sulfide. At an excess of sulfate over (Cd + Cu), dissolved Cd decreased during sulfate reduction and Cd was transformed into a poorly soluble phase identified as Cd-sulfide using Cd K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The extent of Cd-sulfide precipitation decreased with decreasing sulfate and increasing Cu contents, even if sulfate exceeded Cd. When both Cu and Cd exceeded sulfate, dissolved and mobilizable Cd remained elevated after 40 days of soil reduction. During soil reoxidation, Cd-sulfide was readily transformed back into more soluble species. Our data suggest that Cd-sulfide formation in flooded paddy soil may be limited when the amounts of Cd and other chalcophile metals significantly exceed reducible sulfate Therefore, in multimetal contaminated paddy soils with low sulfate contents, Cd may remain labile during soil flooding, which enhances the risk for Cd transfer into rice.

  14. Inconsistent Changes in Microbial Community Structure and Abundance with Biochar Amendment in Rice Paddy Soils from South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Qu, J.; Liu, X.; Zheng, J.; Li, L.; Pan, G.

    2012-04-01

    Effects of biochar amendment on soil microbiota had not yet been well understood. We conducted a cross site field study on biochar amendment to rice paddies from south China in 2010. The experiment was performed with four treatments including N fertilization only (C0N), N fertilization plus biochar at 20t/ha (C1N) and at 40t/ha (C2N) as well as a control without N fertilization and biochar (C0N0) consistently with three sites. Biochar was spread at soil surface and incorporated into soil and thoroughly mixed to depth of about 12cm before padding for rice seedling transplantation. Rice production was conducted with conventional water and nutrient management practices adapting to local climate and cultivar conditions. Topsoil samples were collected from each treatment plot across sites for chemical properties and molecular analysis after rice harvest in autumn of 2010. Contents of organic carbon, total N as well as soil microbial biomass carbon were determined with recommended methods. Quantitative real-time PCR coupled with 16S rRNA gene and 18S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were respectively employed to trace changes in abundance and structure of bacteria and fungi community with biochar amendment. Increase in microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) was not observed in one site but by 10-20% in other two sites while SOC contents were increased by 25-45% in all sites under biochar treatments. Copy numbers of bacterial genes were different between the sites but no changes with biochar treatment in a single site. However, cluster analysis revealed a more or less decreased similarity of bacterial community to the control (ranging from 75% to 85%) by biochar treatment in a single site. Nevertheless, a number of special bands appeared both in bacterial and fungal DGGE patterns under biochar treatments, though varying with site also. While the fungi copy numbers markedly varied both with sites and with biochar treatments, lower similarity and greater

  15. Quantitative and qualitative trapping of arsines deployed to assess loss of volatile arsenic from paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Mestrot, Adrien; Uroic, M Kalle; Plantevin, Thomas; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Jörg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2009-11-01

    Arsenic volatilization in the environment is thought to be an important pathway for transfer from terrestrial pools to the atmosphere. However, this phenomenon is not well characterized due to inherent sampling issues in trapping, quantifying and qualifying these arsine gases; including arsine (AsH(3)), monomethyl arsine (MeAsH(2)), dimethyl arsine (Me(2)AsH) and trimethyl arsine (TMAs). To quantify and qualify arsines in air we developed a novel technique based on silver nitrate impregnated silica gel filled tubes. The method was characterized by measuring the recovery of trapped arsines after elution of this chemo-trap with hot boiling diluted nitric acid. Results from three separate experiments, measured by ICP-MS, showed that the method is reproducible and quantitative. Arsine species recovery ranged from 80.1 to 95.6%, with limit of detection as low as 3.8 ng per chemo-trap tube. Moreover, HPLC-ICP-MS analysis of hot boiling water eluted traps showed that the corresponding oxy ions of the arsines were formed with the As-C bonds of the molecule intact, hence, allowing qualification of trapped arsine species. A microcosm study examining volatile arsenic evolution from field contaminated Bangladeshi paddy soils (24.2 mg/kg arsenic) was used to show the application of silver nitrate chemo-trapping approach. Traps were placed on the inlet and the outlet of microcosms containing the soils that were either (cattle derived) manured or not, or flooded or not, in a factorial design. The headspace was purged with air at a flow rate of 12 mL/min. Results showed that as much as 320 ng of arsenic (0.014% of total soil content) could be emitted in a 3 week period for manured and flooded soils and that TMAs was the dominant species evolved, with lesser quantities of Me(2)AsH. No volatile arsenic evolution was observed for nonmanured treatments, and arsine release from the nonflooded, manured treatment was much less than the flooded treatment.

  16. [Effects of long-term manure and crop residues incorporation on yield and phosphorus saturation in a paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao; Wang, De-Jian; Zhang, Gang; Ran, Jing; Zheng, Ji-Cheng

    2013-08-01

    An 8-year field experiment was conducted in the Taihu Lake region of eastern China to investigate the effects of incorporation of straw and manure on the yield and phosphorus (P) accumulation in the paddy soil, and to evaluate the potential risk of P loss from soil to environment. The experiment had four fertilization treatments, i. e., chemical fertilizers alone (NPK), chemical fertilizers plus rice/wheat straw (NPK + S), chemical fertilizers plus 7.5 t x (hm2 x a)(-1) wet pig manure (NPK + M7.5), and chemical fertilizers plus 15.0 t x (hm2 x a)(-1) wet pig manure (NPK + M15). Among the four treatments, no significant differences were observed in the yield of rice or wheat. Long-term application of chemical fertilizers plus pig manure significantly increased the soil total P, the degree of P saturation (DPS), and the concentration of extractable P forms, including Olsen-P, Mehlich 3 extractable P, CaCl2 extractable P, and water extractable P, which became a potential source of eutrophication in Taihu Lake. In contrast to chemical fertilizers plus pig manure, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of extractable P forms between the NPK + S and NPK treatments. We concludes that chemical fertilizers [P 45 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1)] plus rice/wheat straw should be recommended in the paddy soil in the Taihu Lake region under the rice-wheat rotation system.

  17. Quantitative analyses of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) large-subunit genes (cbbL) in typical paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke-Qing; Bao, Peng; Bao, Qiong-Li; Jia, Yan; Huang, Fu-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2014-01-01

    The Calvin cycle is known to be the major pathway for CO2 fixation, but our current understanding of its occurrence and importance in paddy soils is poor. In this study, the diversity of three ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large-subunit genes (cbbLG, cbbLR, cbbM) was investigated by clone library, T-RFLP, qPCR, and enzyme assay in five paddy soils in China. The cbbLG sequences revealed a relatively low level of diversity and were mostly related to the sequences of species from Thiobacillus. In contrast, highly diverse cbbLR and cbbM sequences were dispersed on the phylogenetic trees, and most of them were distantly related to known sequences, even forming separate clusters. Abundances of three cbbL genes ranged from 10(6) to 10(9) copies g(-1) soil, and cbbLR outnumbered cbbM and cbbLG in all soil samples, indicating that cbbLR may play a more important role than other two cbbL genes. Soil properties significantly influenced cbbL diversity in five paddy soils, of which clay content, C/N ratio, CEC, pH, and SOC correlated well with variations in microbial composition and abundance. In summary, this study provided a comparison of three cbbL genes, advancing our understanding of their role in carbon sequestration and nutrient turnover in the paddy soil.

  18. Influence of heavy metals and PCBs pollution on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils around an e-waste recycling workshop.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xianjin; Hashmi, Muhammad Z; Long, Dongyan; Chen, Litao; Khan, Muhammad I; Shen, Chaofeng

    2014-03-14

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to e-waste there is concern about the quality of paddy soils near e-waste workshops. The levels of heavy metals and PCBs and their influence on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils obtained from the immediate vicinity of an e-waste workshop were investigated in the present study. The results indicated that the heavy metal and PCB pollution did not differ significantly with an increase of the sampling point distances (5 to 30 m). The concentration of Cd (2.16 mg·kg-1) and Cu (69.2 mg·kg-1) were higher, and the PCB pollution was also serious, ranging from 4.9 to 21.6 μg·kg-1. The highest enzyme activity was found for urease compared to phosphatase and catalase, and a fluctuating trend in soil enzyme activity was observed in soils from different sampling sites. The microbial analysis revealed that there was no apparent correlation between the microbial community and the pollutants. However, a slight influence for soil microbial communities could be found based on DGGE, the Shannon index and PCA analysis. The present study suggests that the contamination stress of heavy metals and PCBs might have a slight influence on microbial activity in paddy soils. This study provides the baseline data for enzyme activities and microbial communities in paddy soil under the influence of mixed contamination.

  19. Influence of Heavy Metals and PCBs Pollution on the Enzyme Activity and Microbial Community of Paddy Soils around an E-Waste Recycling Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xianjin; Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Long, Dongyan; Chen, Litao; Khan, Muhammad I.; Shen, Chaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the emerging environmental issues related to e-waste there is concern about the quality of paddy soils near e-waste workshops. The levels of heavy metals and PCBs and their influence on the enzyme activity and microbial community of paddy soils obtained from the immediate vicinity of an e-waste workshop were investigated in the present study. The results indicated that the heavy metal and PCB pollution did not differ significantly with an increase of the sampling point distances (5 to 30 m). The concentration of Cd (2.16 mg·kg−1) and Cu (69.2 mg·kg−1) were higher, and the PCB pollution was also serious, ranging from 4.9 to 21.6 μg·kg−1. The highest enzyme activity was found for urease compared to phosphatase and catalase, and a fluctuating trend in soil enzyme activity was observed in soils from different sampling sites. The microbial analysis revealed that there was no apparent correlation between the microbial community and the pollutants. However, a slight influence for soil microbial communities could be found based on DGGE, the Shannon index and PCA analysis. The present study suggests that the contamination stress of heavy metals and PCBs might have a slight influence on microbial activity in paddy soils. This study provides the baseline data for enzyme activities and microbial communities in paddy soil under the influence of mixed contamination. PMID:24637907

  20. Winter runoff losses of phosphorus from paddy soils in the Taihu Lake Region of South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanchao; Cao, Zhihong; Wang, Gaiping; Zhang, Hongai; Wong, M H

    2003-09-01

    A winter wheat field plot experiment was conducted on two types of paddy soils, from November, 2000 to June, 2001 to assess P losses to its surrounding watercourses by runoff in the Taihu Lake Region. Commercial NPK compound fertilizer and single superphosphate fertilizer were applied to furnish 0, 20, 80, and 160 kg P ha(-1). The experiments consisted of six replicates of each treatment in Changshu site and four replicates in Anzhen site, with a plot size of 5x6 m2 in a randomized block design. Results revealed that the average concentration of dissolved P (DP), particulate P (PP), and total P (TP) in runoff water during the winter season was 0.13, 0.90 and 1.04 mg P l(-1) respectively, from P20 plots in Anzhen site. While it was 0.67, 1.08 and 1.75 mg P l(-1) respectively, from P20 plots in Changshu site. The seasonal TP load (mass loss) from P20 plot ranged from a low of 290.88 g P ha(-1)season(-1) to a high of 483.54 g P ha(-1)season(-1), with a mean of 382.29 g P ha(-1)season(-1) in Anzhen, but from 444.92 to 752.21 g P ha(-1)season(-1), with a mean of 539.13 g P ha(-1)season(-1) in Changshu. Both in Anzhen and Changshu PP represented a major portion of the TP lost in runoff, the average PP/TP was about more than 80% in P0 and P20 plot, but it was decreased with the increase of P rate. The average seasonal P loads (DP, PP, and TP) in Changshu were greater than in Anzhen although runoff volume in Anzhen (45 mm season(-1)) was more than in Changshu (36 mm season(-1)). This was probably associated with the differences of soil physical and chemical properties between the two sites. Phosphate fertilizer rate significantly affected P concentrations and P loads by runoff. Both the mean concentrations and the average seasonal P loads from the P80 plots were lower than from the P160 plots, but obviously higher than from the P20 and P0 plots. There was no significant difference found between the P20 plots and the P0 plots both in Anzhen and Changshu sites. It indicated

  1. Forces and Straw Cutting Performance of Double Disc Furrow Opener in No-Till Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Fiaz; Weimin, Ding; Qishuo, Ding; Hussain, Mubshar; Jabran, Khawar

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage is an energy efficient and low cost tillage system to improve soil environment compared with conventional tillage systems. However, the rice residue management becomes an “impossible to achieve” task due to high soil moisture content at harvest time and the thickness of rice straw. Disc type furrow openers are used for both seed drilling as well as straw cutting during no tillage sowing. A study was conducted to evaluate the draft requirement and straw cutting performances of different sized furrow openers in no-till paddy soil conditions. Double disc furrow opener was tested on an in-field traction bench for three working depths, i.e. 30, 60 and 90 mm, and three forwarding speeds, i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s. The draft and vertical forces on the disc were recorded with load cells. These sensors were connected to a data acquisition system developed with hardware and software. The results revealed that the size of the furrow opener, operating depth and the forwarding speed had significant effects (P<0.05) on the horizontal and vertical forces, and the straw cutting performance. Mean values of the draft were 648.9, 737.2 and 784.6 N for the opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm respectively, and the vertical forces for similar openers were 904.7, 1553.9 and 1620.4 N, respectively. Furthermore, the mean straw cutting efficiencies for the double disc opener with diameters of 330, 450 and 600 mm were 39.36, 78.47 and 65.46%, respectively. The opener with 450 mm diameter provided higher straw cutting efficiency as compared to 600 mm diameter disc, while lowest straw cutting efficiency was observed with 330 mm diameter disc. The 450 mm diameter opener provided the highest straw cutting efficiency (88.6%) at 90 mm working depth and expressed optimum performance compared with other furrow openers. PMID:25822984

  2. Brevibacillus halotolerans sp. nov., isolated from saline soil sample collected from paddy field.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinlong; Wang, Yanwei; Song, Yi; Zhao, Bingqiang; Wang, Huimin; Zhou, Shan; Kong, Delong; Guo, Xiang; Li, Yanting; He, Mingxiong; Ma, Kedong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Yan, Yanchun

    2016-10-17

    Two novel aerobic bacteria, designated strains LAM0312T and LAM0313, were isolated from saline soil sample collected from paddy field in Dezhou city, Shandong Province in China. The Cells of these strains were Gram-stain positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped and motile with peritrichous flagella. The optimal growth temperature and pH were 30 ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, repesctively. Strain LAM0312T was found to be able to grow in the presence of 12 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids of strains were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0. The dominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, glycolipids, five unidentitied lipids and phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was identified as menaquinone-7. The G+C content of genomic DNA of strains LAM0312T and LAM0313 were 45.0 mol% and 46.0 mol%, respectively as determined by the Tm method. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis indicated that the strains were closely related to Brevibacillus laterosporus DSM 25T and Brevibacillus fluminis JCM 15716T with 98.5 % and 96.4 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain LAM0312T and LAM0313 was 92 ± 0.6 % (reciprocal 90 ± 0.2 %)and the value between LAM0312T andBrevibacillus laterosporus DSM 25T was 48 ± 0.5 % (reciprocal 40 ± 0.4 %). On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the strains are proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Brevibacillus, for which the name Brevibacillus halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM0312T (=ACCC 06527T =JCM 30849T).

  3. Sewage sludge biochar influence upon rice (Oryza sativa L) yield, metal bioaccumulation and greenhouse gas emissions from acidic paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sardar; Chao, Cai; Waqas, Muhammad; Arp, Hans Peter H; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-08-06

    Biochar addition to soil has been proposed to improve plant growth by increasing soil fertility, minimizing bioaccumulation of toxic metal(liod)s and mitigating climate change. Sewage sludge (SS) is an attractive, though potentially problematic, feedstock of biochar. It is attractive because of its large abundance; however, it contains elevated concentrations of metal(loid)s and other contaminants. The pyrolysis of SS to biochar (SSBC) may be a way to reduce the availability of these contaminants to the soil and plants. Using rice plant pot experiments, we investigated the influence of SSBC upon biomass yield, bioaccumulation of nutrients, and metal(loid)s, and green housegas (GHG) emissions. SSBC amendments increased soil pH, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon and available nutrients and decreased bioavailable As, Cr, Co, Ni, and Pb (but not Cd, Cu, and Zn). Regarding rice plant properties, SSBC amendments significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased shoot biomass (71.3-92.2%), grain yield (148.8-175.1%), and the bioaccumulation of phosphorus and sodium, though decreased the bioaccumulation of nitrogen (except in grain) and potassium. Amendments of SSBC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the bioaccumulation of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb, but increased that of Cd and Zn, though not above limits set by Chinese regulations. Finally regarding GHG emissions, SSBC significantly (P < 0.01) reduced N2O emissions and stimulated the uptake/oxidation of CH4 enough to make both the cultivated and uncultivated paddy soil a CH4 sink. SSBC can be beneficial in rice paddy soil but the actual associated benefits will depend on site-specific conditions and source of SS; long-term effects remain a further unknown.

  4. Co-occurrence and distribution of nitrite-dependent anaerobic ammonium and methane-oxidizing bacteria in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Guibing; Harhangi, Harry R; Zhu, Baoli; Jetten, Mike S M; Yin, Chengqing; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2012-11-01

    The anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) and nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing (n-damo) bacteria in a paddy soil core (0-100 cm) were investigated with newly designed primers targeting the hydrazine synthase β-subunit (hzsB) of anammox bacteria and the recently published primers targeting the pmoA and 16S rRNA genes of n-damo bacteria. The hzsB gene was identified as a proper biomarker to explore the anammox bacterial biodiversity and abundance in soil. The anammox bacteria were present throughout the soil core with the highest abundance of 2.7 × 10(6) hzsB copies g(-1) dry soil at 40-50 cm and were not detectable below 70 cm. Sequences related to at least three species of known anammox bacteria, 'Brocadia anammoxidans', 'Brocadia fulgida', and 'Jettenia asiatica' were detected. By combining the analysis of pmoA and 16S rRNA genes, the n-damo bacteria were observed to be present in 30-70 cm with abundance from 6.5 × 10(3) (60-70 cm) to 7.5 × 10(4) (30-40 cm) copies g(-1) dry soil. The pmoA sequences retrieved from different depths closely related to each other and formed a unique clade. Our results showed that anammox and n-damo bacteria co-occurred in the paddy soil. Both of them were abundant in deep layers (30-60 cm) and the community structures changed along depths in the soil core.

  5. Partitioning of arsenic in soil-crop systems irrigated using groundwater: a case study of rice paddy soils in southwestern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Ming; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Huang, You-Tuan; Liao, Chien-Sen; Hseu, Zeng-Yei

    2012-02-01

    The accumulation of As in rice due to groundwater irrigation in paddy fields represents a serious health hazard in South and Southeast Asia. In Taiwan, the fate of As in long-term irrigated paddy fields is poorly understood. Groundwater, surface soil, and rice samples were collected from a paddy field that was irrigated with As-containing groundwater in southwestern Taiwan. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the source and sink of As in the paddy field by comparing the As fractions in the soils that were obtained by a sequential extraction procedure (SEP) with the As uptake of rice. The risks associated with eating rice from the field can thus be better understood. The concentration of As in groundwater varied with time throughout the growing seasons of rice, but always exceeded the permitted maximum (10 μg L(-1)) for drinking water by the WHO. The As concentration increased with the concentration of Fe in the groundwater, supporting the claim that a large amount of As was concentrated in the Fe flocs collected from the internal wall of the groundwater pump. The results of the SEP revealed that As bound with amorphous and crystalline hydrous oxides exhibited high availability in the soils. The root of rice accumulated the largest amount of As, followed by the straw, husk, and grain. Although the As concentration in the rice grain was less than 1.0 mg kg(-1), the estimated intake level was close to the maximum tolerable daily intake of As, as specified by the WHO.

  6. Effect of rice straw application on microbial community and activity in paddy soil under different water status.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fuxia; Li, Yaying; Chapman, Stephen James; Yao, Huaiying

    2016-03-01

    Rice straw application and flooding are common practices in rice production, both of which can induce changes in the microbial community. This study used soil microcosms to investigate the impact of water status (saturated and nonsaturated) and straw application (10 g kg(-1) soil) on soil microbial composition (phospholipid fatty acid analysis) and activity (MicroResp(™) method). Straw application significantly increased total PLFA amount and individual PLFA components independent of soil moisture level. The amount of soil fungal PLFA was less than Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and actinomycete PLFA, except the drained treatment with rice straw application, which had higher fungal PLFA than actinomycete PLFA at the initial incubation stage. Straw amendment and waterlogging had different effects on microbial community structure and substrate-induced pattern. PLFA profiles were primarily influenced by straw application, whereas soil water status had the greater influence on microbial respiration. Of the variation in PLFA and respiration data, straw accounted for 30.1 and 16.7 %, while soil water status explained 7.5 and 29.1 %, respectively. Our results suggest that (1) the size of microbial communities in paddy soil is more limited by carbon substrate availability rather than by the anaerobic conditions due to waterlogging and (2) that soil water status is more important as a control of fungal growth and microbial community activity.

  7. The influence of continuous rice cultivation and different waterlogging periods on morphology, clay mineralogy, Eh, pH and K in paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Bahmanyar, M A

    2007-09-01

    The effect of different rice cultivation periods on the properties of selected soils in alluvial plain were studied in Mazandaran province (north of Iran) in 2004. Soils were sampled form 0, 6, 16, 26 and over 40 years rice cultivation fields. In each treatment three soil profiles and six nearby auger holes were studied. The present study results indicated that continuous rice cultivation have changed soil moisture regime from xeric to aquic, soil color from brown to grayish, surface horizons from mollic to ochric epipedon and soil structure changed from granular or blocky to massive. Therefore, the soil order has changed from Mollisols to Inceptisols. No illuviation and eluviation of clay minerals occurred as a consequence of rice cultivation. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that clay minerals in non-rice cultivated field were illite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and chlorite, but in rice field were illite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and chlorite, respectively. In contrast of montmorillonite, the amount of illite and vermiculite have been decreased by increasing periods of rice cultivation. The pH values of the saturated soil surface in six weeks past plantation have shifted toward neutrality. While Eh value of non-paddy soils were about +90 mv, surface horizons of paddy soils at field conditions had Eh value about +40, -12, -84, -122 mv, respectively. The amounts of organic matter and available Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were increased whereas available K was decreased in paddy soils.

  8. The Potential of Soft Soil Improvement Through a Coupled Technique Between Electro Kinetic and Alkaline Activation of Soft Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, G. E.; Ismail, H. B.; Huat, B. K.; Afshin, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2016-07-01

    Soil stabilization techniques have been in development for decades with different rates of success. Alkaline activation of soft soil is one of those techniques that has proved to deliver some of the best shear strength values with minor drawbacks in comparison with conventional soil stabilization methods. However, environmental considerations have not been taken into account, as major mineral glassy phase activators are poisoning alkaline solutions, such as sodium-, potassium-hydroxide, and sodium-, potassium-silicate, which poses serious hazards to man and environment. This paper addresses the ways of discarding the involvement of the aforementioned alkaline solutions in soft soil stabilization by investigating the potential of a coupled electro kinetic alkaline activation technique for soft soil strengthening, through which the provision of alkaline pH is governed by electro kinetic potential. Uncertainties in regard to the dissolution of aluminosilicate as well as the dominance of acidic front are challenges that need to be overcome.

  9. Bacterial Populations Colonizing and Degrading Rice Straw in Anoxic Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Sabine; Stubner, Stephan; Conrad, Ralf

    2001-01-01

    Rice straw is a major substrate for the production of methane, a greenhouse gas, in flooded rice fields. The bacterial community degrading rice straw under anoxic conditions was investigated with molecular methods. Rice straw was incubated in paddy soil anaerobically for 71 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the composition of the bacterial community changed during the first 15 days but then was stable until the end of incubation. Fifteen DGGE bands with different signal intensities were excised, cloned, and sequenced. In addition, DNA was extracted from straw incubated for 1 and 29 days and the bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified and cloned. From these clone libraries 16 clones with different electrophoretic mobilities on a DGGE gel were sequenced. From a total of 31 clones, 20 belonged to different phylogenetic clusters of the clostridia, i.e., clostridial clusters I (14 clones), III (1 clone), IV (1 clone), and XIVa (4 clones). One clone fell also within the clostridia but could not be affiliated to one of the clostridial clusters. Ten clones grouped closely with the genera Bacillus (3 clones), Nitrosospira (1 clone), Fluoribacter (1 clones), and Acidobacterium (2 clones) and with clone sequences previously obtained from rice field soil (3 clones). The relative abundances of various phylogenetic groups in the rice straw-colonizing community were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bacteria were detached from the incubated rice straw with an efficiency of about 80 to 90%, as determined by dot blot hybridization of 16S rRNA in extract and residue. The number of active (i.e., a sufficient number of ribosomes) Bacteria detected with a general eubacterial probe (Eub338) after 8 days of incubation was 61% of the total cell counts. This percentage decreased to 17% after 29 days of incubation. Most (55%) of the active cells on day 8 belonged to the genus Clostridium, mainly

  10. Carbon decomposition process of the residual biomass in the paddy soil of a single-crop rice field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Iwata, T.

    2014-12-01

    In cultivated fields, residual organic matter is plowed into soil after harvest and decaying in fallow season. Greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 is generated by the decomposition of the substantial organic matter and released into the atmosphere. In some fields, open burning is carried out by tradition, when carbon in residual matter is released into atmosphere as CO2. However, burning effect on carbon budget between crop lands and atmosphere is not entirely considered yet. In this study, coarse organic matter (COM) in paddy soil of a single-crop rice field was sampled on regular intervals between January, 2011 and August, 2014 The amount of carbon release from residual matter was estimated by analyzing of the variations in carbon content of COM. Effects of soil temperature (Ts) and soil water content (SWC) at the paddy field on the rate of carbon decomposition was investigated. Though decreasing rate of COM was much smaller in winter season, it is accelerated at the warming season between April and June every year. Decomposition was resisted for next rice cultivated season despite of highest soil temperature. In addition, the observational field was divided into two areas, and three time open burning experiments were conducted in November, 2011, 2012, and 2013. In each year, three sampling surveys, or plants before harvest and residuals before and after the burning experiment, were done. From these surveys, it is suggested that about 48±2% of carbon contents of above-ground plant was yield out as grain by harvest, and about 27±2% of carbon emitted as CO2 by burning. Carbon content of residuals plowed into soil after the harvest was estimated 293±1 and 220±36gC/m2 in no-burned and burned area, respectively, based on three-years average. It is estimated that 70 and 60% of the first input amount of COM was decomposed after a year in no-burned and burned area, respectively.

  11. Estimating CH4 emission from paddy managed soils in southern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria using an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpeokhai, Agatha; Menz, Gunter; Thonfeld, Frank; Akinluyi, Francis

    2016-04-01

    ESTIMATING CH4 EMISSION FROM PADDY MANAGED SOILS IN SOUTHERN GUINEA SAVANNA ZONE OF NIGERIA USING AN INTEGRATED APPROACH Akpeokhai Agatha 1, Menz Gunter 1, Thonfeld Frank 1, Akinluyi Francis 2 1 Remote Sensing Research Group (RSRG), Geography Institute, University of Bonn, Germany. 2 Department Remote Sensing and Geo-Science Information System, School of Earth and Mineral Science, Federal University of Technology, Akure Nigeria. Methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases as it has the second greatest climate forcing potential. Paddy fields have been identified to be sources of methane and Nigerian paddies are not left out. In Nigeria, the guinea savanna region is regarded as the bread basket of the nation and this area is one of the major rice producing regions in Nigeria. Its location in the food basket region of the country makes this part a very important study site. However, since Nigerian paddies contribute to methane emission by how much do these paddies contribute to the emissions? Also, so far, there limited studies on methane from rice fields in West Africa thus making this study a very important start off point. To answer this huge question, methane emission will be estimated using an integrated approach in the North Central part of Nigeria. Land use change cultivated to rice was analysed using Remote sensing techniques to determine the changes in land cultivated to rice. Methane emission from these identified rice fields will be estimated using the IPCC Tier 1 set of equations. First relevant indices (Normalized Differential Moisture Index, Normalized Differential Wetness Index and Rice Growth Vegetation Index) were generated to aid classification of rice fields using LANDSAT data from the USGS. Next the LANDSAT datasets were analyzed for land use change cultivated to rice from 1990 to 2014 to generate rice field maps. ERDAS Imagine, ARCGIS and ENVI tools were used to meet these spatial needs. Methane emissions from this region will be

  12. [Effects of no-tillage and stubble-remaining on soil enzyme activities in broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field].

    PubMed

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Huang, Yun; Wu, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Dai-Yin; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2011-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of four cultivation modes (conventional tillage, no-tillage, conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, and no-tillage + stubble-remaining) on the activities of urease, acid phosphatase, protease, and cellulose in different soil layers in a broadcasting rice seedlings paddy field. Under the four cultivation modes, the activities of test enzymes were higher in upper than in deeper soil layers, and had a greater difference between the soil layers under no-tillage + stubble-remaining. In upper soil layers, the activities of test enzymes were higher in the treatments of no-tillage than in the treatments of conventional tillage, being the highest under no-tillage + stubble-remaining and the lowest under conventional tillage. In deeper soil layers, the test enzyme activities were the highest under conventional tillage + stubble-remaining, followed by no-tillage + stubble-remaining, no-tillage, and conventional tillage. During the growth period of rice, soil urease and cellulose activities were lower at tillering stage, increased to the maximum at booting stage, and decreased then, soil acid phosphatase activity was higher at tillering stage but lower at elongating stage, whereas soil protease activity peaked at tillering and heading stages.

  13. Fate of organic carbon in paddy soils - results of Alisol and Andosol incubation with 13C marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Pauline; Cerli, Chiara; Fiedler, Sabine; Woche, Susanne; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Jahn, Reinhold; Kalbitz, Karsten; Kaiser, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    For a better understanding of organic carbon (OC) decomposition in paddy soils an incubation experiment was performed. Two soil types with contrasting mineralogy (Alisol and Andosol) were exposed to 8 anoxic‒oxic cycles over 1 year. Soils received rice straw marked with 13C (228 ‰) at the beginning of each cycle. A second set of samples without straw addition was used as control. Headspaces of the incubation vessels were regularly analysed for CO2 and CH4. In soil solutions, redox potential, pH, dissolved organic C (DOC), and Fe2+ were measured after each anoxic and each oxic phase. Soils were fractionated by density at the end of the experiment and the different fractions were isotopically analysed. Samples of genuine paddy soils that developed from the test soils were used as reference. During anoxic cycles, soils receiving rice straw released large amounts of CO2 and CH4, indicating strong microbial activity. Consequently, Eh values dropped and pH as well as Fe2+ concentrations increased. Concentrations of DOC were relatively small, indicating either strong consumption and/or strong retention of dissolved organic compounds. During oxic cycles, concentrations of dissolved Fe dropped in both soils while DOC concentrations remained constant in the Alisol and decreased in the Andosol. Density fractionation revealed increased contents of mineral associated OC for the Andosol incubated with straw addition as compared to the parent soil. No changes were found for the Alisol. However, the mineral-associated OC fraction of both soil types contained 13C of the added straw. Hence, fresh organic matter is incorporated while part of the older organic matter has been released or mineralized. The increase in the Andosol might be due to effective binding of fresh OC to minerals and/or stronger retention/preservation of older OC. Both could be explained by the more reactive mineralogy of the Andosol than of the Alisol. XPS analyses of the soils are currently performed and

  14. H2-Producing Bacterial Community during Rice Straw Decomposition in Paddy Field Soil: Estimation by an Analysis of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Gene Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Baba, Ryuko; Asakawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-09-29

    The transcription patterns of [FeFe]-hydrogenase genes (hydA), which encode the enzymes responsible for H2 production, were investigated during rice straw decomposition in paddy soil using molecular biological techniques. Paddy soil amended with and without rice straw was incubated under anoxic conditions. RNA was extracted from the soil, and three clone libraries of hydA were constructed using RNAs obtained from samples in the initial phase of rice straw decomposition (day 1 with rice straw), methanogenic phase of rice straw decomposition (day 14 with rice straw), and under a non-amended condition (day 14 without rice straw). hydA genes related to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Thermotogae were mainly transcribed in paddy soil samples; however, their proportions markedly differed among the libraries. Deltaproteobacteria-related hydA genes were predominantly transcribed on day 1 with rice straw, while various types of hydA genes related to several phyla were transcribed on day 14 with rice straw. Although the diversity of transcribed hydA was significantly higher in the library on day 14 with rice straw than the other two libraries, the composition of hydA transcripts in the library was similar to that in the library on day 14 without rice straw. These results indicate that the composition of active H2 producers and/or H2 metabolic patterns dynamically change during rice straw decomposition in paddy soil.

  15. H2-Producing Bacterial Community during Rice Straw Decomposition in Paddy Field Soil: Estimation by an Analysis of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Gene Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Ryuko; Asakawa, Susumu; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The transcription patterns of [FeFe]-hydrogenase genes (hydA), which encode the enzymes responsible for H2 production, were investigated during rice straw decomposition in paddy soil using molecular biological techniques. Paddy soil amended with and without rice straw was incubated under anoxic conditions. RNA was extracted from the soil, and three clone libraries of hydA were constructed using RNAs obtained from samples in the initial phase of rice straw decomposition (day 1 with rice straw), methanogenic phase of rice straw decomposition (day 14 with rice straw), and under a non-amended condition (day 14 without rice straw). hydA genes related to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Thermotogae were mainly transcribed in paddy soil samples; however, their proportions markedly differed among the libraries. Deltaproteobacteria-related hydA genes were predominantly transcribed on day 1 with rice straw, while various types of hydA genes related to several phyla were transcribed on day 14 with rice straw. Although the diversity of transcribed hydA was significantly higher in the library on day 14 with rice straw than the other two libraries, the composition of hydA transcripts in the library was similar to that in the library on day 14 without rice straw. These results indicate that the composition of active H2 producers and/or H2 metabolic patterns dynamically change during rice straw decomposition in paddy soil. PMID:27319579

  16. Temporal variability in trace metal solubility in a paddy soil not reflected in uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Pan, Yunyu; Koopmans, Gerwin F; Bonten, Luc T C; Song, Jing; Luo, Yongming; Temminghoff, Erwin J M; Comans, Rob N J

    2016-12-01

    Alternating flooding and drainage conditions have a strong influence on redox chemistry and the solubility of trace metals in paddy soils. However, current knowledge of how the effects of water management on trace metal solubility are linked to trace metal uptake by rice plants over time is still limited. Here, a field-contaminated paddy soil was subjected to two flooding and drainage cycles in a pot experiment with two rice plant cultivars, exhibiting either high or low Cd accumulation characteristics. Flooding led to a strong vertical gradient in the redox potential (Eh). The pH and Mn, Fe, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations increased with decreasing Eh and vice versa. During flooding, trace metal solubility decreased markedly, probably due to sulfide mineral precipitation. Despite its low solubility, the Cd content in rice grains exceeded the food quality standards for both cultivars. Trace metal contents in different rice plant tissues (roots, stem, and leaves) increased at a constant rate during the first flooding and drainage cycle but decreased after reaching a maximum during the second cycle. As such, the high temporal variability in trace metal solubility was not reflected in trace metal uptake by rice plants over time. This might be due to the presence of aerobic conditions and a consequent higher trace metal solubility near the root surface, even during flooding. Trace metal solubility in the rhizosphere should be considered when linking water management to trace metal uptake by rice over time.

  17. Hexachlorobenzene dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer and urea applications in two rice planted paddy soils in a pot experiment.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Y; Jiang, X; Yang, X L; Song, Y

    2010-01-15

    Reductive dechlorination is a crucial pathway for HCB degradation, the applications of organic materials and nitrogen can alter microbial activity and redox potential of soils, thus probably influence HCB dechlorination. To evaluate hexachlorobenzene (HCB) dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer (OF) and urea applications in planted paddy soils, a pot experiment was conducted in two types of soils, Hydragric Acrisols (Ac) and Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols (An). After 18 weeks of experiment, HCB residues decreased by 28.2-37.5% of the initial amounts in Ac, and 42.1-70.9% in An. The amounts of HCB metabolites showed that dechlorination rates in An were higher than in Ac, which was mainly attributed to the higher pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of An. Both in Ac and An, the additions of 1% and 2% OF had negative effect on HCB dechlorination, which was probably because excessive nitrogen in OF decreased degraders' activity and the degradation of organic carbon in OF accepted electrons. The application of 0.03% urea could enhance HCB dechlorination rates slightly, while 0.06% urea accelerated HCB dechlorination significantly both in Ac and An. It could be assumed that urea served as an electron donor and stimulated degraders to dechlorinate HCB. In addition, the methanogenic bacteria were involved in dechlorination process, and reductive dechlorination in planted paddy soil might be impeded for the aerenchyma and O(2) supply into the rhizosphere. Results indicated that soil types, rice root system, methanogenic bacteria, OF and urea applications all had great effects on dechlorination process.

  18. Influence of fertilizers applied to a paddy-upland rotation on characteristics of soil organic carbon and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Chang Chien, S W; Wang, M C; Hsu, J H; Seshaiah, K

    2006-09-06

    The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and related humic acids (HAs) extracted from the soils of field plots were investigated after 8 years of annual paddy (Oryza sativa L.) and upland maize (Zea mays L.) rotation with various fertilizations. Seven fertilization treatments were selected: Ck (no inputs); Chem (chemical fertilizer of NPK); Comp (swine compost); Comp + 33% of Chem N rate; Comp + 67% of Chem N rate; GM (legume green manure) + 33% of Chem N rate; and peat + 33% of Chem N rate. Organic and inorganic nitrogen inputs of six treatments were equivalent with respect of nitrogen content, but Comp, GM, and peat treatments were complemented with various amounts of inorganic N. After harvest of the eighth paddy crop, surface soil samples collected from the plots were subjected to soil characterizations and extraction of humic substances, which were used for chemical, spectroscopic (FTIR, 13C NMR, ESR, X-ray diffractometry), delta13C, and 14C dating analyses. The yields of HAs extracted from the seven treatments were significantly different. Treatment containing persistent organic compound such as the peat + 33% N treatment increased the humification process in topsoils and produced higher yield of HA. Spectroscopic analyses revealed that fertilization treatments changed the functional groups, alkyl C, crystalline characteristics, and delta13C ratios of HAs and turnover rate of SOC considerably. The SOC of the peat + 33% N treatment had the highest mean residence time of 3100 years. Various fertilizer treatments are correlated with turnover rate of SOC and related HAs, which are associated with concerned carbon sequestration as well as mitigation of CO2 emission in the soil environment.

  19. Physical characteristics of alkaline stabilized sewage sludge (N-viro soil) and their effects on soil physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, T.J.; Harrison, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The N-Viro process for alkaline stabilization of municipal sewage sludge combines dewatered sludge with one or more alkaline industrial byproducts and destroys pathogens by a combination of high pH, heat, and drying. The final product, N-Viro Soil, is a soil-like material that is being used as an agricultural lime substitute, soil amendment, and soil substitute. Physical characteristics of 28 N-Viro Soils were determined and compared to those of mineral soils. Results are described. 24 refs., 10 tabs.

  20. [Effects of long-term fertilization on reddish paddy soil quality and its evaluation in a typical double-rice cropping region of China].

    PubMed

    Nie, Jun; Yang, Zeng-Ping; Zheng, Sheng-Xian; Liao, Yu-Lin; Xie, Jian; Xiang, Yan-Wen

    2010-06-01

    In order to quantify the effects of 27 years application of chemical fertilizers, pig manure, and rice straw on the reddish paddy soil quality in double rice cropping region, the indices of soil bulk density, porosity, maximum water holding capacity, normalized mean weight diameter, pH, cation exchange capacity, available nutrients, organic matter, microbial biomass C, enzyme activities, and rice yield were selected as the evaluation indicators, and classified into four functional groups, i. e., resistance to physical degradation, plant nutrients supply and storage, resistance to biochemical degradation, and sustaining of crop productivity. The soil quality index (SQI) was calculated based on the four functional groups. The results showed that the SQI ranged from 0.544 in treatment CK to 0.729 in treatment NPK plus rice straw. Treatments PK, NP, and NK induced soil degradation, compared to treatment NPK. The deficiencies of soil P and K were the main limiting factors for the double rice productivity in reddish paddy soil area. Even though 30 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of pig manure and 4.2 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of rice straw were applied, the soil P and K were still not adequate for the requirement of rice growth. There was no obvious effect of long-term application of lime on the reddish paddy soil quality. The combined application of NPK with organic manure was an important and effective measure in improving soil quality in double rice cropping regions of Southern China.

  1. A humic substance analogue AQDS stimulates Geobacter sp. abundance and enhances pentachlorophenol transformation in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Manjia; Tong, Hui; Liu, Chengshuai; Chen, Dandan; Li, Fangbai; Qiao, Jiangtao

    2016-10-01

    Soil humic substances can be used as redox mediators in accelerating the biotransformation of organic pollutants, and humus-respiring bacteria are widely distributed in soils. However, the impact of humic substances on the soil microbial community during the biotransformation of organic pollutants is expected to be crucial while remains to be unclear. In this study, the biostimulation of indigenous microbial communities and the consequent effects on anaerobic transformation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by a model humic substance, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), were systematically investigated in a paddy soil. The addition of AQDS was observed to increase the production of HCl-extractable Fe(II) and enhance the PCP transformation rates consequently. The pseudo-first-order rate constants of the PCP transformation showed a positive exponential relationship with the AQDS dosage. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) results indicated the substantial effect of added AQDS on soil microbial community. The enhanced abundance of Geobacter sp. was disclosed to be most critical for accelerated PCP transformation when with AQDS, in which Geobacter sp. functioned for promoting the generation of active Fe(II) and consequently enhancing the PCP transformation rates. The transformation rates of PCP were exponentially correlated with the abundance of Geobacter sp. positively. The findings are expected to improve the understanding of diversity and ubiquity of microorganisms in humic substances-rich soils for accelerating the transformations of soil chlorinated pollutants.

  2. Impact of S fertilizers on pore-water Cu dynamics and transformation in a contaminated paddy soil with various flooding periods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianjun; Zhu, Shenhai; Zheng, Cuiqing; Sun, Lijuan; Liu, Jin; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-04-09

    Impact of S fertilization on Cu mobility and transformation in contaminated paddy soils has been little reported. In this study, we investigated the dynamics and transformation of dissolved and colloidal Cu in the pore water of a contaminated paddy soil after applying ammonium sulphate (AS) and sulfur coated urea (SCU) with various flooding periods (1, 7 and 60 days). Compared to the control soil, the AS-treated soil released more colloidal and dissolved Cu over the entire flooding period, while the SCU-treated soil had lower colloidal Cu after 7-day flooding but higher colloidal and dissolved Cu after 60-day flooding. Microscopic X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analysis found a close relationship between Fe and Cu distribution on soil colloids after 60-day flooding, implying the formation of colloidal Fe/Cu sulphide coprecipitates. Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy directly revealed the transformation of outer-sphere complexed Cu(II) species to Cu(II) sulphide and reduced Cu2O in the colloids of S-treated soils after 60-day flooding. These results demonstrated the great influence of S fertilization on pore-water Cu mobility by forming Cu sulphide under flooding conditions, which facilitated our understanding and control of Cu loss in contaminated paddy soils under S fertilization.

  3. Effect of long-term paddy-upland yearly rotations on rice (Oryza sativa) yield, soil properties, and bacteria community diversity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Zheng, Xi; Wang, Dangying; Chen, Liping; Xu, Chunmei; Zhang, Xiufu

    2012-01-01

    A 10-year-long field trial (between 2001 and 2010) was conducted to investigate the effect of paddy-upland rotation on rice yield, soil properties, and bacteria community diversity. Six types of paddy-upland crop rotations were evaluated: rice-fallow (control; CK), rice-rye grass (RR), rice-potato with rice straw mulches (RP), rice-rapeseed with straw incorporated into soil at flowering (ROF), rice-rapeseed incorporated in soil after harvest (ROM), and rice-Chinese milk vetch (RC). Analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was used to determine microbial diversity among rotations. Rice yield increased for upland crops planted during the winter. RC had the highest average yield of 7.74 t/ha, followed by RR, RP, ROM, and ROF. Soil quality differences among rotations were found. RC and RP improved the soil mean weight diameter (MWD), which suggested that rice rotated with milk vetch and potato might improve the paddy soil structure. Improved total nitrogen (TN) and soil organic matter (SOM) were also found in RC and RP. The positive relationship between yield and TN/SOM might provide evidence for the effect of RC rotation on rice yield. A strong time dependency of soil bacterial community diversity was also found.

  4. Effect of Long-Term Paddy-Upland Yearly Rotations on Rice (Oryza sativa) Yield, Soil Properties, and Bacteria Community Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Song; Zheng, Xi; Wang, Dangying; Chen, Liping; Xu, Chunmei; Zhang, Xiufu

    2012-01-01

    A 10-year-long field trial (between 2001 and 2010) was conducted to investigate the effect of paddy-upland rotation on rice yield, soil properties, and bacteria community diversity. Six types of paddy-upland crop rotations were evaluated: rice-fallow (control; CK), rice-rye grass (RR), rice-potato with rice straw mulches (RP), rice-rapeseed with straw incorporated into soil at flowering (ROF), rice-rapeseed incorporated in soil after harvest (ROM), and rice-Chinese milk vetch (RC). Analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was used to determine microbial diversity among rotations. Rice yield increased for upland crops planted during the winter. RC had the highest average yield of 7.74 t/ha, followed by RR, RP, ROM, and ROF. Soil quality differences among rotations were found. RC and RP improved the soil mean weight diameter (MWD), which suggested that rice rotated with milk vetch and potato might improve the paddy soil structure. Improved total nitrogen (TN) and soil organic matter (SOM) were also found in RC and RP. The positive relationship between yield and TN/SOM might provide evidence for the effect of RC rotation on rice yield. A strong time dependency of soil bacterial community diversity was also found. PMID:22919301

  5. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions.

  6. Positive feedback of crop residue incorporation on dissolved organic carbon contents under anaerobic conditions in temperate rice paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Sodano, Marcella; Bertora, Chiara; Lerda, Cristina; Sacco, Dario; Celi, Luisella

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy soils are generally characterized by large concentrations and fluxes of DOC in comparison to other ecosystems. Our recent studies have shown that the combination of relatively high pore-water DOC concentrations under anoxic soil conditions (>10-20 mg C l-1) and important percolation fluxes of water during field flooding may contribute significant organic C inputs into the subsoil (18-51 g C m-2) over the cropping season. Crop residues incorporated into the soil after harvest represent the main input of organic C into paddy soils, returning about 200-300 g C m-2 y-1 in single-cropped rice paddies. The anaerobic decomposition of these residues may supply important amounts of DOC to soil pore waters. Moreover, the supply of electron donors with the input of residue-derived labile OM may further increase DOC contents by stimulating the microbially-catalyzed reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides under anoxic conditions, and release of DOC previously stabilized on the mineral matrix (i.e. positive feedback). This could have important implications on organic C inputs into the subsoil as well as substrate availability for methane production. We therefore hypothesized that crop residue management practices that influence the amount of labile organic matter present in the soil at the time of field flooding may strongly influence soil solution DOC concentrations as well as the positive feedback on the release of soil-derived DOC. We tested this hypothesis at field-scale by evaluating variations in the contents and quality of DOC above and beneath the plough pan over the cropping season as a function of crop residue management practices involving: tillage and crop residue incorporation in spring (SPR), tillage and crop residue incorporation in spring, dry seeding and 1 month delayed flooding (DRY), tillage and crop residue incorporation in autumn (AUT), and straw removal after harvest and tillage in spring (REM). Moreover, we linked changes in DOC

  7. [Effects of applying different kind fertilizers on enzyme activities related to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles in reddish paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Wang, Qiu-Bing; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Min; Dai, Xiao-Qin; Yang, Feng-Ting; Bu, Jin-Feng; Wang, Hui-min

    2013-04-01

    Based on the long-term fixed position experimental data from Qianyanzhou Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1998, this paper analyzed the effects of applying different kind fertilizers (straw, ST; pig manure, OM; and chemical fertilizer, NPK) on the nutrients (C, N, and P) status and the activities of related enzymes ( beta-1,4-glucosidase, betaG; beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase, NAG; L-leucine aminopeptidase, LAP; and acid phosphatase, AP) in reddish paddy soil. With the application of OM, the activities of soil betaG, NAG, and LAP increased significantly, as compared with other treatments, and were 1.4, 2. 6, and 1.9 times higher than the control (CK) , respectively. Applying OM also improved the ratio of soil organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N), but decreased the soil betaG/(NAG+LAP) ratio, suggesting that pig manure could benefit the degradation of soil cellulose and the accumulation of soil organic carbon. Applying NPK increased the activities of soil betaG, NAG, and LAP, but decreased the AP activity, with a decrement of 34% as compared with CK. Under the application of NPK, the soilbetaG/AP and (NAG+ LAP)/AP ratios increased, but the ratios of soil organic carbon to total phosphorus (C/P) and of soil total nitrogen to total phosphorus (N/P) decreased, indicating that chemical fertilizers could induce the accumulation of soil inorganic phosphorus, and inhibit the microbial functions of degrading polysaccharides and phosphate phospholipids.

  8. Biochar decreases nitrogen oxide and enhances methane emissions via altering microbial community composition of anaerobic paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Xue, Xi-Mei; Yu, Jian-Guang; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Ma, Lena Q; Li, Hong-Bo

    2017-03-01

    Biochar application to agricultural soil is an appealing approach to mitigate nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions. However, the underlying microbial mechanisms are unclear. In this study, a paddy soil slurry was incubated anaerobically for 14d with biochar amendments produced from rice straw at 300, 500, or 700°C (B300, B500, and B700) to study their influences on greenhouse gas emissions. Illumina sequencing was used to characterize shift of soil bacterial and archaeal community composition. After peaking at day 1, N2O emission then sharply decreased to low levels while CH4 started to emit at day 3 then continually increased with incubation. Compared to control soil (57.9mgkg(-1) soil), B300, B500, and B700 amendments decreased N2O peak emission to 17.9, 1.28, and 0.59mgkg(-1), mainly due to increased soil pH. In contrast, the amendments enhanced CH4 production from 58.2 to 93.4, 62.6, and 63.4mgkg(-1) at day 14 due to increased soil dissolved organic carbon. Abundance of denitrifying bacteria (e.g., Bacilli, 7.07-13.6 vs. 16.9%) was reduced with biochar amendments, especially with B500 and B700, contributing to the decreased N2O emissions. However, larger pore size of B500 and B700 (surface area of 68.1 and 161m(2)g(-1)) than B300 (4.40m(2)g(-1)) favored electron transfer between bacteria and iron minerals, leading to increased abundance of iron-reducing bacteria, (e.g., Clostridia, 48.2-50.6 vs. 33.3%), which competed with methanogens to produce CH4, thereby leading to lower increase in CH4 emission. Biochar amendments with high pH and surface area might be effective to mitigate emission of both N2O and CH4 from paddy soil.

  9. Temporal trends and sources of PCDD/Fs, pentachlorophenol and chlornitrofen in paddy field soils along the Yoneshiro River basin, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Sakai, Mizuki; Kajihara, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukio

    2008-12-01

    In order to understand the long-term behaviors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl-4'-nitrophenyl ether (chlornitrofen, CNP) in paddy soil, we measured their concentrations in paddy soil samples collected in 1982 and 1984 (1980s) and in 2000 and 2002 (2000s) from the Yoneshiro River basin, Japan. The concentrations of PCP and CNP decreased from the 1980s to the 2000s, whereas the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and their toxic equivalency (WHO2006-TEQ) remained. The major sources of PCDD/Fs in the paddy soil samples were attributed to impurities in PCP and CNP as a result of comparisons of homologue and congener profiles and principal component analysis. Based on the results of comparison of total input and remaining amount, it is estimated that more than 99% of PCP and CNP applied to the paddy fields had disappeared, whereas most of the applied PCDD/Fs and TEQ remained.

  10. [Effects of wheat-straw returning into paddy soil on dissolved organic carbon contents and rice grain yield].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Liu, Meng; Chen, Jing-du; Gu, Hai-yan; Dai, Qi-gen; Ma, Ke-qiang; Jiang, Feng; He, Li

    2015-02-01

    A tank experiment using conventional rice cultivar Nanjing 44 as experimental material was conducted at the Experimental Farm of Yangzhou University to investigate the dynamics of wheat straw decomposition rate and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils, as well as its effects on the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and rice yield. The two rates of wheat straw returning were 0 and 6000 kg · hm(-2), and three N application levels were 0, 225, 300 kg · hm(-2). The results showed that, the rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay and sandy soils were highest during the initial 30 days after wheat straw returning, and then slowed down after, which could be promoted by a higher level of nitrogen application. The rate of wheat straw decomposition and the amount of carbon release in clay soil were higher than that in sandy soil. The DOC content in soil increased gradually with wheat straw returning into paddy soil and at the twenty-fifth day, and then decreased gradually to a stable value. The DOC content at the soil depth of 15 cm was significantly increased by wheat straw returning, but not at the soil depth of 30 cm and 45 cm. It was concluded that wheat straw returning increased the DOC content in the soil depth of 0-15 cm mainly. N application decreased the DOC content and there was no difference between the two N application levels. Straw returning decreased the number of tillers in the early growth period, resulted in significantly reduced panicles per unit area, but increased spikelets per panicle, filled-grain percentages, 1000-grain mass, and then enhanced grain yield.

  11. Effect of Elevated CO2 Concentration, Elevated Temperature and No Nitrogen Fertilization on Methanogenic Archaeal and Methane-Oxidizing Bacterial Community Structures in Paddy Soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongyan; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-09-29

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) enhance the production and emission of methane in paddy fields. In the present study, the effects of elevated [CO2], elevated temperature (ET), and no nitrogen fertilization (LN) on methanogenic archaeal and methane-oxidizing bacterial community structures in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental paddy field were investigated by PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR. Soil samples were collected from the upper and lower soil layers at the rice panicle initiation (PI) and mid-ripening (MR) stages. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was not markedly affected by the elevated [CO2], ET, or LN condition. The abundance of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was also not affected by elevated [CO2] or ET, but was significantly increased at the rice PI stage and significantly decreased by LN in the lower soil layer. In contrast, the composition of the methane-oxidizing bacterial community was affected by rice-growing stages in the upper soil layer. The abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was significantly decreased by elevated [CO2] and LN in both soil layers at the rice MR stage and by ET in the upper soil layer. The ratio of mcrA/pmoA genes correlated with methane emission from ambient and FACE paddy plots at the PI stage. These results indicate that the decrease observed in the abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was related to increased methane emission from the paddy field under the elevated [CO2], ET, and LN conditions.

  12. Effect of Elevated CO2 Concentration, Elevated Temperature and No Nitrogen Fertilization on Methanogenic Archaeal and Methane-Oxidizing Bacterial Community Structures in Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongyan; Tago, Kanako; Hayatsu, Masahito; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) enhance the production and emission of methane in paddy fields. In the present study, the effects of elevated [CO2], elevated temperature (ET), and no nitrogen fertilization (LN) on methanogenic archaeal and methane-oxidizing bacterial community structures in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experimental paddy field were investigated by PCR-DGGE and real-time quantitative PCR. Soil samples were collected from the upper and lower soil layers at the rice panicle initiation (PI) and mid-ripening (MR) stages. The composition of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was not markedly affected by the elevated [CO2], ET, or LN condition. The abundance of the methanogenic archaeal community in the upper and lower soil layers was also not affected by elevated [CO2] or ET, but was significantly increased at the rice PI stage and significantly decreased by LN in the lower soil layer. In contrast, the composition of the methane-oxidizing bacterial community was affected by rice-growing stages in the upper soil layer. The abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was significantly decreased by elevated [CO2] and LN in both soil layers at the rice MR stage and by ET in the upper soil layer. The ratio of mcrA/pmoA genes correlated with methane emission from ambient and FACE paddy plots at the PI stage. These results indicate that the decrease observed in the abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria was related to increased methane emission from the paddy field under the elevated [CO2], ET, and LN conditions. PMID:27600710

  13. Nitrate isotopes illuminate the black box of paddy soil biogeochemistry: water and carbon management control nitrogen sources and sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, N. S.; Clough, T. J.; Johnson-Beebout, S. E.; Buresh, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate prediction of the available nitrogen (N) pool in submerged paddy soils is needed in order to produce rice, one of the world’s most essential crops, in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. By applying emerging nitrate dual-isotope (δ15N- δ18O- NO3-) techniques to paddy systems, we were able to obtain a unique process-level quantification of the synergistic impacts of carbon (C) and water management on N availability. Soil and water samples were collected from fallow experimental plots, with or without organic C amendments, that were maintained under 1 of 3 different hydrologic regimens: continuously submerged, water excluded, or alternate wetting and drying. In continuously submerged soils the δ15N-NO3- : δ18O-NO3- signal of denitrification was not present, indicating that there was no N attenuation. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was the dominant factor in defining the available N pool under these conditions, with δ15N-NO3- approaching atmospheric levels as size of the pool increased. Using an isotope-based pool-mixing model, it was calculated that 10±2 µg N g-1 soil were contributed by BNF during the fallow. A lack of BNF combined with removal via denitrification (δ15N-NO3- : δ18O-NO3- = 1) caused relatively lower available N levels in dried and alternate wetting-drying soils during this period. Magnitude and net impact of denitrification was defined by the extent of drying and C availability, with rice straw C additions driving tighter coupling of nitrification and denitrification (δ15N:δ18O <1). However, despite high rates of attenuation during wetting events, soils that had been completely dried and received straw amendments ultimately retained a significantly larger available N pool due to enhanced input from soil organic matter. These findings underline the necessity of, and validate a new means for, accurate quantification micro-scale biogeochemical interactions for developing farm-scale management practices that

  14. C and N accumulations in soil aggregates determine nitrous oxide emissions from cover crop treated rice paddy soils during fallow season.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Prabhat; Haque, Md Mozammel; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-08-15

    Combination of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues are preferably applied in rice paddy soils to increase the rate of organic matter mineralization and to improve plant growth. However, organic matter addition facilitates methane (CH4) emission from rice paddy soil. Mineralization of organic nitrogen (N) increases NO3-N concentrations in soil, which are precursors for the formation of nitrous oxide (N2O). However, N2O is a minor greenhouse gas emitted from submerged rice field and hence is not often considered during calculation of total global warming potential (GWP) during rice cultivation. The hypothesis of this study was that fluxes of N2O emissions might be changed after removal of flooded water from rice field and the effect of cover crops on N2O emissions in the fallow season might be interesting. However, the effects of N-rich plant residues on N2O emission rates in the fallow season and its effect on annual GWP were not studied before. In this experiment, combination of barley (non-leguminous) and hairy vetch (leguminous) biomasses were applied at 9 Mg ha(-1) and 27 Mg ha(-1) rates in rice paddy soil. Cover crop application significantly increased CH4 emission flux while decreased N2O emissions during rice cultivation. The lowest N2O emission was observed in 27 Mg ha(-1) cover crop treated plots. Cover crop applications increased N contents in soil aggregates especially in smaller aggregates (<250 μm), and that proportionately increased the N2O emission potentials of these soil aggregates. Fluxes of N2O emissions in the fallow season were influenced by the N2O emission potentials of soil aggregates and followed opposite trends as those observed during rice cultivation. Therefore, it could be concluded that the doses of cover crop applications for rice cultivation should not be optimized considering only CH4, but N2O should also be considered especially for fallow season to calculate total GWP.

  15. [Responses of microbial biomass P to the changes of organic C and P in paddy soils under different fertilization systems].

    PubMed

    Chen, An-Lei; Wang, Kai-Rong; Xie, Xiao-Li; Liu, Ying-Xin

    2007-12-01

    Based on a fifteen years field experiment in double rice-cropping region of subtropical China, the responses of microbial biomass P (MB-P) to organic C and P in red paddy soils under different fertilization systems were investigated. The results indicated that a long-term input of organic carbon sources and the increasing soil organic carbon made soil microbial biomass remain at a high level (MB-C > 800 mg x kg(-1)), being a main reason of the increase of MB-P. Under long-term zero chemical P fertilization, there was a significant decrease in soil total P (P < 0.05), but soil organic P increased by 29.3% on average. The inorganic P forms in deficit were mainly Al-P, Fe-P, Ca-P and O-P, with the lowest content of Al-P (only 0.5 mg x kg(-1) on average). The content of soil MB-P under zero chemical P fertilization was much higher than that of Olsen-P. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant relationship (P < 0.05) between MB-P and Al-P, from which, it was deduced that the utilization of Al-P, Fe-P, Ca-P and O-P by soil microbes could be the key approach of promoting these P forms transformed into available P. Chemical P fertilization combined with organic nutrient recycling could not only enlarge the soil P pool, but also improve the P availability.

  16. Response of hydrolytic enzyme activities and nitrogen mineralization to fertilizer and organic matter application in subtropical paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kader, Mohammed Abdul; Yeasmin, Sabina; Akter, Masuda; Sleutel, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Driving controllers of nitrogen (N) mineralization in paddy soils, especially under anaerobic soil conditions, remain elusive. The influence of exogenous organic matter (OM) and fertilizer application on the activities of five relevant enzymes (β-glucosaminidase, β-glucosidase, L-glutaminase, urease and arylamidase) was measured in two long-term field experiments. One 18-years field experiment was established on a weathered terrace soil with a rice-wheat crop rotation at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) having five OM treatments combined with two mineral N fertilizer levels. Another 30-years experiment was established on a young floodplain soil with rice-rice crop rotation at the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) having eight mineral fertilizer treatments combined with organic manure. At BSMRAU, N fertilizer and OM amendments significantly increased all enzyme activities, suggesting them to be primarily determined by substrate availability. At BAU, non-responsiveness of β-glucosidase activity suggested little effect of the studied fertilizer and OM amendments on general soil microbial activity. Notwithstanding probably equal microbial demand for N, β-glucosaminidase and L-glutaminase activities differed significantly among the treatments (P>0.05) and followed strikingly opposite trends and correlations with soil organic N mineralization. So enzymatic pathways to acquire N differed by treatment at BAU, indicating differences in soil N quality and bio-availability. L-glutaminase activity was significantly positively correlated to the aerobic and anaerobic N mineralization rates at both field experiments. Combined with negative correlations between β-glucosaminidase activity and N mineralization rates, it appears that terminal amino acid NH2 hydrolysis was a rate-limiting step for soil N mineralization at BAU. Future investigations with joint quantification of polyphenol accumulation and binding of N, alongside an

  17. Cadmium availability in rice paddy fields from a mining area: The effects of soil properties highlighting iron fractions and pH value.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Liu, Chuanping; Zhu, Jishu; Li, Fangbai; Deng, Dong-Mei; Wang, Qi; Liu, Chengshuai

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) availability can be significantly affected by soil properties. The effect of pH value on Cd availability has been confirmed. Paddy soils in South China generally contain high contents of iron (Fe). Thus, it is hypothesized that Fe fractions, in addition to pH value, may play an important role in the Cd bioavailability in paddy soil and this requires further investigation. In this study, 73 paired soil and rice plant samples were collected from paddy fields those were contaminated by acid mine drainage containing Cd. The contents of Fe in the amorphous and DCB-extractable Fe oxides were significantly and negatively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw (excluding DCB-extractable Fe vs Cd in straw). In addition, the concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II) derived from Fe(III) reduction was positively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw. These results suggest that soil Fe redox could affect the availability of Cd in rice plant. Contribution assessment of soil properties to Cd accumulation in rice grain based on random forest (RF) and stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) showed that pH value should be the most important factor and the content of Fe in the amorphous Fe oxides should be the second most important factor in affecting Cd content in rice grain. Overall, compared with the studies from temperate regions, such as Europe and northern China, Fe oxide exhibited its unique role in the bioavailability of Cd in the reddish paddy soil from our study area. The exploration of practical remediation strategies for Cd from the perspective of Fe oxide may be promising.

  18. Biochar increases arsenic release from an anaerobic paddy soil due to enhanced microbial reduction of iron and arsenic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Xue, Xi-Mei; Juhasz, Albert L; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Li, Hong-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that biochar enhances microbial reduction of iron (Fe) oxyhydroxide under anaerobic incubation. However, there is a lack of data on its influence on arsenic (As) release from As-contaminated paddy soils. In this study, paddy soil slurries (120 mg As kg(-1)) were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 60 days with and without the addition of biochar (3%, w/w) prepared from rice straw at 500 °C. Arsenic release, Fe reduction, and As fractionation were determined at 1, 10, 20, 30, and 60 d, while Illumina sequencing and real-time PCR were used to characterize changes in soil microbial community structure and As transformation function genes. During the first month of incubation, As released into soil solution increased sharply from 27.9 and 55.9 to 486 and 630 μg kg(-1) in unamended and biochar amended slurries, with inorganic trivalent As (As(III)) being the dominant specie (52.7-91.0% of total As). Compared to unamended slurries, biochar addition increased As and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) concentrations in soil solution but decreased soil As concentration in the amorphous Fe/Al oxide fraction (F3). Difference in released As between biochar and unamended treatments (ΔAs) increased with incubation time, showing strong linear relationships (R(2) = 0.23-0.33) with ΔFe(2+) and ΔF3, confirming increased As release due to enhanced Fe reduction. Biochar addition increased the abundance of Fe reducing bacteria such as Clostridum (27.3% vs. 22.7%), Bacillus (3.34% vs. 2.39%), and Caloramator (4.46% vs. 3.88%). In addition, copy numbers in biochar amended slurries of respiratory As reducing (arrA) and detoxifying reducing genes (arsC) increased 19.0 and 1.70 fold, suggesting microbial reduction of pentavalent As (As(V)) adsorbed on Fe oxides to As(III), further contributing to increased As release.

  19. Biochar amendment reduces rice Cd uptake in polluted and unpolluted paddy soils: a long term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, R.; Cui, L.; Pan, G.; Li, L.

    2012-04-01

    The bioavailability of Cd in agricultural soils has been a great health concern due to the potential risk through exposure of agro-food produced in Cd-contaminated fields. Yet, rice subject to Cd contamination appears to have expanded at the last decade due to irrigation with waste water and chemical fertilization in south china. This is supposed to raise the Cd accumulation of rice grain. Therefore, techniques to reduce Cd mobility and plant uptake have been a urgent demand for food safety in China.A field experiment was performed in a high-polluted (HP), mid-pollute (MP) and unpolluted (UP) paddy soil with biochar(BC) amendment in 2011. BC was applied in HP, MP and UP in 2008, 2009, 2009 with the rates of 0, 10, 20, 40t ha-1 in HP, MP and 0, 40t ha-1 in UP. The experiment was monitored in 2011. It was observed that BC amendment did not affect rice grain yield but significantly increased soil pH by 0.58-0.77, 1.30 units in MP, UP and there was no difference in HP. The Cacl2 extracted Cd in soil was decreased by 18.1%-28.9% in HP, 49.3%-67.5% in MP and 83.1% in UP, respectively. Meanwhile, H2O extractable Cd in soil was decreased by 20.0%-31.7% in HP, 32.7%-44.2% in MP and 25.0% in UP, respectively. With the BC treatment, rice grain Cd concentration was decreased 4.7%-17.6% in HP, 35.9%-53.4% in MP. Especially in UP field, the rice grain Cd concentration was decreased from 0.22mg kg-1 to 0.07mg kg-1 which was below National standard (0.20mg kg-1) in China. The straw and root Cd contents were also significantly decreased with BC application. Therefore, BC amendment in polluted and unpolluted fields can sustainably reduce rice Cd uptake and it may offer a basic option to reduce Cd levels in rice. Keywords: Biochar, Cd, bioavailability, paddy soil, food safety

  20. Impacts of Steel-Slag-Based Silicate Fertilizer on Soil Acidity and Silicon Availability and Metals-Immobilization in a Paddy Soil

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Dongfeng; Liang, Yongchao; Liu, Zhandong; Xiao, Junfu; Duan, Aiwang

    2016-01-01

    Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil pH, dry weight of rice straw and grain, plant-available Si concentration and Si concentration in rice shoots compared with the control treatment. No significant accumulation of total cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was noted in soil; rather, the exchangeable fraction of Cd significantly decreased. The cadmium concentrations in rice grains decreased significantly compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, application of steel slag reduced soil acidity, increased plant–availability of silicon, promoted rice growth and inhibited Cd transport to rice grain in the soil-plant system. PMID:27973585

  1. Impacts of Steel-Slag-Based Silicate Fertilizer on Soil Acidity and Silicon Availability and Metals-Immobilization in a Paddy Soil.

    PubMed

    Ning, Dongfeng; Liang, Yongchao; Liu, Zhandong; Xiao, Junfu; Duan, Aiwang

    2016-01-01

    Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil pH, dry weight of rice straw and grain, plant-available Si concentration and Si concentration in rice shoots compared with the control treatment. No significant accumulation of total cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was noted in soil; rather, the exchangeable fraction of Cd significantly decreased. The cadmium concentrations in rice grains decreased significantly compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, application of steel slag reduced soil acidity, increased plant-availability of silicon, promoted rice growth and inhibited Cd transport to rice grain in the soil-plant system.

  2. Effects of combined amendments on heavy metal accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted on contaminated paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Xin; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han; Liu, Li; Yang, Wen-Tao; Wu, Yan-Ming; Qiu, Qiong-Yao; Wang, Ying-Jie

    2014-03-01

    Stabilization of heavy metals in situ was investigated. Two combined amendments (LS, limestone+sepiolite; HZ, hydroxyhistidine+zeolite) were applied at ratios of 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8% (w/w) to paddy soil with multi-metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) contamination. The effects of these two combined amendments on heavy metal bioavailability in soil, and on uptake and accumulation of heavy metals in rice plants were investigated. Application of LS and HZ significantly increased soil pH values and cation exchange capacity contents, and resulted in a reduction in exchangeable fraction of metals and in extract metal concentrations of amended soils through toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). LS and HZ obviously inhibited uptake and accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in rice plants. Compared with the control soil, concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in brown rice were decreased by 10.6-31.8%, 16.7-25.5%, 11.5-22.1%, and 11.7-16.3%, respectively, as a result of 0.2% to 0.8% addition of LS, and decreased by 5.1-40.8%, 16.7-20.0%, 8.1-16.2%, and 13.3-21.7%, respectively, as a result of 0.2-0.8% addition of HZ. Significant positive linear correlations were found between heavy metal concentrations in TCLP extracts and those in rice tissues except for Pb. Extracting heavy metals with TCLP was a more suitable method for estimating heavy metal bioavailability concentrations of amended soil than exchangeable fraction of heavy metals, because the latter underestimated heavy metal bioavailability. These results demonstrate that LS and HZ could be effective in reducing heavy metal bioavailability and accumulation in rice grown on multi-metal-contaminated soils.

  3. Toxic assessment of the leachates of paddy soils and river sediments from e-waste dismantling sites to microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiangping; Fan, Canpeng; Wang, Zhaohui; Su, Tian; Liu, Xinyu; An, Taicheng

    2015-01-01

    The potential adverse effects of e-waste recycling activity on environment are getting increasing concern. In this work, a model alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, was employed to assess the toxic effects of the leachates of paddy soils and river sediments collected from e-waste dismantling sites. Chemical analysis of the paddy soils and river sediments and their leachates were carried out and the growth rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence and anti-oxidative systems of the alga were measured. Results showed that two leachates decreased the amount of PSII active reaction centers and affected photosynthesis performance, interfered with chlorophyll synthesis and inhibited algal growth. Some chemical pollutants in the sediments and soils such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metals derived from e-waste recycling activity may impose oxidative stress on algae and affect the activity of anti-oxidative enzymes such as GST, SOD, CAT and APX. The leachates of both river sediments and paddy soils are potentially toxic to the primary producers, P. subcapitata and the leachate from sediments was more deleterious than that from soils.

  4. The availabilities of arsenic and cadmium in rice paddy fields from a mining area: The role of soil extractable and plant silicon.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Ding, Xiaodong; Li, Fangbai; Wang, Xiangqin; Zhang, Shirong; Yi, Jicai; Liu, Chuanping; Xu, Xianghua; Wang, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Adequate silicon (Si) can greatly boost rice yield and improve grain quality through alleviating stresses associated with heavy metals and metalloids such as arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd). The soil plant-available Si is relatively low in South China due to severe desilicification and allitization of the soils in this region. Conversely, pollution of heavy metals and metalloids in the soils of this region occurs widely, especially As and Cd pollution in paddy soil. Therefore, evaluating the plant availability of Si in paddy soil of South China and examining its correlation with the availability of heavy metals and metalloids are of great significance. Accordingly, in our study, 107 pairs of soil and rice plant samples were collected from paddy fields contaminated by As and Cd in South China. Significantly positive correlations between Si in rice plants and Si fractions in soils extracted with citric acid, NaOAc-HOAc buffer, and oxalate-ammonium oxalate buffer suggest that these extractants are more suitable for use in extracting plant-available Si in the soils of our present study. Significantly negative correlations between different Si fractions and As or Cd in rice plant tissues and negative exponential correlations between the molar ratios of Si to As/Cd in rice roots, straws, husks or grains and As/Cd in rice grains indicate that Si can significantly alleviate the accumulation of As/Cd from soils to the rice plants. Finally, a contribution assessment of soil properties to As/Cd accumulation in rice grains based on random forest showed that in addition to Si concentrations in soil or rice plants, other factors such as Fe fractions and total phosphorus also contributed largely to As/Cd accumulation in rice grains. Overall, Si exhibited its unique role in mitigating As or Cd stress in rice, and our study results provide strong field evidence for this role.

  5. Assessment of heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn) of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) field surface soil and water in a predominantly paddy-cultivated area at Puducherry (Pondicherry, India), and effects of the agricultural runoff on the elemental concentrations of a receiving rivulet.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Vikram; Satpathy, Deepmala; Dhiviya, K Shyamala

    2013-08-01

    The concentrations of toxic heavy metals-Cd and Pb and micronutrients-Cu, Mn, and Zn were assessed in the surface soil and water of three different stages of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) fields, the stage I-the first stage in the field soon after transplantation of the paddy seedlings, holding adequate amount of water on soil surface, stage II-the middle stage with paddy plants of stem of about 40 cm length, with sufficient amount of water on the soil surface, and stage III-the final stage with fully grown rice plants and very little amount of water in the field at Bahour, a predominantly paddy cultivating area in Puducherry located on the southeast Coast of India. Comparison of the heavy metal and micronutrient concentrations of the soil and water across the three stages of paddy field showed their concentrations were significantly higher in soil compared with that of water (p < 0.05) of the fields probably because of accumulation and adsorption in soil. The elemental concentrations in paddy soil as well as water was in the ranking order of Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb indicating concentration of Cd was maximum and Pb was minimum. The elemental concentrations in both soil and water across the three stages showed a ranking order of stage II > stage III > stage I. The runoff from the paddy fields has affected the elemental concentrations of the water and sediment of an adjacent receiving rivulet.

  6. Novel anaerobic ultramicrobacteria belonging to the Verrucomicrobiales lineage of bacterial descent isolated by dilution culture from anoxic rice paddy soil.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, P H; Schuhmann, A; Mörschel, E; Rainey, F A

    1997-01-01

    The use of dilution culture techniques to cultivate saccharolytic bacteria present in the anoxic soil of flooded rice microcosms allowed the isolation of three new strains of bacteria, typified by their small cell sizes, with culturable numbers estimated at between 1.2 x 10(5) and 7.3 x 10(5) cells per g of dry soil. The average cell volumes of all three strains were 0.03 to 0.04 microns3, and therefore they can be termed ultramicrobacteria or "dwarf cells." The small cell size is a stable characteristic, even when the organisms grow at high substrate concentrations, and thus is not a starvation response. All three strains have genomic DNA with a mol% G+C ratio of about 63, are gram negative, and are motile by means of a single flagellum. The three new isolates utilized only sugars and some sugar polymers as substrates for growth. The metabolism is strictly fermentative, but the new strains are oxygen tolerant. Sugars are metabolized to acetate, propionate, and succinate. Hydrogen production was not significant. In the presence of 0.2 atm of oxygen, the fermentation end products or ratios did not change. The phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence comparisons indicates that the new isolates belong to a branch of the Verrucomicrobiales lineage and are closely related to a cloned 16S rDNA sequence (PAD7) recovered from rice paddy field soil from Japan. The isolation of these three strains belonging to the order Verrucomicrobiales from a model rice paddy system, in which rice was grown in soil from an Italian rice field, provides some information on the possible physiology and phenotype of the organism represented by the cloned 16S rDNA sequence PAD7. The new isolates also extend our knowledge on the phenotypic and phylogenetic depths of members of the order Verrucomicrobiales, to date acquired mainly from cloned 16S rDNA sequences from soils and other habitats. PMID:9097435

  7. Evaluation and simulation of nitrogen mineralization of paddy soils in Mollisols area of Northeast China under waterlogged incubation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuling; Xu, Wenjing; Duan, Pengpeng; Cong, Yaohui; An, Tingting; Yu, Na; Zou, Hongtao; Dang, Xiuli; An, Jing; Fan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the nitrogen (N) mineralization process and applying appropriate model simulation are key factors in evaluating N mineralization. However, there are few studies of the N mineralization characteristics of paddy soils in Mollisols area of Northeast China. Materials and methods The soils were sampled from the counties of Qingan and Huachuan, which were located in Mollisols area of Northeast China. The sample soil was incubated under waterlogged at 30°C in a controlled temperature cabinet for 161 days (a 2: 1 water: soil ratio was maintained during incubation). Three models, i.e. the single first-order kinetics model, the double first-order kinetics model and the mixed first-order and zero-order kinetics model were used to simulate the cumulative mineralised N (NH4+-N and TSN) in the laboratory and waterlogged incubation. Principal results During 161 days of waterlogged incubation, the average cumulative total soluble N (TSN), ammonium N (NH4+-N), and soluble organic N (SON) was 122.2 mg kg-1, 85.9 mg kg-1, and 36.3 mg kg-1, respectively. Cumulative NH4+-N was significantly (P < 0.05) positively correlated with organic carbon (OC), total N (TN), pH, and exchangeable calcium (Ca), and cumulative TSN was significantly (P < 0.05) positively correlated with OC, TN, and exchangeable Ca, but was not significantly (P > 0.05) correlated with C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC), extractable iron (Fe), clay, and sand. When the cumulative NH4+-N and TSN were simulated, the single first-order kinetics model provided the least accurate simulation. The parameter of the double first-order kinetics model also did not represent the actual data well, but the mixed first-order and zero-order kinetics model provided the most accurate simulation, as demonstrated by the estimated standard error, F statistic values, parameter accuracy, and fitting effect. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SON was involved with N mineralization process, and the mixed

  8. Electro-kinetic remediation coupled with phytoremediation to remove lead, arsenic and cesium from contaminated paddy soil

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinyu; Han, Fengxiang X.; Shao, Xiaohou; Guo, Kai; McComb, Jacqueline; Arslan, Zikri; Zhang, Zhanyu

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate distribution and solubility of Pb, Cs and As in soils under electrokinetic field and examine the processes of coupled electrokinetic phytoremediation of polluted soils. The elevated bioavailability and bioaccumulation of Pb, As and Cs in paddy soil under an electrokinetic field (EKF) were studied. The results show that the EKF treatment is effective on lowering soil pH to around 1.5 near the anode which is beneficial for the dissolution of metal(loid)s, thus increasing their overall solubility. The acidification in the anode soil efficiently increased the water soluble (SOL) and exchangeable (EXC) Pb, As and Cs, implying enhanced solubility and elevated overall potential bioavailability in the anode region while lower solubility in the cathode areas. Bioaccumulations of Pb, As and Cs were largely determined by the nature of elements, loading levels and EKF treatment. The native Pb in soil usually is not bioavailable. However, EKF treatment tends to transfer Pb to the SOL and EXC fractions improving the phytoextraction efficiency. Similarly, EKF transferred more EXC As and Cs to the SOL fraction significantly increasing their bioaccumulation in plant roots and shoots. Pb and As were accumulated more in plant roots than in shoots while Cs was accumulated more in shoots due to its similarity of chemical properties to potassium. Indian mustard, spinach and cabbage are good accumulators for Cs. Translocation of Pb, As and Cs from plant roots to shoots were enhanced by EKF. However, this study indicated the overall low phytoextraction efficiency of these plants. PMID:26650421

  9. Electro-kinetic remediation coupled with phytoremediation to remove lead, arsenic and cesium from contaminated paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinyu; Han, Fengxiang X; Shao, Xiaohou; Guo, Kai; McComb, Jacqueline; Arslan, Zikri; Zhang, Zhanyu

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate distribution and solubility of Pb, Cs and As in soils under electrokinetic field and examine the processes of coupled electrokinetic phytoremediation of polluted soils. The elevated bioavailability and bioaccumulation of Pb, As and Cs in paddy soil under an electro-kinetic field (EKF) were studied. The results show that the EKF treatment is effective on lowering soil pH to around 1.5 near the anode which is beneficial for the dissolution of metal(loid)s, thus increasing their overall solubility. The acidification in the anode soil efficiently increased the water soluble (SOL) and exchangeable (EXC) Pb, As and Cs, implying enhanced solubility and elevated overall potential bioavailability in the anode region while lower solubility in the cathode areas. Bioaccumulations of Pb, As and Cs were largely determined by the nature of elements, loading levels and EKF treatment. The native Pb in soil usually is not bioavailable. However, EKF treatment tends to transfer Pb to the SOL and EXC fractions improving the phytoextraction efficiency. Similarly, EKF transferred more EXC As and Cs to the SOL fraction significantly increasing their bioaccumulation in plant roots and shoots. Pb and As were accumulated more in plant roots than in shoots while Cs was accumulated more in shoots due to its similarity of chemical properties to potassium. Indian mustard, spinach and cabbage are good accumulators for Cs. Translocation of Pb, As and Cs from plant roots to shoots were enhanced by EKF. However, this study indicated the overall low phytoextraction efficiency of these plants.

  10. Pseudomonas zhaodongensis sp. nov., isolated from saline and alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Kaibiao; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Shuang; Fu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Juquan

    2015-03-01

    Strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) was isolated from saline and alkaline soils in Zhaodong City, Heilongjiang Province, China. It was aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and motile with a polar flagellum. It produced yellow-orange colonies with a smooth surface, and grew in the presence of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %, w/v), at temperatures of 20-40 °C (optimum 28 °C) and at pH 7-11 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analyses based on the separate 16S rRNA gene sequences and concatenated 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequences indicated that strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) belongs to the genus Pseudomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. The most closely related species is Pseudomonas xanthomarina, whose type strain (KMM 1447(T)) showed gene sequence similarities of 99.0 % for 16S rRNA, 81.8 % for gyrB and 85.0 % for rpoD with strain NEAU-ST5-21(T). DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) and P. xanthomarina DSM 18231(T), Pseudomonas kunmingensis CGMCC 1.12273(T), Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM 5190(T), Pseudomonas oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T), Pseudomomas chengduensis CGMCC 2318(T), Pseudomonas alcaliphila DSM 17744(T) and Pseudomonas toyotomiensis DSM 26169(T) were 52±0 % to 25±2 %. The DNA G+C content of strain NEAU-ST5-21(T) was 65 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c, C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c and C16 : 0, the predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 9, and polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown aminolipid, one unknown lipid and a glycolipid. The proposed name is Pseudomonas zhaodongensis sp. nov., NEAU-ST5-21(T) ( = ACCC 06362(T) = DSM 27559(T)) being the type strain.

  11. Highly stable rice-straw-derived charcoal in 3700-year-old ancient paddy soil: evidence for an effective pathway toward carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengxiong; Yang, Min; Han, Xingguo; Zhong, Ting; Zheng, Yunfei; Ding, Pin; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant charcoal application is predicted to decelerate global warming through creating a long-term carbon sink in soil. Although many studies have showed high stability of charcoal derived from woody materials, few have focused on the dynamics of straw-derived charcoal in natural environment on a long timescale to evaluate its potential for agricultural carbon sequestration. Here, we examined straw-derived charcoal in an ancient paddy soil dated from ~3700 calendar year before present (cal. year BP). Analytical results showed that soil organic matter consisted of more than 25% of charcoal in charcoal-rich layer. Similarities in morphology and molecular structure between the ancient and the fresh rice-straw-derived charcoal indicated that ancient charcoal was derived from rice straw. The lower carbon content, higher oxygen content, and obvious carbonyl of the ancient charcoal compared with fresh rice straw charcoal implied that oxidation occurred in the scale of thousands years. However, the dominant aromatic C of ancient charcoal indicated that rice-straw-derived charcoal was highly stable in the buried paddy soil due to its intrinsic chemical structures and the physical protection of ancient paddy wetland. Therefore, it may suggest that straw charcoal application is a potential pathway for C sequestration considering its longevity.

  12. Effects of Different Application Methods of Methane Fermentation Digested Liquid into the Paddy Plot on Soil Nitrogen Behavior and Rice Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Satoko; Nakamura, Kimihito; Seok Ryu, Chan; Iida, Michihisa; Kawashima, Shigeto

    Methane fermentation technique with the treatment of animal waste and food waste is drawing public attention as a good option for the utilization of biomass resources and it is investigated how to apply the by-product of fermentation (methane fermentation digested liquid) to agricultural fields as a fertilizer. It is important to determine an adequate method of applying digested liquid to a paddy plot as fertilizer taking into account the concentrations of soil nitrogen components and rice yield. The objective of this study is to compare the performances of three methods of applying digested liquid to paddy plots in terms of the nitrogen transformation in soil, rice yield, and nitrogen load in effluent. The three methods were pouring (with irrigation water), spreading onto the surface of a plot, and injection into paddy soil. It was found that the ammonium nitrogen concentration and the dissolved organic nitrogen concentration in soil of the spreading plot were higher than that for the pouring plot and that for the injecting plot. The rice yield was higher in the spreading plot than in the injecting and pouring plots. And, there was a significant correlation between the rice yield and the dissolved organic nitrogen just before and after the panicle initiation stage. There were no differences in the nitrogen effluent loads with surface drainage.

  13. Microbial dynamics and arsenic speciation in rice paddy soil under two water management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arsenic (As) undergoes several microbial transformations, including oxidation/reduction, methylation/demethylation, and volatilization in soil, which impact As bioavailability. Different water management systems for rice cultivation alter soil-redox conditions and As biogeochemistry. Soil microbial ...

  14. Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission factor from urea during rice cropping season: A case study in Korean paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gil Won; Jeong, Seung Tak; Kim, Gun Yeob; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-08-01

    Fertilization with urea can lead to a loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) that was fixed during the industrial production process. The extent of atmospheric CO2 removal from urea manufacturing was estimated by the Industrial Processes and Product Use sector (IPPU sector). On its basis, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has proposed a value of 0.2 Mg C per Mg urea (available in 2006 revised IPCC guidelines for greenhouse gas inventories), which is the mass fractions of C in urea, as the CO2 emission coefficient from urea for the agricultural sector. Notably, due to the possibility of bicarbonate leaching to waters, all C in urea might not get released as CO2 to the atmosphere. Hence, in order to provide an accurate value of the CO2 emission coefficient from applied urea in the rice ecosystem, the CO2 emission factors were characterized under different levels of 13C-urea applied paddy field in the current study. The total CO2 fluxes and rice grain yields increased significantly with increasing urea application (110-130 kg N ha-1) and thereafter, decreased. However, with increasing 13C-urea application, a significant and proportional increase of the 13CO2sbnd C emissions from 13C-urea was also observed. From the relationships between urea application levels and 13CO2sbnd C fluxes from 13C-urea, the CO2sbnd C emission factor from urea was estimated to range between 0.0143 and 0.0156 Mg C per Mg urea. Thus, the CO2sbnd C emission factor of this study is less than that of the value proposed by IPCC. Therefore, for the first time, we propose to revise the current IPCC guideline value of CO2sbnd C emission factor from urea as 0.0143-0.0156 Mg C per Mg urea for Korean paddy soils.

  15. [Influences of water-saved and nitrogen-reduced practice on soil microbial and microfauna assemblage in paddy field].

    PubMed

    Gui, Juan; Chen, Xiao-yun; Liu, Man-qiang; Zhuang, Xi-ping; Sun, Zhen; Hu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The resource and environmental problems caused by excessive consumption of water and fertilizer in rice production have recently aroused widespread concern. This study investigated the effects of irrigation modes (conventional irrigation and 25% water-saved irrigation) and different N application rates (conventional high-nitrogen fertilization and 40% nitrogen-reduced fertilization) on microbial and microfauna assemblages at tillering and ripening stages in paddy field. The results showed that compared with conventional irrigation (CF), water-saved irrigation (WS) decreased the soil pH at tillering stage. Soil dissolved organic matter (dissolved organic C and N) and microbial biomass C and N were significantly affected by irrigation, nitrogen fertilizer and their interactions. WS or N-reduced fertilization (LN) decreased the contents of dissolved organic matter; WS increased microbial biomass C but decreased microbial biomass N. Nitrate was significantly higher in WS than CF, while ammonium showed reverse pattern. At tillering stage, the soil microbial biomass from bacteria, fungi, actinomy and protozoa was higher in WS than in CF, but the trend was opposite at ripening stage. There was a significant interation between irrigation and fertilization on soil rotifer numbers and microbial-feeding nematodes. At tillering stage, WS increased the numbers of rotifer and nematode, and also the proportion of bacterial-feeding nematode; LN increased the abundance of rotifer but decreased the abundance of nematode. In summary, soil microbial and microfauna assemblages showed different response to water-saved and nitrogen-reduced agricultural managements, which depended on different crop growth stages, but also the complex interactions of water and nitrogen and between biological groups in food webs.

  16. The specific role of fungal community structure on soil aggregation and carbon sequestration: results from long-term field study in a paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Rajasekaran; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-04-01

    Soil aggregate stability is a crucial soil property that affects soil biota, biogeochemical processes and C sequestration. The relationship between soil aggregate stability and soil C cycling is well known but the influence of specific fungal community structure on this relationship is largely unknown in paddy soils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term fertilisation (mineral fertiliser-MIN; farmyard manure-FYM; groundnut oil cake-GOC) effects on soil fungal community shifts associated with soil aggregates under rice-monoculture (RRR) and rice-legume-rice (RLR) systems. Fungal and bacterial communities were characterized using phospholipid fatty acids, and glucosamine and muramic acid were used as biomarkers for fungal and bacterial residues, respectively. Microbial biomass C and N, fungal biomass and residues were significantly higher in the organic fertiliser treatments than in the MIN treatment, for all aggregate sizes under both crop rotation systems. In general, fungal/bacterial biomass ratio and fungal residue C/bacterial residue C ratio were significantly higher in macroaggregate fractions (> 2000 and 250-2000 μm) than in microaggregate fractions (53-250 and <53 μm). In both crop rotation systems, the long-term application of FYM and GOC led to increased accumulation of saprotrophic fungi (SF) in aggregate fractions > 2000 μm. In contrast, we found that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was surprisingly higher in aggregate fractions > 2000 μm than in aggregate fraction 250-2000 μm under MIN treatment. The RLR system showed significantly higher AMF biomass and fungal residue C/ bacterial residue C ratio in both macroaggregate fractions compared to the RRR system. The strong relationships between SF, AMF and water stable aggregates shows the specific contribution of fungi community on soil aggregate stability. Our results highlight the fact that changes within fungal community structure play an important role in shaping the soil

  17. [Contrastive analysis on soil alkalinization predicting models based on measured reflectance and TM image reflectance].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-Gang; Long, Tao; Lu, Wen-Juan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the monitored data of soil pH and measured Vis-NIR reflectance on spot in Qitai oasis alkalinized area in Xinjiang, as well as comparison of the relationship between measured reflectance and soil pH and the relationship between TM reflectance and soil pH, both of the reflectance multivariate linear regression models were built to evaluate soil alkalinization level, and the model accuracy of pH fitting was discussed with error inspection of post-sample. The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between soil pH and reflectance. With pH rising the reflectance increased concurrently. So the alkalinization soil characterized by hardening had good spectral response characteristics. Both measured reflectance and TM image reflectance had good potential ability for change detection of the alkalinization soil. The pH predicting model of measured reflectance had higher accuracy and the major error was from different hardening state. If building model by TM reflectance directly, the accuracy of fitting was lower because of the vegetation information in image spectrum. With the vegetation factor removed with NDVI, the accuracy of TM predicting model was near the accuracy of measured reflectance predicting model, and both of the model levels were good.

  18. Manure fertilization alters the population of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria rather than ammonia-oxidizing archaea in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Guibing; Song, Liyan; Wang, Shanyun; Yin, Chengqing

    2014-03-01

    Manure fertilizers are widely used in agriculture and highly impacted the soil microbial communities such as ammonia oxidizers. However, the knowledge on the communities of archaeal versus bacterial ammonia oxidizers in paddy soil affected by manure fertilization remains largely unknown, especially for a long-term influence. In present work, the impact of manure fertilization on the population of ammonia oxidizers, related potential nitrification rates (PNRs) and the key factors manipulating the impact were investigated through studying two composite soil cores (long-term fed with manure fertilization versus undisturbed). Moreover, soil incubated with NH(4)(+) for 5 weeks was designed to verify the field research. The results showed that the copy numbers of bacterial amoA gene in the manure fed soil were significant higher than those in the unfed soil (p < 0.05), suggesting a clear stimulating effect of long-term manure fertilization on the population of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The detected PNRs in the manure fed soil core (14-218 nmol L(-1)  N g(-1)  h(-1)) were significant higher than those in the unfed soil core (5-72 nmol L(-1)  N g(-1)  h(-1) ; p < 0.05). Highly correlations between the PNRs and the bacterial amoA gene copies rather than archaeal amoA gene were observed, indicating strong nitrification capacity related to bacterial ammonia oxidizers. The NH(4)(+) -N significantly correlated to the abundance of AOB (p < 0.01) and explained 96.1% of the environmental variation, showing the NH(4)(+) -N was the main factor impacting the population of AOB. The incubation experiment demonstrated a clear increase of the bacterial amoA gene abundance (2.0 × 10(6) to 8.4 × 10(6)  g(-1) d.w.s. and 1.6 × 10(4) to 4.8 × 10(5)  g(-1) d.w.s.) in both soil but not for the archaeal amoA gene, in agreement with the field observation. Overall, our results suggested that manure fertilization promoted the

  19. Affects of mining activities on Cd pollution to the paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Shu, Ying; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan

    2013-12-01

    Located in Central South China, Hunan province is rich in mineral resources. To study the influence of mining on Cd pollution to local agricultural eco-system, the paddy soils and rice grain of Y county in northern Hunan province were intensively monitored. The results were as follows: (1) Total Cd (T-Cd) content in the soils of the county ranges from 0.13 to 6.02 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.64 mg kg(-1), of which 57.5% exceed the allowable limit specified by the China Soil Environmental Quality Standards. T-Cd in the soils varies largely, with the coefficient of variation reaching 146.4%. The spatial distribution of T-Cd in the soils quite matches with that of mining and industries. The content of HCl-extractable Cd (HCl-Cd) in the soils ranges from 0.02 to 2.17 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.24 mg kg(-1). A significant positive correlation exists between T-Cd and HCl-Cd in the soils (r = 0.770, ρ < 0.01). (2) Cd content in the rice produced in Y county ranges from 0.01 to 2.77 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.46 mg kg(-1). The rate of rice with Cd exceeding the allowable limit specified by the Chinese Grain Security Standards reaches 59.6%; that with Cd exceeding 1 mg kg(-1), called as "Cd rice," reaches 11.1%. (3) Cd content in the rice of Y county is positively significantly correlated with HCl-Cd (r = 0.177, ρ < 0.05) but not significantly with T-Cd in the soils (r = 0.091, ρ > 0.05), which suggests that the amount of Cd accumulating in the rice is more affected by its availability in the soils, rather than the total content. (4) The dietary intake of Cd via rice consumption in Y county is estimated to be 179.9 μg day(-1) person(-1) on average, which is far beyond the allowable limit specified by FAO/WHO and the target hazard quotients of Cd much higher than 1, suggesting the high risk on human health from Cd exposure.

  20. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risk assessment of the paddy soils near a zinc-lead mining area in Hunan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Teng, Yanguo; Yu, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    Soil pollution by Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn was characterized in the area of the mining and smelting of metal ores at Guiyang, northeast of Hunan Province. A total of 150 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected in May 2012 with a nominal density of one sample per 4 km(2). High concentrations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in many of the samples taken from surrounding paddy soil, indicating a certain extent of spreading of heavy metal pollution. Sequential extraction technique and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to study the mobility of chemical forms of heavy metals in the soils and their ecological risk. The results reveal that Cd represents a high ecological risk due to its highest percentage of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The metals of Zn and Cu pose a medium risk, and the rest of the metals represent a low environmental risk. The range of the potential ecological risk of soil calculated by risk index (RI) was 123.5~2791.2 and revealed a considerable-high ecological risk in study area especially in the neighboring and surrounding the mining activities area. Additionally, cluster analyses suggested that metals such as Pb, As, Hg, Zn, and Cd could be from the same sources probably related to the acidic drainage and wind transport of dust. Cluster analysis also clearly distinguishes the samples with similar characteristics according to their spatial distribution. The results could be used during the ecological risk screening stage, in conjunction with total concentrations and metal fractionation values to better estimate ecological risk.

  1. Growing season net ecosystem CO2 exchange of two desert ecosystems with alkaline soils in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Li, Longhui; Chen, Xi; van der Tol, Christiaan; Luo, Geping; Su, Zhongbo

    2014-01-01

    Central Asia is covered by vast desert ecosystems, and the majority of these ecosystems have alkaline soils. Their contribution to global net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is of significance simply because of their immense spatial extent. Some of the latest research reported considerable abiotic CO2 absorption by alkaline soil, but the rate of CO2 absorption has been questioned by peer communities. To investigate the issue of carbon cycle in Central Asian desert ecosystems with alkaline soils, we have measured the NEE using eddy covariance (EC) method at two alkaline sites during growing season in Kazakhstan. The diurnal course of mean monthly NEE followed a clear sinusoidal pattern during growing season at both sites. Both sites showed significant net carbon uptake during daytime on sunny days with high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) but net carbon loss at nighttime and on cloudy and rainy days. NEE has strong dependency on PAR and the response of NEE to precipitation resulted in an initial and significant carbon release to the atmosphere, similar to other ecosystems. These findings indicate that biotic processes dominated the carbon processes, and the contribution of abiotic carbon process to net ecosystem CO2 exchange may be trivial in alkaline soil desert ecosystems over Central Asia.

  2. Fate of rice shoot and root residues, rhizodeposits, and microbe-assimilated carbon in paddy soil - Part 1: Decomposition and priming effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhenke; Zeng, Guanjun; Ge, Tida; Hu, Yajun; Tong, Chengli; Shibistova, Olga; He, Xinhua; Wang, Juan; Guggenberger, Georg; Wu, Jinshui

    2016-08-01

    The input of recently photosynthesized C has significant implications on soil organic C sequestration, and in paddy soils, both plants and soil microbes contribute to the overall C input. In the present study, we investigated the fate and priming effect of organic C from different sources by conducting a 300-day incubation study with four different 13C-labelled substrates: rice shoots (shoot-C), rice roots (root-C), rice rhizodeposits (rhizo-C), and microbe-assimilated C (micro-C). The efflux of both 13CO2 and 13CH4 indicated that the mineralization of C in shoot-C-, root-C-, rhizo-C-, and micro-C-treated soils rapidly increased at the beginning of the incubation and decreased gradually afterwards. The highest cumulative C mineralization was observed in root-C-treated soil (45.4 %), followed by shoot-C- (31.9 %), rhizo-C- (7.90 %), and micro-C-treated (7.70 %) soils, which corresponded with mean residence times of 39.5, 50.3, 66.2, and 195 days, respectively. Shoot and root addition increased C emission from native soil organic carbon (SOC), up to 11.4 and 2.3 times higher than that of the control soil by day 20, and decreased thereafter. Throughout the incubation period, the priming effect of shoot-C on CO2 and CH4 emission was strongly positive; however, root-C did not exhibit a significant positive priming effect. Although the total C contents of rhizo-C- (1.89 %) and micro-C-treated soils (1.90 %) were higher than those of untreated soil (1.81 %), no significant differences in cumulative C emissions were observed. Given that about 0.3 and 0.1 % of the cumulative C emission were derived from labelled rhizo-C and micro-C, we concluded that the soil organic C-derived emissions were lower in rhizo-C- and micro-C-treated soils than in untreated soil. This indicates that rhizodeposits and microbe-assimilated C could be used to reduce the mineralization of native SOC and to effectively improve soil C sequestration. The contrasting behaviour of the different

  3. Utilization of phosphorus loaded alkaline residue to immobilize lead in a shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yubo; Qi, Fangjie; Seshadri, Balaji; Xu, Yilu; Hou, Jiexi; Ok, Yong Sik; Dong, Xiaoli; Li, Qiao; Sun, Xiuyun; Wang, Lianjun; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-11-01

    The alkaline residue generated from the production of soda ash using the ammonia-soda method has been successfully used in removing phosphorus (P) from aqueous solution. But the accumulation of P-containing solid after P removal is an undesirable menace to the environment. To achieve the goal of recycling, this study explored the feasibility of reusing the P loaded alkaline residue as an amendment for immobilization of lead (Pb) in a shooting range soil. The main crystalline phase and micromorphology of amendments were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersion spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) methods. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), sequential extraction procedure, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) were employed to evaluate the effectiveness of Pb immobilization in soil after 45 d incubation. Treatment with P loaded alkaline residue was significantly effective in reducing the TCLP and PBET extractable Pb concentrations in contrast to the untreated soil. Moreover, a positive change in the distribution of Pb fractions was observed in the treated soil, i.e., more than 60% of soil-Pb was transformed to the residual fraction compared to the original soil. On the other hand, P loaded amendments also resulted in a drastic reduction in phytoavailable Pb to the winter wheat and a mild release of P as a nutrient in treated soil, which also confirmed the improvement of soil quality.

  4. Depth distribution of abiotic drivers of N mineralization and methane emission from a continuously and intermittently flooded Bangladeshi paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akter, Masuda; Kader, Md. Abdul; Pierreux, Sofie; Boeckx, Pascal; Kamal, Ahammad Mostafa; Sleutel, Steven

    2016-04-01

    logically linked. The elevated redox potential in puddle layer depth increments during AWD drainage events, significantly (p<0.01) declined the cumulative CH4 emission by 47% when compared to CF management. Moreover, seasonal CH4 emissions in N-fertilized fields (N120) decreased by 29 and 8% under CF and AWD, respectively relative to the control (N0), possibly due to promotion of methanotrophs, which were N-limited in N0. Mostly, mineral N content in N120 plots of AWD and CF exceeded contents in the N0 fields. Contrary to CH4 emission, irrigation management did not affect evolutions of pH, Fe, Mn and DOC in soil solution. Likewise, soil exchangeable N content evolution was unaffected and followed zero-order kinetics (N120: R2=0.53 to 0.81; N0: R2=0.12 to 0.48). Our results generally indicate that in Northern Bangladesh's Boro season, evolutions in paddy soil solution chemistry and CH4 emission are strongly depending on course soil temperature and only secondarily on irrigation management. Whether temperature steers microbial activity and methanogenesis directly or via concomitant plant activity and exudation is not known. Key words: Redox, CH4, emission, mineralization, Fe, Mn, DOC, water management

  5. DNA-based determination of microbial biomass suitable for frozen and alkaline soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Blagodatskaya, Evgeniya; Kogut, Boris; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Microbial biomass is a sensitive indicator of changes due to soil management, long before other basic soil measures such as Corg or Ntot. Improvement of methods for determination of microbial biomass still remains relevant, and these methods should be correctly applicable for the soil samples being in various state. This study was designed to demonstrate the applicability of DNA-based determination of microbial biomass under conditions when the common basic approaches, namely chloroform fumigation-extraction (CFE) and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), are restricted by certain soil properties, experimental designs or research needs, e.g. in frozen, alkaline or carbonaceous soils. We compared microbial biomass determined by CFE, SIR and by DNA approaches in the range of neutral and slightly alkaline Chernozem and alkaline Calcisol of semi-arid climate. The samples of natural and agricultural ecosystems were taken throughout the soil profile from long-term static field experiments in the European part of Russia. Extraction and subsequent quantification of dsDNA revealed a strong agreement with SIR and CFE when analyzing the microbial biomass content in soils with pH below 8. The conversion factors (FDNA) from dsDNA to SIR-Cmic (5.10) and CFE-Cmic (4.41) were obtained by testing a range of the soil samples down to 1.5 m depth and indicated a good reproducibility of DNA-based estimations. In alkaline soils (pH > 8), CO2 retention due to alkaline pH and exchange with carbonates resulted in a strong underestimation of soil microbial biomass by SIR or even in the absence of any CO2 emission, especially at low absolute values of microbial biomass in subsoil. Correction of CO2 efflux by theoretical retention pH-dependent factors caused overestimation of SIR-biomass. In alkaline conditions, DNA extraction proved to be a reliable alternative for microbial biomass determination. Moreover, the DNA-based approach can serve as an excellent alternative enabling correct

  6. Dominance of Candidatus Scalindua species in anammox community revealed in soils with different duration of rice paddy cultivation in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2013-02-01

    The anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play an important role in the oxygen-limited zone for nitrogen cycling, but their roles in agricultural ecosystems are still poorly understood. In this study, soil samples were taken from the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere and from surface (0-5 cm) and subsurface (20-25 cm) layers with 1, 4, and 9 years of rice cultivation history on the typical albic soil of Northeast China to examine the diversity and distribution of anammox bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene and hydrazine oxidoreductase encoding gene (hzo). By comparing these soil samples, no obvious difference was observed in community composition between the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere or the surface and subsurface layers. Surprisingly, anammox bacterial communities of these rice paddy soils were consisted of mainly Candidatus Scalindua species, which are best known to be dominant in marine and pristine environments. The highest diversity was revealed in the 4-year paddy soil based on clone library analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and deduced HZO from the corresponding encoding gene showed that most of the obtained clones are grouped together with Candidatus Scalindua sorokinii, Candidatus Scalindua brodae, and Candidatus Scalindua spp. of seawater. The obtained clone sequences from all samples are distributed in two subclusters that contain sequences from environmental samples only. Tentative new species were also discovered in this paddy soil. This study provides the first evidence on the existence of anammox bacteria with limited diversity in agricultural ecosystems in Northern China.

  7. Competitive interactions between methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria modulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Huang, R.; Wang, B. Z.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; Jia, Z. J.

    2014-03-01

    Pure culture studies have demonstrated that methanotrophs and ammonia oxidizers can both carry out the oxidation of methane and ammonia. However, the expected interactions resulting from these similarities are poorly understood, especially in complex, natural environments. Using DNA-based stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and pmoA genes, we report on biogeochemical and molecular evidence for growth stimulation of methanotrophic communities by ammonium fertilization, and that methane modulates nitrogen cycling by competitive inhibition of nitrifying communities in a rice paddy soil. Pairwise comparison between microcosms amended with CH4, CH4+Urea, and Urea indicated that urea fertilization stimulated methane oxidation activity by 6-fold during a 19 day incubation period, while ammonia oxidation activity was significantly inhibited in the presence of CH4. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes revealed that urea amendment resulted in rapid growth of Methylosarcina-like type Ia MOB, and nitrifying communities appeared to be suppressed by methane. High-throughput sequencing of the 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that methane amendment resulted in clear growth of Methylosarcina-related MOB while methane plus urea led to equal increase in Methylosarcina and Methylobacter-related MOB, indicating the differential growth requirements of representatives of these genera. Strikingly, type Ib MOB did not respond to methane nor to urea. Increase in 13C-assimilation by microorganisms related to methanol oxidizers clearly indicated carbon transfer from methane oxidation to other soil microbes, which was enhanced by urea addition. The active growth of type Ia methanotrops was significantly stimulated by urea amendment, and the pronounced growth of methanol-oxidizing bacteria occurred in CH4-treated microcosms only upon urea amendment. Methane addition inhibited the growth of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas in urea-amended microcosms, in addition of nitrite

  8. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated saline-alkaline soils of the former Lake Texcoco.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Galvis, L A; Alvarez-Bernal, D; Ramos-Valdivia, A C; Dendooven, L

    2006-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as phenanthrene, anthracene and Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are toxic for the environment. Removing these components from soil is difficult as they are resistant to degradation and more so in soils with high pH and large salt concentrations as in soil of the former lake Texcoco, but stimulating soil micro-organisms growth by adding nutrients might accelerate soil restoration. Soil of Texcoco and an agricultural Acolman soil, which served as a control, were spiked with phenanthrene, anthracene and BaP, added with or without biosolid or inorganic fertilizer (N, P), and dynamics of PAHs, N and P were monitored in a 112-day incubation. Concentrations of phenanthrene did not change significantly in sterilized Acolman soil, but decreased 2-times in unsterilized soil and >25-times in soil amended with biosolid and NP. The concentration of phenanthrene in unsterilized soil of Texcoco was 1.3-times lower compared to the sterilized soil, 1.7-times in soil amended with NP and 2.9-times in soil amended with biosolid. In unsterilized Acolman soil, degradation of BaP was faster in soil amended with biosolid than in unamended soil and soil amended with NP. In unsterilized soil of Texcoco, degradation of BaP was similar in soil amended with biosolid and NP but faster than in the unamended soil. It was found that application of biosolid and NP increased degradation of phenanthrene, anthracene and BaP, but to a different degree in alkaline-saline soil of Texcoco compared to an agricultural Acolman soil.

  9. Iron isotope fingerprints of redox and biogeochemical cycling in the soil-water-rice plant system of a paddy field.

    PubMed

    Garnier, J; Garnier, J-M; Vieira, C L; Akerman, A; Chmeleff, J; Ruiz, R I; Poitrasson, F

    2017-01-01

    The iron isotope composition was used to investigate dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) processes in an iron-rich waterlogged paddy soil, the iron uptake strategies of plants and its translocation in the different parts of the rice plant along its growth. Fe concentration and isotope composition (δ(56)Fe) in irrigation water, precipitates from irrigation water, soil, pore water solution at different depths under the surface water, iron plaque on rice roots, rice roots, stems, leaves and grains were measured. Over the 8.5-10cm of the vertical profiles investigated, the iron pore water concentration (0.01 to 24.3mg·l(-1)) and δ(56)Fe (-0.80 to -3.40‰) varied over a large range. The significant linear co-variation between Ln[Fe] and δ(56)Fe suggests an apparent Rayleigh-type behavior of the DIR processes. An average net fractionation factor between the pore water and the soil substrate of Δ(56)Fe≈-1.15‰ was obtained, taking the average of all the δ(56)Fe values weighted by the amount of Fe for each sample. These results provide a robust field study confirmation of the conceptual model of Crosby et al. (2005, 2007) for interpreting the iron isotope fractionation observed during DIR, established from a series of laboratories experiments. In addition, the strong enrichment of heavy Fe isotope measured in the root relative to the soil solution suggest that the iron uptake by roots is more likely supplied by iron from plaque and not from the plant-available iron in the pore water. Opposite to what was previously observed for plants following strategy II for iron uptake from soils, an iron isotope fractionation factor of -0.9‰ was found from the roots to the rice grains, pointing to isotope fractionation during rice plant growth. All these features highlight the insights iron isotope composition provides into the biogeochemical Fe cycling in the soil-water-rice plant systems studied in nature.

  10. Effects of 10-Year Management Regimes on the Soil Seed Bank in Saline-Alkaline Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongyuan; Yang, Haoyu; Liang, Zhengwei; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Management regimes for vegetation restoration of degraded grasslands can significantly affect the process of ecological succession. However, few studies have focused on variation in the soil seed bank during vegetation restoration under different management regimes, especially in saline-alkaline grassland habitats. Our aim was to provide insights into the ecological effects of grassland management regimes on soil seed bank composition and vegetation establishment in mown, fenced, transplanted and natural grassland sites, all dominated by the perennial rhizomatous grass Leymus chinensis. Methodology We studied species composition and diversity in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation in differently managed grasslands in Northeast China. An NMDS (nonmetric multidimensional scaling) was used to evaluate the relationship between species composition, soil seed banks, aboveground vegetation and soil properties. Principal Findings Fenced and mown grassland sites had high density and species richness in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation. The Transplanted treatment exhibited the highest vegetation growth and seed production of the target species L. chinensis. Seeds of L. chinensis in the soil occurred only in transplanted and natural grassland. Based on the NMDS analysis, the number of species in both the soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation were significantly related to soil Na+, Cl-, RSC (residual sodium carbonate), alkalinity, ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) and AP (available phosphorus). Conclusions Soil seed bank composition and diversity in the saline-alkaline grassland were significantly affected by the management regimes implemented, and were also significantly related to the aboveground vegetation and several soil properties. Based on vegetative growth, reproductive output and maintenance of soil seed bank, the transplanting was identified as the most effective method for relatively rapid restoration of the target

  11. The influence of continuous rice cultivation and different waterlogging periods on the morphology, clay mineralogy, Eh, pH and K in paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmaniar, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of different rice plantation periods on the properties of selected soils on an alluvial plain was studied. Soils were sampled in fields cultivated for 6, 16, 26, and over forty years. In each rice cultivated and nonrice cultivated field, three soil profiles and six nearby auger holes were studied. This study indicated that continuous rice cultivation changed the soil moisture regime from xeric to aquic, the soil color from brown to grayish, and the surface horizons from mollic to ochric epipedon. With increasing duration of cultivation, the abundance of redoximorphic features increased and the soil structure changed from granular or blocky to massive. Therefore, the soil order changed from Mollisols to Inceptisols. No illuviation and eluviation of clay minerals occurred as a consequence of the rice cultivation. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the clay minerals in the nonrice cultivated field were illite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and chlorite, and, in the rice field, they were illite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and chlorite, respectively. However, with increasing the period of cultivation, the amount of illite and vermiculite decreased while the amount of montmorillonite increased. The pH values of the saturated soil surface during the middle stage of rice growth shifted toward neutrality. The Eh of the surface horizons of the paddy soils under the field conditions were +40, -12, -84, and -122 mV, respectively, while the Eh in the nonpaddy soils were close to +90 mV. The amounts of organic matter and available Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu increased, while the available K decreased in the paddy soils.

  12. Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Thị Bích; Gieré, Reto

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146±0.004, 23.3±0.1, and 23.5±0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006±0.004, 1.9±0.5, and 2.4±1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 140±3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84±0.02 and 7.7±0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0

  13. Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 and warming on temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in a Chinese paddy field.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaozhi; Wang, Bingyu; Wang, Jinyang; Pan, Genxing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-10-01

    Climate changes including elevated CO2 and temperature have been known to affect soil carbon (C) storage, while the effects of climate changes on the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) are unclear. A 365-day laboratory incubation was used to investigate the temperature sensitivity for decomposition of labile (Q 10-L) and recalcitrant (Q 10-R) SOMs by comparing the time required to decompose a given amount of C at 25 and 35 °C. Soils were collected from a paddy field that was subjected to four treatments: ambient CO2 and temperature, elevated CO2 (500 μmol/mol), enhanced temperature (+2 °C), and their combination. The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition increased with increasing SOM recalcitrance in this paddy soil (Q 10-L = 2.21 ± 0.16 vs. Q 10-R = 2.78 ± 0.42; mean ± SD). Elevated CO2 and enhanced temperature showed contrasting effects on the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. Elevated CO2 stimulated Q 10-R but had no effect on Q 10-L; in contrast, enhanced temperature increased Q 10-L but had no effect on Q 10-R. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 combined with enhanced temperature treatment significantly increased Q 10-L and Q 10-R by 18.9 and 10.2 %, respectively, compared to the ambient conditions. Results suggested that the responses of SOM to temperature, especially for the recalcitrant SOM pool, were altered by climate changes. The greatly enhanced temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition by elevated CO2 and temperature indicates that more CO2 will be released to the atmosphere and losses of soil C may be even greater than that previously expected in paddy field.

  14. Effects of Tillage and Nitrogen Fertilizers on CH4 and CO2 Emissions and Soil Organic Carbon in Paddy Fields of Central China

    PubMed Central

    Zhi-Kui, Kou; Zhi-Sheng, Zhang; Jin-Ping, Wang; Ming-Li, Cai; Cou-Gui, Cao

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying carbon (C) sequestration in paddy soils is necessary to help better understand the effect of agricultural practices on the C cycle. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of tillage practices [conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT)] and the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (0 and 210 kg N ha−1) on fluxes of CH4 and CO2, and soil organic C (SOC) sequestration during the 2009 and 2010 rice growing seasons in central China. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased CH4 emissions by 13%–66% and SOC by 21%–94% irrespective of soil sampling depths, but had no effect on CO2 emissions in either year. Tillage significantly affected CH4 and CO2 emissions, where NT significantly decreased CH4 emissions by 10%–36% but increased CO2 emissions by 22%–40% in both years. The effects of tillage on the SOC varied with the depth of soil sampling. NT significantly increased the SOC by 7%–48% in the 0–5 cm layer compared with CT. However, there was no significant difference in the SOC between NT and CT across the entire 0–20 cm layer. Hence, our results suggest that the potential of SOC sequestration in NT paddy fields may be overestimated in central China if only surface soil samples are considered. PMID:22574109

  15. Effects of tillage and nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 and CO2 emissions and soil organic carbon in paddy fields of central China.

    PubMed

    Cheng-Fang, Li; Dan-Na, Zhou; Zhi-Kui, Kou; Zhi-Sheng, Zhang; Jin-Ping, Wang; Ming-Li, Cai; Cou-Gui, Cao

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying carbon (C) sequestration in paddy soils is necessary to help better understand the effect of agricultural practices on the C cycle. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of tillage practices [conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT)] and the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (0 and 210 kg N ha(-1)) on fluxes of CH(4) and CO(2), and soil organic C (SOC) sequestration during the 2009 and 2010 rice growing seasons in central China. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased CH(4) emissions by 13%-66% and SOC by 21%-94% irrespective of soil sampling depths, but had no effect on CO(2) emissions in either year. Tillage significantly affected CH(4) and CO(2) emissions, where NT significantly decreased CH(4) emissions by 10%-36% but increased CO(2) emissions by 22%-40% in both years. The effects of tillage on the SOC varied with the depth of soil sampling. NT significantly increased the SOC by 7%-48% in the 0-5 cm layer compared with CT. However, there was no significant difference in the SOC between NT and CT across the entire 0-20 cm layer. Hence, our results suggest that the potential of SOC sequestration in NT paddy fields may be overestimated in central China if only surface soil samples are considered.

  16. Variation of grain Cd and Zn concentrations of 110 hybrid rice cultivars grown in a low-Cd paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Li, Lianqing; Pan, Genxing

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced Cd uptake and Zn depletion in rice grains and high potential for food Cd exposure by the high-yielding hybrid cultivars of China had been addressed. A field experiment was conducted in 2006 to determine the difference in grain Cd and Zn between cultivars. Total 110 cultivars including super rice and common hybrid rice cultivars were grown on a single paddy soil (Entic Haplaquept) with a neutral reaction and low total Cd content. Grain Cd and Zn concentrations were determined with graphite atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS) and flame atomic adsorption spectrophotometer (AAS) respectively. Wide variation of Cd content in grain was found in a range of 0.004-0.057 mg/kg, while the Zn content in a range of 10.25-30.06 mg/kg among the cultivars. Higher Cd but lower Zn concentration in grains of super rice cultivars was observed compared to the common hybrid ones. A highly significant positive linear correlation of grain Cd/Zn with grain Cd was found for super rice and common hybrid cultivars, meanwhile much higher slope for these hybrid cultivars than the reported non-hybrid cultivars was also observed. Using the limit value of the Chinese chemical guidelines for foods (MOHC and SSC, 2005), calculated potential risk of food Cd exposure with "Zn hungry" through diet intake was prominent with all the studied 110 hybrid rice cultivars, possessing high potential health problems for rice production in South China using the super rice cultivars. Breeding of genotypes of rice cultivars with low grain Cd and low Cd/Zn ratio is needed for rice production in acidic red soils where Cd bioavailability is prevalently high.

  17. Competitive interactions between methane- and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria modulate carbon and nitrogen cycling in paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Huang, R.; Wang, B. Z.; Bodelier, P. L. E.; Jia, Z. J.

    2014-06-01

    Pure culture studies have demonstrated that methanotrophs and ammonia oxidizers can both carry out the oxidation of methane and ammonia. However, the expected interactions resulting from these similarities are poorly understood, especially in complex, natural environments. Using DNA-based stable isotope probing and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA and functional genes, we report on biogeochemical and molecular evidence for growth stimulation of methanotrophic communities by ammonium fertilization, and that methane modulates nitrogen cycling by competitive inhibition of nitrifying communities in a rice paddy soil. Pairwise comparison between microcosms amended with CH4, CH4+Urea, and Urea indicated that urea fertilization stimulated methane oxidation activity 6-fold during a 19-day incubation period, while ammonia oxidation activity was significantly suppressed in the presence of CH4. Pyrosequencing of the total 16S rRNA genes revealed that urea amendment resulted in rapid growth of Methylosarcina-like MOB, and nitrifying communities appeared to be partially inhibited by methane. High-throughput sequencing of the 13C-labeled DNA further revealed that methane amendment resulted in clear growth of Methylosarcina-related MOB while methane plus urea led to an equal increase in Methylosarcina and Methylobacter-related type Ia MOB, indicating the differential growth requirements of representatives of these genera. An increase in 13C assimilation by microorganisms related to methanol oxidizers clearly indicated carbon transfer from methane oxidation to other soil microbes, which was enhanced by urea addition. The active growth of type Ia methanotrops was significantly stimulated by urea amendment, and the pronounced growth of methanol-oxidizing bacteria occurred in CH4-treated microcosms only upon urea amendment. Methane addition partially inhibited the growth of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas in urea-amended microcosms, as well as growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. These

  18. [Effects of different organic manure sources and their combinations with chemical fertilization on soil nematode community structure in a paddy field of East China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Ye, Cheng-Long; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qi-Rong; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-Xin

    2013-12-01

    A comparative study was conducted to investigate the effects of different fertilization modes on the soil nematode community structure in a paddy field with paddy rice and wheat rotation in Jintan County (31 degrees 39'41.8" N, 119 degrees 28'23.5" E) of Jiangsu Province, East China. Six treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), 100% chemical NPK fertilization (F), pig manure compost plus 50% chemical fertilization (PF), straw returning plus 100% chemical fertilization (SF), pig manure compost and straw returning plus 50% chemical fertilization (PSF), and application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer (PMF). The soil samples were collected from the field after the paddy rice harvested in autumn. The two continuous years study showed that the soil nematode community structure varied with fertilization treatments and years. The combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures increased the total number of soil nematodes, decreased the abundance of soil bacterivorous nematodes, and made the abundance of predator- and omnivore nematodes increased significantly. No significant differences were observed in the abundance of soil fungivorous nematodes among all the treatments. Chemical fertilization alone and the application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer had no obvious suppression effect on the soil phytophagous nematodes. The abundance of soil bacteriavorous nematodes under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures was relatively increased in the second year, as compared with that in the first year, while the abundance of soil phytophagous nematodes (Hirschmanniella) was relatively decreased in the second year. From the aspect of nematode ecological indices, the Margalef diversity index (H) under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures in the second year had an increasing trend, while the NCR index had less change. The Wasilewka index had a

  19. [Effects of irrigation of untreated livestock farm wastewater on accumulation and vertical mig- ration of nitrogen and phosphorus in paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-kui; Ahmed Elgodah; Bao, Chen-yan

    2014-12-01

    Although a series of process techniques for treating wastewater from livestock and poultry breeding have been developed in China and overseas, it is still common in China's rural areas for utilization of the untreated wastewater to irrigate farmland directly because of economic reasons. The impact of untreated wastewater irrigation on accumulation and vertical migration of nitrogen and phosphorus in paddy soil is concerned. Consequently, four representative paddy fields with different histories of livestock farm wastewater irrigation (0, 4, 7, 13 years) were selected for collecting profile soil samples to study the effects of long-term irrigation of untreated livestock farm wastewater on various forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soils at different vertical depths. As compared with control field without any irrigation of wastewater, long-term irrigation of untreated livestock farm wastewater significantly increased the accumulation of N and P in the soils with increasing the irrigation year, and the increment of total P in the soil was greater than that of total N. Total P content in surface soil from fields with 4, 7, and 13 years irrigation was increased by 43.6%, 95.2%, and 148.4%, while total N increased by 7.6%, 16.9%, and 28.4%, respectively. Different forms of soil N were increased in order of NH4+ -N, NO3- -N > acid hydrolyzable N > non-acid hydrolyzable N, and soil available P changed much more than total P. Long-term irrigation of untreated livestock farm wastewater could promote vertical migration of soil nitrogen and phosphorus, and increase the pollution risk for groundwater.

  20. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  1. The influence of paddy soil drying on Tc insolubilization by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wakae, Nao; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Shikano, Shuichi; Uchida, Shigeo

    2006-05-01

    Tc insolubilization in four soils samples was compared by pre-incubating them in both dry and wet states, then measuring Tc concentrations in solution when the samples were saturated with an excess of water spiked with 99Tc. Soils pre-incubated in a dry state showed higher Tc insolubilization than soils incubated in a wet state. To clarify the difference in Tc insolubilization, Eh, bacterial abundances, and bacterial species compositions in the dry and wet ponding water samples were determined. For the wet ponding water samples, Eh values were forced to decrease, but no increase in Tc insolubilization was observed. The dry and wet ponding water samples had similar numbers of bacteria. However, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that they had different bacterial species compositions. These results suggested the difference in bacterial species compositions would account for the difference in Tc insolubilization.

  2. Clonal Integration Enhances the Performance of a Clonal Plant Species under Soil Alkalinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Juanjuan; Chen, Jishan; Zhang, Yingjun

    2015-01-01

    Clonal plants have been shown to successfully survive in stressful environments, including salinity stress, drought and depleted nutrients through clonal integration between original and subsequent ramets. However, relatively little is known about whether clonal integration can enhance the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. We investigated the effect of clonal integration on the performance of a typical rhizomatous clonal plant, Leymus chinensis, using a factorial experimental design with four levels of alkalinity and two levels of rhizome connection treatments, connected (allowing integration) and severed (preventing integration). Clonal integration was estimated by comparing physiological and biomass features between the rhizome-connected and rhizome-severed treatments. We found that rhizome-connected treatment increased the biomass, height and leaf water potential of subsequent ramets at highly alkalinity treatments but did not affect them at low alkalinity treatments. However, rhizome-connected treatment decreased the root biomass of subsequent ramets and did not influence the photosynthetic rates of subsequent ramets. The biomass of original ramets was reduced by rhizome-connected treatment at the highest alkalinity level. These results suggest that clonal integration can increase the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. Rhizome-connected plants showed dramatically increased survival of buds with negative effects on root weight, indicating that clonal integration influenced the resource allocation pattern of clonal plants. A cost-benefit analysis based on biomass measures showed that original and subsequent ramets significantly benefited from clonal integration in highly alkalinity stress, indicating that clonal integration is an important adaptive strategy by which clonal plants could survive in local alkalinity soil. PMID:25790352

  3. Clonal integration enhances the performance of a clonal plant species under soil alkalinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Yang, Gaowen; Sun, Juanjuan; Chen, Jishan; Zhang, Yingjun

    2015-01-01

    Clonal plants have been shown to successfully survive in stressful environments, including salinity stress, drought and depleted nutrients through clonal integration between original and subsequent ramets. However, relatively little is known about whether clonal integration can enhance the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. We investigated the effect of clonal integration on the performance of a typical rhizomatous clonal plant, Leymus chinensis, using a factorial experimental design with four levels of alkalinity and two levels of rhizome connection treatments, connected (allowing integration) and severed (preventing integration). Clonal integration was estimated by comparing physiological and biomass features between the rhizome-connected and rhizome-severed treatments. We found that rhizome-connected treatment increased the biomass, height and leaf water potential of subsequent ramets at highly alkalinity treatments but did not affect them at low alkalinity treatments. However, rhizome-connected treatment decreased the root biomass of subsequent ramets and did not influence the photosynthetic rates of subsequent ramets. The biomass of original ramets was reduced by rhizome-connected treatment at the highest alkalinity level. These results suggest that clonal integration can increase the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. Rhizome-connected plants showed dramatically increased survival of buds with negative effects on root weight, indicating that clonal integration influenced the resource allocation pattern of clonal plants. A cost-benefit analysis based on biomass measures showed that original and subsequent ramets significantly benefited from clonal integration in highly alkalinity stress, indicating that clonal integration is an important adaptive strategy by which clonal plants could survive in local alkalinity soil.

  4. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer and/or rice straw amendment on methanogenic archaeal communities and methane production from a rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Bao, Qiongli; Huang, Yizong; Wang, Fenghua; Nie, Sanan; Nicol, Graeme W; Yao, Huaiying; Ding, Longjun

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen fertilization and returning straw to paddy soil are important factors that regulate CH4 production. To evaluate the effect of rice straw and/or nitrate amendment on methanogens, a paddy soil was anaerobically incubated for 40 days. The results indicated that while straw addition increased CH4 production and the abundances of mcrA genes and their transcripts, nitrate amendment showed inhibitory effects on them. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis based on mcrA gene revealed that straw addition obviously changed methanogenic community structure. Based on mcrA gene level, straw-alone addition stimulated Methanosarcinaceaes at the early stage of incubation (first 11 days), but nitrate showed inhibitory effect. The relative abundance of Methanobacteriaceae was also stimulated by straw addition during the first 11 days. Furthermore, Methanosaetaceae were enriched by nitrate-alone addition after 11 days, while Methanocellaceae were enriched by nitrate addition especially within the first 5 days. The transcriptional methanogenic community indicated more dynamic and complicated responses to straw and/or nitrate addition. Based on mcrA transcript level, nitrate addition alone resulted in the increase of Methanocellaceae and the shift from Methanosarcinaceae to Methanosaetaceae during the first 5 days of incubation. Straw treatments increased the relative abundance of Methanobacteriaceae after 11 days. These results demonstrate that nitrate addition influences methanogens which are transcriptionally and functionally active and can alleviate CH4 production associated with straw amendment in paddy soil incubations, presumably through competition for common substrates between nitrate-utilizing organisms and methanogens.

  5. Dissipation of chlorpyrifos and residue analysis in rice, soil and water under paddy field conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Shen, Yan; Yu, Xiang-yang; Liu, Xian-jin

    2012-04-01

    The analytical method for the residues of chlorpyrifos in rice plants, water and soil was developed and dissipation of chlorpyrifos under field conditions was studied. The limit of detection (LOD) of chlorpyrifos was 0.006 mg kg(-1) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 0.04 mg kg(-1) in rice plant (water) and 0.02 mg kg(-1) in the other substrates, respectively. The results showed that the initial residues of chlorpyrifos in Nanjing and Guangxi were 4.99 and 6.05 mg kg(-1) (rice plant), 1.35 and 1.58 mg kg(-1) (water) and 0.51 and 0.63 mg kg(-1) (soil), respectively. The half-lives of chlorpyrifos in rice plant, water and soil from Nanjing were 4.28, 0.58 and 1.35 day, respectively, and the half-lives of those from Guangxi were 3.86, 0.52 and 1.21 day, respectively. The husked rice, rice hull and straw samples were found to contain chlorpyrifos well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) following the recommended dosage, the residues of chlorpyrifos in soil were undetectable under all application levels and frequencies after 28 day of applications.

  6. Hexavalent uranium diffusion into soils from concentrated acidic and alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Pena, Jasquelin; Sutton, Stephen R.; Newville, Matthew

    2004-03-29

    Uranium contamination of soils and sediments often originates from acidic or alkaline waste sources, with diffusion being a major transport mechanism. Measurements of U(VI) diffusion from initially pH 2 and pH 11 solutions into a slightly alkaline Altamont soil and a neutral Oak Ridge soil were obtained through monitoring uptake from boundary reservoirs and from U concentration profiles within soil columns. The soils provided pH buffering, resulting in diffusion at nearly constant pH. Micro x-ray absorption near edge structure spectra confirmed that U remained in U(VI) forms in all soils. Time trends of U(VI) depletion from reservoirs, and U(VI) concentration profiles within soil columns yielded K{sub d} values consistent with those determined in batch tests at similar concentrations ({approx} 1 mM), and much lower than values for sorption at much lower concentrations (nM to {mu}M). These results show that U(VI) transport at high concentrations can be relatively fast at non-neutral pH, with negligible surface diffusion, because of weak sorption.

  7. Soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in rice paddies under long-term agro-ecosystem experiments in southern China - VI. Changes in microbial community structure and respiratory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Li, L.; Pan, G.; Crowley, D.; Tippkötter, R.

    2011-02-01

    Biological stabilization within accumulated soil organic carbon (SOC) has not been well understood, while its role in physical and chemical protection as well as of chemical recalcitrance had been addressed in Chinese rice paddies. In this study, topsoil samples were collected and respiratory activity measured in situ following rice harvest under different fertilization treatments of three long-term experimental sites across southern China in 2009. The SOC contents, microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and nitrogen (SMBN) were analysed using chemical digestion and microbial community structure assessment via clony dilute plate counting methods. While SOC contents were consistently higher under compound chemical fertilization (Comp-Fert) or combined organic and inorganic fertilization (Comb-Fert) compared to N fertilization only (N-Fert), there was significantly higher fungal-bacterial ratio under Comb-Fert than under N-Fert and Comp-Fert. When subtracting the background effect under no fertilization treatment (Non-Fert), the increase both in SMBC and SMBN under fertilization treatment was found very significantly correlated to the increase in SOC over controls across the sites. Also, the ratio of culturable fungal to bacterial population numbers (F/B ratio) was well correlated with soil organic carbon contents in all samples across the sites studied. SOC accumulation favoured a build-up the microbial community with increasing fungal dominance in the rice paddies under fertilization treatments. While soil respiration rates were high under Comb-Fert as a result of enhanced microbial community build-up, the specific soil respiratory activity based on microbial biomass carbon was found in a significantly negatively correlation with the SOC contents for overall samples. Thus, a fungal-dominated microbial community seemed to slow SOC turnover, thereby favouring SOC accumulation under Comp-Fert or under Comb-Fert in the rice paddies. Therefore, the biological stabilization

  8. Interactive effects of straw-derived biochar and N fertilization on soil C storage and rice productivity in rice paddies of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yanghui; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Caihong; Zhang, Wenzhong; Lan, Yu; Li, Shuhang; Meng, Jun; Xu, Zhengjin; Tang, Liang

    2016-02-15

    Impacts of biochar on greenhouse gas emissions and C sequestration in agricultural soils have been considered as the key to mitigate climate change. There is limited knowledge regarding the effects of rice straw-derived biochar and interaction with N fertilization on soil C sequestration and rice productivity in fertile paddy fields. A 2-year (2013 and 2014) consecutive field trial was performed using straw treatment (5.05 t ha(-1)) and biochar amendment (0, 1.78, 14.8 and 29.6 t ha(-1)) with or without urea application in a rice paddy in Northeast China. A super high yielding rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. Japonica cv. 'Shennong 265') was cultivated with permanent flooding. Results showed that biochar amendments significantly decreased CH4 emissions relative to straw treatment irrespective of N fertilization, especially in N-fertilized soils with 1.78 t ha(-1) biochar. There were no differences in CO2 emissions with respect to biochar amendments, except for 14.8 t ha(-1) biochar with N fertilization. Straw treatment had the highest global warming potential over a 100-year time frame, which was nearly 1.5 times that of 14.8 t ha(-1) biochar amendment without N fertilization. Biochar addition increased total soil C by up to 5.75 mg g(-1) and 11.69 mg g(-1) (with 14.8 and 29.6 t ha(-1) biochar, respectively), whereas straw incorporation increased this value by only 3.92 mg g(-1). The aboveground biomass of rice in biochar-amended soils increased to varying degrees compared with that in straw-treated soils. However, biochar application had no effects on rice yield, regardless of N fertilization. This study indicated that transforming straw to biochar was more stabilized and more suitable to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and increase C storage in agriculture soils in Northeast China.

  9. Phosphorus status and microbial community of paddy soil with the growth of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) under different phosphorus fertilizer treatments*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hai-chao; Wang, Guang-huo

    2009-01-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was grown in paddy soil in pots under different phosphorus (P) fertilizer treatments to investigate changes of P fractions and microbial community of the soil. The treatments included Kunyang phosphate rock (KPR) applications at 50 mg P/kg (KPR50) and 250 mg P/kg (KPR250), mono-calcium phosphate (MCP) application at 50 mg P/kg (MCP50), and the control without P application. The results showed that KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications significantly increased the dry weight of the ryegrass by 13%, 38%, and 55%, and increased P uptake by 19%, 135%, and 324%, respectively. Compared with MCP50, the relative effectiveness of KPR50 and KPR250 treatments in ryegrass production was about 23% and 68%, respectively. After one season of ryegrass growth, the KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 applications increased soil-available P by 13.4%, 26.8%, and 55.2%, respectively. More than 80% of the applied KPR-P remained as HCl-P fraction in the soil. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that the total and bacterial PLFAs were significantly higher in the soils with KPR250 and MCP50 treatments compared with KPR50 and control. The latter had no significant difference in the total or bacterial PLFAs. The KPR50, KPR250, and MCP50 treatments increased fungal PLFA by 69%, 103%, and 69%, respectively. Both the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis of the PLFA data suggest that P treatments altered the microbial community composition of the soils, and that P availability might be an important contributor to the changes in the microbial community structure during the ryegrass growth in the paddy soils. PMID:19817001

  10. Straw application in paddy soil enhances methane production also from other carbon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Q.; Pump, J.; Conrad, R.

    2013-08-01

    Flooded rice fields are an important source of the greenhouse gas methane. Methane is produced from rice straw (RS), soil organic matter (SOM), and rice root organic carbon (ROC). Addition of RS is widely used for ameliorating soil fertility. However, this practice provides additional substrate for CH4 production and results in increased CH4 emission. Here, we found that decomposing RS is not only a substrate of CH4 production, but in addition stimulates CH4 production from SOM and ROC. Apart from accelerating the creation of reduced conditions in the soil environment, RS decomposition exerted a positive priming effect on SOM-derived CH4 production. In particular, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis from SOM-derived CO2 was stimulated, presumably by H2 released from RS decomposition. On the other hand, the positive priming effect of RS on ROC-derived CH4 production was probably caused by the significant increase of the abundance of methanogenic archaea in the RS treatment compared with the untreated control. Our results show that traditional management of rice residues exerts a positive feedback on CH4 production from rice fields, thus exacerbating its effect on the global CH4 budget.

  11. Straw application in paddy soil enhances methane production also from other carbon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Q.; Pump, J.; Conrad, R.

    2014-01-01

    Flooded rice fields are an important source of the greenhouse gas methane. Methane is produced from rice straw (RS), soil organic matter (SOM), and rice root organic carbon (ROC). Addition of RS is widely used for ameliorating soil fertility. However, this practice provides additional substrate for CH4 production and results in increased CH4 emission. Here, we found that decomposing RS is not only a substrate of CH4 production, but in addition stimulates CH4 production from SOM and ROC. Apart from accelerating the creation of reduced conditions in the soil environment, RS decomposition resulted in enhancement of SOM-derived CH4 production. In particular, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis from SOM-derived CO2 was stimulated, presumably by H2 released from RS decomposition. On the other hand, the enhancement of ROC-derived CH4 production after RS application was probably caused by the significant increase of the abundance of methanogenic Archaea in the RS treatment compared with the untreated control. Our results show that traditional management of rice residues exerts a positive feedback on CH4 production from rice fields, thus exacerbating its effect on the global CH4 budget.

  12. Arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice grown in arsanilic acid-elevated paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Geng, Anjing; Wang, Xu; Wu, Lishu; Wang, Fuhua; Chen, Yan; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Zhan; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2017-03-01

    P-arsanilic acid (AsA) is a emerging but less concerned contaminant used in animal feeding operations, for it can be degraded to more toxic metabolites after being excreted by animals. Rice is the staple food in many parts of the world, and also more efficient in accumulating arsenic (As) compared to other cereals. However, the uptake and transformation of AsA by rice is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the potential risk of using AsA as a feed additive and using the AsA contaminated animal manure as a fertilizer. Five rice cultivars were grown in soil containing 100mg AsA/kg soil, after harvest, As species and their concentrations in different tissues were determined. Total As concentration of the hybrid rice cultivar was more than conventional rice cultivars for whole rice plant. For rice organs, the highest As concentration was found in roots. AsA could be absorbed by rice, partly degraded and converted to arsenite, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenate. The number of As species and their concentrations in each cultivar were related to their genotypes. The soil containing 100mg AsA/kg or more is unsuitable for growing rice. The use of AsA and the disposal of animal manure requires detailed attention.

  13. An inorganic CO2 diffusion and dissolution process explains negative CO2 fluxes in saline/alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yuan; Stevenson, Bryan A; Zheng, Xin-Jun; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    An 'anomalous' negative flux, in which carbon dioxide (CO2) enters rather than is released from the ground, was studied in a saline/alkaline soil. Soil sterilization disclosed an inorganic process of CO2 dissolution into (during the night) and out of (during the day) the soil solution, driven by variation in soil temperature. Experimental and modeling analysis revealed that pH and soil moisture were the most important determinants of the magnitude of this inorganic CO2 flux. In the extreme cases of air-dried saline/alkaline soils, this inorganic process was predominant. While the diurnal flux measured was zero sum, leaching of the dissolved inorganic carbon in the soil solution could potentially effect net carbon ecosystem exchange. This finding implies that an inorganic module should be incorporated when dealing with the CO2 flux of saline/alkaline land. Neglecting this inorganic flux may induce erroneous or misleading conclusions in interpreting CO2 fluxes of these ecosystems.

  14. [Effect of carbon substrate concentration on N2, N2O, NO, CO2, and CH4 emissions from a paddy soil in anaerobic condition].

    PubMed

    Chen, Nuo; Liao, Ting-ting; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Xun-hua; Hu, Rong-gui; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the effects of carbon and nitrogen substrates concentrations on the emissions of denitrification gases including nitrogen (N2) , nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from anaerobic paddy soils is believed to be helpful for development of greenhouse gas mitigation strategies. Moreover, understanding the quantitative dependence of denitrification products compositions on carbon substrate concentration could provide some key parameters or parameterization scheme for developing process-oriented model(s) of nitrogen transformation. Using a silt loam soil collected from a paddy field, we investigated the influence of carbon substrate concentration on the emissions of the denitrification gases, CO2 and CH4 from anaerobically incubated soils by setting two treatments: control (CK) with initial soil nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of ~ 50 mg.kg-1 and -28 mg kg-1 , respectively; and DOC added (C + ) with initial soil nitrate and DOC concentrations of ~50 mg.kg-1 and ~300 mg.kg-1 , respectively. The emissions of denitrification gases, CO2 and CH4, as well as concentrations of carbon and nitrogen substrates for each treatment were dynamically measured, using the gas-flow-soil-core technique and a paralleling substrate monitoring system. The results showed that CH4 emission was not observed in CK treatment while observed in C treatment. Aggregate emission of greenhouse gases for C + treatment was significantly higher comparing with the CK treatment (P <0. 01). The mass fractions of NO, N20 and N2 emissions in total nitrogen gases emissions were approximately 9% , 35% and 56% for CK treatment, respectively; and approximately 31% , 50% and 19% for C+ treatment, respectively, with significant differences between these two treatments (P < 0.01). The results indicated that carbon substrate concentrations can significantly change the composition of nitrogen gas emissions. The results also implicated

  15. Short-Term Exposure of Paddy Soil Microbial Communities to Salt Stress Triggers Different Transcriptional Responses of Key Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jingjing; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Liesack, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization due to seawater intrusion along coastal areas is an increasing threat to rice cultivation worldwide. While the detrimental impact on rice growth and yield has been thoroughly studied, little is known about how severe salinity affects structure and function of paddy soil microbial communities. Here, we examined their short-term responses to half- and full-strength seawater salinity in controlled laboratory experiments. Slurry microcosms were incubated under anoxic conditions, with rice straw added as carbon source. Stress exposure time was for 2 days after a pre-incubation period of 7 days. Relative to the control, moderate (300 mM NaCl) and high (600 mM NaCl) salt stress suppressed both net consumption of acetate and methane production by 50% and 70%, respectively. Correspondingly, community-wide mRNA expression decreased by 50-65%, with significant changes in relative transcript abundance of family-level groups. mRNA turnover was clearly more responsive to salt stress than rRNA dynamics. Among bacteria, Clostridiaceae were most abundant and the only group whose transcriptional activity was strongly stimulated at 600 mM NaCl. In particular, clostridial mRNA involved in transcription/translation, fermentation, uptake and biosynthesis of compatible solutes, and flagellar motility was significantly enriched in response salt stress. None of the other bacterial groups were able to compete at 600 mM NaCl. Their responses to 300 mM NaCl were more diverse. Lachnospiraceae increased, Ruminococcaceae maintained, and Peptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae, and Syntrophomonadaceae decreased in relative mRNA abundance. Among methanogens, Methanosarcinaceae were most dominant. Relative to other family-level groups, salt stress induced a significant enrichment of transcripts related to the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-coenzyme A synthase complex, methanogenesis, heat shock, ammonium uptake, and thermosomes, but the absolute abundance of methanosarcinal mRNA decreased. Most

  16. Short-Term Exposure of Paddy Soil Microbial Communities to Salt Stress Triggers Different Transcriptional Responses of Key Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jingjing; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Liesack, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization due to seawater intrusion along coastal areas is an increasing threat to rice cultivation worldwide. While the detrimental impact on rice growth and yield has been thoroughly studied, little is known about how severe salinity affects structure and function of paddy soil microbial communities. Here, we examined their short-term responses to half- and full-strength seawater salinity in controlled laboratory experiments. Slurry microcosms were incubated under anoxic conditions, with rice straw added as carbon source. Stress exposure time was for 2 days after a pre-incubation period of 7 days. Relative to the control, moderate (300 mM NaCl) and high (600 mM NaCl) salt stress suppressed both net consumption of acetate and methane production by 50% and 70%, respectively. Correspondingly, community-wide mRNA expression decreased by 50–65%, with significant changes in relative transcript abundance of family-level groups. mRNA turnover was clearly more responsive to salt stress than rRNA dynamics. Among bacteria, Clostridiaceae were most abundant and the only group whose transcriptional activity was strongly stimulated at 600 mM NaCl. In particular, clostridial mRNA involved in transcription/translation, fermentation, uptake and biosynthesis of compatible solutes, and flagellar motility was significantly enriched in response salt stress. None of the other bacterial groups were able to compete at 600 mM NaCl. Their responses to 300 mM NaCl were more diverse. Lachnospiraceae increased, Ruminococcaceae maintained, and Peptococcaceae, Veillonellaceae, and Syntrophomonadaceae decreased in relative mRNA abundance. Among methanogens, Methanosarcinaceae were most dominant. Relative to other family-level groups, salt stress induced a significant enrichment of transcripts related to the CO dehydrogenase/acetyl-coenzyme A synthase complex, methanogenesis, heat shock, ammonium uptake, and thermosomes, but the absolute abundance of methanosarcinal mRNA decreased

  17. Salt crust development in paddy fields owing to soil evaporation and drainage: Contribution of chloride and deuterium profile analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünberger, Olivier; Macaigne, Peggy; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Hartmann, Christian; Sukchan, Somsak

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn Northeast Thailand lowlands with shallow saline watertable, rainfed paddy fields often present high salt concentration in the dry season, forming patches or spots of salt crusts on the soil surface. In this context, the mechanisms implied in salt concentration during dry season were studied by establishing salt budget with evaporation and drainage estimates inside and outside a saline patch. Drainage was estimated by Hydrus-1D modelling constrained by an hydrodynamic characterization and the profile of water contents at the end of dry season. Evaporation rates at the end of the dry season were computed by interpreting natural detailed profiles of deuterium (D) and chloride (Cl) contents. Because of the drastic diminution of hydraulic conductivity at saturation with depth and the decrease of groundwater level at the end of the cropping season, simulated hydrological balance with Hydrus-1D pointed out zero cumulated fluxes for depths of 39.5 cm (outside the saline patch) and 37.5 cm (inside the saline patch). Therefore, all the chloride accumulated in the very upper layers during dry season comes from the chloride that was present in the 0-39.5 cm layers before the beginning of the drying. Inside the saline patch, the tentative Cl budget is coherent with the hypothesis of saturation of the profile by aquifer saline water during the flooding. Evaporation rates computed from the diffusion of chloride and deuterium at the end of the drying season, when the aquifer level was 1.4 m deep, range between 0.121 and 0.378 mm d -1. This does not sustain the assumption of a considerable salinity contribution from the aquifer during the dry season. Moreover, evaporation estimates based on Cl and D diffusion equilibrium showed depleted rates (38-63%) inside the saline patch due to salt accumulation in the first 12 cm of the soil. In the vapour transfer layer, estimated evaporation rate based on the vapour movement of D was in the same order of magnitude than computed

  18. Storage/Turnover rate of inorganic carbon and its dissolvable part in the profile of saline/alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongyuan; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the southern Gurbantongute Desert, China, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. SDIC storage accounted for more than 20% of SIC storage, indicating that more than 1/5 of the inorganic carbon in both saline and alkaline soil is not in non-leachable forms. Deep layer soil contains considerable inorganic carbon, with more than 80% of the soil carbon stored below 1 m, whether for SDIC or SIC. More importantly, SDIC ages were much younger than SIC in both saline soil and alkaline soil. The input rate of SDIC and SIC ranged from 7.58 to 29.54 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 1.34 to 5.33 g C m(-2) yr(-1) respectively for saline soil, and from 1.43 to 4.9 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 0.79 to 1.27 g C m(-2) yr(-1)respectively for alkaline soil. The comparison of SDIC and SIC residence time showed that using soil inorganic carbon to estimate soil carbon turnover would obscure an important fraction that contributes to the modern carbon cycle: namely the shorter residence and higher input rate of SDIC. This is especially true for SDIC in deep layers of the soil profile.

  19. Effects of manure and mineral fertilization strategies on soil antibiotic resistance gene levels and microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Zhang, Zulin; Chapman, Stephen J; Freitag, Thomas E; Fu, Jianrong; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Junwei

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the responses of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the soil microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system to mineral fertilizer (NPK) and different application dosages of manure combined with NPK. The occurrence of five tetracycline ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG and tetW), two sulfonamide ARGs (sul1 and sul2) and one genetic element (IntI1) was quantified. NPK application showed only slight or no impact on soil ARGs abundances compared with the control without fertilizer. Soil ARGs abundances could be increased by manure-NPK application but was related to manure dosage (2250-9000 kg ha(-1)). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the soil ARG profile of the treatment with 9000 kg ha(-1) manure separated clearly from the other treatments; the ARGs that contributed most to the discrimination of this treatment were tetA, tetG, tetW, sul1, sul2 and IntI1. Community level physiological profile (CLPP) analysis showed that increasing manure dosage from 4500 kg ha(-1) to 9000 kg ha(-1) induced a sharp increase in almost all of the detected ARGs but would not change the microbial community at large. However, 9000 kg ha(-1) manure application produced a decline in soil microbial activity. Determination of antibiotics and heavy metals in soils suggested that the observed bloom of soil ARGs might associate closely with the accumulation of copper and zinc in soil.

  20. Changes in methane oxidation activity and methanotrophic community composition in saline alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Silva, Nancy; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J

    2014-05-01

    The soil of the former Lake Texcoco is a saline alkaline environment where anthropogenic drainage in some areas has reduced salt content and pH. Potential methane (CH4) consumption rates were measured in three soils of the former Lake Texcoco with different electrolytic conductivity (EC) and pH, i.e. Tex-S1 a >18 years drained soil (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 8.5), Tex-S2 drained for ~10 years (EC 9.0 dS m(-1), pH 10.3) and the undrained Tex-S3 (EC 84.8 dS m(-1), pH 10.3). An arable soil from Alcholoya (EC 0.7 dS m(-1), pH 6.7), located nearby Lake Texcoco was used as control. Methane oxidation in the soil Tex-S1 (lowest EC and pH) was similar to that in the arable soil from Alcholoya (32.5 and 34.7 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively). Meanwhile, in soils Tex-S2 and Tex-S3, the potential CH4 oxidation rates were only 15.0 and 12.8 mg CH4 kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), respectively. Differences in CH4 oxidation were also related to changes in the methane-oxidizing communities in these soils. Sequence analysis of pmoA gene showed that soils differed in the identity and number of methanotrophic phylotypes. The Alcholoya soil and Tex-S1 contained phylotypes grouped within the upland soil cluster gamma and the Jasper Ridge, California JR-2 clade. In soil Tex-S3, a phylotype related to Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum was detected.

  1. [Effect of long-term fertilization practices on mobility of phosphorus in a Huangnitu paddy soil receiving low P input in the Taihu Lake region, Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Pan, Genxing; Jiao, Shaojun; Li, Lianqing; Xu, Xiangdong; Qiu, Duosheng; Xu, Xiaobo; Chu, Qiuhua; Zhao, Hongxiang

    2003-05-01

    Analysis of mobile forms of phosphorus of a Huangnitu, a typical paddy soil in the Taihu Lake region, Jiangsu was conducted. The soil has been put into a scheme of longterm fertilization treatments for 13 years. Total P content varied in arrange of 0.3-0.5 g.kg-1 under a range of total P fertilizer input of 0-53 kg/(hm2.a). As estimated from the total P pool values by mass balance principle, the soil had been subjected to water loss of P 2-8 kg/(hm2.a), with that under chemical fertilizers only being the biggest. The ratio of soluble P to the total was in a range of 0.2%-0.4%, without significant influence by the different fertilization schemes. While chemical fertilizer plus pig slurry manure applications had remarkably enhanced the resin-P pool by 20-40 mg.kg-1, P mobilization was not observed due to combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw amendments despite of the increase of the SOM. Therefore, P water loss in paddy soils might have active under continuous chemical fertilization alone in agriculture of this region and could not be accounted for by dissolution in water and subsequent runoff migration. For reducing the present prominent non point source pollution of N and P in the region, it is suggested that chemical fertilizers are applied in combination with an appropriate amount of manure or straw return for reducing soil P loss and, in turn, the non-point source pollution loading.

  2. Acidic and alkaline bottom ash and composted manure blends as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, S; Sadaka, S S; Kenimer, A L; Rahman, S; Mathis, J G

    2008-09-01

    Potential water quality impacts associated with using bottom ash (BA) and composted dairy manure (CM) as a soil amendment were evaluated in this study. Two column studies were conducted to evaluate three blends of acidic BA and CM (BA:CM, v/v) namely, B1ac (95:5), B2ac (90:10), and B3ac (80:20) and three blends of alkaline BA and CM (BA:CM, v/v), namely, B1al (95:5), B2al (90:10), and B3al (80:20) under constant head water table conditions. Samples from standing water (top) and leachate (bottom) were collected at weekly intervals until day 49 to evaluate the effects of different blend ratios and elapsed time on standing water and leachate chemical and physical properties. A higher CM content in both acidic and alkaline blends resulted in higher leachate concentrations for solids and nutrients tested in this study. Alkaline blends had higher standing water and leachate nutrients concentration compared to acidic blends. After day 28, standing water total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations for all acidic blends was below the USEPA drinking water standard however, TDS value for alkaline blend was always below the standard. Similar trends were also observed for NO3-N and phosphorus (P) concentrations for both blends. Based on these findings, it was concluded that acidic and alkaline blends B1ac, B1al, B2ac and B2al may be considered as a soil amendment material.

  3. Phosphate solubilization potential and modeling of stress tolerance of rhizobacteria from rice paddy soil in northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Bakhshandeh, Esmaeil; Rahimian, Heshmatollah; Pirdashti, Hematollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali

    2014-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the phosphate solubilization activity of bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of rice paddy soil in northern Iran, and to study the effect of temperature, NaCl and pH on the growth of these isolates by modeling. Three of the most effective strains from a total of 300 isolates were identified and a phylogenetic analysis was carried out by 16S rDNA sequencing. The isolates were identified as Pantoea ananatis (M36), Rahnella aquatilis (M100) and Enterobacter sp. (M183). These isolates showed multiple plant growth-promoting attributes such as phosphate solubilization activity and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. The M36, M100 and M183 isolates were able to solubilize 172, 263 and 254 µg ml(-1) of Ca3(PO4)2 after 5 days of growth at 28 °C and pH 7.5, and to produce 8.0, 2.0 and 3.0 μg ml(-1) of IAA when supplemented with L-tryptophan (1 mg ml(-1)) for 72 h, at 28 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. The solubilization of insoluble phosphate was associated with a drop in the pH of the culture medium and there was an inverse relationship between pH and solubilized P (r = -0.98, P < 0.0952). There were no significant differences among isolates in terms of acidity tolerance based on their confidence limits as assessed by segmented model analysis and all isolates were able to grow at pH 4.3-11 (with optimum at 7.0-7.5). Based on a sigmoidal trend of a three-parameter logistic model, the salt concentration required for 50 % inhibition was 8.15, 6.30 and 8.23 % NaCl for M36, M100 and M183 isolates, respectively. Moreover, the minimum and maximum growth temperatures estimated by the segmented model were 5.0 and 42.75 °C for M36, 12.76 and 40.32 °C for M100, and 10.63 and 43.66 °C for M183. The three selected isolates could be deployed as inoculants to promote plant growth in an agricultural environment.

  4. Effects of biochars on the availability of heavy metals to ryegrass in an alkaline contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guixiang; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Zhihua; He, Qiusheng; Wang, Shuifeng; Zhu, Yuen; Yan, Yulong; Liu, Xitao; Sun, Ke; Zhao, Ye; Qian, Tianwei

    2016-11-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochars on the availability of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) to ryegrass in an alkaline contaminated soil. Biochars only slightly decreased or even increased the availability of heavy metals assesses by chemical extractant (a mixture of 0.05 mol L(-1) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium, 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl2, and 0.1 mol L(-1) triethanolamine). The significantly positive correlation between most chemical-extractable heavy metals and the ash content in biochars indicated the positive role of ash in this extraction. Biochars significantly reduced the plant uptake of heavy metals, excluding Mn. The absence of a positive correlation between the chemical-extractable heavy metals and the plant uptake counterparts (except for Mn) indicates that chemical extractability is probably not a reliable indicator to predict the phytoavailability of most heavy metals in alkaline soils treated with biochars. The obviously negative correlation between the plant uptake of heavy metals (except for Mn) and the (O + N)/C and H/C indicates that biochars with more polar groups, which were produced at lower temperatures, had higher efficiency for reducing the phytoavailability of heavy metals. The significantly negative correlations between the plant uptake of Mn and ryegrass biomass indicated the "dilution effect" caused by the improvement of biomass. These observations will be helpful for designing biochars as soil amendments to reduce the availability of heavy metals to plants in soils, especially in alkaline soils.

  5. Genetic diversity and community structure of rhizobia nodulating Sesbania cannabina in saline-alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Li, Xiangyue; Liu, Yajing; Wang, En Tao; Ren, Chenggang; Liu, Wei; Xu, Hualing; Wu, Hailong; Jiang, Nan; Li, Yunzhao; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xie, Zhihong

    2016-05-01

    Sesbania cannabina is a plant that grows naturally along the seashores in Rudong County, China (RDC) and it has been introduced into the Yellow River Delta (YRD) as a pioneer plant to improve the saline-alkaline soils. In order to investigate the diversity of S. cannabina rhizobia in these soils, a total of 198 rhizobial isolates were characterized and phylogenetic trees were constructed based on data from multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of the housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII, as well as 16S rRNA. Symbiotic features were also studied by establishing the phylogeny of the symbiotic genes nodA and nifH, and by performing nodulation assays. The isolates had highly conserved symbiotic genes and were classified into nine genospecies belonging to the genera Ensifer, Agrobacterium, Neorhizobium and Rhizobium. A unique community structure was detected in the rhizobia associated with S. cannabina in the saline-alkaline soils that was characterized by five novel genospecies and four defined species. In addition, Ensifer sp. I was the predominant rhizobia in YRD, whereas Ensifer meliloti and Neorhizobium huautlense were the dominant species in RDC. Therefore, the study demonstrated for the first time that this plant strongly selected the symbiotic gene background but not the genomic background of its microsymbionts. In addition, biogeographic patterns existed in the rhizobial populations associated with S. cannabina, which were mainly correlated with pH and salinity, as well as the mineral nutrient contents. This study provided novel information concerning the interaction between soil conditions, host plant and rhizobia, in addition to revealing the diversity of S. cannabina rhizobia in saline-alkaline soils.

  6. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haishi; Ding, Yuanjun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Li, Zichuan; Sun, Jingling; Lashari, Muhammad Siddique; Joseph, Stephen; Meng, Yuanduo; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (C) in soils across ecosystems. Analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. In this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. Short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rape (Brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar combinations in a Chinese rice paddy. After removal of free lipids with sequential extraction, the residual bound lipids were obtained with saponification and derivatization before analysis using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Diacids C16 and C18 in bound lipids were detected both in rice and rape root samples, while diacids C20 and C22 were detected only in rape root samples. Accordingly, diacids were quantified in both rhizosphere and bulk soil (0–15 cm). The amount of total root-derived diacids in bulk soil varied in a range of 5.6–9.6 mg/kg across growth stages and crop seasons. After one year-round rice-rape rotation, root-derived suberin diacids were maintained at a level of 7–9 mg/kg in bulk soil; this was higher under a super rice cultivar LY than under a hybrid cultivar IIY. While concentrations of the analyzed diacids were generally higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil, the total diacid (DA) concentration was higher at the time of rape harvest than at rice harvest, suggesting that rape roots made a major contribution to the preservation of diacids in the paddy. Moreover, the net change in the concentration and the ratios of C16:0 DA to C18:1 DA, and of C16:0 DA to C18:0 DA, over a whole growing season, were greater under LY than under IIY, though there was no difference between cultivars within a single growth stage. Overall, total concentration of root-derived suberin diacids was found to be positively correlated to soil organic carbon

  7. Root-Derived Short-Chain Suberin Diacids from Rice and Rape Seed in a Paddy Soil under Rice Cultivar Treatments.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haishi; Ding, Yuanjun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Dengxiao; Li, Zichuan; Sun, Jingling; Lashari, Muhammad Siddique; Joseph, Stephen; Meng, Yuanduo; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2015-01-01

    Suberin-derived substituted fatty acids have been shown to be potential biomarkers for plant-derived carbon (C) in soils across ecosystems. Analyzing root derived suberin compounds bound in soil could help to understand the root input into a soil organic carbon pool. In this study, bound lipids were extracted and identified in root and topsoil samples. Short-chain suberin diacids were quantified under rice (Oryza sativa L.) and rape (Brassica campestris) rotations with different cultivar combinations in a Chinese rice paddy. After removal of free lipids with sequential extraction, the residual bound lipids were obtained with saponification and derivatization before analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Diacids C16 and C18 in bound lipids were detected both in rice and rape root samples, while diacids C20 and C22 were detected only in rape root samples. Accordingly, diacids were quantified in both rhizosphere and bulk soil (0-15 cm). The amount of total root-derived diacids in bulk soil varied in a range of 5.6-9.6 mg/kg across growth stages and crop seasons. After one year-round rice-rape rotation, root-derived suberin diacids were maintained at a level of 7-9 mg/kg in bulk soil; this was higher under a super rice cultivar LY than under a hybrid cultivar IIY. While concentrations of the analyzed diacids were generally higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil, the total diacid (DA) concentration was higher at the time of rape harvest than at rice harvest, suggesting that rape roots made a major contribution to the preservation of diacids in the paddy. Moreover, the net change in the concentration and the ratios of C16:0 DA to C18:1 DA, and of C16:0 DA to C18:0 DA, over a whole growing season, were greater under LY than under IIY, though there was no difference between cultivars within a single growth stage. Overall, total concentration of root-derived suberin diacids was found to be positively correlated to soil organic carbon concentration

  8. Quantification and modelling of water flow in rain-fed paddy fields in NE Thailand: Evidence of soil salinization under submerged conditions by artesian groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammecker, Claude; Maeght, Jean-Luc; Grünberger, Olivier; Siltacho, Siwaporn; Srisruk, Kriengsak; Noble, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    SummaryWater flow and solute transport in soils forms an essential part in many groundwater hydrology studies. This is especially true for Northeast Thailand, where the agricultural land is affected by the soil salinity, which is a widespread and an increasing phenomenon affecting 25% of the agricultural land. Salinization appears as scattered discrete patches of 10-100 m2 in the lowlands, illustrated by white efflorescences during the dry season and bare soil during the cropping season. A field study was undertaken in farm plots to measure the water flow and solute transport within the soil surface and the vadose zone, both inside and outside a saline patch. The water flow was measured on the soil surface with lysimeters and infiltration rings, and was derived in the soil from the hydraulic gradients measured with tensiometers placed at different depths. The salt transport was evaluated with water traps also placed at different depths, where the soil water's electrical conductivity was measured throughout the rainy season. Field study results demonstrated that the accumulation of saline solutions in rain fed paddy fields, occurred mainly during the rainy season while the soil surface remained flooded. During this period the saline water table rose towards the soil surface independently of infiltration into the soil. It happened in specific places where the compacted soil layer, generally ubiquitous in the area at a depth of 40-50 cm, is interrupted. Therefore salinity appeareds in discret points as patches. Artesian upward flow already described in this area (Haworth et al., 1966; Williamson et al., 1989; Imaizumi et al., 2002) is most probably responsible for this water table rise, thereby affecting crop productivity. Numerical modelling of water flow using HYDRUS-3D further supported these results and showed that managing the depth of flooding within the plot can significantly reduce the outbreak of these saline plumes.

  9. Effects of the Application of Digestates from Wet and Dry Anaerobic Fermentation to Japanese Paddy and Upland Soils on Short-Term Nitrification

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Kozue; Toyota, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Wet and dry anaerobic fermentation processes are operated for biogas production from organic matter, resulting in wet and dry digestates as by-products, respectively. The application of these digestates to soil as fertilizer has increased in recent years. Therefore, we herein compared the effects of applying wet digestates (pH 8.2, C/N ratio 4.5), dry digestates (pH 8.8, C/N ratio 23.4), and a chemical fertilizer to Japanese paddy and upland soils on short-term nitrification under laboratory aerobic conditions. Chloroform-labile C, an indicator of microbial biomass, was only minimally affected by these applications, indicating that a small amount of labile N was immobilized by microbes. All applications led to rapid increases in NO3 -N contents in both soils, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, but not archaea may play a critical role in net nitrification in the amended soils. The net nitrification rates for both soils were the highest after the application of dry digestates, followed by wet digestates and then the chemical fertilizer in order of decreasing soil pH. These results suggest that the immediate effects of applying digestates, especially dry digestates with the highest pH, on nitrate leaching need to be considered when digestates are used as alternative fertilizers. PMID:25740173

  10. Role of cosubstrate and bioaccessibility played in the enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in a paddy soil by nitrate and methyl-β-cyclodextrin amendments.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Ni, Ni; Chen, Yinwen; Liu, Zongtang; Gu, Chengang; Bian, Yongrong; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jiang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the anaerobic biodegradation potential of biostimulation by nitrate (KNO3) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) addition on an aged organochlorine pesticide (OCP)-contaminated paddy soil. After 180 days of incubation, total OCP biodegradation was highest in soil receiving the addition of nitrate and MCD simultaneously and then followed by nitrate addition, MCD addition, and control. The highest biodegradation of chlordanes, hexachlorocyclohexanes, endosulfans, and total OCPs was 74.3, 63.5, 51.2, and 65.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, MCD addition significantly increased OCP bioaccessibility (p < 0.05) evaluated by Tenax TA extraction and a three-compartment model method. Moreover, the addition of nitrate and MCD also obtained the highest values of soil microbial activities, including soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, ATP production, denitrifying bacteria count, and nitrate reductase activity. Such similar trend between OCP biodegradation and soil-denitrifying activities suggests a close relationship between OCP biodegradation and N cycling and the indirect/direct involvement of soil microorganisms, especially denitrifying microorganisms in the anaerobic biodegradation of OCPs.

  11. Effects of the application of digestates from wet and dry anaerobic fermentation to Japanese paddy and upland soils on short-term nitrification.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kozue; Toyota, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Wet and dry anaerobic fermentation processes are operated for biogas production from organic matter, resulting in wet and dry digestates as by-products, respectively. The application of these digestates to soil as fertilizer has increased in recent years. Therefore, we herein compared the effects of applying wet digestates (pH 8.2, C/N ratio 4.5), dry digestates (pH 8.8, C/N ratio 23.4), and a chemical fertilizer to Japanese paddy and upland soils on short-term nitrification under laboratory aerobic conditions. Chloroform-labile C, an indicator of microbial biomass, was only minimally affected by these applications, indicating that a small amount of labile N was immobilized by microbes. All applications led to rapid increases in NO3 -N contents in both soils, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, but not archaea may play a critical role in net nitrification in the amended soils. The net nitrification rates for both soils were the highest after the application of dry digestates, followed by wet digestates and then the chemical fertilizer in order of decreasing soil pH. These results suggest that the immediate effects of applying digestates, especially dry digestates with the highest pH, on nitrate leaching need to be considered when digestates are used as alternative fertilizers.

  12. Biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Wang, Jingyuan; Dippold, Michaela; Gao, Yang; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-06-15

    The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment. BC application increased total soil C and particulate organic C for 47.4-50.4% and 63.7-74.6%, respectively. The effects of BC on the microbial community and C-cycling enzymes were dependent on fertilization. Addition of BC alone did not change the microbial community compared with the control, but altered the microbial community structure in conjunction with NPK fertilization. SOM fractions accounted for 55% of the variance in the PLFA-related microbial community structure. The particulate organic N explained the largest variation in the microbial community structure. Microbial metabolic activity strongly increased after BC addition, particularly the utilization of amino acids and amines due to an increase in the activity of proteolytic (l-leucine aminopeptidase) enzymes. These results indicate that microorganisms start to mine N from the SOM to compensate for high C:N ratios after BC application, which consequently accelerate cycling of stable N. Concluding, BC in combination with NPK fertilizer application strongly affected microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced SOM cycling.

  13. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bo; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C10 and C11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area.

  14. Zoom in new insights of potential microbial control of N and CH4 gaseous losses induced by different agricultural practices in temperate paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucu, Maria Alexandra; Bardi, Laura; Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Sacco, Dario; Celi, Luisella; Gorra, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    Rice is the world's single most important food crop and a primary food source for more than a third of the world's population. Usually, rice is grown in flooded paddies that result in anoxic soil conditions throughout a major part of the cropping period. Redox processes in wetland ecosystems combined with crop residue incorporation play an important role in element cycling and ecological functions of rice ecosystems. Microbial communities are at the basis of the functioning of wetlands and the ecosystem services they provide. Agronomic management practices adopted in rice paddies may have important effects on microbial biomass functionality and interactions, but these are largely unknown in situ. They mediate important processes such as nitrification, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox), denitrification, and methanogenesis that regulate ecosystem functioning and control greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Therefore, it is crucial to comprehend the microbial control of these processes as a function of different crop residue and water management practices. Here we highlight recent findings based on the exploration of microbial functional genes as biogeochemical indicators. Through both lab and field experiments and by linking to GHG emissions and soil chemistry, we evaluated niche differentiation between microbial communities and the crucial role of agronomic management in regulating their potential functionality. Recent studies showed a high abundance of both 16S communities, bacteria and archaea, confirming the high relevance of archaeal mediated processes in rice ecosystems. Our results unravel the complete denitrification as key player in regulating major nitrogen (N) fluxes in fertilized paddies. In a laboratory experiment this process was shown to be driven by both archaea and bacteria harboring nosZ gene, but especially by archaea in the absence of straw. In addition, part of the immobilized N was attributed to nitrous oxide (N2O) reducing archaea, suggesting

  15. [Effects of no-tillage and fertilization on paddy soil CH4 and N2O emissions and their greenhouse effect in central China].

    PubMed

    Dai, Guang-zhao; Li, Cheng-fang; Cao, Cou-gui; Zhan, Ming; Tong, Le-ga; Mei, Shao-hua; Zhai, Zhong-bing; Fan, Duan-yang

    2009-09-01

    By using static chamber-gas chromatographic techniques, the CH4 and N2O emissions from the paddy soil in southeast Hubei were measured. Four treatments were installed, i.e., no-tillage plus no-fertilization (NT0), conventional tillage plus no-fertilization (CT0), no-tillage plus fertilization (NTC), and conventional tillage plus fertilization (CTC). In all treatments, the CH4 emission had a seasonal variation of increasing first and decreasing then, while the N2O emission had no significant seasonal variation. Fertilization increased the CH4 and N2O emissions significantly. NT0 increased the CH4 emission and decreased the N2O emission significantly, compared with CT0; NTC only decreased the CH4 emission and increased the N2O emission slightly, compared with CTC. The analysis on the integrated greenhouse effect of CH4 and N2O showed that NT0 increased the effect by 25.9%, compared with CT0, while NTC decreased the effect by 10.1%, compared with CTC. Therefore, a reasonable arrangement of fertilization and no-tillage could reduce the integrated greenhouse effect of CH4 and N2O from paddy field.

  16. [Aluminum dissolution and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of copper by aggregates of paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Dao-Yuan; Qin, Chao; Li, Yu-Jiao; Dong, Chang-Xun

    2014-01-01

    Size fractions of soil aggregates in Lake Tai region were collected by the low-energy ultrasonic dispersion and the freeze-desiccation methods. The dissolution of aluminum and changes of pH in soil solution during sorption of Cu2+ and changes of the dissolution of aluminum at different pH in the solution of Cu2+ by aggregates were studied by the equilibrium sorption method. The results showed that in the process of Cu2+ sorption by aggregates, the aluminum was dissoluted and the pH decreased. The elution amount of aluminum and the decrease of pH changed with the sorption of Cu2+, both increasing with the increase of Cu2+ sorption. Under the same conditions, the dissolution of aluminum and the decrease of pH were in the order of coarse silt fraction > silt fraction > sand fraction > clay fraction, which was negatively correlated with the amount of iron oxide, aluminum and organic matter. It suggested that iron oxide, aluminum and organic matters had inhibitory and buffering effect on the aluminum dissolution and the decrease of pH during the sorption of Cu2+.

  17. Fenton process-affected transformation of roxarsone in paddy rice soils: Effects on plant growth and arsenic accumulation in rice grain.

    PubMed

    Qin, Junhao; Li, Huashou; Lin, Chuxia

    2016-08-01

    Batch and greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effects of Fenton process on transformation of roxarsone in soils and its resulting impacts on the growth of and As uptake by a rice plant cultivar. The results show that addition of Fenton reagent markedly accelerated the degradation of roxarsone and produced arsenite, which was otherwise absent in the soil without added Fenton reagent. Methylation of arsenate was also enhanced by Fenton process in the earlier part of the experiment due to abundant supply of arsenate from Roxarsone degradation. Overall, addition of Fenton reagent resulted in the predominant presence of arsenate in the soils. Fenton process significantly improved the growth of rice in the maturity stage of the first crop, The concentration of methylated As species in the rice plant tissues among the different growth stages was highly variable. Addition of Fenton reagent into the soils led to reduced uptake of soil-borne As by the rice plants and this had a significant effect on reducing the accumulation of As in rice grains. The findings have implications for understanding As biogeochemistry in paddy rice field receiving rainwater-borne H2O2 and for development of mitigation strategies to reduce accumulation of As in rice grains.

  18. Bioaccumulation and translocation of polyhalogenated compounds in rice (Oryza sativa L.) planted in paddy soil collected from an electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Mai, Bi-Xian; Peng, Yong-Hong

    2015-10-01

    The bioaccumulation and translocation of polyhalogenated compounds (PHCs) in rice planted in the paddy soils of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site were investigated, along with the effect of contaminated soils on rice growth. The PHCs included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), and dechlorane plus (DPs). The morphological development and all measured physiological parameters of rice plants except for peroxidase were significantly inhibited by e-waste contaminated soils. Specifically, soil-root bioaccumulation factors (RCFs) increased with increasing logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficient (logKow) for PCBs, but decreased for PBDEs. During translocation from root to stem, translocation factors (TFs) and logKow were positively correlated. However, the accumulation mechanism in the leaf was concentration-dependent. In the high concentration exposure group, translocation play more important role in determination PHCs burden in leaf than atmospheric uptake, with logTF (from stem to leaf) being positively correlated with logKow. In contrast, in the low exposure and control groups, logTF (from stem to leaf) was negatively correlated with logKow. In addition, Syn-DP was selectively accumulated in plant tissues. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that e-waste contaminated soils affect rice growth, revealed the rule of the bioaccumulation and translocation of PHCs in rice plants.

  19. Bioavailability and dissipation of anthracene from soil with different alkalinity and salinity.

    PubMed

    Castro-Silva, Carolina; Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Rivas-Rivera, Sandra Gabriela; Sosa-Trinidad, Alma Rosa; Luna-Guido, Marco; Delgado-Balbuena, Laura; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability of contaminants, such as anthracene (Anthra), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), and their removal from soil has been related to their extractability with non-exhaustive techniques, such as hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) or n-butanol. Anthra was extracted with HPCD, n-butanol and by exhaustive ultrasonic extraction method from sterilized and unsterilized alkaline soil of the former lake Texcoco, having pH ranging from pH 8.2 to 10.1 and electrolytic conductivity varying from 1.2 dS m(-1) to 95.2 dS m(-1), respectively. About 24.4 and 37.6% of Anthra was removed biologically from soil as estimated by exhaustive technique after 56 days. The percentage of Anthra that was removed from soil by exhaustive technique was not related to the amount thatwas extractable with HPCD or n-butanol. It was found that the Anthra extractable with n-butanol or HPCD did not correlate well with the removal of the contaminant from soil. In this study, the removal of Anthra from soil could not be predicted by the amount of Anthra that was extracted with n-butanol or HPCD .

  20. [Characteristics of N2, N2O, NO, CO2 and CH4 Emissions in Anaerobic Condition from Sandy Loam Paddy Soil].

    PubMed

    Cao, Na; Wang, Rui; Liao, Ting-ting; Chen, Nuo; Zheng, Xun-hua; Yao, Zhi-sheng; Zhang, Hai; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the characteristics of the production of nitrogen gases (N2, N2O and NO), CO2 and CH4 in anaerobic paddy soils is not only a prerequisite for an improved mechanistic understanding of key microbial processes involved in the production of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), but might also provide the basis for designing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies. Moreover, quantifying the composition fractions of denitrification gaseous products is of key importance for improving parameterization schemes of microbial processes in process-oriented models which are increasingly used for assessing soil GHG emissions at site and national scales. In our experiments we investigated two sandy loam soils from two paddy fields. The initial concentrations of soil nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were set at approximately 50 mg.kg-1 and mg.kg-1, respectively, by adding a mixture solution of KNO3 and glucose. The emissions of N2, N2O NO, CO2 and CH4, as well as concentrations of carbon and nitrogen substrates for each soil sample were measured simultaneously, using a gas-flow-soil-core technique and a paralleling substrate monitoring system. The results showed that the accumulative emissions of N2, N2O and NO of the two soil samples for the entire incubation period were 6 - 8, 20, and 15 - 18 mg.kg-1, respectively. By measuring the cumulative emissions of denitrification gases (N, = N2 + N2O + NO) we were able to explain 95% to 98% of observed changes in s1ifr nilrate concentrations. The mass fractions of N2, N2O and NO emissions to Nt were approximately 15% -19%, 47% -49%, and 34% -36%, respectively. Thus, in our experiments N2O and NO were the main products of denitrification for the entire incubation period. However, as the temporal courses of hourly or daily production of the denitrification gases showed, NO production dominated and peaked firstly, and then N2O, before finally N2 became the dominant product. Our results show the high temporal dynamic of

  1. A three-year in-situ study on the persistence of a combined amendment (limestone+sepiolite) for remedying paddy soil polluted with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Jun; Zhou, Hang; Zou, Zi-Jin; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Wen-Tao; Peng, Pei-Qin; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-08-01

    In order to study the persistence of a combined amendment (LS, limestone+sepiolite) for remedying paddy soil polluted with the heavy metals Pb and Cd, a three-year in-situ experiment was conducted in a paddy soil near a mining area in southern Hunan, China. LS was applied at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 8g/kg (w/w); rice was subsequently planted for the three consecutive years of 2012 (first season), 2013 (second season), and 2014 (third season). Experimental results indicated that LS significantly increased soil pH values for all three seasons, and the enhancement ranked as follows: first season>second season>third season. Under the experimental conditions, the effect of LS on decreasing exchangeable concentrations of soil Pb and Cd was as follows: first season (97.6-99.8% for Pb and 88.3-98.9% for Cd)>second season (80.7-97.7% for Pb and 28.3-88.0% for Cd)>third season (32.6-97.7% for Pb and 8.3-71.4% for Cd); the effect of LS on reducing Pb concentrations in brown rice was: first season (73.5-81.2%)>third season (29.6-68.1%)>second season (0-9.7%), and that for reducing Cd concentrations in brown rice was third season (72.7-81.0%)>first season (56.1-66.8%)>second season (20.9-32.3%). For all three seasons, the effect of LS on reducing Cd content in brown rice was better than that for Pb. The highest translocation factors for Pb and Cd were from rice straw to husk, implying that the husk of rice plants was the main organ in which heavy metals accumulated. The effect of LS for decreasing soil exchangeable Cd content was relatively persistent, but that for Pb gradually decreased with time, implying that LS was more suitable for the long-term remediation of Cd-polluted soil than Pb-polluted soil.

  2. Effects of Different Organic Manures on the Biochemical and Microbial Characteristics of Albic Paddy Soil in a Short-Term Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Wei; Liang, Guoqing; Wang, Xiubin; Sun, Jingwen; He, Ping; Li, Lujiu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical fertilizer (NPK), NPK with livestock manure (NPK+M), NPK with straw (NPK+S), and NPK with green manure (NPK+G) on soil enzyme activities and microbial characteristics of albic paddy soil, which is a typical soil with low productivity in China. The responses of extracellular enzyme activities and the microbial community diversity (determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis [PLFA] and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) were measured. The results showed that NPK+M and NPK+S significantly increased rice yield, with NPK+M being approximately 24% greater than NPK. The NPK+M significantly increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and available phosphate (P) and enhanced phosphatase, β-cellobiosidase, L-leucine aminopeptidase and urease activities. The NPK+S significantly increased SOC and available potassium (K) and significantly enhanced N-acetyl-glucosamidase, β-xylosidase, urease, and phenol oxidase activities. The NPK+G significantly improved total nitrogen (N), ammonium N, available P, and N-acetyl-glucosamidase activity. The PLFA biomass was highest under NPK+S, followed by NPK+M and NPK+G treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the PLFA indicated that soils with NPK+M and NPK+S contained higher proportions of unsaturated and cyclopropane fatty acids (biomarkers of fungi and gram-negative bacteria) and soil under NPK+G contained more straight chain saturated fatty acids (representing gram-positive bacteria). PCA of the DGGE patterns showed that organic amendments had a greater influence on fungal community. Cluster analysis of fungal DGGE patterns revealed that NPK+G was clearly separated. Meanwhile, the bacterial community of NPK+M treatment was the most distinct. RDA analysis revealed changes of microbial community composition mostly depended on β-xylosidase, β-cellobiosidase activities, total N and available K contents. The abundances of gram-negative bacterial and fungal PLFAs probably

  3. Isolation and Identification of Myxobacteria from Saline-Alkaline Soils in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianjiao; Yao, Qing; Cai, Zhuoping; Xie, Xiaolin; Zhu, Honghui

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-eight terrestrial and salt-tolerant myxobacteria were isolated from the saline-alkaline soils collected from Xinjiang, China. Based on the morphologies and the 16S rRNA gene sequences, these isolates were assigned into 6 genera, Myxococcus, Cystobacter, Corallococcus, Sorangium, Nannocystis and Polyangium. All the strains grew better with 1% NaCl than without NaCl. Some Myxococcus strains were able to grow at 2% NaCl concentration, suggesting that these strains may be particular type of terrestrial myxobacteria. PMID:23936436

  4. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W. T.; Nelson, P. N.; Li, M.-H.; Cai, J. P.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhang, Y. G.; Yang, S.; Wang, R. Z.; Wang, Z. W.; Wu, Y. N.; Han, X. G.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate-containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate-containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate-containing soils than in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate-containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate-containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate-containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate-containing soils. Along the transect, soil pHBC was different in regions with different aridity index. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate-containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate- and non-carbonate-containing soils. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  5. Evaluation of a modified QuEChERS extraction of multiple classes of pesticides from a rice paddy soil by LC-APCI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Sergiane S; Bolzan, Cátia M; Cerqueira, Maristela B; Tomasini, Débora; Furlong, Eliana B; Fagundes, Carlos; Primel, Ednei G

    2011-11-23

    A new method for the determination of clomazone, fipronil, tebuconazole, propiconazole, and azoxystrobin in samples of rice paddy soil is presented. The extraction of the pesticides from soil samples was performed by using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. Some extraction conditions such as salt addition, sample acidification, use of buffer, and cleanup step were evaluated. The optimized method dealt with a single extraction of the compounds under study with acidified acetonitrile, followed by the addition of MgSO(4) and NaCl prior to the final determination by liquid chromatography-atmospheric chemical pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Validation studies were carried out in soil samples. Recoveries of the spiked samples ranged between 70.3 and 120% with relative standard deviation lower than 18.2%. The limits of quantification were between 10 and 50 μg kg(-1). The method was applied to the analysis of real samples of soils where rice is cultivated.

  6. Contrasting pH buffering patterns in neutral-alkaline soils along a 3600 km transect in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, W.; Nelson, P. N.; Li, M.-H.; Cai, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Shan, Y.; Wang, R.; Han, X.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Soil pH buffering capacity (pHBC) plays a crucial role in predicting acidification rates, yet its large-scale patterns and controls are poorly understood, especially for neutral-alkaline soils. Here, we evaluated the spatial patterns and drivers of pHBC along a 3600 km long transect (1900 km sub-transect with carbonate containing soils and 1700 km sub-transect with non-carbonate containing soils) across northern China. Soil pHBC was greater in the carbonate containing soils than in the non-carbonate containing soils. Acid addition decreased soil pH in the non-carbonate containing soils more markedly than in the carbonate containing soils. Within the carbonate soil sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively correlated with cation exchange capacity (CEC), carbonate content and exchangeable sodium (Na) concentration, but negatively correlated with initial pH and clay content, and not correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Within the non-carbonate sub-transect, soil pHBC was positively related to initial pH, clay content, CEC and exchangeable Na concentration, but not related to SOC content. Carbonate content was the primary determinant of pHBC in the carbonate containing soils and CEC was the main determinant of buffering capacity in the non-carbonate containing soils. Soil pHBC was positively related to aridity index and carbonate content across the carbonate containing soil sub-transect. Our results indicated that mechanisms controlling pHBC differ among neutral-alkaline soils of northern China, especially between carbonate and non-carbonate containing soils, leading to different rates, risks, and impacts of acidification. This understanding should be incorporated into the acidification risk assessment and landscape management in a changing world.

  7. An improved protocol for DNA extraction from alkaline soil and sediment samples for constructing metagenomic libraries.

    PubMed

    Verma, Digvijay; Satyanarayana, T

    2011-09-01

    An improved single-step protocol has been developed for extracting pure community humic substance-free DNA from alkaline soils and sediments. The method is based on direct cell lysis in the presence of powdered activated charcoal and polyvinylpolypyrrolidone followed by precipitation with polyethyleneglycol and isopropanol. The strategy allows simultaneous isolation and purification of DNA while minimizing the loss of DNA with respect to other available protocols for metagenomic DNA extraction. Moreover, the purity levels are significant, which are difficult to attain with any of the methods reported in the literature for DNA extraction from soils. The DNA thus extracted was free from humic substances and, therefore, could be processed for restriction digestion, PCR amplification as well as for the construction of metagenomic libraries.

  8. A three-season field study on the in-situ remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soil using lime, two industrial by-products, and a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Yan-Bing, He; Dao-You, Huang; Qi-Hong, Zhu; Shuai, Wang; Shou-Long, Liu; Hai-Bo, He; Han-Hua, Zhu; Chao, Xu

    2017-02-01

    To mitigate the serious problem of Cd-contaminated paddy soil, we investigated the remediation potential of combining in-situ immobilization with a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar. A three-season field experiment compared the soil pH, available Cd and absorption of Cd by three rice cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities grown in Cd-contaminated paddy soil amended with lime (L), slag (S), and bagasse (B) alone or in combination. The three amendments applied alone and in combination significantly increased soil pH, reduced available Cd and absorption of Cd by rice with no effect on grain yield. Among these, the LS and LSB treatments reduced the brown rice Cd content by 38.3-69.1% and 58.3-70.9%, respectively, during the three seasons. Combined with planting of a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar (Xiang Zaoxian 32) resulted in a Cd content in brown rice that met the contaminant limit (≤0.2mgkg(-1)). However, the grain yield of the low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar was approximately 30% lower than the other two rice cultivars. Applying LS or LSB as amendments combined with planting a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar is recommended for the remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soil. The selection and breeding of low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivars with high grain production requires further research.

  9. Changes in the bacterial populations of the highly alkaline saline soil of the former lake Texcoco (Mexico) following flooding.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Neria-González, Isabel; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Dendooven, Luc; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    Flooding an extreme alkaline-saline soil decreased alkalinity and salinity, which will change the bacterial populations. Bacterial 16S rDNA libraries were generated of three soils with different electrolytic conductivity (EC), i.e. soil with EC 1.7 dS m(-1) and pH 7.80 (LOW soil), with EC 56 dS m(-1) and pH 10.11 (MEDIUM soil) and with EC 159 dS m(-1) and pH 10.02 (HIGH soil), using universal bacterial oligonucleotide primers, and 463 clone 16S rDNA sequences were analyzed phylogenetically. Library proportions and clone identification of the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi showed that the bacterial communities were different. Species and genera of the Rhizobiales, Rhodobacterales and Xanthomonadales orders of the alpha- and gamma-subdivision of Proteobacteria were found at the three sites. Species and genera of the Rhodospirillales, Sphingobacteriales, Clostridiales, Oscillatoriales and Caldilineales were found only in the HIGH soil, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales and Pseudomonadales in the MEDIUM soil, Myxococcales in the LOW soil, and Actinomycetales in the MEDIUM and LOW soils. It was found that the largest diversity at the order and species level was found in the MEDIUM soil as bacteria of both the HIGH and LOW soils were found in it.

  10. Impact of biochar application on nitrogen nutrition of rice, greenhouse-gas emissions and soil organic carbon dynamics in two paddy soils of China

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zubin; Xu, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Liu, Qi; Zhu, Jianguo; Tu, Cong; Amonette, James E.; Cadisch, Georg; Yong, Jean W.; Hu, Shuijin

    2013-09-01

    Two field microcosm experiments and 15N labeling techniques were used to investigate the first-year effects of biochar addition on rice N nutrition and GHG emissions in an Inceptisol and an Ultisol. Biochar N bioavailability and effect of biochar on fertilizer nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) were studied by 15N-enriched wheat biochar (7.8803 atom% 15N) and fertilizer urea (5 atom% 15N) (Experiment I). Corn biochar and corn stalks were applied at 12 Mg ha-1 to study their effects on GHG emissions (Experiment II). Biochar had no significant impact on rice production and less than 2% of the biochar N was available to plants in the first season. Biochar addition increased soil C and N contents and decreased urea NUE.. Seasonal cumulative CH4 emissions with biochar were similar to the controls, but significantly lower than the local practice of straw amendment. Soil emissions of N2O with biochar amendment were similar to the control in the acidic Ultisol, but significantly higher in the slightly alkaline Inceptisol. Carbon-balance calculations found no major losses of biochar-C. Low bio-availability of biochar N did not make a significant impact on rice production or N nutrition during the first year.. Replacement of straw amendments with biochar could decrease CH4 emissions and increase SOC stocks.

  11. Responses of methanogen mcrA genes and their transcripts to an alternate dry/wet cycle of paddy field soil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Conrad, Ralf; Lu, Yahai

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent drainage can substantially reduce methane emission from rice fields, but the microbial mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, we determined the rates of methane production and emission, the dynamics of ferric iron and sulfate, and the abundance of methanogen mcrA genes (encoding the alpha subunit of methyl coenzyme M reductase) and their transcripts in response to alternate dry/wet cycles in paddy field soil. We found that intermittent drainage did not affect the growth of rice plants but significantly reduced the rates of both methane production and emission. The dry/wet cycles also resulted in shifts of soil redox conditions, increasing the concentrations of ferric iron and sulfate in the soil. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that both mcrA gene copies and mcrA transcripts significantly decreased after dry/wet alternation compared to continuous flooding. Correlation and regression analyses showed that the abundance of mcrA genes and transcripts positively correlated with methane production potential and soil water content and negatively correlated with the concentrations of ferric iron and sulfate in the soil. However, the transcription of mcrA genes was reduced to a greater extent than the abundance of mcrA genes, resulting in very low mcrA transcript/gene ratios after intermittent drainage. Furthermore, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed that the composition of methanogenic community remained stable under dry/wet cycles, whereas that of metabolically active methanogens strongly changed. Collectively, our study demonstrated a stronger effect of intermittent drainage on the abundance of mcrA transcripts than of mcrA genes in rice field soil.

  12. Genotypic alteration and competitive nodulation of Mesorhizobium muleiense against exotic chickpea rhizobia in alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun Jie; Yu, Tao; Lou, Kai; Mao, Pei Hong; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Chen, Wen Xin

    2014-10-01

    Mesorhizobium muleiense, Mesorhizobium mediterraneum and Mesorhizobium ciceri are chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) rhizobia that share a high similarity of the symbiotic genes nodC and nifH, but they have different geographic distributions. M. muleiense has been isolated and found only in alkaline soils of Xinjiang, China, whereas the other two strains have been found in the Mediterranean and India. To investigate the species stability of M. muleiense during natural evolution and its capability of competitive nodulation against the other two exotic species, re-sampling of nodules in the field and competition experiments between the three species were conducted. The results showed that the predominant microsymbiont associated with chickpea grown in Xinjiang was still M. muleiense, but the predominant genotypes of M. muleiense had changed significantly during the four years since a previous survey. The data also showed that M. mediterraneum and M. ciceri were more competitive than the residential strain of M. muleiense CCBAU 83963(T) in sterilized vermiculite or soils from Xinjiang. However, in non-sterilized soils, M. muleiense was the predominant nodule occupier. These results indicated that natural or adapting evolution of M. muleiense was occurring in fields subjected to changing environmental factors. In addition, the biogeography and symbiotic associations of rhizobia with their host legumes were also influenced by biological factors in the soil, such as indigenous rhizobia and other organisms.

  13. [Effects of rice straw returning on the community structure and diversity of nitrogen-fixing gene (nifH) in paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao-miao; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Rong; Qin, Hong-ling; Wu, Yan-zheng; Wei, Wen-xue

    2013-08-01

    Taking a long-term fertilization experiment in Taoyuan Agro-ecosystem Research Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences as the platform, and selecting four treatments (no fertilization, CK; rice straw returning, C; nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilization, NPK; and NPK+C) as the objects, soil samples were collected at the tillering, booting and maturing stages of rice, and the abundance, composition and diversity of nifH-containing bacterial community were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), aimed to understand the effects of rice straw returning on the nifH-containing bacterial community in paddy soil. Compared with CK, treatments NPK+C and NPK increased the abundance of nifH-containing microorganisms significantly (except at tillering stage), and NPK+C had the highest abundance of nifH-containing microorganisms. Under the effects of long-term fertilization, the composition of nifH gene community in CK differed obviously from that in the other three treatments. The nifH composition had definite difference between C and NPK, but less difference between NPK and NPK+C. Long-term fertilization did not induce significant changes in nifH diversity. Therefore, long-term rice straw returning not only induced the changes of nifH gene community composition, but also resulted in a significant increase in the abundance of nifH-containing community, and hence, the increase of soil nitrogen fixing capacity.

  14. [Modeling the ammonia volatilization from common urea and controlled releasing urea fertilizers in paddy soil of Taihui region of China by Jayaweera-Mikkelsen model].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-lin; Han, Yong; Cai, Zu-cong

    2008-04-01

    The ammonia volatilization on the Typic Gleyi-stagnic Anthrosol with application of common urea and controlled release urea (LP-S100) fertilizers in the rice seasons in paddy soil of Taihui region of China was modeled by Jayaweera-Mikkelsen model. Results showed great difference of ammonia volatilization from two type fertilizers was detected with lysimeter experiment in the rice season. Nitrogen loss via ammonia volatilization after common urea application with conventional ways was 29%-35%, while only 5% of controlled release urea-N was volatilized. The Jayaweera-Mikkelsen model was over estimated the total amount of ammonia volatilization in the whole season, and great deviation from the measured data was obvious for the higher volatilization from common urea fertilizer. The estimated data were 2.95-4.19 times of the measures one for common urea treatments, while they were 1.19-1.40 times of those measured for LP-S100 treatments. The order of magnitude quotient was one of the indicators to evaluate the model estimation. The value of it was 0.8, which indicated the estimation of the model need improvement. Though sensitive analysis for the five parameters in the model was tested and amended the parameter of the concentration of NH4+ -N, a limited term was inducted in the model operation. The amended model got better results as the ratio of estimation to measured data was decreased to 1.12-1.28. The alga activity in the paddy field influenced ammonia volatilization and might make the failure of the model estimation of the original model.

  15. High resolution depth distribution of Bacteria, Archaea, methanotrophs, and methanogens in the bulk and rhizosphere soils of a flooded rice paddy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Jeong, Sang Eun; Kim, Pil Joo; Madsen, Eugene L.; Jeon, Che Ok

    2015-01-01

    The communities and abundances of methanotrophs and methanogens, along with the oxygen, methane, and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations, were investigated along a depth gradient in a flooded rice paddy. Broad patterns in vertical profiles of oxygen, methane, TOC, and microbial abundances were similar in the bulk and rhizosphere soils, though methane and TOC concentrations and 16S rRNA gene copies were clearly higher in the rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil. Oxygen concentrations decreased sharply to below detection limits at 8 mm depth. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that bacterial and archaeal communities varied according to the oxic, oxic-anoxic, and anoxic zones, indicating that oxygen is a determining factor for the distribution of bacterial and archaeal communities. Aerobic methanotrophs were maximally observed near the oxic-anoxic interface, while methane, TOC, and methanogens were highest in the rhizosphere soil at 30–200 mm depth, suggesting that methane is produced mainly from organic carbon derived from rice plants and is metabolized aerobically. The relative abundances of type I methanotrophs such as Methylococcus, Methylomonas, and Methylocaldum decreased more drastically than those of type II methanotrophs (such as Methylocystis and Methylosinus) with increasing depth. Methanosaeta and Methanoregula were predominant methanogens at all depths, and the relative abundances of Methanosaeta, Methanoregula, and Methanosphaerula, and GOM_Arc_I increased with increasing depth. Based on contrasts between absolute abundances of methanogens and methanotrophs at depths sampled across rhizosphere and bulk soils (especially millimeter-scale slices at the surface), we have identified populations of methanogens (Methanosaeta, Methanoregula, Methanocella, Methanobacterium, and Methanosphaerula), and methanotrophs (Methylosarcina, Methylococcus, Methylosinus, and unclassified Methylocystaceae) that are likely physiologically active in situ. PMID

  16. Diversity and Structure of the Methanogenic Community in Anoxic Rice Paddy Soil Microcosms as Examined by Cultivation and Direct 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Großkopf, Regine; Janssen, Peter H.; Liesack, Werner

    1998-01-01

    A dual approach consisting of cultivation and molecular retrieval of partial archaeal 16S rRNA genes was carried out to characterize the diversity and structure of the methanogenic community inhabiting the anoxic bulk soil of flooded rice microcosms. The molecular approach identified four groups of known methanogens. Three environmental sequences clustered with Methanobacterium bryantii and Methanobacterium formicicum, six were closely related but not identical to those of strains of Methanosaeta concilii, two grouped with members of the genus Methanosarcina, and two were related to the methanogenic endosymbiont of Plagiopyla nasuta. The cultivation approach via most-probable-number counts with a subsample of the same soil as an inoculum yielded cell numbers of up to 107 per g of dry soil for the H2-CO2-utilizing methanogens and of up to 106 for the acetate-utilizing methanogens. Strain VeH52, isolated from the terminal positive dilution on H2-CO2, grouped within the phylogenetic radiation characterized by M. bryantii and M. formicicum and the environmental sequences of the Methanobacterium-like group. A consortium of two distinct methanogens grew in the terminal positive culture on acetate. These two organisms showed absolute 16S rRNA gene identities with environmental sequences of the novel Methanosaeta-like group and the Methanobacterium-like group. Methanosarcina spp. were identified only in the less-dilute levels of the same dilution series on acetate. These data correlate well with acetate concentrations of about 11 μM in the pore water of this rice paddy soil. These concentrations are too low for the growth of known Methanosarcina spp. but are at the acetate utilization threshold of Methanosaeta spp. Thus, our data indicated Methanosaeta spp. and Methanobacterium spp. to be the dominant methanogenic groups in the anoxic rice soil, whereas Methanosarcina spp. appeared to be less abundant. PMID:9501436

  17. The contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals in soils of the southern Cis-Ural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asylbaev, I. G.; Khabirov, I. K.

    2016-01-01

    The contents and distribution patterns of alkali and alkaline earth metals in soils and rocks of the southern Cis-Ural region were studied. A database on the contents of these metals was developed, the soils were classified with respect to their provision with these metals, and corresponding schematic maps showing their distribution in soils of the region were compiled. It was found that the contents of these metals decrease from east to west (from the Yuryuzan-Aisk Piedmont Plain to the Ufa Plateau and to the Belebeevsk Upland), and their distribution patterns change. Among alkali metals, the highest accumulation in the soils is typical of potassium, sodium, and cesium; among alkaline earth metals, of strontium and barium.

  18. Tenax extraction for exploring rate-limiting factors in methyl-β-cyclodextrin enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs under denitrifying conditions in a red paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Jiang, Xin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2014-01-15

    The effectiveness of anaerobic bioremediation systems for PAH-contaminated soil may be constrained by low contaminants bioaccessibility due to limited aqueous solubility and lack of suitable electron acceptors. Information on what is the rate-limiting factor in bioremediation process is of vital importance in the decision in what measures can be taken to assist the biodegradation efficacy. In the present study, four different microcosms were set to study the effect of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and nitrate addition (N) on PAHs biodegradation under anaerobic conditions in a red paddy soil. Meanwhile, sequential Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model was employed to evaluate the rate-limiting factors in MCD enhanced anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs. Microcosms with both 1% (w/w) MCD and 20mM N addition produced maximum biodegradation of total PAHs of up to 61.7%. It appears rate-limiting factors vary with microcosms: low activity of degrading microorganisms is the vital rate-limiting factor for control and MCD addition treatments (CK and M treatments); and lack of bioaccessible PAHs is the main rate-limiting factor for nitrate addition treatments (N and MN treatments). These results have practical implications for site risk assessment and cleanup strategies.

  19. [Effects of rice plants on methane emission from paddy fields].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhongjun; Cai, Zucong

    2003-11-01

    Methane emission from rice paddy fields is the net result of the combination of many processes, i.e., CH4 production, CH4 oxidation and CH4 transportation in paddy soil. Rice plants play a key role in the CH4 emission from paddy fields, particularly in all the processes involved. The positive and negative effects of rice plants on CH4 emission from paddy fields are well recognized as the main factors influencing the temporal variation of CH4 emission flux in paddy field. Process-based studies about the effects of rice plants on methane emission from paddy fields were summarized, and different roles of rice plants on this emission were discussed. Root exudates and litters of rice plants could serve as the substrate for methanogenesis and enhance the CH4 production of paddy soils, resulting in a high CH4 emission peak, particularly in rice late growing season. Rhizospheric CH4 oxidation induced by rice root-excreted oxygen constitutes a main biogenic sink of CH4, which could account for 36-90% of CH4 produced in paddy soil over the entire growing season of rice. Up to 80% and more of CH4 released from rice field during a growing season could be emitted by rice plant-mediated transport. The fully developed aerenchyma of rice plants could be of importance in CH4 emission during rice growing seasons, and responsible for the CH4 emission peak observed at rice early growing season.

  20. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Kirby, Jason K; Beak, Douglas G; Stacey, Samuel P; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ-XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the same

  1. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Coated onto Macronutrient Fertilizers in an Alkaline Calcareous Soil

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Narges; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Kirby, Jason K.; Beak, Douglas G.; Stacey, Samuel P.; McLaughlin, Mike J.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles may provide a more soluble and plant available source of Zn in Zn fertilizers due to their greater reactivity compared to equivalent micron- or millimetre-sized (bulk) particles. However, the effect of soil on solubility, spatial distribution and speciation of ZnO nanoparticles has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined the diffusion and solid phase speciation of Zn in an alkaline calcareous soil following application of nanoparticulate and bulk ZnO coated fertilizer products (monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and urea) using laboratory-based x-ray techniques and synchrotron-based μ-x-ray fluorescence (μ–XRF) mapping and absorption fine structure spectroscopy (μ–XAFS). Mapping of the soil-fertilizer reaction zones revealed that most of the applied Zn for all treatments remained on the coated fertilizer granule or close to the point of application after five weeks of incubation in soil. Zinc precipitated mainly as scholzite (CaZn2(PO4)2.2H2O) and zinc ammonium phosphate (Zn(NH4)PO4) species at the surface of MAP granules. These reactions reduced dissolution and diffusion of Zn from the MAP granules. Although Zn remained as zincite (ZnO) at the surface of urea granules, limited diffusion of Zn from ZnO-coated urea granules was also observed for both bulk and nanoparticulate ZnO treatments. This might be due to either the high pH of urea granules, which reduced solubility of Zn, or aggregation (due to high ionic strength) of released ZnO nanoparticles around the granule/point of application. The relative proportion of Zn(OH)2 and ZnCO3 species increased for all Zn treatments with increasing distance from coated MAP and urea granules in the calcareous soil. When coated on macronutrient fertilizers, Zn from ZnO nanoparticles (without surface modifiers) was not more mobile or diffusible compared to bulk forms of ZnO. The results also suggest that risk associated with the presence of ZnO NPs in calcareous soils would be the

  2. Haloarchaeal assimilatory nitrate-reducing communities from a saline alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco J; Rodriguez-Revilla, Javier; Dendooven, Luc; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2009-09-01

    Assimilatory nitrate reduction (ANR) is a pathway wherein NO(3)(-) is reduced to NH(4)(+), an N species that can be incorporated into the biomass. There is little information about the ANR genes in Archaea and most of the known information has been obtained from cultivable species. In this study, the diversity of the haloarchaeal assimilatory nitrate-reducing community was studied in an extreme saline alkaline soil of the former lake Texcoco (Mexico). Genes coding for the assimilatory nitrate reductase (narB) and the assimilatory nitrite reductase (nirA) were used as functional markers. Primers to amplify and detect partial narB and nirA were designed. The analysis of these amplicons by cloning and sequencing showed that the deduced protein fragments shared >45% identity with other NarB and NirA proteins from Euryarchaeota and <38% identity with other nitrate reductases from Bacteria and Crenarchaeota. Furthermore, these clone sequences were clustered within the class Halobacteria with strong support values in both constructed dendrograms, confirming that desired PCR products were obtained. The metabolic capacity to assimilate nitrate by these haloarchaea seems to be important given that at pH 10 and higher, NH(4)(+) is mostly converted to toxic and volatile NH(3), and NO(3)(-) becomes the preferable N source.

  3. Soil tests for predicting plant available phosphorus in newly reclaimed alkaline minespoil

    SciTech Connect

    Dancer, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    Four selected soil tests (Olson's bicarbonate, Bray P-1, Bray P-2, and a modified Bray P-1 test) were compared over a four year period as methods for predicting plant available-P in a slightly alkaline (pH 7.25) minespoil from a west-central coal field in Illinois. Phosphorus recovery by hybrid corn, measured both greenhouse and field conditions, showed that the minespoil was extremely P deficient. Extractable Olson's bicarbonate P and standard Bray P-1 phosphorus were highly correlated with total-P recovery by corn, with respective coefficients of r=0.973 and r=0.957 in the greenhouse; and r=0.998 and r=0.983 respectively, under field conditions. Consistent Mitscherlich-Bray proportionality constants were calculated from corn grain yields under field conditions in three of four years, after adjustments for annual differences in plant population density. Minespoil was found to require about twice as much extractable-P (about 40 mg/kg Olson-bicarbonate or Bray P-1) as topsoil to support maximum corn productivity. It was estimated that more than 500 kg/ha fertilizer-P will be required to achieve maximum corn grain production in spoil.

  4. Microbial activity promoted with organic carbon accumulation in macroaggregates of paddy soils under long-term rice cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yalong; Wang, Ping; Ding, Yuanjun; Lu, Haifei; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Zheng, Jufeng; Filley, Timothy; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Pan, Genxing

    2016-12-01

    While soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and stabilization has been increasingly the focus of ecosystem properties, how it could be linked to soil biological activity enhancement has been poorly assessed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected from a series of rice soils shifted from salt marshes for 0, 50, 100, 300 and 700 years from a coastal area of eastern China. Soil aggregates were fractioned into different sizes of coarse sand (200-2000 µm), fine sand (20-200 µm), silt (2-20 µm) and clay (< 2 µm), using separation with a low-energy dispersion protocol. Soil properties were determined to investigate niche specialization of different soil particle fractions in response to long-term rice cultivation, including recalcitrant and labile organic carbon, microbial diversity of bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities, soil respiration and enzyme activity. The results showed that the mass proportion both of coarse-sand (2000-200 µm) and clay (< 2 µm) fractions increased with prolonged rice cultivation, but the aggregate size fractions were dominated by fine-sand (200-20 µm) and silt (20-2 µm) fractions across the chronosequence. SOC was highly enriched in coarse-sand fractions (40-60 g kg-1) and moderately in clay fractions (20-25 g kg-1), but was depleted in silt fractions (˜ 10 g kg-1). The recalcitrant carbon pool was higher (33-40 % of SOC) in both coarse-sand and clay fractions than in fine-sand and silt fractions (20-29 % of SOC). However, the ratio of labile organic carbon (LOC) to SOC showed a weakly decreasing trend with decreasing size of aggregate fractions. Total soil DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) content in the size fractions followed a similar trend to that of SOC. Despite the largely similar diversity between the fractions, 16S ribosomal gene abundance of bacteria and of archaeal were concentrated in both coarse-sand and clay fractions. Being the highest generally in coarse-sand fractions, 18S rRNA gene abundance of fungi decreased

  5. Characterization and selection of biochar for an efficient retention of tricyclazole in a flooded alluvial paddy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochars, produced from different organic residues, are increasingly proposed as soil amendment for their agronomic and environmental benefits. Nevertheless, a systematic detection method that relates correlates the biochar properties of these biochars to their ability to adsorb organic compounds is...

  6. [Effect of Long-term Fertilizer Application on the Stability of Organic Carbon in Particle Size Fractions of a Paddy Soil in Zhejiang Province, China].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xia-li; Lu, Kou-ping; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-kai; He, Li-zhi; Wang, Hai-long

    2015-05-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers and organic manure on the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in particle size fractions of paddy soil were investigated in a 17-year long-term fertilization field experiment in Zhejiang Province, China. The inherent chemical composition of silt- and clay-associated SOC was evaluated with solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to CK (no fertilizer treatment), NPKRS (NPK fertilizers plus rice straw) , NPKOM (NPK fertilizers plus organic manure) , NPK (NPK fertilizers) and OM (organic manure alone) treatments significantly (P <0. 05) increased the SOC content of sand- (2-0.02 mm), silt- (0.02-0.002 mm) and clay-sized (< 0.002 mm) fractions. However, no significant difference was observed in the accumulation of silt- and clay-associated SOC between CK and rice straw (RS) treatments. Besides, in comparison with plots applied with NPK fertilizers alone, combined application of organic amendments and NPK fertilizers facilitated the storage of newly sequestered SOC in silt- and clay-sized fractions, which could be more conducive to the stability of SOC. Based on 13C-NMR spectra, both silt and clay fractions were composed of Alkyl-C, O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C and carbonyl-C. Changes in the relative proportion of different C species were observed between silt and clay fractions: the clay fraction had relatively more Alkyl-C, carbonyl-C and less O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C than those in the silt fraction. This might be ascribed to the fact that the organic matter complexed with clay was dominated by microbial products, whereas the silt appeared to be rich in aromatic residues derived from plants. The spectra also showed that the relative proportion of different C species was modified by fertilization practices. In comparison with organic amendments alone, the relative proportion of Alkyl-C was decreased by 9.1%-11.9% and 13.7%-19.9% under combined application of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers, for silt and clay, respectively, and that of

  7. Anaerobic transformation of DDT related to iron(III) reduction and microbial community structure in paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Manjia; Cao, Fang; Li, Fangbai; Liu, Chengshuai; Tong, Hui; Wu, Weijian; Hu, Min

    2013-03-06

    We studied the mechanisms of microbial transformation in functional bacteria on 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in two different field soils, Haiyan (HY) and Chenghai (CH). The results showed that microbial activities had a steady dechlorination effect on DDT and its metabolites (DDx). Adding lactate or glucose as carbon sources increased the amount of Desulfuromonas, Sedimentibacter, and Clostridium bacteria, which led to an increase in adsorbed Fe(II) and resulted in increased DDT transformation rates. The electron shuttle of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic disodium salt resulted in an increase in the negative potential of soil by mediating the electron transfer from the bacteria to the DDT. Moreover, the DDT-degrading bacteria in the CH soil were more abundant than those in the HY soil, which led to higher DDT transformation rates in the CH soil. The most stable compound of DDx was 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chloro-phenyl)ethane, which also was the major dechlorination metabolite of DDT, and 1-chloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane and 4,4'-dichlorobenzo-phenone were found to be the terminal metabolites in the anaerobic soils.

  8. Constitutive expression of a barley Fe phytosiderophore transporter increases alkaline soil tolerance and results in iron partitioning between vegetative and storage tissues under stress.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Pelacho, Ana M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Cereals have evolved chelation systems to mobilize insoluble iron in the soil, but in rice this process is rather inefficient, making the crop highly susceptible to alkaline soils. We therefore engineered rice to express the barley iron-phytosiderophore transporter (HvYS1), which enables barley plants to take up iron from alkaline soils. A representative transgenic rice line was grown in standard (pH 5.5) or alkaline soil (pH 8.5) to evaluate alkaline tolerance and iron mobilization. Transgenic plants developed secondary tillers and set seeds when grown in standard soil although iron concentration remained similar in leaves and seeds compared to wild type. However, when grown in alkaline soil transgenic plants exhibited enhanced growth, yield and iron concentration in leaves compared to the wild type plants which were severely stunted. Transgenic plants took up iron more efficiently from alkaline soil compared to wild type, indicating an enhanced capacity to increase iron mobility ex situ. Interestingly, all the additional iron accumulated in vegetative tissues, i.e. there was no difference in iron concentration in the seeds of wild type and transgenic plants. Our data suggest that iron uptake from the rhizosphere can be enhanced through expression of HvYS1 and confirm the operation of a partitioning mechanism that diverts iron to leaves rather than seeds, under stress.

  9. Evaluation of organic and inorganic amendments on maize growth and uptake of cd and zn from contaminated paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Putwattana, Narupot; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Pokethitiyook, Prayad

    2015-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of soil amendments (cow manure, rice straw, zeolite, dicalcium phosphate) on the growth and metal uptake (Cd, Zn) of maize (Zea mays) grown in Cd/Zn contaminated soil. The addition of cow manure and rice straw significantly increased the dry biomass, shoot and root length, and grain yield of maize when compared with the control. In pot study, cow manure, rice straw, and dicalcium phosphate all proved effective in reducing Cd and Zn concentrations in shoots and roots. Cd and Zn concentrations in the grains of maize grown in field study plots with cow manure and dicalcium phosphate amendments to highly contaminated soil (Cd 36.5 mg kg(-1) and Zn 1520.8 mg kg(-1)) conformed to acceptable standards for animal feed. Additionally both cow manure and dicalcium phosphate amendments resulted in the significant decrease of Cd and Zn concentrations in shoots of maize.

  10. Investigation of alkaline mine drainage impacted streamside soil composition for select metals using extraction and acid digestion techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Styer, J.C.; Fish, C.

    1996-10-01

    The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ca, Zn and P were determined in soils that are adjacent to alkaline mine drainage impacted Four Mile Run in Latrobe, PA. The hypothesis stated: soils closer to the mine drainage win have higher extractable and total metal concentrations in an eroded zone closer to the stream than soils in an uneroded zone farther from the stream. Since the area will sustain enhanced and man-made wetlands, it is necessary to determine the bioavailability of nutrients to plants. A comparison was made of extractions, which mimic plant roots, and digestions which give total metals. The extraction technique is the Mehlich Method, and the digestion technique is EPA SW-846 method No.3050A. The samples were analyzed on the Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometer. The results show no difference between extractable metals in erosion and uneroded zones. This study will also provide valuable information as to the fertility and cation exchange capacity of these soils.

  11. Bioavailability and release of nonextractable (bound) residues of chiral cycloxaprid using geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuanqi; Xu, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Hanxue; Li, Chao; Shao, Xusheng; Ye, Qingfu; Li, Zhong

    2015-09-01

    The widespread adoption of neonicotinoids has led to a move away from integrated pest management (IPM) and caused adverse effects on non-target invertebrate species. Due to their living in close contact with and consuming large amounts of soil, earthworms are a model organism used to study bioaccumulation. We investigated the bioaccumulation and release of bound, or non-extractable, residues (BRs) of (14)C labeled racemic cycloxaprid (CYC) and its individual enantiomers by the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi. In a previous work, the fraction of BRs of (14)C-CYC individual enantiomers reached up to 70-85% of the initially spiked radioactivity after 100 d of treatment. The bulk volume of the soil was then diluted by a factor of 15 with fresh soil. Here we showed that after earthworms lived in the soil-bound residues for 28 d, 11-25% of the previously bound radioactivity in soil was extractable by solvent, mineralized to CO2, and accumulated in earthworm tissues. While earthworms were exposed to (14)C-CYC a two-compartment accumulation model could explain the bio-accumulation as individual enantiomers. At the end of the experiment, the biota-sediment accumulation factors were between 0.59 and 0.82, which suggested CYC immobilization in the soil resulted in its bioavailability being reduced which enhanced its degradation. Additionally, the elimination of CYC individual enantiomers from M. guillelmi was fitted to an availability-adjusted decay model with a half-life of 9 d. Stereoselective release or bioavailability between CYC enantiomers was not observed. These results provide the important data about the release of BRs of CYC and potential transfer in the food chain to support the long-term environmental risk assessment of neonicotinoids.

  12. In Situ Evaluation of Crop Productivity and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Paddy Soils after Remediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin Woong; Chae, Yooeun; Moon, Jongmin; Kim, Dokyung; Cui, Rongxue; An, Gyeonghyeon; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-02-15

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals have been reused for agricultural, building, and industrial uses following remediation. This study assesses plant growth and bioaccumulation of heavy metals following remediation of industrially contaminated soil. The soil was collected from a field site near a nonferrous smelter and was subjected to laboratory- and field-scale studies. Soil from the contaminated site was remediated by washing with acid or mixed with soil taken from a distant uncontaminated site. The activities of various soil exoenzymes, the rate of plant growth, and the bioaccumulations of six heavy metals were measured to assess the efficacy of these bioremediation techniques. Growth of rice (Oryza sativa) was unaffected in acid-washed soil or the amended soil compared to untreated soil from the contaminated site. The levels of heavy metals in the rice kernels remained within safe limits in treated and untreated soils. Rice, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivated in the same soils in the laboratory showed similar growth rates. Soil exoenzyme activities and crop productivity were not affected by soil treatment in field experiments. In conclusion, treatment of industrially contaminated soil by acid washing or amendment did not adversely affect plant productivity or lead to increased bioaccumulation of heavy metals in rice.

  13. Effects of elevated ozone concentration on CH4 and N2O emission from paddy soil under fully open-air field conditions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haoye; Liu, Gang; Zhu, Jianguo; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the effects of elevated ozone concentration (E-O3) on CH4 and N2O emission from paddies with two rice cultivars: an inbred Indica cultivar Yangdao 6 (YD6) and a hybrid one II-you 084 (IIY084), under fully open-air field conditions in China. A mean 26.7% enhancement of ozone concentration above the ambient level (A-O3) significantly reduced CH4 emission at tillering and flowering stages leading to a reduction of seasonal integral CH4 emission by 29.6% on average across the two cultivars. The reduced CH4 emission is associated with O3-induced reduction in the whole-plant biomass (-13.2%), root biomass (-34.7%), and maximum tiller number (-10.3%), all of which curbed the carbon supply for belowground CH4 production and its release from submerged soil to atmosphere. Although no significant difference was detected between the cultivars in the CH4 emission response to E-O3, a larger decrease in CH4 emission with IIY084 (-33.2%) than that with YD6 (-7.0%) was observed at tillering stage, which may be due to the larger reduction in tiller number in IIY084 by E-O3. Additionally, E-O3 reduced seasonal mean NOx flux by 5.7% and 11.8% with IIY084 and YD6, respectively, but the effects were not significant statistically. We found that the relative response of CH4 emission to E-O3 was not significantly different from those reported in open-top chamber experiments. This study has thus confirmed that increasing ozone concentration would mitigate the global warming potential of CH4 and suggested consideration of the feedback mechanism between ozone and its precursor emission into the projection of future ozone effects on terrestrial ecosystem.

  14. Ecological risk assessment of on-site soil washing with iron(III) chloride in cadmium-contaminated paddy field.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Horio, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Kamiya, Takashi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Makino, Tomoyuki

    2012-06-01

    On-site soil washing with iron(III) chloride reduces Cd levels in soil, and thus the human health risks caused by Cd in food. However, it may threaten aquatic organisms when soil washing effluent is discharged to open aquatic systems. Therefore, we conducted trial-scale on-site soil washing and ecological risk assessment in Nagano and Niigata prefectures, Japan. The ecological effect of effluent water was investigated by two methods. The first was bioassay using standard aquatic test organisms. Twice-diluted effluent water from the Nagano site and the original effluent water from the Niigata site had no significant effects on green algae, water flea, caddisfly, and fish. The safe dilution rates were estimated as 20 times and 10 times for the Nagano and Niigata sites, respectively, considering an assessment factor of 10. The second method was probabilistic effect analysis using chemical analysis and the species sensitivity distribution concept. The mixture effects of CaCl(2), Al, Zn, and Mn were considered by applying a response additive model. The safe dilution rates, assessed for a potentially affected fraction of species of 5%, were 7.1 times and 23.6 times for the Nagano and Niigata sites, respectively. The actual dilution rates of effluent water by river water at the Nagano and Niigata sites were 2200-67,000 times and 1300-110,000 times, respectively. These are much larger than the safe dilution rates derived from the two approaches. Consequently, the ecological risk to aquatic organisms of soil washing is evaluated as being below the concern level.

  15. Alternative sorbents for the dispersive solid-phase extraction step in quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for extraction of pesticides from rice paddy soils with determination by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arias, Jean Lucas de Oliveira; Rombaldi, Caroline; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2014-09-19

    The clean-up step is essential to reduce interferences, improve quantification and help to maintain the integrity of the chromatographic system when working with complex matrices. In this study, alternative materials were evaluated as sorbents in the dispersive solid-phase extraction (D-SPE) for the determination and extraction of seventeen pesticides from rice paddy soil samples by the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Chitin, chitosan, diatomaceous earth and PSA were compared in terms of extraction efficiency and matrix effect. The best results were achieved when chitosan was used. Quantification limits ranged from 0.1 to 100μgkg(-1). Calibration curves showed correlation coefficient values higher than 0.98. Results of accuracy and precision in the spiked soil samples between 60% and 120%, with a relative standard deviation lower than 20%, were reached for 15 out of 17 pesticides. The matrix effect was evaluated and only one compound was influenced by the matrix components, showing medium effect. Results showed that alternative materials are more effective and less expensive than traditional sorbents which have been usually employed, i.e., they may be used in the D-SPE step during the extraction of pesticides from rice paddy soils.

  16. Distribution and translocation of selenium from soil to grain and its speciation in paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Liu, Xiao; Williams, Paul N; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2010-09-01

    Selenium, an essential micronutrient for humans, is insufficient in dietary intake for millions of people worldwide. Rice as the most popular staple food in the world is one of the dominant selenium (Se) sources for people. The distribution and translocation of Se from soil to grain were investigated in a Se-rich environment in this study. The Se levels in soils ranged widely from 0.5 to 47.7 mg kg(-1). Selenium concentration in rice bran was 1.94 times higher than that in corresponding polished rice. The total Se concentrations in the rice fractions were in the following order: straw>bran>whole grain>polished rice>husk. Significant linear relationships between different rice fractions were observed with each other, and Se in the soil has a linear relationship with different rice fractions as well. Se concentration in rice can easily be predicted by soil Se concentrations or any rice fractions and vice versa according to their linear relationships. In all rice samples for Se speciation, SeMet was the major Se species, followed by MeSeCys and SeCys. The average percentage for SeMet (82.9%) and MeSeCys (6.2%) was similar in the range of total Se from 2.2 to 8.4 mg kg(-1) tested. The percentage of SeCys decreased from 6.3 to 2.8%, although its concentration elevated with the increase in total Se in rice. This could be due to the fact that SeCys is the precursor for the formation of other organic Se compounds. The information obtained may have considerable significance for assessing translocation and accumulation of Se in plant.

  17. Natural speciation of Mn, Ni, and Zn at the micrometer scale in a clayey paddy soil using X-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manceau, Alain; Tommaseo, Caterina; Rihs, Sophie; Geoffroy, Nicolas; Chateigner, Daniel; Schlegel, Michel; Tisserand, Delphine; Marcus, Matthew A.; Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2005-08-01

    The natural speciation of Mn (0.19 g/kg), Ni (46 mg/kg), and Zn (42 mg/kg) in the argillic horizon (120 cm depth, pH = 5.6) of an Ultisol from a paddy soil in northern Taiwan was investigated by advanced X-ray synchrotron techniques. Microchemical associations were imaged by synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence, host minerals were identified by standard and micrometer-resolved X-ray diffraction, and the local coordination environment of Mn, Ni, and Zn was probed using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy on a powdered sample and a soil thin section, and polarized EXAFS spectroscopy on a highly textured self-supporting clay film from the <2 μm fraction of the soil. Manganese was concentrated in Fe-Mn soft mottles (44.4 g/kg) as turbostratic hexagonal birnessite and lithiophorite having Mn 3+/Mn 4+ atomic ratios of ˜20% and 50%, respectively. Quantitative analysis of high-order scattering paths of the EXAFS spectrum for natural and synthetic (AlLi)(Mn0.684+Mn0.323+)O( lithiophorite revealed that Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ are ordered in the [ layer. A structural model is proposed, in which Mn 4+ and Mn 3+ are ordered similarly to Al and Li in the [ layer, with Mn 3+ cations being surrounded by six Mn 4+, and Mn 4+ cations by three Mn 3+ and three Mn 4+. Similar cation ordering in the manganese and aluminum layers likely provides a more homogeneous local balance of the excess and deficit of charges in each layer and increases the stability of lithiophorite. Ni ( r = 0.70 Å) substitutes for Mn (r(Mn 4+) = 0.54 Å, r(Mn 3+) = 0.65 Å) in the manganese layer in the natural lithiophorite. In contrast, Zn ( r = 0.74 Å) fills vacant sites in the gibbsitic layer of natural lithiophorite, in a similar manner as lithium ( r = 0.74 Å) in synthetic lithiophorite. The partitioning of Ni and Zn between the two layers is a result of the general preference of Ni, whose size is intermediate between those of Mn 3+ and Li +, for slightly smaller sites. In

  18. Natural speciation of Mn, Ni and Zn at a micrometer scale in aclayey paddy soil using X-ray fluorescence, absorption anddiffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Manceau, Alain; Tommaseo, Caterina; Rihs, Sophie; Geoffroy,Nicolas; Chateigner, Daniel; Schlegel, Michel; Tisserand, Delphine; Marcus, Matthew A.; Tamura, Nobumichi; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2005-08-29

    The natural speciation of Mn (0.19 g/kg), Ni (46 mg/kg), and Zn (42 mg/kg) in the argillic horizon (120 cm depth, pH = 5.6) of an Ultisol from a paddy soil in northern Taiwan was investigated by advanced X-ray synchrotron techniques. Microchemical associations were imaged by synchrotron-based X-ray microfluorescence, host minerals were identified by standard and micrometer-resolved X-ray diffraction, and the local coordination environment of Mn, Ni, and Zn was probed using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy on a powdered sample and a soil thin section, and polarized EXAFS spectroscopy on a highly textured self-supporting clay film from the <2 mu m fraction of the soil. Manganese was concentrated in Fe-Mn soft mottles (44.4 g/kg) as turbostratic hexagonal birnessite and lithiophorite having Mn3+/Mn4+atomic ratios of {approx} 20 percent and 50 percent, respectively. Quantitative analysis of high-order scattering paths of the EXAFS spectrum for natural and synthetic (Al0.67Li0.32)(Mn0.684+Mn0.323+)O2(OH)2 lithiophorite revealed that Mn3+ and Mn4+ are ordered in the[(Mn0.684+Mn0.323+)O2]0.32- layer. A structural model is proposed, in which Mn4+ and Mn3+ are ordered similarly to Al and Li in the [(Al0.673+Li0.32+)(OH)2]0.32- layer, with Mn3+ cations being surrounded by six Mn4+, and Mn4+ cations by three Mn3+ and three Mn4+. Similar cation ordering in the manganese and aluminum layers likely provides a more homogeneous local balance of the excess and deficit of charges in each layer and increases the stability of lithiophorite. Ni (r = 0.70Angstrom) substitutes for Mn(r(Mn4+) = 0.54 Angstrom, r(Mn3+) = 0.65Angstrom) in the manganese layer in the natural lithiophorite. In contrast, Zn(r = 0.74 Angstrom) fills vacant sites in the gibbsitic layer of natural lithiophorite, in a similar manner as lithium (r = 0.74) Angstrom in synthetic lithiophorite. The partitioning of Ni and Zn between the two layers is a result of the general preference of Ni

  19. The soil carbon/nitrogen ratio and moisture affect microbial community structures in alkaline permafrost-affected soils with different vegetation types on the Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinfang; Xu, Shijian; Li, Changming; Zhao, Lin; Feng, Huyuan; Yue, Guangyang; Ren, Zhengwei; Cheng, Guogdong

    2014-01-01

    In the Tibetan permafrost region, vegetation types and soil properties have been affected by permafrost degradation, but little is known about the corresponding patterns of their soil microbial communities. Thus, we analyzed the effects of vegetation types and their covariant soil properties on bacterial and fungal community structure and membership and bacterial community-level physiological patterns. Pyrosequencing and Biolog EcoPlates were used to analyze 19 permafrost-affected soil samples from four principal vegetation types: swamp meadow (SM), meadow (M), steppe (S) and desert steppe (DS). Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated bacterial communities and the main fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mucoromycotina. The ratios of Proteobacteria/Acidobacteria decreased in the order: SM>M>S>DS, whereas the Ascomycota/Basidiomycota ratios increased. The distributions of carbon and nitrogen cycling bacterial genera detected were related to soil properties. The bacterial communities in SM/M soils degraded amines/amino acids very rapidly, while polymers were degraded rapidly by S/DS communities. UniFrac analysis of bacterial communities detected differences among vegetation types. The fungal UniFrac community patterns of SM differed from the others. Redundancy analysis showed that the carbon/nitrogen ratio had the main effect on bacteria community structures and their diversity in alkaline soil, whereas soil moisture was mainly responsible for structuring fungal communities. Thus, microbial communities and their functioning are probably affected by soil environmental change in response to permafrost degradation.

  20. [Effects of tillage-cropping systems on methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agro-ecosystems in a purple paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Ke; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ju; Tang, Qi-Wen; Cheng, Bing-Hong; Li, Hui; Chen, Lu-Hao

    2012-06-01

    Using the static opaque chamber method, a field experiment, located in the Key Field Station for Monitoring of Eco-Environment of Purple Soil of the Ministry of Agriculture of China in the farm of Southwest University (30 degrees 26'N, 106 degrees 26'E) in Chongqing, was conducted in situ for one year to study the effect of different tillage systems on CH4 and N2O emission from ago-ecosystems in a purple paddy soil. In this paper, four tillage treatments including conventional tillage with rice only system (CT), conventional tillage with rotation of rice and rape system (CTR), no-till and plain culture with rotation of rice and rape system (NTP) and no-till and ridge culture with rotation of rice and rape system (NTR) were selected as research objectives. The results showed that the annual CH4 and N2O emissions were mainly occurred in the rice growing period, and were about 77.6% and 55.0% of the total annual of them emitted from this period. The total annual CH4 under CT was higher than that of other treatments. The annual average flux of CH4[CH4, mg x (m2 x h)(-1)] order was CT (2.96 +/- 0.04) >NTR (1.83 +/- 0.21) >NTP (1.42 +/- 0.01) >CTR (0.96 +/- 0.09); the annual average flux of N2O[N2O, microg x (m2 x h)(-1)] order was CTR (123.6 +/- 47.1) > NTR (115.2 +/- 22.1) > NTP (100.5 +/- 25.8) > CT (81.3 +/- 13.5), and the total annual N2O under CTR was higher than that of CT. The global warming potentials (GWPs) of CH4 and N2O emissions under different tillage-cropping systems were assessed in an integrated way. The results showed that the integrated GWPs of CH4 and N2O emission were in the following sequence: CT > NTR > NTP > CTR, and CTR was the best treatment for decrease the integrated GWPs in this area.

  1. Degradation of benzo[a]pyrene in an experimentally contaminated paddy soil by vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides).

    PubMed

    Li, H; Luo, Y M; Song, J; Wu, L H; Christie, P

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of growing vetiver grass on the biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) under glasshouse conditions. Plant biomass, microbial biomass C and degradation of B[a]P were determined. B[a]P disappeared faster in the plant treatments than in unplanted controls. Disappearance of B[a]P was accompanied by an increase in soil microbial biomass C. Vetiver grass may promote the biodegradation of B[a]P under flooded conditions by plant roots by stimulating the microbial biomass. Microbial biomass was the main factor affecting dissipation of B[a]P under flooded conditions.

  2. Short-term effect of vermicompost application on biological properties of an alkaline soil with high lime content from Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Uz, Ilker; Tavali, Ismail Emrah

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils.

  3. Short-Term Effect of Vermicompost Application on Biological Properties of an Alkaline Soil with High Lime Content from Mediterranean Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Uz, Ilker; Tavali, Ismail Emrah

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils. PMID:25254238

  4. Effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and prokaryotic communities in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Choi, Min-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Lee, Jong-Sik; Song, Jaekyeong; Kim, Gun-Yeob; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2014-08-01

    The effects of water-saving irrigation on emissions of greenhouse gases and soil prokaryotic communities were investigated in an experimental rice field. The water layer was kept at 1-2 cm in the water-saving (WS) irrigation treatment and at 6 cm in the continuous flooding (CF) irrigation treatment. WS irrigation decreased CH(4) emissions by 78 % and increased N(2)O emissions by 533 %, resulting in 78 % reduction of global warming potential compared to the CF irrigation. WS irrigation did not affect the abundance or phylogenetic distribution of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNA genes and the abundance of bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNAs. The transcript abundance of CH(4) emission-related genes generally followed CH(4) emission patterns, but the difference in abundance between mcrA transcripts and amoA/pmoA transcripts best described the differences in CH(4) emissions between the two irrigation practices. WS irrigation increased the relative abundance of 16S rRNAs and functional gene transcripts associated with Anaeromyxobacter and Methylocystis spp., suggesting that their activities might be important in emissions of the greenhouse gases. The N(2)O emission patterns were not reflected in the abundance of N(2)O emission-related genes and transcripts. We showed that the alternative irrigation practice was effective for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from rice fields and that it did not affect the overall size and structure of the soil prokaryotic community but did affect the activity of some groups.

  5. Respiratory and dissimilatory nitrate-reducing communities from an extreme saline alkaline soil of the former lake Texcoco (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of the dissimilatory and respiratory nitrate-reducing communities was studied in two soils of the former lake Texcoco (Mexico). Genes encoding the membrane-bound nitrate reductase (narG) and the periplasmic nitrate reductase (napA) were used as functional markers. To investigate bacterial communities containing napA and narG in saline alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco, libraries of the two sites were constructed (soil T3 with pH 11 and electrolytic conductivity in saturated extract (EC(SE)) 160 dS m(-1) and soil T1 with pH 8.5 and EC(SE) 0.8 dS m(-1)). Phylogenetic analysis of napA sequences separated the clone families into two main groups: dependent or independent of NapB. Most of napA sequences from site T1 were grouped in the NapB-dependent clade, meanwhile most of the napA sequences from the extreme soil T3 were affiliated to the NapB-independent group. For both sites, partial narG sequences were associated with representatives of the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla, but the proportions of the clones were different. Our results support the concept of a specific and complex nitrate-reducing community for each soil of the former lake Texcoco.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of the archaeal community in an alkaline-saline soil of the former lake Texcoco (Mexico).

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Encinas, César; Neria-González, Isabel; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Enríquez-Aragón, J Arturo; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Dendooven, Luc; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2008-03-01

    The soil of the former lake Texcoco is an extreme environment localized in the valley of Mexico City, Mexico. It is highly saline and alkaline, where Na+, Cl(-), HCO3(-) and CO3(2-) are the predominant ions, with a pH ranging from 9.8 to 11.7 and electrolytic conductivities in saturation extracts from 22 to 150 dS m(-1). Metagenomic DNA from the archaeal community was extracted directly from soil and used as template to amplify 16S ribosomal gene by PCR. PCR products were used to construct gene libraries. The ribosomal library showed that the archaeal diversity included Natronococcus sp., Natronolimnobius sp., Natronobacterium sp., Natrinema sp., Natronomonas sp., Halovivax sp., "Halalkalicoccus jeotgali" and novel clades within the family of Halobacteriaceae. Four clones could not be classified. It was found that the archaeal diversity in an alkaline-saline soil of the former lake Texcoco, Mexico, was low, but showed yet uncharacterized and unclassified species.

  7. Anoxybacillus sp. Strain UARK-01, a New Thermophilic Soil Bacterium with Hyperthermostable Alkaline Laccase Activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Kahem Al-Balawi, Thamir H; Wood, Adam L; Solis, Alexis; Cooper, Ted; Barabote, Ravi D

    2017-04-08

    We describe the isolation and characteristics of a novel thermophilic bacterium from soil. The organism is a member of the Anoxybacillus genus based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. The 16S rRNA of the organism shares >99% sequence identity with those of two species, Anoxybacillus rupiensis and A. geothermalis. We named this isolate as Anoxybacillus sp. strain UARK-01. UARK-01 grows optimally in the presence of oxygen at 55 °C and pH 8. It grew excellently in the presence of lignin as the sole carbon source. Culture supernatant from UARK-01 grown on lignin was rich in laccase activity. The laccase activity was optimal at 90 °C and pH 9, and there was comparable activity at 80 and 100 °C. The crude laccase decolorized approximately 75% of Congo Red in 7 h under optimal conditions. A single laccase gene was identified from the draft genome sequence of Anoxybacillus sp. UARK-01. The UARK-01 laccase (Anox_Lacc) was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli and was partially purified. The partially purified Anox_Lacc decolorized approximately 1.64+/0.21 nanomoles of Congo Red per microgram protein in 30 min at 90 °C and pH 9. Anox_Lacc is a member of the multicopper polyphenol oxidoreductase laccase family (pfam02578 Cu-oxidase_4) and has novel characteristics. Multiple sequence analysis of Anox_Lacc with six homologs from the family revealed four conserved copper ligands and several new residues that are fully conserved. Anox_Lacc is enriched in leucine, glutamine, and lysine, and it contains fewer alanine, arginine, glycine, and serine residues. Skewed amino acid composition of Anox_Lacc likely contributes to the exceptional thermochemical properties of the laccase activity from UARK-01. Both lignin utilization and production of hyperthermostable alkaline laccase are new findings in the Anoxybacillus genus.

  8. Pseudomonas songnenensis sp. nov., isolated from saline and alkaline soils in Songnen Plain, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Kaibiao; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Shuang; Fu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Cheng; Jiang, Juquan

    2015-03-01

    The strain NEAU-ST5-5(T) was isolated from the saline and alkaline soil in Songnen Plain, North East of China. The bacterium was found to be aerobic, Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of several polar flagella. It forms yellow-orange colonies with a radial wrinkled surface. Phylogenetic analyses based on the separate 16S rRNA gene sequences and concatenated 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequences indicated that it belongs to the genus Pseudomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. Strain NEAU-ST5-5(T) shows gene sequence similarities of 98.8-97.1 % for 16S rRNA, 90.5-78.4 % for gyrB and 90.4-71.1 % for rpoD with type strains of the closely related species of the genus Pseudomonas, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness between strain NEAU-ST5-5(T) and type strains of the most closely related species, Pseudomonas stutzeri DSM 5190(T), P. xanthomarina DSM 18231(T), P. kunmingensis CGMCC 1.12273(T), P. alcaliphila DSM 17744(T) and P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis DSM 21016(T) were 43 ± 1 to 25 ± 2 %. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were determined to be C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c, C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c and C16:0, the predominant respiratory quinone was identified as ubiquinone 9 and polar lipids were found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, one unknown phospholipid, one unidentified aminophospholipid and one unknown lipid. The genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analysis indicated that strain NEAU-ST5-5(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas songnenensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-ST5-5(T) (=ACCC 06361(T) = DSM 27560(T)).

  9. Differences in Cellulosic Supramolecular Structure of Compositionally Similar Rice Straw Affect Biomass Metabolism by Paddy Soil Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Tatsuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Because they are strong and stable, lignocellulosic supramolecular structures in plant cell walls are resistant to decomposition. However, they can be degraded and recycled by soil microbiota. Little is known about the biomass degradation profiles of complex microbiota based on differences in cellulosic supramolecular structures without compositional variations. Here, we characterized and evaluated the cellulosic supramolecular structures and composition of rice straw biomass processed under different milling conditions. We used a range of techniques including solid- and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy followed by thermodynamic and microbial degradability characterization using thermogravimetric analysis, solution-state NMR, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. These measured data were further analyzed using an “ECOMICS” web-based toolkit. From the results, we found that physical pretreatment of rice straw alters the lignocellulosic supramolecular structure by cleaving significant molecular lignocellulose bonds. The transformation from crystalline to amorphous cellulose shifted the thermal degradation profiles to lower temperatures. In addition, pretreated rice straw samples developed different microbiota profiles with different metabolic dynamics during the biomass degradation process. This is the first report to comprehensively characterize the structure, composition, and thermal degradation and microbiota profiles using the ECOMICS toolkit. By revealing differences between lignocellulosic supramolecular structures of biomass processed under different milling conditions, our analysis revealed how the characteristic compositions of microbiota profiles develop in addition to their metabolic profiles and dynamics during biomass degradation. PMID:23840554

  10. Heavy metal contaminations in a soil-rice system: identification of spatial dependence in relation to soil properties of paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Keli; Liu, Xingmei; Xu, Jianming; Selim, H M

    2010-09-15

    In order to identify spatial relationship of heavy metals in soil-rice system at a regional scale, 96 pairs of rice and soil samples were collected from Wenling in Zhejiang province, China, which is one of the well-known electronic and electric waste recycling centers. The results indicated some studied areas had potential contaminations by heavy metals, especially by Cd. The spatial distribution of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn illustrated that the highest concentrations were located in the northwest areas and the accumulation of these metals may be due to the industrialization, agricultural chemicals and other human activities. In contrast, the concentration of Ni decreased from east to west and the mean concentration was below the background value, indicating the distribution of Ni may be naturally controlled. Enrichment index (EI) was used to describe the availability of soil heavy metals to rice. The spatial distribution of EIs for Cd, Ni and Zn exhibited a west-east structure, which was similar with the spatial structures of pH, OM, sand and clay. Cross-correlograms further quantitatively illustrated the EIs were significantly correlated with most soil properties, among which; soil pH and OM had the strongest correlations with EIs. However, EI of Cu showed relative weak correlations with soil properties, especially soil pH and OM had no correlations with EI of Cu, indicating the availability of Cu may be influenced by other factors.

  11. Acetate biostimulation as an effective treatment for cleaning up alkaline soil highly contaminated with Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Lara, Paloma; Morett, Enrique; Juárez, Katy

    2016-08-15

    Stimulation of microbial reduction of Cr(VI) to the less toxic and less soluble Cr(III) through electron donor addition has been regarded as a promising approach for the remediation of chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater sites. However, each site presents different challenges; local physicochemical characteristics and indigenous microbial communities influence the effectiveness of the biostimulation processes. Here, we show microcosm assays stimulation of microbial reduction of Cr(VI) in highly alkaline and saline soil samples from a long-term contaminated site in Guanajuato, Mexico. Acetate was effective promoting anaerobic microbial reduction of 15 mM of Cr(VI) in 25 days accompanied by an increase in pH from 9 to 10. Our analyses showed the presence of Halomonas, Herbaspirillum, Nesterenkonia/Arthrobacter, and Bacillus species in the soil sample collected. Moreover, from biostimulated soil samples, it was possible to isolate Halomonas spp. strains able to grow at 32 mM of Cr(VI). Additionally, we found that polluted groundwater has bacterial species different to those found in soil samples with the ability to resist and reduce chromate using acetate and yeast extract as electron donors.

  12. Diversity and food web structure of nematode communities under high soil salinity and alkaline pH.

    PubMed

    Salamún, Peter; Kucanová, Eva; Brázová, Tímea; Miklisová, Dana; Renčo, Marek; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2014-10-01

    A long-term and intensive magnesium (Mg) ore processing in Slovenské Magnezitové Závody a.s. in Jelšava has resulted in a high Mg content and alkaline pH of the soil environment, noticeable mainly in the close vicinity of the smelter. Nematode communities strongly reacted to the contamination mostly by a decrease in abundance of the sensitive groups. Nematodes from c-p 1 group and bacterivores, tolerant to pollution played a significant role in establishing the dominance at all sites. With increasing distance from the pollution source, the nematode communities were more structured and complex, with an increase in proportion of sensitive c-p 4 and 5 nematodes, composed mainly of carnivores and omnivores. Various ecological indices (e.g. MI2-5, SI, H') indicated similar improvement of farther soil ecosystems.

  13. Long-term nitrogen fertilization decreased the abundance of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria in an alkaline soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bang-Xiao; Hao, Xiu-Li; Ding, Kai; Zhou, Guo-Wei; Chen, Qing-Lin; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-02-01

    Inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria (iPSB) are essential to facilitate phosphorus (P) mobilization in alkaline soil, however, the phylogenetic structure of iPSB communities remains poorly characterized. Thus, we use a reference iPSB database to analyze the distribution of iPSB communities based on 16S rRNA gene illumina sequencing. Additionally, a noval pqqC primer was developed to quantify iPSB abundance. In our study, an alkaline soil with 27-year fertilization treatment was selected. The percentage of iPSB was 1.10~2.87% per sample, and the dominant iPSB genera were closely related to Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Streptomyces. Long-term P fertilization had no significant effect on the abundance of iPSB communities. Rather than P and potassium (K) additions, long-term nitrogen (N) fertilization decreased the iPSB abundance, which was validated by reduced relative abundance of pqqC gene (pqqC/16S). The decreased iPSB abundance was strongly related to pH decline and total N increase, revealing that the long-term N additions may cause pH decline and subsequent P releases relatively decreasing the demands of the iPSB community. The methodology and understanding obtained here provides insights into the ecology of inorganic P solubilizers and how to manipulate for better P use efficiency.

  14. Long-term nitrogen fertilization decreased the abundance of inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria in an alkaline soil

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bang-Xiao; Hao, Xiu-Li; Ding, Kai; Zhou, Guo-Wei; Chen, Qing-Lin; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate solubilizing bacteria (iPSB) are essential to facilitate phosphorus (P) mobilization in alkaline soil, however, the phylogenetic structure of iPSB communities remains poorly characterized. Thus, we use a reference iPSB database to analyze the distribution of iPSB communities based on 16S rRNA gene illumina sequencing. Additionally, a noval pqqC primer was developed to quantify iPSB abundance. In our study, an alkaline soil with 27-year fertilization treatment was selected. The percentage of iPSB was 1.10~2.87% per sample, and the dominant iPSB genera were closely related to Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Brevibacterium and Streptomyces. Long-term P fertilization had no significant effect on the abundance of iPSB communities. Rather than P and potassium (K) additions, long-term nitrogen (N) fertilization decreased the iPSB abundance, which was validated by reduced relative abundance of pqqC gene (pqqC/16S). The decreased iPSB abundance was strongly related to pH decline and total N increase, revealing that the long-term N additions may cause pH decline and subsequent P releases relatively decreasing the demands of the iPSB community. The methodology and understanding obtained here provides insights into the ecology of inorganic P solubilizers and how to manipulate for better P use efficiency. PMID:28181569

  15. Alkalinity of Lanzarote soils is a factor shaping rhizobial populations with Sinorhizobium meliloti being the predominant microsymbiont of Lotus lancerottensis.

    PubMed

    León-Barrios, Milagros; Pérez-Yépez, Juan; Dorta, Paola; Garrido, Ana; Jiménez, Concepción

    2017-02-02

    Lotus lancerottensis is an endemic species that grows widely throughout Lanzarote Island (Canary Is.). Characterization of 48 strains isolated from root nodules of plants growing in soils from eleven locations on the island showed that 38 isolates (79.1%) belonged to the species Sinorhizobium meliloti, whereas only six belonged to Mesorhizobium sp., the more common microsymbionts for the Lotus. Other genotypes containing only one isolate were classified as Pararhizobium sp., Sinorhizobium sp., Phyllobacterium sp. and Bradyrhizobium-like. Strains of S. meliloti were distributed along the island and, in most of the localities they were exclusive or major microsymbionts of L. lancerottensis. Phylogeny of the nodulation nodC gene placed the S. meliloti strains within symbiovar lancerottense and the mesorhizobial strains with the symbiovar loti. Although strains from both symbiovars produced effective N2-fixing nodules, S. meliloti symbiovar lancerottense was clearly the predominant microsymbiont of L. lancerottensis. This fact correlated with the better adaptation of strains of this species to the alkaline soils of Lanzarote, as in vitro characterization showed that while the mesorhizobial strains were inhibited by alkaline pH, S. meliloti strains grew well at pH 9.

  16. The effect of Penicillium fungi on plant growth and phosphorus mobilization in neutral to alkaline soils from southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wakelin, S A; Gupta, V V S R; Harvey, P R; Ryder, M H

    2007-01-01

    The phosphate solubilizing fungi Penicillium radicum, Penicillium bilaiae (strain RS7B-SD1), and an unidentified Penicillium sp. designated strain KC6-W2 were tested for their ability to increase the growth and phosphorus (P) nutrition of wheat, medic, and lentil in three soils of neutral to alkaline pH reaction. The strongest plant growth promoting (PGP) strain was Penicillium sp. KC6-W2, which stimulated significant increases in shoot growth and dry mass in seven of the nine experiments conducted. Levels of PGP by Penicillium sp. KC6-W2 ranged from 6.6% to 19% and were associated with increased uptake of P to the shoot. The PGP properties of Penicillium sp. KC6-W2 were evident on each of the three different plant species and soil types, a level of reliability not observed in other strains tested. Inoculation of seed with P. radicum increased lentil growth by 5.5% (P < 0.05) in soil from Tarlee but did not affect plant growth in the eight other experiments. Inoculation of plant seed with P. bilaiae RS7B-SD1 resulted in significant PGP in two of the nine experiments conducted. However, when significant, stimulation of PGP by P. bilaiae RS7B-SD1 was strong and resulted in increases in medic dry matter (19%) and lentil shoot dry matter (15%). A soil microcosm experiment investigated the effect of Penicillium fungi on cycling of soil P. Penicillium bilaiae RS7B-SD1 was the only fungus to significantly increase HCO3-extractable P (23% increase; P < 0.05). Production of phosphatase enzymes was not associated with increased HCO3-extractable P. Addition of carbon in the form of ryegrass seed significantly increased microbial respiration and movement of P to the microbial biomass (P < 0.05), but these parameters were irrespective of Penicillium treatment. This work has established the potential for use of Penicillium inoculants to increase plant growth on alkaline soils in Australia. The role of Penicillium fungi in plant P uptake and soil P cycling requires further

  17. Testing CO2 Sequestration in an Alkaline Soil Treated with Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Identifying effective and economical methods for increasing carbon storage in soils is of interest for reducing soil CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere in order to partially offset anthropogenic CO2 contributions to climate change This study investigates an alternative strategy for increasing carbon retention in soils by accelerating calcite (CaCO3) precipitation and promoting soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces. The addition of calcium ion to soils with pH > 8, often found in arid and semi-arid regions, may accelerate the slow process of calcite precipitation. Increased ionic strength from addition of a soluble Ca source also suppresses microbial activity which oxidizes SOC to gaseous CO2. Through obtaining C mass balances in soil profiles, this study is quantifying the efficiency of gypsum amendments for mitigating C losses to the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to identify conditions in which inorganic and organic C sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils by gypsum treatment. As an inexpensive calcium source, we proposed to use flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), a byproduct of fossil fuel burning electric power plants. To test the hypothesis, laboratory column experiments have been conducted in calcite-buffered soil with addition of gypsum and FGDG. The results of several months of column monitoring are demonstrating that gypsum-treated soil have lowered amounts of soil organic carbon loss and increased inorganic carbon (calcite) production. The excess generation of FGDG relative to industrial and agricultural needs, FGDG, is currently regarded as waste. Thus application of FGDG application in some soils may be an effective and economical means for fixing CO2 in soil organic and inorganic carbon forms.Soil carbon cycle, with proposed increased C retention by calcite precipitation and by SOC binding onto soil mineral surfaces, with both processes driven by calcium released from gypsum dissolution.

  18. Comparing Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in Perennial Grasses and Shrubs in a Saline-Alkaline Arid Region, Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiaqi; Zhang, Jingli; Zheng, Yuanrun; Ni, Jian; Xiao, Chunwang; Wang, Renzhong

    2012-01-01

    Background Although semi-arid and arid regions account for about 40% of terrestrial surface of the Earth and contain approximately 10% of the global soil organic carbon stock, our understanding of soil organic carbon dynamics in these regions is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings A field experiment was conducted to compare soil organic carbon dynamics between a perennial grass community dominated by Cleistogenes squarrosa and an adjacent shrub community co-dominated by Reaumuria soongorica and Haloxylon ammodendron, two typical plant life forms in arid ecosystems of saline-alkaline arid regions in northwestern China during the growing season 2010. We found that both fine root biomass and necromass in two life forms varied greatly during the growing season. Annual fine root production in the perennial grasses was 45.6% significantly higher than in the shrubs, and fine root turnover rates were 2.52 and 2.17 yr−1 for the perennial grasses and the shrubs, respectively. Floor mass was significantly higher in the perennial grasses than in the shrubs due to the decomposition rate of leaf litter in the perennial grasses was 61.8% lower than in the shrubs even though no significance was detected in litterfall production. Soil microbial biomass and activity demonstrated a strong seasonal variation with larger values in May and September and minimum values in the dry month of July. Observed higher soil organic carbon stocks in the perennial grasses (1.32 Kg C m−2) than in the shrubs (1.12 Kg C m−2) might be attributed to both greater inputs of poor quality litter that is relatively resistant to decay and the lower ability of microorganism to decompose these organic matter. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that the perennial grasses might accumulate more soil organic carbon with time than the shrubs because of larger amounts of inputs from litter and slower return of carbon through decomposition. PMID:22900067

  19. Temporal changes of radiocesium in irrigated paddy fields and its accumulation in rice plants in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baolu; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Ha, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    About half of the total paddy field area, which is the dominant agricultural land in Fukushima Prefecture, was contaminated by radiocesium released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we investigated the temporal changes of radiocesium in soil, irrigation water, and rice plant in two adjacent rice paddies, with and without surface-soil-removal, in Fukushima Prefecture for over three years (2012-2014) after the nuclear accident. Our results showed that radiocesium migrated into 24-28 cm soil layers and that the activity concentration of radiocesium in paddy soils showed a significant reduction in 2014. The newly added radiocesium to paddies through irrigation water contributed only a maximum value of 0.15% and 0.75% of the total amount present in control and decontaminated paddies, respectively, throughout the study period. The radiocesium activity concentration in suspended sediment in irrigation water exponentially decreased, and the effective half-lives (Teff) for (137)Cs and (134)Cs were 1.3 and 0.9 years, respectively. Additionally, the average suspended sediment concentration in irrigation water increased between 2012 and 2014, suggesting that enhanced soil erosion had occurred in the surrounding environment. Radiocesium accumulation in rice plant also decreased with time in both paddies. However, the concentration ratio of radiocesium for rice plant in the decontaminated paddy increased compared with control paddy, despite approximately 96% of fallout radiocesium removed in paddy soil. Further analysis is required to clarify the reasons of high concentration ratio of radiocesium for rice plant in the decontaminated paddy.

  20. Mercury cycling in a flooded rice paddy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Feng, Xinbin

    2012-09-01

    In 2008 and 2009, mercury (Hg) cycling was investigated in a flooded rice paddy in the Wanshan Hg mining region of eastern Guizhou, China, in the rice-planted (2008 and 2009) and fallow (2009) sections of the same paddy. In the rice-planted section, pore water was more acidic and pore water methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were higher compared to the fallow section. However, iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) cycling differed in 2008 and 2009, with higher sediment Fe concentrations in 2009, when pore water MeHg and sulfate concentrations were more strongly correlated in the rice-planted section. We explored whether elevated sediment Fe contributed to S cycling and hence, Hg(II)-methylation. Critical pH values for formation of FeS(s) were estimated. Based on pore water pH collected in both sections of the paddy, the fallow section was more often a sink for FeS(s), while FeS(s) did not form in the rice-planted section, although sulfide concentrations were low in both sections in both years (i.e.,<10 μM). We hypothesized Fe(III) oxidized sulfide, and intermediate S species (e.g., polysulfides) were further oxidized to sulfate instead of forming FeS(s), thus prolonging sulfate reduction and promoting Hg(II)-methylation in the rice-planted section in 2009. Results suggested Fe(III) reduction increased electron acceptors for sulfate-reducing bacteria, which indirectly enhanced Hg(II)-methylation. Additionally, highest sediment MeHg concentrations were observed in the fallow section after the paddy was dried and re-wetted, indicating water-saving rice cultivation practices (e.g., alternating wetting and drying), may cause MeHg concentrations in paddy soil to spike, which should be further investigated.

  1. FUNGUS INDEX AND RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES IN ACID AND ALKALINE SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil applied pesticides have profound effects on the population density and diversity of fungi, however, such information is lacking in tropical soils of the Amazon region. Field experiments were implemented at two experimental farms ("El Choclito", "Bello Horizonte”) of Tropical Crop Institute (ICT...

  2. Fixation kinetics of chelated and non-chelated zinc in semi-arid alkaline soils: application to zinc management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K.; Eichmann, Madeleine; Menkiti, Matthew C.

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to examine the fixation pattern and kinetics of zinc (Zn) in chelated (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA) and non-chelated mixed micronutrient systems of semi-arid alkaline soils from the Southern High Plains, USA. Soils were characterized for a suite of chemical and physical properties and data obtained from extraction experiments fitted to various kinetic models. About 30 % more plant-available Zn was fixed in the non-chelated system within the first 14 days with only about 18 % difference observed between the two systems by day 90, suggesting that the effectiveness of the chelated compounds tended to decrease over time. The strengths of the relationships of change in available Zn with respect to other micronutrients (copper, iron, and manganese) were higher and more significant in the non-chelated system (average R2 of 0.83), compared to the chelated (average R2 of 0.42). Fixation of plant-available Zn was best described by the power-function model (R2 = 0.94, SE = 0.076) in the non-chelated system, and was poorly described by all the models examined in the chelated system. Reaction rate constants and relationships generated from this study can serve as important tools for micronutrient management and for future micronutrient modeling studies on these soils and other semi-arid regions of the world.

  3. Synergistic interaction of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a plant growth promoting biofertilizers for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Abd-Alla, Mohamed Hemida; El-Enany, Abdel-Wahab Elsadek; Nafady, Nivien Allam; Khalaf, David Mamdouh; Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2014-01-20

    Egyptian soils are generally characterized by slightly alkaline to alkaline pH values (7.5-8.7) which are mainly due to its dry environment. In arid and semi-arid regions, salts are less concentrated and sodium dominates in carbonate and bicarbonate forms, which enhance the formation of alkaline soils. Alkaline soils have fertility problems due to poor physical properties which adversely affect the growth and the yield of crops. Therefore, this study was devoted to investigating the synergistic interaction of Rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for improving growth of faba bean grown in alkaline soil. A total of 20 rhizobial isolates and 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were isolated. The rhizobial isolates were investigated for their ability to grow under alkaline stress. Out of 20 isolates 3 isolates were selected as tolerant isolates. These 3 rhizobial isolates were identified on the bases of the sequences of the gene encoding 16S rRNA and designated as Rhizobium sp. Egypt 16 (HM622137), Rhizobium sp. Egypt 27 (HM622138) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The best alkaline tolerant was R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 (HM587713). The effect of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae STDF-Egypt 19 and mixture of AMF (Acaulospora laevis, Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae and Scutellospora armeniaca) both individually and in combination on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth of Vicia faba under alkalinity stress were assessed. A significant increase over control in number and mass of nodules, nitrogenase activity, leghaemoglobin content of nodule, mycorrhizal colonization, dry mass of root and shoot was recorded in dual inoculated plants than plants with individual inoculation. The enhancement of nitrogen fixation of faba bean could be attributed to AMF facilitating the mobilization of certain elements such as P, Fe, K and other minerals that involve in synthesis of nitrogenase and leghaemoglobin. Thus it is

  4. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R.; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  5. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Rezende Filho, Ary T; Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  6. Investigation of Spatial Distribution of Radiocesium in a Paddy Field as a Potential Sink

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Surface soils, under various land uses, were contaminated by radionuclides that were released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Because paddy fields are one of the main land uses in Japan, we investigated the spatial distribution of radiocesium and the influence of irrigation water in a paddy field during cultivation. Soil core samples collected at a paddy field in Fukushima showed that plowing had disturbed the original depth distribution of radiocesium. The horizontal distribution of radiocesium did not show any evidence for significant influence of radiocesium from irrigation water, and its accumulation within the paddy field, since the original amount of radiocesium was much larger than was added into the paddy field by irrigation water. However, it is possible that rainfall significantly increases the loading of radiocesium. PMID:24260481

  7. Investigation of spatial distribution of radiocesium in a paddy field as a potential sink.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Takahashi, Yoshio; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Surface soils, under various land uses, were contaminated by radionuclides that were released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Because paddy fields are one of the main land uses in Japan, we investigated the spatial distribution of radiocesium and the influence of irrigation water in a paddy field during cultivation. Soil core samples collected at a paddy field in Fukushima showed that plowing had disturbed the original depth distribution of radiocesium. The horizontal distribution of radiocesium did not show any evidence for significant influence of radiocesium from irrigation water, and its accumulation within the paddy field, since the original amount of radiocesium was much larger than was added into the paddy field by irrigation water. However, it is possible that rainfall significantly increases the loading of radiocesium.

  8. Remediation of PAHs in a saline-alkaline soil amended with wastewater sludge and the effect on dynamics of C and N.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Marsch, R; Espinosa-Victoria, D; Thalasso, F; Hidalgo Lara, M E; Munive, A; Luna-Guido, M L; Dendooven, L

    2008-08-25

    Contamination of soil with hydrocarbons occurs frequently and organic material, such as sludge, is often applied to accelerate their dissipation. Little is known, however, how sludge characteristics affect removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from alkaline-saline soil. Soil of the former lake Texcoco with pH 9 and electrolytic conductivity 7 dS m(-1) was contaminated with phenanthrene and anthracene and amended with sludge, sterilized sludge, sludge adjusted to maintain pH in contaminated soil or glucose plus an inorganic N and P source while emission of CO2 and concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, extractable P, phenanthrene and anthracene were monitored in an aerobic incubation experiment of 112 days. An agricultural soil from Acolman treated in the same way served as control. Contaminating the Texcoco soil increased emission of CO2 significantly, but not in the Acolman soil. After 112 days, the largest concentration of anthracene and phenanthrene was found in the Acolman soil added with glucose and the lowest in the sludge-amended soil. The largest concentration of anthracene in the Texcoco soil was found in soil added with sterile sludge and the lowest in the sludge-amended soil. The largest concentration of phenanthrene in the Texcoco soil was found in the glucose-amended soil and the lowest in the sludge-amended soil. It was found that addition of sludge removed more phenanthrene, but not anthracene from soil compared to the unamended contaminated soil, glucose inhibited dissipation of PAHs while microorganisms in the sludge contributed to their removal, and adjustment of soil pH had no effect. Organic material can be used to accelerate removal of hydrocarbons from soil, but the effect is controlled by soil type, contaminant and organic material characteristics.

  9. Effects of co-application of biosolids and water treatment residuals on corn growth and bioavailable phosphorus and aluminum in alkaline soils in egypt.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, A M; Elkhatib, E A; Fathi, N O; Lin, Z-Q

    2009-01-01

    The co-application of biosolids and water treatment residuals (WTRs) has been previously trialed to reduce excessive bioavailable P in the soil treated with biosolids. However, uncertainty still exists regarding the environmental consequences of the co-application of biosolids and WTRs, especially in alkaline soils in Egypt or the Middle East region. A greenhouse pot study was conducted with Egyptian alkaline soils to (i) quantify the effects of co-application of biosolids and drinking WTRs on biomass production of corn (Zea mays L. cultivar single hybrid 10), (ii) determine the co-application effects on Olsen-P and KCl-extractable Al in relation to their accumulation in plant tissues, and (iii) optimize the co-application ratio of biosolids to WTRs for the best yield and effective reduction of soil bioavailable P. The results show that, among the studied soils treated with 1% biosolids along with various rates of WTRs, the corn yield increased significantly (P < 0.01) with increasing WTR application rate from 0 to 3% (w/w), but decreased at 4% application rate. The corn yield also significantly correlated with soil water holding capacity that increased with the addition of WTRs. Phosphorus uptake by plants significantly (P < 0.01) increased when the biosolid application rate was increased from 1 to 3% in the three studied soils that were treated with 1, 2, or 3% WTRs. The application of 4% WTRs in the biosolid-amended soils resulted in a significant reduction in soil Olsen-P values, but without having observable phytotoxicity of metals (such as Al) to corn during the growth period. The effective co-application ratio of biosolids to WTRs, for increasing corn yield and minimizing the potential for bioavailable P in runoff, was approximately 1:1 at the application rate of 3% biosolids and 4% WTRs in the alkaline soils.

  10. Measurement and estimation of radiocesium discharge rate from paddy field during land preparation and mid-summer drainage.

    PubMed

    Miyazu, Susumu; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Yoshikawa, Natsuki; Tamaki, Shouhei; Nakajima, Kousei; Sato, Iku; Nonaka, Masanori; Harada, Naoki

    2016-05-01

    In this research, we evaluated the range of (137)Cs discharge rates from paddy fields during land preparation and mid-summer drainage. First, we investigated (137)Cs discharge loads during land preparation and mid-summer drainage and their ratio to the (137)Cs inventory of paddy field soil. We found that total discharge rates were 0.003-0.028% during land preparation and 0.001-0.011% during mid-summer drainage. Next, we validated the range of obtained total discharge of (137)Cs from the paddy fields using a simplified equation and literature review. As a result, we conclude that the range of total outflow loads of suspended solids for the investigated paddy field was generally representative of paddy fields in Japan. Moreover, the (137)Cs discharge ratio had a wide range, but was extremely small relative to (137)Cs present in paddy field soil before irrigation.

  11. Evolution of soil properties and metals in acid and alkaline mine tailing ponds after amendments and microorganisms application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Jose A.; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Bech, Jaume

    2015-04-01

    Intense mining activities in the past were carried out in Cartagena-La Unión mining district, SE Spain, and caused excessive accumulation of toxic metals in tailing ponds which poses a high environmental and ecological risk. One of the remediation options gaining considerable interest in recent years is the in situ immobilization of metals. A corresponding reduction in the plant-available metal fraction allows re-vegetation and ecosystem restoration of the heavily contaminated sites. In addition, the use of microorganisms to improve the soil condition is a new tool used to increase spontaneous plant colonization. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of amendments (pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime) and microorganisms on the evolution of soil properties and metals in acid and alkaline tailing ponds and to evaluate the content of metals in Zygophylum fabago one year after amendments application. The study was carried out in two mine ponds (acid and alkaline). Twenty seven square field plots, each one consisting of 4 m2, were located in each pond. Four different doses of microorganism (EM) (0 ml, 20 ml, 100 ml and 200 ml of microorganism solution in each plot) and one dose of pig manure (5 kg per plot), sewage sludge (4 kg per plot) and lime (22 kg per plot) were used. Organic amendment doses were calculated according to European nitrogen legislations, and lime dose was calculated according with the potential acid production through total sulphur oxidation. Three replicates of each treatment (organic amendment + lime + microorganism dose 0, 1, 2, or 3) and control soil (with no amendments) were carried out. Plots were left to the semi-arid climate conditions after the addition of amendments to simulate real potential applications of the results. Soil samples was collected every 4 month from each plot during one year, after this time Zygophylum fabago plants were sampled from each plots. Soil properties including: pH, salinity, total, inorganic and

  12. Effectiveness of recovered magnesium phosphates as fertilizers in neutral and slightly alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium phosphates such as struvite (MgNH4PO4x6H2O) can be recovered from municipal, industrial and agricultural wastewaters. However, minimal research has been conducted on the beneficial reuse of these recovered products; conducted research has focused on low pH soils. This study determined wh...

  13. ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION ON METAL-TOXIC SOILS USING BIOSOLIDS AND ALKALINE BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils in many locations are mineralized or were contaminated by industry (e.g. mine wastes; smelter emissions). Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu ores often caused severe Zn phytotoxicity which killed vegetation and prevented normal colonization; severe N and P infertility also contributed to difficul...

  14. ECOSYSTEM RESOTRATION ON METAL-TOXIC SOILS USING BIOSOLIDS AND ALKALINE BYPRODUCTS (ABSTRACT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils in many locations are mineralized or were contaminated by industry (e.g. mine wastes; smelter emissions). Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu ores often caused severe Zn phytotoxicity which killed vegetation and prevented normal colonization; severe N and P infertility also contributed to difficul...

  15. Organic and inorganic amendments affect soil concentration and accumulation of cadmium and lead in wheat in calcareous alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation with untreated effluent in periurban agriculture could result in accumulation and bioconcentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). Different amendments were used to investigate their effect on availability, concentration, and uptake of metals by wheat in texturally different soils. Crop w...

  16. Isolation and fractionation of soil humin using alkaline urea and dimethylsulphoxide plus sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Song, Guixue; Hayes, Michael H B; Novotny, Etelvino H; Simpson, Andre J

    2011-01-01

    Humin, the most recalcitrant and abundant organic fraction of soils and of sediments, is a significant contributor to the stable carbon pool in soils and is important for the global carbon budget. It has significant resistance to transformations by microorganisms. Based on the classical operational definition, humin can include any humic-type substance that is not soluble in water at any pH. We demonstrate in this study how sequential exhaustive extractions with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) + 6 M urea, followed by dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) + 6% (v/v) sulphuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) solvent systems, can extract 70-80% of the residual materials remaining after prior exhaustive extractions in neutral and aqueous basic media. Solid-state (13)C NMR spectra have shown that the components isolated in the base + urea system were compositionally similar to the humic and fulvic acid fractions isolated at pH 12.6 in the aqueous media. The NMR spectra indicated that the major components isolated in the DMSO + H(2)SO(4) medium had aliphatic hydrocarbon associated with carboxyl functionalities and with lesser amounts of carbohydrate and peptide and minor amounts of lignin-derived components. The major components will have significant contributions from long-chain fatty acids, waxes, to cuticular materials. The isolates in the DMSO + H(2)SO(4) medium were compositionally similar to the organic components that resisted solvation and remained associated with the soil clays. It is concluded that the base + urea system released humic and fulvic acids held by hydrogen bonding or by entrapment within the humin matrix. The recalcitrant humin materials extracted in DMSO + H(2)SO(4) are largely biological molecules (from plants and the soil microbial population) that are likely to be protected from degradation by their hydrophobic moieties and by sorption on the soil clays. Thus, the major components of humin do not satisfy the classical definitions for humic

  17. Management of Munitions Constituents in Soil Using Alkaline Hydrolysis: A Practical Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-12

    Induced Transformation of Explosives Dissolved Hydroxide Clean water to groundwater Lime Addition W at er M ov em en t Soluble lime moving with... water Surface Water Transport Soluble explosives moving with water Explosives deposited on soil • Advantages of using this approach: – In-situ...Grenade Range; Bay 2 was the control and Bay 4 was the test bay (or limed). Surface water sampler Lime was spread with an ATV pulling a spreader. The

  18. Decontamination of metals, pentachlorophenol, and polychlorined dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans polluted soil in alkaline conditions using an amphoteric biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Reynier, Nicolas; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Besner, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, flotation in acidic conditions and alkaline leaching soil washing processes were compared to decontaminate four soils with variable contamination with metals, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and polychlorodibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). The measured concentrations of the four soils prior treatment were between 50 and 250 mg/kg for As, 35 and 220mg/kg for Cr, 80 and 350mg/kg for Cu, and 2.5 and 30mg/kg for PCP. PCDD/F concentrations reached 1394, 1375, 3730, and 6289ng/kg for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively. The tests were carried out with masses of 100g of soil (fraction 0-2 mm) in a 2 L beaker or in a 1 L flotation cell. Soil flotation in sulphuric acid for 1 h at 60 degreeC with three flotation cycles using the surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (BW) at 1% allows the solubilization of metals and PCP with average removal yields of 85%, 51%, 90%, and 62% for As, Cr, Cu, and PCP, respectively. The alkaline leaching for 2 h at 80 degreeC solubilizes As, Cr, Cu, and PCP with average removal yields of 60%, 32%, 77%, and 87%, respectively. Tests on PCDD/F solubilization with different surfactants were carried out in combination with the alkaline leaching process. PCDD/F removal yields of 25%, 72%, 70%, and 74% for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively, were obtained using the optimized conditions.

  19. Rhizobium alkalisoli sp. nov., isolated from Caragana intermedia growing in saline-alkaline soils in the north of China.

    PubMed

    Li Lu, Yang; Chen, Wen Feng; Li Han, Li; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2009-12-01

    Three rhizobial strains (CCBAU 01393(T), CCBAU 01389 and CCBAU 03239) isolated from nodules of Caragana intermedia grown in saline-alkaline soils in the north of China had identical 16S rRNA genes that showed 99.7 and 99.5 % sequence similarities with those of Rhizobium huautlense SO2(T) and Rhizobium galegae USDA 4128(T), respectively. Phylogenies of the housekeeping genes atpD, recA and glnII confirmed their distinct position, differing from recognized Rhizobium species. SDS-PAGE of whole-cell soluble proteins and a series of phenotypic and physiological tests allowed us to differentiate the novel group from all closely related recognized Rhizobium species. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CCBAU 01393(T) and R. huautlense SO2(T) and R. galegae USDA 4128(T) were 34.9 and 20.5 %, respectively. Therefore, we propose that strains CCBAU 01393(T), CCBAU 01389 and CCBAU 03239 represent a novel species, Rhizobium alkalisoli sp. nov., with strain CCBAU 01393(T) (=LMG 24763(T)=HAMBI 3051(T)) as the type strain. This strain could form effective nodules on Caragana microphylla, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna radiata.

  20. Characterization of Firing Range Soil from Camp Edwards, MA, and the Efficacy of Acid and Alkaline Hydrolysis for the Remediation of M1 105mm M67 Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    method is intended for trace analysis of explosives and propellant residues by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraviolet (UV...detector set at 254 nm. The HPLC used for this analysis was a Dionex Summit System with a UV detector equipped with Dionex E1 and E2 columns...Ca(OH)2) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were evaluated as sources of hydroxide ion for the alkaline hydrolysis of M1 propellant in soil from Camp

  1. Cupriavidus and Burkholderia species associated with agricultural plants that grow in alkaline soils.

    PubMed

    Estrada-de Los Santos, Paulina; Vacaseydel-Aceves, Nora Belinda; Martínez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Cruz-Hernández, María Antonia; Mendoza-Herrera, Alberto; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús

    2011-12-01

    The presence of Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Ralstonia species in northeastern Mexico was investigated. An analysis of the root surrounding soil from different agricultural plants led to the isolation of Burkholderia and Cupriavidus species but no Ralstonia strains. Most Cupriavidus species were unknown and grouped into two clusters according to ARDRA profiles. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the Cupriavidus isolates were highly related among them and with different Cupriavidus species with validated names. However, SDS-PAGE profiles were distinct among the different ARDRA profiles and to other Cupriavidus species examined, suggesting new species in the genus. This shows that Cupriavidus is more widely associated with plants than previously appreciated. The BCC isolate was 99% similar to B. cenocepacia by recA sequence analysis. Additionally, most Cupriavidus strains from the two largest groups grew on media containing up to 0.1 mg/ml of copper, 10.0 mg/ml arsenic and 1.0 mg/ml zinc. Burkholderia strains grew on media containing up to 10.0 mg/ml zinc, 5.0 mg/ml arsenic and 0.1 mg/ml copper.

  2. Preliminary study of the refaunation of alkaline shale coal surface mine spoil by soil arthropods

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.; Wilman, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    Soil sampling stations were laid out on (largely) untopsoiled shale surface mine spoil in 1979. Stations were located on spoil graded in 1978-1979, in ungraded spoil cast in 1972 and aerially seeded in 1973, and in adjacent off-mine woods and an old field. Additional stations were added in 1982 on spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling. Stations were located to include important variables typical of the mine. Of 17 classes-orders of arthropods recovered from all sites, only Acari (78-99% of total individuals) and Collembola (2-12%) were consistently widespread and numerous, and only Acari were important in the youngest spoils. A total of 69 mite families - superfamilies - were identified during the course of the study. Low-moderate mite populations were found in bare shale spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling, these distributed among 4 families. Samples from 1978-79 spoil contained 13 families 3-7 months after grading and 2 years later were comparable to off-mine sites both in numbers of individuals and number of families. Spoil from 1973 was comparable to off-mine sites in these 2 respects when first sampled. Earliest pioneer species were 3 (presumably) microherbivores, these remaining dominant for several years. Predatory mites appeared early and were well established less than a year after grading. Saprovores were absent or relatively scarce in the 2 youngest spoils, but well established in the 1973 spoil at first sampling.

  3. The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fanrong; Ali, Shafaqat; Zhang, Haitao; Ouyang, Younan; Qiu, Boyin; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    The experiments were done to investigate the effect of soil pH and organic matter content on EDTA-extractable heavy metal contents in soils and heavy metal concentrations in rice straw and grains. EDTA-extractable Cr contents in soils and concentrations in rice tissues were negatively correlated with soil pH, but positively correlated with organic matter content. The combination of soil pH and organic matter content would produce the more precise regression models for estimation of EDTA-Cu, Pb and Zn contents in soils, demonstrating the distinct effect of the two factors on the availability of these heavy metals in soils. Soil pH greatly affected heavy metal concentrations in rice plants. Furthermore, inclusion of other soil properties in the stepwise regression analysis improved the regression models for predicting straw Fe and grain Zn concentrations, indicating that other soil properties should be taken into consideration for precise predicting of heavy metal concentrations in rice plants.

  4. In Situ Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium in Alkaline Soils Enriched with Chromite Ore Processing Residue.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Thomas E; Halloran, Amy R; Dobbins, Maribeth E; Pittignano, Alex J

    1998-11-01

    In investigating chromium sites in New Jersey, it has been observed that an organic-rich 0.5- to 4-foot-thick layer of decayed vegetation (locally known as "meadowmat") underlying the chromium-containing material acts as a natural barrier to the migration of Cr(VI). The groundwater in a sand layer directly beneath the meadowmat has been shown to contain low or nondetectable levels of chromium. The meadowmat is under highly reduced conditions due to bacterial activity associated with the organic material. Based on the observed ability of the meadowmat to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), the feasibility of in situ reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) at chromite ore processing residue (COPR) sites was investigated in biologically-active, laboratory-scale test columns. COPR typically has a high pH (in excess of 12) and may contain total chromium concentrations as high as 70,000 mg/kg. Experimental results demonstrated that the addition of a mineral acid (to lower the pH to between 7.0 and 9.5) and a bacteria-rich organic substrate (fresh manure) resulted in the reduction of Cr(VI) to the less toxic and less mobile trivalent form. Pore water Cr(VI) was reduced from approximately 800 mg/L to less than 0.05 mg/L over a period of eight months. This is less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for chromium in drinking water of 0.1 mg/L. Solid phase Cr(VI) concentrations decreased from approximately 2,000 mg/kg to less than 10 mg/kg in the columns over a period of 11 months while the total chromium concentrations remained unchanged. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract from the treated columns met the regulatory limit of 5 mg/L of Cr, whereas the untreated samples had TCLP extract concentrations greater than 40 mg/L. This study demonstrated the potential applicability of in situ reduction to soils contaminated with Cr(VI) by adjusting the pH to between 7.0 and 9.5 and mixing in a bacteria-rich organic substrate.

  5. In situ reduction of hexavalent chromium in alkaline soils enriched with chromite ore processing residue

    PubMed

    Higgins; Halloran; Dobbins; Pittignano

    1998-11-01

    In investigating chromium sites in New Jersey, it has been observed that an organic-rich 0.5- to 4-foot-thick layer of decayed vegetation (locally known as "meadowmat") underlying the chromium-containing material acts as a natural barrier to the migration of Cr(VI). The groundwater in a sand layer directly beneath the meadowmat has been shown to contain low or nondetectable levels of chromium. The meadowmat is under highly reduced conditions due to bacterial activity associated with the organic material. Based on the observed ability of the meadowmat to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), the feasibility of in situ reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) at chromite ore processing residue (COPR) sites was investigated in biologically-active, laboratory-scale test columns. COPR typically has a high pH (in excess of 12) and may contain total chromium concentrations as high as 70,000 mg/kg. Experimental results demonstrated that the addition of a mineral acid (to lower the pH to between 7.0 and 9.5) and a bacteria-rich organic substrate (fresh manure) resulted in the reduction of Cr(VI) to the less toxic and less mobile trivalent form. Pore water Cr(VI) was reduced from approximately 800 mg/L to less than 0.05 mg/L over a period of eight months. This is less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for chromium in drinking water of 0.1 mg/L. Solid phase Cr(VI) concentrations decreased from approximately 2,000 mg/kg to less than 10 mg/kg in the columns over a period of 11 months while the total chromium concentrations remained unchanged. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract from the treated columns met the regulatory limit of 5 mg/L of Cr, whereas the untreated samples had TCLP extract concentrations greater than 40 mg/L. This study demonstrated the potential applicability of in situ reduction to soils contaminated with Cr(VI) by adjusting the pH to between 7.0 and 9.5 and mixing in a bacteria-rich organic substrate.

  6. Enhanced dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of the Athel tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla L. Karst.) grown in saline-alkaline soils of the former lake Texcoco.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Galvis, Liliana A; Carrillo, Hernando; Luna-Guido, Marco; Marsch, Rodolfo; Dendooven, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated alkaline saline soil with phreatophyte or "water loving plants"