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Sample records for alkaline phosphate alp

  1. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  2. Alkaline-resistance model of subtilisin ALP I, a novel alkaline subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Mizutani, O; Yamagata, Y; Ichishima, E; Nakajima, T

    2001-05-01

    The alkaline-resistance mechanism of the alkaline-stable enzymes is not yet known. To clarify the mechanism of alkaline-resistance of alkaline subtilisin, structural changes of two typical subtilisins, subtilisin ALP I (ALP I) and subtilisin Sendai (Sendai), were studied by means of physicochemical methods. Subtilisin NAT (NAT), which exhibits no alkaline resistance, was examined as a control. ALP I gradually lost its activity, accompanied by protein degradation, but, on the contrary, Sendai was stable under alkaline conditions. CD spectral measurements at neutral and alkaline pH indicated no apparent differences between ALP I and Sendai. A significant difference was observed on measurement of fluorescence emission spectra of the tryptophan residues of ALP I that were exposed on the enzyme surface. The fluorescence intensity of ALP I was greatly reduced under alkaline conditions; moreover, the reduction was reversed when alkaline-treated ALP I was neutralized. The fluorescence spectrum of Sendai remained unchanged. The enzymatic and optical activities of NAT were lost at high pH, indicating a lack of functional and structural stability in an alkaline environment. Judging from these results, the alkaline resistance is closely related to the surface structure of the enzyme molecule. PMID:11328588

  3. Relationship between Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity and The Concentrations of Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Ions

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Mina; Malekzadeh, Hosein; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Samami, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Although salivary alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can balance deand remineralization processes of enamel, there is no evidence regarding its effects on the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. The present study aims to determine the relationship between salivary ALP activity and the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated salivary markers in 120 males, ages 19 to 44 years. All participants provided 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva and the level of enzyme activity as well as calcium and phosphate concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Data were gathered and analyzed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 13.00 using Pearson correlation test. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of participants in the present study was 32.95 ± 8.09 years. The mean pH of saliva was 6.65 ± 0.62. Salivary parameters included average ALP activity (5.04 ± 1.866 U/dL), calcium (4.77 ± 0.877 mg/dL) and phosphate (10.38 ± 2.301 mg/dL). Pearson correlation test showed no significant relationship between ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva (p>0.05). According to the results of the present study, there was no significant relation between salivary ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva. However, further research is highly recommended. PMID:25870846

  4. Relationship between Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity and The Concentrations of Salivary Calcium and Phosphate Ions.

    PubMed

    Jazaeri, Mina; Malekzadeh, Hosein; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Samami, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Although salivary alkaline phosphatase (ALP) can balance deand remineralization processes of enamel, there is no evidence regarding its effects on the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. The present study aims to determine the relationship between salivary ALP activity and the concentrations of calcium and phosphate in saliva. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated salivary markers in 120 males, ages 19 to 44 years. All participants provided 5 mL of unstimulated whole saliva and the level of enzyme activity as well as calcium and phosphate concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Data were gathered and analyzed by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 13.00 using Pearson correlation test. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of participants in the present study was 32.95 ± 8.09 years. The mean pH of saliva was 6.65 ± 0.62. Salivary parameters included average ALP activity (5.04 ± 1.866 U/dL), calcium (4.77 ± 0.877 mg/dL) and phosphate (10.38 ± 2.301 mg/dL). Pearson correlation test showed no significant relationship between ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva (p>0.05). According to the results of the present study, there was no significant relation between salivary ALP activity and calcium and phosphate concentrations in saliva. However, further research is highly recommended. PMID:25870846

  5. Alkaline phosphatase assay using a near-infrared fluorescent substrate merocyanine 700 phosphate.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haibiao; Little, Garrick; Cradduck, Mark; Draney, Daniel R; Padhye, Nisha; Olive, D Michael

    2011-05-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a phosphomonoester hydrolase that is commonly used as a conjugating enzyme in biological research. A wide variety of substrates have been developed to assay its activity. In this study, we developed an ALP assay method utilizing merocyanine 700 (MC700) based substrate MC700 phosphate (MC700p). MC700 is a near-infrared fluorescent merocyanine dye, and has excitation/emission maxima at 686 nm/722 nm in ALP assay buffer. Upon hydrolysis by ALP, MC700p is converted to MC700. The fluorescence of MC700 is dependent on the pH and detergent concentration in the buffer. The fluorescence signal produced by MC700p hydrolysis is linearly related to the ALP amount and substrate concentration. A stop solution containing EDTA could be used to stop the ALP/MC700p reaction. It was also demonstrated that MC700p could substitute pNpp as the ALP substrate in a commercial 17β-Estradiol enzyme immunoassay kit. PMID:21482307

  6. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. I. ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  7. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS - ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  8. Cloning & Characterization of the Cry1Ac-binding Alkaline Phosphatase (HvALP) from Heliothis virescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Membrane bound alkaline phosphatases (mALPs) in the insect midgut have been reported as functional receptors for Cry toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. We previously reported the identification of HvALP in the midgut of Heliothis virescens larvae as a Cry1Ac binding protein that is d...

  9. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  10. A single electrochemical biosensor for detecting the activity and inhibition of both protein kinase and alkaline phosphatase based on phosphate ions induced deposition of redox precipitates.

    PubMed

    Shen, Congcong; Li, Xiangzhi; Rasooly, Avraham; Guo, Linyan; Zhang, Kaina; Yang, Minghui

    2016-11-15

    Protein kinase (PKA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are clinically relevant enzymes for a number of diseases. In this work, we developed a new simple electrochemical biosensor for the detection of the activity and inhibition of both PKA and ALP. One common feature of the PKA and ALP catalyzing process is that PKA can hydrolysis adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and ALP can hydrolysis pyrophosphate, both reactions produce phosphate ions, and the amount of phosphate ion produced is proportional to enzyme activity. Our assay is based on the principle that phosphate ions react with molybdate to form redox molybdophosphate precipitates on the electrode surface, thus generating electrochemical current. The detection limit for PKA and ALP were much lower than existing assays. The biosensor has good specificity and was used to measure drug-stimulated PKA from lysates of HeLa cells. We also evaluated the use of the biosensor as a screening tool for enzyme inhibitors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a biosensor capable of detecting the activity of both PKA and ALP. This tool has the potential to simplify PKA and ALP clinical measurement, thereby improving diagnostics of relevant diseases. It also may serve as the basis for a simple screening method for new enzyme inhibitors for disease treatment. PMID:27179562

  11. Lactate dehydrogenase (LD), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzymatic patterns in Iraqi children with visceral leishmaniasis before and after treatment with stibogluconate.

    PubMed

    Taher, Jasim Hameed; Al-Mulla Hummadi, Yassir Mustafa Kamal; Al-Bashir, Nada Muhammed Taha; Al-Araji, Ali Shaalan

    2016-06-01

    The mean levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase enzymes exhibited a significant elevation in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients compared to the control. There was no significant change in relation to the sex and age. ALP isoenzymes revealed three banding patterns which differ from the three zymodems which were obtained from control group. These differences may be due to isoenzymes activity of patients with VL before and after therapy. Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes revealed five banding patterns differ from the five normal zymodems. These differences mainly occurred due to LD isoenzymes activity in patients with VL before and after therapy. PMID:27413293

  12. Lack of relationship between activity of intestinal alkaline phosphatase and calcium or phosphate absorption.

    PubMed

    Asteggiano, C; Tolosa, N; Pereira, R; Moreno, J; Cañas, F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of vitamin D3 and the aqueous extract of Solanum malacoxylon on intestinal alkaline phosphatase and tissue phosphate content were studied on rachitic chicks treated with large doses of ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1 diphosphonate (EHDP). The EHDP treatment blocks the increase of intestinal calcium or phosphate absorption induced by the vitamin D3, while it has no effects on the rise of intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity or the increment in tissue phosphate content. The lack of correlation between the increment of alkaline phosphatase and that of Ca or phosphate absorption in vitamin D3 plus EHDP treated chicks excludes a participation of the alkaline phosphatase in the mechanism of Ca or P intestinal absorption. The Ca or phosphorus absorption are elicited specifically by 1,25-(OH)2-D3, while alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphate tissue concentration respond to a broader spectrum of stimuli. PMID:6316731

  13. Using a Personal Glucose Meter and Alkaline Phosphatase for Point-of-Care Quantification of Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase in Clinical Galactosemia Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiang, Yu; Novak, Donna E; Hoganson, George E; Zhu, Junjie; Lu, Yi

    2015-10-01

    The personal glucose meter (PGM) was recently shown to be a general meter to detect many targets. Most studies, however, focus on transforming either target binding or enzymatic activity that cleaves an artificial substrate into the production of glucose. More importantly, almost all reports exhibit their methods by using artificial samples, such as buffers or serum samples spiked with the targets. To expand the technology to even broader targets and to validate its potential in authentic, more complex clinical samples, we herein report expansion of the PGM method by using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that links the enzymatic activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase to the production of glucose, which allows point-of-care galactosemia diagnosis in authentic human clinical samples. Given the presence of ALP in numerous enzymatic assays for clinical diagnostics, the methods demonstrated herein advance the field closer to point-of-care detection of a wide range of targets in real clinical samples. PMID:26350570

  14. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Richard K.; Reis, Signo T.; Velez, Mariano; Day, Delbert E.

    2010-01-26

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  15. Phosphate glass electrode with good selectivity for alkaline-earth cations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Pommer, A.M.

    1963-01-01

    A phosphate glass has been found to have a significant electrode specificity toward alkaline-earth ions. The order of selectivity is 2H + > Ba++ > Sr++ > Ca++ > 2K+ > 2Na+ > Mg++. Exchange properties are discussed in relation to possible structure. Its use to determine activity of Ca++ in natural systems containing Mg++ is suggested.

  16. High-Strength / High Alkaline Resistant Fe-Phosphate Glass Fibers as Concrete Reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano Velez

    2008-03-31

    Calcium-iron-phosphate glasses were developed whose chemical durabilities in alkaline solutions (pH 13) were comparable or superior to those of commercial alkaline-resistant (AR) silica-based glasses. However, the tensile strength of Ca-Fe-phosphate fibers, after being exposed to alkaline environments, including wet Portland cement pastes, is lower than that of current AR silicate fibers. Another series of Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses were developed with excellent chemical durability in strong acidic solutions (H2SO4, HF), indicating potential applications where silica-based fibers degrade very quickly, including E-glass. The new Ca-Fe-phosphate glasses can be melted and processed 300 to 500°C lower than silica-based glasses. This offers the possibility of manufacturing glass fibers with lower energy costs by 40-60% and the potential to reduce manufacturing waste and lower gas emissions. It was found that Ca-Fe-phosphate melts can be continuously pulled into fibers depending on the slope of the viscosity-temperature curve and with viscosity ~100 poise, using multi-hole Pt/Rh bushings.

  17. ALP - blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein found in all body ... II Pancreatitis Renal cell carcinoma Alternative Names Alkaline phosphatase References Berk P, Korenblat K. Approach to the ...

  18. Phosphorane lifetime and stereo-electronic effects along the alkaline hydrolysis of phosphate esters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Eufrásia S; Da Silva, Júlio C S; Brandão, Tiago A S; Rocha, Willian R

    2016-07-21

    Hybrid quantum mechanical/effective fragment potential (QM/EFP) calculations, in conjunction with the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and energy decomposition analysis (EDA), were employed to investigate the reaction mechanism and stereo-electronic effects along the alkaline hydrolysis of the monoethyl phosphate dianion (MEP) and the diethylphosphate monoanion (DEP). Reactions proceed through a synchronous bimolecular ANDN mechanism for MEP and a stepwise (AN + DN) mechanism for DEP, with the formation of a phosphorane intermediate, having an overall reaction free energy and barrier of 11.5 and 43.0 kcal mol(-1), respectively. In addition, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the stability of the phosphorane pentacoordinate intermediate observed in the reaction of the phosphate diester. The phosphorane intermediate has a lifetime of ∼1 ps after which it decomposes into the corresponding alcohol and phosphate monoester dianion. Electrostatics governs the interaction between the nucleophile and the phosphate ester. However, some degree of covalence in the interaction starts to appear at distances shorter than 2.45 Å for MEP and 2.63 Å for DEP. For the monoester, the electrostatic repulsive terms are the dominant contributions for the formation of the transition state. On the other hand, for the phosphate diester, the formation of the P-OH bond is dominated by associative terms of electrostatic nature. PMID:27332044

  19. Cellular Performance Comparison of Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating and Alkaline-Treated Titanium Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Mei

    2013-01-01

    The influence of biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on osteoblasts behavior in vitro is not well established yet. In this study, we investigated the behavior of osteoblastic rat osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cells (ROS17/2.8) on two groups of biomaterial surfaces: alkaline-treated titanium surface (ATT) and biomimetic calcium phosphate coated ATT (CaP). The cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology on these surfaces were extensively evaluated to reveal the impact of substrate surface on osteoblastic cell responses. It was found that the ROS17/2.8 cells cultured on the ATT surface had higher attachment and proliferation rates compared to those on the CaP surface. Our results also showed that the calcium phosphate coatings generated in this work have an inhibiting effect on osteoblast adhesion and further influenced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast compared to the ATT surface in vitro. Cells on the ATT surface also exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity than on the CaP surface after two weeks of culture. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the cells adhered and spread faster on the ATT surface than on the CaP surface. These results collectively suggested that substrate surface properties directly influence cell adhesion on different biomaterials, which would result in further influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:24455730

  20. Recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen from alkaline hydrolysis supernatant of excess sludge by magnesium ammonium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei; Li, Yiyong; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-08-01

    Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) method was used to recover orthophosphate (PO₄(3-)-P) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) from the alkaline hydrolysis supernatant of excess sludge. To reduce alkali consumption and decrease the pH of the supernatant, two-stage alkaline hydrolysis process (TSAHP) was designed. The results showed that the release efficiencies of PO₄(3-)-P and NH₄(+)-N were 41.96% and 7.78%, respectively, and the pH of the supernatant was below 10.5 under the running conditions with initial pH of 13, volume ratio (sludge dosage/water dosage) of 1.75 in second-stage alkaline hydrolysis reactor, 20 g/L of sludge concentration in first-stage alkaline hydrolysis reactor. The order of parameters influencing MAP reaction was analyzed and the optimized conditions of MAP reaction were predicted through the response surface methodology. The recovery rates of PO₄(3-)-P and NH₄(+)-N were 46.88% and 16.54%, respectively under the optimized conditions of Mg/P of 1.8, pH 9.7 and reaction time of 15 min. PMID:24880806

  1. Smart nanoprobes for the detection of alkaline phosphatase activity during osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Keem, Joo Oak; Yun, Hui-suk; Jung, Jinyoung; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2015-02-21

    Gold nanoparticle-conjugated fluorescent hydroxyapatite (AuFHAp) was developed as a smart nanoprobe for measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. AuFHAp showed NIR fluorescence due to the hydrolysis of its phosphate groups by ALP. In addition, gold nanoparticles help reduce the nonspecific signal by absorbing nonspecific fluorescence. Through in vitro tests, we confirmed that the AuFHAp probe was capable of detecting ALP levels related to osteoblast activity in living cells with high fluorescence intensity. PMID:25623488

  2. Responses of Phosphate Transporter Gene and Alkaline Phosphatase in Thalassiosira pseudonana to Phosphine

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mei; Song, Xiuxian; Yu, Zhiming; Liu, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Phosphine, which is released continuously from sediment, can affect the eco-physiological strategies and molecular responses of phytoplankton. To examine the effects of phosphine on phosphorus uptake and utilization in Thalassiosira pseudonana, we examined the transcriptional level of the phosphate transporter gene (TpPHO) and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) in relation to supplement of various concentrations of phosphine. TpPHO expression was markedly promoted by phosphine in both the phosphate-deficient and phosphate-4 µM culture. However, high phosphine concentrations can inhibit TpPHO transcription in the declining growth phase. AKP activity was also higher in the phosphine treatment groups than that of the control. It increased with increasing phosphine concentration in the range of 0 to 0.056 µM but was inhibited by higher levels of phosphine. These responses revealed that phosphine can affect phosphate uptake and utilization in T. pseudonana. This result was consistent with the effect of phosphine on algal growth, while TpPHO expression and AKP were even more sensitive to phosphine than algal growth. This work provides a basic understanding for further research about how phosphine affects phytoplankton. PMID:23544096

  3. Temperature dependence of the absorbance of alkaline solutions of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate--a potential source of error in the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Burtis, C A; Seibert, L E; Baird, M A; Sampson, E J

    1977-09-01

    The absorbance of an alkaline solution of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate is a function of temperature. Quantitative evaluation of this phenomenon indicates that it (a) depends on the concentration of the compound and is independent of source, buffer concentration, and pH above 9.0; (b) is reversible; (c) is not a result of alkaline hydrolysis or 4-nitrophenol contamination; and (d) correlates with a temperature-induced shift of its absorbance spectrum. The phenomenon may represent a potential analytical problem in methods for alkaline phosphatase in which this compound is the substrate. If thermal equilibrium is not reached and maintained during an alkaline phosphatase assay, the thermochromic response will be included in the measured rate. The magnitude of this error depends on the thermal response and control characteristics of each particular instrument and the reaction conditions under which such an analysis is performed. PMID:19164

  4. XANES Demonstrates the Release of Calcium Phosphates from Alkaline Vertisols to Moderately Acidified Solution.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Karl O; Tighe, Matthew K; Guppy, Christopher N; Milham, Paul J; McLaren, Timothy I; Schefe, Cassandra R; Lombi, Enzo

    2016-04-19

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) minerals may comprise the main phosphorus (P) reserve in alkaline soils, with solubility dependent on pH and the concentration of Ca and/or P in solution. Combining several techniques in a novel way, we studied these phenomena by progressively depleting P from suspensions of two soils (low P) using an anion-exchange membrane (AEM) and from a third soil (high P) with AEM together with a cation-exchange membrane. Depletions commenced on untreated soil, then continued as pH was manipulated and maintained at three constant pH levels: the initial pH (pHi) and pH 6.5 and 5.5. Bulk P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed that the main forms of inorganic P in each soil were apatite, a second more soluble CaP mineral, and smectite-sorbed P. With moderate depletion of P at pHi or pH 6.5, CaP minerals became more prominent in the spectra compared to sorbed species. The more soluble CaP minerals were depleted at pH 6.5, and all CaP minerals were exhausted at pH 5.5, showing that the CaP species present in these alkaline soils are soluble with decreases of pH in the range achievable by rhizosphere acidification. PMID:26974327

  5. Phase Stability of Chromium(III) Oxide Hydroxide in Alkaline Sodium Phosphate Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Ziemniak; E.P. Opalka

    2003-07-08

    Grimaldiite ({alpha}-CrOOH) is shown to transform to a sodium-chromium(III)-hydroxyphosphate compound (SCHP) in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via CrOOH(s) + 4Na{sup +} + 2HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = Na{sub 4}Cr(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that SCHP possesses an orthorhombic lattice having the same space group symmetry (Ibam, No.72) as sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate. A structurally-consistent designation for SCHP is Na{sub 3}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} NaOH; the molar volume of SCHP is estimated to be 1552 cm{sup 3}. The thermodynamic equilibrium for the above reaction was defined in the system Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.0 and 2.4. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard molar entropy (S{sup o}), heat capacity (C{sub p}{sup o}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{sup o}) for SCHP were calculated to be 690 J/(mol-K), 622 J/(mol-K) and -3509.97 kJ/mol, respectively.

  6. A fluorescence turn on assay for alkaline phosphatase based on the Cu(2+) catalyzed Fenton-like reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingfeng; Zhang, Cuiyun; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Yu, Cong

    2016-09-01

    A fluorescence turn-on assay was established for ALP (alkaline phosphatase) based on Cu(2+) catalyzed Fenton-like reaction and Graphene Oxide (GO). GO was utilized to quench the fluorescence of fluorescein (FAM) labeled single strand DNA (F-DNA). ALP can remove the phosphate group in sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP), and convert it into reducing ascorbate. Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (·OH) were generated in the presence of ascorbate and Cu(2+) through the Fenton-like reaction. The reactive radicals generated in situ caused the cleavage of F-DNA into small fragments. When GO was added, the fluorescence emission of the sample without ALP was quenched and fluorescence emission recovered in the presence of ALP. The intensity of the recovered fluorescence was directly related to the concentration of ALP in the assay solution, and a sensitive and selective facile ALP assay is therefore established. PMID:27343614

  7. Kinetic Study of the Alkaline Degradation of Oseltamivir Phosphate and Valacyclovir Hydrochloride using Validated Stability Indicating HPLC.

    PubMed

    Al-Bagary, Ramzia I; El-Zaher, Asmaa A; Morsy, Fahima A; Fouad, Mai M

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous alkaline degradation was performed for oseltamivir phosphate (OP) and valacyclovir hydrochloride (VA). Isocratic stability indicating the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was presented for each drug in the presence of its degradation product. The separations were performed using the Nucleosil ODS column and a mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer (pH = 7), acetonitrile, and methanol 50:25:25 (v/v/v) for OP. For VA separation, a Nucleosil CN column using phosphate buffer (pH = 7) and methanol 85:15 (v/v) was used as a mobile phase. Ultraviolet detection at 210 nm and 254 nm was used for OP and VA, respectively. The method showed high sensitivity concerning linearity, accuracy, and precision over the range 1-250 μg mL(-1) for both drugs. The proposed method was used to determine the drug in its pharmaceutical formulation and to investigate the degradation kinetics of each drug's alkaline-stressed samples. The reactions were found to follow a first-order reaction. The activation energy could also be estimated. International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines were adopted for method validation. PMID:24932100

  8. Alkaline phosphatase activity in Zostera noltii hornem. and its contribution to the release of phosphate in the palmones river estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, I.; Pérez-Llorens, J. L.; Fernández, J. A.; Niell, F. X.

    Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was studied in Zostera noltii Hornem., a sea-grass collected in the Palmones river estuary (southern Spain). The higher activity was found in the leaves, with minor contributions in the stem and the underground parts of the plant. The enzymatic activity showed a two-phase kinetic versus substrate concentration between 5 μM and 25 mM. The influence of some environmental factors important in nature (temperature, pH, salinity, photon irradiance and external phosphate) on the enzymatic activity is discussed. Over an ecophysiological range of these factors, maximum APA was found at 30 0C (22·6 μmol pNP released g dry wt-1 h-1), pH 8·8 (35·6 μmol pNP g dry wt-1 h-1) and salinity 43·8 (27·8 pmol pNP g dry wt-1 h-1). With regard to light, APA and phosphate uptake in shoots were light-saturated and showed similar values for maximum velocity and half-saturation constant. In the range of phosphate concentration tested (0 20 μM), APA was independent of the external phosphate concentration. Finally, as Z. noltii incorporated only 16% of the phosphate hydrolysed from the model phosphomonoester used in the assay, the significance of Z. noltii population in the enzymatic release of phosphate to the estuary was estimated. A minimum of 8·4 nM Pi liberated per day and a maximum of 99·8 nM Pi day-1 was found.

  9. Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Zostera noltii Hornem. and its Contribution to the Release of Phosphate in the Palmones River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, I.; Pérez-Llorens, J. L.; Fernández, J. A.; Niell, F. X.

    Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was studied in Zostera noltii Hornem., a sea-grass collected in the Palmones river estuary (southern Spain). The higher activity was found in the leaves, with minor contributions in the stem and the underground parts of the plant. The enzymatic activity showed a two-phase kinetic versus substrate concentration between 5 μM and 25 mM. The influence of some environmental factors important in nature (temperature, pH, salinity, photon irradiance and external phosphate) on the enzymatic activity is discussed. Over an ecophysiological range of these factors, maximum APA was found at 30 °C (22·6 μmol pNP released g dry wt -1 h -1), pH 8·8 (35·6 μmol pNP g dry wt -1 h -1) and salinity 43·8 (27·8 μmol pNP g dry wt -1 h -1). With regard to light, APA and phosphate uptake in shoots were light-saturated and showed similar values for maximum velocity and half-saturation constant. In the range of phosphate concentration tested (0-20 μM), APA was independent of the external phosphate concentration. Finally, as Z. noltii incorporated only 16% of the phosphate hydrolysed from the model phosphomonoester used in the assay, the significance of Z. noltii population in the enzymatic release of phosphate to the estuary was estimated. A minimum of 8·4 nM Pi liberated per day and a maximum of 99·8 nM Pi day -1 was found.

  10. Alkaline phosphatase activity in Zostera noltii hornem. and its contribution to the release of phosphate in the palmones river estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, I.; Pérez-Llorens, J. L.; Fernández, J. A.; Niell, F. X.

    Alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was studied in Zostera noltii Hornem., a sea-grass collected in the Palmones river estuary (southern Spain). The higher activity was found in the leaves, with minor contributions in the stem and the underground parts of the plant. The enzymatic activity showed a two-phase kinetic versus substrate concentration between 5 μM and 25 mM. The influence of some environmental factors important in nature (temperature, pH, salinity, photon irradiance and external phosphate) on the enzymatic activity is discussed. Over an ecophysiological range of these factors, maximum APA was found at 30 0C (22·6 μmol pNP released g dry wt -1 h -1), pH 8·8 (35·6 μmol pNP g dry wt -1 h -1) and salinity 43·8 (27·8 pmol pNP g dry wt -1 h -1). With regard to light, APA and phosphate uptake in shoots were light-saturated and showed similar values for maximum velocity and half-saturation constant. In the range of phosphate concentration tested (0-20 μM), APA was independent of the external phosphate concentration. Finally, as Z. noltii incorporated only 16% of the phosphate hydrolysed from the model phosphomonoester used in the assay, the significance of Z. noltii population in the enzymatic release of phosphate to the estuary was estimated. A minimum of 8·4 nM Pi liberated per day and a maximum of 99·8 nM Pi day -1 was found.

  11. Immobilization of alkaline phosphatase on microporous nanofibrous fibrin scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Osathanon, Thanaphum; Giachelli, Cecilia M; Somerman, Martha J

    2009-09-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) promotes bone formation by degrading inorganic pyrophosphate (PP(i)), an inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation, and generating inorganic phosphate (P(i)), an inducer of hydroxyapatite formation. P(i) is a crucial molecule in differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts. In this study, a method to immobilize ALP on fibrin scaffolds with tightly controllable pore size and pore interconnection was developed, and the biological properties of these scaffolds were characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Microporous, nanofibrous fibrin scaffolds (FS) were fabricated using a sphere-templating method. ALP was covalently immobilized on the fibrin scaffolds using 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Scanning electron microscopic observation (SEM) showed that mineral was deposited on immobilized alkaline phosphatase fibrin scaffolds (immobilized ALP/FS) when incubated in medium supplemented with beta-glycerophosphate, suggesting that the immobilized ALP was active. Primary calvarial cells attached, spread and formed multiple layers on the surface of the scaffolds. Mineral deposition was also observed when calvarial cells were seeded on immobilized ALP/FS. Furthermore, cells seeded on immobilized ALP/FS exhibited higher osteoblast marker gene expression compared to control FS. Upon implantation in mouse calvarial defects, both the immobilized ALP/FS and FS alone treated group had higher bone volume in the defect compared to the empty defect control. Furthermore, bone formation in the immobilized ALP/FS treated group was statistically significant compared to FS alone group. However, the response was not robust. PMID:19501906

  12. Phosphate Stress in Cultures and Field Populations of the Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum Detected by a Single-Cell Alkaline Phosphatase Assay

    PubMed Central

    Dyhrman, Sonya T.; Palenik, Brian

    1999-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity is a common marker of phosphate stress in many phytoplankton, but it has been difficult to attribute alkaline phosphatase activity to specific organisms or groups of phytoplankton in the field with traditional biochemical procedures. A new alkaline phosphatase substrate, ELF-97 (enzyme-labeled fluorescence), shows promise in this regard. When a phosphate group is cleaved from the ELF-97 reagent, the remaining molecule precipitates near the site of enzyme activity, thus fluorescently tagging cells with alkaline phosphatase activity. We characterized ELF-97 labeling in axenic cultures of a common dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum, in order to understand ELF-97 labeling dynamics when phosphate nutrition varies. Enzyme activity, as detected by ELF-97 labeling, appears to be induced in late-log- or early-stationary-phase cultures if cells are grown in low-phosphate media and is lost when phosphate-stressed cells are refed with phosphate. ELF-97 appears to label an inducible intracellular alkaline phosphatase in P. minimum based on confocal microscopy studies. This may limit the use of this reagent to organisms that lack high levels of constitutive intracellular phosphatases. After laboratory cultures were characterized, ELF-97 was used to assay field populations of P. minimum in Narragansett Bay during two 1-week periods, and 12 to 100% of the P. minimum cells were labeled. The level of cell labeling was reduced by 3 days of incubation with added inorganic phosphate. Our results indicate that ELF-97 is an excellent new tool for monitoring phytoplankton phosphate stress in the environment when the data are supported by appropriate laboratory studies. PMID:10388722

  13. Effectiveness of recovered magnesium phosphates as fertilizers in neutral and slightly alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium phosphates such as struvite (MgNH4PO4x6H2O) can be recovered from municipal, industrial and agricultural wastewaters. However, minimal research has been conducted on the beneficial reuse of these recovered products; conducted research has focused on low pH soils. This study determined wh...

  14. Orbital fluid shear stress promotes osteoblast metabolism, proliferation and alkaline phosphates activity in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Aisha, M.D.; Nor-Ashikin, M.N.K.; Sharaniza, A.B.R.; Nawawi, H.; Froemming, G.R.A.

    2015-09-10

    Prolonged disuse of the musculoskeletal system is associated with reduced mechanical loading and lack of anabolic stimulus. As a form of mechanical signal, the multidirectional orbital fluid shear stress transmits anabolic signal to bone forming cells in promoting cell differentiation, metabolism and proliferation. Signals are channeled through the cytoskeleton framework, directly modifying gene and protein expression. For that reason, we aimed to study the organization of Normal Human Osteoblast (NHOst) cytoskeleton with regards to orbital fluid shear (OFS) stress. Of special interest were the consequences of cytoskeletal reorganization on NHOst metabolism, proliferation, and osteogenic functional markers. Cells stimulated at 250 RPM in a shaking incubator resulted in the rearrangement of actin and tubulin fibers after 72 h. Orbital shear stress increased NHOst mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation, simultaneously preventing apoptosis. The ratio of RANKL/OPG was reduced, suggesting that orbital shear stress has the potential to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity. Increase in ALP activity and OCN protein production suggests that stimulation retained osteoblast function. Shear stress possibly generated through actin seemed to hold an anabolic response as osteoblast metabolism and functional markers were enhanced. We hypothesize that by applying orbital shear stress with suitable magnitude and duration as a non-drug anabolic treatment can help improve bone regeneration in prolonged disuse cases. - Highlights: • OFS stress transmits anabolic signals to osteoblasts. • Actin and tubulin fibers are rearranged under OFS stress. • OFS stress increases mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation. • Reduced RANKL/OPG ratio in response to OFS inhibits osteoclastogenesis. • OFS stress prevents apoptosis and stimulates ALP and OCN.

  15. Alkaline Phosphatase Activity : an overlooked player on the phosphate behavior in macrotidal estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmas, Daniel; Labry, Claire; Youenou, Agnes; Quere, Julien; Auguet, Jean Christophe; Montanie, Helene

    2014-05-01

    The non-conservative behavior of phosphate within the estuarine salinity gradient is essentially assigned to physico-chemical processes, such as desorption at low salinity and to benthic exchanges. Microbial phosphatase activity (APA), generally related to phosphate deficiency, is seldom studied in phosphate rich estuarine waters. In order to address the impact of microbial activity (bacterial abundance, production BSP, APA) on phosphate behavior, we studied these activities on a seasonal basis within the salinity gradient of two macrotidal estuaries presenting different levels of suspended solids. Whatever the season the Charente estuary is characterized by high levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM > 1g.L-1), particularly in the Maximum Turbidity Zone (MTZ) located at the 5-10 psu. In this area characterized by high BSP and APA there is a significant increase of PO4 levels especially during summer. In the Aulne estuary the particle load is significantly lower (1/10) but high BSP and APA are equally recorded. In the highly turbid waters of the Charente estuary, active phytoplankton is virtually absent as pheopigments constitute up to 80% of the total pigments, particularly in the MTZ, therefore APA may essentially have a bacterial origin. In the Aulne estuary attached bacteria are dominant, both in numbers and production, and their distribution along the haline gradient perfectly follows those of APA and phosphate levels. These observations, associated with the very close relationships observed between APA, SPM and BSP, suggest that APA derive mainly from bacterial (attached) origin and operate at the expense of particulate phosphorus and hence contribute to PO4 regeneration, especially in spring and summer. Finally, as APA increased as PO4, whereas the reverse is observed in both fresh and marine waters, an original scheme for APA regulation, related to the large dominance of attached bacteria can be described for the estuarine waters.

  16. Preparation of alkaline earth phosphates with sol containing sodium alginate and sodium diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Fujii, Minako; Fukuta, Kazuya; Seyama, Kazunori; Sotowa, Ken-Ichiro; Shigemoto, Naoya

    2006-03-01

    Magnesium hydrogen phosphate, calcium hydroxyapatite, and strontium hydroxyapatite were successfully prepared from sol consisting of sodium alginate and Na4P2O7 with Mg2+, Ca2+, and Sr2+ in the corresponding nitrates, respectively. It is revealed that the order of the addition of those substrates and the role of sodium alginate are important factors for the preparation of desired phosphate compounds. According to the previous paper on the preparation of calcium hydroxyapatite, sodium alginate was mixed with aqueous Na4P2O7, followed by the addition of the aqueous divalent cations, resulting in the poor formation of the target phosphates. However, as a revised sol-gel technique, sodium alginate was added to the mixture of Na4P2O7 and aqueous Mg2+ and Sr2+, resulting in a rather favorable formation of MgHPO4 and strontium hydroxyapatite, respectively, while the sol thus obtained was stable within a few days. However for aqueous Ca2+, calcium hydroxyapatite could not be obtained through the revised sol-gel technique. In the preparation of magnesium hydrogen phosphate, sodium alginate contributes mainly to the sol formation of the precursor. The ion exchange between Na+ in sodium alginate and aqueous Ca2+ was important for the preparation of calcium hydroxyapatite. In contrast, the reaction of sodium alginate with the mixture of Na4P2O7 and aqueous Sr2+ afforded strontium hydroxyapatite at the specific ratio of those three substrates. The structure of calcium and strontium phosphates prepared from the revised sol-gel process evidently depended on the amount of sodium alginate introduced into the mixture of Na4P2O7 and the corresponding divalent cations. PMID:16154579

  17. Ratiometric fluorescent probe for alkaline phosphatase based on betaine-modified polyethylenimine via excimer/monomer conversion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fangyuan; Guo, Sihua; Zeng, Fang; Li, Jun; Wu, Shuizhu

    2014-10-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an important diagnostic indicator for a number of human diseases since abnormal level of ALP is closely related to a variety of pathological processes; hence, the development of convenient and reliable assay methods for monitoring ALP is of great significance for medical sciences as well as biological diagnostics. Herein, we report the first ratiometric fluorescent sensing system for ALP. This sensing system consists of two components: the betaine-modified and positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI) and the negatively charged pyrene derivative containing one ALP-responsive phosphate group (Py-P, an aliphatic phosphate ester). In the absence of ALP, the two-component sensing system shows the excimer's emission of Py-P, since Py-P molecules complex with the positively charged polyelectrolyte via electrostatic interactions, leading to the formation of pyrene excimers. While in the presence of ALP, the phosphate moieties are cleaved from Py-P molecules due to the enzymatic reaction, thereby destroying the electrostatic interactions; as a result, the system displays the monomer emission of Py-P. This assay system is operable in aqueous media with a very low detection limit of 0.1 U/mL. The system is capable of detecting ALP in such biological fluid as serum, and this strategy may provide a new and effective approach for designing ratiometric sensing systems for detecting other biomolecules. PMID:25211600

  18. Enhanced osteogenic activity of a poly(butylene succinate)/calcium phosphate composite by simple alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Arphavasin, Suphakit; Singhatanadgit, Weerachai; Ngamviriyavong, Patcharee; Janvikul, Wanida; Meesap, Preeyapan; Patntirapong, Somying

    2013-10-01

    Bone engineering offers the prospect of alternative therapies for clinically relevant skeletal defects. Poly(butylene succinate) (PBSu) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polyester which may possess some limitations in clinical use due to its hydrophobicity. In order to overcome these limitations and increase the bioactivity, a simple and convenient surface hydrolysis of PBSu, PBSu/hydroxyapatite and PBSu/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) films was performed. The resulting surfaces (i.e., HPBSu, HPBSu/HA and HPBSu/TCP) were tested for their physicochemical property, biocompatibility and osteogenic potency. The results showed that surface hydrolysis significantly increased surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the composites, with the HPBSu/TCP possessing the most pronounced results. All the materials appeared to be biocompatible and supported in vitro growth and osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs, and the alkaline hydrolysis significantly enhanced the hMSC cell proliferation and the osteogenic potency of PBSu/TCP compared with the non-hydrolyzed sample. In conclusion, the HPBSu/TCP possessed better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility and osteogenic potency in vitro, suggesting that this simple and convenient alkaline hydrolysis could be used to augment the biological property of PBSu-based composites for bone engineering in vivo. PMID:24057872

  19. Orbital fluid shear stress promotes osteoblast metabolism, proliferation and alkaline phosphates activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Aisha, M D; Nor-Ashikin, M N K; Sharaniza, A B R; Nawawi, H; Froemming, G R A

    2015-09-10

    Prolonged disuse of the musculoskeletal system is associated with reduced mechanical loading and lack of anabolic stimulus. As a form of mechanical signal, the multidirectional orbital fluid shear stress transmits anabolic signal to bone forming cells in promoting cell differentiation, metabolism and proliferation. Signals are channeled through the cytoskeleton framework, directly modifying gene and protein expression. For that reason, we aimed to study the organization of Normal Human Osteoblast (NHOst) cytoskeleton with regards to orbital fluid shear (OFS) stress. Of special interest were the consequences of cytoskeletal reorganization on NHOst metabolism, proliferation, and osteogenic functional markers. Cells stimulated at 250 RPM in a shaking incubator resulted in the rearrangement of actin and tubulin fibers after 72 h. Orbital shear stress increased NHOst mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation, simultaneously preventing apoptosis. The ratio of RANKL/OPG was reduced, suggesting that orbital shear stress has the potential to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity. Increase in ALP activity and OCN protein production suggests that stimulation retained osteoblast function. Shear stress possibly generated through actin seemed to hold an anabolic response as osteoblast metabolism and functional markers were enhanced. We hypothesize that by applying orbital shear stress with suitable magnitude and duration as a non-drug anabolic treatment can help improve bone regeneration in prolonged disuse cases. PMID:26163894

  20. Glucosamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and regulation under alkaline and cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Cai, D X; Wang, L; Li, J Z; Wang, W N

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal residues and chemical contaminators considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants have a generally immunosuppressive effect on aquatic organisms, depressing metabolic activities and immune response. Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GFAT, EC2.6.1.16) is the first, and rate-limiting, enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, and is involved in the regulation of chitin biosynthesis and glycosylation of proteins. We have isolated and characterized GFAT from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Amino acid sequence similarity of the Lv-GFAT (L.vannamei-GFAT) was highest to GFATs isolated from insects and mammals (83 % similarity to that of Haemaphysalis longicornis). The open-reading frame of the Lv-GFAT codes for a protein of 41.6 kDa with a calculated isoelectric point of 5.03. RT-PCR assays showed that endogenous Lv-GFAT mRNA is most strongly expressed in the intestine. Further analysis of Lv-GFAT gene expression in hepatopancreas by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that Lv-GFAT transcript levels increased when the shrimp were exposed to alkaline pH (9.3) and cadmium stress, but the time when its mRNA expression level peaked differed under these stresses. We also first expressed the recombinant protein of GFAT from shrimps in Escherichia coli. Western blot analyses confirmed that the Lv-GFAT protein was strongly expressed in the hepatopancreas after exposure to the LC-Cd stress. These results suggest that Lv-GFAT expression is stimulated by alkaline pH and cadmium stress and that it may play important roles in resistance of shrimp to environmental stresses. PMID:25956985

  1. Structural investigation of Eu{sup 2+} emissions from alkaline earth zirconium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, Masaaki; Sonoyama, Noriyuki; Yamada, Atsuo; Kanno, Ryoji

    2009-04-15

    Eu{sup 2+} doped A{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (A=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors with the NASICON structure were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Their photoluminescent and structural properties were investigated by photoluminescent spectroscopy and powder X-ray Rietveld analysis, which determined two sites for Eu{sup 2+} ions in the host structure, 3a and 3b. The Eu-O bond lengths were increased by changing alkaline earth ions from Ca to Ba, causing Eu{sup 2+} emission bands to shift from blue-green to blue. A correlation was observed between the peak wavelength positions and the Eu-O bond length. The photoluminescent properties are discussed in terms of crystal field strength and nephelauxetic effect, and a schematic diagram of Eu{sup 2+} emissions is proposed for the Eu{sup 2+} doped NASICON phosphor. - Graphical abstract: Eu{sup 2+} doped NASICON structured A{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (A=Ca, Sr, Ba) showed the blue and blue-green colored emissions attributed to 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1}-4f{sup 7} transitions. The photoluminescent properties are discussed in terms of crystal field strength and nephelauxetic effect using powder X-ray Rietveld analysis.

  2. Copper sulfide nanoparticle-decorated graphene as a catalytic amplification platform for electrochemical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Juan; Han, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Qing-Chun; Yao, Hui-Qin; Gao, Zuo-Ning

    2015-06-01

    Copper sulfide nanoparticle-decorated graphene sheet (CuS/GR) was successfully synthesized and used as a signal amplification platform for electrochemical detection of alkaline phosphatase activity. First, CuS/GR was prepared through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach. The CuS/GR nanocomposites exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of ALP hydrolyzed products such as 1-naphthol, which produced a current response. Thus, a catalytic amplification platform based on CuS/GR nanocomposite for electrochemical detection of ALP activity was designed using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a model substrate. The current response increased linearly with ALP concentration from 0.1 to 100 U L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.02 U L(-1). The assay was applied to estimate ALP activity in human serum samples with satisfactory results. This strategy may find widespread and promising applications in other sensing systems that involves ALP. PMID:26002329

  3. Enzyme-assisted calcium phosphate biomineralization on an inert alumina surface.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Alieh; Pardun, Karoline; Volkmann, Eike; Li Destri, Giovanni; Marletta, Giovanni; Treccani, Laura; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2015-02-01

    In this study a bioinspired approach to induce self-mineralization of bone-like material on alumina surfaces is presented. The mineralizing enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is covalently immobilized by a carbodiimide-mediated chemoligation method. The enzymatic activity of immobilized ALP and its mineralization capability are investigated under acellular conditions as well as in the presence of human bone cells. Analytical, biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization show that ALP is efficiently immobilized, retains its activity and can trigger calcium phosphate mineralization on alumina at acellular conditions. In vitro cell tests demonstrate that ALP-functionalized alumina clearly boosts and enhances bone cell mineralization. Our results underpin the great potential of ALP-functionalized alumina for the development of bioactive surfaces for applications such as orthopaedic and dental implants, enabling a fast and firm implant osseointegration. PMID:25462843

  4. Theoretical Studies of the Spin Hamiltonian Parameters and Local Distortions for Cu2+ in Alkaline Earth Lead Zinc Phosphate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo-Kun; Wu, Shao-Yi; Yuan, Zi-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Jiang, Shi-Xin; Liu, Zheng; Yao, Zi-Jian; Teng, Bao-Hua; Wu, Ming-He

    2016-08-01

    The spin Hamiltonian parameters and local structures are theoretically studied for Cu2+-doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate (RPPZ, R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) glasses based on the high-order perturbation calculations for a tetragonally elongated octahedral 3d9 cluster. The relative elongation ratios are found to be ρ≈3.2%, 4.4%, 4.6%, and 3.3% for R=Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba, respectively, because of the Jahn-Teller effect. The whole decreasing crystal-field strength Dq and orbital reduction factor k from Mg to Sr are ascribed to the weakening electrostatic coulombic interactions and the increasing probability of productivity of nonbridge oxygen (and hence increasing Cu2+-O2- electron cloud admixtures) under PbO addition, respectively, with increasing alkali earth ionic radius. The anomalies (the largest Dq and the next highest k among the systems) for R=Ba are attributed to the cross linkage of this large cation in the network. The overall increasing order (Mg≤Ba

  5. Enrichment of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels with glycerol and alkaline phosphatase for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Krok-Borkowicz, Małgorzata; Macuda, Aleksandra; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Pamuła, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Thermosensitive injectable chitosan hydrogels can be formed by neutralization of acidic chitosan solutions with sodium betaglycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) coupled with increasing temperature to body temperature. Such hydrogels have been considered for applications in bone regeneration. In this study, chitosan hydrogels were enriched with glycerol and the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with a view to improving their suitability as materials for bone tissue engineering. Mineral formation was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and increases in the mass fraction of the hydrogel not consisting of water. Incorporation of ALP in hydrogels followed by incubation in a solution containing calcium ions and glycerophosphate, a substrate for ALP, led to formation of calcium phosphate within the hydrogel. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were cultivated in eluates from hydrogels containing ALP and without ALP at different dilutions and directly on the hydrogel samples. Hydrogels containing ALP exhibited superior cytocompatibility to ALP-free hydrogels. These results pave the way for the use of glycerol- and ALP-enriched hydrogels in bone regeneration. PMID:27405261

  6. Plasma alkaline phosphatase and survival in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Melão, Filipa; Godinho, Ana Rita; Rodrigues, Joana D.; Maciel, Maria Júlia

    2016-01-01

    Background Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) removes phosphate groups from many types of molecules. The aim of the present research was to study the relation between plasma ALP and survival in diabetic patients with myocardial infarction. Methods Retrospective study: from 954 admissions (15 months period) in a coronary care unit, we selected 200 admissions corresponding to 195 patients with myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus. Survival after no less than 48 months, and up to 61 months, after the myocardial infarction episode, was under study, in association with ALP levels. Results A relatively weak but significant correlation was seen between the peak plasma cardiac troponin I and ALP levels (r: 0.21, significance level: 0.003). Using the median value for ALP as cut-off (74 IU/L), plasma creatinine was significantly higher in patients with higher values for ALP. Patients with elevated ALP had decreased survival in Kaplan-Meier analysis (significance level in log-rank test: 0.032). This finding was noted for male patients (significance level in log-rank test: 0.035), but not for female patients (significance level in log-rank test: 0.497). Conclusions Elevated ALP acts as a prognostic indicator of decreased survival in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction, possibly in association to decreased renal function. This finding is limited to male patients, pointing to a possible different role for phosphatase activity in cardiovascular disease in male and female diabetic patients. PMID:27386484

  7. Liver- and bone-derived isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase in serum as determined by high-performance affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D J; Branum, E L; O'Brien, J F

    1990-02-01

    To separate liver and bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzymes in human serum, we used high-performance affinity chromatography (HPAC) on a column of wheat-germ lectin conjugated to 7-microns-diameter silica particles and an eluent containing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG). On-line spectrophotometric detection of ALP involved pumping diethanolamine-buffered p-nitrophenyl phosphate solution post-column. Bone and liver isoenzymes could be separated into two peaks with only 10% overlap when an exponential gradient was used. A linear-step gradient separated 80.9% of liver ALP and 91.6% of bone ALP in two distinct peaks. True bone and liver ALP peak areas for the linear-step gradient were determined by using correction factors, because each peak contained a co-eluted portion of the other ALP isoenzyme. The detection limit improved 10-fold over those of other techniques for ALP isoenzymes, owing to the relatively large sample that could be applied to the column. Correlation with a urea-inactivation procedure was reasonable for patients' serum samples (r = 0.98 and 0.79 for liver ALP and bone ALP, respectively). PMID:2302767

  8. Microchannel conductivity measurements in microchip for on line monitoring of dephosphorylation rates of organic phosphates using paramagnetic-beads linked alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kechadi, Mohammed; Sotta, Bruno; Gamby, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the use of polymer coated microelectrodes for the realtime conductivity monitoring in a microchannel photoablated through the polymer without contact. Based on this strategy, a small conductometry sensor has been developed to record in time conductivity variation when an enzymatic reaction occurs through the channel. The rate constant determination, k2, for the dephosphorylation of organic phosphate-alkaline phosphatase-superparamagnetic beads complex using chemically different substrates such as adenosine monoesterphosphate, adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate was taken as an example to demonstrate selectivity and sensivity of the detection scheme. The k2 value measured for each adenosine phosphate decreases from 39 to 30 s(-1) in proportion with the number (3, 2 and 1) of attached phosphate moiety, thus emphasizing the steric hindrance effect on kinetics. PMID:25476378

  9. Oral antibodies to human intestinal alkaline phosphatase reduce dietary phytate phosphate bioavailability in the presence of dietary 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol.

    PubMed

    Bobeck, Elizabeth A; Hellestad, Erica M; Helvig, Christian F; Petkovich, P Martin; Cook, Mark E

    2016-03-01

    While it is well established that active vitamin D treatment increases dietary phytate phosphate utilization, the mechanism by which intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) participates in phytate phosphate use is less clear. The ability of human IAP (hIAP) oral antibodies to prevent dietary phytate phosphate utilization in the presence of 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-(OH) D3) in a chick model was investigated. hIAP specific chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) antibodies were generated by inoculating laying hens with 17 synthetic peptides derived from the human IAP amino acid sequence and harvesting egg yolk. Western blot analysis showed all antibodies recognized hIAP and 6 of the 8 antibodies selected showed modest inhibition of hIAP activity in vitro (6 to 33% inhibition). In chicks where dietary phosphate was primarily in the form of phytate, 4 selected hIAP antibodies inhibited 1α-(OH) D3-induced increases in blood phosphate, one of which, generated against selected peptide (MFPMGTPD), was as effective as sevelamer hydrochloride in preventing the 1α-(OH) D3-induced increase in blood phosphate, but ineffective in preventing an increase in body weight gain and bone ash induced by 1α-(OH) D3. These studies demonstrated that orally-delivered antibodies to IAP limit dietary phytate-phosphate utilization in chicks treated with 1α-(OH) D3, and implicate IAP as an important host enzyme in increasing phytate phosphate bioavailability in 1α-(OH) D3 fed chicks. PMID:26666254

  10. Probing the origins of catalytic discrimination between phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis: comparative analysis of alkaline phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Logan D; Zalatan, Jesse G; Herschlag, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic promiscuity, the ability of enzymes to catalyze multiple reactions, provides an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the origins of catalysis and substrate specificity. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) catalyzes both phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis reactions with a ∼10(10)-fold preference for phosphate monoester hydrolysis, despite the similarity between these reactions. The preponderance of formal positive charge in the AP active site, particularly from three divalent metal ions, was proposed to be responsible for this preference by providing stronger electrostatic interactions with the more negatively charged phosphoryl group versus the sulfuryl group. To test whether positively charged metal ions are required to achieve a high preference for the phosphate monoester hydrolysis reaction, the catalytic preference of three protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which do not contain metal ions, were measured. Their preferences ranged from 5 × 10(6) to 7 × 10(7), lower than that for AP but still substantial, indicating that metal ions and a high preponderance of formal positive charge within the active site are not required to achieve a strong catalytic preference for phosphate monoester over sulfate monoester hydrolysis. The observed ionic strength dependences of kcat/KM values for phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis are steeper for the more highly charged phosphate ester with both AP and the PTP Stp1, following the dependence expected based on the charge difference of these two substrates. However, the dependences for AP were not greater than those of Stp1 and were rather shallow for both enzymes. These results suggest that overall electrostatics from formal positive charge within the active site is not the major driving force in distinguishing between these reactions and that substantial discrimination can be attained without metal ions. Thus, local properties of the active site, presumably including multiple positioned dipolar

  11. Calcium-phosphate biomineralization induced by alkaline phosphatase activity in Escherichia coli: localization, kinetics and potential signatures in the fossil record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmidis, Julie; Benzerara, Karim; Guyot, François; Skouri-Panet, Fériel; Duprat, Elodie; Férard, Céline; Guigner, Jean-Michel; Babonneau, Florence; Coelho, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria are thought to play an important role in the formation of calcium-phosphate minerals composing marine phosphorites, as supported by the common occurrence of fossil microbes in these rocks. Phosphatase enzymes may play a key role in this process. Indeed, they may increase the supersaturation with respect to Ca-phosphates by releasing orthophosphate ions following hydrolysis of organic phosphorus. However, several questions remain unanswered about the cellular-level mechanisms involved in this model, and its potential signatures in the mineral products. We studied Ca-phosphate precipitation by different strains of Escherichia coli which were genetically modified to differ in the abundance and cellular localization of the alkaline phosphatase (PHO A) produced. The mineral precipitated by either E. coli or purified PHO A was invariably identified as a carbonate-free non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. However, the bacterial precipitates could be discriminated from the ones formed by purified PHO A at the nano-scale. PHO A localization was shown to influence the pattern of Ca-phosphate nucleation and growth. Finally, the rate of calcification was proved to be consistent with the PHO A enzyme kinetics. Overall, this study provides mechanistic keys to better understand phosphogenesis in the environment, and experimental references to better interpret the microbial fossil record in phosphorites.

  12. Differential Properties of Human ALP+ Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells vs Their ALP- Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Quynh T; El-Ayachi, Ikbale; Bhatti, Fazal-Ur-Rehman; Bahabri, Rayan; Al-Habib, Mey; Huang, George TJ

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing subpopulations of stem cells is important to understand stem cell properties. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is associated with mineral tissue forming cells as well as stem cells. Information regarding ALP subpopulation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) is limited. In the present study, we examined ALP+ and ALP− hPDLSC subpopulations, their surface markers STRO-1 and CD146, and the expression of stemness genes at various cell passages. We found that ALP+ subpopulation had higher levels of STRO-1 (30.6 ± 5.6%) and CD146 (90.4 ± 3.3%) compared to ALP− (STRO-1: 0.5 ± 0.1%; CD146: 75.3 ± 7.2%). ALP+ cells expressed significantly higher levels of stemness associated genes, NANOG, OCT4 and SOX than ALP− cells at low cell passages of 2-3 (p<0.05). ALP+ and ALP− cells had similar osteogenic, chondrogenic and neurogenic potential while ALP−, not ALP+ cells, lacked adipogenic potential. Upon continuous culturing and passaging, ALP+ continued to express higher stemness genes and STRO-1 and CD146 than ALP− cells at ≥passage 19. Under conditions (over-confluence and vitamin C treatment) when ALP+ subpopulation was increased, the stemness gene levels of ALP+ was no longer significantly higher than those in ALP− cells. In conclusion, ALP+ hPDLSCs possess differential properties from their ALP− counterparts. PMID:26807329

  13. Effect of zinc phosphate chemical conversion coating on corrosion behaviour of mild steel in alkaline medium: protection of rebars in reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simescu, Florica; Idrissi, Hassane

    2008-12-01

    We outline the ability of zinc phosphate coatings, obtained by chemical conversion, to protect mild steel rebars against localized corrosion, generated by chloride ions in alkaline media. The corrosion resistance of coated steel, in comparison with uncoated rebars and coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar, were evaluated by open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization, cronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The coated surfaces were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First, coated mild steel rebars were studied in an alkaline solution with and without chloride simulating a concrete pore solution. The results showed that the slow dissolution of the coating generates hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. After a long immersion, the coating became dense and provided an effective corrosion resistance compared with the mild steel rebar. Secondly, the coated and uncoated steel rebars embedded in mortar and immersed in chloride solution showed no corrosion or deterioration of the coated steel. Corrosion rate is considerably lowered by this phosphate coating.

  14. Pyridoxamine-5-phosphate enzyme-linked immune mass spectrometric assay substrate for linear absolute quantification of alkaline phosphatase to the yoctomole range applied to prostate specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Florentinus-Mefailoski, Angelique; Marshall, John G

    2014-11-01

    There is a need to measure proteins that are present in concentrations below the detection limits of existing colorimetric approaches with enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISA). The powerful enzyme alkaline phosphatase conjugated to the highly specific bacterial protein streptavidin binds to biotinylated macromolecules like proteins, antibodies, or other ligands and receptors with a high affinity. The binding of the biotinylated detection antibody, with resulting amplification of the signal by the catalytic production of reporter molecules, is key to the sensitivity of ELISA. The specificity and amplification of the signal by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase in ELISA together with the sensitivity of liquid chromatography electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) to detect femtomole to picomole amounts of reporter molecules results in an ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immune mass spectrometric assay (ELIMSA). The novel ELIMSA substrate pyridoxamine-5-phosphate (PA5P) is cleaved by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase to yield the basic and hydrophilic product pyridoxamine (PA) that elutes rapidly with symmetrical peaks and a flat baseline. Pyridoxamine (PA) and (13)C PA were both observed to show a linear relationship between log ion intensity and quantity from picomole to femtomole amounts by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry. Four independent methods, (i) internal (13)C isotope PA dilution curves, (ii) internal (13)C isotope one-point calibration, (iii) external PA standard curve, and (iv) external (13)C PA standard curve, all agreed within 1 digit in the same order of magnitude on the linear quantification of PA. Hence, a mass spectrometer can be used to robustly detect 526 ymol of the alkaline phosphatase streptavidin probe and accurately quantify zeptomole amounts of PSA against log linear absolute standard by micro electrospray on a simple ion trap. PMID:25259405

  15. Analytical and clinical performance characteristics of Tandem-MP Ostase, a new immunoassay for serum bone alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Broyles, D L; Nielsen, R G; Bussett, E M; Lu, W D; Mizrahi, I A; Nunnelly, P A; Ngo, T A; Noell, J; Christenson, R H; Kress, B C

    1998-10-01

    The performance characteristics of the Tandem-MP Ostase assay, a new microplate immunoassay for bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP; EC 3.1.3.1) in human sera, are described. Bone ALP is bound to streptavidin-coated microwells by a single biotinylated anti-bone ALP monoclonal antibody. Antigen is detected by the addition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The assay is performed at room temperature in <90 min. Imprecision was 2.3-6.1% with a detection limit of 0.6 microg/L. Method comparison of bone ALP measurements with the Tandem-MP Ostase assay and the mass-based Tandem-R Ostase assay (n = 285) indicated regression statistics of Tandem-MP Ostase = 1.03 Tandem-R Ostase + 0.22 microg/L, S(y/x) = 4.0 microg/L, r = 0.97. Serum bone ALP values in apparently healthy men and in pre- and postmenopausal women were also similar between the two Ostase assay formats. Liver ALP reactivity determined using the slope and heat inactivation methods was similar in both Ostase assays. Liver ALP reactivity ranged from 3 microg/L (heat inactivation) to 6 microg/L (slope method) per 100 U/L of liver ALP activity, whereas bone ALP reactivity was 37 microg/L per 100 U/L of bone ALP activity, indicating a liver ALP relative reactivity of 8.1-16.2%. Similar results were obtained with the Alkphase-B bone ALP immunoassay. The Tandem-MP Ostase bone ALP assay demonstrated increased concentrations of serum bone ALP in conditions where bone metabolism is increased and showed a rapid, temporal decrease in serum bone ALP in Paget disease patients on bisphosphonate therapy. In conclusion, the Tandem-MP Ostase assay for serum bone ALP is a rapid, simple, robust nonisotopic alternative to the Tandem-R Ostase immunoradiometric assay that provides an accurate and sensitive assessment of bone turnover. PMID:9761247

  16. Bifunctional coating based on carboxymethyl chitosan with stable conjugated alkaline phosphatase for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and promoting osteogenic differentiation on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dong; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was covalently immobilized on carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS)-coated polydopamine (PDA)-functionalized Ti to achieve a bifunctional surface. Our results showed ∼89% reduction in Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on this surface compared to that on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified Ti supported cell proliferation, and significantly enhanced cellular ALP activity and calcium deposition of osteoblasts, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The extent of enhancement in the functions of these cells is dependent on the surface density of immobilized ALP. The substrate prepared using an ALP solution of 50 μg/cm2 resulted in 44%, 54% and 129% increase in calcium deposited by osteoblasts, hMSCs and hADSCs, respectively, compared to those cultured on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified substrates also promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and hADSCs by up-regulating gene expressions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), and osteocalcin (OC) in the two types of stem cells. The surface-immobilized ALP was stable after being subjected to 1 h immersion in 70% ethanol and autoclaving at 121 °C for 20 min. However, the enzymatic bioactivity of the surface-immobilized ALP was reduced by about 50% after these substrates were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PBS containing lysozyme for 14 days.

  17. Dependence of the spectral properties of alkaline-free alumino-phosphate glasses on chemical changes during synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenko, N.I.; Abdrashitova, E.I.; Artomova, M.V.

    1986-07-01

    In order to obtain information about glass microstructure within the first coordination sphere, glasses are irradiated with ionizing radiation. Doses of gamma-radiation not exceeding 10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ Gy generally produce paramagnetic (PO/sub 4/)/sup 2 -/ radicals and more rarely (PO/sub 3/)/sup 2 -/ in phosphate glasses. This paper shows that in glasses of the same composition structural units of the same composition can exist, but with different chemical bonding depending on the chemical changes occurring during synthesis. Glass samples and batches were irradiated with a Co 60 source at room temperature and the ses were 10/sup 4/ Gy.

  18. Dynamic Evolution of the LPS-Detoxifying Enzyme Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase in Zebrafish and Other Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ye; Wandler, Anica M.; Postlethwait, John H.; Guillemin, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatases (Alps) are well-studied enzymes that remove phosphates from a variety of substrates. Alps function in diverse biological processes, including modulating host-bacterial interactions by dephosphorylating the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In animals, Alps are encoded by multiple genes characterized by either ubiquitous expression (named Alpls for their liver expression, but a key to proper bone mineralization), or their tissue-specific expression, for example in the intestine (Alpi). We previously characterized a zebrafish alpi gene (renamed here alpi.1) that is regulated by Myd88-dependent innate immune signaling and that is required to prevent a host’s excessive inflammatory reactions to its resident microbiota. Here we report the characterization of two new alp genes in zebrafish, alpi.2 and alp3. To understand their origins, we investigated the phylogenetic history of Alp genes in animals. We find that vertebrate Alp genes are organized in three clades with one of these clades missing from the mammals. We present evidence that these three clades originated during the two vertebrate genome duplications. We show that alpl is ubiquitously expressed in zebrafish, as it is in mammals, whereas the other three alps are specific to the intestine. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that in contrast to Alpl, which has been stably maintained as a single gene throughout the vertebrates, the Alpis have been lost and duplicated multiple times independently in vertebrate lineages, likely reflecting the rapid and dynamic evolution of vertebrate gut morphologies, driven by changes in bacterial associations and diet. PMID:23091474

  19. Photoinduced electron transfer between Fe(III) and adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates: Application to alkaline-phosphatase-linked immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Hui; Yang, Ya-Chun; Shih, Ya-Chen; Hung, Szu-Ying; Lu, Chi-Yu; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2016-03-15

    Fluorescent boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) analogs are often used as sensors for detecting various species because of their relatively high extinction coefficients, outstanding fluorescence quantum yields, photostability, and pH-independent fluorescence. However, there is little-to-no information in the literature that describes the use of BODIPY analogs for detecting alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibition. This study discovered that the fluorescence of BODIPY-conjugated adenosine triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) was quenched by Fe(III) ions through photoinduced electron transfer. The ALP-catalyzed hydrolysis of BODIPY-ATP resulted in the formation of BODIPY-adenosine and phosphate ions. The fluorescence of the generated BODIPY-adenosine was insensitive to the change in the concentration of Fe(III) ions. Thus, the Fe(III)-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP can be paired with its ALP-mediated dephosphorylation to design a turn-on fluorescence probe for ALP sensing. A method detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for ALP was estimated to be 0.02 units/L (~6 pM; 1 ng/mL). This probe was used for the screening of ALP inhibitors, including Na3VO4, imidazole, and arginine. Because ALP is widely used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, the probe was coupled to an ALP-linked immunosorbent assay for the sensitive and selective detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The lowest detectable concentration for IgG in this system was 5 ng/mL. Compared with the use of 3,6-fluorescein diphosphate as a signal reporter in an ALP-linked immunosorbent assay, the proposed system provided comparable sensitivity, large linear range, and high stability over temperature and pH changes. PMID:26409025

  20. Inorganic polymeric phosphate/polyphosphate as an inducer of alkaline phosphatase and a modulator of intracellular Ca2+ level in osteoblasts (SaOS-2 cells) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Kropf, Klaus; Schlossmacher, Ute; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C

    2011-06-01

    Inorganic polymeric phosphate is a physiological polymer that accumulates in bone cells. In the present study osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells were exposed to this polymer, complexed in a 2:1 stoichiometric ratio with Ca(2+), polyP (Ca(2+) salt). At a concentration of 100 μM, polyP (Ca(2+) salt) caused a strong increase in the activity of the alkaline phosphatase and also an induction of the steady-state expression of the gene encoding this enzyme. Comparative experiments showed that polyP (Ca(2+) salt) can efficiently replace β-glycerophosphate in the in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) biomineralization assay. In the presence of polyP (Ca(2+) salt) the cells extensively form HA crystallites, which remain intimately associated with or covered by the plasma membrane. Only the tips of the crystallites are directly exposed to the extracellular space. Element mapping by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy coupled to a silicon drift detector supported the finding that organic material was dispersed within the crystallites. Finally, polyP (Ca(2+) salt) was found to cause an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) level, while polyP, as well as inorganic phosphate (P(i)) or Ca(2+) alone, had no effect at the concentrations used. These findings are compatible with the assumption that polyP (Ca(2+) salt) is locally, on the surface of the SaOS-2 cells, hydrolyzed to P(i) and Ca(2+). We conclude that the inorganic polymer polyP (Ca(2+) salt) in concert with a second inorganic, and physiologically occurring, polymer, biosilica, activates osteoblasts and impairs the maturation of osteoclasts. PMID:21397057

  1. Colocation and role of polyphosphates and alkaline phosphatase in apatite biomineralization of elasmobranch tesserae.

    PubMed

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Variola, Fabio; Dean, Mason N

    2014-09-01

    Elasmobranchs (e.g. sharks and rays), like all fishes, grow continuously throughout life. Unlike other vertebrates, their skeletons are primarily cartilaginous, comprising a hyaline cartilage-like core, stiffened by a thin outer array of mineralized, abutting and interconnected tiles called tesserae. Tesserae bear active mineralization fronts at all margins and the tesseral layer is thin enough to section without decalcifying, making this a tractable but largely unexamined system for investigating controlled apatite mineralization, while also offering a potential analog for endochondral ossification. The chemical mechanism for tesserae mineralization has not been described, but has been previously attributed to spherical precursors, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Here, we use a variety of techniques to elucidate the involvement of phosphorus-containing precursors in the formation of tesserae at their mineralization fronts. Using Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy and histological methods, we demonstrate that ALP activity is located with inorganic phosphate polymers (polyP) at the tessera-uncalcified cartilage interface, suggesting a potential mechanism for regulated mineralization: inorganic phosphate (Pi) can be cleaved from polyP by ALP, thus making Pi locally available for apatite biomineralization. The application of exogenous ALP to tissue cross-sections resulted in the disappearance of polyP and the appearance of Pi in uncalcified cartilage adjacent to mineralization fronts. We propose that elasmobranch skeletal cells control apatite biomineralization by biochemically controlling polyP and ALP production, placement and activity. Previous identification of polyP and ALP shown previously in mammalian calcifying cartilage supports the hypothesis that this mechanism may be a general regulating feature in the mineralization of vertebrate skeletons. PMID:24948547

  2. ALPs at colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimasu, Ken; Sanz, Verónica

    2015-06-01

    New pseudo-scalars, often called axion-like particles (ALPs), abound in model-building and are often associated with the breaking of a new symmetry. Traditional searches and indirect bounds are limited to light axions, typically in or below the KeV range for ALPs coupled to photons. We present collider bounds on ALPs from mono-γ, tri-γ and mono-jet searches in a model independent fashion, as well as the prospects for the LHC and future machines. We find that they are complementary to existing searches, as they are sensitive to heavier ALPs and have the capability to cover an otherwise inaccessible region of parameter space. We also show that, assuming certain model dependent correlations between the ALP coupling to photons and gluons as well as considering the validity of the effective description of ALP interactions, mono-jet searches are in fact more suitable and effective in indirectly constraining ALP scenarios.

  3. Common Variants at Putative Regulatory Sites of the Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Influence Circulating Pyridoxal 5′-Phosphate Concentration in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Tonia C; Pangilinan, Faith; Molloy, Anne M; Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Shane, Barry; Gibney, Eileen R; Midttun, Øivind; Ueland, Per M; Cropp, Cheryl D; Kim, Yoonhee; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Brody, Lawrence C; Mills, James L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitamin B-6 interconversion enzymes are important for supplying pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), the co-enzyme form, to tissues. Variants in the genes for these enzymes [tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate oxidase, pyridoxal kinase, and pyridoxal phosphatase] could affect enzyme function and vitamin B-6 status. Objectives: We tested whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes influence vitamin B-6 status markers [plasma PLP, pyridoxal (PL), and 4-pyridoxic acid (PA)], and explored potential functional effects of the SNPs. Methods: Study subjects were young, healthy adults from Ireland (n = 2345). We measured plasma PLP, PL, and PA with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and genotyped 66 tag SNPs in the 4 genes. We tested for associations with single SNPs in candidate genes and also performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) and gene-based analyses. Results: Seventeen SNPs in ALPL were associated with altered plasma PLP in candidate gene analyses (P < 1.89 × 10−4). In the GWAS, 5 additional ALPL SNPs were associated with altered plasma PLP (P < 5.0 × 10−8). Gene-based analyses that used the functional linear model β-spline (P = 4.04 × 10−15) and Fourier spline (P = 5.87 × 10−15) methods also showed associations between ALPL and altered plasma PLP. No SNPs in other genes were associated with plasma PLP. The association of the minor CC genotype of 1 ALPL SNP, rs1256341, with reduced ALPL expression in the HapMap Northern European ancestry population is consistent with the positive association between the CC genotype and plasma PLP in our study (P = 0.008). No SNP was associated with altered plasma PL or PA. Conclusions: In healthy adults, common variants in ALPL influence plasma PLP concentration, the most frequently used biomarker for vitamin B-6 status. Whether these associations are indicative of functional changes in vitamin B-6 status requires more investigation

  4. A fluorometric assay for alkaline phosphatase activity based on β-cyclodextrin-modified carbon quantum dots through host-guest recognition.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cong; Qian, Zhaosheng; Huang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jiamin; Ao, Hang; Zhao, Meizhi; Zhou, Jin; Chen, Jianrong; Feng, Hui

    2016-09-15

    A convenient, reliable and highly sensitive assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the real-time manner is developed based on β-cyclodextrin-modified carbon quantum dots (β-CD-CQDs) nanoprobe through specific host-guest recognition. Carbon quantum dots were first functionalized with 3-aminophenyl boronic acid to produce boronic acid-functionalized CQDs, and then further modified with hydropropyl β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) through B-O bonds to form β-CD-CQDs nanoprobe. p-Nitrophenol phosphate disodium salt is used as the substrate of ALP, and can hydrolyze to p-nitrophenol under the catalysis of ALP. The resulting p-nitrophenol can enter the cavity of β-CD moiety in the nanoprobe due to their specific host-guest recognition, where photoinduced electron transfer process between p-nitrophenol and CQDs takes place to efficiently quench the fluorescence of the probe. The correlation between quenched fluorescence and ALP level can be used to establish quantitative evaluation of ALP activity in a broad range from 3.4 to 100.0U/L with the detection limit of 0.9U/L. This assay shows a high sensitivity to ALP even in the presence of a very high concentration of glucose. This study demonstrates a good electron donor/acceptor pair, which can be used to design general detection strategy through PET process, and also broadens the application of host-guest recognition for enzymes detection in clinical practice. PMID:27132001

  5. Fabrications of zinc-releasing biocement combining zinc calcium phosphate to calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Shinya; Hiasa, Masahiro; Yasue, Akihiro; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Hamada, Kenichi; Asaoka, Kenzo; Tanaka, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Recently, zinc-releasing bioceramics have been the focus of much attention owing to their bone-forming ability. Thus, some types of zinc-containing calcium phosphate (e.g., zinc-doped tricalcium phosphate and zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite) are examined and their osteoblastic cell responses determined. In this investigation, we studied the effects of zinc calcium phosphate (ZCP) derived from zinc phosphate incorporated into calcium phosphate cement (CPC) in terms of its setting reaction and MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cell responses. Compositional analysis by powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that HAP crystals were precipitated in the CPC containing 10 or 30wt% ZCP after successfully hardening. However, the crystal growth observed by scanning electron microscopy was delayed in the presence of additional ZCP. These findings indicate that the additional zinc inhibits crystal growth and the conversion of CPC to the HAP crystals. The proliferation of the cells and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were enhanced when 10wt% ZCP was added to CPC. Taken together, ZCP added CPC at an appropriate fraction has a potent promotional effect on bone substitute biomaterials. PMID:24090874

  6. Alkalosis and Dialytic Clearance of Phosphate Increases Phosphatase Activity: A Hidden Consequence of Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; González-Parra, Emilio; Egido, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracellular pyrophosphate is a potent endogenous inhibitor of vascular calcification, which is degraded by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and generated by hydrolysis of ATP via ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (eNPP1). ALP activity (as routinely measured in clinical practice) represents the maximal activity (in ideal conditions), but not the real activity (in normal or physiological conditions). For the first time, the present study investigated extracellular pyrophosphate metabolism during hemodialysis sessions (including its synthesis via eNPP1 and its degradation via ALP) in physiological conditions. Methods and Findings 45 patients in hemodialysis were studied. Physiological ALP activity represents only 4–6% of clinical activity. ALP activity increased post-hemodialysis by 2% under ideal conditions (87.4 ± 3.3 IU/L vs. 89.3 ± 3.6 IU/L) and 48% under physiological conditions (3.5 ± 0.2 IU/L vs. 5.2 ± 0.2 IU/L). Pyrophosphate synthesis by ATP hydrolysis remained unaltered post-hemodialysis. Post-hemodialysis plasma pH (7.45 ± 0.02) significantly increased compared with the pre-dialysis pH (7.26 ± 0.02). The slight variation in pH (~0.2 units) induced a significant increase in ALP activity (9%). Addition of phosphate in post-hemodialysis plasma significantly decreased ALP activity, although this effect was not observed with the addition of urea. Reduction in phosphate levels and increment in pH were significantly associated with an increase in physiological ALP activity post-hemodialysis. A decrease in plasma pyrophosphate levels (3.3 ± 0.3 μmol/L vs. 1.9 ± 0.1 μmol/L) and pyrophosphate/ATP ratio (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.4 ± 0.1) post-hemodialysis was also observed. Conclusion Extraction of uremic toxins, primarily phosphate and hydrogen ions, dramatically increases the ALP activity under physiological conditions. This hitherto unknown consequence of hemodialysis suggests a reinterpretation of the clinical value of this parameter

  7. Light triggered detection of aminophenyl phosphate with a quantum dot based enzyme electrode

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for p-aminophenyl phosphate (pAPP) is reported. It is based on the electrochemical conversion of 4-aminophenol (4AP) at a quantum dot (QD) modified electrode under illumination. Without illumination no electron transfer and thus no oxidation of 4AP can occur. pAPP as substrate is converted by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to generate 4AP as a product. The QDs are coupled via 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT) linkage to the surface of a gold electrode and thus allow potential-controlled photocurrent generation. The photocurrent is modified by the enzyme reaction providing access to the substrate detection. In order to develop a photobioelectrochemical sensor the enzyme is immobilized on top of the photo-switchable layer of the QDs. Immobilization of ALP is required for the potential possibility of spatially resolved measurements. Geometries with immobilized ALP are compared versus having the ALP in solution. Data indicate that functional immobilization with layer-by-layer assembly is possible. Enzymatic activity of ALP and thus the photocurrent can be described by Michaelis- Menten kinetics. pAPP is detected as proof of principle investigation within the range of 25 μM - 1 mM. PMID:21982200

  8. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles are associated with inorganic phosphate-induced osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-rong; Bai, Jing; Yuan, Shuai-jun; Yu, Cai-xia; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Tian-lan; Wang, Kui

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated that calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles formed in cell culture media were implicated in the process of high inorganic phosphate (Pi) mediated osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Exposure of BMSCs in vitro to high Pi-containing media reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expressions of osteoblast-specific genes. The sediments of CaP nanoparticles were observed at the cell surface and some of them were concomitantly found inside cells at high Pi concentration. In addition, treatment the cells with pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of calcium crystal formation, abrogated the ALP activity induced by high Pi, suggesting the contribution of CaP nanoparticles. Moreover, for isolated CaP nanoparticles, there was a trend of conversion from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite with elevated Pi. The particle size of CaP increased and the surface morphology changed from spherical to irregular due to increased concentrations of serum proteins incorporated into CaP nanoparticles. The study demonstrated that those physicochemical properties of CaP nanoparticles played an important role in modulating BMSCs differentiation. Furthermore, the addition of Pi in the osteogenic media resulted in a dose-dependent increase in matrix mineralization, while treatment of the cells with PPi suppressed Pi-induced calcium deposition. The findings indicated that calcium deposition in the matrix partly came from the spontaneous precipitation of CaP nanoparticles. PMID:26111760

  9. Calcium phosphate surfaces promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Petra; Bulnheim, Ulrike; Diener, Annette; Lüthen, Frank; Teller, Marianne; Klinkenberg, Ernst-Dieter; Neumann, Hans-Georg; Nebe, Barbara; Liebold, Andreas; Steinhoff, Gustav; Rychly, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Although studies in vivo revealed promising results in bone regeneration after implantation of scaffolds together with osteogenic progenitor cells, basic questions remain how material surfaces control the biology of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). We used human MSC derived from bone marrow and studied the osteogenic differentiation on calcium phosphate surfaces. In osteogenic differentiation medium MSC differentiated to osteoblasts on hydroxyapatite and BONITmatrix®, a degradable xerogel composite, within 14 days. Cells revealed a higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and increased RNA expression of collagen I and osteocalcin using real-time RTPCR compared with cells on tissue culture plastic. To test whether material surface characteristics alone are able to stimulate osteogenic differentiation, MSC were cultured on the materials in expansion medium without soluble additives for osteogenic differentiation. Indeed, cells on calcium phosphate without osteogenic differentiation additives developed to osteoblasts as shown by increased ALP activity and expression of osteogenic genes, which was not the case on tissue culture plastic. Because we reasoned that the stimulating effect on osteogenesis by calcium phosphate surfaces depends on an altered cell–extracellular matrix interaction we studied the dynamic behaviour of focal adhesions using cells transfected with GFP labelled vinculin. On BONITmatrix®, an increased mobility of focal adhesions was observed compared with cells on tissue culture plastic. In conclusion, calcium phosphate surfaces are able to drive MSC to osteoblasts in the absence of osteogenic differentiation supplements in the medium. An altered dynamic behaviour of focal adhesions on calcium phosphate surfaces might be involved in the molecular mechanisms which promote osteogenic differentiation. PMID:18366455

  10. A single-molecule digital enzyme assay using alkaline phosphatase with a cumarin-based fluorogenic substrate.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Yusuke; Iino, Ryota; Noji, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Digitalization of fluorogenic enzymatic assays through the use of femtoliter chamber array technology is an emerging approach to realizing highly quantitative bioassays with single-molecule sensitivity. However, only a few digital fluorogenic enzyme assays have been reported, and the variations of the digital enzyme assays are basically limited to fluorescein- and resorufin-based fluorogenic assays. This limitation hampers the realization of a multiplex digital enzyme assay such as a digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In this study, after optimization of buffer conditions, we achieved a single-molecule digital enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay with a cumarin-based fluorogenic substrate, 4-methylunbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP). When ALP molecules were encapsulated in a 44-femtoliter chamber array at a low ratio of less than 1 molecule per chamber, each chamber showed a discrete fluorescence signal in an all-or-none manner, allowing the digital counting of the number of active enzyme molecules. The fraction of fluorescent chambers linearly decreased with the enzyme concentration, obeying the Poisson distribution as expected. We also demonstrated a dual-color digital enzyme assay with a ALP/4-MUP and β-galactosidase (β-gal)/resorufin-β-d-galactopyranoside combination. The activities of single ALP and β-gal molecules were clearly detected simultaneously. The method developed in this study will enable us to carry out a parallelized, multiplex digital ELISA. PMID:26101788

  11. PAPSS2 Promotes Alkaline Phosphates Activity and Mineralization of Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells by Crosstalk and Smads Signal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weizhuo; Li, Fang; Wang, Kunzheng; Cheng, Bin; Guo, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that PAPSS2 (3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate synthetase 2) activity is important to normal skeletal development. Mouse PAPSS2 is predominantly expressed during the formation of the skeleton and cartilaginous elements of the mouse embryo and in newborn mice. However, the role and mechanism of PAPSS2 in bone formation remains largely unidentified. By analyzing the expression pattern of the PAPSS2 gene, we have found that PAPSS2 is expressed in bone tissue and bone formation. PAPSS2 transcripts increase during osteoblast differentiation and are in less level in RANKL-induced osteoclast like cells. By using lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) technology, we knocked down PAPSS2 expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast. Silencing of PAPSS2 expression significantly decreases ALP activity and cell mineralization, inhibits expression of osteoblast marker osteopontin (OPN) and collagen I. Conversely, overexpression of PAPSS2 promotes the MC3T3-E1 to differentiate into osteoblast and mineralization. Moreover, compared to that in the control cells, the mRNA level and protein expression of phosphorylated Smad 2/3, which is a key transcriptional factor in the Smad osteoblast differentiation pathway, showed significant decreases in PAPSS2-silenced cells and increases in PAPSS2-overexpression cells. These results suggest that PAPSS2 might regulate osteoblast ALP activity and cell mineralization, probably through Smads signal pathways. PMID:22916269

  12. QM/MM analysis suggests that Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) and Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase slightly tighten the transition state for phosphate diester hydrolysis relative to solution: implication for catalytic promiscuity in the AP superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Guanhua

    2011-01-01

    Several members of the Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) superfamily exhibit a high level of catalytic proficiency and promiscuity in structurally similar active sites. A thorough characterization of the nature of transition state for different substrates in these enzymes is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern those remarkable catalytic properties. In this work, we study the hydrolysis of a phosphate diester, MpNPP−, in solution, two experimentally well-characterized variants of AP (R166S AP, R166S/E322Y AP) and wild type Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) by QM/MM calculations in which the QM method is an approximate density functional theory previously parameterized for phosphate hydrolysis (SCC-DFTBPR). The general agreements found between these calculations and available experimental data for both solution and enzymes support the use of SCC-DFTBPR/MM for a semi-quantitative analysis of the catalytic mechanism and nature of transition state in AP and NPP. Although phosphate diesters are cognate substrates for NPP but promiscuous substrates for AP, the calculations suggest that their hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by AP and NPP feature similar synchronous transition states that are slightly tighter in nature compared to that in solution, due in part to the geometry of the bimetallic zinc motif. Therefore, this study provides the first direct computational support to the hypothesis that enzymes in the AP superfamily catalyze cognate and promiscuous substrates via similar transition states to those in solution. Our calculations do not support the finding of recent QM/MM studies by López-Canut and coworkers, who suggested that the same diester substrate goes through a much looser transition state in NPP/AP than in solution, a result likely biased by the large structural distortion of the bimetallic zinc site in their simulations. Finally, our calculations for different phosphate diester orientations and phosphorothioate diesters

  13. Biological performance of titania containing phosphate-based glasses for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Knowles, Jonathan Campbell

    2014-02-01

    The interplay between glass chemistry, structure, degradation kinetics, and biological activity provides flexibility for the development of scaffolds with highly specific cellular response. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the role of titania inclusion into the phosphate-based glass on its ability to stimulate osteoblast-like human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells to adhere, proliferate and differentiate. In depth morphological and biochemical characterisation was performed on HOS cells cultured on the surface of glass discs. Cell proliferation was also studied in the presence of the glass extract. Cell differentiation, through osteoblast phenotype genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production, was carried out using normal or osteogenic media. Both Thermanox® and titania free glass were used as controls. The data demonstrated that titania inclusion provides desired cytocompatible surface that supported initial cell attachment, sustained viability, and increased cell proliferation similar or significantly higher than Thermanox®. The modified glasses regulated osteoblastic cell differentiation as detected by osteoblast phenotype gene transcription and upregulated ALP and osteocalcin expression. Using osteogenic media had no significant effect on ALP activity and osteocalcin expression. Therefore, titania modified phosphate glasses may have future use as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:24411382

  14. Plasma intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in neonates with bowel necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, R; Coakley, J; Murton, L; Campbell, N

    1993-01-01

    AIM--To determine if the intestinal isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are biochemical markers of bowel necrosis in neonates. METHODS--Plasma ALP isoenzymes were measured in 22 babies with bowel necrosis, histologically confirmed, and in 22 matched controls. The isoenzymes were also measured in 16 infants with signs of necrotising enterocolitis, who recovered without histological confirmation of bowel necrosis. The isoenzymes were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Auxiliary tests for identification included neuraminidase digestion and treatment with monoclonal and polyclonal antiplacental antibodies. RESULTS--Intestinal ALP was detected in 16 infants with bowel necrosis--13 had fetal intestinal ALP (FI-ALP) and three had adult intestinal ALP (AI-ALP). FI-ALP was detected in nine of the controls. In the babies with bowel necrosis intestinal ALP was found over all gestations, but in the controls only in those less than 34 weeks. The percentages of total ALP activity due to intestinal ALP were significantly higher in those with bowel necrosis compared with matched controls (p = 0.028). In babies of all gestations diagnostic sensitivity for the presence of intestinal ALP as a marker of bowel necrosis was 73% and diagnostic specificity 59%. In babies greater than 34 weeks' gestation, diagnostic sensitivity fell to 60% but the test became completely specific. In two babies FI-ALP increased from zero/trace to high activity coincident with the episode of bowel necrosis. In 16 babies with signs of necrotising enterocolitis but unconfirmed bowel necrosis FI-ALP was detected in four. CONCLUSION--Intestinal ALP seems to be released into the circulation in some babies with bowel necrosis, but its detection does not have the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity to be a reliable biochemical marker of the condition. Images PMID:8157755

  15. Alkaline phosphatase activity in normal and inflamed dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Spoto, G; Fioroni, M; Rubini, C; Tripodi, D; Di Stilio, M; Piattelli, A

    2001-03-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) seems to be important in the formation of mineralized tissues. High levels of ALP have been demonstrated in dental pulp cells. In the present study ALP activity was analyzed in normal healthy human dental pulps, in reversible pulpitis, and in irreversible pulpitis. Enzymatic ALP control values for the normal healthy pulps were 110.96+/-20.93. In the reversible pulpitis specimens the ALP activity increased almost eight times to 853.6+/-148.27. In the irreversible pulpitis specimens the values decreased sharply to 137.15+/-21.28 and were roughly equivalent to those seen in normal healthy pulps. The differences between the groups (control vs. reversible pulpitis and reversible pulpitis vs. irreversible pulpitis) were statistically significant. These results could point to a role of ALP in the initial pulp response after injury. PMID:11487147

  16. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Lim, Jong-Soo; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kang, Il-Byeong; Jeong, Dana; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk. PMID:27194927

  17. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk. PMID:27194927

  18. Treatment of Hypophosphatemic Rickets with Phosphate and Active Vitamin D in Japan: A Questionnaire-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Makoto; Namba, Noriyuki; Ozono, Keiichi; Arisaka, Osamu; Yokoya, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets represented by X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) is a rare disorder characterized by hypophosphatemia, elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and undermineralization of bone. Active vitamin D and phosphate are administered to correct hypophosphatemia and elevation of ALP. Overtreatment with phosphate leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism, and a large dose of active vitamin D has a risk of hypercalciuria. To understand the situation concerning treatment of patients with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets in Japan, we conducted a questionnaire survey of pediatric endocrinologists. Answers were obtained from 53 out of 68 hospitals where the pediatric endocrinologists worked. One hundred and thirty-five patients were treated in 28 hospitals during November 2009 and May 2010; 126 patients suffered from hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets, and 9 had hypophosphatemia caused by other miscellaneous reasons. The distribution of patient age was as follows: 27 (21%) were between 6 mo and 6 yr of age, 39 (31%) were between 6 and 12 yr of age, and 60 (48%) were more than 12 yr of age. Active vitamin D was given to 123 patients, and phosphate was given to 106 patients. As for the dose of phosphorus, 37.2–58.1 mg/kg/d was given divided into 2 to 6 aliquots. There were various control targets of treatment, including serum phosphate, serum ALP, rachitic change, urinary Ca/Cr, parathyroid hormone and growth. It is very important to avoid side effects of these treatments. No evidence is available about the optimal dose of phosphate or number of administrations in the treatment of patients with hypophosphatemic rickets. Although there is a recommendation for clinical management of patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, we should set a clinical guideline for it in Japan. PMID:23966755

  19. ALP isoenzyme test

    MedlinePlus

    Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme test ... anything for 10 to 12 hours before the test, unless your health care provider tells you to do so. Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  20. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A CALCIUM-DEPENDENT ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE FROM THE CYANOBACTERIUM ARTHROSPIRA PLATENSIS (1).

    PubMed

    Asencio, Antonia D; Morte, Asuncióín; García-Carmona, Francisco; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, Triton X-114 (TX-114) is used to extract and partially purify alkaline phosphatase (ALP) from a membranous fraction of Arthrospira platensis Gomont containing cell wall, plasma membrane, thylakoids, and sheath. TX-114 has a double effect: solubilizing cell components to liberate the enzyme and, after phase partitioning, removing chl and other pigments present in the crude extract. The recovery of the enzyme in the aqueous phase suggests the overall hydrophilic character of this enzyme. ALP was kinetically characterized at pH 11.0 using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate, giving a Km value of 1.7 mM. Orthovanadate was seen to be a competitive inhibitor of ALP, with a Ki of 0.8 mM. The enzyme was almost completely inactivated in the presence of 70 μM EDTA, although the addition of Ca(2+) reverted this inactivation; these results indicate that ALP from A. platensis is a calcium-dependent metalloenzyme. When the effect of Ca(2+) was investigated in detail, a value of 0.067 μM(-1) for the affinity constant was obtained. The enzyme was histochemically localized in the cytoplasm, cell wall, and sheath using the enzyme-labeled fluorescent substrate (ELF) method. It is assumed that the same enzyme is either soluble in the cytoplasm and in some way "trapped" in the cell wall or in the sheath. ALP localization within the sheath and the subsequent release of phosphorus (P) may benefit the neighboring cells surrounding this layer. PMID:27009724

  1. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  2. Yam (Dioscorea batatas) Root and Bark Extracts Stimulate Osteoblast Mineralization by Increasing Ca and P Accumulation and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suji; Shin, Mee-Young; Son, Kun-Ho; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Kwun, In-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea batatas) is widely consumed as functional food for health promotion mainly in East Asia countries. We assessed whether yam root (tuber) or bark (peel) extracts stimulated the activity of osteoblasts for osteogenesis. MC3T3-E1 cells (mouse osteoblasts) were treated with yam root extracts (water or methanol) (study I) or bark extracts (water or hexane) (study II) within 0~10 μg/mL during the periods of osteoblast proliferation (5~10 day), matrix maturation (11~15 day) and mineralization (16~20 day) as appropriate. In study I, both yam root water and methanol extracts increased cell proliferation as concentration-dependent manner. Cellular collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, both the indicators of bone matrix protein and inorganic phosphate production for calcification respectively, were also increased by yam root water and methanol extract. Osteoblast calcification as cell matrix Ca and P accumulation was also increased by the addition of yam root extracts. In study II, yam bark extracts (water and hexane) increased osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, as collagen synthesis and ALP activity and osteoblast matrix Ca and P deposition. The study results suggested that both yam root and bark extracts stimulate osteogenic function in osteoblasts by stimulating bone matrix maturation by increasing collagen synthesis, ALP activity, and matrix mineralization. PMID:25320717

  3. Steric hindrance regulated supramolecular assembly between β-cyclodextrin polymer and pyrene for alkaline phosphatase fluorescent sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chunxia; Yang, Xiaohai; Wang, Kemin; Wang, Qing; Liu, Jianbo; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Maogui; Guo, Xiaochen

    2016-03-01

    We herein report a strategy for sensitive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) fluorescent sensing based on steric hindrance regulated supramolecular assembly between β-cyclodextrin polymer (polyβ-CD) and pyrene. The fluorescence of pyrene was enhanced more than 10 times through supramolecular assembly with polyβ-CD. The 5‧-phosphorylated dsDNA probe with pyrene attached on the 3‧-terminal could be cleaved by λ exonuclease (λ exo), yielding pyrene attached on mononucleotides. Pyrene attached on mononucleotides could easily enter the cavity of polyβ-CD, resulting in fluorescence enhancement. When ALP was introduced, it could remove 5‧-phosphate groups from dsDNA and then prevented the cleavage of dsDNA. Pyrene attached on dsDNA was difficult to enter the cavity of polyβ-CD because of steric hindrance, resulting in an inconspicuous fluorescence enhancement. Owing to the excellent fluorescence enhancement during steric hindrance regulated supramolecular assembly, excellent performance of the assay method was achieved for ALP with a detection limit of 0.04 U mL- 1. The detection limit was superior or comparable with the reported methods. Besides, this method was simple in design, avoiding double-labeling of probe.

  4. Partial purification, characterisation and histochemical localisation of alkaline phosphatase from ascocarps of the edible desert truffle Terfezia claveryi Chatin.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ródenas, A; Morte, A; Pérez-Gilabert, M

    2009-09-01

    In the present paper, we confirmed that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is the main phosphatase present in ascocarps of the edible mycorrhizal fungus Terfezia claveryi. The enzyme was partially purified by precipitation with polyethylene glycol. The purification achieved from a crude extract was fivefold, with 53% of the activity recovered, and acid phosphatase, most of the lipids and phenolic compounds were eliminated. Alkaline phosphatase was kinetically characterised at pH 10.0, the optimum for this enzyme, using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. The V(max) and K(m) values were 0.3 micromol.min(-1).mg(-1) protein and 9.0 mM, respectively. Orthovanadate was a competitive inhibitor of ALP, with a K(i) of 42.5 microM. The enzyme was histochemically localised in the peridium, the hypothecium and in the ascogenic hyphae of the gleba using both colour and fluorescent reactions. The results presented suggest that the ascocarp of T. claveryi, at some stages of its development, may become nutritionally autonomous and independent of the host plant. PMID:19689775

  5. Ultrasensitive electrochemical DNAzyme sensor for lead ion based on cleavage-induced template-independent polymerization and alkaline phosphatase amplification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shufeng; Wei, Wenji; Sun, Xinya; Wang, Li

    2016-09-15

    In this article, a simple, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical DNAzyme sensor for Pb(2+) was developed on the basis of a 8-17 DNAzyme cleavage-induced template-independent polymerization and alkaline phosphatase amplification strategy. The hairpin-like substrate strand (HP DNA) of 8-17 DNAzyme was firstly immobilized onto the electrode. In the presence of Pb(2+) and the catalytic strand of 8-17 DNAzyme, the HP DNA could be cleaved to expose the free 3'-OH terminal, which could be then utilized for the cascade operation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdTase) for the base extension to incorporate biotinylated dUTP (dUTP-biotin). The further conjugated streptavidin-labeled alkaline phosphatase (SA-ALP) then catalyzed conversion of electrochemically inactive 1-naphthyl phosphate (1-NP) for the generation of electrochemical response signal. The currently fabricated Pb(2+) sensor effectively combines triply cascade amplification effects including cyclic Pb(2+)-dependent DNAzyme cleavage, TdTase-mediated base extension and enzymatic catalysis of ALP. An impressive detection limit of 0.043nM toward Pb(2+) with an excellent selectivity could be ultimately obtained, which was superior than most of the electrochemical methods. Thus, the developed amplification strategy opens a promising avenue for the detection of metal ions and may extend for the detection of other nucleic acid-related analytes. PMID:27093488

  6. Genetic Responses to Nanostructured Calcium-phosphate-coated Implants

    PubMed Central

    Jimbo, R.; Xue, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Schwartz-Filho, H.O.; Andersson, M.; Mustafa, K.; Wennerberg, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured calcium phosphate (CaP) has been histologically and biomechanically proven to enhance osseointegration of implants; however, conventional techniques were not sufficiently sensitive to capture its biological effects fully. Here, we compared the conventional removal torque (RTQ) evaluation and gene expression in tissues around nanostructured CaP-coated implants, using real-time RT-PCR, with those of uncoated implants, in a rabbit model. At 2 wks, RTQ values were significantly higher, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression was significantly higher, and runt-related transcription factor 2 and tumor necrosis factor-α expressions were significantly lower in the coated than in the uncoated implants. This indicates that inflammatory responses were suppressed and osteoprogenitor activity increased around the CaP-coated surface. At 4 wks, although RTQ values did not significantly differ between the 2 groups, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN) were significantly up-regulated in the coated group, indicating progressive mineralization of the bone around the implant. Moreover, an osteoclast marker, adenosine triphosphatase, which indicates acidification of the resorption lacunae, was significantly higher for the coated implants, suggesting gradual resorption of the CaP coating. This study reveals detailed genetic responses to nanostructured CaP-coated implants and provides evidence that the effect of nanotopography is significant during the osseointegration cascade. PMID:21933935

  7. Biosynthesis of Dolichyl Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, H. Esteban; Daleo, Gustavo R.; Romero, Pedro A.; Lezica, Rafael Pont

    1978-01-01

    This is the first report not only on the presence of polyprenyl phosphates and their site of synthesis in algae, but also on the formation of their sugar derivatives in this system. A glucose acceptor lipid was isolated from the nonphotosynthetic alga Prototheca zopfii. The lipid was acidic and resistant to mild acid and alkaline treatments. The glucosylated lipid was labile to mild acid hydrolysis and resistant to phenol treatment and catalytic hydrogenation, as dolichyl phosphate glucose is. These results are consistent with the properties of an α-saturated polyprenyl phosphate. The polyprenylic nature of the lipid was confirmed by biosynthesis from radioactive mevalonate. The [14C]lipid had the same chromatographic properties as dolichyl phosphate in DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex LH-20. Strong alkaline treatment and enzymic hydrolysis liberated free alcohols with chain lengths ranging from C90 to C105, C95 and C100 being the most abundant molecular forms. The glucose acceptor activity of the biosynthesized polyprenyl phosphate was confirmed. The ability of different subcellular fractions to synthesize dolichyl phosphate was studied. Mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus were the sites of dolichyl phosphate synthesis from mevalonate. PMID:16660269

  8. Phosphate removal from domestic wastewater using thermally modified steel slag.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian; Liang, Wenyan; Wang, Li; Li, Feizhen; Zou, Yuanlong; Wang, Haidong

    2015-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the removal of phosphate from domestic wastewater using a modified steel slag as the adsorbent. The adsorption effects of alkalinity, salt, water, and thermal modification were investigated. The results showed that thermal activation at 800°C for 1 hr was the optimum operation to improve the adsorption capacity. The adsorption process of the thermally modified slag was well described by the Elovich kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir model reached 13.62 mg/g. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the surface of the modified slag was cracked and that the texture became loose after heating. The surface area and pore volume did not change after thermal modification. In the treatment of domestic wastewater, the modified slag bed (35.5 kg) removed phosphate effectively and operated for 158 days until the effluent P rose above the limit concentration of 0.5 mg/L. The phosphate fractionation method, which is often applied in soil research, was used to analyze the phosphate adsorption behavior in the slag bed. The analysis revealed that the total contents of various Ca-P forms accounted for 81.4%-91.1%, i.e., Ca10-P 50.6%-65.1%, Ca8-P 17.8%-25.0%, and Ca2-P 4.66%-9.20%. The forms of Al-P, Fe-P, and O-P accounted for only 8.9%-18.6%. The formation of Ca10-P precipitates was considered to be the main mechanism of phosphate removal in the thermally modified slag bed. PMID:25968262

  9. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

    This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

    The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National

  10. ALPS: A Linear Program Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.

  11. ALPS: Advanced Learning Packages, 1978-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Juan Unified School District, Carmichael, CA.

    The document describes the ALPS (Advanced Learning Packages) program for teaching gifted students. Introductory materials provide information on teacher requirements, school requirements, ALPS teacher orientation responsibilities, orientation week, field trip procedures, gifted money available, ALPS costs, ALPS evaluations, the Structure of…

  12. Multicolor ELISA based on alkaline phosphatase-triggered growth of Au nanorods.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Ma, Xiaoming; Xu, Zhengming; Liu, Meihua; Lin, Zhenyu; Qiu, Bin; Guo, Longhua; Chen, Guonan

    2016-05-10

    Seed-mediated synthesis of gold nanorods (AuNRs) has been widely used for diverse applications in the past decade. In this work, this synthetic process is demonstrated for multicolor biosensing for the first time. Our investigation reveals that ascorbic acid acts as a key factor to mediate the growth of AuNRs. This phenomenon is incorporated into the alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system based on the fact that ALP can catalyze the conversion of ascorbic acid-phosphate into ascorbic acid with high efficiency. This allows us to develop a multicolor ELISA approach for sensitive detection of disease biomarkers with the naked eye. We show the proof-of-concept multicolor ELISA for the detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human serum. The results show that different colors are presented in response to different concentrations of PSA, and a detection limit of 3 × 10(-15) g mL(-1) in human serum was achieved. The proposed multicolor ELISA could be a good supplement to conventional ELISA for POC diagnostics. PMID:27050384

  13. Osteoblast response to zirconia-hybridized pyrophosphate-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Whited, Bryce M.; Skrtic, Drago; Love, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bioceramics, such as hydroxyapatite, have long been used as bone substitutes because of their proven biocompatibility and bone binding properties in vivo. Recently, a zirconia-hybridized pyrophosphate-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (Zr-ACP) has been synthesized, which is more soluble than hydroxyapatite and allows for controlled release of calcium and phosphate ions. These ions have been postulated to increase osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in vitro. The focus of this work is to elucidate the physicochemical properties of Zr-ACP and to measure cell response to Zr-ACP in vitro using a MC3T3-E1 mouse calvarial-derived osteoprogenitor cell line. Cells were cultured in osteogenic medium and mineral was added to culture at different stages in cell maturation. Culture in the presence of Zr-ACP showed significant increases in cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and osteopontin (OPN) synthesis, whereas collagen synthesis was unaffected. In addition, calcium and phosphate ion concentrations and medium pH were found to transiently increase with the addition of Zr-ACP, and are hypothesized to be responsible for the osteogenic effect of Zr-ACP. PMID:16278876

  14. ALPS - A LINEAR PROGRAM SOLVER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Linear programming is a widely-used engineering and management tool. Scheduling, resource allocation, and production planning are all well-known applications of linear programs (LP's). Most LP's are too large to be solved by hand, so over the decades many computer codes for solving LP's have been developed. ALPS, A Linear Program Solver, is a full-featured LP analysis program. ALPS can solve plain linear programs as well as more complicated mixed integer and pure integer programs. ALPS also contains an efficient solution technique for pure binary (0-1 integer) programs. One of the many weaknesses of LP solvers is the lack of interaction with the user. ALPS is a menu-driven program with no special commands or keywords to learn. In addition, ALPS contains a full-screen editor to enter and maintain the LP formulation. These formulations can be written to and read from plain ASCII files for portability. For those less experienced in LP formulation, ALPS contains a problem "parser" which checks the formulation for errors. ALPS creates fully formatted, readable reports that can be sent to a printer or output file. ALPS is written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC product, Version 1.01. The APL2 workspace containing all the ALPS code can be run on any APL2/PC system (AT or 386). On a 32-bit system, this configuration can take advantage of all extended memory. The user can also examine and modify the ALPS code. The APL2 workspace has also been "packed" to be run on any DOS system (without APL2) as a stand-alone "EXE" file, but has limited memory capacity on a 640K system. A numeric coprocessor (80X87) is optional but recommended. The standard distribution medium for ALPS is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. IBM, IBM PC and IBM APL2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  15. Identification of a macro-alkaline phosphatase complex in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Malcolm P; Rawson, Catherine; Lawrence, David; Raney, Barbara S; Jaundrill, Linnet; Miller, Lorna A; Murtinho-Braga, Joseph; Kearney, Edward M

    2012-07-01

    We report the rare finding of a macro-alkaline phosphatase (macroALP) complex in a patient with a previously unexplained raised alkaline phosphatase activity. The clinical symptoms were persistent, daily diarrhoea for two months with blood in the stool. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease, specifically ulcerative colitis, following a rectal biopsy and colonoscopy. Two cases of macroALP associated with ulcerative colitis have been reported before, suggesting there could be an increased prevalence of macroALP in these patients. PMID:22454544

  16. Key role of alkaline phosphatase in the development of human-derived nanoparticles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Larry W; Shiekh, Farooq A; Pisimisis, George T; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Edeh, Samuel N; Miller, Virginia M; Lieske, John C

    2011-03-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme critical for physiological and pathological biomineralization. Experiments were designed to determine whether ALP participates in the formation of calcifying nanometer sized particles (NPs) in vitro. Filtered homogenates of human calcified carotid artery, aorta and kidney stones were inoculated into cell culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum in the absence or presence of inhibitors of ALP or pyrophosphate. A calcific NP biofilm developed within 1 week after inoculation and their development was reduced by pyrophosphate and inhibitors of ALP. ALP protein and enzymatic activity were detected in washed NPs, whether calcified or decalcified. Therefore, ALP activity is required for the formation of calcifying NPs in vitro, as has previously been implicated during pathological calcification in vivo. PMID:21029794

  17. Key role of alkaline phosphatase for development of human-derived nanoparticles in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Larry W.; Shiekh, Farooq A.; Pisimisis, George T.; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Edeh, Samuel N.; Miller, Virginia M.; Lieske, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme critical for physiological and pathological biomineralization. Experiments were designed to determine if ALP participates in formation of calcifying nanometer-sized particles (NPs) in vitro. Filtered homogenates of human calcified carotid artery, aorta and kidney stones were inoculated into cell culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum in the absence or presence of inhibitors of ALP or pyrophosphate. Calcific NP biofilm developed within one week after inoculation and their development was reduced by pyrophosphate and inhibitors of ALP. ALP protein and enzymatic activity were detected in washed NPs whether calcified or decalcified. Therefore, ALP activity is required for formation of calcifying NPs in vitro, as has previously been implicated during pathological calcification in vivo. PMID:21029794

  18. Proteomic responses of oceanic Synechococcus WH8102 to phosphate and zinc scarcity and cadmium additions.

    PubMed

    Cox, Alysia D; Saito, Mak A

    2013-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 is a motile marine cyanobacterium isolated originally from the Sargasso Sea. To test the response of this organism to cadmium (Cd), generally considered a toxin, cultures were grown in a matrix of high and low zinc (Zn) and phosphate (PO4 (3-)) and were then exposed to an addition of 4.4 pM free Cd(2+) at mid-log phase and harvested after 24 h. Whereas Zn and PO4 (3-) had little effect on overall growth rates, in the final 24 h of the experiment three growth effects were noticed: (i) low PO4 (3-) treatments showed increased growth rates relative to high PO4 (3-) treatments, (ii) the Zn/high PO4 (3-) treatment appeared to enter stationary phase, and (iii) Cd increased growth rates further in both the low PO4 (3-) and Zn treatments. Global proteomic analysis revealed that: (i) Zn appeared to be critical to the PO4 (3-) response in this organism, (ii) bacterial metallothionein (SmtA) appears correlated with PO4 (3-) stress-associated proteins, (iii) Cd has the greatest influence on the proteome at low PO4 (3-) and Zn, (iv) Zn buffered the effects of Cd, and (v) in the presence of both replete PO4 (3-) and added Cd the proteome showed little response to the presence of Zn. Similar trends in alkaline phosphate (ALP) and SmtA suggest the possibility of a Zn supply system to provide Zn to ALP that involves SmtA. In addition, proteome results were consistent with a previous transcriptome study of PO4 (3-) stress (with replete Zn) in this organism, including the greater relative abundance of ALP (PhoA), ABC phosphate binding protein (PstS) and other proteins. Yet with no Zn in this proteome experiment the PO4 (3-) response was quite different including the greater relative abundance of five hypothetical proteins with no increase in PhoA or PstS, suggesting that Zn nutritional levels are connected to the PO4 (3-) response in this cyanobacterium. Alternate ALP PhoX (Ca) was found to be a low abundance protein, suggesting that PhoA (Zn, Mg) may be

  19. Radially and axially graded multizonal bone graft substitutes targeting critical-sized bone defects from polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Asli; Yu, Xiaojun; Valdevit, Antonio; Ritter, Arthur; Kalyon, Dilhan M

    2012-12-01

    Repair and regeneration of critical sized defects via the utilization of polymeric bone graft substitutes are challenges. Here, we introduce radially and axially graded multizonal bone graft substitutes fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL), and PCL biocomposites with osteoconductive particles, that is, hydroxyapatite (HA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP). The novel bone graft substitutes should provide a greater degree of freedom to the orthopedic surgeon especially for repair of critically sized bone defects. The modulus of the graft substitute could be tailored in the axial direction upon the systematic variation of the HA/TCP concentration, while in the radial direction the bone graft substitute consisted of an outer layer with high stiffness, encapsulating a softer core with greater porosity. The biocompatibility of the bone graft substitutes was investigated using in vitro culturing of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells followed by the analysis of cell proliferation and differentiation rates. The characterization of the tissue constructs included the enzymatic alkaline phosphates (ALP) activity, microcomputed tomography imaging, and polymerase chain reaction analysis involving the expressions of bone markers, that is, Runx2, ALP, collagen type I, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, overall demonstrating the differentiation of bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) via osteogenic lineage and formation of mineralized bone tissue. PMID:22764839

  20. Radially and Axially Graded Multizonal Bone Graft Substitutes Targeting Critical-Sized Bone Defects from Polycaprolactone/Hydroxyapatite/Tricalcium Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Asli; Yu, Xiaojun; Valdevit, Antonio; Ritter, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Repair and regeneration of critical sized defects via the utilization of polymeric bone graft substitutes are challenges. Here, we introduce radially and axially graded multizonal bone graft substitutes fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL), and PCL biocomposites with osteoconductive particles, that is, hydroxyapatite (HA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP). The novel bone graft substitutes should provide a greater degree of freedom to the orthopedic surgeon especially for repair of critically sized bone defects. The modulus of the graft substitute could be tailored in the axial direction upon the systematic variation of the HA/TCP concentration, while in the radial direction the bone graft substitute consisted of an outer layer with high stiffness, encapsulating a softer core with greater porosity. The biocompatibility of the bone graft substitutes was investigated using in vitro culturing of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells followed by the analysis of cell proliferation and differentiation rates. The characterization of the tissue constructs included the enzymatic alkaline phosphates (ALP) activity, microcomputed tomography imaging, and polymerase chain reaction analysis involving the expressions of bone markers, that is, Runx2, ALP, collagen type I, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, overall demonstrating the differentiation of bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) via osteogenic lineage and formation of mineralized bone tissue. PMID:22764839

  1. Fabrication of novel poly(lactic acid)/amorphous magnesium phosphate bionanocomposite fibers for tissue engineering applications via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Lin, Boren; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-05-01

    Fibrous bionanocomposites consisting of amorphous magnesium phosphate (AMP) nanospheres and polylactic acid (PLA) were fabricated by electrospinning. There are two important signatures of this paper. First, AMP, as an alternative to well-known calcium phosphate (CaP) materials, is added to PLA as the second phase. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first attempt to fabricate magnesium phosphate (MgP)/biopolymer composite. This is made possible by our previously reported research on the successful synthesis of AMP nanospheres via microwave processing. Second, the sustained release of magnesium and phosphate ions from PLA matrix can stimulate a series of cell responses. The structure of the composites and their bone-like apatite-forming abilities in simulated body fluid (SBF) were examined. Additionally, the effects on the proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblast cells were evaluated by performing in vitro cell culture and monitoring markers such as Osteocalcin (OCN), Osteopontin (OPN), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Collagen type-I (Col I) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For better dispersion of AMP in the fibers, a surfactant, 12-hydroxysteric acid (HSA), as previously reported in the literature, was used. However, HSA significantly inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblast cells, indicating the potential risk in using HSA in the combination of AMP or MgP in tissue engineering applications. PMID:23498262

  2. Configurational effects of collagen/ALP coatings on enzyme immobilization and surface mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, R.; Leeuwenburgh, S. C. G.; Jansen, J. A.; van den Beucken, J. J. J. P.

    2014-08-01

    The ultimate goal for surface modifications in bone implants is to achieve biologically active surface able to control and trigger specific tissue response. In this study was evaluated the effects of organic compound, derived from extracellular matrix, involved in tissue mineralization. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) plays a fundamental role in bone mineralization concurrently with collagen, the main organic components of bones. Electrospray deposition (ESD) was used to coat titanium disks with ALP and collagen at room temperature. To verify the synergistic role of ALP and collagen different conformations of coatings (mixed and layered) were obtained and their mineralization capacity was tested in vitro. The mineralization tests indicated the fundamental role of collagen to increase ALP coating retention. Analyses indicated that the coating conformation has a role; in fact the mixed group showed improved ALP retention, enzymatic activity and unique mineralized surface morphology. ESD demonstrated to be a successful method to deposit organic molecules preserving their properties as indicated by the in vitro results. These findings proved the synergistic effect of ALP and collagen in inducing mineralization offering an intriguing coating constituent for medical device that aim to trigger surface mineralization such as bone implants.

  3. Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes in mouse plasma detected by polyacrylamide-gel disk electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Kazuhisa; Nishihara, Yoshito; Kimura, Sayaka; Goto, Ken; Nakamura, Daichi; Wakita, Atsushi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka

    2011-04-01

    Plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is frequently measured in toxicity studies. In the present study, we assessed the usefulness of a commercially available polyacrylamide-gel (PAG) disk electrophoresis kit used in humans (AlkPhor System, Jokoh Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) for identifying plasma ALP isoenzymes in mice of the Crlj:CD1 strain (ICR mice), which are commonly used in toxicity studies. We also examined age-related changes in plasma ALP isoenzymes in ICR mice. Electrophoresis was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. In order to identify the origin of each ALP isoenzyme, in addition to plasma samples, tissue ALP extracts from the liver, bone and small intestine were treated with neuraminidase, anti-small intestinal ALP antibody, ALP inhibitor levamisole and/or wheat germ agglutinin (WGA). The kit revealed that main plasma ALP isoenzyme in intact ICR mice was bone-derived one, and it tended to decrease with age. On the other hand, liver-derived ALP isoenzyme greatly increased in plasma of cholestasis model mice induced by bile duct ligation. This model mouse had also a large molecular ALP detected in the stacking gel. This ALP was thought to be of intestinal origin because its activity remained even after levamisole inhibition. In addition, a minimum sample volume for sufficient resolution of plasma ALP isoenzymes was only 14µl. The results of this study suggest that the present method is a useful tool for detecting plasma ALP isoenzymes in mice and that pre-treatment of plasma with neuraminidase and concomitant levamisole inhibition with another gel is applicable for the evaluation of organ toxicity. PMID:21467748

  4. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  5. Effect of culture conditions and calcium phosphate coating on ectopic bone formation.

    PubMed

    Vaquette, Cédryck; Ivanovski, Saso; Hamlet, Stephen M; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating onto a polycaprolactone melt electrospun scaffold and in vitro culture conditions on ectopic bone formation in a subcutaneous rat model. The CaP coating resulted in an increased alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) in ovine osteoblasts regardless of the culture conditions and this was also translated into higher levels of mineralisation. A subcutaneous implantation was performed and increasing ectopic bone formation was observed over time for the CaP-coated samples previously cultured in osteogenic media whereas the corresponding non-coated samples displayed a lag phase before bone formation occurred from 4 to 8 weeks post-implantation. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed bone fill through the scaffolds 8 weeks post-implantation for coated and non-coated specimens and that ALP, osteocalcin and collagen 1 were present at the ossification front and in the bone tissues. Vascularisation in the vicinity of the bone tissues was also observed indicating that the newly formed bone was not deprived of oxygen and nutrients. We found that in vitro osteogenic induction was essential for achieving bone formation and CaP coating accelerated the osteogenic process. We conclude that high cell density and preservation of the collagenous and mineralised extracellular matrix secreted in vitro are factors of importance for ectopic bone formation. PMID:23623428

  6. Human mesenchymal stromal cells response to biomimetic octacalcium phosphate containing strontium.

    PubMed

    Birgani, Zeinab Tahmasebi; Malhotra, Angad; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2016-08-01

    The incorporation of bioinorganics into synthetic biomaterials is a promising approach to improve the biological performance of bone graft substitutes, while still retaining their synthetic nature. Among these bioinorganics, strontium ions (Sr(2+) ) have reported enhanced bone formation, and a reduced risk of bone fractures. While previous results have been encouraging, more detailed studies are needed to further develop specific applications. This study demonstrates the effects of Sr(2+) on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) when introduced as either a dissolved salt, or incorporated into biomimetic calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings. Upon attachment, hMSCs seeded in the presence of higher Sr(2+) concentrations presented with a more elongated shape as compared to the controls without Sr(2+) . Both Sr(2+) as a dissolved salt in the medium, or incorporated into CaP coatings, positively influenced hMSC alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in a dose-dependent manner. At the mRNA level, the expression of osteogenic markers ALP, bone sialoprotein, bone morphogenetic protein 2, osteopontin, and osteoclacin were increased in the presence of Sr(2+) , independent of the delivery method. Overall, this study demonstrates the positive effects of strontium on the osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs, and supports the use of strontium-incorporated CaPs for bone regeneration applications. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1946-1960, 2016. PMID:27012665

  7. Assessment of the serum levels of bone alkaline phosphatase with a new immunoradiometric assay in patients with metabolic bone disease

    SciTech Connect

    Garnero, P.; Delmas, P.D.

    1993-10-01

    The authors measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) with a new immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in a large sample of healthy controls comprising 173 women and 180 men, 20-88 yr of age, and in patients with metabolic bone disease. Using serum samples from patients with liver disease and patients with Paget's disease with elevated total alkaline phosphatase (T-ALP) as a source of, respectively, liver and bone isoenyzmes, they determined a liver cross-reactivity of the IRMA of 16% that was confirmed by electrophoresis of the circulating alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. The IRMA was linear for serial sample dilutions, the recovery ranged from 89-110%, and the intra- and interassay variations were below 7% and 9%, respectively. B-ALP increased linearly with age in both sexes, and the mean B-ALP serum levels were not significantly different for women and men (11.3 [+-] 4.8 ng/mL for women; 11.0 [+-] 4.0 ng/mL for men). The increase in B-ALP after the menopause was significantly higher than that in T-ALP (+77% vs. +24%; P<0.001). When the values of postmenopausal women were expressed as the SD from the mean of premenopausal women, the mean Z scores were 2.2[+-] 1.8 for B-ALP and 0.9 [+-] 1.3 for T-ALP (P<0.001 between the two).

  8. Effect of surface modification of nanofibres with glutamic acid peptide on calcium phosphate nucleation and osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Ozan; Kumar, Ankur; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; He, Xuezhong; Cui, Tong; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2016-02-01

    Biomineralization is mediated by extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins with amino acid sequences rich in glutamic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium phosphate deposition on aligned nanofibres surface-modified with a glutamic acid peptide on osteogenic differentiation of rat marrow stromal cells. Blend of EEGGC peptide (GLU) conjugated low molecular weight polylactide (PLA) and high molecular weight poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was electrospun to form aligned nanofibres (GLU-NF). The GLU-NF microsheets were incubated in a modified simulated body fluid for nucleation of calcium phosphate crystals on the fibre surface. To achieve a high calcium phosphate to fibre ratio, a layer-by-layer approach was used to improve diffusion of calcium and phosphate ions inside the microsheets. Based on dissipative particle dynamics simulation of PLGA/PLA-GLU fibres, > 80% of GLU peptide was localized to the fibre surface. Calcium phosphate to fibre ratios as high as 200%, between those of cancellous (160%) and cortical (310%) bone, was obtained with the layer-by-layer approach. The extent of osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of marrow stromal cells seeded on GLU-NF microsheets was directly related to the amount of calcium phosphate deposition on the fibres prior to cell seeding. Expression of osteogenic markers osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin and type 1 collagen increased gradually with calcium phosphate deposition on GLU-NF microsheets. Results demonstrate that surface modification of aligned synthetic nanofibres with EEGGC peptide dramatically affects nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate crystals on the fibres leading to increased osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells and mineralization. PMID:23897753

  9. How steep are the Alps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Stüwe, Kurt; Hergarten, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The topography of the European Alps reflects continental collision, crustal thickening and buoyancy driven surface uplift, overprinted by erosional processes. Topographic gradients generally steepen from the valley floors up to about 1500 m - 2000 m followed by an unexpected decrease in slope up to about 2900 m and a further increase to the highest summits of the range. Several studies have interpreted this pattern and the accompanied maximum in the hypsometric curve in terms of either the critical slope stability angle, the prematurity of the Alps caused by recent tectonic uplift, or the effect of the glacial "buzz saw" related to the Pleistocene glaciation cycles. There is consensus that the lithological inventory represents a first order parameter for the steepness of fluvial channels and the angle of hillslopes in steady state and that the response time of a transient landscape is controlled by lithology. In this study we systematically explore the slope-elevation distributions for several hundred continuous domains of the major structural units of the Alps. For this, we apply a novel numerical code to determine the predominant cause for the observed peculiar topography. We compare adjacent alpine domains with contrasting lithology to explore lithological effects on the limiting slope stability angle. We analyze domains with different lithology in the non-glaciated parts of the orogen to highlight the state of maturity related to a recent uplift event. We evaluate the glacial effects on the landscape by the comparison of areas belonging to the same structural units but affected by a variable amount of glacial imprint. The results show that lithology has a major impact on the morphometric characteristics of the European Alps. Adjacent but different structural units show a significant variability in their slope-elevation distributions although they have experienced the same uplift history and the same amount of glacial imprint. This suggests that the response

  10. Any Light Particle Search (ALPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Aaron; Any Light Particle Search (ALPS) Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    High power laser fields enabled by technologies developed for ground-based gravitational-wave observatories open up new opportunities for fundamental physics studies. One of these options is the search for axions and axion-like particles in a pure laboratory experiment. The axion is a solution to the strong CP-problem and a potential dark matter candidate. The axion has also been proposed as an additional channel to cool stars as well as a potential explanation for the TeV transparency problem. The German-US ALPS collaboration is setting up a light-shining-through-walls (LSW) experiment at DESY. LSW experiments are based on the simple idea that a high power laser field traversing a static magnetic field will transform partly into a relativistic axion field. This axion field will travel through an opaque wall into a second static magnetic field region where it turns partly back into an electromagnetic wave field with the same frequency as the laser. The ALPS collaboration is working towards a large scale LSW experiment at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. I will report on the status of the ALPS experiment. This work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, PRISMA, the Helmholtz Association, the National Science Foundation and the Heising-Simons Foundation.

  11. Transforming growth factor-beta1 incorporated during setting in calcium phosphate cement stimulates bone cell differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Blom, E J; Klein-Nulend, J; Klein, C P; Kurashina, K; van Waas, M A; Burger, E H

    2000-04-01

    Growth stimulation of periimplant tissues by growth factors like transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) may increase the indication for and success of implant use. Calcium phosphate as a material for implants or for coating of implants is known for its good biologic interaction with bone. Therefore, calcium phosphate implants combined with TGF-beta1 might improve osseointegration. In this study we hypothesise that the addition of recombinant human TGF-beta1 (rhTGF-beta1) to calcium phosphate cement (CPC) affects the differentiation of bone cells growing on the cement layer. rhTGF-beta1 incorporated during setting in a CPC layer at 20 ng rhTGF-beta1/60 mg cement was found to be gradually released into tissue culturing medium leading to a 20% release after 24 h. Two cell populations were obtained from collagenase-treated fragments of adult rat long bones: preosteoblastic cells, which were released by the collagenase treatment, and osteoblastic cells, which grew from the collagenase-stripped bone fragments. Both cell populations were tested for their osteoblastic characteristic phenotype by measuring their alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity after vitamin D treatment and cyclic AMP after parathyroid hormone stimulation. After preculture the cells were plated on a layer of CPC containing 0 (control), 10, or 20 ng rhTGF-beta1/60 mg CPC. Bone cell differentiation was analyzed after 10 days by measuring the ALP activity, as well as the protein content of the cell layer. Incorporation of rhTGF-beta1 in the CPC did not change the ALP activity in osteoblastic cells, but a significant (analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance) increase was observed in preosteoblastic cells. Incorporation of 10 ng of rhTGF-beta1 in 60 mg of CPC increased the ALP activity in preosteoblastic cells by threefold and 20 ng rhTGF-beta1/60 mg CPC increased it by fivefold. The total protein content was not affected by rhTGF-beta1 in either of the cell populations. We conclude that rh

  12. Effect of strontium ions on calcification of preosteoblasts cultured on porous calcium- and phosphate-containing titanium oxide layers formed by micro-arc oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mizuki; Chen, Peng; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Shiota, Makoto; Hanawa, Takao; Kasugai, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) ions were added to calcium- and phosphate-containing porous titanium oxide layers formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) of titanium (Ti) substrates to improve their osseointegration. An MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast was used to evaluate the effect of the incorporated Sr species on cell calcification. Similar surface microporous morphologies of the oxide layers were observed for all specimens produced by MAO, while the contents of the incorporated Sr ions increased with increasing Sr concentrations in MAO electrolytes. The calcium- and phosphate-containing porous layers promoted the cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, while cell calcification was promoted by the Sr addition. In particular, the ALP activity significantly increased after 10 days of culture, and larger areas of calcified deposits were observed for the specimens treated with MAO electrolytes containing 0.15 mol L(-1) of Sr species. The effect of Sr addition on the calcification of the MAO-treated Ti oxide layers was established in this study. PMID:27477229

  13. Diagnostic evaluation of canine serum alkaline phosphatase by immunochemical means and interpretation of results.

    PubMed

    Saini, P K; Peavy, G M; Hauser, D E; Saini, S K

    1978-09-01

    Sera of several canine patients contained an isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that resembled intestinal ALP with respect to heat inactivation, L-phenylalanine inhibition, and sensitivity to anti-canine intestinal ALP antibody, but differed with regard to the electrophoretic migration. The electrophoretic mobility of the isoenzyme was slightly cathodal than that of hepatic ALP, and its migration was reduced, similar to that of hepatic isoenzyme after neuraminidase treatment. This isoenzyme, which could be corticosteroid induced, was in the sera of numerous dogs with hepatobiliary disorders and was different from the hepatic isoenzyme that appeared in the sera of dogs with acute hepatitis, based on anti-canine intestinal ALP antibody interaction, heat inactivation, and electrophoretic migration. PMID:358873

  14. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a laxative to clean the bowels before surgery or intestinal tests. Healthcare providers sometimes give potassium phosphate intravenously (by IV) for treating low phosphate and high calcium levels in the blood, and for preventing low phosphate in patients who are being tube-fed.

  15. Human umbilical cord stem cell encapsulation in calcium phosphate scaffolds for bone engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Weir, Michael D.; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) require an invasive procedure to harvest, and have lower self-renewal potential with aging. Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are a relatively new stem cell source; this study reveals a self-setting and load-bearing calcium phosphate construct that encapsulates these stem cells. The flexural strength (mean ± sd; n = 5) of the hUCMSC-encapsulating calcium phosphate cement (CPC) increased from (3.5 ± 1.1) MPa without polyglactin fibers, to (11.7 ± 2.1) MPa with 20% of polyglactin fibers (p < 0.05). hUCMSCs attached to the bone mineral-mimicking scaffold in the osteogenic media and differentiated down the osteogenic lineage, yielding elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) gene expressions. ALP and OC on the CPC-fiber scaffold was 2-fold those on CPC control without fibers. hUCMSCs encapsulated inside the scaffolds retained excellent viability and cell density. The encapsulated hUCMSCs inside four different constructs successfully differentiated down the osteogenic lineage and synthesized bone minerals, as confirmed by mineral staining, SEM, and XRD. The percentage of mineral area synthesized by the encapsulated hUCMSCs increased from about 3% at day-7, to 12% at day-21 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that hUCMSCs encapsulated in the bioengineered scaffolds osteo-differentiated and synthesized bone minerals. The self-setting CPC–chitosan–fiber scaffold supported the viability and osteogenic differentiation of the encapsulated hUCMSCs, and had mechanical strength matching that of cancellous bone. PMID:20149437

  16. Alps

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... that run the length of Italy in the center, and the islands of Corsica and the larger Sardinia off Italy's west coast. The city of ... boot at the northwest end of the Adriatic Sea. The barrier islands across the Gulf of Venice are barely visible. Trieste is on the bay at ...

  17. International symposium on cellular and molecular biology of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds in microorganisms: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at the conference. Attention is focused on the following topics: regulation of phosphate metabolism in bacteria; structure-function of alkaline phosphatase; regulation of phosphate metabolism in yeast; transport of phosphate and phosphorylated compounds; and phosphate regulation in pathogenesis and secondary metabolism.

  18. The Effect of Covalently Immobilized FGF-2 on Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute on Enhanced Biological Compatibility and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Eun-Joo; Oh, Seunghan; Kim, Sungtae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to covalently graft fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) onto biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) via a bifunctional cross-linker technique and to estimate the optimal dose of FGF-2 resulting in the best osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). SEM observation revealed that the surface of the 100 ng FGF-2 coated BCP was completely covered with the nanoparticles expected to be from the silane coupling agent. XRD, FT-IR, and XPS analysis showed that silane treatment, bifunctional cross-linker coating, and FGF-2 covalent grafts were conducted successfully without deforming the crystalline structure of BCP. An MTT assay demonstrated that FGF-2 coated BCP had good biocompatibility, regardless of the concentration of FGF-2, after 24 or 48 h of incubation. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay (14 days of incubation) and the ALP gene expression level of real-time PCR analysis (7 days of incubation) revealed that 50, 100, and 200 ng FGF-2 coated BCP induced the highest activities among all experimental groups and control group (P < 0.05). Thus, low concentrations of FGF-2 facilitated excellent osteogenesis and were effective at enhancing osteogenic potential. Also, the bifunctional cross-linker technique is expected to be a more feasible way to induce osteogenic differentiation while minimizing the risk of FGF-2 overdose. PMID:26436096

  19. The Effect of Alendronate Loaded Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds on Bone Regeneration in a Rat Tibial Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwang-Won; Yun, Young-Pil; Kim, Sung Eun; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of alendronate (Aln) released from biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. We evaluated the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of Aln/BCP scaffolds using MG-63 cells and the in vivo bone regenerative capability of Aln/BCP scaffolds using a rat tibial defect model with radiography, micro-computed tomography (CT), and histological examination. In vitro studies included the surface morphology of BCP and Aln-loaded BCP scaffolds visualized using field-emission scanning electron microscope, release kinetics of Aln from BCP scaffolds, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression. The in vitro studies showed that sustained release of Aln from the BCP scaffolds consisted of porous microstructures, and revealed that MG-63 cells cultured on Aln-loaded BCP scaffolds showed significantly increased ALP activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression compared to cells cultured on BCP scaffolds. The in vivo studies using radiograph and histology examination revealed abundant callus formation and bone maturation at the site in the Aln/BCP groups compared to the control group. However, solid bony bridge formation was not observed at plain radiographs until 8 weeks. Micro-CT analysis revealed that bone mineral density and bone formation volume were increased over time in an Aln concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that Aln/BCP scaffolds have the potential for controlling the release of Aln and enhance bone formation and mineralization. PMID:26561810

  20. The Effect of Alendronate Loaded Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds on Bone Regeneration in a Rat Tibial Defect Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwang-Won; Yun, Young-Pil; Kim, Sung Eun; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of alendronate (Aln) released from biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. We evaluated the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of Aln/BCP scaffolds using MG-63 cells and the in vivo bone regenerative capability of Aln/BCP scaffolds using a rat tibial defect model with radiography, micro-computed tomography (CT), and histological examination. In vitro studies included the surface morphology of BCP and Aln-loaded BCP scaffolds visualized using field-emission scanning electron microscope, release kinetics of Aln from BCP scaffolds, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression. The in vitro studies showed that sustained release of Aln from the BCP scaffolds consisted of porous microstructures, and revealed that MG-63 cells cultured on Aln-loaded BCP scaffolds showed significantly increased ALP activity, calcium deposition, and gene expression compared to cells cultured on BCP scaffolds. The in vivo studies using radiograph and histology examination revealed abundant callus formation and bone maturation at the site in the Aln/BCP groups compared to the control group. However, solid bony bridge formation was not observed at plain radiographs until 8 weeks. Micro-CT analysis revealed that bone mineral density and bone formation volume were increased over time in an Aln concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that Aln/BCP scaffolds have the potential for controlling the release of Aln and enhance bone formation and mineralization. PMID:26561810

  1. Characterization of the aspects of osteoprogenitor cell interactions with physical tetracalcium phosphate anchorage on titanium implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chia-Ling; Chang, Ya-Yuan; Liou, Cian-Hua; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2015-04-01

    Well-designed implants are used not only to modify the geometry of the implant but also to change the chemical properties of its surfaces. The present study aims to assess the biofunctional effects of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) particles as a physical anchor on the implant surface derived through sandblasting. The characteristics of the surface, cell viability, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity toward osteoprogenitor cells (D1) were obtained. D1 cells were cultured on a plain surface that underwent sandblasting and acid etching (SLA) (control SLA group) and on different SLA surfaces with different anchoring TTCP rates (new test groups, M and H). The mean anchoring rates were 57% (M) and 74% (H), and the anchored thickness was estimated to range from 12.6μm to 18.3μm. Compared with the control SLA surface on Ti substrate, the new test groups with different TTCP anchoring rates (M and H) failed to improve cell proliferation significantly but had a well-differentiated D1 cell phenotype that enhanced ALP expression in the early stage of cell cultures, specifically, at day 7. Results suggest that the SLA surface with anchored TTCP can accelerate progenitor bone cell mineralization. This study shows the potential clinical application of the constructed geometry in TTCP anchorage on Ti for dental implant surface modification. PMID:25686921

  2. Seismotectonics investigations in the internal Cottian Alps (Italian Western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Gianluigi; Eva, Elena; Solarino, Stefano; Cadoppi, Paola; Balestro, Gianni; Fioraso, Gianfranco; Tallone, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The inner Cottian Alps represent an area of a low- to moderate- magnitude seismicity (Eva et al., 1990) even though some historical earthquakes reached VIII degree of the Mercalli's scale. Although the frame of seismicity is quite well known, the relation between faults and earthquake sources is still under debate. The low deformation rates and the occurrence of several glacial-interglacial cycles during the Pleistocene partly masked the geomorphological evidences of the recent tectonic activity. Recent studies based on field mapping and structural analysis (Balestro et al., 2009; Perrone et al., 2009) allowed characterizing the size and extension of the regional-scale faults dissecting this area of the Western Alps. Here, we combine the results of these novel studies and updated seismological data with the aim to investigate the relations between mapped faults and seismic activity. In the analyzed area both continental crust and oceanic tectonic units, belonging to the Penninic Domain of the Western Alps, crop out. The main brittle tectonic feature of this area is represented by the Lis-Trana Deformation Zone (LTZ), an N-S striking, steep structure that extends for about 35 km from the Lower Lanzo valleys to the Lower Sangone Valley. The occurrence of steep faults displacing the metamorphic basement, showed in seismic sections carried out for oil exploration (Bertotti & Mosca, 2009), suggests that the LTZ may be prolonged Southward beneath the Plio-Quaternary deposits of the Po Plain. West of the LTZ some other minor E-W and N-S faults are also present. Zircon and apatite fission-track data indicate that the activity of these faults started since the Oligocene. Two main faulting stages characterize the post-metamorphic structural evolution of this area: the earlier (faulting stage A; Oligocene?-Early Miocene?) is associated to right-lateral movements along the LTZ and sinistral movements along E-W faults; the subsequent faulting stage (faulting stage B; post

  3. Tertiary LCT and NYF pegmatites of the central Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guastoni, Alessandro; Pennacchioni, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    A large field (about 100 km in E-W length and 15 km in N-S thickness) of Oligocene pegmatites extends in the central Alps from the Bergell pluton (to the east) to the Ossola Valley (to the west) within the Alpine nappes north of the Periadriatic Lineament. The pegmatite field geographically overlaps (i) the highest temperature domain of the Lepontine Barrovian metamorphic dome, and (ii) the zone of Alpine migmatization. Most pegmatites have a simple mineralogy consisting of K-feldspar, quartz and muscovite, but a minor amount (< 5%) includes Sn-Nb-Ta-Y-REE-U oxides, Y-REE phosphates, Mn-Fe-phosphates, Ti-Zr-silicates, Be-Y-REE-silicates, garnet (almandine-spessartine), and schorl-dravite-fluorelbaite tourmaline. Major and trace elements geochemistry of pegmatite bulk rock, rock-forming and accessory minerals allows the distinction of different pegmatite populations ranging from NYF (niobium, yttrium, fluorine) to LCT (lithium, cesium, tantalum) pegmatites, or mixed LCT-NYF ones. Actually, LCT pegmatites of the Central Alps did not reach a high degree of geochemical evolution. In the Codera Valley (on the western side of the Bergell pluton) LCT and NYF pegmatites are respectively hosted in tonalites and granodiorites; these pegmatites include the most evolved types which contain Mn-fluorelbaite, Mn-phosphates, pink-beryl and Cs-Rb-rich feldspar. From the structural point of view 2 main types of pegmatites can be distinguished: (i) pegmatites that were involved in ductile deformation, and (ii) pegmatite crosscutting the ductile structures of the SSB. Many pegmatites from Codera Valley belong to the first structural type: they were at emplaced at relatively high ambient temperatures (> 450 °C) and locally show pervasive recrystallization of quartz. More to the east (Mesolcina and Bodengo Valleys) the main set of pegmatites crosscut the ductile deformation structures of the SSB, but the area also includes an earlier generation of boudinaged and folded dykes. The

  4. Proton/Phosphate Stoichiometry in Uptake of Inorganic Phosphate by Cultured Cells of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

    PubMed Central

    Sakano, Katsuhiro

    1990-01-01

    Upon absorption of phosphate, cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don caused a rapid alkalinization of the medium in which they were suspended. The alkalinization continued until the added phosphate was completely exhausted from the medium, at which time the pH of the medium started to drop sharply toward the original pH value. Phosphate exposure caused the pH of the medium to increase from pH 3.5 to values as high as 5.8, while the rate of phosphate uptake was constant throughout (10-17 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight). This indicates that no apparent pH optimum exists for the phosphate uptake by the cultured cells. The amount of protons cotransported with phosphate was calculated from the observed pH change up to the maximum alkalinization and the titration curve of the cell suspension. Proton/phosphate transport stoichiometry ranged from less than unity to 4 according to the amount of phosphate applied. At low phosphate doses, the stoichiometries were close to 4, while at high phosphate doses, smaller stoichiometries were observed. This suggests that, at high phosphate doses, activation of the proton pump is induced by the longer lasting proton influx acidifying the cytoplasm. The increased H+ efflux due to the proton pump could partially compensate protons taken up via the proton-phosphate cotransport system. Thus, the H+/H2PO4− stoichiometry of the cotransport is most likely to be 4. PMID:16667491

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate polyhedron connectivity in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  6. Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    1999-12-21

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  7. Cloning and epitope mapping of Cry11Aa-binding sites in the Cry11Aa-receptor alkaline phosphatase from Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Luisa E; Martinez-Anaya, Claudia; Lira, Erandi; Chen, Jianwu; Evans, Amy; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2009-09-22

    Cry11Aa is the most active Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis toxin against Aedes aegypti larvae. Ae. aegypti alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was previously identified as a Cry11Aa receptor mediating toxicity. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of this Ae. aegypti Cry11Aa-ALP receptor. Of three ALP's cDNA clones, the recombinant produced ALP1 isoform was shown to bind Cry11Aa and P1.BBMV peptide phage that specifically binds the midgut ALP-Cry11Aa receptor. An anti-ALP1 antibody inhibited binding to brush border membrane vesicles and toxicity of Cry11Aa in isolated cultured guts. Two ALP1 Cry11Aa binding regions (R59-G102 and N257-I296) were mapped by characterizing binding of Cry11Aa to nine recombinant overlapping peptides covering the ALP1 sequence. Finally, by using a peptide spot array of Cry11Aa domain III and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the ALP1 R59-G102 region binds Cry11Aa through domain II loop alpha-8 while ALP1 N257-I296 interacts with Cry11Aa through domain III 561RVQSQNSGNN570 located in beta18-beta19. Our results show that Cry11Aa domain II and domain III are involved in the binding with two distinct binding sites in the ALP1 receptor. PMID:19697959

  8. Associations between Renal Hyperfiltration and Serum Alkaline Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se Won; Han, Kum Hyun; Han, Sang Youb

    2015-01-01

    Renal hyperfiltration, which is associated with renal injury, occurs in diabetic or obese individuals. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level is also elevated in patients with diabetes (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS), and increased urinary excretion of ALP has been demonstrated in patients who have hyperfiltration and tubular damage. However, little was investigated about the association between hyperfiltration and serum ALP level. A retrospective observational study of the 21,308 adults in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-V databases (2008–2011) was performed. Renal hyperfiltration was defined as exceeding the age- and sex-specific 97.5th percentile. We divided participants into 4 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): >120, 90–119, 60–89, and <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The participants with eGFR >120 mL/min/1.73 m2 showed the highest risk for MS, in the highest ALP quartiles (3.848, 95% CI, 1.876–7.892), compared to the lowest quartile. Similarly, the highest risk for DM, in the highest ALP quartiles, was observed in participants with eGFR >120 ml/min/1.73 m2 (2.166, 95% CI, 1.084–4.329). ALP quartiles were significantly associated with albuminuria in participants with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m2. The highest ALP quartile had a 1.631-fold risk elevation for albuminuria with adjustment of age and sex. (95% CI, 1.158-2.297, P = 0.005). After adjustment, the highest ALP quartile had a 1.624-fold risk elevation, for renal hyperfiltration (95% CI, 1.204–2.192, P = 0.002). In addition, hyperfiltration was significantly associated with hemoglobin, triglyceride, white blood cell count, DM, smoking, and alcohol consumption (P<0.05). The relationship between serum ALP and metabolic disorders is stronger in participants with an upper-normal range of eGFR. Higher ALP levels are significantly associated with renal hyperfiltration in Korean general population. PMID:25853240

  9. Effects of Intercropping with Potato Onion on the Growth of Tomato and Rhizosphere Alkaline Phosphatase Genes Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Fengzhi; Zhou, Xingang; Fu, Xuepeng; Tao, Yue; Xu, Weihui; Pan, Kai; Liu, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: In China, excessive fertilization has resulted in phosphorus (P) accumulation in most greenhouse soils. Intercropping can improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization in crop production. In this study, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of intercropping with potato onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum G. Don) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings growth and P uptake, the diversity of rhizosphere phosphobacteria and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes in phosphorus-rich soil. Methods: The experiment included three treatments, namely tomato monoculture (TM), potato onion monoculture (OM), and tomato/potato onion intercropping (TI-tomato intercropping and OI-potato onion intercropping). The growth and P uptake of tomato and potato onion seedlings were evaluated. The dilution plating method was used to determine the population of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (PMB). The genomic DNAs of PSB and PMB in the rhizosphere of tomato and potato onions were extracted and purified, and then, with the primer set of 338f /518r, the PCR amplification of partial bacterial 16S rDNA sequence was performed and sequenced to determine the diversities of PSB and PMB. After extracting the total genomic DNAs from the rhizosphere, the copy numbers and diversities of ALP genes were investigated using real-time PCR and PCR-DGGE, respectively. Results: Intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato seedlings, but inhibited those of potato onion. After 37 days of transplanting, compared to the rhizosphere of TM, the soil pH increased, while the electrolytic conductivity and Olsen P content decreased (p < 0.05) in the rhizosphere of TI. The populations and diversities of PSB, PMB, and ALP genes increased significantly in the rhizosphere of TI, compared to the rhizosphere of TM. Conclusion: The results indicated that intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P

  10. Sub-cellular localisation of alkaline phosphatase activity in the cytoplasm of tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) neutrophils and eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Hulme-Moir, K Lisa; Clark, Phillip

    2011-07-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been used in studies of neutrophil morphology and function as a marker for identifying different granule populations. In human neutrophils, ALP is found within secretory vesicles, a rapidly mobilisable vesicle population important for upregulating membrane receptors during early activation. Intra-cellular ALP activity in the heterophils of rabbits and guinea pigs, in contrast, is found only in secondary granules. The neutrophils and eosinophils of tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) have previously been reported to contain large amounts of ALP activity when stained using routine cytochemical techniques. To define the subcellular location of ALP in this species, cell suspensions were examined using cerium chloride cytochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). ALP was found in 2 distinct cytoplasmic compartments. One compartment displayed morphology consistent with a subpopulation of secondary granules while a second tubulo-vesicular population appeared similar to the secretory vesicles of human neutrophils. Thin tubular vesicles containing ALP were also identified within the cytoplasm of tammar wallaby eosinophils. Large numbers of ALP-containing vesicles have not been recognised previously in eosinophils and this may represent a novel cytoplasmic compartment. In both cell types, ALP-containing structures showed alteration in morphology following stimulation with N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and PMA. PMID:21596444

  11. Characterization of an Aspergillus flavus alkaline protease and its role in the infection of maize kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 33 kDa protein present in Aspergillus flavus infected maize embryo tissue was identified as a fungal alkaline protease (ALP). This protein became one of the major extracellular proteins of A. flavus in potato dextrose broth medium cultural filtrate after 3 days, but was expressed at low levels or ...

  12. A Case of Vitamin D Deficiency without Elevation of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase in a Carrier of Hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kumihiro; Mukai, Tokuo; Furuya, Akiko; Suzuki, Shigeru; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Azuma, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a screening marker for the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency, which may fail to be diagnosed if serum ALP is not elevated. Here, we describe a case of vitamin D deficiency without elevation of serum ALP. A 1-year-old Japanese girl was referred to our hospital for the evaluation of genu varum. Her serum intact PTH level was elevated, while her serum ALP level was normal. Furthermore, her serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was reduced, and her urine phosphoethanolamine (PEA) level was mildly elevated. ALPL gene analysis revealed she was a heterozygous carrier of hypophosphatasia (c.1559delT). Serum intact PTH and urine PEA evaluations were helpful for diagnosing vitamin D deficiency and hypophosphatasia carrier status, respectively. Therefore, the possibility of vitamin D deficiency without elevation of serum ALP should be considered. PMID:24170964

  13. A segmental pattern of alkaline phosphatase activity within the notochord coincides with the initial formation of the vertebral bodies

    PubMed Central

    Sindre, Grotmol; Kari, Nordvik; Harald, Kryvi; Geir, K Totland

    2005-01-01

    This study shows that segmental expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity by the notochord of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) coincides with the initial mineralization of the vertebral body (chordacentrum), and precedes ALP expression by presumed somite-derived cells external to the notochordal sheath. The early expression of ALP indicates that the notochord plays an instructive role in the segmental patterning of the vertebral column. The chordacentra form segmentally as mineralized rings within the notochordal sheath, and ALP activity spreads within the chordoblast layer from ventral to dorsal, displaying the same progression and spatial distribution as the mineralization process. No ALP activity was observed in sclerotomal mesenchyme surrounding the notochordal sheath during initial formation of the chordacentra. Our results support previous findings indicating that the chordoblasts initiate a segmental differentiation of the notochordal sheath into chordacentra and intervertebral regions. PMID:15857363

  14. Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Levels Predict Infection-Related Mortality and Hospitalization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seun Deuk; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels have been reported to be associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, it is unclear whether serum ALP levels predict infection-related clinical outcomes in PD patients. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between serum ALP levels, infection-related mortality and hospitalization in PD patients. Methods PD patients from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease, a multicenter prospective observational cohort study in Korea, were included in the present study. Patients were categorized into three groups by serum ALP tertiles as follows: Tertile 1, ALP <78 U/L; Tertile 2, ALP = 78–155 U/L; Tertile 3, ALP >155 U/L. Tertile 1 was used as the reference category. The primary outcomes were infection-related mortality and hospitalization. Results A total of 1,455 PD patients were included. The median follow-up period was 32 months. The most common cause of infection-related mortality and hospitalization was PD-related peritonitis. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that patients in the highest tertiles of serum ALP levels were at higher risk of infection-related mortality (HR 2.29, 95% CI, 1.42–5.21, P = 0.008) after adjustment for clinical variables. Higher tertiles of serum ALP levels were associated with higher risk of infection-related hospitalization (Tertile 2: HR 1.56, 95% CI, 1.18–2.19, P = 0.009, tertile 3: HR 1.34, 95% CI, 1.03–2.62, P = 0.031). Conclusions Our data showed that elevated serum ALP levels were independently associated with a higher risk of infection-related mortality and hospitalization in PD patients. PMID:27310428

  15. Characterization of a Cry1Ac-receptor alkaline phosphatase in susceptible and resistant Heliothis virescens larvae.

    PubMed

    Jurat-Fuentes, Juan L; Adang, Michael J

    2004-08-01

    We reported previously a direct correlation between reduced soybean agglutinin binding to 63- and 68-kDa midgut glycoproteins and resistance to Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens). In the present work we describe the identification of the 68-kDa glycoprotein as a membrane-bound form of alkaline phosphatase we term HvALP. Lectin blot analysis of HvALP revealed the existence of N-linked oligosaccharides containing terminal N-acetylgalactosamine required for [125I]Cry1Ac binding in ligand blots. Based on immunoblotting and alkaline phosphatase activity detection, reduced soybean agglutinin binding to HvALP from Cry1Ac resistant larvae of the H. virescens YHD2 strain was attributable to reduced amounts of HvALP in resistant larvae. Quantification of specific alkaline phosphatase activity in brush border membrane proteins from susceptible (YDK and F1 generation from backcrosses) and YHD2 H. virescens larvae confirmed the observation of reduced HvALP levels. We propose HvALP as a Cry1Ac binding protein that is present at reduced levels in brush border membrane vesicles from YHD2 larvae. PMID:15265032

  16. Fluoride stimulates ( sup 3 H)thymidine incorporation and alkaline phosphatase production by human osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Khokher, M.A.; Dandona, P. )

    1990-11-01

    The effect of sodium fluoride on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) release and ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake by human osteoblasts in culture was investigated. Sodium fluoride stimulated both ALP release and ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake at concentrations of sodium fluoride greater than 250 mumol/L. This stimulation was similar in magnitude to that induced by 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. The fluoride-induced increase in ALP was inhibited by verapamil, a calcium channel blocker. We conclude that sodium fluoride stimulates osteoblasts to proliferate and to release ALP. This stimulation by fluoride is dependent on calcium influx. Fluoride-induced stimulation of human osteoblasts may be relevant to its effect in enhancing bone formation in patients with osteoporosis.

  17. Reduced Levels of Membrane-Bound Alkaline Phosphatase Are Common to Lepidopteran Strains Resistant to Cry Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Karumbaiah, Lohitash; Jakka, Siva Rama Krishna; Ning, Changming; Liu, Chenxi; Wu, Kongming; Jackson, Jerreme; Gould, Fred; Blanco, Carlos; Portilla, Maribel; Perera, Omaththage; Adang, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Development of insect resistance is one of the main concerns with the use of transgenic crops expressing Cry toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Identification of biomarkers would assist in the development of sensitive DNA-based methods to monitor evolution of resistance to Bt toxins in natural populations. We report on the proteomic and genomic detection of reduced levels of midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (mALP) as a common feature in strains of Cry-resistant Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera frugiperda when compared to susceptible larvae. Reduced levels of H. virescens mALP protein (HvmALP) were detected by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis in Cry-resistant compared to susceptible larvae, further supported by alkaline phosphatase activity assays and Western blotting. Through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) we demonstrate that the reduction in HvmALP protein levels in resistant larvae are the result of reduced transcript amounts. Similar reductions in ALP activity and mALP transcript levels were also detected for a Cry1Ac-resistant strain of H. armigera and field-derived strains of S. frugiperda resistant to Cry1Fa. Considering the unique resistance and cross-resistance phenotypes of the insect strains used in this work, our data suggest that reduced mALP expression should be targeted for development of effective biomarkers for resistance to Cry toxins in lepidopteran pests. PMID:21390253

  18. Development of a bone substitute material based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate scaffold coated with carbonate apatite/poly-epsilon-caprolactone.

    PubMed

    Bang, L T; Ramesh, S; Purbolaksono, J; Long, B D; Chandran, Hari; Ramesh, S; Othman, R

    2015-08-01

    Interconnected porous tricalcium phosphate ceramics are considered to be potential bone substitutes. However, insufficient mechanical properties when using tricalcium phosphate powders remain a challenge. To mitigate these issues, we have developed a new approach to produce an interconnected alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) scaffold and to perform surface modification on the scaffold with a composite layer, which consists of hybrid carbonate apatite / poly-epsilon-caprolactone (CO3Ap/PCL) with enhanced mechanical properties and biological performance. Different CO3Ap combinations were tested to evaluate the optimal mechanical strength and in vitro cell response of the scaffold. The α-TCP scaffold coated with CO3Ap/PCL maintained a fully interconnected structure with a porosity of 80% to 86% and achieved an improved compressive strength mimicking that of cancellous bone. The addition of CO3Ap coupled with the fully interconnected microstructure of the α-TCP scaffolds coated with CO3Ap/PCL increased cell attachment, accelerated proliferation and resulted in greater alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Hence, our bone substitute exhibited promising potential for applications in cancellous bone-type replacement. PMID:26225725

  19. Osteoblastic alkaline phosphatase mRNA is stabilized by binding to vimentin intermediary filaments.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Yvonne; Biniossek, Martin; Stark, G Björn; Finkenzeller, Günter; Simunovic, Filip

    2015-03-01

    Vascularization is essential in bone tissue engineering and recent research has focused on interactions between osteoblasts (hOBs) and endothelial cells (ECs). It was shown that cocultivation increases the stability of osteoblastic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. We investigated the mechanisms behind this observation, focusing on mRNA binding proteins. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we found that the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of ALP mRNA is necessary for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-mediated stabilization of osteoblastic ALP mRNA. Using pulldown experiments and nanoflow-HPLC mass spectrometry, vimentin was identified to bind to the 3'-UTR of ALP mRNA. Validation was performed by Western blotting. Functional experiments inhibiting intermediate filaments with iminodipropionitrile and specific inhibition of vimentin by siRNA transfection showed reduced levels of ALP mRNA and protein. Therefore, ALP mRNA binds to and is stabilized by vimentin. This data add to the understanding of intracellular trafficking of ALP mRNA, its function, and have possible implications in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25536665

  20. Cloning and Epitope Mapping of Cry11Aa-Binding Sites in the Cry11Aa-Receptor Alkaline Phosphatase from Aedes aegypti†

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Luisa E.; Martinez-Anaya, Claudia; Lira, Erandi; Chen, Jianwu; Evans, Amy; Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberón, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Cry11Aa is the most active Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis toxin against Aedes aegypti larvae. Ae. aegypti alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was previously identified as a Cry11Aa receptor mediating toxicity. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of this Ae. aegypti Cry11Aa-ALP receptor. Of three ALP’s cDNA clones, the recombinant produced ALP1 isoform was shown to bind Cry11Aa and P1.BBMV peptide phage that specifically binds the midgut ALP-Cry11Aa receptor. An anti-ALP1 antibody inhibited binding to brush border membrane vesicles and toxicity of Cry11Aa in isolated cultured guts. Two ALP1 Cry11Aa binding regions (R59–G102 and N257–I296) were mapped by characterizing binding of Cry11Aa to nine recombinant overlapping peptides covering the ALP1 sequence. Finally, by using a peptide spot array of Cry11Aa domain III and site-directed mutagenesis, we show that the ALP1 R59–G102 region binds Cry11Aa through domain II loop α-8 while ALP1 N257–I296 interacts with Cry11Aa through domain III 561RVQSQNSGNN570 located in β18-β19. Our results show that Cry11Aa domain II and domain III are involved in the binding with two distinct binding sites in the ALP1 receptor. PMID:19697959

  1. Delivering MC3T3-E1 cells into injectable calcium phosphate cement through alginate-chitosan microcapsules for bone tissue engineering*

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Peng-yan; Li, Fang-fang; Dong, Li-min; Xu, Tao; Xie, Qiu-fei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To deliver cells deep into injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) through alginate-chitosan (AC) microcapsules and investigate the biological behavior of the cells released from microcapsules into the CPC. Methods: Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in alginate and AC microcapsules using an electrostatic droplet generator. The two types of cell-encapsulating microcapsules were then mixed with a CPC paste. MC3T3-E1 cell viability was investigated using a Wst-8 kit, and osteogenic differentiation was demonstrated by an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. Cell attachment in CPC was observed by an environment scanning electron microscopy. Results: Both alginate and AC microcapsules were able to release the encapsulated MC3T3-E1 cells when mixed with CPC paste. The released cells attached to the setting CPC scaffolds, survived, differentiated, and formed mineralized nodules. Cells grew in the pores concomitantly created by the AC microcapsules in situ within the CPC. At Day 21, cellular ALP activity in the AC group was approximately four times that at Day 7 and exceeded that of the alginate microcapsule group (P<0.05). Pores formed by the AC microcapsules had a diameter of several hundred microns and were spherical compared with those formed by alginate microcapsules. Conclusions: AC microcapsule is a promising carrier to release seeding cells deep into an injectable CPC scaffold for bone engineering. PMID:24711359

  2. BIOLOGICAL ELECTRODES SPECIFIC FOR PHOSPHATE AND NITRITE IONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological electrodes have been developed for the selective analysis of phosphate and nitrate ions at micro-levels. A phosphate electrode was constructed by using two enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and glucose oxidase which were immobilized and mounted on the surface of the Platin...

  3. Membrane protein sorting: biosynthesis, transport and processing of yeast vacuolar alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Klionsky, D J; Emr, S D

    1989-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PHO8 gene product, repressible alkaline phosphatase (ALP), is a glycoprotein enzyme that is localized to the yeast vacuole (lysosome). Using antibodies raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to two distinct hydrophilic sequences in ALP, we have been able to examine the biosynthesis, sorting and processing of this protein. ALP is synthesized as an inactive precursor containing a C-terminal propeptide that is cleaved from the protein in a PEP4-dependent manner. The precursor and mature protein are anchored in the membrane by an N-terminal hydrophobic domain that also appears to function as an uncleaved internal signal sequence. ALP has the topology of a type-II integral membrane protein containing a short basic N-terminal cytoplasmic tail that is accessible to exogenous protease when associated both with the endoplasmic reticulum and the vacuole. Similar to the soluble vacuolar hydrolases carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) and proteinase A (PrA), ALP transits through the early stages of the secretory pathway prior to vacuolar delivery. Two observations indicate, however, that ALP is localized to the vacuole by a mechanism which is in part different from that used by CPY and PrA: (i) maturation of proALP, which is indicative of vacuolar delivery, is less sensitive than CPY and PrA to the defects exhibited by certain of the vacuolar protein sorting (vps) mutants; and (ii) maturation of proALP proceeds normally in the presence of a potent vacuolar ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin A1, which is known to block vacuole acidification and leads to the mis-sorting and secretion of precursor forms of CPY and PrA. These results indicate that ALP will be a useful model protein for studies of membrane protein sorting in yeast. Images PMID:2676517

  4. Prognostic value of combined preoperative lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase levels in patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ji, Fei; Fu, Shun-Jun; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Pang, Hui; Ju, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Dong-Ping; Hua, Yun-Peng; He, Xiao-Shun

    2016-07-01

    Serum enzymes, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), have recently been reported to play important roles in tumor growth. Increases in LDH and ALP have been confirmed to predict poor prognosis in patients with various cancers. However, their prognostic value in pancreatic cancer has not been well studied. Therefore, we reviewed the preoperative data on LDH and ALP in 185 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients who underwent surgery between July 2005 and December 2010 to explore the prognostic value of these markers. The cutoff points were determined based on the upper limit of their normal values. The Chi-square test was used to analyze the relationships between LDH/ALP and clinical characteristics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the predictive value of the above factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). We found that elevation of LDH was related to carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), lymph node involvement, tumor size, TNM, distant metastasis, and recurrence. Additionally, ALP was correlated to perineural invasion. After multivariate analysis, LDH and ALP were identified as independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS, and elevation of LDH/ALP was correlated with poor DFS and OS. Notably, there was a positive correlation between LDH and ALP. The predictive power of LDH combined with ALP was more sensitive than that of either one alone. Therefore, we conclude that the preoperative LDH and ALP values are prognostic factors for PADC, and the prognostic accuracy of testing can be enhanced by the combination of LDH and ALP. PMID:27399091

  5. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  6. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  7. Alkaline igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitton, J.G.; Upton, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this volume, an international team of scientists provides an up-to-date overview of the nature, origin, and evolution of alkaline magmas. Particular attention is paid to carbonatites, lamprophyres, and lamproites which are rock suites of current interest not recently reviewed elsewhere. Recent work on the classical alkaline provinces of East Africa, South Greenland, and the Kola Peninsula is included together with reviews of other areas of alkaline magmatism in North and South America, East Greenland, Europe, West Africa, and the ocean basins. Other papers discuss the impact of experimental isotopic and geochemical studies of the petrogenesis of alkaline rocks. This book will be of interest to petrologists and geochemists studying alkaline igneous rocks, and to other earth scientists as a reference on the rapidly expanding field of igneous petrology.

  8. Chemostat Culture of Escherichia coli K-12 Limited by the Activity of Alkaline Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    King, Stagg L.; Francis, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The growth-limiting reaction of a chemostat culture of Escherichia coli K-12 was the hydrolysis of β-glycerophosphate by alkaline phosphatase. The culture was buffered at pH 5.2 where alkaline phosphatase was unable to supply phosphate to the cell at a rate sufficient to sustain the maximum rate of growth. Alkaline phosphatase activity in this system is discussed in terms of the so-called Flip-Flop mechanism. PMID:240310

  9. Reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride using buffered alkaline ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Ting; Liang, Chenju

    2015-10-01

    Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) was recently discovered as a novel in-situ chemical reduction (ISCR) reagent for remediating chlorinated solvents in the subsurface. For this ISCR process, the maintenance of an alkaline pH is essential. This study investigated the possibility of the reduction of carbon tetrachloride (CT) using alkaline AA solution buffered by phosphate and by NaOH. The results indicated that CT was reduced by AA, and chloroform (CF) was a major byproduct at a phosphate buffered pH of 12. However, CT was completely reduced by AA in 2M NaOH without CF formation. In the presence of iron/soil minerals, iron could be reduced by AA and Fe(2+) tends to precipitate on the mineral surface to accelerate CT degradation. A simultaneous transfer of hydrogenolysis and dichloroelimination would occur under phosphate buffered pH 12. This implies that a high alkaline environment is a crucial factor for maintaining the dominant pathway of two electron transfer from dianionic AA to dehydroascorbic acid, and to undergo dichloroelimination of CT. Moreover, threonic acid and oxalic acid were identified to be the major AA decomposition products in alkaline solutions. PMID:25912910

  10. Inhibition kinetics of acid and alkaline phosphatases by atrazine and methomyl pesticides.

    PubMed

    El-Aswad, Ahmed F; Badawy, Mohamed E I

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the kinetic characteristics of acid and alkaline phosphatases isolated from different sources and to study the effects of the herbicide atrazine and insecticide methomyl on the activity and kinetic properties of the enzymes. Acid phosphatase (ACP) was isolated from the tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. lycopersicum); alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was isolated from two sources, including mature earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and larvae of the Egyptian cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). The specific activities of the enzymes were 33.31, 5.56 and 0.72 mmol substrate hydrolyzed per minute per milligram protein for plant ACP, earthworms ALP and cotton leafworm ALP, respectively. The inhibition kinetics indicated that atrazine and methomyl caused competitive-non-competitive inhibition of the enzymes. The relationships between estimates of K(m) and V(max) calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation have been explored. The extent of the inhibition was different, as estimated by the values of the inhibition constant Ki that were found to be 3.34 × 10(-3), 1.12 × 10(-2) and 1.07 × 10(-2) mM for plant ACP, earthworms ALP and cotton leafworm ALP, respectively, with methomyl. In the case of atrazine, K(i) were found to be 8.99 × 10(-3), 3.55 × 10(-2) and 1.36 × 10(-2) mM for plant ACP, earthworms ALP and cotton leafworm ALP, respectively. PMID:25996812

  11. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-08-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2,4-diphosphates and aldohexose-2,4,6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2,4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2,4,6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 µm; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2,4,-diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2,4,6-phosphates.

  12. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  13. Sensitive and selective determining ascorbic acid and activity of alkaline phosphatase based on electrochemiluminescence of dual-stabilizers-capped CdSe quantum dots in carbon nanotube-nafion composite.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaolong; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xinli; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Zou, Guizheng

    2016-07-01

    Sensitive and selective determining bio-related molecule and enzyme play an important role in designing novel procedure for biological sensing and clinical diagnosis. Herein, we found that dual-stabilizers-capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in composite film of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Nafion, displaying eye-visible monochromatic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) with fwhm of 37nm, which offers promising ECL signal for detecting ascorbic acid (AA) as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in biological samples. It was also shown that the dual-stabilizers-capped CdSe QDs can preserve their highly passivated surface states with prolonged lifetime of excited states in Nafion mixtures, and facilitate electron-transfer ability of Nafion film along with CNTs. Compared with the QDs/GCE, the ECL intensity is enhanced 1.8 times and triggering potential shifted to lower energy by 0.12V on the CdSe-CNTs-Nafion/GCE. The ECL quenching degree increases with increasing concentration of AA in the range of 0.01-30nM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 5pM. The activity of ALP was determined indirectly according to the concentration of AA, generated in the hydrolysis reaction of l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate sesquimagnesium (AA-P) in the presence of ALP as a catalyst, with an LOD of 1μU/L. The proposed strategy is favorable for developing simple ECL sensor or device with high sensitivity, spectral resolution and less electrochemical interference. PMID:27154663

  14. Reduced L/B/K alkaline phosphatase gene expression in renal cell carcinoma: plausible role in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ujjawal; Pal, Deeksha; Singh, Shrawan Kumar; Kakkar, Nandita; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-09-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney cancer in adults. Although several genes have been found to be involved in carcinogenesis of RCC, more great efforts are needed to identify new genes which are responsible for the process. Clear cell RCC, originates from proximal tubule cells, is the most common pathological type of RCC. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a marker enzyme of brush border membrane of proximal tubular cells. Our previous studies showed a significant decreased activity of Liver/Bone/Kidney (L/B/K) alkaline phosphatase in RCC. In the present study, we explored the molecular basis of the decreased activity of ALP in RCC. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis showed decreased ALP protein in RCC. Additionally, real time PCR documented significantly reduced ALP gene expression (P = 0.009). Moreover, RCC cell lines (ACHN and A498) transfected with full length L/B/K cDNA showed decreased migratory property as well as viability of these cells as compared with controls (P = 0.000). Further, L/B/K ALP cDNA transfected cells (ACHN and A498) showed significant increased apoptosis as compared to control (P = 0.000). These findings suggest the new role of ALP in cell viability and apoptosis and involvement in RCC tumorigenesis. However, further studies are needed to explore the exact molecular mechanism. PMID:24909115

  15. Fluorescent assay for alkaline phosphatase activity based on graphene oxide integrating with λ exonuclease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Guo; Xing, Xiao-Jing; Li, Bo; Guo, Yong-Ming; Zhang, Ye-Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Lian-Feng

    2016-07-15

    A novel fluorescence turn-on strategy for the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is developed based on the preferential binding of graphene oxide (GO) to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) over double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) coupled with λ exonuclease (λ exo) cleavage. Specifically, in the absence of ALP, the substrate-dsDNA constructed by one oligonucleotide with a fluorophore at the 3'-end (F-DNA) and its complementary sequence modified with a 5'-phosphoryl termini (p-DNA), is promptly cleaved by λ exo, and the resulting F-DNA is adsorbed on GO surface, allowing fluorescence quenching. Whereas the introduction of ALP leads to the hydrolysis of the P-DNA, and the yielding 5'-hydroxyl end product hampers the λ exo cleavage, inducing significant fluorescence enhancement due to the weak binding of dsDNA with GO. Under the optimized conditions, the approach exhibits high sensitivity and specificity to ALP with a detection limit of 0.19 U/L, and the determination of ALP in spiked human serum samples has also been realized. Notably, this new approach not only provides a novel and sensitive platform for the ALP activity detection but also promotes the exploitation of the GO-based biosensing for the detection of the protein with no specific binding element, and thus extending the GO-based sensing applications into a new field. PMID:27015149

  16. Alkaline phosphatases are involved in the response of Aedes aegypti larvae to intoxication with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins.

    PubMed

    Stalinski, Renaud; Laporte, Frédéric; Després, Laurence; Tetreau, Guillaume

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is a natural pathogen of dipterans widely used as a biological insecticide for mosquito control. To characterize the response of mosquitoes to intoxication with Bti, the transcriptome profile of Bti-exposed susceptible Aedes aegypti larvae was analysed using Illumina RNA-seq. Gene expression of 11 alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) was further investigated by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and ALP activity was measured in the susceptible strain and in four strains resistant to a single Bti Cry toxin or to Bti. These strains were unexposed or exposed to their toxin of selection. Although all resistant strains constitutively exhibited a higher level of transcription of ALP genes than the susceptible strain, they showed a lower total ALP activity. The intoxication with different individual Cry toxins triggered a global pattern of ALP gene under-transcription in all the one-toxin-resistant strains but involving different specific sets of ALPs in each resistant phenotype. Most of the ALPs involved are not known Cry-binding proteins. RNA interference experiment demonstrated that reducing ALP expression conferred increased the survival of larvae exposed to Cry4Aa, confirming the involvement of ALP in Cry4Aa toxicity. PMID:26663676

  17. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  18. Sustained release of Semaphorin 3A from α-tricalcium phosphate based cement composite contributes to osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-Ning; Pi, Bin; Wang, Peng; Li, Xue-Feng; Yang, Hui-Lin; Zhu, Xue-Song

    2015-09-01

    The reinforcement of calcium phosphate materials with silk fibroin (SF) has been one of the strategies to overcome the brittleness. However, the lack of osteoinductivity may still restrict their further use. This study aimed to investigate the biocompatibility and osteogenesis capacity of a novel Semaphorin 3A-loaded chitosan microspheres/SF/α-tricalcium phosphate composite (Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP) in vitro. Sema3A was first incorporated into CMs, and the Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP composite was then prepared. The morphology of the CMs was observed using SEM. The in vitro release kinetics, cytotoxicity, and cell compatibility were evaluated, and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used to evaluate the osteogenesis capacity of the composite. The in vitro release of Sema3A from the Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP composite showed a temporally controlled manner. The extract of the Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP composite presented no obvious side effect on the MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, nor promote cell proliferation. The MC3T3-E1 cells were well-spread and presented an elongated shape on the Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP composite surface; the ALP activity and the osteogenic-related gene expression were higher than those seeded on the surface of the CMs/SF/α-TCP and SF/α-TCP composites. In conclusion, Sema3A CMs/SF/α-TCP has excellent biocompatibility and contributes to the osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

  19. A novel aptasensor for thrombin detection based on alkaline phosphatase decorated ZnO/Pt nanoflowers as signal amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Lv, J J; Yang, Z H; Zhuo, Y; Yuan, R; Chai, Y Q

    2015-12-21

    To remedy the problems caused by the introduction of an additional electron mediator and realize signal amplification, a new strategy has been presented to construct an electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection based on the cascade electrocatalysis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Pt nanoparticle (PtNP)-functionalized ZnO nanoflowers. PMID:26548406

  20. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    SciTech Connect

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-07-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori.

  1. Urbanization and depopulation in the Alps.

    PubMed

    Batzing, W; Perlik, M; Dekleva, M

    1996-11-01

    Demographic developments in the European Alpine region are analyzed over the period 1870-1990. The region is defined as including parts of Germany, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria, Switzerland, and Slovenia. "Studies of growth, stagnation, decline, commune size, and altitude in almost 6,000 communes are presented on three colored maps.... It is apparent that two highly divergent processes are at work and, accordingly, statistical mean values reveal little of importance. Approximately one-half of Alpine Europe is undergoing general economic and demographic growth and has experienced significant increase in population since the end of the agricultural era. This development has taken place primarily in low-lying valleys and basins and in areas bordering the Alps that have good access to transport routes. Tourism is not as widespread as generally assumed and is usually characterized by a punctate pattern. Only in the western part of the Eastern Alps does tourism account for widespread population growth at higher altitudes; elsewhere the Alps have not been affected by modern development and the economy and population are declining, with some areas in danger of becoming completely abandoned. The results challenge the earlier concept of the Alps as a rural region, once populated by peasants, where tourism now plays a major role." (EXCERPT) PMID:12292860

  2. Dyscalculia and the Minicalculator: The ALP Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Gerald H.

    1980-01-01

    The author points out the usefulness of the ALP minicalculator program with learning disabled learners and introduces a novel aspect of the program--a new method of dealing with fractions via the calculator in which decimal answers are converted to equivalent fractions. (SBH)

  3. Histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase activity in decalcified bone and cartilage.

    PubMed

    Miao, Dengshun; Scutt, Andrew

    2002-03-01

    We have developed methodology that enables alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to be histochemically stained reproducibly in decalcified paraffin-embedded bone and cartilage of rodents. Proximal tibiae and fourth lumbar vertebrae were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde (PLP) fixative, decalcified in an EDTA-G solution, and embedded in paraffin. In the articular cartilage of the proximal tibia, ALP activity was localized to the hypertrophic chondrocytes and cartilage matrix of the deep zone and the maturing chondrocytes of the intermediate zone. The cells and matrix in the superficial zone did not exhibit any enzyme activity. In tibial and vertebral growth plates, a progressive increase in ALP expression was seen in chondrocytes and cartilage matrix, with activity being weakest in the proliferative zone, higher in the maturing zone, and highest in the hypertrophic zone. In bone tissue, ALP activity was detected widely in pre-osteoblasts, osteoblasts, lining cells on the surface of trabeculae, some newly embedded osteocytes, endosteal cells, and subperiosteal cells. In areas of new bone formation, ALP activity was detected in osteoid. In the bone marrow, about 20% of bone marrow cells expressed ALP activity. In adult rats, the thickness of the growth plates was less and ALP activity was enhanced in maturing and hypertrophic chondrocytes, cartilage matrix in the hypertrophic zone, and primary spongiosa. This is the first time that ALP activity has been successfully visualized histochemically in decalcified, paraffin-embedded mineralized tissues. This technique should prove to be a very convenient adjunct for studying the behavior of osteoblasts during osteogenesis. PMID:11850436

  4. Osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines from patients with differing serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations display minimal differences in gene expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C de Sá; Holmes, K E; Thompson, V; Piskun, C M; Lana, S E; Newton, M A; Stein, T J

    2016-06-01

    Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration is a prognostic factor for osteosarcoma in multiple studies, although its biological significance remains incompletely understood. To determine whether gene expression patterns differed in osteosarcoma from patients with differing serum ALP concentrations, microarray analysis was performed on 18 primary osteosarcoma samples and six osteosarcoma cell lines from dogs with normal and increased serum ALP concentration. No differences in gene expression patterns were noted between tumours or cell lines with differing serum ALP concentration using a gene-specific two-sample t-test. Using a more sensitive empirical Bayes procedure, defective in cullin neddylation 1 domain containing 1 (DCUN1D1) was increased in both the tissue and cell lines of the normal ALP group. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), differences in DCUN1D1 expression between the two groups failed to reach significance. The homogeneity of gene expression patterns of osteosarcoma associated differing serum ALP concentrations are consistent with previous studies suggesting serum ALP concentration is not associated with intrinsic differences of osteosarcoma cells. PMID:25643733

  5. Osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines from patients with differing serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations display minimal differences in gene expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    de Sá Rodrigues, L. C.; Holmes, K. E.; Thompson, V.; Piskun, C. M.; Lana, S. E.; Newton, M. A.; Stein, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration is a prognostic factor for osteosarcoma in multiple studies, although its biological significance remains incompletely understood. To determine whether gene expression patterns differed in osteosarcoma from patients with differing serum ALP concentrations, microarray analysis was performed on 18 primary osteosarcoma samples and six osteosarcoma cell lines from dogs with normal and increased serum ALP concentration. No differences in gene expression patterns were noted between tumours or cell lines with differing serum ALP concentration using a gene-specific two-sample t-test. Using a more sensitive empirical Bayes procedure, defective in cullin neddylation 1 domain containing 1 (DCUN1D1) was increased in both the tissue and cell lines of the normal ALP group. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), differences in DCUN1D1 expression between the two groups failed to reach significance. The homogeneity of gene expression patterns of osteosarcoma associated differing serum ALP concentrations are consistent with previous studies suggesting serum ALP concentration is not associated with intrinsic differences of osteosarcoma cells. PMID:25643733

  6. Fabrication of Poly-l-lactic Acid/Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate Composite Scaffolds with High Mechanical Strength—Implications for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tanataweethum, Nida; Liu, Wai Ching; Scott Goebel, W.; Li, Ding; Chu, Tien Min

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolds were fabricated from poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA)/dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) composite by indirect casting. Sodium citrate and PLLA were used to improve the mechanical properties of the DCPD scaffolds. The resulting PLLA/DCPD composite scaffold had increased diametral tensile strength and fracture energy when compared to DCPD only scaffolds (1.05 vs. 2.70 MPa and 2.53 vs. 12.67 N-mm, respectively). Sodium citrate alone accelerated the degradation rate by 1.5 times independent of PLLA. Cytocompatibility of all samples were evaluated using proliferation and differentiation parameters of dog-bone marrow stromal cells (dog-BMSCs). The results showed that viable dog-BMSCs attached well on both DCPD and PLLA/DCPD composite surfaces. In both DCPD and PLLA/DCPD conditioned medium, dog-BMSCs proliferated well and expressed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity indicating cell differentiation. These findings indicate that incorporating both sodium citrate and PLLA could effectively improve mechanical strength and biocompatibility without increasing the degradation time of calcium phosphate cement scaffolds for bone tissue engineering purposes. PMID:26556380

  7. A smart fluorescence nanoprobe for the detection of cellular alkaline phosphatase activity and early osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng-Yi; Fan, Jin-Xuan; Long, Yue; Zeng, Xuan; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2016-07-01

    In the past decades, biomaterials were designed to induce stem cell toward osteogenic differentiation. However, conventional methods for evaluation osteogenic differentiation all required a process of cell fixation or lysis, which induce waste of a large number of cells. In this study, a fluorescence nanoprobe was synthesized by combining phosphorylated fluoresceinamine isomer I (FLA) on the surface of mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4@mSiO2) nanoparticles. In the presence of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the phosphorylated FLA on the nanoprobe would be hydrolyzed, resulting in a fluorescence recovery of FLA. During early osteogenic differentiation, a high-level expression of cellular ALP was induced, which accelerated the hydrolysis of phosphorylated FLA, resulting in an enhancement of cellular fluorescence intensity. This fluorescence nanoprobe provides us a rapid and non-toxic method for the detection of cellular ALP activity and early osteogenic differentiation. PMID:26961462

  8. Stimulation of Odontogenesis and Angiogenesis via Bioactive Nanocomposite Calcium Phosphate Cements Through Integrin and VEGF Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Eui-Suk; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Lee, So-Youn; Eun-Cheol Kim; Kim, Hae-Won

    2016-05-01

    Formulating self-setting calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) with secondary phases particularly in the nanoscale order holds great promise to improve biological properties. Here, we focus on the effect that bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGN) incorporated in CPC compositions can have on the proliferation, odontogenic differentiation, and angiogenic stimulation of stem cells derived from human dental pulp (HDPSCs). These odontogenic and angiogenic events are of special importance in the dentin-pulp regeneration processes. In comparison to pure CPCs, nanocomposite cements exhibit a significantly improved proliferation of HDPSCs, and the improvement is more significant as the BGN content increases. The nanocomposite cements substantially enhance the adhesion of cells, and significantly up-regulate odontogenic differentiation, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expressions of odontogenic genes (sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein I, ALP, osteopontin and osteocalcin). Furthermore, the use of nanocomposite cements result in stimulation of angiogenic gene expression (VEGF, FGF-2, VEGFRs, PECAM-1, and VE-cadherin) and protein production (VEGF, VEGFR-1). The angiogenic stimulation by the HDPSCs significantly affects the endothelial cell behaviors, that is, the endothelial cell migration and the tubular network formation are substantially improved when treated with HDPSC-conditioned medium, particularly with the help of nanocomposite cements. The integrin and VEGF signaling pathways are reasoned for the stimulation of the odontogenesis and angiogenesis of cells, where the nanocomposite cements up-regulate the integrin subsets α1, α2, α3, and β1, and activate the integrin downstream signal pathways, such as p-FAK, p-Akt, p-paxillin, JNK, EK, and NF-κB, as well as other nuclear transcriptional factors, including CREB, STAT-3, and ELK-1. The current results indicate that the new formulation of the nanocomposite self-setting cements might provide some

  9. Alp7/TACC-Alp14/TOG generates long-lived, fast-growing MTs by an unconventional mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hussmann, Frauke; Drummond, Douglas R.; Peet, Daniel R.; Martin, Douglas S.; Cross, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Alp14 is a TOG-family microtubule polymerase from S. pombe that tracks plus ends and accelerates their growth. To interrogate its mechanism, we reconstituted dynamically unstable single isoform S. pombe microtubules with full length Alp14/TOG and Alp7, the TACC-family binding partner of Alp14. We find that Alp14 can drive microtubule plus end growth at GTP-tubulin concentrations at least 10-fold below the usual critical concentration, at the expense of increased catastrophe. This reveals Alp14 to be a highly unusual enzyme that biases the equilibrium for the reaction that it catalyses. Alp7/TACC enhances the effectiveness of Alp14, by increasing its occupancy. Consistent with this, we show in live cells that Alp7 deletion produces very similar MT dynamics defects to Alp14 deletion. The ability of Alp7/14 to accelerate and bias GTP-tubulin exchange at microtubule plus ends allows it to generate long-lived, fast-growing microtubules at very low cellular free tubulin concentrations. PMID:26864000

  10. Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in GCF during Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mohammad; Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Dianat, Omid; Khoramian Tusi, Somayeh; Younessian, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The present constituents of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can reflect the changes occurring in underlying tissues. Considering variety of biologic bone markers, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase have been examined as bone turn over markers in orthodontic tooth movement. Purpose The current study designed in a longitudinal pattern to determine the changes of acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP & ALP) in GCF during orthodontic tooth movement. Materials and Method An upper canines from twelve patients (mean age: 14±2 years) undergoing extraction orthodontic treatment for distal movement served as the test tooth (DC), and its contralateral (CC) and antagonist (AC) canines were used as controls. The CC was included in orthodontic appliance without orthodontic force; the AC was free from any orthodontic appliance. The GCF around the experimental teeth was harvested from mesial and distal tooth sites immediately before appliance placement (T0), and 14 (T2) and 28 days (T3) after it and ALP and ACP concentration were determined spectrophotometrically. Results ALP concentration was elevated significantly in DC and CC groups at days 14 and 28 compared with the AC. In DC group, the ALP was significantly greater in mesial sites than distal site, while no significant changes were found between both sites of CC. The peak level of ALP was observed in mesial sites of DC at T2. Regarding ACP, significant elevation of this enzyme was seen in DC group both in mesial and distal sites at T2 and T3. The peak level of this enzyme was seen at T2. Conclusion Monitoring simultaneous changes of ALP and ACP levels in GCF can reflect the tissue responses occur in periodontium during bone formation and bone resorption during orthodontic tooth movement, respectively. PMID:26535403

  11. Ureaplasma urealyticum-induced crystallization of magnesium ammonium phosphate and calcium phosphates in synthetic urine.

    PubMed

    Grenabo, L; Brorson, J E; Hedelin, H; Pettersson, S

    1984-10-01

    Crystallization of struvite and calcium phosphates was studied in vitro as encrustations on glass rods immersed in synthetic urine, to evaluate the crystallization capacity of Ureaplasma urealyticum and compare it with that of known urease and non-urease-producing bacteria. Inoculation of the synthetic urine with Ureaplasma urealyticum resulted in alkalinization of the synthetic urine and crystallization of struvite and brushite. Inoculation with Proteus mirabilis caused a faster and more pronounced alkalinization as well as crystallization of struvite and apatite. The alkalinization and crystallization caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Proteus mirabilis was completely prevented by acetohydroxamic acid, a potent urease inhibitor, linking the crystallization to the urease activity of the microorganisms. When the synthetic urine was inoculated with urease-negative Escherichia coli no alkalinization and no crystallization were seen. PMID:6381769

  12. Biochemical characterization of the soluble alkaline phosphatase isolated from the venomous snake W. aegyptia.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Saad S M

    2002-12-01

    A soluble form of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been identified and purified from Walterinnesia aegyptia venom using an HPLC system Gold 126/1667 equipped with Protein PAK 125 and Protein PAK 60 columns. The enzyme was purified 3.4 fold over crude venom with a yield of 37.3%. On SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions the purified enzyme showed three bands of 212 kD, 80 kD, and 55 kD. However, under reducing conditions, the enzyme showed two bands of 80 kD and 55 kD. The specific activity of ALP was 24 U/mg with p-nitrophenylephosphate as the substrate. During isoelectric focusing experiments the ALP exhibited two bands focused at pH 6.2 and 6.8, which suggests that either the enzyme exists as two different isoforms or the two bands in IEF may be two subunits of 80 kD and 55 kD. The kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and IC50 of ALP inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, imidazole, caffeine, orthophosphate and permanganate were also investigated in the present study. Zinc and cyanide ions at a concentration of 15 mM and 10 mM, respectively, completely inhibited the activity of W. aegyptia ALP. PMID:12503880

  13. Correlation of alkaline phosphatase activity to clinical parameters of inflammation in smokers suffering from chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Vishakha; Malhotra, Ranjan; Kapoor, Anoop; Bither, Rupika; Sachdeva, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Context: Current clinical periodontal diagnostic techniques emphasize the assessment of clinical and radiographic signs of periodontal diseases which can provide a measure of history of disease. Hence, new methodologies for early identification and determination of periodontal disease activity need to be explored which will eventually result in expedited treatment. Aim: To evaluate the correlation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to clinical parameters of periodontal inflammation in smokers with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Study population included 15 smoker male patients in the age group of 35–55 years suffering from moderate generalized chronic periodontitis with history of smoking present. Following parameters were evaluated at baseline, 1 month and 3 months after scaling and root planing: plaque index, bleeding index, probing pocket depth (PD), relative attachment level (RAL), and GCF ALP activity. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent variables for measurements over time were analyzed by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: A statistically significant reduction in all the clinical parameters and GCF ALP activity was observed from baseline to 1 month and 3 months. A correlation was observed between change in GCF ALP activity and PD reduction as well as gain in RAL at 3 months. Conclusion: The present study emphasizes that total ALP activity could be used as a marker for periodontal disease activity in smokers. Estimation of changes in the levels of this enzyme has a potential to aid in the detection of progression of periodontal disease and monitoring the response to periodontal therapy. PMID:27563197

  14. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  15. Possible association between serum alkaline phosphatase concentration and thoracicacute aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming; Ding, Juan; Zhao, Long; Huang, Xiang; Ma, Ke-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of organic pyrophosphate. Accumulating data have demonstrated that the concentration of increased ALP is associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, and inflammation was complicated in the pathogenesis of acute aortic dissection (ADD). Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the relationship between serum ALP concentration and thoracic ADD. Methods: We retrieved demographic data and test results of biochemical data of 68 patients with thoracic ADD and 126 Non-thoracic ADD patients, retrospectively. Results: A total of 194 patients were divided into thoracic ADD groups and non-thoracic ADD groups. Age, creatinine(Cr) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were found to be statistical significance between the two groups. The mean ALP level was significantly higher in patients with thoracic ADD compared with Non-thoracic ADD patients (80.6±23.02 Vs. 65.9±16.49, P=0.001). Stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses revealed a significantly association of ALP with thoracic ADD (OR=1.038, 95% CI: 1.015-1.062, P=0.001). In addition, HDL-C was negative associated with thoracic ADD in multiple logistic regression analyses after adjustment for age, sex and Cr (OR=-0.083, 95% CI: 0.012-0.560, P=0.011). Conclusions: The present study suggests that the level of serum ALP is associated with thoracic ADD, and serum ALP concentration may be apotential risk factor for thoracic ADD. PMID:26629214

  16. Biocompatibility and osteogenesis of calcium phosphate composite scaffolds containing simvastatin-loaded PLGA microspheres for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Xuan; Xiao, Gui-Yong; Wang, Xia; Dong, Zhao-Gang; Ma, Zhi-Yong; Li, Lei; Li, Yu-Hua; Pan, Xin; Nie, Lin

    2015-10-01

    By utilizing a modified solid/oil/water (s/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation technique, calcium phosphate composite scaffolds containing simvastatin-loaded PLGA microspheres (SIM-PLGA-CPC) were prepared in this study. We characterized the morphology, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release of SIM-loaded PLGA microspheres as well as the macrostructure, pore size, porosity and mechanical strength of the scaffolds. Rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were seeded onto SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds, and the proliferation, morphology, cell cycle and differentiation of BMSCs were investigated using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and alizarin red S staining, respectively. The results revealed that SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were biocompatible and osteogenic in vitro. To determine the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the scaffolds, both pure PLGA-CPC scaffolds and SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds were implanted in rabbit femoral condyles and microradiographically and histologically investigated. SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility and could improve the efficiency of new bone formation. All these results suggested that the SIM-PLGA-CPC scaffolds fulfilled the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffold and possessed application potentials in orthopedic surgery. PMID:25809455

  17. Combined Alkaline Phosphatase and Phosphorus Levels as a Predictor of Mortality in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jia-Feng; Feng, Ying-Feng; Peng, Yu-Sen; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Chen, Hung-Yuan; Wu, Hon-Yen; Yang, Ju-Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hyperphosphatemia-induced vascular calcification and higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels-related high-turnover bone diseases are linked to mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nonetheless, no large epidemiological study in patients with CKD has been conducted to investigate the interaction and joint effect of hyperphosphatemia and higher ALP levels on mortality. We analyzed 11,912 maintenance hemodialysis patients from January 2005 to December 2010. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of death were calculated for different categories of serum phosphorus and ALP using the Cox regression model. The modification effect between serum phosphorus and ALP on mortality was determined using an interaction product term. Both hypophosphatemia (<3.0 mg/dL) and hyperphosphatemia (>7.0 mg/dL) were associated with incremental risks of death (aHR: 1.25 [95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.09–1.44], and 1.15 [95% CI: 1.01–1.31], respectively) compared to the lowest hazard ratio (HR) group (5 mg/dL ≤ phosphorus < 6 mg/dL). ALP levels were linearly associated with incremental risks for death (aHR: 1.58 [95% CI: 1.41–1.76] for the category of ALP > 150 U/L). In the stratified analysis, patients with combined higher ALP (>150 U/L) and hyperphosphatemia (>7.0 mg/dL) had the greatest mortality risk (aHR: 2.25 [95% CI: 1.69–2.98] compared to the lowest HR group (ALP ≤ 60 U/L and 4 mg/dL ≤ phosphorus < 5 mg/dL). Although the effect of hyperphosphatemia on mortality seemed stronger in higher ALP levels, the interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.22). The association between serum phosphorus levels and mortality was not limited to higher ALP levels. Regardless of serum ALP levels, we may control serum phosphorus levels merely toward the normal range. While considering the joint effect of ALP and hyperphosphatemia on mortality, the optimal phosphorus range should be stricter

  18. A missense mutation in the human liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase gene causing a lethal form of hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, M J; Cole, D E; Ray, K; Whyte, M P; Lafferty, M A; Mulivor, R A; Harris, H

    1988-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia is an inherited disorder characterized by defective bone mineralization and a deficiency of serum and tissue liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase (L/B/K ALP) activity. Clinical severity is variable, ranging from death in utero (due to severe rickets) to pathologic fractures first presenting in adult life. Affected siblings, however, are phenotypically similar. Severe forms of the disease are inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion; heterozygotes often show reduced serum ALP activity. The specific gene defects in hypophosphatasia are unknown but are thought to occur either at the L/B/K ALP locus or within another gene that regulates L/B/K ALP expression. We used the polymerase chain reaction to examine L/B/K ALP cDNA from a patient with a perinatal (lethal) form of the disease. We observed a guanine-to-adenine transition in nucleotide 711 of the cDNA that converts alanine-162 of the mature enzyme to threonine. The affected individual, whose parents are second cousins, is homozygous for the mutant allele. Introduction of this mutation into an otherwise normal cDNA by site-directed mutagenesis abolishes the expression of active enzyme, demonstrating that a defect in the L/B/K ALP gene results in hypophosphatasia and that the enzyme is, therefore, essential for normal skeletal mineralization. Images PMID:3174660

  19. Assessment of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in cow's milk as an indicator of subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Babaei, H; Mansouri-Najand, L; Molaei, M M; Kheradmand, A; Sharifan, M

    2007-05-01

    This study examined the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the milk of lactating Holstein cows in association with subclinical mastitis (SCM). A total of 94 milk samples were collected from 58 lactating dairy cows representing stages of lactation from the second to the tenth week after calving. Those which were classified as positive by California mastitis test (CMT) were deemed to have subclinical mastitis. All the milk samples were skimmed by centrifugation at 10 000g at 0 degrees C and were used for enzyme activities estimations. The mean activities of LDH and ALP were higher in the milk from udders with SCM than in the milk from healthy udders (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in AST values. The maximum agreement rates between the CMT results and LDH and ALP values were seen at thresholds of > 180 IU/L and > 40 IU/L respectively (kappa values 0.65 and 0.79, respectively). However, the sensitivity of the tests for identifying SCM at these thresholds was higher for ALP (96.4%) than for LDH (68.5%). In this study, LDH and ALP tests were standardized for cow's milk and results showed that only the ALP test was reliable in the early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. PMID:17268916

  20. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  1. Effects of sterilization and storage on the properties of ALP-grafted biomaterials for prosthetic and bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, S; Pan, G; Cassinelli, C; Mazzucco, L; Vernè, E; Spriano, S

    2012-10-01

    Grafting of the biomaterial surfaces with biomolecules is nowadays a challenging research field for prosthetic and bone tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, very few research works investigate the effect of the sterilization processes on the properties of functionalized biomaterials. In this study, the effects of different sterilization techniques (e.g. gamma and electron beam irradiation, ethylene oxide) on the enzymatic activity of bioactive glasses and Ti6Al4V grafted with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been analyzed. Sterility maintenance and in vitro bioactivity of the sterilized surfaces have also been investigated. Finally the effect of packaging and storage conditions has been considered. PMID:22971978

  2. Ordovician orogeny in the Alps: a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbriggen, Roger

    2015-03-01

    An important part of the pre-Mesozoic basement of the Alps is the product of orogenic processes occurred in Ordovician times. Most of the geological constrains for this reconstruction have been obtained by the study of the Strona-Ceneri zone in the Southern Alps, where Alpine overprint was weak. The erosion of late Pan-African belts delivered large amounts of greywackes and pelites into subduction zones along Gondwana. The sediments were subducted and accreted to form wide complexes. As a result of the large sediment input, subduction retreated and the mantle-derived magmas intruded the base of the fertile "mud pile." This initiated substantial anatexis to produce peraluminous magmas, which intruded and extruded syntectonically. Thereby, the predominantly steeply structured subduction-accretion complex provided ideal pathways for the uprising magmas, and down-thrusting host rocks to result in an isostatically stable crust. The SE Australian Lachlan fold belt is interpreted as an upper crustal analog of the Strona-Ceneri zone. Based on the combination of their geology, a crustal profile through an Alaskan type of orogen is drawn.

  3. Prevalence of acute mountain sickness in the Eastern Alps.

    PubMed

    Mairer, Klemens; Wille, Maria; Bucher, Thomas; Burtscher, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Little information is available on the prevalence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) in the Eastern Alps compared with the Western Alps. Because of differences regarding the populations of mountaineers, we hypothesized that the prevalence differs between the Eastern and Western Alps. Thus, we determined the prevalence and risk factors of AMS at four different altitudes in the Eastern Alps of Austria. Four hundred and thirty-one recreational hikers were studied using questionnaires on the morning of their first night at high altitude. A diagnosis of AMS was based on a Lake Louise Score > or =4, the presence of headache, and at least one additional symptom. Overall 16.2% of the subjects met the criteria for AMS, and the prevalence of AMS increased significantly with altitude (2200 m: 6.9%; 2500 m: 9.1%; 2800 m: 17.4%; 3500 m: 38.0%). Heavy perceived exertion, a history of migraine, the absolute altitude reached, little mountaineering experience, and inadequate water intake (< or =2 L) were independent AMS risk factors. The reported altitude-related AMS prevalence in the Western Alps is 4% to 8% lower compared with that found in this study for the Eastern Alps. In conclusion, the prevalence of AMS is higher in the tourist population of the Eastern Alps compared to the more experienced mountaineers of the Western Alps. Consideration of easily modifiable risk factors such as individual exertion and water intake could markedly reduce AMS and contribute to the enjoyment of mountaineering. PMID:19775213

  4. Steady-State ALPS for Real-Valued Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    The two objectives of this paper are to describe a steady-state version of the Age-Layered Population Structure (ALPS) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and to compare it against other GAs on real-valued problems. Motivation for this work comes from our previous success in demonstrating that a generational version of ALPS greatly improves search performance on a Genetic Programming problem. In making steady-state ALPS some modifications were made to the method for calculating age and the method for moving individuals up layers. To demonstrate that ALPS works well on real-valued problems we compare it against CMA-ES and Differential Evolution (DE) on five challenging, real-valued functions and on one real-world problem. While CMA-ES and DE outperform ALPS on the two unimodal test functions, ALPS is much better on the three multimodal test problems and on the real-world problem. Further examination shows that, unlike the other GAs, ALPS maintains a genotypically diverse population throughout the entire search process. These findings strongly suggest that the ALPS paradigm is better able to avoid premature convergence then the other GAs.

  5. Comparison of Osteogenesis between Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Sheets on Poly-ε-Caprolactone/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Composite Scaffolds in Canine Bone Defects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kang, Byung-Jae; Kim, Wan Hee; Yun, Hui-Suk; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC sheets have effective potentials of bone regeneration. Composite polymer/ceramic scaffolds such as poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used to repair large bone defects. The present study investigated the in vitro osteogenic potential of canine adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSCs) and Ad-MSC sheets. Composite PCL/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with Ad-MSCs or wrapped with osteogenic Ad-MSC sheets (OCS) were also fabricated and their osteogenic potential was assessed following transplantation into critical-sized bone defects in dogs. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteogenic Ad-MSCs (O-MSCs) and OCS was significantly higher than that of undifferentiated Ad-MSCs (U-MSCs). The ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteopontin, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 mRNA levels were upregulated in O-MSCs and OCS as compared to U-MSCs. In a segmental bone defect, the amount of newly formed bone was greater in PCL/β-TCP/OCS and PCL/β-TCP/O-MSCs/OCS than in the other groups. The OCS exhibit strong osteogenic capacity, and OCS combined with a PCL/β-TCP composite scaffold stimulated new bone formation in a critical-sized bone defect. These results suggest that the PCL/β-TCP/OCS composite has potential clinical applications in bone regeneration and can be used as an alternative treatment modality in bone tissue engineering. PMID:27610141

  6. Comparison of Osteogenesis between Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Sheets on Poly-ε-Caprolactone/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Composite Scaffolds in Canine Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kang, Byung-jae; Kim, Wan Hee; Yun, Hui-suk

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC sheets have effective potentials of bone regeneration. Composite polymer/ceramic scaffolds such as poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used to repair large bone defects. The present study investigated the in vitro osteogenic potential of canine adipose-derived MSCs (Ad-MSCs) and Ad-MSC sheets. Composite PCL/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with Ad-MSCs or wrapped with osteogenic Ad-MSC sheets (OCS) were also fabricated and their osteogenic potential was assessed following transplantation into critical-sized bone defects in dogs. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteogenic Ad-MSCs (O-MSCs) and OCS was significantly higher than that of undifferentiated Ad-MSCs (U-MSCs). The ALP, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteopontin, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 mRNA levels were upregulated in O-MSCs and OCS as compared to U-MSCs. In a segmental bone defect, the amount of newly formed bone was greater in PCL/β-TCP/OCS and PCL/β-TCP/O-MSCs/OCS than in the other groups. The OCS exhibit strong osteogenic capacity, and OCS combined with a PCL/β-TCP composite scaffold stimulated new bone formation in a critical-sized bone defect. These results suggest that the PCL/β-TCP/OCS composite has potential clinical applications in bone regeneration and can be used as an alternative treatment modality in bone tissue engineering. PMID:27610141

  7. Effect of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) on the growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Joshua; Hao, Jia; Hatoyama, Hirokazu; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce; Otsuka, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have shown the effectiveness of zinc-tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) for bone tissue engineering. In this study, marine calcareous foraminifera possessing uniform pore size distribution were hydrothermally converted to Zn-TCP. The ability of a scaffold to combine effectively with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a key tissue-engineering aim. In order to demonstrate the osteogenic ability of MSCs with Zn-TCP, the scaffolds were cultured in an osteogenic induction medium to elicit an osteoblastic response. The physicochemical properties of Zn-TCP were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and ICP-MS. MSCs were aspirated from rat femurs and cultured for 3 days before indirectly placing four samples into each respective well. After culture for 7, 10 and 14 days, osteoblastic differentiation was evaluated using alizarin red S stain, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, cell numbers and cell viability. XRD and FT-IR patterns both showed the replacement of CO(3)(2-) with PO(4)(3-). Chemical analysis showed zinc incorporation of 5 mol%. Significant increases in cell numbers were observed at 10 and 14 days in the Zn-TCP group, while maintaining high levels of cell viability (> 90%). ALP activity in the Zn-TCP group was statistically higher at 10 days. Alizarin red S staining also showed significantly higher levels of calcium mineralization in Zn-TCP compared with the control groups. This study showed that MSCs in the presence of biomimetically derived Zn-TCP can accelerate their differentiation to osteoblasts and could potentially be useful as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:24737707

  8. Sensitive and direct electrochemical detection of double-stranded DNA utilizing alkaline phosphatase-labelled zinc finger proteins.

    PubMed

    Noh, Soodong; Ha, Dat Thinh; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Moon-Soo

    2015-06-21

    Direct detection of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) is of great importance in biomedical applications such as identifying pathogens and circulating DNAs. However, its sensitivity is still not sufficiently high because limited signalling labels can be conjugated or fused. Herein, we report sensitive and direct detection of dsDNA using (i) alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as a fast catalytic label conjugated to ZFPs along with (ii) electrochemical measurement of an ALP product (l-ascorbic acid) at the indium-tin oxide electrode with a high signal-to-background ratio. ALP is simply conjugated to a ZFP through lysine residues in a ZFP purification tag, a maltose binding protein (MBP). Sandwich-type electrochemical detection of dsDNA allows a detection limit of ca. 100 fM without using DNA amplification. PMID:25969923

  9. Wnt5a attenuates Wnt3a-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in dental follicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakisaka, Yukihiko; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Nemoto, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    Wnt signaling regulates multiple cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathways. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling can promote the differentiation of dental follicle cells, putative progenitor cells for cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament cells, toward a cementoblast/osteoblast phenotype during root formation, but little is known about the biological significance of noncanonical Wnt signaling in this process. We identified the expression of Wnt5a, a representative noncanonical Wnt ligand, in tooth root lining cells (i.e. precementoblasts/cementoblasts) and dental follicle cells during mouse tooth root development, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Silencing expression of the Wnt5a gene in a dental follicle cell line resulted in enhancement of the Wnt3a (a representative canonical Wnt ligand)-mediated increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. Conversely, treatment with recombinant Wnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression, suggesting that Wnt5a signaling functions as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. Wnt5a did not affect the nuclear translocation of β-catenin as well as β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of T-cell factor (Tcf) triggered by Wnt3a, suggesting that Wnt5a inhibits the downstream part of the β-catenin-Tcf pathway. These findings suggest the existence of a feedback mechanism between canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling during the differentiation of dental follicle cells. - Highlights: • Dental follicle cells express Wnt5a during tooth root development. • Silencing of Wnt5a enhances Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. • Conversely, treatment with rWnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression. • Wnt5a functions as a negative regulator of Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression.

  10. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor activation enhances BMP-2-induced osteoblast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Chieri; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sano, Hajime

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the role of S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-stimulated osteoblast differentiation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P signaling enhanced BMP-2-stimulated Smad and ERK phosphorylation by C2C12 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MEK/ERK signaling is a pathway underlying S1P signaling for osteoblast differentiation. -- Abstract: We previously demonstrated that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling induced proliferation and prostaglandin productions by synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In the present study we investigated the role of S1P receptor-mediated signaling for osteoblast differentiation. We investigated osteoblast differentiation using C2C12 myoblasts, a cell line derived from murine satellite cells. Osteoblast differentiation was induced by the treatment of bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 in the presence or absence of either S1P or FTY720 (FTY), a high-affinity agonist of S1P receptors. Osteoblast differentiation was determined by osteoblast-specific transcription factor, Runx2 mRNA expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin production by the cells. Smad1/5/8 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation was examined by Western blotting. Osteocalcin production by C2C12 cells were determined by ELISA. Runx2 expression and ALP activity by BMP-2-stimulated C2C12 cells were enhanced by addition of either S1P or FTY. Both S1P and FTY enhanced BMP-2-induced ERK1/2 and Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. The effect of FTY was stronger than that of S1P. S1P receptor-mediated signaling on osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, indicating that the S1P receptor-mediated MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling pathway enhanced BMP-2-Smad signaling. These results indicate that S1P

  11. Culture human mesenchymal stem cells with calcium phosphate cement scaffolds for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Weir, Michael D; Xu, Hockin H K

    2010-04-01

    Because of its moldability and excellent osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is highly promising for craniofacial and orthopedic applications. The objectives of this study were to investigate the response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to a high-strength CPC-chitosan scaffold and to examine cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. hMSCs were seeded onto CPC-chitosan composite, CPC control, and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and mineralization of hMSCs were measured. CPC-chitosan had a flexural strength (mean + or - SD; n = 5) of (19.5 + or - 1.4) MPa, higher than (8.0 + or - 1.4) MPa of CPC control (p < 0.05). The percentage of live hMSCs on CPC-chitosan was (90.5 + or - 1.3)% at 8 days, matching (90.7 + or - 3.8)% of CPC control (p > 0.1). The CPC-chitosan surface area covered by the attached hMSCs increased from (51 + or - 11)% at 1 day to (90 + or - 4)% at 8 days (p < 0.05), matching those of CPC control (p > 0.1). Hence, the CPC strength was significantly increased via chitosan without compromising the hMSC response. At 8 days, there was a significant increase in ALP of cells in osteogenic media (10.99 + or - 0.93) [(mM pNpp/min)/(microg DNA)] versus control media (3.62 + or - 0.40) (p < 0.05). hMSCs in osteogenic media exhibited greater mineralization area of (47.5 + or - 19.7)% compared with (6.1 + or - 2.3)% in control medium on TCPS (p < 0.05). In conclusion, hMSCs showed excellent attachment and viability on the strong and tough CPC-chitosan scaffold, matching the hMSC response on CPC control. hMSCs were successfully differentiated down the osteogenic lineage. Hence, the strong, in situ hardening CPC-chitosan scaffold may be useful as a moderate load-bearing vehicle to deliver hMSCs for maxillofacial and orthopedic bone tissue engineering. PMID:20091907

  12. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Štefková, Kateřina; Procházková, Jiřina; Pacherník, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells. PMID:25767512

  13. Alp Transit: Crossing Faults 44 and 49

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Tani, M.; Bremen, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the crossing of faults 44 and 49 when constructing the 57 km Gotthard base tunnel of the Alp Transit project. Fault 44 is a permeable fault that triggered significant surface deformations 1,400 m above the tunnel when it was reached by the advancing excavation. The fault runs parallel to the downstream face of the Nalps arch dam. Significant deformations were measured at the dam crown. Fault 49 is sub-vertical and permeable, and runs parallel at the upstream face of the dam. It was necessary to assess the risk when crossing fault 49, as a limit was put on the acceptable dam deformation for structural safety. The simulation model, forecasts and action decided when crossing over the faults are presented, with a brief description of the tunnel, the dam, and the monitoring system.

  14. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  15. Mechanisms for solubilization of various insoluble phosphates and activation of immobilized phosphates in different soils by an efficient and salinity-tolerant Aspergillus niger strain An2.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Luo, Lijin; Yang, Jinshui; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms for solubilization of different types of phosphates and activation of immobilized phosphates in different types of soils by an efficient fungal strain An2 were explored and evaluated in this study. An2 was isolated from a Chinese cabbage rhizosphere soil and identified as Aspergillus niger. It could fast release up to 1722, 2066, and 2356 mg L(-1) of soluble phosphorus (P) from 1 % Ca3(PO4)2, Mg3(PO4)2, and AlPO4 (Ca-P, Mg-P, and Al-P) and 215 and 179 mg L(-1) from 0.5 % FePO4 and rock phosphate (Fe-P and RP), respectively. HPLC assay demonstrated that An2 mainly secreted oxalic acid to solubilize Ca-P, Mg-P, Al-P, and Fe-P whereas secreted tartaric acid to solubilize RP. Furthermore, An2 could tolerate salinity up to 4 % NaCl without impairing its phosphate-solubilizing ability. The simulation experiments validated that An2 was able to effectively activate immobilized phosphates in general calcareous, acidic, as well as saline-alkali soils with high total P content. This study shows new insights into the mechanisms for microbial solubilization of different types of phosphates and supports the future application of strain An2 in different types of soils to effectively activate P for plants. PMID:25561059

  16. Glacial isostatic uplift of the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mey, Juergen; Scherler, Dirk; Wickert, Andrew D.; Egholm, David L.; Tesauro, Magdala; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-04-01

    Present-day vertical movements of the Earth's surface are mostly due to tectonic deformation, volcanic processes, and crustal loading/unloading. In tectonically stable regions of North America and Scandinavia, vertical movements are almost entirely attributable to glacial isostatic rebound after the melting of the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets. In contrast, the Pleistocene Alpine icecap grew on a younger mountain belt that formed by collision of the European and African plates, still subject to shortening. Therefore, measured uplift is potentially a composite signal of tectonic shortening and unloading after deglaciation and concomitant erosion. Deciphering the contributions of tectonics and crustal unloading to present-day uplift rates in formerly-glaciated mountain belts is a prerequisite to using uplift data to estimate the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle, a key variable in geodynamics. We evaluate the post-LGM glacial-isostatic rebound of the Alps following a 4-tiered procedure. First, we estimated the thickness distribution of sedimentary valley fills to create a bedrock map of the entire mountain belt. Second, this map was used as topographic basis for the reconstruction of the Alpine icecap using a numerical ice-flow model. Third, we estimated the equilibrium deflection of the Alpine lithosphere, using the combined loads of ice and sediments with a variable effective elastic thickness. Finally, we used an exponential decay function to infer the residual deflection and the present-day uplift rate for a range of upper mantle viscosities. Our analysis shows that virtually all of the geodetically measured surface uplift in the Swiss and the Austrian Alps can be attributed to glacial unloading and redistribution of sediments, assuming an upper-mantle viscosity lower than that inferred for an old craton (e.g., Fennoscandia), but higher than that for a region with recent crustal thinning (e.g., Basin and Range province).

  17. Molecular modeling of human alkaline sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Panneer Selvam; Olubiyi, Olujide; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy; Strodel, Birgit; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline sphingomyelinase, which is expressed in the human intestine and hydrolyses sphingomyelin, is a component of the plasma and the lysosomal membranes. Hydrolase of sphingomyelin generates ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate that have regulatory effects on vital cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The enzyme belongs to the Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase family and it differs in structural similarity with acidic and neutral sphingomyelinase. In the present study we modeled alkaline sphingomyelinase using homology modeling based on the structure of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase from Xanthomonas axonopodis with which it shares 34% identity. Homology modeling was performed using Modeller9v7. We found that Cys78 and Cys394 form a disulphide bond. Further analysis shows that Ser76 may be important for the function of this enzyme, which is supported by the findings of Wu et al. (2005), that S76F abolishes the activity completely. We found that the residues bound to Zn(2+) are conserved and geometrically similar with the template. Molecular Dynamics simulations were carried out for the modeled protein to observe the effect of Zinc metal ions. It was observed that the metal ion has little effect with regard to the stability but induces increased fluctuations in the protein. These analyses showed that Zinc ions play an important role in stabilizing the secondary structure and in maintaining the compactness of the active site. PMID:21544170

  18. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  19. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  20. Enhancement of osteoblastic differentiation in alginate gel beads with bioactive octacalcium phosphate particles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kosei; Anada, Takahisa; Yamada, Masumi; Seki, Minoru; Sasaki, Keiichi; Suzuki, Osamu

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated whether alginate (Alg) hydrogel microbeads have a role in maintaining mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and release the cells after being stimulated by synthetic octacalcium phosphate (OCP), which is a mineral crystal capable of stimulating osteoblastic differentiation during a conversion process to hydroxyapatite (HA). The ST-2 cell suspension in the alginate solution, which contained various concentrations of OCP granules with diameters less than 53 μm, was extruded drop-wise into a stirred gelation solution containing BaCl2 using an encapsulator with nitrogen gas stream. The Alg-microbeads (Alg/OCP · ST-2 microbeads) that were generated, which had a diameter of approximately 400 μm, were incubated for up to 14 d and then assessed for osteoblastic differentiation. Alg-microbeads with cells were also incubated to identify the possible conversion from OCP to HA. Osteoblast differentiation markers in ST-2 cells, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type I, were up-regulated in the presence of higher amounts of OCP. X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed that the OCP tended to convert to HA over time, suggesting that the OCP in Alg-microbeads interacts three-dimensionally with ST-2 cells and stimulates its osteoblastic differentiation. The release of ST-2 cells from the microbeads was also estimated. ST-2 cells were identified outside of the microbeads, although the cell number tended to decrease with increasing OCP. These results suggest that Alg/OCP microbeads could be used as a vehicle to activate osteoblastic cells and deliver them to sites where bone regeneration is needed. PMID:26657659

  1. Ultrasensitive detection of amifostine and alkaline phosphatase based on the growth of CdS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Na, Weidan; Liu, Siyu; Liu, Xiaotong; Su, Xingguang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we reported a simple and sensitive fluorescence nanosensor for rapid detection of amifostine and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The novel nanosensor was based on the fluorescence "turn on-off" of CdS quantum dots (QDs). Firstly, Cd(2+) cation could react with S(2-) anion to generate fluorescent CdS QDs in the presence of amifostine. The fluorescence (FL) intensity of amifostine-capped CdS QDs (Amifostine-CdS QDs) was increased with the increasing amounts of amifostine, and could be used for amifostine detection. However, amifostine could be converted to 2-(3-aminopropylamino) ethanethiol (WR1065) in the presence of ALP based on the dephosphorylation of ALP. Under the optimum conditions, the affinity of WR1065 to CdS QDs was weaker than that of amifostine. Therefore the new generation of WR1065-CdS QDs would reduce the FL intensity with the increase of ALP concentration, and the fluorescence of CdS QDs was turn off. The metabolic process of amifostine in the presence of alkaline phosphatase could be also studied via the change of FL intensity of CdS QDs. The present method was cost-effective, convenient, and does not require any complicated synthetic procedures. PMID:26452927

  2. TF2 binds to the regulatory promoter of alkaline phosphatase in Dicytostelium.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Bradley R; Wiles, Natasha S; Rutherford, Charles L

    2007-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity becomes restricted to PstO cells at the prestalk-prespore boundary during the later stages of development, suggesting a novel function in the regulation of prestalk cell differentiation. To identify regulatory control sequences within the alp promoter, a series of 5' and internal deletions were generated and fused to the LacZ reporter gene. In vitro assays of reporter activity from Dicytostelium transformants containing the deleted promoter-LacZ fusion constructs showed that the -683 to -468 bp sequence is required for proper activation of the reporter in developing slugs. To identify DNA-protein interactions involved in the regulation of alp, EMSAs were preformed using a series of short overlapping PCR probes that span the regulatory promoter sequence. A sequence-specific DNA-binding protein was identified that interacts with the -665 to -635 bp sequence. This DNA-binding protein was sequentially purified using DEAE-Sephacel, heparin-Sepharose, DNA Affinity, and gel filtration chromatography. A polypeptide with a molecular weight of 28 kDa was identified on an SDS-PAGE. The purified protein was identified as TF2 by mass spectrometry. TF2 may, therefore, bind to the regulatory promoter of alp and function in the developmental control of PstO differentiation in Dicytostelium. PMID:17916391

  3. Kinetics of gene expression of alkaline phosphatase during healing of alveolar bone in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Willian Caetano; Fabris, André Luís da Silva; Hassumi, Jaqueline Suemi; Gonçalves, Alaíde; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Okamoto, Roberta

    2016-06-01

    Immunohistochemical studies and molecular biology have enabled us to identify numerous proteins that are involved in the metabolism of bone, and their encoding genes. Among these is alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme that is responsible for the initiation of mineralisation of the extracellular matrix during alveolar bone repair. To evaluate the gene expression of ALP during this process, we studied nine healthy adult male rats, which had their maxillary central incisors extracted from the right side and were randomly divided into three groups. During three experimental periods, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days, the alveoli were curetted, the rats killed, and samples analysed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The RNAm that encodes the gene for the synthesis of ALP was expressed during the three periods analysed, but its concentration was significantly increased at 14 and 28 days compared with at 7 days. There was no significant difference between 14 and 28 days (p=0.0005). We conclude that genes related to ALP are expressed throughout the healing process and more intensively during the later periods (14 and 28 days), which coincides with the increased formation of mineralised bone. PMID:26935214

  4. Pyrophosphate-regulated Zn(2+)-dependent DNAzyme activity: an amplified fluorescence sensing strategy for alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kong, Rong-Mei; Fu, Ting; Sun, Ni-Na; Qu, Feng-Li; Zhang, Shu-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2013-12-15

    In this work, based on the fact that pyrophosphate (PPi) could regulate the activity of Zn(2+)-dependent DNAzyme, we for the first time report a fluorescence turn-on sensing system for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with improved sensitivity via nonprotein-enzymatic signal amplification. A catalytic and molecular beacon (CAMB) design was employed to further improve its sensitivity. Taking advantage of the strong interactions between PPi and the Zn(2+), the cofactor Zn(2+) was caged, and the DNAzyme activity was effectively inhibited. The introduction of ALP, however, could catalyze the hydrolysis of PPi and release free Zn(2+), resulting in the activation of DNAzyme to catalyze the cleavage of the molecular beacon substrate with a remarkable increase of fluorescent signal. These optimized designs together allow a high sensitivity for ALP, with a detection limit of 20 pM observed, much lower than previously reported methods. It has also been used for detection of ALP in human serum with satisfactory results, demonstrating its potential applications in clinical diagnosis. PMID:23891797

  5. Streptococcus agalactiae alpha-like protein 1 possesses both cross-reacting and Alp1-specific epitopes.

    PubMed

    Kvam, Augusta I; Mavenyengwa, Rooyen T; Radtke, Andreas; Maeland, Johan A

    2011-08-01

    Most isolates of group B streptococci (GBS) express an alpha-like protein (Alp), Cα (encoded by bca), Alp1 (also called epsilon; alp1), Alp2 (alp2), Alp3 (alp3), Alp4 (alp4), or R4/Rib (rib). These proteins are chimeras with a mosaic structure and with antigenic determinants with variable immunological cross-reactivities between the Alps, including Alp1 and Cα cross-reactivity. This study focused on antigenic domains of Alp1, studied by using rabbit antisera in immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based tests and whole cells of GBS or trypsin-extracted and partially purified antigens from the strains A909 (serotype Ia/Cα, Cβ) and 335 (Ia/Alp1). Alp1 and Cα shared an antigenic determinant, Alp1/Cα common, not harbored by other Alps, probably located in the Alp1 and Cα repeat units, as these units are nearly identical in genomic sequence. An antigenic Alp1 determinant was Alp1 specific and was most likely located in the N-terminal unit of Alp1 in which an Alp1-specific primer site for PCR is also located. In addition, Alp1 possessed a domain with low immunogenicity which cross-reacted immunologically with Alp2 and Alp3, with unknown location in Alp1. Alp1 was partially degraded by trypsin during antigen extraction but with the antigenic domains preserved. The results indicate that Cα and Alp1 are immunologically related in the same manner that R4 (Rib) and Alp3 are related. The domain called Alp1 specific should be important in GBS serotyping as a surface-anchored serosubtype marker. The Alp1/Cα common determinant may be of prime interest as an immunogenic domain in a GBS vaccine. PMID:21653744

  6. Trace elements in metapelitic schists from Alpe Sponda (Central Alps, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redler, Charlotte; Irouschek, Alfred; Jeffries, Teresa; Gieré, Reto

    2015-04-01

    Lenses of kyanite-cordierite-garnet-bearing paragonite-biotite schist were found in paragonite-free metapelitic rocks at Pizzo Forno, near Alpe Sponda (Simano Nappe, Central Alps). These lenses are mineralogically distinct, as they lack both quartz and staurolite, but they contain large amounts of tourmaline (up to 20-25 vol.%). Tourmaline shows strong colour zoning, which in combination with the major and trace element data indicates at least two stages of crystal growth during prograde metamorphism. Mineral equilibrium modelling based on the bulk-rock compositions yielded peak metamorphic conditions of amphibolite-facies grade (T = 590-660 °C and P = 6.5-7.8 kbar), which is consistent with the P-T conditions estimated previously for this part of the Central Alps. The light elements lithium and boron are strongly enriched in the Alpe Sponda samples, which therefore show unusual bulk-rock concentrations. Lithium is mainly distributed to cordierite (450 ppm) and to a lower extent to muscovite (250 ppm), biotite (180 ppm) and paragonite; all other minerals show only minor amounts of lithium. As commonly expected, boron is partitioned into tourmaline and to a much lesser amount into muscovite, whereas all other minerals have low boron contents. In addition, cordierite has a relatively high Be content, underlining the hypotheses of the presence of Na-Be cordierite. The analysis of rare earth elements (REE) shows that all samples are enriched in low REE (LREE; La-Eu) relative to the heavy REE (HREE: Gd-Lu), and have a small negative Ce anomaly, as well as a pronounced negative Eu anomaly, which can be illustrated in a chondrite-normalised diagram. Furthermore, all minerals that do not show a distinct positive Eu anomaly (i.e. garnet, biotite, muscovite, cordierite, kyanite, chlorite and rutile) show a marked negative Ce anomaly. In addition, plagioclase and tourmaline exhibit a pronounced positive Eu anomaly but no Ce anomaly. Especially in the case of tourmaline the

  7. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  8. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  10. Chloroquine Phosphate Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), or any other drugs.tell your doctor ... taking chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), or hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil).tell your doctor if you are pregnant ...

  11. Chloroquine Phosphate Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), or any other drugs.tell your doctor and ... taking chloroquine phosphate, chloroquine hydrochloride (Aralen HCl), or hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil).tell your doctor if you are pregnant ...

  12. Uranium from phosphate ores

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant.

  13. Pre-treatment serum lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase as predictors of metastases in extremity osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Leonard C.; Bertie, Julia; Rodseth, Reitze; Sartorius, Benn; Ferreira, Nando

    2015-01-01

    Background The prognosis of patients with metastatic osteosarcoma remains poor. However, the chance of survival can be improved by surgical resection of all metastases. In this study we investigate the value of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in predicting the presence of metastatic disease at time of diagnosis. Methods Sixty-one patients with histologically confirmed conventional osteosarcoma of the extremity were included in the study. Only 19.7% of cases presented without evidence of systemic spread of the disease. Pre-treatment serum ALP and LDH were analysed in patients with and without skeletal or pulmonary metastases. Results Serum LDH and ALP levels were not significantly different in patients with or without pulmonary metastases (p=0.88 and p=0.47, respectively). The serum LDH and ALP levels did however differ significantly in patients with or without skeletal metastases (p<0.001 and p=0.02, respectively). The optimal breakpoint for serum LDH as a marker of skeletal metastases was 849 IU/L (AUC 0.839; Sensitivity=0.88; Specificity=0.73). LDH >454 IU/L equated to 100% sensitivity for detected bone metastases (positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR)=1.32). With a cut-off of 76 IU/L a sensitivity of 100% was reached for serum ALP predicting the presence of skeletal metastases (positive DLR=1.1). In a multivariate analysis both LDH ≥850 IU/L (odds ratio [OR]=9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–44.3) and ALP ≥280 IU/L (OR=10.3; 95% CI 2.1–50.5) were predictive of skeletal metastases. LDH however lost its significance in a multivariate model which included pre-treatment tumour volume. Conclusion In cases of osteosarcoma with LDH >850 IU/L and/or ALP >280 IU/L it may be prudent to consider more sensitive staging investigations for detection of skeletal metastases. Further research is required to determine the value and the most sensitive cut-off points of serum ALP and LDH in the prediction of skeletal metastases. PMID

  14. Effect of cobalt on synthesis and activation of Bacillus licheniformis alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, D B; Chen, C P; Hulett, F M

    1981-01-01

    The effect of CO2+ on the synthesis and activation of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 alkaline phosphatase has been shown by the development of a defined minimal salts medium in which this organism produces 35 times more (assayable) alkaline phosphatase than when grown in a low-phosphate complex medium or in the defined medium without cobalt. Stimulation of enzyme activity with cobalt is dependent on a low phosphate concentration in the medium (below 0.075 mM) and continued protein synthesis. Cobalt stimulation resulted in alkaline phosphate production being a major portion of total protein synthesized during late-logarithmic and early-stationary-phase culture growth. Cells cultured in the defined medium minus cobalt, or purified enzyme partially inactivated with a chelating agent, showed a 2.5-fold increase in activity when assayed in the presence of cobalt. Atomic spectral analysis indicated the presence of 3.65 +/- 0.45 g-atoms of cobalt associated with each mole of purified active alkaline phosphatase. A biochemical localization as a function of culture age in this medium showed that alkaline phosphatase was associated with the cytoplasmic membrane and was also found as a soluble enzyme in the periplasmic region and secreted into the growth medium. PMID:7462163

  15. Effect of cobalt on synthesis and activation of Bacillus licheniformis alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D B; Chen, C P; Hulett, F M

    1981-02-01

    The effect of CO2+ on the synthesis and activation of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 alkaline phosphatase has been shown by the development of a defined minimal salts medium in which this organism produces 35 times more (assayable) alkaline phosphatase than when grown in a low-phosphate complex medium or in the defined medium without cobalt. Stimulation of enzyme activity with cobalt is dependent on a low phosphate concentration in the medium (below 0.075 mM) and continued protein synthesis. Cobalt stimulation resulted in alkaline phosphate production being a major portion of total protein synthesized during late-logarithmic and early-stationary-phase culture growth. Cells cultured in the defined medium minus cobalt, or purified enzyme partially inactivated with a chelating agent, showed a 2.5-fold increase in activity when assayed in the presence of cobalt. Atomic spectral analysis indicated the presence of 3.65 +/- 0.45 g-atoms of cobalt associated with each mole of purified active alkaline phosphatase. A biochemical localization as a function of culture age in this medium showed that alkaline phosphatase was associated with the cytoplasmic membrane and was also found as a soluble enzyme in the periplasmic region and secreted into the growth medium. PMID:7462163

  16. [Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase I of Pichia guilliermondii yeast in vitro and in vivo].

    PubMed

    Sibirnyi, A A; Shavlovskii, G M

    1978-01-01

    The rate of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) hydrolysis by the partially purified preparation of alkaline phosphatase I of Pichia guilliermondii flavinogenic yeast was studied as affected by different substrates and inorganic ions. Their Km was established to be 2.0 X 10(-4) m and 2.5 X 10(-4) M, respectively. Dephosphorylation of p-nitrophenylphosphate and FMN was inhibited competitively by beta-glycerophosphate (Ki = 3.1 X 10(-3) M, respectively). The presence of inorganic phosphate ions in the reaction mixture decreases or removes inhibition of these compounds hydrolysis by other substrates of alkaline phosphatase I. The activity of alkaline phosphatase I increases in the presence of Mg2+ and was strongly inhibited in the presence of Be2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and inorganic phosphate, the mixture of Be2+ and F- being the most effective. This mixture inhibited the phosphatase activity of the partially purified preparation of alkaline phosphatase I of the cell-free extract as well as of intact cells in both the alkaline and acid zones of pH (8.6 and 5.5, respectively). Incubation of the washed iron-deficient P. guilliermondii cells in the presence of Be2+ and F- did not result in accumulation of FMN in the yeast culture. A possible role of nonspecific phosphomonoesterases in hydrolysis of FMN in vivo is discussed. PMID:208203

  17. Versatile and Amplified Biosensing through Enzymatic Cascade Reaction by Coupling Alkaline Phosphatase in Situ Generation of Photoresponsive Nanozyme.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu-Yi; Dong, Yu-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Cao, Gen-Xia; Wang, Guang-Li

    2015-10-20

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) biocatalysis followed by the in situ enzymatic generation of a visible light responsive nanozyme is coupled to elucidate a novel amplification strategy by enzymatic cascade reaction for versatile biosensing. The enzymatic hydrolysis of o-phosphonoxyphenol (OPP) to catechol (CA) by ALP is allowed to coordinate on the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) due to the specificity and high affinity of enediol ligands to Ti(IV). Upon the stimuli by CA generated from ALP, the inert TiO2 NPs is activated, which demonstrates highly efficient oxidase mimicking activity for catalyzing the oxidation of the typical substrate of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) under visible light (λ ≥ 400 nm) irradiation utilizing dissolved oxygen as an electron acceptor. On the basis of the cascade reaction of ALP and the nanozyme of CA coordinated TiO2 (TiO2-CA) NPs, we design exquisitely colorimetric biosensors for probing ALP activity and its inhibitor of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-DA). Quantitative probing of ALP activity in a wide linear range from 0.01 to 150 U/L with the detection limit of 0.002 U/L is realized, which endows the methodology with sufficiently high sensitivity for potentially practical applications in real samples of human serum (ALP level of 40-190 U/L for adults). In addition, a novel immunoassay protocol by taking mouse IgG as an example is validated using the ALP/nanozyme cascade amplification reaction as the signal transducer. A low detection limit of 2.0 pg/mL is attained for mouse IgG, which is 4500-fold lower than that of the standard enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Although only mouse IgG is used as a proof-of-concept in our experiment, we believe that this approach is generalizable to be readily extended to other ELISA systems. This methodology opens a new horizon for amplified and versatile biosensing including probing ALP activity and following ALP-based ELISA immunoassays. PMID:26419907

  18. [DNA degradation during standard alkaline of thermal denaturation].

    PubMed

    Drozhdeniuk, A P; Sulimova, G E; Vaniushin, B F

    1976-01-01

    Essential degradation 8 DNA (up to 10 per cent) with liberation of acid-soluble fragments takes place on the standard alkaline (0,01 M sodium phosphate, pH 12, 60 degrees, 15 min) or thermal (0.06 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, 102 degrees C, 15 min) denaturation. This degradation is more or less selective: fraction of low molecular weight fragments, isolated by hydroxyapatite cromatography and eluted by 0.06 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 is rich in adenine and thymine and contains about 2 times less 5-methylcytosine than the total wheat germ DNA. The degree of degradation of DNA on thermal denaturation is higher than on alkaline degradation. Therefore while studying reassociation of various DNA, one and the same standard method of DNA denaturation should be used. Besides, both the level of DNA degradation and the nature of the resulting products (fragments) should be taken into account. PMID:999984

  19. Beta-tricalcium phosphate granules improve osteogenesis in vitro and establish innovative osteo-regenerators for bone tissue engineering in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Zhang, Haoqiang; Liu, Yun; Fan, Bo; Li, Xiaokang; Xiao, Xin; Lan, Pingheng; Li, Minghui; Geng, Lei; Liu, Dong; Yuan, Yulin; Lian, Qin; Lu, Jianxi; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The drawbacks of traditional bone-defect treatments have prompted the exploration of bone tissue engineering. This study aimed to explore suitable β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules for bone regeneration and identify an efficient method to establish β-TCP-based osteo-regenerators. β-TCP granules with diameters of 1 mm and 1–2.5 mm were evaluated in vitro. The β-TCP granules with superior osteogenic properties were used to establish in vivo bioreactors, referred to as osteo-regenerators, which were fabricated using two different methods. Improved proliferation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), glucose consumption and ALP activity were observed for 1–2.5 mm β-TCP compared with 1-mm granules (P < 0.05). In addition, BMSCs incubated with 1–2.5 mm β-TCP expressed significantly higher levels of the genes for runt-related transcription factor-2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and collagen type-1 and the osteogenesis-related proteins alkaline phosphatase, collagen type-1 and runt-related transcription factor-2 compared with BMSCs incubated with 1 mm β-TCP (P < 0.05). Fluorochrome labelling, micro-computed tomography and histological staining analyses indicated that the osteo-regenerator with two holes perforating the femur promoted significantly greater bone regeneration compared with the osteo-regenerator with a periosteum incision (P < 0.05). This study provides an alternative to biofunctionalized bioreactors that exhibits improved osteogenesis. PMID:27000963

  20. Osteopontin involvement in integrin-mediated cell signaling and regulation of expression of alkaline phosphatase during early differentiation of UMR cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y K; Uemura, T; Nemoto, A; Yabe, T; Fujii, N; Ushida, T; Tateishi, T

    1997-12-22

    To clarify the function of osteopontin in osteoblast differentiation, we have examined the signal transduction pathway in an osteoblastic cell line (UMR106-6) bound to osteopontin, fibronectin, vitronectin and collagen type I surfaces. This was done by investigating the production and autophosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at the transcription level. Results suggest that osteopontin was not only responsible for the autophosphorylation of FAK but regulated the expression of ALP, which was strongly correlated with FAK activity. These results suggest that osteopontin might act as a trigger in the early differentiation of osteoblasts. PMID:9450560

  1. Badgastein spa—Austrian central Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zötl, J. G.

    1995-12-01

    The Badgastein spa shows almost all the special geological and hydrological features existing in the northeastern central Alps. Situated within the Tauern window, the open joint system enables the infiltration of surface water to great depths. There it becomes heated and loaded with radon and trace elements such as fluor. The water discharges as thermal water springs at the steep right flank of the cascade of the Gastein-Ache. This hydraulic process occurs during a span of 3600 3800 years. The springs are captured in galleries, and the largest discharge is in gallery IX (2518 m3/d-1). The spa became known worldwide in the 19th century by visiting aristocrats from Central and Eastern Europe. The most important event in the 20th century was the discovery of the heat joint in the Böckstein gallery. In 1940 an effort to reactivate gold mining in the Radhausberg near Böckstein south of Badgastein failed. However, the miners had the unexpected experience of being cured of rheumatism. A connection between the great depth and high temperature in the gallery was made by the discovery of the joint set with heat and radon emanation. In the medical stations of the Böckstein gallery treatment of polyarthritis has become especially successful.

  2. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  3. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  4. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  5. Chemical nature of alkaline polyphosphate boundary film at heated rubbing surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Shanhong; Tieu, A. Kiet; Zhu, Qiang; Zhu, Hongtao; Cui, Shaogang; Mitchell, David R. G.; Kong, Charlie; Cowie, Bruce; Denman, John A.; Liu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline polyphosphate has been demonstrated to be able to reduce significant wear and friction of sliding interfaces under heavy loads (>1 GPa) and elevated temperature (800 °C and above) conditions, e.g. hot metal manufacturing. The chemical composition and fine structure of polyphosphate lubricating film is not well understood as well as the role of alkaline elements within the reaction film at hot rubbing surface. This work makes use of the coupling surface analytical techniques on the alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm, XANES, TOF-SIMS and FIB/TEM. The data show the composition in gradient distribution and trilaminar structure of tribofilm: a shorter chain phosphate overlying a long chain polyphosphate that adheres onto oxide steel base through a short chain phosphate. The chemical hardness model well explains the anti-abrasive mechanism of alkaline polyphosphate at elevated temperatures and also predicts a depolymerisation and simultaneous cross-linking of the polyphosphate glass. The role of alkaline elements in the lubrication mechanism is especially explained. This work firstly serves as a basis for a detailed study of alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm at temperature over 600 °C. PMID:27180956

  6. Chemical nature of alkaline polyphosphate boundary film at heated rubbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Shanhong; Tieu, A. Kiet; Zhu, Qiang; Zhu, Hongtao; Cui, Shaogang; Mitchell, David R. G.; Kong, Charlie; Cowie, Bruce; Denman, John A.; Liu, Rong

    2016-05-01

    Alkaline polyphosphate has been demonstrated to be able to reduce significant wear and friction of sliding interfaces under heavy loads (>1 GPa) and elevated temperature (800 °C and above) conditions, e.g. hot metal manufacturing. The chemical composition and fine structure of polyphosphate lubricating film is not well understood as well as the role of alkaline elements within the reaction film at hot rubbing surface. This work makes use of the coupling surface analytical techniques on the alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm, XANES, TOF-SIMS and FIB/TEM. The data show the composition in gradient distribution and trilaminar structure of tribofilm: a shorter chain phosphate overlying a long chain polyphosphate that adheres onto oxide steel base through a short chain phosphate. The chemical hardness model well explains the anti-abrasive mechanism of alkaline polyphosphate at elevated temperatures and also predicts a depolymerisation and simultaneous cross-linking of the polyphosphate glass. The role of alkaline elements in the lubrication mechanism is especially explained. This work firstly serves as a basis for a detailed study of alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm at temperature over 600 °C.

  7. Chemical nature of alkaline polyphosphate boundary film at heated rubbing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shanhong; Tieu, A Kiet; Zhu, Qiang; Zhu, Hongtao; Cui, Shaogang; Mitchell, David R G; Kong, Charlie; Cowie, Bruce; Denman, John A; Liu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline polyphosphate has been demonstrated to be able to reduce significant wear and friction of sliding interfaces under heavy loads (>1 GPa) and elevated temperature (800 °C and above) conditions, e.g. hot metal manufacturing. The chemical composition and fine structure of polyphosphate lubricating film is not well understood as well as the role of alkaline elements within the reaction film at hot rubbing surface. This work makes use of the coupling surface analytical techniques on the alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm, XANES, TOF-SIMS and FIB/TEM. The data show the composition in gradient distribution and trilaminar structure of tribofilm: a shorter chain phosphate overlying a long chain polyphosphate that adheres onto oxide steel base through a short chain phosphate. The chemical hardness model well explains the anti-abrasive mechanism of alkaline polyphosphate at elevated temperatures and also predicts a depolymerisation and simultaneous cross-linking of the polyphosphate glass. The role of alkaline elements in the lubrication mechanism is especially explained. This work firstly serves as a basis for a detailed study of alkaline polyphosphate tribofilm at temperature over 600 °C. PMID:27180956

  8. Enhanced cell adhesion on bioinert ceramics mediated by the osteogenic cell membrane enzyme alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Alieh; Shirzadi, Bahareh; Azizi, Zahra; Maedler, Kathrin; Volkmann, Eike; Hildebrand, Nils; Maas, Michael; Treccani, Laura; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2016-12-01

    Functional bone and dental implant materials are required to guide cell response, offering cues that provide specific instructions to cells at the implant/tissue interface while maintaining full biocompatibility as well as the desired structural requirements and functions. In this work we investigate the influence of covalently immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in bone mineralization, on the first contact and initial cell adhesion. To this end, ALP is covalently immobilized by carbodiimide-mediated chemoligation on two highly bioinert ceramics, alpha-alumina (Al2O3) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) that are well-established for load-bearing applications. The physicochemical surface properties are evaluated by profilometry, zeta potential and water contact angle measurements. The initial cell adhesion of human osteoblasts (HOBs), human osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) and mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) was investigated. Cell adhesion was assessed at serum free condition via quantification of percentage of adherent cells, adhesion area and staining of the focal adhesion protein vinculin. Our findings show that after ALP immobilization, the Al2O3 and Y-TZP surfaces gained a negative charge and their hydrophilicity was increased. In the presence of surface-immobilized ALP, a higher cell adhesion, more pronounced cell spreading and a higher number of focal contact points were found. Thereby, this work gives evidence that surface functionalization with ALP can be utilized to modify inert materials for biological conversion and faster bone regeneration on inert and potentially load-bearing implant materials. PMID:27612703

  9. Phosphate, inositol and polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Thomas M; Azevedo, Cristina; Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Wilson, Miranda S C; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-02-15

    Eukaryotic cells have ubiquitously utilized the myo-inositol backbone to generate a diverse array of signalling molecules. This is achieved by arranging phosphate groups around the six-carbon inositol ring. There is virtually no biological process that does not take advantage of the uniquely variable architecture of phosphorylated inositol. In inositol biology, phosphates are able to form three distinct covalent bonds: phosphoester, phosphodiester and phosphoanhydride bonds, with each providing different properties. The phosphoester bond links phosphate groups to the inositol ring, the variable arrangement of which forms the basis of the signalling capacity of the inositol phosphates. Phosphate groups can also form the structural bridge between myo-inositol and diacylglycerol through the phosphodiester bond. The resulting lipid-bound inositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, further expand the signalling potential of this family of molecules. Finally, inositol is also notable for its ability to host more phosphates than it has carbons. These unusual organic molecules are commonly referred to as the inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs), due to the presence of high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds (pyro- or diphospho-). PP-IPs themselves constitute a varied family of molecules with one or more pyrophosphate moiety/ies located around the inositol. Considering the relationship between phosphate and inositol, it is no surprise that members of the inositol phosphate family also regulate cellular phosphate homoeostasis. Notably, the PP-IPs play a fundamental role in controlling the metabolism of the ancient polymeric form of phosphate, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). Here we explore the intimate links between phosphate, inositol phosphates and polyP, speculating on the evolution of these relationships. PMID:26862212

  10. Characterization of human periodontal ligament cells cultured on three-dimensional biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds in the presence and absence of L-ascorbic acid, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate in vitro

    PubMed Central

    AN, SHAOFENG; GAO, YAN; LING, JUNQI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of porous biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds on the proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) in the presence and absence of osteogenic inducer (L-ascorbic acid, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate). The cell growth within the scaffolds in the absence of osteogenic inducers was studied by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteoblastic differentiation markers of hPDLCs in BCP scaffolds were examined in the presence and absence of osteogenic inducers. The cell number of hPDLCs in the BCP scaffolds was less than that of hPDLCs cultured in microplates (control). SEM images showed that cells successfully adhered to the BCP scaffolds and spread amongst the pores; they also produced abundant extracellular cell matrix. In the presence and absence of osteogenic inducers, the ALP activity of hPDLCs within BCP scaffolds was suppressed in varying degrees at all time-points. In the absence of osteogenic inducers, hPDLCs in BCP scaffolds express significant higher levels of osteopontin (OPN) mRNA than the control, and there were no significant differences for Runx2 and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels compared with those cultured in microplates. In the presence of osteogenic inducers, Runx2 expression levels were significantly higher than those in control. OPN and OCN mRNA levels were downregulated slightly. Three-dimensional porous BCP scaffolds are able to stimulate the osteoblastic differentiation of hPDLCs in the presence and absence of osteogenic inducer and may be capable of supporting hPDLC-mediated bone formation. PMID:26622495

  11. Ultrasensitive electroanalysis of low-level free microRNAs in blood by maximum signal amplification of catalytic silver deposition using alkaline phosphatase-incorporated gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Si, Yanmei; Sun, Zongzhao; Zhang, Ning; Qi, Wei; Li, Shuying; Chen, Lijun; Wang, Hua

    2014-10-21

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type analysis method has been initially developed for probing low-level free microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood by a maximal signal amplification protocol of catalytic silver deposition. Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) were first synthesized and in-site incorporated into alkaline phosphatase (ALP) to form the ALP-AuNCs. Unexpectedly, the so incorporated AuNCs could dramatically enhance the catalysis activities of ALP-AuNCs versus native ALP. A sandwiched hybridization protocol was then proposed using ALP-AuNCs as the catalytic labels of the DNA detection probes for targeting miRNAs that were magnetically caught from blood samples by DNA capture probes, followed by the catalytic ligation of two DNA probes complementary to the targets. Herein, the ALP-AuNC labels could act as the bicatalysts separately in the ALP-catalyzed substrate dephosphorylation reaction and the AuNCs-accelerated silver deposition reaction. The signal amplification of ALP-AuNCs-catalyzed silver deposition was thereby maximized to be measured by the electrochemical outputs. The developed electroanalysis strategy could allow for the ultrasensitive detection of free miRNAs in blood with the detection limit as low as 21.5 aM, including the accurate identification of single-base mutant levels in miRNAs. Such a sandwich-type analysis method may circumvent the bottlenecks of the current detection techniques in probing short-chain miRNAs. It would be tailored as an ultrasensitive detection candidate for low-level free miRNAs in blood toward the diagnosis of cancer and the warning or monitoring of cancer metastasis in the clinical laboratory. PMID:25242013

  12. [Laboratory analogs of cyanobacterial mats of the alkaline geochemical barrier].

    PubMed

    Zavarzin, G A; Orleanskiĭ, V K; Gerasimenko, L M; Pushko, S N; Ushatinskaia, G T

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work was to illustrate a possible interaction between the "soda continent" and the ocean. A laboratory simulation was undertaken of the development of alkaliphilic mat with calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate interlayers in the zone where ocean waters, containing calcium and manganese, come into contact with carbonate- and phosphate-rich alkaline waters. The macrostructure of the layered cyanobacterial mat turned out to little dependent on the chemical conditions causing sediment formation. The chemical composition of freshly formed mineral interlayers of the mat was found to vary with the medium composition. The mineralogical composition of the sediment is determined by diagenesis conditions in its depth, which can cause mineral phase conversions. PMID:12698798

  13. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  14. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  15. MAPK signaling pathway alters expression of midgut ALP and ABCC genes and causes resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Chen, Defeng; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-04-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella. PMID:25875245

  16. MAPK Signaling Pathway Alters Expression of Midgut ALP and ABCC Genes and Causes Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin in Diamondback Moth

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W.; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella. PMID:25875245

  17. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  18. Phenology in the Western Alps: first results of the PhenoALP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonese, Edoardo; Tracol, Yann

    2010-05-01

    PHENOALP is a EU co-funded Interreg Project under the operational programme for cross-border cooperation "Italy-France (Alps-ALCOTRA)" 2007 - 2013, started in 2009, aiming to get a better understanding of phenological changes in the Alps and build a long term monitoring network. The results obtained after the first year of the project are mainly related to the definition of observation protocols and to the implementation of the observation networks. In particular, we focused on the comparison of different approaches for monitoring alpine grasslands phenology. We developed a new protocol for vegetative and reproductive phases of the seven most common plant growth life forms of alpine pastures: cyperaceae, poaceae (palatable and non palatable), evergreen and deciduous shrubs, forbs and leguminous. For each group quantitative and qualitative variables (e.g. leaves length, bud number, fruits number and phenophases) are monitored during the growing season. Study sites are located along an elevation gradient from 1560 to 2580 m asl and measurements are carried out on marked individuals in permanent plots. The other techniques used to monitor grassland phenology are: analysis of webcam images, weekly nadiral digital images, visual estimations of greening percentage, canopy structural measurements (i.e. height, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, leaf are index, etc..) and high frequency radiometric measurements of vegetation indexes related to canopy structure. All methods are providing promising results and our goal is to define a protocol suitable for long term observation based on a reasonable trade-off between the quality and robustness of collected data and the heaviness of the observations. For animal phenology we are focusing on many animal taxa among birds, mammals, amphibians and insects. First results are coming from birds and amphibians. In the case of birds, observations of reproductive phenology of some common alpine species are done

  19. Facile and Sensitive Fluorescence Sensing of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity with Photoluminescent Carbon Dots Based on Inner Filter Effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Fu, Huili; Chen, Xuejie; Gong, Peiwei; Chen, Guang; Xia, Lian; Wang, Hua; You, Jinmao; Wu, Yongning

    2016-03-01

    A simple and sensitive fluorescent assay for detecting alkaline phosphatase (ALP) based on the inner filter effect (IFE) has been proven, which is conceptually different from the previously reported ALP fluorescent assays. In this sensing platform, N-doped carbon dots (CDs) with a high quantum yield of 49% were prepared by one-pot synthesis and were directly used as a fluorophore in IFE. p-Nitrophenylphosphate (PNPP) was employed to act as an ALP substrate, and its enzyme catalytic product (p-nitrophenol (PNP)) was capable of functioning as a powerful absorber in IFE to influence the excitation of fluorophore (CDs). When in the presence of ALP, PNPP was transformed into PNP and induced the absorption band transition from 310 to 405 nm, which resulted in the complementary overlap between the absorption of PNP and the excitation of CDs. Because of the competitive absorption, the excitation of CDs was significantly weakened, resulting in the quenching of CDs. The present IFE-based sensing strategy showed a good linear relationship from 0.01 to 25 U/L (R(2) = 0.996) and provided an exciting detection limit of 0.001 U/L (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The proposed sensing approach was successfully applied to ALP sensing in serum samples, ALP inhibitor investigation and phosphatase cell imaging. The presented IFE-based CDs fluorescence sensing strategy gives new insight on the development of the facile and sensitive optical probe for enzyme activity assay because the surface modification or the linking between the receptor and the fluorophore is no longer required. PMID:26820049

  20. Biological responses of brushite-forming Zn- and ZnSr- substituted beta-tricalcium phosphate bone cements.

    PubMed

    Pina, S; Vieira, S I; Rego, P; Torres, P M C; da Cruz e Silva, O A B; da Cruz e Silva, E F; Ferreira, J M F

    2010-01-01

    The core aim of this study was to investigate zinc (Zn)- and zinc and strontium (ZnSr)-containing brushite-forming beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) cements for their effects on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cell line) as well as for their in vivo behaviour in trabecular bone cylindrical defects in a pilot study. In vitro proliferation and maturation responses of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic-like cells to bone cements were studied at the cellular and molecular levels. The Zn- and Sr-containing brushite cements were found to stimulate pre-osteoblastic proliferation and osteoblastic maturation. Indeed, MC3T3-E1 cells exposed to the powdered cements had increased proliferative rates and higher adhesiveness capacity, in comparison to control cells. Furthermore, they exhibited higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and increased Type-I collagen secretion and fibre deposition into the extracellular matrix. Proliferative and collagen deposition properties were more evident for cells grown in cements doped with Sr. The in vivo osteoconductive propertiesof the ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements were also pursued. Histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed at 1 and 2 months after implantation, using carbonated apatite cement (Norian SRS) as control. There was no evidence of cement-induced adverse foreign body reactions, and furthermore ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements revealed better in vivo performance in comparison to the control apatite cement. Additionally, the presence of both zinc and strontium resulted in the highest rate of new bone formation. These novel results indicate that the investigated ZnCPC and ZnSrCPC cements are both biocompatible and osteoconductive, being good candidate materials to use as bone substitutes. PMID:20821372

  1. Insights on the upper mantle beneath the Eastern Alps

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Irene; Miller, Meghan S.; Bokelmann, Götz

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of Ps and Sp receiver functions from datasets collected by permanent and temporary seismic stations, image a seismic discontinuity, due to a negative velocity contrast across the entire Eastern Alps. The receiver functions show the presence of the discontinuity within the upper mantle with a resolution of tens of kilometers laterally. It is deeper (100–130 km) below the central portion of the Eastern Alps, and shallower (70–80 km) towards the Pannonian Basin and in the Central Alps. Comparison with previous studies renders it likely that the observed discontinuity coincides with the lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (LAB) east of 15°E longitude, while it could be associated with a low velocity zone west of 15°E. PMID:25843967

  2. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  3. Promiscuous sulfatase activity and thio-effects in a phosphodiesterase of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily†

    PubMed Central

    Lassila, Jonathan K.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The nucleotide phosphodiesterase/pyrophosphatase from Xanthomonas axonopodis (NPP) is a structural and evolutionary relative of alkaline phosphatase that preferentially hydrolyzes phosphate diesters. With the goal of understanding how these two enzymes with nearly identical Zn2+ bimetallo sites achieve high selectivity for hydrolysis of either phosphate monoesters or diesters, we have measured a promiscuous sulfatase activity in NPP. Sulfate esters are nearly isosteric with phosphate esters but carry less charge, offering a probe of electrostatic contributions to selectivity. NPP exhibits sulfatase activity with kcat/KM value of 2 × 10−5 M−1s−1, similar to the R166S mutant of alkaline phosphatase. We further report the effects of thio-substitution on phosphate monoester and diester reactions. Reactivities with these non-cognate substrates illustrate a reduced dependence of NPP reactivity on the charge of the nonbridging oxygen situated between the Zn2+ ions relative to that in alkaline phosphatase. This reduced charge dependence can explain about 102 of the 107-fold differential catalytic proficiency for the most similar monoester and diester substrates in the two enzymes. The results further suggest that active site contacts to substrate oxygen atoms that do not contact the Zn2+ ions may play an important role in defining the selectivity of the enzymes. PMID:18975918

  4. Production of alkaline protease from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans

    PubMed Central

    Ferracini-Santos, Luciana; Sato, Hélia H

    2009-01-01

    Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is one of the microorganisms that produces a wide variety of yeast cell wall-degrading enzymes, β-1,3-glucanase, protease and chitinase. Dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as carbon and nitrogen source for cell growth and protease production. The medium components KH2PO4, KOH and dried yeast cells showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on the factorial fractional design. A second design was prepared using two factors: pH and percentage of dried yeast cells. The results showed that the culture medium for the maximum production of protease was 0.2 g/l of MgSO4.7H2O, 2.0 g/l of (NH4)2SO4 and 8% of dried yeast cells in 0.15M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The maximum alkaline protease production was 7.0 ± 0.27 U/ml over the center point. Crude protease showed best activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, and was stable at 50ºC. PMID:24031317

  5. Alkaline Phosphatase-Mimicking Peptide Nanofibers for Osteogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gulseren, Gulcihan; Yasa, I Ceren; Ustahuseyin, Oya; Tekin, E Deniz; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O

    2015-07-13

    Recognition of molecules and regulation of extracellular matrix synthesis are some of the functions of enzymes in addition to their catalytic activity. While a diverse array of enzyme-like materials have been developed, these efforts have largely been confined to the imitation of the chemical structure and catalytic activity of the enzymes, and it is unclear whether enzyme-mimetic molecules can also be used to replicate the matrix-regulatory roles ordinarily performed by natural enzymes. Self-assembled peptide nanofibers can provide multifunctional enzyme-mimetic properties, as the active sequences of the target enzymes can be directly incorporated into the peptides. Here, we report enhanced bone regeneration efficiency through peptide nanofibers carrying both catalytic and matrix-regulatory functions of alkaline phosphatase, a versatile enzyme that plays a critical role in bone formation by regulating phosphate homeostasis and calcifiable bone matrix formation. Histidine presenting peptide nanostructures were developed to function as phosphatases. These molecules are able to catalyze phosphate hydrolysis and serve as bone-like nodule inducing scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase-like peptide nanofibers enabled osteogenesis for both osteoblast-like and mesenchymal cell lines. PMID:26039144

  6. The Relationship between Periodontal Status and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid in Men with Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Saygun, Işıl; Daltaban, Özlem; Bal, Belgin; Bolu, Erol

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the possible relationship between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and periodontal disease in men with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Materials and Methods A total of 41 patients were divided into four groups. 9 with HH and periodontitis (P/HH), 11 with HH and gingivitis (G/HH), 12 with systemically healthy and periodontally healthy (H/C) and 9 with systemically healthy and periodontitis (P/C). The clinical evaluation of patients was based on the following parameters; the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depths (PD) and attachment level (AL). The levels of ALP in the GCF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results No significant difference could be detected in the mean clinical parameter data between the P/HH and P/C groups (p > 0.05). The periodontitis patients in both groups (P/C and P/HH) had higher mean probing depths than the H/C and G/HH patients (p < 0.001). The concentrations and total amounts of ALP in the GCF were significantly higher in both periodontitis groups compared to healthy and gingivitis groups (p < 0.01). The serum ALP levels were significantly higher in the P/HH group when compared to the other groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion The findings of this study suggested that HH could be implicated as a contributing factor to the progress of periodontal disease. PMID:18306472

  7. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  8. Structural Pattern, P-t Conditions and Timing of Alpine Deformation In The Argentera Massif (western Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M.; Caby, R.; Ruffet, G.

    The Argentera massif is located in the southern part of the Western Alps and belongs to the paleo-European basement. It forms the southernmost crystalline massif of the external domain. Hercynian high-grade metamorphic rocks and Carboniferous sedi- mentary basins were intruded at the end of the Hercynian orogen by the calc-alkaline Argentera granite. This massif experienced a polyphase deformation history, Hercy- nian and Alpine. The Alpine history is characterized by the development of a network of NNW-SSE trending transcurrent dextral ductile shear zones branching into E-W ductile thrust faults with a top to the south displacement. We interpret the uplift of the massif as the result of movements along these shear zones, relative to a sub-meridian compressional event. Our P-T condition estimates indicate a regional temperature at ca 350 rC for pressure at 0.35-0.4 GPa for Alpine metamorphism implying a mini- mum burial of 14 km for the Argentera massif. 39Ar-40Ar analyses of neo-crystallized phengites collected within a major E-W alpine crosscutting the late Hercynian Argen- tera granite shear zone (Frema Morte) yielded an age at ca 22.5 Ma. This is the first absolute age constraint of a late Alpine metamorphism in the external crystalline mas- sifs of the Western Alps. This metamorphism could result from overload imposed by thrusting of the internal nappes between 28 Ma and 22.5 Ma.

  9. AlpArray - a broad(band) seismology initiative on the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetényi, G.

    2012-12-01

    AlpArray is a new initiative to study the greater Alpine area with a large-scale broadband seismological network. The interested parties (currently 57 institutes in 16 countries) plan to combine their existing infrastructures into an all-out transnational effort that includes data acquisition, processing, imaging and interpretation. The experiment will encompass the greater Alpine area from the Black Forest and the Bohemian Massif in the north to the Northern Apennines in the south and from the Pannonian Basin in the east to the French Massif Central in the west. We aim to cover this region with a high-quality broadband seismometer backbone by combining the ca. 220 existing permanent stations with additional 300-340 instruments from mobile pools, all of them to be deployed between August 2014 and August 2016. In this way, we plan to achieve homogeneous and high resolution coverage (ca. 40 km average station spacing). Furthermore, we also plan to deploy a few densely spaced targeted networks along swaths across - and in regions of - key parts of the Alpine chain on shorter time scales. These efforts on land will be combined with deployments of ca. 40-45 ocean bottom seismometers in the Mediterranean Sea. We also aim to implement the best practice for synchronizing mobile pool operation procedures and data handling: common data centre and data management procedure, free access to data to participants as soon as possible through EIDA. Data will be open to the public 3 years after the experiment ends. The main scientific goal of AlpArray is to investigate the structure and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Alps. A primary target is the geometry and configuration of subducting slabs and their polarity switch beneath the arc. Numerous regional questions such as seismic hazard will be tackled. Targets will be imaged at several depths (e.g., from near-surface structure down to upper mantle anisotropy), scales (e.g., from local seismicity to mantle transition zone

  10. 13 CFR 120.841 - Qualifications for the ALP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Risk Rating, among other factors, will be considered in determining satisfactory SBA performance. Other... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications for the ALP. 120.841 Section 120.841 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS...

  11. Present-day uplift of the western Alps

    PubMed Central

    Nocquet, J.-M.; Sue, C.; Walpersdorf, A.; Tran, T.; Lenôtre, N.; Vernant, P.; Cushing, M.; Jouanne, F.; Masson, F.; Baize, S.; Chéry, J.; van der Beek, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Collisional mountain belts grow as a consequence of continental plate convergence and eventually disappear under the combined effects of gravitational collapse and erosion. Using a decade of GPS data, we show that the western Alps are currently characterized by zero horizontal velocity boundary conditions, offering the opportunity to investigate orogen evolution at the time of cessation of plate convergence. We find no significant horizontal motion within the belt, but GPS and levelling measurements independently show a regional pattern of uplift reaching ~2.5 mm/yr in the northwestern Alps. Unless a low viscosity crustal root under the northwestern Alps locally enhances the vertical response to surface unloading, the summed effects of isostatic responses to erosion and glaciation explain at most 60% of the observed uplift rates. Rock-uplift rates corrected from transient glacial isostatic adjustment contributions likely exceed erosion rates in the northwestern Alps. In the absence of active convergence, the observed surface uplift must result from deep-seated processes. PMID:27346228

  12. Adapting the ALP Model for Student and Institutional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sides, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of accelerated models of learning comes the necessary step of adapting these models to fit the unique needs of the student population at each individual institution. One such college adapted the ALP (Accelerated Learning Program) model and made specific changes to the target population, structure and scheduling, and…

  13. Present-day uplift of the western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, J.-M.; Sue, C.; Walpersdorf, A.; Tran, T.; Lenôtre, N.; Vernant, P.; Cushing, M.; Jouanne, F.; Masson, F.; Baize, S.; Chéry, J.; van der Beek, P. A.

    2016-06-01

    Collisional mountain belts grow as a consequence of continental plate convergence and eventually disappear under the combined effects of gravitational collapse and erosion. Using a decade of GPS data, we show that the western Alps are currently characterized by zero horizontal velocity boundary conditions, offering the opportunity to investigate orogen evolution at the time of cessation of plate convergence. We find no significant horizontal motion within the belt, but GPS and levelling measurements independently show a regional pattern of uplift reaching ~2.5 mm/yr in the northwestern Alps. Unless a low viscosity crustal root under the northwestern Alps locally enhances the vertical response to surface unloading, the summed effects of isostatic responses to erosion and glaciation explain at most 60% of the observed uplift rates. Rock-uplift rates corrected from transient glacial isostatic adjustment contributions likely exceed erosion rates in the northwestern Alps. In the absence of active convergence, the observed surface uplift must result from deep-seated processes.

  14. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Keller, G. R.; Thybo, H.

    2010-04-01

    During the last decade, a series of controlled source seismic experiments brought new insight into the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps and their adjacent tectonic provinces. A fragmentation of the lithosphere into three blocks, Europe (EU), Adria (AD), and the new Pannonian fragment (PA), was interpreted and a triple junction was inferred. The goal of this study has been to relate these deep crustal structures to active tectonics. We used elastic plate modeling to reconsider the Moho fragmentation. We interpret subduction of EU below AD and PA from north to south and underthusting of AD mantle below PA from southwest to northeast. The Moho fragmentation correlates well with major upper crustal structures and is supported by gravity, seismic, and geodetic data. An analysis of crustal thickening suggests that active convergence is associated with continued thrusting and lateral extrusion in the central Eastern Alps and thickening of the Adriatic indenter under the Southern Alps. According to the velocity relations at the triple junction, PA moves relative to EU and AD along ENE and SE striking faults, mainly by strike slip. An eastward directed extensional component is compensated by the lateral extrusion of the central Eastern Alps. The Periadriatic (Insubric) line east of the triple junction and the mid-Hungarian fault zone have relatively recently lost their role as first-order active structures. We favor the idea that the Pannonian fragment and the TISZA block merged to a "soft" microplate surrounded by the Eastern and Southern Alpine, Carpathian, and Dinaric orogens.

  15. Present-day uplift of the western Alps.

    PubMed

    Nocquet, J-M; Sue, C; Walpersdorf, A; Tran, T; Lenôtre, N; Vernant, P; Cushing, M; Jouanne, F; Masson, F; Baize, S; Chéry, J; van der Beek, P A

    2016-01-01

    Collisional mountain belts grow as a consequence of continental plate convergence and eventually disappear under the combined effects of gravitational collapse and erosion. Using a decade of GPS data, we show that the western Alps are currently characterized by zero horizontal velocity boundary conditions, offering the opportunity to investigate orogen evolution at the time of cessation of plate convergence. We find no significant horizontal motion within the belt, but GPS and levelling measurements independently show a regional pattern of uplift reaching ~2.5 mm/yr in the northwestern Alps. Unless a low viscosity crustal root under the northwestern Alps locally enhances the vertical response to surface unloading, the summed effects of isostatic responses to erosion and glaciation explain at most 60% of the observed uplift rates. Rock-uplift rates corrected from transient glacial isostatic adjustment contributions likely exceed erosion rates in the northwestern Alps. In the absence of active convergence, the observed surface uplift must result from deep-seated processes. PMID:27346228

  16. Algorithms used in the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagle, David B.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS) analyzes Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data—digitized laser-return waveforms, position, and attitude data—to derive point clouds of target surfaces. A full-waveform airborne lidar system, the EAARL seamlessly and simultaneously collects mixed environment data, including submerged, sub-aerial bare earth, and vegetation-covered topographies.ALPS uses three waveform target-detection algorithms to determine target positions within a given waveform: centroid analysis, leading edge detection, and bottom detection using water-column backscatter modeling. The centroid analysis algorithm detects opaque hard surfaces. The leading edge algorithm detects topography beneath vegetation and shallow, submerged topography. The bottom detection algorithm uses water-column backscatter modeling for deeper submerged topography in turbid water.The report describes slant range calculations and explains how ALPS uses laser range and orientation measurements to project measurement points into the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system. Parameters used for coordinate transformations in ALPS are described, as are Interactive Data Language-based methods for gridding EAARL point cloud data to derive digital elevation models. Noise reduction in point clouds through use of a random consensus filter is explained, and detailed pseudocode, mathematical equations, and Yorick source code accompany the report.

  17. Phosphates in some missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Foord, E.E.; Keller, D.J.; Keller, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    . The wavellite and variscite-strengite veinlets are secondary, precipitated from ion complexes in ground water percolating along cracks in the flint clay. The flint clay host of the variscite-strengite veinlet contains strontian crandallite. All of the phosphates contain significant amounts of strontium. The source of P, Ca and Sr was the marine carbonates. Dissolution of these carbonates produced the argillic residue that became the primordial Cheltenham paludal mud, which ultimately altered to fireclay. Preliminary firing tests show that the presence of phosphates lowers fusion temperature. However, it is not clear whether poor refractoriness is due to the presence of phosphates, per se, or to Ca, Sr and other alkaline elements present in the phosphates.

  18. RECLAMATION OF ALKALINE ASH PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to develop methods for reclaiming ash disposal piles for the ultimate use as agricultural or forest lands. The ashes studied were strongly alkaline and contained considerable amounts of salts and toxic boron. The ashes were produced from burning bit...

  19. Studies on the metabolism of metallothionein and alkaline phosphatase of adult rat primary hepatocyte cultures: role of fetal calf serum and agonists of the phosphoinositide cascade.

    PubMed

    Krämer, K; Markwitan, A; Pallauf, J

    1993-09-01

    Adult rat primary hepatocytes maintained in DMEM/F12 (Ham) media were used as a model system for studying the role of fetal calf serum (FCS) and agonists of the phosphoinositide cascade in the metabolism of metallothionein (MT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Experiments were performed both after a 24 h preincubation with FCS and with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Hepatocytes were treated with dexamethasone (DEX), zinc (Zn) and with the agonists of the phosphoinositide cascade A23187, 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DiC8), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), angiotensin II (AT), platelet activating factor (PAF), Arg8-vasopressin (VP) and were analyzed for MT and ALP activity in cell homogenates. Cell viability was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) liberation into culture medium, induction of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) through DEX and by trypan blue exclusion. Overall, cell viability was improved by the FCS pretreatment and by DEX. Exposure of hepatocytes to the established direct inducers Zn and DEX of MT resulted in a manifold increase in MT, independent of whether the cultures were FCS pretreated or not. The FCS preincubation produced a moderate elevation of ALP activity by stimulating cell viability. However, ALP was unaltered in response to Zn and DEX. None of the experiments conducted with agonists of the phosphoinositide cascade led to an elevation of MT and ALP. Only the incubation of hepatocytes with A23187 resulted in a concentration dependent significant decrease of MT and ALP. This observation was due to a cytotoxic effect of A 23187, displayed by LDH leakage and an increase in the number of cells stained with trypan blue. In conclusion, in primary hepatocyte cultures agonists of the phosphoinositide did not have an effect on the metabolism of MT and ALP. Previous in vivo results indicating alterations of Zn metabolism in liver, therefore seem to be caused by indirect systemic responses. PMID:8237077

  20. Prognostic Importance of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase in CKD Stages 3–4 in a Clinical Population

    PubMed Central

    Taliercio, Jonathan J.; Schold, Jesse D.; Simon, James F.; Arrigain, Susana; Tang, Anne; Saab, Georges; Nally, Joseph V.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated total serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels have been associated with mortality in the general population and in dialysis patients. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 28,678 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 and 4 (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], 15–59 ml/min/1.73 m2) were identified using the Cleveland Clinic Chronic Kidney Disease Registry. CKD was defined as two eGFR values <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 drawn >90 days apart using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. Predictor ALP levels measured using the calorimetric assay was examined as quartiles (quartile 1, <66 U/L; Q2, 66–81 U/L; Q3, 82–101 U/L; and Q4, ≥102 U/L) and as a continuous measure. Outcomes & Measurements All-cause mortality and ESRD were ascertained using the Social Security Death Index and US Renal Data System. Results After a median follow up of 2.2 years, 588 patients progressed to ESRD and 4,755 died. There was a graded increase in the risk for mortality with higher ALP quartiles (Q2, Q3, Q4) when compared to the reference quartile (Q1) after adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, use of relevant medications and liver function tests. The highest quartile of ALP was associated with a hazard ratio for ESRD of 1.38 (95% CI, 1.09–1.76). Each 1-standard deviation (42.7 U/L) higher ALP level was associated with 15% (95% CI, 1.09–1.22) and 16% (95% CI, 1.14–1.18) increased risk of ESRD and mortality respectively. Limitations Single center observational study, lack complete data including PTH for all study participants and attrition bias. Conclusions Higher serum ALP levels in CKD stages 3–4 were independently associated with all-cause mortality and ESRD. PMID:23769134

  1. Regional Ambient Noise Tomography in the Eastern Alps of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behm, Michael; Nakata, Nori; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-05-01

    We present results from ambient noise tomography applied to temporary seismological stations in the easternmost part of the Alps and their transition to the adjacent tectonic provinces (Vienna Basin, Bohemian Massif, Southern Alps, Dinarides). By turning each station into a virtual source, we recover surface waves in the frequency range between 0.1 and 0.6 Hz, which are sensitive to depths of approximately 2-15 km. The utilization of horizontal components allows for the analysis of both Rayleigh and Love waves with comparable signal-to-noise ratio. Measured group wave dispersion curves between stations are mapped to local cells by means of a simultaneous inverse reconstruction technique. The spatial reconstruction for Love-wave velocities fails in the central part of the investigated area, and we speculate that a heterogeneous noise source distribution is the cause for the failure. Otherwise, the obtained group velocity maps correlate well with surface geology. Inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocities for shear-wave velocities along a vertical N-S section stretching from the Bohemian Massif through the Central Alps to the Southern Alps and Dinarides reveals a mid-crustal low-velocity anomaly at the contact between the Bohemian Massif and the Alps, which shows a spatial correlation with the P-wave velocity structure and the low-frequency component of the magnetic anomaly map. Our study is validated by the analysis of resolution and accuracy, and we further compare the result to shear-wave velocity models estimated from other active and passive experiments in the area.

  2. Regional Ambient Noise Tomography in the Eastern Alps of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behm, Michael; Nakata, Nori; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-08-01

    We present results from ambient noise tomography applied to temporary seismological stations in the easternmost part of the Alps and their transition to the adjacent tectonic provinces (Vienna Basin, Bohemian Massif, Southern Alps, Dinarides). By turning each station into a virtual source, we recover surface waves in the frequency range between 0.1 and 0.6 Hz, which are sensitive to depths of approximately 2-15 km. The utilization of horizontal components allows for the analysis of both Rayleigh and Love waves with comparable signal-to-noise ratio. Measured group wave dispersion curves between stations are mapped to local cells by means of a simultaneous inverse reconstruction technique. The spatial reconstruction for Love-wave velocities fails in the central part of the investigated area, and we speculate that a heterogeneous noise source distribution is the cause for the failure. Otherwise, the obtained group velocity maps correlate well with surface geology. Inversion of Rayleigh-wave velocities for shear-wave velocities along a vertical N-S section stretching from the Bohemian Massif through the Central Alps to the Southern Alps and Dinarides reveals a mid-crustal low-velocity anomaly at the contact between the Bohemian Massif and the Alps, which shows a spatial correlation with the P-wave velocity structure and the low-frequency component of the magnetic anomaly map. Our study is validated by the analysis of resolution and accuracy, and we further compare the result to shear-wave velocity models estimated from other active and passive experiments in the area.

  3. Slab detachment under the Eastern Alps seen by seismic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Bianchi, Irene; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-01-01

    We analyze seismic anisotropy for the Eastern Alpine region by inspecting shear-wave splitting from SKS and SKKS phases. The Eastern Alpine region is characterized by a breakdown of the clear mountain-chain-parallel fast orientation pattern that has been previously documented for the Western Alps and for the western part of the Eastern Alps. The main interest of this paper is a more detailed analysis of the anisotropic character of the Eastern Alps, and the transition to the Carpathian–Pannonian region. SK(K)S splitting measurements reveal a rather remarkable lateral change in the anisotropy pattern from the west to the east of the Eastern Alps with a transition area at about 12°E. We also model the backazimuthal variation of the measurements by a vertical change of anisotropy. We find that the eastern part of the study area is characterized by the presence of two layers of anisotropy, where the deeper layer has characteristics similar to those of the Central Alps, in particular SW–NE fast orientations of anisotropic axes. We attribute the deeper layer to a detached slab from the European plate. Comparison with tomographic studies of the area indicates that the detached slab might possibly connect with the lithosphere that is still in place to the west of our study area, and may also connect with the slab graveyard to the East, at the depth of the upper mantle transition zone. On the other hand, the upper layer has NW–SE fast orientations coinciding with a low-velocity layer which is found above a more-or-less eastward dipping high-velocity body. The anisotropy of the upper layer shows large-scale NW–SE fast orientation, which is consistent with the presence of asthenospheric flow above the detached slab foundering into the deeper mantle. PMID:25843968

  4. Investigating the kinetics of paramagnetic-beads linked alkaline phosphatase enzyme through microchannel resistance measurement in dielectric microchip.

    PubMed

    Faure, Mathilde; Sotta, Bruno; Gamby, Jean

    2014-08-15

    Real time monitoring of electrolyte resistance changes during hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) bound on paramagnetic-beads was performed into a small dielectric channel. The reaction kinetic fit with a non-competitive substrate-inhibition equation. Michaelis-Menten apparent constant, KM(app), was determined as 0.33±0.06mM and the maximum apparent rate, Vmax(app) as 98±5pMs(-1). The detection limits were 15fM for ALP and 0.75mM for pNPP. This miniaturized device constitutes a powerful tool for analysis of interaction between ligands. PMID:24613971

  5. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15756826

  6. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  7. Changes in fluid composition in metamorphic veins along a cross section through the Central Alps, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinek, K.; Wagner, T.; Wälle, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The classical Alpine fissure veins are large cavities lined by occasionally giant quartz crystals and many other euhedral mineral assemblages. They occur in regionally metamorphosed terranes in the upper crust and record important information about the composition and evolution of metamorphic fluids, and fluid sources and mass transfer during crustal fluid-rock interaction (Oliver & Bons, 2001). Detailed fluid inclusion studies of Alpine veins along a cross section through the Central Alps have established that the fluid composition shows a distinct evolution with increasing metamorphic grade, where consecutive zones are dominated by (1) heavier hydrocarbons, (2) CH4, (3) H2O-NaCl, and (4) H2O-CO2-NaCl (Mullis et al., 1994). This study addresses the chemical evolution of fluids in Alpine fissure veins in the Central Swiss Alps by integrating field work, fluid inclusion studies (microthermometry and LA-ICPMS microanalysis of individual fluid inclusions), and geochemical modeling. The field locations were selected along a cross section through the Central Alps that covers different lithologies and metamorphic conditions. This includes vein systems in the Aar massif (Gauli glacier, Gerstenegg vein in the Grimsel power station, Tiefen glacier), the Nufenen and Griess pass, the Bedretto valley, the Cavagnoli region and a tunnel near Faido. Fluid inclusion studies have been completed for the localities in the Aar massif, the Cavagnoli region and the Faido tunnel. It was possible to analyze a considerable number of elements with LA-ICPMS, including Na, K, Rb, Cs, Li, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, B, As, Sb, S, Pb and Zn. The fluid inclusions from the Aar massif are low-salinity aqueous two-phase, whereas the Cavagnoli and Faido samples dominantly contain aqueous-carbonic fluid inclusions. While the Gauli samples contain fluid inclusions with 4.5-5.0 wt% equivalent (eqv.) NaCl, those from the Gerstenegg and Tiefen glacier have a considerably higher salinity of around 10-11 wt% eqv

  8. Bacillus cereus Phosphopentomutase Is an Alkaline Phosphatase Family Member That Exhibits an Altered Entry Point into the Catalytic Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Panosian, Timothy D.; Nannemann, David P.; Watkins, Guy R.; Phelan, Vanessa V.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, Tina M.

    2011-09-15

    Bacterial phosphopentomutases (PPMs) are alkaline phosphatase superfamily members that interconvert {alpha}-D-ribose 5-phosphate (ribose 5-phosphate) and {alpha}-D-ribose 1-phosphate (ribose 1-phosphate). We investigated the reaction mechanism of Bacillus cereus PPM using a combination of structural and biochemical studies. Four high resolution crystal structures of B. cereus PPM revealed the active site architecture, identified binding sites for the substrate ribose 5-phosphate and the activator {alpha}-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate (glucose 1,6-bisphosphate), and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate increased phosphorylation of the active site residue Thr-85. The phosphorylation of Thr-85 was confirmed by Western and mass spectroscopic analyses. Biochemical assays identified Mn{sup 2+}-dependent enzyme turnover and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate treatment increases enzyme activity. These results suggest that protein phosphorylation activates the enzyme, which supports an intermolecular transferase mechanism. We confirmed intermolecular phosphoryl transfer using an isotope relay assay in which PPM reactions containing mixtures of ribose 5-[{sup 18}O{sub 3}]phosphate and [U-{sup 13}C{sub 5}]ribose 5-phosphate were analyzed by mass spectrometry. This intermolecular phosphoryl transfer is seemingly counter to what is anticipated from phosphomutases employing a general alkaline phosphatase reaction mechanism, which are reported to catalyze intramolecular phosphoryl transfer. However, the two mechanisms may be reconciled if substrate encounters the enzyme at a different point in the catalytic cycle.

  9. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  10. Gene Expression of Lytic Endopeptidases AlpA and AlpB from Lysobacter sp. XL1 in Pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Tsfasman, Irina M; Lapteva, Yulia S; Krasovskaya, Ludmila A; Kudryakova, Irina V; Vasilyeva, Natalia V; Granovsky, Igor E; Stepnaya, Olga A

    2015-01-01

    Development of an efficient expression system for (especially secreted) bacterial lytic enzymes is a complicated task due to the specificity of their action. The substrate for such enzymes is peptidoglycan, the main structural component of bacterial cell walls. For this reason, expression of recombinant lytic proteins is often accompanied with lysis of the producing bacterium. This paper presents data on the construction of an inducible system for expression of the lytic peptidases AlpA and AlpB from Lysobacter sp. XL1 in Pseudomonas fluorescens Q2-87, which provides for the successful secretion of these proteins into the culture liquid. In this system, the endopeptidase gene under control of the T7lac promoter was integrated into the bacterial chromosome, as well as the Escherichia coli lactose operon repressor protein gene. The T7 pol gene under lac promoter control, which encodes the phage T7 RNA polymerase, is maintained in Pseudomonas cells on the plasmids. Media and cultivation conditions for the recombinant strains were selected to enable the production of AlpA and AlpB by a simple purification protocol. Production of recombinant lytic enzymes should contribute to the development of new-generation antimicrobial drugs whose application will not be accompanied by selection of resistant microorganisms. PMID:26138026

  11. Isolation of alkaline mutagens from complex mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.; Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.

    1981-05-01

    A method for the preparative-scale enrichment of alkaline mutagens from complex natural and anthropogenic mixtures is described. Mutagenic alkaline fractions were isolated from cigarette smoke, crude petroleum, and petroleum substitutes derived from coal and shale.

  12. Purification and characterization of an extracellular alkaline phosphatase from Penicillium chrysogenum.

    PubMed

    Politino, M; Brown, J; Usher, J J

    1996-01-01

    An extracellular alkaline phosphatase from Penicillium chrysogenum was purified to homogeneity using DEAE ion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme indicated a molecular weight of 58,000. The mobility of the native enzyme on a Superose 12 column suggests that the active form of the enzyme is a monomer. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate from a variety of substrates including p-nitrophenyl phosphate, alpha-naphthyl phosphate and the anti-tumor compound etoposide phosphate. The apparent K(m) for the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate is 1.3 mM and the enzyme is inhibited by inorganic phosphate. The pH optimum of the enzyme is 9.0 with a broad optimal temperature range between 40 and 50 degrees C. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is approximately 5.5. The enzyme is a glycoprotein; digestion with endoglycosidase H indicates that the protein consists primarily of N-linked carbohydrates. Enzymatic activity is enhanced by the addition of divalent cations such as Mg+2 and Mn+2 and inhibited by addition of a chelator such as EDTA suggesting a metal ion requirement. The enzyme was found to be an inexpensive catalyst for the conversion of etoposide phosphate to etoposide in the manufacture of this anti-tumor compound. PMID:8958566

  13. Phosphate control in dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

  14. Modelling of calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, Lazaro Juan

    This work is a contribution to a large scale joint experimental and theoretical effort to understand the biological properties of silicon doped calcium phosphates undertaken by Queen's University and Millenium Biologix Corp. We have modeled calcium phosphates and silicon doped calcium phosphates in close relation to experiment in order to study possible location of silicon in the lattice. Density functional theory has been used to study the structural and dynamical properties of small systems of calcium phosphates to gain preliminary information on phosphates and the performance of the theoretical methods. The same methods were used to investigate structural and electronic properties of larger scale calcium phosphate systems, while a classical shell model was developed to investigate the dynamical properties of such large and complex systems. In the context of the shell model a method was devised to calculate the dynamical matrix corrected for the long range Coulomb interaction in the long wave length limit. It was necessary also to develop a theoretical expression for the dielectric function in the context of the shell model. Infrared spectra and thermal parameters were calculated based on these methods. We also propose some directions for future research.

  15. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  16. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  17. Magnesium substitution in the structure of orthopedic nanoparticles: A comparison between amorphous magnesium phosphates, calcium magnesium phosphates, and hydroxyapatites.

    PubMed

    Nabiyouni, Maryam; Ren, Yufu; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-01-01

    As biocompatible materials, magnesium phosphates have received a lot of attention for orthopedic applications. During the last decade multiple studies have shown advantages for magnesium phosphate such as lack of cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, strong mechanical properties, and high biodegradability. The present study investigates the role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in the structure of magnesium phosphate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. To directly compare the effect of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions on structure of nanoparticles and their biological behavior, three groups of nanoparticles including amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) which release Mg(+2), calcium magnesium phosphates (CMPs) which release Mg(+2) and Ca(+2), and hydroxyapatites (HAs) which release Ca(+2) were studied. SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR were used to evaluate the morphology, crystallinity, and chemical properties of the particles. AMP particles were homogeneous nanospheres, whereas CMPs were combinations of heterogeneous nanorods and nanospheres, and HAs which contained heterogeneous nanosphere particles. Cell compatibility was monitored in all groups to determine the cytotoxicity effect of particles on studied MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. AMPs showed significantly higher attachment rate than the HAs after 1 day and both AMPs and CMPs showed significantly higher proliferation rate when compared to HAs after 7days. Gene expression level of osteoblastic markers ALP, COL I, OCN, OPN, RUNX2 were monitored and they were normalized to GAPDH housekeeping gene. Beta actin expression level was monitored as the second housekeeping gene to confirm the accuracy of results. In general, AMPs and CMPs showed higher expression level of osteoblastic genes after 7 days which can further confirm the stimulating role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in increasing the proliferation rate, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. PMID:25953534

  18. No erosional control on the lateral growth of the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Berger, A.

    2009-04-01

    On the base of literature data, we estimated the paleowidth of the Central Alps and the changing location of the inferred active fronts of the orogen from the Oligocene to the present. These compilations indicate that the absolute change of width, defined as the distance between the most external, but not necessarily active thrusts of the orogen was modest, amounting to less than 15 %, from 32 Ma to the present. This value lies within the error of estimate, and hence it is no sound evidence for lateral growth or retreat of the orogen. On the other hand the width of the active orogen, defined as the distance between the most external active thrusts, did increase in the early Miocene. This increase started already in the Oligocene as also concluded on the base of sedimentological findings, suggesting a continuous growth of thrusts through the Oligocene-Early Miocene interval (e.g. Schumacher et al., 1996). In the Late Miocene the active width of the Southern Alps decreased, as documented by a pre-Messinian out-of-sequence phase of thrusting (Lecco thrust; Schönborn, 1992) younger than the Milan Belt (Schönborn 1992). Increasing erosion rates are expected to reduce the width of the orogen, whereas decreasing rates are expected to increase its width (Beaumont et al., 1992). Therefore, following the example of previous investigations (Schlunegger et al., 2001; Schlunegger and Simpson, 2002; Willett et al., 2006) we compare the reconstructed changes of width of the Alps with the depositional budgets of the Alpine foreland basins (Kuhlemann, 2000) inferred to be a proxy for the erosion rates of the Alpine belt. This comparison shows that the most significant increases in erosion efficiency do not lead to a decrease in the active width of the orogen. This is indicated by the pronounced foreland-directed growth of the Alps after the Messinian, i.e., during the phase of greatest increase in the erosion rates of the orogen. The best regional examples are the northward shift

  19. Ultrasensitive detection of cancer cells and glycan expression profiling based on a multivalent recognition and alkaline phosphatase-responsive electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaojiao; He, Yao; Zhang, Youyu; Liu, Meiling; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong

    2014-09-01

    A multivalent recognition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-responsive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for cancer cell detection and in situ evaluation of cell surface glycan expression was developed on a poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-conjugated, chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) electrode interface. In this strategy, the multivalency and high affinity of the cell-targeted aptamers on rGO provided a highly efficient cell recognition platform on the electrode. The ALP and concanavalin A (Con A) coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) nanoprobes allowed the ALP enzyme-catalyzed production of phenols that inhibited the ECL reaction of Ru(bpy)32+ on the rGO electrode interface, affording fast and highly sensitive ECL cytosensing and cell surface glycan evaluation. Combining the multivalent aptamer interface and ALP nanoprobes, the ECL cytosensor showed a detection limit of 38 CCRF-CEM cells per mL in human serum samples, broad dynamic range and excellent selectivity. In addition, the proposed biosensor provided a valuable insight into dynamic profiling of the expression of different glycans on cell surfaces, based on the carbohydrates recognized by lectins applied to the nanoprobes. This biosensor exhibits great promise in clinical diagnosis and drug screening.A multivalent recognition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-responsive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for cancer cell detection and in situ evaluation of cell surface glycan expression was developed on a poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-conjugated, chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) electrode interface. In this strategy, the multivalency and high affinity of the cell-targeted aptamers on rGO provided a highly efficient cell recognition platform on the electrode. The ALP and concanavalin A (Con A) coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) nanoprobes allowed the ALP enzyme-catalyzed production of phenols that inhibited the ECL reaction of Ru(bpy)32+ on the rGO electrode

  20. Jura, Alps and the boundary of the Adria subplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubscher, Hans

    2010-03-01

    The thin-skinned Jura fold/thrust belt is the frontal part of a thick-skinned late Miocene Alpine nappe. Important late Miocene structures in the Alps that help define this nappe are the External Massifs in the north, the Orobic thrusts and the Piemontese Southern Alps in the south, the Giudicarie-Brenner Line in the east and, more vaguely, the south end of the Belledonne Massif in the west. A bottom boundary compatible with the data is the Brittle-Ductile Transition (BDT). This Jura nappe is separated from the (latest Oligocene)-early Miocene Helvetic nappe system most obviously by the late Miocene Orobic-Giudicarie-Brenner fault complex. In contrast, the distinctive boundary of the early Miocene thick-skinned Helvetic nappe was the Iorio-Tonale Line (IT) in the south, merging into the Piemontese Southern Alps at what may be termed the "Locarno Singularity"-the point of minimum width of the thick-skinned Alps; the northern boundary passed through the Gotthard-and Montblanc Massifs. Motion along the southern boundary was dextrally transpressive, associated with complex strain partitioning patterns. One part of these patterns is the confusing entity comprising the Piemontese Southern Alps and the Lepontine "dome". The slivers composing the Piemontese Southern Alps are dragged dextrally by the Iorio-Tonale strike-slip at the "Locarno Singularity" and thereby exhibit an important characteristic trait of "exotic terranes" — crustal slivers dragged along strike-slip faults. The Lepontine "dome" around the Locarno Singularity on the north side of the Iorio-Tonale Line displays the characteristics of a backstop in thrust systems as modeled in sandbox experiments. The special boundary functioning as a backstop, compatible with the transpressive kinematics, was the Ivrea body, a strong mafic-ultramafic-granulitic complex which in the early Miocene migrated dextrally along the Iorio-Tonale Line, forcing detachment to descend into the hot middle crust and producing an

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of DNA fragment hydration in the presence of alkaline cations using novel atom-atom potential functions.

    PubMed

    Teplukhin, A V; Malenkov, G G; Poltev, V I

    1998-10-01

    The set of atom-atom potential functions specially adjusted to simulation of nucleic acid fragment hydration (Poltev, Grokhlina & Malenkov, J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 2, 413, 1984) is extended by including alkaline cation interactions. The choice of new potential functions was realized using experimental data on crystal hydrates of nucleotides and related compounds as well as thermodynamic data on ion solutions. The extended set of potential functions allows to reproduce many features of interactions between alkaline cations and nucleic acid fragments in water solutions. The sites of preferential cation localization near bases and phosphate groups were obtained and examined. The potential functions reproduce the dissociation tendency of cation-phosphate group and cation-base complexes in aqueous medium. Pathways of cation dissociations from nucleic acid components have been studied, and metastable water-bridged positions of cations near bases and phosphate group have been revealed. PMID:9833668

  2. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  3. Association of Cry1Ac Toxin Resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with Increased Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in the Midgut Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J.; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J.; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  4. Association of Cry1Ac toxin resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with increased alkaline phosphatase levels in the midgut lumen.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Ferré, Juan

    2012-08-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  5. Specificity of hydrolysis of phytic acid by alkaline phytase from lily pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, L; Scott, J J; Murthy, P P

    1994-01-01

    Phytases are the primary enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of phytic acid, myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (I-1,2,3,4,5,6-P6). A number of phytases with varying specificities, properties, and localizations hydrolyze phytic acid present in cells. The specificity of hydrolysis of phytic acid by alkaline phytase from lily (Lilium longiflorum L.) pollen is described. Structures of the intermediate inositol phosphates and the final product were established by a variety of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques (1H-, 31P-, and 31P-1H-detected multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy, and total correlation spectroscopy). On the basis of the structures identified we have proposed a scheme of hydrolysis of phytic acid. Initial hydrolysis of the phosphate ester occurs at the D-5 position of phytic acid to yield the symmetrical I-1,2,3,4,6-P5. The two subsequent dephosphorylations occur adjacent to the D-5 hydroxyl group to yield I-1,2,3-P3 as the final product. Alkaline phytase differs from other phytases in the specificity of hydrolysis of phosphate esters on the inositol ring, its high substrate specificity for phytic acid, and biochemical properties such as susceptibility to activation by calcium and inhibition by fluoride. The physiological significance of alkaline phytase and the biological role of I-1,2,3-P3 remain to be identified. PMID:7846160

  6. Application of intracellular alkaline phosphatase activity measurement in detection of neutrophil adherence in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Klink, Magdalena; Sulowska, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed the use of the fluorimetric method with 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (4-MUP) specific substrate for the alkaline phosphatase determination in the neutrophil adhesion assay. We provide evidence that the endogenous neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) activity evaluation is reliable to quantify neutrophil adhesion at a wide range of cell numbers (10(4)-10(6)). The results obtained by fluorimetric NAP activity test correlate to the results of adherence evaluated using the MTT reduction assay. The fluorimetric NAP activity test may be applied for resting as well as activated neutrophils without the risk of the activators interferences into the test. The alkaline phosphatase survey with the use of 4-MUP substrate is recommended herein as a sensitive, repeatable, simple, and reliable method of the neutrophil adherence determination in vitro. PMID:17047286

  7. Overproduction of acetate kinase activates the phosphate regulon in the absence of the phoR and phoM functions in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, T Y; Makino, K; Shinagawa, H; Nakata, A

    1990-01-01

    A DNA fragment of Escherichia coli cloned on pBR322 elevated the production of alkaline phosphatase and phosphate-binding protein in a phoR phoM strain. Nucleotide sequence analysis and enzyme assays revealed that the DNA fragment contained the ackA gene, which codes for acetate kinase. A high gene dosage of ackA was needed to induce the production of alkaline phosphatase and phosphate-binding protein in this strain. Overexpression of ackA elevated the intracellular ATP concentration, an effect that might be related to activation of the phosphate regulon in the phoR phoM strain. Images PMID:2158965

  8. Shallow and deep rotations in the Miocene Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubscher, H.

    Mapping and the construction of balanced cross-sections reveal dextral rotation in addition to N-S contraction during the late middle to late Miocene Jura phase both at the northern and the southern front of the Central Alps (Jura and Lombardic Southern Alps, respectively). These rotations may be ascribed to one and the same shallow domain or sublid, rotated clockwise around a pivot somewhere at the southwestern end of the Aar massif. In a crude first approximation model the sublid may be considered rigid, although the data indicate differential rotations and longitudinal stretching within the lid. The eastern boundary of the sublid crosses the Alps at the Giudicarie-Brenner line, which, according to very recent data, in the Jura phase formed a kinematically linked system, whereas from Innsbruck to the northwest it is postulated to join, as a diffuse or accommodation zone, the eastern tip of the Jura. In the southwest, the Lombardic thrusts enter into the interior of the Western Alps. From there to the southwestern end of the Jura the lid boundary is tentatively chosen arbitrarily to pass somewhere near the northern end of the Belledonne Massif. A similar sublid, though less well substantiated, may comprise the Tauern and the Venetian Southern Alps. The rotational components are superimposed on elements of internal strain, particularly transverse contraction and longitudinal stretching due to simple dextral shear and lateral escape. The model of dextrally rotating sublids pulls together a number of hitherto unexplained structures and opens new perspectives on such recalcitrant problems as the eastward disappearance of the Jura and the Adige embayment in the Southern Alps. Dextral rotation of such shallow sublids may be considered to constitute ``mode 1'' of the dextral component at the Europa-Adria plate boundary. There is also a ``mode 2'' that affects its deep parts. At the surface, its manifestation is a dextral belt of en échelon folds and pull-apart domains

  9. AlpArray-Italy: Site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Aladino; D'Alema, Ezio; Capello, Marco; Cavaliere, Stefania Danesi, Adriano; Margheriti, Lucia; Massa, Marco; Mazza, Salvatore; Mazzarini, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Moretti, Milena; Nardi, Anna; Piccinini, Davide; Piromallo, Claudia; Pondrelli, Silvia; Salimbeni, Simone; Serpelloni, Enrico; Solarino, Stefano; Vallocchia, Massimiliano; Lovati, Sara; Santulin, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the European joint research initiative AlpArray (http://www.alparray.ethz.ch/), we deployed overall 20 seismic broad-band stations in Northern Italy and on two islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Capraia and Montecristo) during Fall-Winter 2015. All the stations, connected in real-time, were installed at sites selected according to the AlpArray Seismic Network plan: 16 temporary stations running for two to three years and 4 new permanent stations in sites already occupied by accelerometers of the INGV national network. Most temporary stations are equipped with REF TEK 130S digitizers and Nanometrics Trillium Compact 120s sensors (a couple have Nanometrics Trillium 120P and one Streckeisen STS2). For each site we describe the settings and discuss the noise levels, the site effects and the preliminary sensitivity analysis.

  10. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). Case report and family history.

    PubMed

    Ries, F; Ferster, A; Rieux-Laucat, F; Biwer, A; Dicato, M

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare disease caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis and is characterized by non-malignant lymphoproliferation, hepatosplenomegaly, autoimmune manifestations and increased risk of both Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Most forms of the disease are due to germ line mutations of the FAS gene and manifest during the first years of life with fluctuating lymphadenopathies, hemolysis, immune thrombocytopenia. During the second decade of life disease manifestations improve spontaneously but autoimmune problems still occur and there is an increased risk of lymphoproliferative malignancy. We describe a typical case of ALPS in a now 44 year old man, followed since the age of 2 for disease manifestations that were unclear at the beginning. PMID:20882745

  11. ALPS: A framework for parallel adaptive PDE solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burstedde, Carsten; Burtscher, Martin; Ghattas, Omar; Stadler, Georg; Tu, Tiankai; Wilcox, Lucas C.

    2009-07-01

    Adaptive mesh refinement and coarsening (AMR) is essential for the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) that exhibit behavior over a wide range of length and time scales. Because of the complex dynamic data structures and communication patterns and frequent data exchange and redistribution, scaling dynamic AMR to tens of thousands of processors has long been considered a challenge. We are developing ALPS, a library for dynamic mesh adaptation of PDEs that is designed to scale to hundreds of thousands of compute cores. Our approach uses parallel forest-of-octree-based hexahedral finite element meshes and dynamic load balancing based on space-filling curves. ALPS supports arbitrary-order accurate continuous and discontinuous finite element/spectral element discretizations on general geometries. We present scalability and performance results for two applications from geophysics: seismic wave propagation and mantle convection.

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase.

    PubMed

    Achari, A; Marshall, S E; Muirhead, H; Palmieri, R H; Noltmann, E A

    1981-06-26

    Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9) is a dimeric enzyme of molecular mass 132000 which catalyses the interconversion of D-glucose-6-phosphate and D-fructose-6-phosphate. The crystal structure of the enzyme from pig muscle has been determined at a nominal resolution of 2.6 A. The structure is of the alpha/beta type. Each subunit consists of two domains and the active site is in both the domain interface and the subunit interface (P.J. Shaw & H. Muirhead (1976), FEBS Lett. 65, 50-55). Each subunit contains 13 methionine residues so that cyanogen bromide cleavage will produce 14 fragments, most of which have been identified and at least partly purified. Sequence information is given for about one-third of the molecule from 5 cyanogen bromide fragments. One of the sequences includes a modified lysine residue. Modification of this residue leads to a parallel loss of enzymatic activity. A tentative fit of two of the peptides to the electron density map has been made. It seems possible that glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, triose phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase all contain a histidine and a glutamate residue at the active site. PMID:6115414

  13. Biotin-avidin mediates the binding of adipose-derived stem cells to a porous β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold: Mandibular regeneration

    PubMed Central

    FENG, ZIHAO; LIU, JIAQI; SHEN, CONGCONG; LU, NANHANG; ZHANG, YONG; YANG, YANWEN; QI, FAZHI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the properties of a promising bone scaffold for bone repair, which consisted of a novel composite of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) attached to a porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The β-TCP powder was synthesized and its composition was determined using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The surface morphology and microstructure of the fabricated porous β-TCP scaffold samples were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy, and their porosity and compressive strength were also evaluated. In addition, the viability of rabbit ADSCs incubated with various concentrations of the β-TCP extraction fluid was analyzed. The rate of attachment and the morphology of biotinylated ADSCs (Bio-ADSCs) on avidin-coated β-TCP (Avi-β-TCP), and untreated ADSCs on β-TCP, were compared. Furthermore, in vivo bone-forming abilities were determined following the implantation of group 1 (Bio-ADSCs/Avi-β-TCP) and group 2 (Bio-ADSCs/Avi-β-TCP/PRP) constructs using computed tomography, and histological osteocalcin (OCN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression analyses in a rabbit model of mandibulofacial defects. The β-TCP scaffold exhibited a high porosity (71.26±0.28%), suitable pore size, and good mechanical strength (7.93±0.06 MPa). Following incubation with β-TCP for 72 h, 100% of viable ADSCs remained. The avidin-biotin binding system significantly increased the initial attachment rate of Bio-ADSCs to Avi-β-TCP in the first hour (P<0.01). Following the addition of PRP, group 2 exhibited a bony-union and mandibular body shape, newly formed bone and increased expression levels of OCN and ALP in the mandibulofacial defect area, as compared with group 1 (P<0.05). The results of the present study suggested that the novel Bio-ADSCs/Avi-β-TCP/PRP composite may have potential application in bone repair and bone tissue engineering. PMID:26997987

  14. Biocontrol activity of an alkaline serine protease from Aureobasidium pullulans expressed in Pichia pastoris against four postharvest pathogens on apple.

    PubMed

    Banani, Houda; Spadaro, Davide; Zhang, Dianpeng; Matic, Slavica; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2014-07-16

    The yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans PL5 is a microbial antagonist against postharvest pathogens of fruits. The strain is able to produce hydrolases, including glucanases, chitinases and proteases. The alkaline serine protease gene ALP5 from A. pullulans was cloned, inserted into the vector pPIC9 to construct pPIC9/ALP5, and then expressed in Pichia pastoris strain KM71. ALP5 had a molecular mass of 42.9kDa after 5days growth with 1% methanol induction at 28°C. The recombinant protease expressed in P. pastoris showed its highest activity under alkaline conditions (at pH10) and a temperature of 50°C. The antifungal activity of the recombinant protease was investigated against Penicillium expansum, Botrytis cinerea, Monilinia fructicola and Alternaria alternata in vitro and on apple. The recombinant protease reduced significantly the spore germination and the germ tube length of the tested pathogens in PDB medium. The highest level of protease efficacy was observed against M. fructicola and B. cinerea, whereas a lower efficacy was observed against P. expansum and A. alternata indicating a possible effect of the pathogen cell wall composition on the proteolytic activity of the recombinant protease. The presence of protease was able to cause the swelling of the hyphae of B. cinerea, under an optical microscope. The recombinant protease expressed in P. pastoris was more active against the pathogens in vitro than the same enzyme expressed in E. coli in previous studies. The efficacy of ALP5 was also evaluated against the pathogens in vivo on cv Golden Delicious apples. The protease was more efficient in controlling M. fructicola, B. cinerea and P. expansum than A. alternata. However, the extent of the activity was dependent on the enzyme concentration and the length of fruit storage. This study demonstrated the capacity of the alkaline serine protease to keep its enzymatic activity for some days in the unfavorable environment of the fruit wounds. The alkaline

  15. Cloning, characterization, expression and antifungal activity of an alkaline serine protease of Aureobasidium pullulans PL5 involved in the biological control of postharvest pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianpeng; Spadaro, Davide; Valente, Silvia; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2012-02-15

    An alkaline protease gene was amplified from genomic DNA and cDNA of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans PL5, a biocontrol agent effective against Monilinia laxa on stone fruit and Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum on pome fruits. An open reading frame of 1248 bp encoding a 415-amino acid (aa) protein with a calculated molecular weight (M(r)) of 42.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5 was characterized. The cDNAALP5 gene had an 18-amino acid signal peptide, one N-gylcosylation, one histidine active site, and one serine active site. The ALP5 gene with a M(r) of 1351 bp contained two introns. One intron was of 54 bp, while the other was of 50 bp. Protein BLAST and phylogenetic tree analysis of the deduced amino sequences from the cDNAALP5 gene showed that the encoded protein had 100% homology to a protease enzyme (ALP2) of a sea strain of A. pullulans, suggesting that the protein ALP5 was an alkaline serine protease. Expression of ALP5 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), followed by identification with Western-blotting, purification with Ni-NTA and analysis of enzymatic activity, yielded an homogeneous recombinant ALP5 which hydrolysed the substrate casein and inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens. At its optimal pH of 10.0 and reaction temperature of 50°C, the recombinant protease exhibited the highest activity towards the substrate casein, though the highest stability was at lower temperatures and pH between 7.0 and 9.0. This study provided the direct evidence that extracellular proteases secreted by the antagonist A. pullulans PL5 played a role in the biocontrol activities against some postharvest pathogens of apple and peach. PMID:22225984

  16. French Alps, Mont Blanc, French/Italian Border

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In this southeast looking view, Mont Blanc, on the French/Italian border, (48.0N, 4.5E) the highest mountain peak in all of Europe, is just below and right of center (below the end of the prominent valley of the Aosta River, in the center of the photo. The rivers flow out of the Alps into Italy toward Turin. Chamonix, the famous resort town and center of Alpine mountain climbing, lies in the valley just below Mont Blanc.

  17. The onset of alpine pastoral systems in the Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Festi, Daniela; Putzer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of the Neolithic glacier mummy "Ötzi" in the nival belt of the main Alpine ridge, the onset of alpine pasture is matter of a highly controversial debate both in archaeology and in palaeo-ecology of the Eastern Alps. The implication is that his sojourn in the high-altitudes of the Alps is considered to be connected with pastoral nomadism. Regrettably any archaeological evidence for the existence of such Neolithic alpine pastoral systems is missing up to now and the assumption is based on palynological data only. However, also the palynological record is ambiguous, because pasture indicators in the alpine regions react positive on grazing as well as on fertilization induced by a higher runoff of precipitation. Thus alpine pasture indicators reflect both grazing pressure and climatic change. Anyhow, alpine pastoral systems are a common practice in Alpine animal husbandry, but from an economic point of view such a seasonal vertical transhumance is costly. There are three main reasons for its practice: i) climatic, ii) economic (mainly in connection with population pressure or mining activities), and iii) cultural ideology. In this study we tested the above mentioned reasons in an interdisciplinary study on the beginning of pastoral activities in high altitudes in the central part of the Eastern Alps. This is conducted by palynological analyses of peat deposits situated in the vicinity of the timberline (1600 - 2400 m a.s.l.) combined with archaeological surveys. The investigated sites are located in traditional Alpine transhumance regions and aligned on a transect through the central part of the Eastern Alps. The studies reveal that grazing pressure is reflected since the Bronze Age, which is corroborated by archaeological findings in the vicinity of the investigated sites.

  18. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Albanian Alps (Kosovo, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Eva A.; Hafellner, Josef; Stešević, Danijela; Geci, Fehmi; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    396 taxa (381 species) of lichenized and 45 species of lichenicolous fungi from the upper montane, subalpine and alpine belts of the Albanian Alps (= Prokletije Mountain Range, Bjeshkët e Nemuna) are presented. 92 lichenized and 26 lichenicolous fungi are new to Montenegro, 165 lichenized and 24 lichenicolous fungi are new to Kosovo, and 25 lichenized fungi (23 species) are new for the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26869727

  19. On the orogenic status of the Central Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, M. K.

    2003-04-01

    In a simplified way, the history of every orogen can be divided into an initial stage of formation, an intermediate stage of maturity and a final stage of decay. For the Central European Alps, the initial stage started with the continent-continent collision in the Eocene. The intermediate stage may be divided into several substages of quiescence and further growth. The youngest stage of growth, the Grindelwald stage, has led to shortening and thrusting within the Central crystalline massifs (Aar, Gotthard) and to major exhumation of these units and possibly a northward thrusting of the overlying sediments (Helvetic nappes) onto more external basin sediments (Molasse Basin). During the last 10 myr, however, the Central Alps are characterized by the formation of dome structures aligned along a major thrust zone (Penninic front thrust) that seems to have acted in a normal sense since that time. A contoured compilation of fission track apatite ages reveals the absence of structures with compressional movements during that time interval. Compression was restricted to the northern Alpine border and to the Jura Mountains, an external chain of thin-skin tectonic folds and thrust faults, which is separated from the Alpine body by some tens of kilometres of tectonically undisturbed sediments of the Molasse Basin. Folding and thrusting in the Jura Mountains, starting some time between 9 and 5 Ma and being completed at about 3.5 Ma, was contemporaneous to exhumation and erosion in the Molasse Basin. The Alpine border thrust, where Helvetic sediments thrust on top of Molasse Basin sediments towards N to NW has been active at around 10 Ma. Younger, N-directed thrusting can also be showm from boreholes within nearby Molasse sediments. During the last few myr, the Central Alps, however, seem to have been dominated by normal faulting and doming, indicating that the general status of the Central Alps is that of a quiet or even decaying orogen.

  20. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  1. Activity of faults observed in caves of the Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroň, Ivo; Plan, Lukas; Grasemann, Bernhard; Mitrovič, Ivanka; Stemberk, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Major recent tectonic process in the Eastern Alps involves the Neogene and Quaternary lateral extrusion of parts of the Eastern Alps towards the Pannonian Basin coeval with north-south shortening of the collision realm between the Adriatic Plate and the Bohemian Massif (European Plate). Within the framework of the FWF project "Speleotect" (2013-2017), we observe recent activity of the major fault systems of the Eastern Alps, such as the (1) Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg (SEMP), (2) Mur-Mürz, (3) Periadriatic, (4) Lavanttal, and (5) Vienna Basin marginal Faults. Totally seven high-accuracy 3D crack-gauges TM71 with automated reading devices were installed in five selected karst caves with faults younger than the particular caves and correlated to one of these fault zones. The recorded micro-displacement events have been compared to known regional fault kinematics and to regional seismic activity (seismic data provided by the ZAMG). Already within the first year of observation, several micro displacement events were registered; these events sometimes revealed the same mechanisms as the geologically documented kinematics of the particular active faults, but in some cases performed completely opposite kinematics. These micro displacement events occurred in seismically rather quiet periods, however, usually about 1 - 10 days prior to local seismic events of different magnitudes (varying between ML 0.1 and 3.3). Further, in some caves gravitational mass movements were recorded that accompanied the tectonic moments.

  2. Collision tectonics in the Swiss Alps: Insight from geodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfiffner, O. A.; Ellis, S.; Beaumont, C.

    2000-12-01

    This paper compares results from two-dimensional finite element dynamic modeling with the kinematic evolution of the Swiss Alps during the collision phase. In particular, we investigate the role of inherited lateral strength heterogeneities on orogenesis. A number of first-order characteristics are directly comparable at crustal scales. In the models the entry of continental crust into the convergent margin marks the end of near-perfect subduction. Accretion of material of the subducting plate to the upper plate creates an orogenic wedge on the incoming (pro)side and initiates a retroshear zone (or model backthrust). The addition of material to the upper plate builds a bivergent orogen. Heterogeneities in the pro-crust focus shear and lead to the development of "nappe structures" The combined action of pro-shear (nappe stacking) and retroshear (backthrusting) uplifts a plug between the two shear zones. Subsequent focusing of shear along the retroshear zone results in rotation of the plug and overlying units, leading to crustal-scale backfolds as observed in the Swiss Alps. The model experiments predict features relevant to Alpine dynamics, including (1) similar crustal thicknesses and exhumation patterns to those observed in the Swiss Alps today for erosion rates comparable to natural ones (1 mm yr-1), (2) continued accretion and subduction of upper crustal fragments allowing high-pressure metamorphic conditions, (3) tilting and exhumation of lower crust when a midcrustal weak zone is present, and (4) "shunting" of material across the strong lower crustal wedge of the upper plate.

  3. Variation trend of snowmelt runoff in the Japanese Alps catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Japanese Alps region is known to experience some of the heaviest snowfall in the world. In this region, precipitation brought by snowfall is more important as a water resource than rainfall. This region experiences exceptionally heavy snowfall that is extreme even by world standard, and in spring, the melting snow becomes a valuable water resource for the region. Snow plays the role of a natural white dam by accumulating in watersheds during winter. Recent studies have reported that the amount of snowfall in Japan will decrease as a result of global warming. However, these studies used data observed at low altitudes. The question arises whether the same theory can be applied to high-altitude mountain areas. Observations of the amount of snow have not been carried out in high-altitude mountain in Japan where the temperature is colder than the threshold temperature of snow/rain even with the temperature rise observed in recent years. Therefore, we cannot discuss the effect of global warming on the change in the amount of snow in the mountainous region of Japan based on observation data. Therefore, in this study, we discuss the relationship between snowmelt runoff and the amount of snow using observation data for the Japanese Alps catchment and present the results of some meteorological observations we carried out at high-altitude sites in the Japanese Alps region.

  4. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döbrich, Babette; Jaeckel, Joerg; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Ringwald, Andreas; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai

    2016-02-01

    With their high beam energy and intensity, existing and near-future proton beam dumps provide an excellent opportunity to search for new very weakly coupled particles in the MeV to GeV mass range. One particularly interesting example is a so-called axion-like particle (ALP), i.e. a pseudoscalar coupled to two photons. The challenge in proton beam dumps is to reliably calculate the production of the new particles from the interactions of two composite objects, the proton and the target atoms. In this work we argue that Primakoff production of ALPs proceeds in a momentum range where production rates and angular distributions can be determined to sufficient precision using simple electromagnetic form factors. Reanalysing past proton beam dump experiments for this production channel, we derive novel constraints on the parameter space for ALPs. We show that the NA62 experiment at CERN could probe unexplored parameter space by running in `dump mode' for a few days and discuss opportunities for future experiments such as SHiP.

  5. A century of leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, France.

    PubMed

    Marty, P; Izri, A; Ozon, C; Haas, P; Rosenthal, E; Del Giudice, P; Godenir, J; Coulibaly, E; Gari-Toussaint, M; Delaunay, P; Ferrua, B; Haas, H; Pratlong, F; Le Fichoux, Y

    2007-10-01

    A century of publications on leishmaniasis in Alpes-Maritimes, in southern France, is here reviewed. Autochtonous human and canine leishmaniasis were first recognised in this département, which lies by the Mediterranean Sea and near the Italian border, in 1918 and 1925, respectively. The parasite responsible for the leishmaniasis, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. ariasi. The human leishmaniasis is zoonotic, with domestic dogs acting as the main 'reservoir' hosts. In prospective surveys over the last two decades, a mean of 12% of the domestic dogs checked in Alpes-Maritimes have been found seropositive for L. infantum but only about 50% of the seropositive animals showed any clinical signs of infection at the time of the surveys. During the last 30 years, 178 cases of human visceral leishmaniasis have been recorded in the area. Such cases are sporadic and often opportunistic, occurring predominantly in children (29% of the 178 cases) or HIV-positive subjects (31%). Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in Alpes-Maritimes, approximately 20% of those found seropositive in leishmanin skin tests are asymptomatic carriers, with amastigotes in their peripheral blood. PMID:17877875

  6. Effects of Silicate, Phosphate, and Calcium on the Stability of Aldopentoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Sakiko; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Ribose is an important constituent of RNA: ribose connects RNA bases and forms a strand of sugar phosphates. Accumulation of ribose on prebiotic Earth was difficult because of its low stability. Improvement in the yield of ribose by the introduction of borate or silicate in a formose-like reaction has been proposed. The effects of borates have been further analyzed and confirmed in subsequent studies. Nonetheless, the effects of silicates and phosphates remain unclear. In the present study, we incubated aldopentoses in a highly alkaline aqueous solution at a moderate temperature to determine the effects of silicate or phosphate on the degradation rates of ribose and its isomeric aldopentoses. The formation of a complex of silicate (or phosphate) with ribose was also analyzed in experiments with 29Si and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We found that silicate or phosphate complexes of ribose were not detectable under our experimental conditions. The stability of ribose and lyxose improved after addition of 40-fold molar excess (relative to a pentose) of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate to the alkaline solution. The stability was not improved further when an 80-fold molar excess of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate was added. Calcium was removed from these solutions by precipitation of calcium salts. The drop in Ca2+ concentration might have improved the stability of ribose and lyxose, which are susceptible to aldol addition. The improvement of ribose stability by the removal of Ca2+ and by addition of silicate or phosphate was far smaller than the improvement by borate. Furthermore, all aldopentoses showed similar stability in silicate- and phosphate-containing solutions. These results clearly show that selective stabilization of ribose by borate cannot be replaced by the effects of silicate or phosphate; this finding points to the importance of borate in prebiotic RNA formation.

  7. Effects of Silicate, Phosphate, and Calcium on the Stability of Aldopentoses.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Sakiko; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    Ribose is an important constituent of RNA: ribose connects RNA bases and forms a strand of sugar phosphates. Accumulation of ribose on prebiotic Earth was difficult because of its low stability. Improvement in the yield of ribose by the introduction of borate or silicate in a formose-like reaction has been proposed. The effects of borates have been further analyzed and confirmed in subsequent studies. Nonetheless, the effects of silicates and phosphates remain unclear. In the present study, we incubated aldopentoses in a highly alkaline aqueous solution at a moderate temperature to determine the effects of silicate or phosphate on the degradation rates of ribose and its isomeric aldopentoses. The formation of a complex of silicate (or phosphate) with ribose was also analyzed in experiments with (29)Si and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We found that silicate or phosphate complexes of ribose were not detectable under our experimental conditions. The stability of ribose and lyxose improved after addition of 40-fold molar excess (relative to a pentose) of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate to the alkaline solution. The stability was not improved further when an 80-fold molar excess of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate was added. Calcium was removed from these solutions by precipitation of calcium salts. The drop in Ca(2+) concentration might have improved the stability of ribose and lyxose, which are susceptible to aldol addition. The improvement of ribose stability by the removal of Ca(2+) and by addition of silicate or phosphate was far smaller than the improvement by borate. Furthermore, all aldopentoses showed similar stability in silicate- and phosphate-containing solutions. These results clearly show that selective stabilization of ribose by borate cannot be replaced by the effects of silicate or phosphate; this finding points to the importance of borate in prebiotic RNA formation. PMID:26559965

  8. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Permian continental basins in the Southern Alps (Italy) and peri-mediterranean correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassinis, Giuseppe; Perotti, Cesare R.; Ronchi, Ausonio

    2012-01-01

    The Late Carboniferous to Permian continental successions of the Southern Alps can be subdivided into two main tectono-sedimentary Cycles, separated by a marked unconformity sealing a Middle Permian time gap, generally estimated at over 10 Ma. The lower cycle (1), between the Variscan crystalline basement and the Early Permian, is mainly characterised by fluvio-lacustrine and volcanic deposits of calc-alkaline acidic-to-intermediate composition, which range up to a maximum thickness of more than 2,000 m. The upper cycle (2), which is devoid of volcanics, is mostly dominated through the Mid?-Late Permian by alluvial sedimentation which covered the previous basins and the surrounding highs, giving rise to the subaerial Verrucano Lombardo-Val Gardena (Gröden) red-beds, up to about 800 m thick. The palaeontological record from the terrigenous deposits of both the above cycles consists mainly of macro- and microfloras and tetrapod footprints. The age of the continental deposits is widely discussed because of the poor chronological significance of a large number of fossils which do not allow reliable datings; however, some sections are also controlled by radiometric calibrations. The comparison with some selected continental successions in southern Europe allows to determine their evolution and set up correlations. A marked stratigraphic gap shows everywhere between the above-mentioned Cycles 1 and 2. As in the Southern Alps, the gap reaches the greatest extent during the Mid-Permian, near the Illawarra Reversal geomagnetic event (265 Ma). In western Europe, however, such as in Provence and Sardinia, the discussed gap persists upwardly to Late Permian and Early Triassic or slightly younger times, i.e. to the onset of the "Alpine sedimentary Cycle", even though in northeastern Spain (Iberian Ranges, Balearic Islands) this gap results clearly interrupted by late Guadalupian-Lopingian deposits. The above two major tectonosedimentary cycles reflect, in our view, two main

  10. The effect of calcium phosphate composite scaffolds on the osteogenic differentiation of rabbit dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ling E; Feng, Lin; Liu, Hong-Chen; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Zhan-Ping; Wang, Jun-Cheng; Luo, Wei; Lv, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effects of the two calcium phosphate composite scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). One nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly (l-lactide) (nHAC/PLA), imitating the composition and the micro-structure characteristics of the natural bone, was made by Beijing Allgens Medical Science & Technology Co., Ltd. (China). The other beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), being fully interoperability globular pore structure, was provided by Shanghai Bio-lu Biomaterials Co, Ltd. (China). We compared the absorption water rate and the protein adsorption rate of two scaffolds and the characterization of DPSCs cultured on the culture plate and both scaffolds under osteogenic differentiation media (ODM) treatment. The constructs were then implanted subcutaneously into the back of severely combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 8 and 12 weeks to compare their bone formation capacity. The results showed that the ODM-treated DPSCs expressed osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), type I collagen (COLI) and osteopontin (OPN) by immunofluorescence staining. Positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, calcium deposition and calcium nodules were also observed on the ODM-treated DPSCs. The absorption water rate and protein adsorption rate of nHAC/PLA was significantly higher than β-TCP. The initial attachment of DPSCs seeded onto nHAC/PLA was significantly higher than that onto β-TCP; and the proliferation rate of the cells was also significantly higher than that of β-TCP on 1, 3, and 7 days of cell culture. The ALP activity, calcium/phosphorus content and mineral formation of DPSCs + β-TCP were significantly higher than DPSCs + nHAC/LA. When implanted into the back of SCID mice, nHAC/PLA alone had no new bone formation, newly formed mature bone and osteoid were only observed in β-TCP alone, DPSCs + nHAC/PLA and DPSCs + β-TCP, and this three

  11. Preparation and property of a novel bone graft composite consisting of rhBMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres and calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Fei, Zhengqi; Hu, Yunyu; Wu, Daocheng; Wu, Hong; Lu, Rong; Bai, Jianping; Song, Hongxun

    2008-03-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a highly promising bone substitute and an excellent carrier for delivering growth factors. Yet, the lack of macro-porosity and osteoinductive ability, limit its use. This study is aimed at developing a novel biodegradable biomaterial for bone repair with both highly osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties. RhBMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres were incorporated into rhBMP-2/CPC for macropores for bone ingrowth. The compressive strength, crystallinity, microscopic structure, and bioactivity of the composites were investigated. The results showed that with the incorporation of rhBMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres, the compressive strength was decreased from (29.48+/-6.42) MPa to (8.26+/-3.58) MPa. X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystallinity pattern of HA formed by CPC had no significant change. Inside the composite, the microspheres distributed homogeneously and contacted intimately with the HA matrix, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the PLGA microspheres dissolved after having been emerged in PBS for 56 days, macropores were created within the CPC. The rhBMP-2/PLGA/CPC composite, showing a 4.9% initial release of rhBMP-2 in 24 h, followed by a prolonged release for 28 days, should have a greater amount of rhBMP-2 released compared to the CPC delivery system. When rabbit marrow stromal cells were cocultured with the composite, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) showed a dose response to the rhBMP-2 released from the composite, indicating that the activity of rhBMP-2 was retained. This study shows that the new composite reveals more rhBMP-2 release and osteogenic activity. This novel BMP/PLGA/CPC composite could be a promising synthetic bone graft in craniofacial and orthopedic repairs. PMID:17701313

  12. Fundamentals of phosphate transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2015-07-21

    Historically, the chemistry of phosphate transfer-a class of reactions fundamental to the chemistry of Life-has been discussed almost exclusively in terms of the nucleophile and the leaving group. Reactivity always depends significantly on both factors; but recent results for reactions of phosphate triesters have shown that it can also depend strongly on the nature of the nonleaving or "spectator" groups. The extreme stabilities of fully ionised mono- and dialkyl phosphate esters can be seen as extensions of the same effect, with one or two triester OR groups replaced by O(-). Our chosen lead reaction is hydrolysis-phosphate transfer to water: because water is the medium in which biological chemistry takes place; because the half-life of a system in water is an accepted basic index of stability; and because the typical mechanisms of hydrolysis, with solvent H2O providing specific molecules to act as nucleophiles and as general acids or bases, are models for reactions involving better nucleophiles and stronger general species catalysts. Not least those available in enzyme active sites. Alkyl monoester dianions compete with alkyl diester monoanions for the slowest estimated rates of spontaneous hydrolysis. High stability at physiological pH is a vital factor in the biological roles of organic phosphates, but a significant limitation for experimental investigations. Almost all kinetic measurements of phosphate transfer reactions involving mono- and diesters have been followed by UV-visible spectroscopy using activated systems, conveniently compounds with good leaving groups. (A "good leaving group" OR* is electron-withdrawing, and can be displaced to generate an anion R*O(-) in water near pH 7.) Reactivities at normal temperatures of P-O-alkyl derivatives-better models for typical biological substrates-have typically had to be estimated: by extended extrapolation from linear free energy relationships, or from rate measurements at high temperatures. Calculation is free

  13. Amorphous calcium phosphate and its application in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) is an essential mineral phase formed in mineralized tissues and the first commercial product as artificial hydroxyapatite. ACP is unique among all forms of calcium phosphates in that it lacks long-range, periodic atomic scale order of crystalline calcium phosphates. The X-ray diffraction pattern is broad and diffuse with a maximum at 25 degree 2 theta, and no other different features compared with well-crystallized hydroxyapatite. Under electron microscopy, its morphological form is shown as small spheroidal particles in the scale of tenths nanometer. In aqueous media, ACP is easily transformed into crystalline phases such as octacalcium phosphate and apatite due to the growing of microcrystalline. It has been demonstrated that ACP has better osteoconductivity and biodegradability than tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite in vivo. Moreover, it can increase alkaline phosphatase activities of mesoblasts, enhance cell proliferation and promote cell adhesion. The unique role of ACP during the formation of mineralized tissues makes it a promising candidate material for tissue repair and regeneration. ACP may also be a potential remineralizing agent in dental applications. Recently developed ACP-filled bioactive composites are believed to be effective anti-demineralizing/remineralizing agents for the preservation and repair of tooth structures. This review provides an overview of the development, structure, chemical composition, morphological characterization, phase transformation and biomedical application of ACP in dentistry. PMID:21740535

  14. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED

    2016-04-01

    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  15. Phosphate fertilizer impacts on glyphosate sorption by soil.

    PubMed

    Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Flaten, Don; Grant, Cynthia

    2016-06-01

    This research examined the impact of field-aged phosphate and cadmium (Cd) concentrations, and fresh phosphate co-applications, on glyphosate sorption by soil. Soil samples were collected in 2013 from research plots that had received, from 2002 to 2009, annual applications of mono ammonium phosphate (MAP) at 20, 40 and 80 kg P ha(-1) and from products containing 0.4, 70 or 210 mg Cd kg(-1) as an impurity. A series of batch equilibrium experiments were carried out to quantify the glyphosate sorption distribution constant, Kd. Extractable Cd concentrations in soil had no significant effect on glyphosate sorption. Glyphosate Kd values significantly decreased with increasing Olsen-P concentrations in soil, regardless of the pH conditions studied. Experiments repeated with a commercially available glyphosate formulation showed statistically similar results as the experiments performed with analytical-grade glyphosate. Co-applications of MAP with glyphosate also reduced the available sorption sites to retain glyphosate, but less so when soils already contain large amounts of phosphate. Glyphosate Kd values in soils ranged from 173 to 939 L kg(-1) under very strong to strongly acidic condition but the Kd was always <100 L kg(-1) under moderately acidic to slightly alkaline conditions. The highest Olsen-P concentrations in soil reduced Kd values by 25-44% relative to control soils suggesting that, under moderately acidic to slightly alkaline conditions, glyphosate may become mobile by water in soils with high phosphate levels. Otherwise, glyphosate residues in agricultural soils are more likely to be transported off-site by wind and water-eroded sediments than by leaching or runoff. PMID:27035384

  16. Anode conductor for alkaline cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schrenk, D.J.; Murphy, P.E.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell comprised of an anode comprised of zinc; a cathode; and alkaline electrolyte; and a current collector comprised of a silicon bronze alloy that is comprised of 85-98% by weight copper and 1-5% by weight silicon with the remainder being comprised of at least one of manganese, iron, zinc, aluminum, tin, lead, or mixtures thereof; and a strip of metal tab stock welded to the current collector, the tab stock being a metal other than silicon bronze alloy.

  17. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more than two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  18. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  19. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  20. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  1. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  2. Alkaline volcanic rocks from the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSween, H.Y.; Ruff, S.W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F., III; Herkenhoff, K.; Gellert, Ralf; Stockstill, K.R.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Crisp, J.A.; Christensen, P.R.; McCoy, T.J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M.

    2006-01-01

    Irvine, Backstay, and Wishstone are the type specimens for three classes of fine-grained or fragmental, relatively unaltered rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra, found as float on the flanks of the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt, trachybasalt, and tephrite, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. The texture of Wishstone is consistent with a pyroclastic origin, whereas Irvine and Backstay are lavas or possibly dike rocks. Chemical compositions of these rocks plot on or near liquid lines of descent for most elements calculated for Adirondack class rocks (olivine-rich basalts from the Gusev plains) at various pressures from 0.1 to 1.0 GPa. We infer that Wishstone-, Backstay-, and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by fractionation of primitive, oxidized basaltic magma similar to Adirondack-class rocks. The compositions of all these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. The fact that differentiated volcanic rocks were not encountered on the plains prior to ascending Husband Hill may suggest a local magma source for volcanism beneath Gusev crater. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Novel high-pressure phases of AlP from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Hu, Meng; Luo, Kun; Yu, Dongli; Zhao, Zhisheng; He, Julong

    2016-05-01

    By utilizing a crystal structure prediction software via particle swarm optimization, this study proposes three new high-pressure phases of aluminum phosphide (AlP) with high density and high hardness, in addition to previously proposed phases (wz-, zb-, rs-, NiAs-, β-Sn-, CsCl-, and Cmcm-AlP). These new phases are as follows: (1) an I 4 ¯ 3d symmetric structure (cI24-AlP) at 55.2 GPa, (2) an R 3 ¯ m symmetric structure (hR18-AlP) at 9.9 GPa, and (3) a C222 symmetric structure (oC12-AlP) at 20.6 GPa. Based on first-principle calculations, these phases have higher energetic advantage than CsCl- and β-Sn-AlP at ambient pressure. The independent elastic constants and phonon dispersion spectra are calculated to check the mechanical and dynamic stabilities of these phases. According to mechanical property studies, these new AlP phases have higher hardness than NiAs-AlP, and oC12-AlP has the highest hardness of 7.9 GPa. Electronic band structure calculations indicate that NiAs- and hR18-AlP have electrical conductivity. Additionally, wz-, zb-, and oC12-AlP possess semiconductive properties with indirect bandgaps, and cI24-AlP has a semiconductive property with a direct bandgap.

  4. An electrochemical microRNAs biosensor with the signal amplification of alkaline phosphatase and electrochemical-chemical-chemical redox cycling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ning; Zhang, Youjuan; Wei, Xin; Huang, Yaping; Liu, Lin

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs (MiRNAs) have been regarded as clinically important biomarkers and drug discovery targets. In this work, we reported a simple and ultrasensitive electrochemical method for miRNAs detection based on single enzyme amplification and electrochemical-chemical-chemical (ECC) redox cycling. Specifically, upon contact with the target miRNAs, the hairpin structure of biotinylated DNA immobilized on gold electrode was destroyed and the biotin group in DNA was forced away from the electrode surface, allowing for the coupling of streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase (SA-ALP). Then, ascorbic acid (AA, the enzymatic product of ALP) triggered the ECC redox cycling with ferrocene methanol (FcM) and tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) as the redox mediator and the chemical reducing reagent, respectively. The method was more sensitive than that with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or glucose oxidase (GOx) triggered recycling since one ALP molecule captured by one target miRNA molecule promoted the production of thousands of AA. Analytical merits (e.g., detection limit, dynamic range, specificity, regeneration and reproducibility) were evaluated. The feasibility of the method for analysis of miRNA-21 in human serum has also been demonstrated. PMID:26002330

  5. Panax notoginseng stimulates alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, and mineralization in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhe; Cheng, Yizhao; Yuan, Puwei; Dang, Xiaoqian; Guo, Xiong; Wang, Weizhuo

    2015-10-01

    Total Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) has been extensively used to treat a variety of diseases, such as bone fractures, soft tissue injuries, etc. In this study, mouse calvaria-original osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in various concentrations of PNS (0.005-5 mg/mL) during the period (1, 5, 14, and 23 d). At the endpoint, the osteogenic capacity of MC3T3-E1 cells was investigated by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, the deposited calcium, and the expression of osteogenic-related markers, including bone collagen type 1 (Col1) and osteocalcin (OCN). Compared with all groups in each period, the most pronounced effect was observed at the concentration range between 0.05 and 0.5 mg/mL (P < 0.05) and the cell proliferation with PNS treatment was found during the whole osteogenic period. Moreover, cellular ALP activity with PNS was increased during 7, 14, and 21 d and cell mineralization with PNS was enhanced in 14 and 21 d. Furthermore, the differentiation markers Col1 and OCN increased in the PNS-treated cells. Our work suggests that PNS may stimulate the osteogenesis process which contains osteoblastic proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization by increasing cellular ALP activity, extracellular matrix mineralization, and osteoblast-associated molecules in the osteoblasts. PMID:25904074

  6. Vulnerability and adaptation to water scarcity in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoard, S.; McCallum, S.; Prutsch, A.; Benno Hain, B.; Schauser, I.

    2009-04-01

    The European Environment Agency (EEA) has recently undertaken a project addressing vulnerability and adaptation to water availability in the European Alps. Mountains are indeed one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in Europe (EEA 2008, IPCC 2007).The Alps, in particular, can be presented as the ‘water towers' of Europe (the amount of water delivered by the Alps allocates 40% of EU consumption) where changes in water availability affect all socio-economical sectors. This therefore makes adaptation actions a regional topic with an outstanding European dimension. The specific objectives of the study were to highlight the importance of the Alps in their function as ‘water towers' for Europe and analyse the vulnerability of the Alpine Region with regard to impacts of climate change (but also to global change as a whole) focussing on water availability. Given the EU and regional policy background with regard to adaptation and water issues, the study assessed the possible needs, constraints and opportunities for adaptation to the adverse impacts for various sectors pending on water resources. Findings of this activity expanded the knowledge base, fed into the preparation of European Commission's 2009 White Paper and the Alpine Convention 2009 Report on the State of the Alps, and complemented other recent studies (e.g. OECD 2007, European Parliament Committee on Agriculture & Rural Development 2008). The method used for the study relied on the one hand on findings from recent key publications on climate change impacts (EEA 2008, IPCC 2007) and EU research projects (e.g. ClimChAlp, ProClim); on the other side it was based on selected case studies chosen within the four climatic regions of the eight Alpine countries for which an extensive series of interviews with local and regional stakeholders and decision makers has been undertaken. The interviewees had been directly involved in designing and implementing water availability-related adaptation measures

  7. Isotopic composition of sulfate accumulations, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Trembaczowski, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Alps are characterised by the presence of three main tectonic units, such as the Lower, Middle and Upper Austroalpine, which overlie the Penninicum (Tollmann, 1977). The Upper Austroalpine unit consists of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) overlying the Greywacke zone and corresponding to the Graz Paleozoic, Murau Paleozoic and the Gurktal Nappe. Evaporitic rocks are lacking in the later ones. The Northern Calcareous Alps are a detached fold and thrust belt. The sedimentation started in the Late Carboniferous or Early Permian, the age of the youngest sediments being Eocene. The NCA are divided into the Bajuvaric, Tirolic and Juvavic nappe complexes. The evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation occurs in connection with the Juvavic nappe complex at the base of the Tirolic units (Leitner et al., 2013). The Haselgebirge Formation consists mainly of salt, shales, gypsum and anhydrite and includes the oldest sediments of the NCA. The age of the Haselgebirge Formation, established by using spors and geochronological data, is Permian to Lower Triassic. For the Northern Calcareous Alps, the mineralogy of sulphate accumulations consists mainly of gypsum and anhydrite and subordonates of carbonates. The carbonates as magnesite, dolomite and calcite can be found either as singular crystals or as small accumulations within the hosting gypsum. Sulfides (sphalerite, galena, pyrite), sulfarsenides (enargite, baumhauerite) and native sulphur enrichments are known from several deposits (Kirchner, 1987; Postl, 1990). The investigated samples were selected from various gypsum and halite rich deposits of the Northern Calcareous Alps. A total of over 20 samples were investigated, and both oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition were determined for anhydrite, gyps, polyhalite, blödite and langbeinite. The sulfur isotopic values vary between 10.1 to 14 ‰ (CDT), with three values higher than 14 ‰. The Oxygen isotopic values show a range from 9 to 23 ‰ (SMOW). The sulfur

  8. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  9. Chemical dynamics of snowpack in the Japanese Alps region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, T.; Kariyama, H.; Suzuki, D.; Sasaki, A.; Suzuki, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Japanese Alps region is one of the heaviest snowy regions in Japan. The maximum snow depth in this region is more than 4 m. Therefore, the snowpack is a critical component of the annual water cycle in this region. In this area, winter precipitation is observed mainly two patterns such as winter monsoon pattern and low pressure pattern. Therefore, the chemical characteristics of the snowpack are different by snowfall types. In this study, we aimed to clarify the spatial distribution of chemical components in snowpack, as well as the relationship between weather conditions and chemical characteristics of snow in the Japanese Alps region. We conducted a snow pit study in multipoint at the Japanese Alps region in the deepest snow season 2012/2013. The snow pits were dug up to the ground level. Snow samples for chemical analyses were collected at 0.03 m intervals with a pre-cleaned stainless-steel sampler and were placed into individual sample bags. These samples were preserved without melting in a deep refrigerator until chemical analysis. The samples were melted and pH, electric conductivity, stable isotope of water (δ18O, δD), and major ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) were analyzed in a clean room. The pH of almost samples was below 5.6. Na+ concentration correlates well with Cl- concentration. These ions are considered to be sea-salt components. On the other hand, SO42- concentrations included non-sea-salt components.

  10. Miocene to Pleistocene Exhumation of the Southern European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverman, R. L.; Fellin, M. G.; Herman, F.; Willett, S. D.

    2012-04-01

    We apply apatite fission-track, (U-Th-Sm)/He dating, 4He/3He diffusion profiles, and OSL thermochronometry to construct a complete thermal history and constrain the exhumation and topographic evolution of the Adamello complex in the Southern European Alps. The Adamello complex is an Eocene-Oligocene pluton emplaced at a depth of 7 km, now exposed at the intersection of two major fault systems and dissected by deep valleys, which drain into larger fluvial systems overdeepened during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. All our ages span the Miocene and display a normal age-elevation relationship, where age increases with elevation, until 2300m, below which all AHe ages are within error of each other. We interpret this break in slope as the onset of a period of rapid cooling initiating at 8.5 Ma and continuing till at least 6 Ma, our youngest age. Further insight is provided by helium diffusion profiles, which constrains the cooling history of the grain from 80°C-20°C. Our results confirm that rapid cooling began at ~8.5 Ma and continued until 4 Ma. We estimate exhumation rates using age-elevation relationships and cooling histories. We compare these estimates with those predicted from a 3-D heat conduction model including topographic relief and erosion (Pecube; Braun, 2002) paired with the Neighborhood Algorithm, which is a two stage mathematical procedure that finds models, or parameters, which minimize the misfit to the data (Sambridge, 1999a,b). The predicted tectono-geomorphic history is tested for feasibility through comparison with known timing of tectonic and erosional events and the thermal history determined by helium diffusion profiles. We also discuss how our results compare to results from elsewhere in the Alps and the implications for the exhumational/erosional history of the Alps.

  11. Effects of dietary vitamin E on mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities and on the amount of mucosal malonyldialdehyde in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhifar, Seyed Hamid; Ali Jafari, Ramezan; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Fatemi Tabatabaee, Seyed Reza; Mayahi, Mansour

    2013-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin E levels on mucosal maltase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activities and on the amount of mucosal malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in broiler chickens were studied in the present study. One hundred and eighty of male day old broiler chicks (Ross 308 strain) were randomly assigned into five groups, each with three replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate. Chickens in group A were fed corn-soy- based diet, while those in groups B, C, D and E were fed the same diet with 20, 60, 180, and 540 mg kg-1 vitamin E supplement (d-alpha tocopherol), respectively. Six birds were randomly chosen from each group, and were euthanized on days 10, 21, 32, and 42 of age. One segment of small intestine outset was homogenized and mucosal ALP and maltase activity were measured. Moreover, mucosal lipid peroxidate amount was measured to reveal the impact of vitamin E on oxidative stress. Maltase activity was increased with the increase of vitamin E up to 60 mg kg-1 of diet while with further levels, it was decreased. Addition of 60 mg kg-1 of vitamin E to the diet significantly increased ALP enzyme activity (p ≤ 0.001). Addition of 540 mg kg-1 of vitamin E supplement to the diet led to the minimum amount of MDA at 32 days of age. It may be concluded that supplementation of broiler's diet with 60 mg kg-1 of vitamin E can increase mucosal maltase and ALP enzyme activity. PMID:25568675

  12. Evaluation of Milk Trace Elements, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Alkaline Phosphatase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity of Subclinical Mastitis as and Indicator of Subclinical Mastitis in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Anirban; Gera, Sandeep; Sharma, Anshu

    2012-01-01

    Mastitis is a highly morbid disease that requires detection at the subclinical stage. Tropical countries like India mainly depend on milch buffaloes for milk. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the trace minerals viz. copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) and enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in riverine buffalo milk can be used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM) with the aim of developing suitable diagnostic kit for SCM. Trace elements and enzyme activity in milk were estimated with Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer, GBC 932 plus and biochemical methods, respectively. Somatic cell count (SCC) was done microscopically. The cultural examination revealed Gram positive bacteria as the most prevalent etiological agent. A statistically significant (p<0.01) increase in SCC, Fe, Zn, Co and LDH occurred in SCM milk containing gram positive bacterial agents only. ALP was found to be elevated in milk infected by both gram positive and negative bacteria. The percent sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated taking bacterial culture examination and SCC≥2×105 cells/ml of milk as the benchmark. Only ALP and Zn, the former being superior, were found to be suitable for diagnosis of SCM irrespective of etiological agents. LDH, Co and Fe can be introduced in the screening programs where Gram positive bacteria are omnipresent. It is recommended that both ALP and Zn be measured together in milk to diagnose buffalo SCM, irrespective of etiology. PMID:25049573

  13. Alkaline phosphatase from venom of the endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Ying; Yin Ye, Gong; Fang, Qi; Hu, Cui

    2010-01-01

    Using chromogenic substrates 5-bromo-4-chloro-3'-indolyl phosphate and nitro blue tetrazolium, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) was histochemically detected in the venom apparatus of an endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum L. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Ultrastructural observations demonstrated its presence in the secretory vesicles and nuclei of the venom gland secretory cells. Using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate to measure enzyme activity, the venom ALPase was found to be temperature dependent with bivalent cation effects. The full-length cDNA sequence of ALPase was amplified from the cDNA library of the venom apparatus of P. puparum, providing the first molecular characterization of ALPase in the venom of a parasitoid wasp. The cDNA consisted of 2645 bp with a 1623 bp open reading frame coding for 541 deduced amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 59.83 kDa and pI of 6.98. Using multiple sequence alignment, the deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity to its counterparts from other insects. A signal peptide and a long conserved ALPase gene family signature sequence were observed. The amino acid sequence of this venom protein was characterized with different potential glycosylation, myristoylation, phosphorylation sites and metal ligand sites. The transcript of the ALPase gene was detected by RT-PCR in the venom apparatus with development related expression after adult wasp emergence, suggesting a possible correlation with the oviposition process. PMID:20575745

  14. Structural and biochemical characterization of a halophilic archaeal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Wende, Andy; Johansson, Patrik; Vollrath, Ronnald; Dyall-Smith, Mike; Oesterhelt, Dieter; Grininger, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Phosphate is an essential component of all cells that must be taken up from the environment. Prokaryotes commonly secrete alkaline phosphatases (APs) to recruit phosphate from organic compounds by hydrolysis. In this study, the AP from Halobacterium salinarum, an archaeon that lives in a saturated salt environment, has been functionally and structurally characterized. The core fold and the active-site architecture of the H. salinarum enzyme are similar to other AP structures. These generally form dimers composed of dominant beta-sheet structures sandwiched by alpha-helices and have well-accessible active sites. The surface of the enzyme is predicted to be highly negatively charged, like other proteins of extreme halophiles. In addition to the conserved core, most APs contain a crown domain that strongly varies within species. In the H. salinarum AP, the crown domain is made of an acyl-carrier-protein-like fold. Different from other APs, it is not involved in dimer formation. We compare the archaeal AP with its bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts, and we focus on the role of crown domains in enhancing protein stability, regulating enzyme function, and guiding phosphoesters into the active-site funnel. PMID:20438737

  15. Glaciokarst: a Case Study from the Dinaric Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žebre, Manja; Stepišnik, Uroš

    2014-05-01

    The Dinaric Alps are one of the largest contiguous mountain belts of the European part of Eurasian orogen with the total length of 645 km. The biggest part of the Dinaric Alps is formed of carbonate rocks, mostly limestone and dolomite. Here, the highest massifs are found and karst geomorphic system prevails. Well karstified Dinaric Alps were affected by the Quaternary glaciations. An interaction between glacial action and karst processes is most frequently termed as glaciokarst. Glaciokarst can function only if vertical karst drainage of subglacial waters is active, which results in specific functioning of glaciers as well as in formation of typical geomorphic features. On the other hand inert vertical karst drainage prevents functioning of glaciokarst and causes only subglacial and postglacial surface modification by dissolution, which is referred to as karsti-glacial action. The case study from the Lovćen, Orjen and Velež Mountains in the southern Dinaric Alps provides an insight into specific glaciokarst processes and surface features. Aside from variety of subglacial and postglacial dissolution karsti-glacial features, typical features of subglacial origin such as schafts, dolines, kotlic and kontas (over-deepened cirques) which are all the result of subglacial karstic drainage, are present in the study areas. Vertical karst drainage has also significant effect both on functioning of glaciers and on glacial deposition. Since prevailing process in karst areas following deglaciation is vertical chemical denudation, almost entire absence of other surface processes resulted in almost complete preservation of glacial accumulations. The dynamics of glaciers in karst areas is similar to the one in arid mountain areas where proglacial discharge is relatively low in comparison with sediment supply. Therefore, moraine-dammed glaciers are common in karst areas due to vertical drainage resulting in inability of ice-marginal fluvial processes to evacuate sediment. This

  16. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  17. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  18. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone-kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  19. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone–kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  20. PIGO mutations in intractable epilepsy and severe developmental delay with mild elevation of alkaline phosphatase levels.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Osaka, Hitoshi; Murakami, Yoshiko; Anzai, Rie; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Kodera, Hirofumi; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Miyake, Noriko; Kinoshita, Taroh; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo

    2014-02-01

    Aberrations in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis pathway constitute a subclass of congenital disorders of glycosylation, and mutations in seven genes involved in this pathway have been identified. Among them, mutations in PIGV and PIGO, which are involved in the late stages of GPI-anchor synthesis, and PGAP2, which is involved in fatty-acid GPI-anchor remodeling, are all causative for hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS). Using whole exome sequencing, we identified novel compound heterozygous PIGO mutations (c.389C>A [p.Thr130Asn] and c.1288C>T [p.Gln430*]) in two siblings, one of them having epileptic encephalopathy. GPI-anchored proteins (CD16 and CD24) on blood granulocytes were slightly decreased compared with a control and his mother. Our patients lacked the characteristic features of HPMRS, such as facial dysmorphology (showing only a tented mouth) and hypoplasia of distal phalanges, and had only a mild elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Our findings therefore expand the clinical spectrum of GPI-anchor deficiencies involving PIGO mutations to include epileptic encephalopathy with mild elevation of ALP. PMID:24417746

  1. Degradation of Chlorpyrifos by an alkaline phosphatase from the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed

    Thengodkar, Rutwik Ravindra Mandakini; Sivakami, S

    2010-07-01

    Spirulina is a photosynthetic, filamentous, spiral-shaped, multicellular, blue-green microalga. The two most important species are Spirulina maxima and Spirulina platensis. Spirulina is considered an excellent food, lacking toxicity and having corrective properties against viral attacks, anemia, tumor growth and malnutrition. We have observed that cultures of Spirulina platensis grow in media containing up to 80 ppm of the organophosphorous pesticide, Chlorpyrifos. It was found to be due to an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity that was detected in cell free extracts of Spirulina platensis. This activity was purified from the cell free extracts using ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration and shown to belong to the class of EC 3.1.3.1 ALP. The purified enzyme degrades 100 ppm Chlorpyrifos to 20 ppm in 1 h transforming it into its primary metabolite 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. This is the first report of degradation of Chlorpyrifos by Spirulina platensis whose enzymic mechanism has been clearly identified. These findings have immense potential for harnessing Spirulina platensis in bioremediation of polluted ecosystems. PMID:20127145

  2. a Study of Electronic Properties of Semiconducting Copper Tellurite and Copper Phosphate Glasses Containing Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arghamiri, M. S.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. In the present study a general introduction to the glassy state and the theory of amorphous semiconductors is given and relevant previous works are reviewed. A number of experiments were carried out on the physical properties such as density, molar volume, electrical conductivity, electron-spin-resonance and optical properties of two different series of glasses of the systems P_2O _5-CuO-SrO and TeO_2 -CuO-SrO. The density of glass samples and the molar volumes of the glasses were determined. It was found that the density increased as the alkaline-earth-metal content increased. The E.S.R. spectra of copper-phosphate and copper -tellurite glasses containing SrO have been examined and indicate that copper exists in glass in more than one valency state, the C ratio increases with increasing alkaline-earth content. From the IR absorption spectra of copper-phosphate glass samples, it is found that these spectra are similar to the IR absorption spectrum of crystalline P _2O_5 which suggests that the phosphate tetrahedra are dominating the structure of these glasses. As the addition of alkaline earth metal is increased in copper-tellurite glass samples, very small shifts in the absorption band are observed. Increase in E_{rm opt } to higher energies is observed in copper -strontium-phosphate glasses by the increase in alkaline -earth content. The values of E_{rm opt} also increase in copper-strontium-tellurite glasses as the SrO content increases. The d.c electrical conductivity values are increased as the CuO is replaced by SrO in copper-strontium-phosphate glasses, but a decrease is observed in copper-strontium -tellurite glasses as the content of SrO is increased.

  3. Using Structural Thermochronology to Reconstruct Backfolding in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhillips, D.; Brandon, M. T.; Vance, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    A new interpretational method takes advantage of geometric relationships among zircon fission track ages and allows direct dating of the formation and propagation of the retroshear zone of the Swiss Alps. The retroshear zone is defined by a 20 km wide, south-vergent "backfold", formed as part of the doubly-vergent structure of the orogen. Our "structural thermochronologic" analysis relies on the concept of the isochrone, which is a surface in the earth that everywhere has the same cooling age. Isochrone surfaces are formed as rocks pass through the closure isotherm. They tend to have very gentle to flat initial dips, and they can be used, like bedded stratigraphy, to track deformation. The age gradient across uniformly dipping isochrones provides a measure of exhumation rate in datasets where typical age-elevation relationships are scattered. In the Alps, isochrone-derived exhumation rates increase more than fourfold at 16 Ma, from 0.25 km/Ma to ~ 1.0 km/Ma. Isochrones dip uniformly above and below the increase, at about 10 degrees toward the southeast. The change in exhumation rate corresponds generally to the Insubric line. Where exhumation rates are high, to the north of the Insubric line, cooling ages are Miocene, while exhumation rates to the south are low and cooling ages are Cretaceous to Triassic. We use a kinematic folding model to show that the change in exhumation rates and the uniform southward dips are both a result of steady southward propagation of the Alpine backfold.

  4. Distributed landsurface skin temperature sensing in Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Baerenbold, F.; Nadeau, D. F.; Pardyjak, E.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ZyTemp TN9 is a mass-produced thermal infrared (TIR) sensor that is normally used to build handheld non-contact thermometers. The measurement principle of the TN9 is similar to that of very costly meteorological pyrgeometers. The costs of the TN9 are less than 10. The output of the TN9 consists of observed thermal radiation, the temperature of the measurement instrument, and the emissivity used. The output is provided through a Serial Peripheral Interface protocol. The TN9 was combined with an Arduino board that registered data onto a USB memory stick. A solar cell, lead acid battery, housing and stand completed the meausrement set up. Total costs per set was in the order of 200 Land surface atmosphere interactions in mountainous areas, such as the Swiss Alps, are spatially heterogeneous. Shading, multi-layer cloud formation, and up- and downdrafts make for a very dynamic exchange of mass and energy along and across slopes. In order to better understand these exchanges, the Swiss Slope Experiment at La Fouly (SELF) has built a distributed sensing network consisting of eight micro-met stations and two flux towers in the "La Fouly" watershed in the upper Alps. To obtain a better handle on surface temperature, fifteen TIR sensing stations were installed that made observations during the 2010 Summer. Methods and results will be presented. Overview La Fouly watershed (source: http://eflum.epfl.ch/research/images/fouly_2.jpg)

  5. Production of citric and oxalic acids and solubilization of calcium phosphate by Penicillium bilaii.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, J E; Kuiack, C

    1992-01-01

    An isolate of Penicillium bilaii previously reported to solubilize mineral phosphates and enhance plant uptake of phosphate was studied. Using agar media with calcium phosphate and the pH indicator alizarin red S, the influence of the medium composition on phosphate solubility and medium acidification was recorded. The major acidic metabolites produced by P. bilaii in a sucrose nitrate liquid medium were found to be oxalic acid and citric acid. Citric acid production was promoted under nitrogen-limited conditions, while oxalic acid production was promoted under carbon-limited conditions. Citric acid was produced in both growth and stationary phases, but oxalic acid production occurred only in stationary phase. When submerged cultures which normally produce acid were induced to sporulate, the culture medium shifted toward alkaline rather than acid reaction with growth. PMID:1622211

  6. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    This invention relates generally to a process for extracting technetium from nuclear wastes and more particularly to a process for extracting technetium from alkaline waste solutions containing technetium and high concentrations of alkali metal nitrates. A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate comprises the steps of: contacting the aqueous alkaline solution with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent, the diluent being a water-immiscible organic liquid in which the crown ether is soluble, for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution into the solvent; separating the solvent containing the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution; and stripping the technetium values from the solvent by contacting the solvent with water.

  7. Bismuth citrate in the quantification of inorganic phosphate and its utility in the determination of membrane-bound phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Cariani, L; Thomas, L; Brito, J; del Castillo, J R

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid and sensitive method to determine inorganic phosphate, even in the presence of labile organic phosphate compounds and large quantities of proteins. The method eliminates the use of sodium arsenite, a highly toxic compound, substituting bismuth citrate for it to stabilize the phosphomolybdic acid complex formed during the interaction of inorganic phosphate and molybdate reduced by ascorbic acid. This method has also been adapted to microplates and has been used to determine the activities of Na/K ATPase and alkaline phosphatase of intestinal basolateral and luminal plasma membranes. PMID:14654048

  8. Holocene geological records of flood regime in French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Fabien; Wilhelm, Bruno; Giguet-Covex, Charline; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Fouinat, Laurent; Sabatier, Pierre; Debret, Maxime; Révillon, Sidonie; Chapron, Emmanuel; Revel, Marie

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we present a review of a ca. 10-years research effort (1-9) aiming at reconstructing floods dynamics in in French Alps through the Holocene, based on lake sediment records. We will particularly discuss how such geological records can be considered as representative of past climate. This implies a wise interpretation of data in order to really understand "what does the core really says". Namely, we showed that different lake systems record different types of flood events. Low altitude lakes, fed by large-scale catchment areas are more sensitive to regional heavy rainfall events (2-5), whereas high altitude small lakes record local extreme rainfall events (6). Moreover, human societies' development must be taken into account as it is susceptible to modulate the climate-geological record relationship (7). Altogether our data permit the establishment of a Holocene-long perspective upon both regional heavy rainfall and torrential activities in high elevation sites. We hence show that both types of events frequency co-evolve in Northern as well as Southern French Alps where Holocene colder spells generally present higher flood frequencies (6-9). On the other hand, intensities of torrential events present a North-South opposite pattern: during warm spells (e.g. the Medieval Warm Period or nowadays), northern Alps are subject to rare but extremely intense heavy rainfall events, whereas in the southern Alps torrential floods are both rare and weak. During cold spells (e.g. the Little Ice Age), the inverse pattern is observed: torrential floods are more frequent everywhere and above-average intensity in Southern Alps. This point is particularly important for risk management in mountain areas in a context of global warming. Our results point out how complex can be the response of regional system to global climate changes. We are hence far from completely understanding this complexity which is moreover imperfectly simulated by climate models. As geological

  9. Recent changes of very small glaciers in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Mauro; Huss, Matthias; Hoelzle, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Present knowledge about Alpine glaciers is not representative in terms of glacier size distribution. More than 80% of all Swiss glaciers are smaller than 0.5 km2 and hence belong to the class of very small glaciers. In the context of fast glacier wastage in the European Alps, the near-future development of the size class distribution will most probably be in favour of very small glaciers which will comparably increase in number. However, there has been little research carried out about very small glaciers so far. It is not clear whether findings and theoretical concepts elaborated for medium and large valley glaciers (> 3 km2) can be directly transferred to very small glaciers, whose accumulation patterns are, for instance, characteristically exceptional because winter precipitation is multiplied by wind drift and avalanching. The extent of glaciers in the European Alps has recently been mapped and inventoried spatio-temporally consistently. Nevertheless, such glacier outlines derived by satellite remote-sensing techniques are not accurate enough for the special case of investigating changes in very small glaciers. Therefore, glacier outlines are digitized manually using high-resolution (25 cm) orthophotographs covering the entire Swiss Alps acquired twice for every scene (both in the early and late noughties). In contrast to the known shortcomings of satellite remote-sensing based approaches, the margins of very small glaciers are (with few exceptions) clearly distinguishable on these orthophotos, even in shaded, snow- or debris-covered areas. For the eastern Swiss Alps (east of the rivers Reuss and Ticino), about one third of all glaciers has vanished since 1973. The total area presently still glacierized amounts to 140 km2, whereof very small glaciers cover only 25% but account for almost 90% of the total number of glaciers. Retreat rates are highest for very small glaciers but seem to be stabilizing or even decreasing since the early noughties, implying that

  10. Exposure to the Proton Scavenger Glycine under Alkaline Conditions Induces Escherichia coli Viability Loss

    PubMed Central

    Vanhauteghem, Donna; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Lauwaerts, Angelo; Sys, Stanislas; Boyen, Filip; Cox, Eric; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH. PMID:23544135

  11. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    PubMed

    Vanhauteghem, Donna; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Lauwaerts, Angelo; Sys, Stanislas; Boyen, Filip; Cox, Eric; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH. PMID:23544135

  12. Synthesis, mechanical and biological characterization of ionic doped carbonated hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kannan, S; Vieira, S I; Olhero, S M; Torres, P M C; Pina, S; da Cruz e Silva, O A B; Ferreira, J M F

    2011-04-01

    The influence of ionic substituents in calcium phosphates intended for bone and tooth replacement biomedical applications is an important research topic, owing to the essential roles played by trace elements in biological processes. The present study investigates the mechanical and biological evaluation of ionic doped hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate mixtures which have been prepared by a simple aqueous precipitation method. Heat treating the resultant calcium phosphates in a carbonated atmosphere led to the formation of ionic doped carbonated hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate mixtures containing the essential ions of biological apatite. The structural analysis determined by Rietveld refinement confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite as the main phase, together with a considerable amount of β-tricalcium phosphate. Such phase assemblage is essentially due to the influence of substituted ions during synthesis. The results from mechanical tests proved that carbonate substitutions are detrimental for the mechanical properties of apatite-based ceramics. In vitro proliferation assays of osteoblastic-like cells (MC3T3-E1 cell line) to powders revealed that carbonate incorporation can either delay or accelerate MC3T3 proliferation, although reaching the same proliferation levels as control cells after 2 weeks in culture. Further, the powders enable pre-osteoblastic differentiation in a similar manner to control cells, as indirectly measured by ALP activity and Type-I collagen medium secretion. PMID:21146640

  13. Phylogenetic Analysis Identifies Many Uncharacterized Actin-like Proteins (Alps) in Bacteria: Regulated Polymerization, Dynamic Instability, and Treadmilling in Alp7A

    PubMed Central

    Derman, Alan I.; Becker, Eric C.; Truong, Bao D.; Fujioka, Akina; Tucey, Timothy M.; Erb, Marcella L.; Patterson, Paula C.; Pogliano, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Summary Actin, one of the most abundant proteins in the eukaryotic cell, also has an abundance of relatives in the eukaryotic proteome. To date though, only five families of actins have been characterized in bacteria. We have conducted a phylogenetic search and uncovered more than 35 highly divergent families of actin-like proteins (Alps) in bacteria. Their genes are found primarily on phage genomes, on plasmids, and on integrating conjugative elements, and are likely to be involved in a variety of functions. We characterize three Alps and find that all form filaments in the cell. The filaments of Alp7A, a plasmid partitioning protein and one of the most divergent of the Alps, display dynamic instability and also treadmill. Alp7A requires other elements from the plasmid to assemble into dynamic polymers in the cell. Our findings suggest that most if not all of the Alps are indeed actin relatives, and that actin is very well represented in bacteria. PMID:19602153

  14. Medical ethnobotany of the Albanian Alps in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical studies are crucial in South-Eastern Europe for fostering local development and also for investigating the dynamics of Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK) related to plants in one of the most crucial European hotspots for biocultural diversity. The current medico-ethnobotanical survey was conducted in rural alpine communities in Kosovo. The aims of the study were twofold: 1) to document the state of TEK of medicinal plants in these communities; 2) to compare these findings with that of similar field studies previously conducted among local populations inhabiting the Montenegrin and Albanian side of the same Alpine range. Methods Field research was conducted in 36 villages on the Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 91 elderly informants (≥ 50 years-old) for participation in semi-structured interviews and structured surveys regarding the use of the local flora for medicinal and food purposes. Standard ethnobotanical methods were employed and prior informed consent was obtained for all study participants. Results and Conclusion The uses of 98 plants species belonging to 39 families were recorded; the most quoted botanical families were Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Mainly decoctions and infusions were quoted as folk medicinal preparations and the most common uses referred to gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders, as well as illnesses of the uro-genital system. Among the most uncommon medicinal taxa quoted by the informants, Carduus nutans L., Echinops bannaticus Rochel ex Schrad., and Orlaya grandiflora Hoffm. may merit phytochemical and phytopharmacological investigations. Comparison of the data with other ethnobotanical field studies recently conducted on the Albanian and Montenegrin sides of the same Alps has shown a remarkable link between the medical ethnobotany of Montenegrin and Kosovar side of the Albanian Alps. Moreover, folk uses of the most quoted wild medicinal

  15. 21st Century Climate Change in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobiet, Andreas; Kotlarski, Sven; Stoffel, Markus; Heinrich, Georg; Rajczak, Jan; Beniston, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Alps are particularly sensitive to global warming and warmed twice as much as the global average in the recent past. In addition, the Alps and its surroundings are a densly populated areas where society is affected by climate change in many ways, which calls for reliable estimates of future climate change. However, the complex Alpine region poses considerable challenges to climate models, which translate to uncertainties in future climate projections. Against this background, the present study reviews the state-of-knowledge about 21st century climate change in the Alps based on existing literature and additional analyses. It will be demonstrated that considerable and accelerating changes are not only to be expected with regard to temperature, but also precipitation, global radiation, relative humidity, and closely related impacts like floods, droughts, snow cover, and natural hazards will be effected by global warming. Under the A1B emission scenario, about 0.25 °C warming per decade until the mid of the 21st century and accelerated 0.36 °C warming per decade in the second half of the century is expected. Warming will most probably be associated with changes in the seasonality of precipitation, global radiation, and relative humidity. More intense precipitation extremes and flooding potential are particularly expected in the colder part of the year. The conditions of currently record breaking warm or hot winter or summer seasons, respectively, may become normal at the end of the 21st century, and there is indication for droughts to become more severe in the future. Snow cover is expected to drastically decrease below 1500 - 2000 m and natural hazards related to glacier and permafrost retreat are expected to become more frequent. Such changes in climatic variables and related quantities will have considerable impact on ecosystems and society and will challenge their adaptive capabilities. Acknowledgements: This study has been initiated and is partly funded by

  16. Carbonate dissolution and transport in H2O fluids during subduction revealed by diamond-bearing rocks from the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezzotti, M.; Selverstone, J.; Sharp, Z. D.; Compagnoni, R.

    2011-12-01

    Here we discuss the fate of subducted carbonates and its implications for recycling of crustal carbon. Thermodynamic models predict little decarbonation along most subduction geotherms, and the mechanisms by which carbon is transferred from the subducting slab to the overlying mantle remain poorly constrained. Diamond-bearing fluid inclusions in garnet in oceanic metasedimentary rocks from Lago di Cignana (western Alps) represent the first occurrence of diamond from a low-temperature subduction complex of clearly oceanic origin (T ≤600°C; P ≥3.5 GPa). The presence of diamonds in and associated with fluid inclusions provides clear evidence of carbon transport by fluids at depths that are directly relevant to slab-mantle fluid transfer during subduction. At room temperature, the fluid inclusions contain aqueous fluid, a vapor bubble, and multiple solid daughter crystals. Daughter crystals identified by Raman spectroscopy and microprobe analysis include ubiquitous Mg-calcite/calcite and rutile, and less common diamond, quartz, paragonite, dawsonite, rhodochrosite, dypingite, and pentahydrite. Molecular CO2 is absent or in trace amounts. The aqueous liquid phase contains ≥0.2 wt%, HCO3-, CO32-, and SO42- ions. In Raman spectra, broad peaks at 773 and 1017 cm-1 point to the presence of both Si(OH)4(aq) and deprotonated monomers (e.g., SiO(OH)3-(aq), and SiO2(OH)22-(aq)), indicative of alkaline solutions. The absence of CO2 in the vapor, and the presence of carbonate daughter minerals, CO32-(aq), and HCO3-(aq) also show that the trapped fluids are alkaline at ambient conditions. High activities of aqueous carbon species reveal that carbonate dissolution is an important mechanism for mobilizing slab carbon at sub-arc depths (100-200 km) during oceanic subduction. Our results imply that the magnitude of carbon release and transport from the slab at sub-arc depths is greater than experimentally predicted on the basis of decarbonation reactions alone.

  17. Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate concentration in soil suspension amended with organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennani, F.; Badraoui, M.; Mikou, M.

    2005-03-01

    The effect of humic substances, Fe3+, Al3+, and soil clay mineralogy on the availability of monocalcium phosphate monohydrate added at pH5 were investigated. Both solution and suspension experiments showed that humic matter chelates phosphorus and prevents the formation of less soluble forms of phosphorus than monocalcium phosphate. However, Fe3+ and Al3+ ions in the solution lead to the precipitation of Fe-P and Al-P, less soluble compounds. Organic matter, by its chelating power for Ca2+, Fe3+ and Al3+ions, explains the availability of phosphorus in solution at pH5. Clay minerals, especially smectites, induced an increase in solution phosphorus content because of their adsorption properties for Ca2+, Fe3+ and Al3+. Soil organic matter should be maintained at a sufficient level in order to get enough phosphorus in soil solution for plant uptake.

  18. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  19. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  20. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  1. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  2. pH-dependent phosphatization of ZnO nanoparticles and its influence on subsequent lead sorption.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huacheng; Li, Lina; Lv, Hua; Liu, Xin; Jiang, Helong

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatization of ZnO nanoparticles (ZNPs) at various pHs and its influence on subsequent lead sorption were investigated. Results showed that, in presence of phosphate, both the chemical speciation and crystalline phase of ZNPs were pH dependent that most of them were converted to crystalline Zn3(PO4)2 at acidic pHs, but only little amorphous hopeites can be formed under alkaline condition. Phosphatization process significantly enhanced subsequent lead sorption with the order of acidic process > alkaline > pristine ZNPs. Spectroscopic analysis including ATR-FTIR and XPS revealed main mechanisms of lead phosphate precipitation and inner-sphere complexes for lead sorption on acidic and alkaline treatment products, respectively. The potential toxicity of ZNPs and heavy metals in eutrophic aquatic ecosystems would thus be reduced due to the ubiquitous phosphatization process. This study highlights the importance of environmental variables in exploring the environmental behavior and fate of heavy metals as well as nanoparticles in natural waters. PMID:26561448

  3. 25Al+p Elastic Scattering with CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Jonty; Chen, A. A.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; He, J. J.; Khlem, L. H.; Salto, A.; Amadio, G.; Fajikawa, H.; Nilkura, M.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Teranishi, T.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Odahara, A.; Moon, J. Y.; Kwon, Y. K.; Cherubini, S.; Pizzone, R.; La Cognata, M.

    The present rate of the 25 Al(p,γ)26 Si reaction suffers from significant uncertainties due to the lack of relevant structure information in the compound nucleus 26 Si. An 25 Al+p elastic-scattering experiment in inverse kinematics was performed using the CRIB facility at the CNS at the Uni- versity of Tokyo, Japan, to try and improve current understanding. The 2 H(24 Mg,n)25 Al reaction was used to produce a 7.5 MeV/A 25 Al radioactive beam with intensities of ˜ 106 pps at the secondary CH2 target position. Protons were detected in silicon E?E telescopes and a center-of- mass energy range of 3 MeV was scanned, reaching up to about 8.5 MeV in excitation energy in 26 Si.

  4. Separating and Stabilizing Phosphate from High-Level Radioactive Waste: Process Development and Spectroscopic Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Peterson, James M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2012-05-09

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams.

  5. Separating and stabilizing phosphate from high-level radioactive waste: process development and spectroscopic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Lumetta, Gregg J; Braley, Jenifer C; Peterson, James M; Bryan, Samuel A; Levitskaia, Tatiana G

    2012-06-01

    Removing phosphate from alkaline high-level waste sludges at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State is necessary to increase the waste loading in the borosilicate glass waste form that will be used to immobilize the highly radioactive fraction of these wastes. We are developing a process which first leaches phosphate from the high-level waste solids with aqueous sodium hydroxide, and then isolates the phosphate by precipitation with calcium oxide. Tests with actual tank waste confirmed that this process is an effective method of phosphate removal from the sludge and offers an additional option for managing the phosphorus in the Hanford tank waste solids. The presence of vibrationally active species, such as nitrate and phosphate ions, in the tank waste processing streams makes the phosphate removal process an ideal candidate for monitoring by Raman or infrared spectroscopic means. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were acquired for all phases during a test of the process with actual tank waste. Quantitative determination of phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate in the liquid phases was achieved by Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of these species in the tank waste process streams. PMID:22571620

  6. Onset of major Pleistocene glaciations in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttoni, G.; Carcano, C.; Garzanti, E.; Ghielmi, M.; Piccin, A.; Pini, R.; Rogledi, S.; Sciunnach, D.

    2003-04-01

    Since alligators patrolled Greenland swamps in the Eocene, the Earth's climate underwent significant cooling, which culminated in the Pleistocene Ice Age with recurring glaciations in vast regions of the Alps, Eurasia and North America, and overgrowth of polar icecaps in Antarctica and Greenland. During main Pleistocene glacial penetrations, the Alpine icecap invaded the low gradients of the Central Europe uplands and Italian Po plain. Peri-glacial sedimentary basins such as the Po Basin are natural collectors of past biological and climatic changes involving the waxing and waning of major icecaps. We have found in a 200m-thick core from the central Po plain near Milan stratigraphic evidence for a major glacial pulsation of the nearby Alpine icecap, which occurred in correspondence of a seismically traceable unconformity of regional relevance, termed the "Red Unconformity" (RU) in Eni/Agip terminology. The RU is associated with a major reorganization of vegetation cover and Alpine drainage pattern. The age of the RU was constrained magnetostratigraphically to the the first major Pleistocene glacio-eustatic low-stand at 0.87Ma (Oxygen Isotope Stage 22). This corresponds to the end of the "Mid Pleistocene Revolution" (MPR), a marked reorganization of northern hemisphere glaciation pattern which took place in the late Early Pleistocene. We suggest that the MPR/MIS 22 was associated with the onset of the first major Pleistocene glaciation in the Alps. Noticing the similarity in number of major Pleistocene glacieustatic low-stands starting with MIS 22, and the four-fold Alpine glacial subdivision of Penck and Brückner (1909), we conclude that "Penck and Brückner in 1909 may not have been, after all, that wrong" (Kukla and Cilek, 1996).

  7. Excessive lead burden among golden eagles in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madry, Milena M.; Kraemer, Thomas; Kupper, Jacqueline; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Jenny, Hannes; Jenni, Lukas; Jenny, David

    2015-03-01

    Fragments from lead ammunition pose a poisoning risk for predators like golden eagles that scavenge on non-retrieved carcasses or offal left behind by hunters. Three golden eagles were found in the Swiss Alps with an acute lead poisoning. To investigate whether the few cases of lead-poisoned golden eagles are exceptional events or whether a substantial proportion of the Alpine golden eagle population is affected by lead at sublethal levels, we measured body burdens in golden eagles from Switzerland in comparison to eagle owls from the same area and to their respective prey. These two raptor species differ in their food as eagle owls feed on live-caught prey. Lead levels in soft tissues were significantly higher in golden eagles (median 1.14 μg g-1 dry weight in liver, 0.99 μg g-1 in kidney) than in eagle owls (0.14 and 0.23 μg g-1). Bones of golden eagles contained 10 times more lead (median of 12.45 μg g-1 dry weight) than owl bones (1.28 μg g-1), which represent substantially higher levels than previously reported for golden eagles. Bones of prey of both golden eagles and eagle owls had low lead concentrations. In order to investigate whether the sublethal lead of golden eagles originates from ammunition or from generic environmental contamination, we examined lead isotope ratios. Lead isotope signatures of golden eagle bones were very similar to those of ammunition, but differed from the signatures of bones of their prey, eagle owls and soil. Isotope signatures did not change with increasing bone lead concentration in golden eagles or any other group examined. These findings indicate that in the Alps, most golden eagles take up lead from spent ammunition in carcasses or their offal in sublethal quantities throughout their life and a few in lethal quantities leading to acute lead poisoning.

  8. Nitrogen deposition along differently exposed slopes in the Bavarian Alps.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Manfred; Fegg, Wolfgang; Römmelt, Horst; Leuchner, Michael; Ries, Ludwig; Zimmermann, Ralf; Michalke, Bernd; Wallasch, Markus; Maguhn, Jürgen; Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Jakobi, Gert

    2014-02-01

    The Alps are affected by high nitrogen deposition, particularly in the fringe of the Northern and Southern Alps. In the framework of a two-year monitoring study performed in 2010 and 2011, we investigated the ammonia and nitrogen dioxide air concentration and ammonium and nitrate deposition at different altitudes between 700 and 1,600 ma.s.l. in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen district in the Upper Bavaria region (Germany). Four-weekly measurements of deposition collected with bulk open field samplers and under-crown were performed in a profile perpendicular to the axis of the Loisach valley; measurements were conducted at eight sites. Whereas open field deposition ranged from 5 to 11 kg ha(-1)a(-1), nitrogen throughfall has reached up to 21 kg ha(-1)a(-1). Data from the valley and the slopes were compared with measurements performed on the platform of the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (Zugspitze) at an altitude of 2,650 ma.s.l. For the rough estimation of the total yearly deposition rate of nitrogen, the canopy uptake model was applied. By regarding nitrogen uptake by the trees, total deposition can exceed the throughfall in all sites by up to 50%. Additionally, we estimated the total deposition from the sum of wet and dry deposition. On the one side, the wet deposition could be extrapolated from the open field deposition. On the other side, we used the inferential method to calculate the dry deposition on the basis of NH3 and NO2 air concentrations and their literature based deposition velocities. Since fixed deposition velocities are inappropriate particularly in complex orography, we tried to find correction factors based upon terrain characteristics and meteorological considerations. Temperature monitoring at the eight sites and wind measurements at two sites provided some evidence for the semi-empirical parameterization. Due to numerous imponderabilities, the results of the two methods were not consistent for all sites. PMID:24211349

  9. Sustained release poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres of bone morphogenetic protein 2 plasmid/calcium phosphate to promote in vitro bone formation and in vivo ectopic osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Chunyan; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Bin; Liu, Jinzhong; Song, Jiyu; Hu, Yue; Yang, Shihui; Sun, Hongchen; Yang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Bone regeneration often requires continuous stimulation to promote local bone formation. In the present study, calcium phosphate (CaPi) was used to promote transfection of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) cDNA plasmid, and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was used to prepare microspheres of pBMP-2/CaPi (i.e., PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi) using W/O/W double emulsion solvent evaporation method. We showed that PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi microspheres were spherical with smooth surface, and the particle size ranged from 0.5 to 35 μm. Encapsulation efficiency was up to 30~50%. The release of BMP-2 cDNA from microspheres continued more than 30 days and constituted, less than 7.5% of total plasmid amount within the first 24 h. Real-time PCR results showed that co-culturing of PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) increased calcium deposition and gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), SP7, and collagen type I (COLL I) in a time-dependent manner. Finally, X-ray analysis demonstrated that in vivo delivery of PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi microspheres into the tibialis anterior muscles of rats promoted the generation of osteoblasts, bone tissue, and bone structure. The findings suggested that PLGA@pBMP-2/CaPi microspheres can promote ectopic osteogenesis in non-bone tissues, with strong prospects in promoting bone regeneration. PMID:26885257

  10. Composite seal reduces alkaline battery leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Plitt, K. F.

    1965-01-01

    Composite seal consisting of rubber or plastic washers and a metal washer reduces alkaline battery leakage. Adhesive is applied to each washer interface, and the washers are held together mechanically.

  11. UNIBRA - the German contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friederich, Wolfgang; Korn, Michael; Meier, Thomas; Plenefisch, Thomas; Ritter, Joachim; Rümpker, Georg; Thomas, Christine; Tilmann, Frederik; Wassermann, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    AlpArray is a European initiative to advance our understanding of orogenesis and its relationship to mantle dynamics, plate reorganizations, surface processes and seismic hazard in the Alps-Apennines-Carpathians-Dinarides orogenic system (cited from the AlpArray Science Plan). The core of the AlpArray project is a dense seismic network covering the entire Alpine region including its forelands. The network is composed of about 600 broadband seismic sensors of which 280 are operated permanently by national institutions and the remaining 320 are deployed temporarily by project partners for a time span of at least 2 years. In a joint effort, German universities contribute 71 temporary stations to the AlpArray Seismic Network, of which 55 are located in southern Germany and 16 in Austria. The instrumentation of the stations is heterogeneous and comprises Streckeisen, Nanometrics and Guralp sensors operated with EarthData, Nanometrics and Quanterra data loggers. The instruments are installed in remote areas and rarely used buildings with power supply. Some stations transfer data via mobile internet connection. The data will be collected at national EIDA centers which also serve as nodes for dissemination of data to the members of the AlpArray working group. Here, we describe installation procedures and setting of the German UNIBRA (UNIversity BRoadband Array) stations. In addition, we present noise characteristics and first records of teleseismic earthquakes. The descriptions may serve as a reference for later work with data from the AlpArray Seismic Network.

  12. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    DOEpatents

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  13. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  14. Evaluation of the alkaline electrolysis of zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Meisenhelder, J.H.; Brown, A.P.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-05-01

    The alkaline leach and electrolysis process for zinc production is compared to the conventional acid-sulfate process in terms of both energy saving and technical merit. In addition, the potential for industrial application of the alkaline process is discussed on the basis of present market conditions, possible future zinc market scenarios, and the probability of increased secondary zinc recovery. In primary zinc production, the energy-saving potential for the alkaline process was estimated to be greater than 10%, even when significantly larger electrolysis current densities than those required for the sulfate process are used. The principal technical advantages of the alkaline process are that it can handle low-grade, high-iron-content or oxidized ores (like most of those found in the US) in a more cost- and energy-efficient manner than can the sulfate process. Additionally, in the electrowinning operation, the alkaline process should be technically superior because a dendritic or sponge deposit is formed that is amenable to automated collection without interruption of the electrolysis. Also, use of the higher current densities would result in significant capital cost reductions. Alkaline-based electrolytic recovery processes were considered for the recycling of zinc from smelter baghouse dusts and from the potential source of nickel/zinc electric-vehicle batteries. In all comparisons, an alkaline process was shown to be technically superior and, particularly for the baghouse dusts, energetically and economically superior to alternatively proposed recovery methods based on sulfate electrolysis. It is concluded that the alkaline zinc method is an important alternative technology to the conventional acid zinc process. (WHK)

  15. Early Events Induced by the Elicitor Cryptogein in Tobacco Cells: Involvement of a Plasma Membrane NADPH Oxidase and Activation of Glycolysis and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Pugin, A.; Frachisse, J. M.; Tavernier, E.; Bligny, R.; Gout, E.; Douce, R.; Guern, J.

    1997-01-01

    Application of the elicitor cryptogein to tobacco (cv Xanthi) is known to evoke external medium alkalinization, active oxygen species production, and phytoalexin synthesis. These are all dependent on an influx of calcium. We show here that cryptogein also induces calcium-dependent plasma membrane depolarization, chloride efflux, cytoplasm acidification, and NADPH oxidation without changes in NAD+ and ATP levels, indicating that the elicitor-activated redox system, responsible for active oxygen species production, uses NADPH in vivo. NADPH oxidation activates the functioning of the pentose phosphate pathway, leading to a decrease in glucose 6-phosphate and to the accumulation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, 3- and 2-phosphoglyceric acid, and phosphoenolpyruvate. By inhibiting the pentose phosphate pathway, we demonstrate that the activation of the plasma membrane NADPH oxidase is responsible for active oxygen species production, external alkalinization, and acidification of the cytoplasm. A model is proposed for the organization of the cryptogein responses measured to date. PMID:12237354

  16. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study

    PubMed Central

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of “deceleration aging factor” as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models. PMID:27340414

  17. Performed surfactant-optimized aqueous alkaline flood

    SciTech Connect

    Thigpen, D.R.; Lawson, J.B.; Nelson, R.C.

    1991-11-26

    This paper describes improvement in a process for recovering oil from an acidic oil reservoir by injecting an aqueous alkaline solution comprising water, sodium chloride, and alkaline material for reacting with the reservoir oil forming a petroleum acid soap to form an in-situ surfactant system. The improvement comprises: selecting a preformed cosurfactant which is soluble in both the aqueous solution and the reservoir oil and has a solubility ratio which is grater than the solubility ratio of the petroleum acid soap where the solubility ratio is the ratio of solubility in the aqueous alkaline solution to the solubility in the reservoir oil; combining with the alkaline solution an amount of the preformed cosurfactant which will result in the in-situ surfacant system having a salinity about equal to a salinity which results in minimal interfacial tension between the oil in the reservoir and the in-situ surfactant system at reservoir temperature, wherein the amount of the preformed cosurfactant is about 0.3 percent by weight in the aqueous alkaline solution; and injecting the cosurfactant-aqueous alkaline solution mixture into the reservoir to displace oil toward a fluid production location.

  18. New data on the age of the installation of Urgonian-type carbonates along the northern Tethyan margin: biostratigraphy of the Chopf Member (Helvetic Alps, eastern Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Stéphane; Vermeulen, Jean; Godet, Alexis; Föllmi, Karl B.

    2006-08-01

    The Chopf Member is a glauconitic, phosphate-bearing succession that occurs in the distal part of the Helvetic Alps (eastern Switzerland). The recent discovery of age-diagnostic ammonites within this horizon allows for its attribution to the lower part of the Gerhardtia sartousiana zone (middle Late Barremian). This new age corresponds to a maximal age for the onset of the Schrattenkalk Fm. in this area, and is coeval with the onset of the Urgonian facies in other parts of the western Tethyan realm. This new age allows also for a more precise dating of Late Barremian δC curves. To cite this article: S. Bodin et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  19. Comparison of phosphate materials for immobilizing cadmium in soil.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang Oh; Chung, Doug Young; Lee, Do Kyoung; Kim, Pil Joo

    2010-02-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effects of phosphate (P) materials in reducing cadmium extractability. Seven P materials (commercial P fertilizers--fused phosphate (FP), 'fused and superphosphate' [FSP], and rock phosphate [RP]; P chemicals--Ca[H(2)PO(4)](2).H(2)O, [NH(4)](2)HPO(4), KH(2)PO(4), and K(2)HPO(4)) were selected for the test. The selected P source was mixed with Cd-contaminated soil at the rate of 0, 200, 400, 800, and 1,600 mg P kg(-1) under controlled moisture conditions at 70% of water holding capacity, then incubated for 8 weeks. FP, Ca(H(2)PO(4))(2) H(2)O, KH(2)PO(4), and K(2)HPO(4) significantly decreased NH(4)OAc-extractable Cd (plant-available form) concentrations with increasing application rates. Compared to other phosphate materials used, K(2)HPO(4) was found to be the most effective in reducing the plant-available Cd concentration in soil, mainly due to the negative charge increase caused by soil pH and phosphate adsorption. Contrary to the general information, FSP and (NH(4))(2)HPO(4) increased Cd extractability at low levels of P application (<400 mg kg(-1)), and thereafter Cd extractability decreased significantly with increasing application rate. RP scarcely had an effect on reducing Cd extractability. Ion activity products of CdHPO(4), Cd(OH)(2), and CdCO(3) analyzed by the MINTEQ program were significantly increased by K(2)HPO(4) addition, but the effect of Cd-P compound formation on reducing Cd extractability was negligible. Conclusively, the P-induced alleviation of Cd extractability can be attributed primarily to Cd immobilization due to the increase in soil pH and negative charge rather than Cd-P precipitation, and therefore, alkaline P materials such as K(2)HPO(4) are effective for immobilizing soil Cd. PMID:19633979

  20. Phosphonomethyl analogues of hexose phosphates.

    PubMed

    Webster, D; Jondorf, W R; Dixon, H B

    1976-05-01

    The analogue of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in which the phosphate group, -O-PO3H2, on C-6 is replaced by the phosphonomethyl group, -CH2-PO3H2, was made enzymically from the corresponding analogue of 3-phosphoglycerate. It was a substrate for aldolase, which was used to form it, but not for fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase. It was hydrolysed chemically to yield the corresponding analogue of fructose 6-phosphate [i.e. 6-deoxy-6-(phosphonomethyl)-D-fructose, or, more strictly, 6,7-dideoxy-7-phosphono-D-arabino-2-heptulose]. This proved to be a substrate for the sequential actions of glucose 6-phosphate isomerase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Thus seven out of the nine enzymes of the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways so far tested catalyse the reactions of the phosphonomethyl isosteres of their substrates. PMID:7247

  1. Site-directed mutagenesis maps interactions that enhance cognate and limit promiscuous catalysis by an alkaline phosphatase superfamily phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Wiersma-Koch, Helen; Sunden, Fanny; Herschlag, Daniel

    2013-12-23

    Catalytic promiscuity, an evolutionary concept, also provides a powerful tool for gaining mechanistic insights into enzymatic reactions. Members of the alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily are highly amenable to such investigation, with several members having been shown to exhibit promiscuous activity for the cognate reactions of other superfamily members. Previous work has shown that nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) exhibits a >10⁶-fold preference for the hydrolysis of phosphate diesters over phosphate monoesters, and that the reaction specificity is reduced 10³-fold when the size of the substituent on the transferred phosphoryl group of phosphate diester substrates is reduced to a methyl group. Here we show additional specificity contributions from the binding pocket for this substituent (herein termed the R' substituent) that account for an additional ~250-fold differential specificity with the minimal methyl substituent. Removal of four hydrophobic side chains suggested on the basis of structural inspection to interact favorably with R' substituents decreases phosphate diester reactivity 10⁴-fold with an optimal diester substrate (R' = 5'-deoxythymidine) and 50-fold with a minimal diester substrate (R' = CH₃). These mutations also enhance the enzyme's promiscuous phosphate monoesterase activity by nearly an order of magnitude, an effect that is traced by mutation to the reduction of unfavorable interactions with the two residues closest to the nonbridging phosphoryl oxygen atoms. The quadruple R' pocket mutant exhibits the same activity toward phosphate diester and phosphate monoester substrates that have identical leaving groups, with substantial rate enhancements of ~10¹¹-fold. This observation suggests that the Zn²⁺ bimetallo core of AP superfamily enzymes, which is equipotent in phosphate monoester and diester catalysis, has the potential to become specialized for the hydrolysis of each class of phosphate esters via addition

  2. AlpArray Austria - Illuminating the subsurface of Austria and understanding of Alpine geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Bokelmann, Götz; Bianchi, Irene; Apoloner, Maria-Theresia; AlpArray Working Group

    2015-04-01

    AlpArray Austria is a research project to study the geodynamics of the Eastern Alps and the subsurface of Austria with a large-scale mobile broadband seismological network. AlpArray Austria is part of the AlpArray project - a unique European transnational research initiative in which 64 research institutes from 17 countries join their expertise to advance our knowledge about the structure and evolution of the lithosphere beneath the entire Alpine area. AlpArray Austria is coordinated by the Department of Meteorology and Geophysics (IMGW) at the University of Vienna and funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF). During spring 2015 the deployment of 42 mobile broadband seismometers (and two permanent stations) will commence and by autumn 2015 Austria will be completely covered by a dense seismological network with an average station spacing of about 40 kilometers. The mobile network consisting of 27 Reftek 151 60s sensors (provided by IMGW) and 15 Trillium 120s instruments (provided by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, DIAS, Ireland) will complement the permanent Austrian seismic network operated by the Austrian Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) that will also install the two permanent stations. AlpArray Austria will be continuously recording high-quality ground motion data for three years. Seismic data will be distributed through the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA) and shared with the collaborating AlpArray institutes. AlpArray Austria will shed light on the detailed geological structure and geodynamical evolution of the Eastern Alps and the subsurface of Austria. Utilizing seismic analysis methods such as shear wave splitting, receiver functions and body wave dispersion the AlpArray Austria working group at IMGW will, together with the international partners, focus on seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle, the location of interfaces and tomography, to answer outstanding questions on slab geometry and subduction polarity under

  3. Sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Karen; Evans, Todd; Hla, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator formed by the metabolism of sphingomyelin. In vertebrates, S1P is secreted into the extracellular environment and signals via G protein-coupled S1P receptors to regulate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, and thereby influence cell migration, differentiation and survival. The expression and localization of S1P receptors is dynamically regulated and controls vascular development, vessel stability and immune cell trafficking. In addition, crucial events during embryogenesis, such as angiogenesis, cardiogenesis, limb development and neurogenesis, are regulated by S1P signalling. Here, and in the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of S1P signalling in development and in disease. PMID:24346695

  4. Templated, layered manganese phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-08-17

    A new crystalline maganese phosphate composition having an empirical formula: O). The compound was determined to crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3c1 with a=8.8706(4) .ANG., c=26.1580(2) .ANG., and V (volume)=1783 .ANG..sup.3. The structure consists of sheets of corner sharing Mn(II)O.sub.4 and PO.sub.4 tetrahedra with layers of (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N and water molecules in-between. The pronated (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N molecules provide charge balancing for the inorganic sheets. A network of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the inorganic sheets holds the structure together.

  5. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  6. Late Oligocene to early Miocene lateral extrusion at the eastern border of the Lepontine dome of the central Alps (Bergell and Insubric areas, eastern central Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancaleoni, Laurent; Marquer, Didier

    2008-07-01

    How the internal domain of the central Alps deformed during late stages of the continental collision remains poorly understood. To fill this gap in knowledge, we present new data constraining the late Alpine brittle and brittle-ductile tectonics in Oligocene intrusions of the Bergell Alps (eastern central Alps). Syncollisional late normal faulting is widespread at all investigated scales, but part of the deformation observed is also associated with oblique-slip and transcurrent displacements. The faults are explained by stress permutations in space and time implying the three principal stress axes and correspond to different homoaxial states of stress of one single transtensive tectonic event. Motion on these faults accommodated coeval orogen-parallel extension and orogen-perpendicular contraction, during oblique indentation by the Southern alpine crust. Extensional and transcurrent structures likely formed by lateral extrusion of the Bergell Alps via distributed eastward extrusion of imbricated wedge-shaped crustal blocks, during the late Oligocene and lower Miocene. A first-order wedge-shaped crustal block in the Bergell Alps is represented by three coeval segments of the Periadriatic Fault System (namely the Tonale, Engadine, and Forcola faults). The eastern central segment of the Alpine belt appears to have deformed during the late Oligocene and lower Miocene in a similar way to its extremities where lateral escape tectonics occurred at least until the upper Miocene, according to free boundary availabilities.

  7. Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in San Francisco and Monterey Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient utilized by all living organisms, and has been recognized as a limiting nutrient in some oceanic systems (Cotner et al., 1997; Karl et al., 1995; Michaels et al., 1996; Wu et al., 2000). However, relatively little is known about the extent of P limitation in natural environments, how P limitation varies spatially and temporally, and what determines how and when P becomes limiting (Benitez-Nelson, 2000). A more direct estimate of the degree of P limitation in a variety of oceanic systems is needed to better understand P cycling and dynamics within the ocean and how these have and will change in response to global climate and environmental perturbation. Accordingly, the objective this study is to assess the P-status of marine planktonic communities in Monterey and San Francisco Bays using the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the water column. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is the most widely used enzyme that marine organisms use to hydrolize organic P compounds to biologically available orthophosphate. Accordingly it is expected that in areas where P is a limiting nutrient organisms will produce and release more AP to seawater so they can utilize the dissolved and particulate organic P compounds. Indeed it has been suggested that the AP activity is a reliable indicator of P-availability to planktonic communities (Ammerman and Azam, 1985; Cotner and Wetzel, 1991; Hong et al., 1998). High enzyme activities indicate low dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) availability while low levels suggest that DIP supply satisfies the community P-demand. This study examines AP activity in San Francisco and Monterey Bays over a 12 month period, from November, 2001 through November, 2002 using two enzyme assays. The study encompasses data from a three-station transect in Monterey Bay, at depths ranging from 0-60 meters. The stations range from coastal waters to open ocean depths of several thousand meters. In San Francisco Bay, surface water from

  8. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  9. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  10. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  11. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  12. Dephosphorylation of endotoxin by alkaline phosphatase in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Poelstra, K.; Bakker, W. W.; Klok, P. A.; Kamps, J. A.; Hardonk, M. J.; Meijer, D. K.

    1997-01-01

    Natural substrates for alkaline phosphatase (AP) are at present not identified despite extensive investigations. Difficulties in imagining a possible physiological function involve its extremely high pH optimum for the usual exogenous substrates and its localization as an ecto-enzyme. As endotoxin is a substance that contains phosphate groups and is usually present in the extracellular space, we studied whether AP is able to dephosphorylate this bacterial product at physiological pH levels. We tested this in intestinal cryostat sections using histochemical methods with endotoxin from Escherichia coli and Salmonella minnesota R595 as substrate. Results show that dephosphorylation of both preparations occurs at pH 7.5 by AP activity. As phosphate residues in the lipid A moiety determine the toxicity of the molecule, we examined the effect of the AP inhibitor levamisole in vivo using a septicemia model in the rat. The results show that inhibition of endogenous AP by levamisole significantly reduces survival of rats intraperitoneally injected with E. coli bacteria, whereas this drug does not influence survival of rats receiving a sublethal dose of the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. In view of the endotoxin-dephosphorylating properties of AP demonstrated in vitro, we propose a crucial role for this enzyme in host defense. The effects of levamisole during gram-negative bacterial infections and the localization of AP as an ecto-enzyme in most organs as well as the induction of enzyme activity during inflammatory reactions and cholestasis is in accordance with such a protective role. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:9327750

  13. Downscaling Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in a Subtropical Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Y.

    2011-12-01

    This research was conducted by downscaling study to understand phosphorus (P)-deficient status of different plankton and the role of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in subtropical Feitsui Reservoir. Results from field survey showed that bulk APA (1.6~95.2 nM h-1) was widely observed in the epilimnion (0~20 m) with an apparent seasonal variations, suggesting that plankton in the system were subjected to P-deficient seasonally. Mixed layer depth (an index of phosphate availability) is the major factor influencing the variation of bulk APA and specific APA (124~1,253 nmol mg C-1 h-1), based on multiple linear regression analysis. Size-fractionated APA assays showed that picoplankton (size 0.2~3 um) contributed most of the bulk APA in the system. In addition, single-cell APA detected by enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF) assay indicated that heterotrophic bacteria are the major contributors of APA. Thus, we can infer that bacteria play an important role in accelerating P-cycle within P-deficient systems. Light/nutrient manipulation bioassays showed that bacterial growth was directly controlled by phosphate, while picocyanobacterial growth is controlled by light and can out-compete bacteria under P-limited condition with the aid of light. Further analysis revealed that the strength of summer typhoon is a factor responsible for the inter-annual variability of bulk and specific APA. APA study demonstrated the episodic events (e.g. strong typhoon and extreme precipitation) had significant influence on APA variability in sub-tropical to tropical aquatic ecosystems. Hence, the results herein will allow future studies on monitoring typhoon disturbance (intensity and frequency) as well as the APA of plankton during summer-to-autumn in subtropical systems.

  14. Immobilization of lead by phosphate amended Polonite.

    PubMed

    Butkus, Michael A; Riegner, Dawn E; Olind, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Polonite is an alkaline material that is used to remove nutrients from domestic wastewater and it has been evaluated as a fertilizer. Stabilization of Pb by Polonite and Polonite amended with orthophosphate, PO4, (Polonite-P) was studied. Octacalcium phosphate (Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O) was a primary species of PO4 formed on the surface of Polonite-P. Lead was found to be associated with pozzolanic reaction products in Pb treated Polonite and Pb treated Polonite-P samples. Formation of Pb oxides, as precipitates or surface complexes, were substantial constituents of Pb treated Polonite. Dissolution of Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O followed by formation of Pb4O(PO4)2 was a probable mechanism of Pb removal by Polonite-P. Polonite-P could be a suitable replacement for current PO4 sources as a Pb stabilization agent. Finally, LDI-TOF was an effective technique for evaluating forms of Pb on Polonite and Polonite-P. PMID:26950021

  15. Mineral dust radiative effect on snow in European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Ferrero, Luca; Garzonio, Roberto; Baccolo, Giovanni; Delmonte, Barbara; Colombo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Mineral Dust (MD) is known to increase the absorption of solar radiation when deposited on snow and ice. This process causes a decrease in the albedo and may enhance snow melting, resulting in a positive radiative forcing (RF) in climate system. The RF from MD on snow can assume high values (~100-200 W/m2) after depositional events altering snow and ice radiative balance and hydrological cycle. In this study, we analyzed a significant MD transport happened during spring in 2014 and in particular its impact on snow optical properties. The dust plume was entrained in the troposphere over the Saharan desert (North African Grand Erg Oriental) during the passage of a cold front, and then transported NE over the Mediterranean by cyclonic atmospheric conditions. MD reached the European Alps where it was deposited by snowfall. We conducted a field proximal sensing survey in 10 plots (2x2 meters) at the Artavaggio plains (Lecco, Italy) with a hyperspectral radiometer (ASD Field-spec pro) collecting reflected radiance of snow in a spectral range between 350 and 2500 nm. Surface snow samples were collected and analyzed in clean room with microparticle counter in order to determine the size distribution and the concentration of MD in each sample. In addition, total mass of insoluble material was also measured by filtering the melted snow. Observed spectra were compared to those simulated by parameterizing the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) radiative transfer model with observed variables such as snow grain size, snow density and size distribution of MD. We defined a novel spectral index, the Snow Darkening Index (SDI) to combine red and green wavelengths showing nonlinear correlation with measured MD concentration. Instantaneous radiative forcing was then estimated as the spectral difference between upwelling irradiance of plot containing MD and pure snow plots. MD concentration was up to 107 ppm and total mass of insoluble material up to 325 ppm. Measured RF values

  16. Adriatic indentation of the Eastern Alps - nature vs. analogue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, S.; Scharf, A.; Schuster, R.; Handy, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Alps underwent late Oligocene-Miocene indentation by the Adriatic microplate, followed by rapid Miocene exhumation in the Tauern Window and orogen-parallel escape. Analogue models of indentation in the Eastern Alps indicate that exhumation of orogenic crust in front of the Adriatic indenter was coeval, with faults and post-nappe folds forming an asymmetrical conjugate pattern in front of the indenting block (Ratschbacher et al 1991, Rosenberg et al 2007). The amount and rate of exhumation is greatest at this location, but decrease laterally towards an unconfined boundary of the models that represents the retreating Carpathian subduction orogen. In nature, however, isotopic age patterns of deeply buried and exhumed basements rocks in the Tauern Window of the Eastern Alps indicate that cooling and possibly also exhumation were diachronous along strike of the orogen. In the westernmost Tauern Window, previous thermal modeling of fission-track ages (Fügenschuh et al 1997) revealed that rapid exhumation (≥ 1mm/a) lasted from 20-13 Ma and appears to have been triggered by sinistral transpression along the Guidicarie Belt beginning in Late Oligocene time. Rapid cooling (≥25°C/Ma) from 550 to 270°C lasted from 18-12 Ma (von Blanckenburg et al 1989; Fügenschuh et al 1997). In the easternmost part, however, rapid cooling from a similar peak temperature lasted from 23-20 Ma and ended no later than 17 Ma. Thus, rapid exhumation cannot have begun later than 23-21 Ma. Cooling patterns in the eastern central part of the Tauern Window are more complex and reflect the combined effects of doming and extensional exhumation. New Rb-Sr mica ages in post-nappe basement domes generally decrease from NW (muscovite: 26 Ma; biotite: 22 Ma) to SE (muscovite: 22 Ma; biotite: 18 Ma). We interpret these trends to show that doming began in the south-central part of the Tauern Window and then migrated to the SE while the entire basement nappe pile underwent orogen

  17. A Toxin-Binding Alkaline Phosphatase Fragment Synergizes Bt Toxin Cry1Ac against Susceptible and Resistant Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects. PMID:25885820

  18. Two-Dimensional Magnesium Phosphate Nanosheets Form Highly Thixotropic Gels That Up-Regulate Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Laurenti, Marco; Al Subaie, Ahmed; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Cortes, Arthur R G; Ackerman, Jerome L; Vali, Hojatollah; Basu, Kaustuv; Zhang, Yu Ling; Murshed, Monzur; Strandman, Satu; Zhu, Julian; Makhoul, Nicholas; Barralet, Jake E; Tamimi, Faleh

    2016-08-10

    Hydrogels composed of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have become an important alternative to replace traditional inorganic scaffolds for tissue engineering. Here, we describe a novel nanocrystalline material with 2D morphology that was synthesized by tuning the crystallization of the sodium-magnesium-phosphate system. We discovered that the sodium ion can regulate the precipitation of magnesium phosphate by interacting with the crystal's surface causing a preferential crystal growth that results in 2D morphology. The 2D nanomaterial gave rise to a physical hydrogel that presented extreme thixotropy, injectability, biocompatibility, bioresorption, and long-term stability. The nanocrystalline material was characterized in vitro and in vivo and we discovered that it presented unique biological properties. Magnesium phosphate nanosheets accelerated bone healing and osseointegration by enhancing collagen formation, osteoblasts differentiation, and osteoclasts proliferation through up-regulation of COL1A1, RunX2, ALP, OCN, and OPN. In summary, the 2D magnesium phosphate nanosheets could bring a paradigm shift in the field of minimally invasive orthopedic and craniofacial interventions because it is the only material available that can be injected through high gauge needles into bone defects in order to accelerate bone healing and osseointegration. PMID:27280476

  19. Phosphonate-Derived Nanoporous Metal Phosphates and Their Superior Energy Storage Application.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Malay; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Imura, Masataka; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-04-20

    Nanoporous nickel, aluminum, and zirconium phosphates (hereafter, abbreviated as NiP, AlP, and ZrP, respectively) with high surface areas and controlled morphology and crystallinity have been synthesized through simple calcination of the corresponding phosphonates. For the preparation of phosphonate materials, nitrilotris(methylene)triphosphonic acid (NMPA) is used as phosphorus source. The organic component in the phosphonate materials is thermally removed to form nanoporous structures in the final phosphate materials. The formation mechanism of nanoporous structures, as well as the effect of applied calcination temperatures on the morphology and crystallinity of the final phosphate materials, is carefully discussed. Especially, nanoporous NiP materials have a spherical morphology with a high surface area and can have great applicability as an electrode material for supercapacitors. It has been found that there is a critical effect of particle sizes, surface areas, and the crystallinities of NiP materials toward electrochemical behavior. Our nanoporous NiP material has superior specific capacitance, as compared to various phosphate nanomaterials reported previously. Excellent retention capacity of 97% is realized even after 1000 cycles, which can be ascribed to its high structural stability. PMID:27028363

  20. Dendroclimatic trend and glacial fluctuations in the Central Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelfini, M.; Santilli, M.; D Agata, C.; Diolaiuti, G.; Smiraglia, C.

    2003-04-01

    In the Alpine environment, one of the main limiting factors for tree growth is the thermal conditions of the vegetative season. The conifers at high altitude, if not subject to others disturbs, such as geomorphological processes or biological interferences, undergo a development, from which the width of annual rings depends. Five chronologies few centuries long, obtained for the species Larix decidua Mill. and Pinus cembra L. from different valleys of the Central Italian Alps (Alpisella, Valfurva, Gavia and Solda) in proximity of timberline (2000-2550 m of altitude), were analysed and their climatic signal gained; this last one was then related to the recent glacial fluctuations. The chronologies are the averages of many dendrochronological indicized curves obtained from dominant trees with regular growth and extended from 13th-17th century up to the present. The time intervals of the chronologies are the following ones: Pinus cembra: 1752-1999 for Valfurva; 1607-1999 for Gavia; 1593-1999 for Val Solda. With regard to Larix decidua: 1252-1998 for Val Solda; 1784-2001 for Alpisella. The good correspondence between the various chronologies allows to consider them representative of the climatic regional signal. In order to evidence climatic evolution, linear trends based on running mean with period of 11 years have been constructed. Those curves have been compared between them and then overlapped and mediated in order to obtain a climatic signal of regional value that excludes eventual local anomalies. Finally, the growth variations in the chronologies have been compared to known alpine climatic variations and glacial fluctuations. In particular time-distance curves (curves of cumulated frontal variations) of some glaciers from the Ortles-Cevedale Group were utilized. The periods of tree rings growth rate reduction appear well correlated to glacial advancing phases of the Little Ice Age and of the following phases. In particular, growth rate reductions are observable

  1. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  2. Prograde and retrograde thermal histories from the central Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Derek; Keith O'Nions, R.

    1992-12-01

    The "Lepontine" phase of metamorphism in the central Alps is a result of thermal relaxation following continental collision and overthrusting. The timing of the peak remains poorly known, largely because the existing chronological data relate to cooling or to phases for which the pressure and temperature of growth is only poorly constrained. Here we report U sbnd Pb, Sm sbnd Nd and Rb sbnd Sr analyses of garnets from the central Swiss Alps, as well as major element data on garnets and other phases. The data shows that the climax of the metamorphism was diachronous across grade, from 30 Ma in the lower grade northwest to 27 Ma in the higher grade in the southeast. Consideration of these data in conjunction with existing chronological constraints suggests a period of about 10 Ma between the attainment of the metamorphic climax in greenschist facies and the upper amphibolite facies rocks. The time constraints obtained here yield a garnet growth interval of 2.9 ± 1.5 Ma, corresponding to a growth rate of 0.2 cm Ma -1, a heating rate of 12°C Ma -1 and a burial rate of 2.9 km Ma -1. The strain rate obtained from measurement of the rotation of the garnet relative to the matrix fabric during growth is ˜ 1.9 × 10 -14s -1. This strain rate, as well as the heating and burial rates, are in the range of values derived in a similar fashion from other Barrovian metamorphic terrains. Consideration of these data in conjunction with published cooling ages leads to cooling rates of about 20°C Ma -1 for the Steinental samples but much higher rates for the Bellinzona area (> 100°C Ma -1). In both cases it is necessary to invoke tectonic exhumation rather than isostatic recovery and erosion to explain the observed temperature-time trends. In the case of the Bellinzona area, the most likely cause of the very rapid cooling rates is late backthrusting over the Insubric Line.

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of wildfires in the Northern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heel, Michael; Sass, Oliver; Friedmann, Arne; Wetzel, Karl-Friedrich

    2010-05-01

    Wildfires in the northern Alps are rare compared to e.g. the Mediterranean region. However, fires occurring on the dry, south-exposed slopes of the inner-alpine valleys can constitute a significant disturbance of the ecosystems in the sub-alpine belt. We reconstructed the younger regional wildfire history (last few centuries) of a part of the the Northern Limestone Alps using chronicles, forestry and fire brigade records as well as historical pictures (postcards, aerial photos etc.), local names and interviews with local people. The long-term fire frequency was investigated using mire drillings, charcoal in soils and dendrochronology. In the surrounding of the Karwendel, Wetterstein and Mieminger Mountains we have identified c. 400 forest fires to date. The earliest detected fire dates to more than 2900 years; the largest one (in 1705) affected an area of several thousand hectares. Approximately 90% of the fires are man-made (negligence, arson, railway) which explains the concentration on the south-exposed slopes of the densely populated Inn valley. Most of the larger fires take place in the altitudinal belt between 1400 and 1900 m a.s.l.; apart from very few exceptions, they are restricted to southerly orientations. Locally, mean recurrence intervals of 200-300 years occur which is similar to e.g. boreal forests in Canada. We observed a strong seasonality with 40% of the fires occurring in spring and 30% in summer. There is a weak correlation with the weather conditions in the one or two weeks before the fire with dry periods promoting wildfire ignition and burnt area size; however, there are many exceptions from the rule. The 1940ies stands out for more than twice as much fires than in all other decades which is both due to climatic and anthropogenic causes. Today, there is an apparent trend towards more frequent and smaller fires. The frequency is biased by the multitude of available documentation today (e.g. websites of fire brigades), while the decreasing size

  4. Preparation and characterization of a degradable magnesium phosphate bone cement.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Xu, Chao; Dai, Honglian

    2016-12-01

    A kind of degradable magnesium phosphate bone cement (MPBC) was fabricated by using the mixed powders of magnesium oxide (MgO), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and calcium dihydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O). As MgKPO4, the main product of MgO and KH2PO4 was alkaline, the Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O was added to neutralize the alkali of the system. And the effects of Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O on the performance of MPBC were discussed. The results showed that the adding of Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O extended the setting time, which was about 6 min to 18 min. The compressive strength increased first and then decreased, and maximum value reached 31.2 MPa after setting for 24 h without any additional pressure. The MPBC was degradable in Tris-HCl solution, and the extracts of the cytotoxicity assay showed that the MPBC had good biocompatibility, indicating that the MPBC had good biodegradable and biocompatible properties. PMID:27482465

  5. Characterization of iron-phosphate-silicate chemical garden structures.

    PubMed

    Barge, Laura M; Doloboff, Ivria J; White, Lauren M; Stucky, Galen D; Russell, Michael J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-02-28

    Chemical gardens form when ferrous chloride hydrate seed crystals are added or concentrated solutions are injected into solutions of sodium silicate and potassium phosphate. Various precipitation morphologies are observed depending on silicate and phosphate concentrations, including hollow plumes, bulbs, and tubes. The growth of precipitates is controlled by the internal osmotic pressure, fluid buoyancy, and membrane strength. Additionally, rapid bubble-led growth is observed when silicate concentrations are high. ESEM/EDX analysis confirms compositional gradients within the membranes, and voltage measurements across the membranes during growth show a final potential of around 150-200 mV, indicating that electrochemical gradients are maintained across the membranes as growth proceeds. The characterization of chemical gardens formed with iron, silicate, and phosphate, three important components of an early earth prebiotic hydrothermal system, can help us understand the properties of analogous structures that likely formed at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents in the Hadean-structures offering themselves as the hatchery of life. PMID:22035594

  6. Preparation and characterization of a degradable magnesium phosphate bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Xu, Chao; Dai, Honglian

    2016-01-01

    A kind of degradable magnesium phosphate bone cement (MPBC) was fabricated by using the mixed powders of magnesium oxide (MgO), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4) and calcium dihydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O). As MgKPO4, the main product of MgO and KH2PO4 was alkaline, the Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O was added to neutralize the alkali of the system. And the effects of Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O on the performance of MPBC were discussed. The results showed that the adding of Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O extended the setting time, which was about 6 min to 18 min. The compressive strength increased first and then decreased, and maximum value reached 31.2 MPa after setting for 24 h without any additional pressure. The MPBC was degradable in Tris–HCl solution, and the extracts of the cytotoxicity assay showed that the MPBC had good biocompatibility, indicating that the MPBC had good biodegradable and biocompatible properties. PMID:27482465

  7. ALP conversion and the soft X-ray excess in the outskirts of the Coma cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Kraljic, David; Rummel, Markus; Conlon, Joseph P. E-mail: Markus.Rummel@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2015-01-01

    It was recently found that the soft X-ray excess in the center of the Coma cluster can be fitted by conversion of axion-like-particles (ALPs) of a cosmic axion background (CAB) to photons. We extend this analysis to the outskirts of Coma, including regions up to 5 Mpc from the center of the cluster. We extract the excess soft X-ray flux from ROSAT All-Sky Survey data and compare it to the expected flux from ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. The soft X-ray excess both in the center and the outskirts of Coma can be simultaneously fitted by ALP to photon conversion of a CAB. Given the uncertainties of the cluster magnetic field in the outskirts we constrain the parameter space of the CAB. In particular, an upper limit on the CAB mean energy and a range of allowed ALP-photon couplings are derived.

  8. Kinematics of the Alpenrhein-Bodensee graben system in the Central Alps: Oligocene/Miocene transtension due to formation of the Western Alps arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Uwe; Gerdes, Axel

    2016-06-01

    We report fault slip data from exhumed fault surfaces along the NNE trending Alpenrhein valley and its intersection with the WNW striking Bodensee Graben near the Alpine thrust front of the Central Alps in the Swiss-Austrian-German border region. This conjugated graben system straddles the boundary between the Alps and its foreland and allows comparing the kinematics of graben formation between the two different tectonic domains. Our data show sinistral transtension along the Alpenrhein Graben and dextral transtension along the Bodensee Graben. Both transtensional graben systems resulted from the same kinematic regime of NW directed shortening and NE oriented extension. The graben faults are not older than NW striking tear faults associated with NW directed Oligocene nappe emplacement in the Helvetics starting at 35-30 Ma and ending by 25-20 Ma. Compatible with this are six U-Pb ages of calcite fibers from four samples yielding consistent ages ranging from 25.3 ± 5.6 Ma to 21.8 ± 3.4 Ma (2σ errors). Earthquake data since 1996 show that kinematic directions persisted until the Recent. Our data broadly fit with the kinematic evolution of the Oberrhein Graben, which shows significant E-W extension in the Oligocene. We suggest that Oligocene extension in the Alps and its foreland resulted from the increased curvature of the Western Alps arc and associated moderate tangential stretching in the internal parts of the Central Alps. We discuss a tectonic model of eastward rollback of the west Mediterranean subduction zone associated with counterclockwise rotation of Adria, the latter of which aided the formation of the Western Alps arc.

  9. Clinoenstatite in alpe arami peridotite: additional evidence of very high pressure

    PubMed

    Bozhilov; Green; Dobrzhinetskaya

    1999-04-01

    Observations by transmission electron microscopy show that lamellae of clinoenstatite are present in diopside grains of the Alpe Arami garnet lherzolite of the Swiss Alps. The simplest interpretation of the orientation, crystallography, and microstructures of the lamellae and the phase relationships in this system is that the lamellae originally exsolved as the high-pressure C-centered form of clinoenstatite. These results imply that the rocks were exhumed from a minimum depth of 250 kilometers before or during continental collision. PMID:10102809

  10. The effect of synthetic α-tricalcium phosphate on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinzhong; Zhao, Liang; Ni, Ling; Qiao, Chunyan; Li, Daowei; Sun, Hongchen; Zhang, Zongtao

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of large bone defects has been the focus in bone tissue engineering research. By acting as synthetic frameworks for cell growth and tissue formation, biomaterials can play a critical role in bone tissue engineering. Among various biomaterials, calcium phosphate based materials include hydroxyapatite (HA), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used as scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering. However, little is known about the effect of α-TCP alone on the osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs. To this end, we synthesized α-TCP using a novel co-precipitation method. The synthetic α-TCP was then incubated with rat BMSCs under osteogenic inductive medium culture conditions, followed by the analysis of the mRNA levels of various osteogenesis-related genes, including ALP, Rux2, COL-I, and SP7, using a quantitative RT-PCR method. Following incubation of BMSCs with 20 μg/ml α-TCP, cells reached confluency after 7 days. Additionally, the MTT analysis showed that α-TCP at concentration of 10-20 μg/ml had good biocompatibility with BMSCs, showing no significant inhibition of rat BMSCs proliferation. Furthermore, the synthetic α-TCP (20 μg/ml), when incubated with rat BMSCs in the osteogenic culture medium, increased the mRNA levels of various osteogenesis-related genes, including ALP, Rux2, COL-I, and SP7. Finally, treatment of synthetic α-TCP (20 μg/ml) potentiated calcium nodule formations after incubation with rat BMSCs in osteogenic culture medium for 21 days, as compared with non-treated control. Taken together, the results in the present study suggested that α-TCP alone likely promotes rat BMSCs osteogenic differentiation through up-regulating ALP, Col-I, Runx2, and SP7 gene expression. PMID:26550458

  11. The effect of synthetic α-tricalcium phosphate on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinzhong; Zhao, Liang; Ni, Ling; Qiao, Chunyan; Li, Daowei; Sun, Hongchen; Zhang, Zongtao

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of large bone defects has been the focus in bone tissue engineering research. By acting as synthetic frameworks for cell growth and tissue formation, biomaterials can play a critical role in bone tissue engineering. Among various biomaterials, calcium phosphate based materials include hydroxyapatite (HA), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) are widely used as scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering. However, little is known about the effect of α-TCP alone on the osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs. To this end, we synthesized α-TCP using a novel co-precipitation method. The synthetic α-TCP was then incubated with rat BMSCs under osteogenic inductive medium culture conditions, followed by the analysis of the mRNA levels of various osteogenesis-related genes, including ALP, Rux2, COL-I, and SP7, using a quantitative RT-PCR method. Following incubation of BMSCs with 20 μg/ml α-TCP, cells reached confluency after 7 days. Additionally, the MTT analysis showed that α-TCP at concentration of 10-20 μg/ml had good biocompatibility with BMSCs, showing no significant inhibition of rat BMSCs proliferation. Furthermore, the synthetic α-TCP (20 μg/ml), when incubated with rat BMSCs in the osteogenic culture medium, increased the mRNA levels of various osteogenesis-related genes, including ALP, Rux2, COL-I, and SP7. Finally, treatment of synthetic α-TCP (20 μg/ml) potentiated calcium nodule formations after incubation with rat BMSCs in osteogenic culture medium for 21 days, as compared with non-treated control. Taken together, the results in the present study suggested that α-TCP alone likely promotes rat BMSCs osteogenic differentiation through up-regulating ALP, Col-I, Runx2, and SP7 gene expression. PMID:26550458

  12. Long-term craniofacial osteoblast culture on a sodium phosphate and a calcium/sodium phosphate glass.

    PubMed

    Gough, J E; Christian, P; Scotchford, C A; Jones, I A

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of human craniofacial osteoblasts cultured on sodium phosphate glass and calcium-sodium phosphate glass in a long-term culture of up to 28 days. The characteristics studied were attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen-1 production, and mineralization. A comparison of the degradation rate, measured by mass loss of the glasses, which are intended for use as a component of a novel degradable composite for craniofacial bone repair, was also performed. It was our hypothesis that the glass would be degradable with a change in degradation rate observed by calcium addition and support osteoblast proliferation and expression of the above characteristics. The inclusion of calcium into the reaction mixture significantly decreased the degradation rate, and it is suggested that the slower degradation is the result of pseudo crosslinking (ionic crosslinks rather than covalent bonding) of the polyphosphate chains by the calcium ions. Therefore, twice as many P-O bonds will need to be hydrolyzed for dissolution of the metal phosphate to occur, therefore greatly reducing the rate of hydrolysis. Osteoblasts were able to attach, spread, and proliferate in a manner comparable with the positive control, as shown by analysis of variance. Formation of a collagen-rich mineralized matrix was also observed. The results presented here suggest that a biocompatible soluble glass has been produced, which has potential to be included in a novel biodegradable craniofacial implant. PMID:12888992

  13. Si3AlP: a new promising material for solar cell absorber.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Hui; Zhai, Yingteng; Liu, Hengrui; Xiang, Hongjun; Gong, Xingao; Wei, Su-Huai

    2012-08-01

    First-principles calculations were performed to study the structural and optoelectronic properties of the newly synthesized nonisovalent and lattice-matched (Si(2))(0.6)(AlP)(0.4) alloy (Watkins, T.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2011, 133, 16212). We found that the most stable structure of Si(3)AlP is a superlattice along the [111] direction with separated AlP and Si layers, which has a similar optical absorption spectrum to silicon. The ordered C1c1-Si(3)AlP is found to be the most stable one among all structures with a basic unit of one P atom surrounded by three Si atoms and one Al atom, in agreement with experimental suggestions. We predict that C1c1-Si(3)AlP has good optical properties, i.e., it has a larger fundamental band gap and a smaller direct band gap than Si; thus, it has much higher absorption in the visible light region. The calculated properties of Si(3)AlP suggest that it is a promising candidate for improving the performance of the existing Si-based solar cells. The understanding on the stability and band structure engineering obtained in this study is general and can be applied for future study of other nonisovalent and lattice-matched semiconductor alloys. PMID:22769022

  14. Negative elevation-dependent warming trend in the Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudoroiu, M.; Eccel, E.; Gioli, B.; Gianelle, D.; Schume, H.; Genesio, L.; Miglietta, F.

    2016-04-01

    Mountain regions and the important ecosystem services they provide are considered to be very vulnerable to the current warming, and recent studies suggest that high-mountain environments experience more rapid changes in temperature than environments at lower elevations. Here we analysed weather records for the period 1975–2010 from the Eastern Italian Alps that show that warming occurred both at high and low elevations, but it was less pronounced at high elevations. This negative elevation–dependent trend was consistent for mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. Global radiation data measured at different elevations, surface energy fluxes measured above an alpine grassland and above a coniferous forest located at comparable elevations for nine consecutive years as well as remote sensing data (MODIS) for cloud cover and aerosol optical depth were analysed to interpret this observation. Increasing global radiation at low elevations turned out to be a potential driver of this negative elevation–dependent warming, but also contributions from land use and land cover changes at high elevations (abandonment of alpine pastures, expansion of secondary forest succession) were taken into account. We emphasise though, that a negative elevation–dependent warming is not universal and that future research and in particular models should not neglect the role of land use changes when determining warming rates over elevation.

  15. Process type identification in torrential catchments in the eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiser, M.; Scheidl, C.; Eisl, J.; Spangl, B.; Hübl, J.

    2015-03-01

    Torrential hazards are omnipresent in the alpine regions, as it frequently causes damage to infrastructures. In some cases, even people's lives are endangered. The classification of these processes takes place according to factors like sediment concentration and flow behaviour and ranges from fluvial process types, including water floods and fluvial sediment transport processes, to fluvial mass movements such as debris flows. Following the hypothesis of this study, a context exists between basic geomorphological disposition parameters and potential dominant flow process types in a steep headwater catchment. Thus, examined catchments were selected based on a historical event documentation of torrential events in the Austrian Alps. In total, 84 catchments could be analysed, and 11 different morphometric parameters were considered. To predict the dominant torrential process type within a catchment, a naive Bayes classifier, a decision tree model, and a multinomial regression model was trained against the compiled geomorphological disposition parameters. All models as well as their combination were compared. Based on bootstrapping and complexity, we present the classification model with the lowest prediction error for our data that might help to identify the most likely torrential process within a considered catchment.

  16. Deep seated gravitational slope deformations in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, G. B.; Frattini, P.; Agliardi, F.

    2013-10-01

    Deep seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are widespread phenomena, recognized in different mountain ranges worldwide. The distribution of such phenomena at the scale of a mountain belt has rarely been systematically analysed in the past. Aim of the paper is to present and discuss an inventory map of DSGSD at the scale of the entire European Alps, in order to review existing knowledge and investigate general controls on these phenomena. The criteria adopted for their classification and distinction are presented. A total of 1033 DSGSDs, ranging in size between 0.03 and 108 km2, have been mapped. The inventory has been validated against available local or regional landslide inventories at different scales and prepared by different authors using different approaches. The frequency-area relationship for the mapped features is presented. The spatial distribution of the mapped DSGSD has been quantified by discretizing the study area into regular square grids with different resolution, and analysed with respect to a variety of geological, geomorpohological and morphometric variables, and of their clustering. Discriminant, principal component and cluster analyses have been performed to define the most important controlling and predisposing factors. Results suggest that the occurrence of foliated metamorphic rocks, LGM ice thickness, local relief (and related parameters), slope size, drainage density and river stream power are the local parameters most positively correlated to DSGSD occurrence. The impact of these phenomena on slope morphology, in terms of hypsometry and slope gradient adjustment is also discussed.

  17. Snow survey and vegetation growth in high mountains (Swiss Alps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A method for mapping snow over large areas was developed combining the possibilities of a Quantimet (QTM 72) to evaluate the exact density level of the snow cover for each individual image (or a selected section of the photo) with the higher resolution of photographic techniques. The density level established on the monitor by visual control is used as reference for the exposure time of a lithographic film, producing a clear tonal separation of all snow- and ice-covered areas from uncovered land in black and white. The data is projected onto special maps 1:500,000 or 1:100,000 showing the contour lines and the hydrographic features only. The areal extent of the snow cover may be calculated directly with the QTM 720 or on the map. Bands 4 and 5 provide the most accurate results for mapping snow. Using all four bands a separation of an old melting snow cover from a new one is possible. Regional meteorological studies combining ERTS-1 imagery and conventional sources describe synoptical evolution of meteorological systems over the Alps.

  18. The Permian and Triassic in the Albanian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, Maurizio; Meço, Selam; Rettori, Roberto; Henderson, Charles M.; Tulone, Accursio

    2015-09-01

    The sedimentary succession of the Permian to Middle Triassic of the Albanian Alps is described, as part of the eastern Adria passive margin towards the Tethys. A carbonate ramp deepening towards NE in present day coordinates developed during the Middle Permian and was affected by block faulting with the deposition of carbonate breccia. The Early Triassic was characterized by intense terrigenous deposition with several cobble conglomerate units up to 80 m-thick, and by oolitic carbonate shoals. The fine clastic deposition ended gradually during the earliest Anisian and a wide calcarenitic ramp occupied the area, with small local carbonate mounds. Basinward, the red nodular limestone of the Han Bulog Formation was interbedded with calcarenitic material exported from the ramp. Drowning to more open conditions occurred towards the end of the Pelsonian. Subsequently, cherty limestone and tuffitic layers spread over the entire area. Towards the end of the Ladinian, with the end of the volcanic activity, red pelagic limestone was deposited locally for a short period. By the latest Ladinian most of the area returned to shallow-water conditions, with a peritidal carbonate platform. In the Theth area, in contrast, a basin with black organic-rich dolostone and limestone developed which seems to be unique in that part of the Adria passive margin. The occurrence of cobble conglomerate units in the Lower Triassic testifies to very active block faulting and high accommodation, not yet described for the area.

  19. Dynamic response of the Chamousset rock column (Western Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévy, C.; Baillet, L.; Jongmans, D.; Mourot, P.; Hantz, D.

    This paper investigates the variation of the first resonance frequency of the Chamousset limestone column (21,000 m3, Vercors, French Alps) before its collapse in November 2007. The site was instrumented with seismometers and extensometers during a 4-month period with some gaps in the measurements. Experimental results and numerical modeling showed that the resonance frequency of a prone-to-fall column can be derived from the spectra of continuous seismic noise records. At the Chamousset site, the evolution of the resonance frequency appeared to be strongly controlled by the temperature. When temperatures were positive, slight resonance frequency variations correlated well with thermal fluctuations. Irreversible damage can occur during freeze-thaw cycles and to a lesser extent during strong wind. It coincided with a significant drop in resonance frequency, which was interpreted as the result of rock bridge breakage. This hypothesis is supported by fresh rupture observations after the collapse, seismic event records, and numerical modeling. This study suggests that seismic noise recording could be used for assessing the potential failure of unstable columns in rigid rocks.

  20. CLIM-RUN: Tourism cas study over the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, C.

    2012-04-01

    Climate information for societal use has becoming a major challenge for tourism management and adaptation in a context of strong climate variability and change. Within the CLIMRUN EU FP7, a case study on summer tourism in the French Alps has been identify. I will introduce the bottom-up approach use in the project where stakeholders and local users meet with climate experts. From those meetings, they thus identify the climate dependence and information which impact their summer activities over this region. All the activities are located in a mountainous region where outdoor leisure is the main economic driver of the region. It has emerged that the climate requirements are as well on past as on future climate information. On one side, the past climate parameters are found to be an invaluable information to evaluate the climate dependence of the different activities. A better knowledge as well as a growing interest in climate variability has been express to quantify the climate dependence on their activities. On the other side, the future climate information requested mainly on seasonal to decadal timescale. A particular interest has been express on the snow cover at the end of the winter season, evolution of heavy precipitations, heatwave, air temperatures and well as the water temperature of the mountainous lakes. Those climate variables are used to create comfort index under climate change. All those targeted climate information are based on on-going projects as well as future model development.

  1. Geogenic arsenic in groundwaters in the western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisserand, Delphine; Pili, Eric; Hellmann, Roland; Boullier, Anne-Marie; Charlet, Laurent

    2014-10-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) of geogenic origin in the western Alps is generally associated with aquifers in crystalline rock. The External Crystalline Massifs (ECM) are in particular noted for occurrences of elevated concentrations of As in groundwaters. The present study is based on As in groundwaters that have been measured in the ECM in both France and Switzerland. Arsenic-bearing sulfide minerals, such as pyrite, arsenian pyrite, and arsenopyrite, are the most likely sources of As leached within the crystalline ECM rocks. While it is not known how As concentrations vary with time at all of the reported water sources, we measured on a weekly basis the concentration of As at one thermal source over a period of one year and found the As concentrations to be variable; however, the cause of the variability is at present not understood. Even though many studies have applied δ34SSO4 as a tool for understanding As mobilization in the ECM, there is no consensus at present. Finally, we present some perspectives on the possible effects of climate change and anthropogenic activities on As mobility in the ECM. In particular, droughts have the potential to increase As concentrations in groundwaters.

  2. Thrusting and wedge growth, Southern Alps of Lombardia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeder, Dietrich

    1992-06-01

    A south-vergent fold-thrust belt of Miocene-Recent age accompanies the south slope of the Lombardian Alps and is partly buried beneath Plio-Pleistocene Po Valley basin fill. The belt is probably detached along a trans-crustal thrust, named Main South Alpine Thrust (MSAT), with an estimated dip slip of 70-100 km. Transport on this thrust piggybacks the Adamello pluton of Late Eocene age, pre-Adamello folds, and Oligocene-Miocene Insubric strike-slip structures, by ramping up through 12-15 km of Austro-Alpine (Adria) crust and through 8-10 km of Triassic to Eocene sediments. Folds in the Front Ranges are ascribed to MSAT ramping, not to pre-Adamello compression. The MSAT soles upward in a blind thrust beneath 3-4 km of Oligocene-Pliocene foredeep fill. Initial regional failure along the MSAT implies substantial and pre-existing topographic relief near the Insubric line. An average of 25% wedge thickening during MSAT transport is consistent with the requirement of Coulomb critical taper. Progression of the south-Alpine detachment from the MSAT to the base of the foreland sediments has added a thickness of 6-12 km in footwall imbrications to the base and the toe of the thrust wedge. This addition in wedge volume is consistent with wedge dynamics only if a mid-Miocene or younger spike of excess Alpine topography is admitted.

  3. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  4. Fog Chemistry at Different Altitudes in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michna, P.; Eugster, W.; Wanner, H.

    2010-07-01

    During two extended summer seasons in 2006 and 2007, we installed two battery driven versions of the Caltech active strand cloud water collector (MiniCASCC) at the Niesen mountain in the northern Swiss Alps. Along, we measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and visibility. During these two field operation phases we gained weekly samples of fogwater, where we analysed the major anions and cations, and the stable water isotopes δD and δ18O. The fog collectors were installed at an altitude of 2300 and 1600 m asl to resolve altitudinal differences in fog chemistry. We found a large variability between the events, but no clear altitudinal gradient. At both sites, the most important ions were nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate. Higher concentrations occured preferably in late spring (start of sampling period) and in autumn (end of sampling). Compared to previous studies at lower elevations in the Swiss Plateau during wintertime, our measurements showed considerable lower ion loads in the fogwater. The combination of these results suggest that lowest ion loads are found in convective clouds with a short lifetime and that the highest ion loads occur during radiation fog events at lower elevations.

  5. ALPS - advanced limiter-divertor plasma-facing systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, J. P.; Bastasz, R.; Brooks, J. N.; Evans, T.; Hassanein, A.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Mattas, R. F.; McCarthy, K.; Mioduszewski, P.; Mogahed, E.; Moir, R.; Molokov, S.; Morely, N.; Nygren, R.; Reed, C.; Rognlien, T.; Ruzic, D.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Sze, D.; Tillack, M.; Ulrickson, M.; Wade, P. M.; Wong, C.; Wooley, R.

    1999-09-15

    The Advanced Limiter-divertor Plasma-facing Systems (ALPS) program was initiated in order to evaluate the potential for improved performance and lifetime for plasma-facing systems. The main goal of the program is to demonstrate the advantages of advanced limiter/divertor systems over conventional systems in terms of power density capability, component lifetime, and power conversion efficiency, while providing for safe operation and minimizing impurity concerns for the plasma. Most of the work to date has been applied to free surface liquids. A multi-disciplinary team from several institutions has been organized to address the key issues associated with these systems. The main performance goals for advanced limiters and diverters are a peak heat flux of >50 MW/m{sup 2},elimination of a lifetime limit for erosion, and the ability to extract useful heat at high power conversion efficiency ({approximately}40%). The evaluation of various options is being conducted through a combination of laboratory experiments, modeling of key processes, and conceptual design studies. The current emphasis for the work is on the effects of free surface liquids on plasma edge performance.

  6. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of polyprenyl phosphates.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Meredith D; Larkin, Angelyn; Imperiali, Barbara

    2008-05-01

    Polyprenyl phosphates, including undecaprenyl phosphate and dolichyl phosphate, are essential intermediates in several important biochemical pathways including N-linked protein glycosylation in eukaryotes and prokaryotes and prokaryotic cell wall biosynthesis. Herein, we describe the evaluation of three potential undecaprenol kinases as agents for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of polyprenyl phosphates. Target enzymes were expressed in crude cell envelope fractions and quantified via the use of luminescent lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs). The Streptococcus mutans diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) was shown to be a very useful agent for polyprenol phosphorylation using ATP as the phosphoryl transfer agent. In addition, the S. mutans DGK can be coupled with two Campylobacter jejuni glycosyltransferases involved in N-linked glycosylation to efficiently biosynthesize the undecaprenyl pyrophosphate-linked disaccharide needed for studies of PglB, the C. jejuni oligosaccharyl transferase. PMID:18374576

  7. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of air emissions, water effluents, and solid residues resulting from the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. It includes the production of wet process phosphoric acid, superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, and ammonium ...

  8. Proteomics demonstration that histone H4 is a colchicine-induced retro-modulator of growth and alkaline phosphatase activity in hair follicle dermal papilla culture.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Ching-Wu; Shui, Hao-Ai; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Yu, Hui-Ming; Ho, Ming-Yi; Cheng, Kur-Ta; Tseng, Min-Jen

    2011-05-16

    Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) control the development of hair follicles via cell-cell interactions and extracellular molecules. Colchicine affected active anagen DPCs to result in hair loss in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to identify the retro-modulator released by DPCs exposed to sub-toxic dose of colchicine and elucidate its effect on dermal papilla culture. The molecular-weight cutoff ultrafiltration and HPLC were used to purify the components of colchicine-treated DPC secretomes and examined their ability to down-regulate the growth and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of DPCs. The active product was identified by in-gel trypsin digestion, nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS and validated by Western blot to be histone H4 (P62804), which inhibited the proliferation and diminished the ALP activity of cultured DPCs. Treating DPCs with recombinant histone H4 reproduced the growth inhibition effect whereas adding antibody to immunoneutralize histone H4 abolished this growth inhibitory consequence. DPCs with high ALP activity can induce the neogenesis of hair follicles and support the hair fiber growth in vivo. Our results indicated that sub-lethal colchicine can inactivate DPCs through releasing histone H4. Through the investigation of the retro-modulation of histone H4 on dermal papillae may give implications for understanding the mechanism of colchicine-induced hair disorder. PMID:21362507

  9. Intermediate range order in alkaline borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, C.; Carini, G.; Ruello, G.; D'Angelo, G.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the neutron diffraction patterns of a series of alkaline borate glasses at different metal oxide content. Strong differences are observed in the intermediate range order as a function of the specific alkaline ion and of its concentration. On these results, we propose that the first sharp diffraction peak arises from correlations of atoms of voids and show that the compositional variation of this peak intensity in alkaline borate glasses is due to changes in the distribution of void sizes within the three-dimensional network. We argue that our interpretation in terms of interstitial (empty and/or filled) voids, having different sizes, provides a general explanation for all anomalous behaviours revealed for the first sharp diffraction peak.

  10. Evidence for alkaline igneous activity and associated metasomatism in the Reelfoot rift, south-central Midcontinent, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Diehl, S.F.; Sutley, S.J. ); Flohr, M.J.K. )

    1993-03-01

    Alkaline igneous magmatism is commonly associated with intracontinental rifts such as the Reelfoot rift (RR). Direct evidence for alkaline magmatism in the area of the RR occurs as lamprophyre and syenite encountered in deep wells. The authors' new studies of lamprophyres and sedimentary rocks from wells in the region provide additional examples of alkaline magmatism and emphasize the effects of related metasomatism. Sedimentary rocks in the Dow Chemical No. 1 Garrigan well, which is not known to contain lamprophyre dikes, probably also were metasomatically altered, as they contain authigenic fluorapatite, Ce-phosphates, and other REE-rich minerals. Enrichments of incompatible and large ion lithophile elements commonly associated with alkaline magmatism occur in the New Madrid test well, near the crest of the Pascola Arch. The carbonate-free fraction of Paleozoic rocks in this well is highly enriched in Nb (500 ppm), Ba (> 5,000 ppm), La (500 ppm), Th (1,000 ppm), and F (2,400 ppm). Abundant inclusion-rich potassium-feldspar cement in a nearby well may also be the result of alkaline metasomatism. Fluorite and elevated F concentrations are found in several wells in the RR, and contrast with stratigraphically correlative platform carbonates of the Ozark uplift, which lack F enrichment. Well and spring water samples above the RR are enriched in fluorine (as much as 5,000 ppb) compared to samples away from the rift which typically have concentrations two orders of magnitude smaller. The data and observations are consistent with relatively widespread alkaline metasomatism, which was associated with the intrusion of alkaline magmas in the RR.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate,...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reaction of sodium phosphate with ferric chloride or ferric citrate. (b) The ingredient meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate...

  14. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Erythromycin phosphate. 520.823 Section 520.823... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.823 Erythromycin phosphate. (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance...

  15. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythromycin phosphate. 520.823 Section 520.823... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.823 Erythromycin phosphate. (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance...

  16. Alkaline Band Formation in Chara corallina

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, William J.

    1979-01-01

    The nature of the transport system responsible for the establishment of alkaline bands on cells of Chara corallina was investigated. The transport process was found to be insensitive to external pH, provided the value was above a certain threshold. At this threshold (pH 5.1 to 4.8) the transport process was inactivated. Transport function could be recovered by raising the pH value of the external solution. The fastest rate of recovery was always obtained in the presence of exogenous HCO3−. Experiments in which plasmalemma integrity was modified using 10 millimolar K+ treatment were also performed. Alkaline band transport was significantly reduced in the presence of 10 millimolar K+, but the system did not recover, following return to 0.2 millimolar K+ solutions, until the transport site was reexposed to exogenous HCO3−. The influence of presence and absence of various cations on both alkaline band transport and total H14CO3− assimilation was examined. No specific cation requirement (mono- or divalent) was found for either process, except the previously established role of Ca2+ at the HCO3− transport site. The alkaline band transport process exhibited a general requirement for cations. This transport system could be partially or completely stalled in low cation solutions, or glass-distilled water, respectively. The results indicate that no cationic flux occurs across the plasmalemma in direct association with either the alkaline band or HCO3− transport systems. It is felt that the present results offer support for the hypothesis that an OH− efflux transport system (rather than a H+ influx system) is responsible for alkaline band development in C. corallina. The results support the hypothesis that OH− efflux is an electrogenic process. This OH− transport system also appears to contain two allosteric effector sites, involving an acidic group and a HCO3− ion. PMID:16660706

  17. Removal of an anionic dye by adsorption/precipitation processes using alkaline white mud.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Lee, Li; Wang, Hai-Hua; Wang, Zheng

    2007-11-19

    Alkaline white mud (AWM) has been investigated as a low-cost material for removal of an anionic dye, acid blue 80. The effects of contact time, initial pH of dye solution, AWM dosage, and the presence of inorganic anion sulphate or phosphate ion on removal of the dye were evaluated. The results show that AWM could be used as an effective material for removal of acid blue 80 in a pre or main process, particularly at high dye concentration (>300 mgL(-1)), reaching maximum removal efficiency of 95%. At low dye concentration, surface adsorption is mainly responsible for the dye removal, while chemical precipitation of the dye anions with soluble Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) may play a dominant role for the dye removal at high concentration, producing much less sludge than conventional adsorption method. Solution pH has only a limited effect on the dye removal due to high alkalinity and large pH buffer capacity of AWM suspension and thereby pH is not a limiting factor in pursuing high dye removal. The presence of SO(4)(2-) could reduce the dye removal by AWM only when SO(4)(2-) concentration is beyond 0.7 mmolL(-1). The dye removal may be significantly suppressed by the presence of phosphate with increasing concentration, and the reduction in the dye removal is much larger at high dye concentrations than at low ones. PMID:17532132

  18. Degradation of halogenated carbons in alkaline alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiko; Shimokawa, Toshinari

    2002-02-01

    1,1,2-Trichloro-trifluoroethane, 1,2-dibromo-tetrafluoroethane, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole were dissolved in alkaline isopropyl alcohol and irradiated with 60Co gamma rays after purged with pure nitrogen gas. The concentration of the hydroxide ions and the parent molecules decreased with the dose, while that of the halide ions and the organic products, with less halogen atoms than the parent, increased. Chain degradation will occur in alkaline isopropyl alcohol.

  19. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  20. Laser direct write of planar alkaline microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. B.; Kim, H.; Piqué, A.

    We are developing a laser engineering approach to fabricate and optimize alkaline microbatteries in planar geometries. The laser direct-write technique enables multicapability for adding, removing and processing material and provides the ability to pattern complicated structures needed for fabricating complete microbattery assemblies. In this paper, we demonstrate the production of planar zinc-silver oxide alkaline cells under ambient conditions. The microbattery cells exhibit 1.55-V open-circuit potentials, as expected for the battery chemistry, and show a flat discharge behavior under constant-current loads. High capacities of over 450 μAhcm-2 are obtained for 5-mm2 microbatteries.

  1. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  2. Responses to phosphate deprivation in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Neelima; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic phosphate is an essential nutrient because it is required for the biosynthesis of nucleotides, phospholipids and metabolites in energy metabolism. During phosphate starvation, phosphatases play a major role in phosphate acquisition by hydrolyzing phosphorylated macromolecules. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PHM8 (YER037W), a lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase, plays an important role in phosphate acquisition by hydrolyzing lysophosphatidic acid and nucleotide monophosphate that results in accumulation of triacylglycerol and nucleotides under phosphate limiting conditions. Under phosphate limiting conditions, it is transcriptionally regulated by Pho4p, a phosphate-responsive transcription factor. In this review, we focus on triacylglycerol metabolism in transcription factors deletion mutants involved in phosphate metabolism and propose a link between phosphate and triacylglycerol metabolism. Deletion of these transcription factors results in an increase in triacylglycerol level. Based on these observations, we suggest that PHM8 is responsible for the increase in triacylglycerol in phosphate metabolising gene deletion mutants. PMID:26615590

  3. Rapidly diverging evolution of an atypical alkaline phosphatase (PhoAaty) in marine phytoplankton: insights from dinoflagellate alkaline phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xin; Wang, Lu; Shi, Xinguo; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a key enzyme that enables marine phytoplankton to scavenge phosphorus (P) from dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) when inorganic phosphate is scarce in the ocean. Yet how the AP gene has evolved in phytoplankton, particularly dinoflagellates, is poorly understood. We sequenced full-length AP genes and corresponding complementary DNA (cDNA) from 15 strains (10 species), representing four classes of the core dinoflagellate lineage, Gymnodiniales, Prorocentrales, Suessiales, and Gonyaulacales. Dinoflagellate AP gene sequences exhibited high variability, containing variable introns, pseudogenes, single nucleotide polymorphisms and consequent variations in amino acid sequence, indicative of gene duplication events and consistent with the “birth-and-death” model of gene evolution. Further sequence comparison showed that dinoflagellate APs likely belong to an atypical type AP (PhoAaty), which shares conserved motifs with counterparts in marine bacteria, cyanobacteria, green algae, haptophytes, and stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that PhoAaty probably originated from an ancestral gene in bacteria and evolved divergently in marine phytoplankton. Because variations in AP amino acid sequences may lead to differential subcellular localization and potentially different metal ion requirements, the multiple types of APs in algae may have resulted from selection for diversifying strategies to utilize DOP in the P variable marine environment. PMID:26379645

  4. Distribution of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin in calcified human carotid atheroma.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Catherine L; Isbilir, Salim; Basto, Pamela; Chen, Iou Yih; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Vaduganathan, Periyanan; Reardon, Michael J; Lawrie, Gerald; Peterson, Leif; Morrisett, Joel D

    2015-10-01

    Ectopic vascular calcification is a significant component of atherosclerotic disease. Osteopontin (OPN), Osteoprotegerin (OPG), Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are each thought to play central roles in the calcification or demineralization of atherosclerotic lesions. Abnormalities in the balance of these proteins may lead to perturbations in bone remodeling and arterial calcification. The purpose of this study was to measure the distribution of these proteins in human carotid lesions and to elucidate possible mechanism(s) whereby they control the deposition or depletion of arterial calcification. Thirty-three patients who had undergone carotid endarterectomy (CEA) within the previous 18 months and 11 control patients were enrolled. CEA specimens were analyzed by EBCT for calcification content in terms of Agatston (AGAT) and Volume scores. CEA specimens were then cut into 5 mm segments which were homogenized and extracted. Extracts were analyzed for tissue levels of calcium, phosphorus, ALP, OPN, RANKL, and OPG. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for the same components. In CEA tissue segments, the calcification levels (CHA AGAT) were inversely associated with the levels of OPG (r = -0.432/-0.579, p < 0.05) and positively associated with the levels of RANKL (r = 0.332/0.415, p < 0.05). In turn, the tissue levels of OPG were associated with homologous serum levels of OPG (r = 0.820/0.389, p < 0.001), and the tissue levels of RANKL were associated with the serum levels of homologous RANKL (r = 0.739/0.666, p < 0.0001). This study suggests that serum levels of OPG and RANKL may be useful biomarkers for estimating the degree of calcification in carotid atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:26307009

  5. Unraveling the Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibition, Anticancer, and Antileishmanial Potential of Coumarin-Triazolothiadiazine Hybrids: Design, Synthesis, and Molecular Docking Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ibrar, Aliya; Zaib, Sumera; Jabeen, Farukh; Iqbal, Jamshed; Saeed, Aamer

    2016-07-01

    A series of new coumarin-triazolothiadiazine hybrid compounds (5a-j) was designed and synthesized by using the molecular hybridization concept. The cyclocondensation reaction involves the coumarinyl 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole and a range of bromo-acetophenones, delivering the desired products in good yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established on the basis of spectro-analytical data. The prepared compounds were evaluated against alkaline phosphatase (ALP) where compound 5j incorporating bis-coumarinyl motifs at the 3- and 6-positions of the heteroaromatic core turned out to be a potent inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.15 ± 1.0 µM. The synthesized compounds were also tested against Leishmania major and 5h was the lead member with an IC50 value of 0.89 ± 0.08 μM. Anticancer activity was also determined using kidney fibroblast (BHK-21) and lung carcinoma (H-157) cancer cell lines. Compound 5i showed highest cytotoxic potential against H-157 cells with an IC50 value of 1.01 ± 0.12 μM, which is an improved inhibition compared to the standards (vincristine and cisplatin) used in this assay. Molecular docking studies were carried out on the synthesized library of coumarin-triazolothiadiazine hybrids against ALP. Almost all of the compounds showed strong interactions with the key residues of the active site of the receptor. In case of compounds 5a-c, 5h, and 5j, docking results positively complemented the experimental screening. These results provided substantial evidence for the further development of these compounds as potent inhibitors of ALP. PMID:27214743

  6. An overview on geophysical structures in the Eastern Alps revealed by recent seismic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behm, M.; Brueckl, E. P.; Grad, M.

    2009-12-01

    CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 were two large seismic wide-angle experiments which targeted the lithospheric structure of Central Europe. This presentation highlights crustal features of the Eastern Alps and their transition into adjacent tectonic provinces (Bohemian Massif, Carpathians, Pannonian Basin, Southern Alps and Dinarides) which were unknown prior to these experiments. The Eastern Alps result from the collision of the European platform with the Adriatic plate which got initiated in the Eocene. From the late Oligocene on, escape tectonics towards the unconstrained eastern margin contributed to the evolution of the Eastern Alps. Both processes left their imprints on the surface geology which differs significantly from the Western Alps. Considering the layout of the experiments, an innovative 3D processing scheme was implemented and supplemented by traditional 2D interpretation techniques. The 3D approach provides robust models with large spatial coverage, while the evaluation of 2D profiles allows resolving details at locations of particular interest. The P-wave velocity distribution of crust shows a clear separation into a low-velocity European plate and a high-velocity Adriatic plate. Crustal velocities below the Pannonian Basin are moderate to low. Velocity structures in the uppermost crust correlate well with surface geology and tectonic divisions. One of the most important results is a new map of the Moho discontinuity. Its depth varies between 52 and 24 km, and from its structure we deduce the new crustal fragment Pannonia. Pannonia has shallow crust and is underthrusted by both the European Moho in the North and the Adriatic Moho in the South-West. Although solely vertical component receivers were used, strong S-waves can be observed on some seismograms. Their evaluation confirms the separation into three crustal fragments and provides constraints on Poisson’s ratio. A subhorizontal mantle reflector in a depth range from approximately 55 km is found

  7. Biphasic calcium phosphate in periapical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suneelkumar, Chinni; Datta, Krithika; Srinivasan, Manali R; Kumar, Sampath T

    2008-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics like hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) possess mineral composition that closely resembles that of the bone. They can be good bone substitutes due to their excellent biocompatibility. Biphasic calcium phosphate is a bone substitute which is a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β -tricalcium phosphate in fixed ratios. Studies have demonstrated the osteoconductive potential of this composition. This paper highlights the clinical use of biphasic calcium phosphate as a bone substitute in periapical surgery. PMID:20142892

  8. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine. PMID:22013455

  9. An inventory of glacial lakes in the Austrian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckel, Johannes; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Keuschnig, Markus; Götz, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The formation of lakes is one of the consequences of glacier retreat due to climate change in mountain areas. Numerous lakes have formed in the past few decades in many mountain regions around the globe. Some of these lakes came into focus due to catastrophic hazard events especially in the Himalayas and the Andes. Glacial lake development and lifetime is controlled by the complex interplay of glacier dynamics, geomorphological process activity and geological boundary conditions. Besides the hazard potential new lakes in formerly glaciated areas will significantly contribute to a new landscape setting and to changing geomorphologic, hydrologic and ecologic conditions at higher alpine altitudes. We present an inventory of high alpine lakes in the Austrian Alps located above an altitude of 1700 m asl. Most of these lakes are assumed to be of glacial origin, but other causes for development, like mass movements are considered as well. The inventory is a central part of the project FUTURELAKES that aims at modelling the potential development of glacial lakes in Austria (we refer to the presentation by Helfricht et al. during the conference for more details on the modelling part). Lake inventory data will serve as one basis for model validation since modelling is performed on different time steps using glacier inventory data. The purpose of the lake inventory is to get new insights into boundary conditions for lake formation and evolution by analysing existing lake settings. Based on these information the project seeks to establish a model of lake sedimentation after glacier retreat in order to assess the potential lifetime of the new lakes in Austria. Lakes with a minimum size of 1000 m² were mapped using multiple aerial imagery sources. The dataset contains information on location, geometry, dam type, and status of sedimentation for each lake. Additionally, various geologic, geomorphic and morphometric parameters describe the lake catchments. Lake data is related to

  10. Natural gas seeps in the French Alps: Sources and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Blessing, Michaela; Proust, Eric; Gal, Frédéric; Bentivegna, Gaetan; Henry, Benoit; Defossez, Pierrick; Catherine, Lerouge; Humez, Pauline; Mayer, Bernhard; Millot, Romain; Gaucher, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas emanations are part of the geochemical baseline to take into account when assessing global greenhouse gas emissions and potential impacts of conventional and unconventional gas exploration and exploitation on groundwater. Examples of such natural gas macro-seeps are known in several parts of the world (Etiope et al., 2009). Only a limited number of them have been characterized for their gas and isotopic compositions. Such analyses can provide essential information for baseline studies, providing insight in the sources (biogenic vs. thermogenic or modified thermogenic) and pathways of such seeps and may allow for distinction of natural seeps from stray gas leakage associated with human activities. Here, we report gas concentrations and multi-isotope data (δ13C and δ2H of methane and ethane, δ13C and δ18O of CO2, 3He/4He ratio) of two gas seeps in the French subalpine chains, both in a similar geological and structural position within Middle Jurassic claystones along the eastern border of the large synclinal structures of the Vercors and the Chartreuse massifs (Moss, 1992). The "ardent fountain" (fontaine ardente) of Le Gua, 30 km south of Grenoble has most likely the longest continuous written record of existence of any individual natural gas seep, mentioned explicitly as early as the first quarter of the 5th century (Augustin of Hippo (St. Augustin), approx. 426) This natural seep was described in the past as a "wet seep" associated with a spring, whereas the second investigated seep, Rochasson near Meylan north of Grenoble, is a dry seep. Both seeps contain methane and ethane with thermogenic C and H isotope signatures, comparable with a seep in the Northern Swiss Alps at Giswil (Etiope et al., 2010) but with a higher dryness (C1/(C2+C3)>1000) for the Le Gua seep, possibly due to molecular fractionation upon advective fluid+gas migration (Etiope et al., 2009). Maturity (R0) of the reservoir rocks deduced from δ13C(CH4), δ13C(C2H6) is similar to

  11. Dating the polyphase evolution of the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Igor M.

    2016-04-01

    A traverse through the Western Alps from the Zone Houillère to the Monte Rosa eclogites includes an oceanic basin (filled with Hercynian detrital muscovite) which was subducted during Alpine convergence and eclogitized; the eclogites were sheared in greenschist facies and exhumed to the surface. In the W the Zone Houillère sediments are weakly metamorphosed; further ESE, in the Ruitor Unit, higher strain rates and high pressure parageneses are observed; the Piemont-Ligurian (PL) Oceanic Unit consists of eclogites. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd dating of prograde (55±4 Ma) and retrograde (41±7 Ma) garnet (Villa et al, JPetrol 55 (2014) 803) constrains eclogitization to the Eocene. 39Ar-40Ar ages of white mica show a spatial regularity: Zone Houillère (T ≈ 300 °C) muscovite ages are 270-100 Ma, Ar loss reaching 80 %; eclogitic phengite ages (P¬L Unit, T ≈ 500 °C, and Monte Rosa, T ≥ 600 °C) are constant at 47 Ma, independently of peak T, and agree with garnet Lu-Hf ages; Ruitor white mica ages depend on total strain and especially on the degree of phengitic substitution in detrital muscovite. The observation that Ar can be lost at T < 300 °C while at the same time it can be retained at T > 500-600 °C appears counterintuitive if one assumes that ages are a unique function of T. The Zone Houillère pattern is explained by sedimentology: during diagenesis, sediments are dehydrated, and large amounts of circulating water very efficiently promote recrystallization and Ar loss. In the Ruitor Unit, an different eastward age decrease is observed: mica rejuvenation correlates with phengite content, whereby HP phengite replaced detrital muscovite. These samples record a progressive increase of retrogression reactions that produce a heterochemical replacement mineral with associated Ar loss. The Cl/K ratio in white mica is an essential discriminator, as retrogression can be associated with more or less saline fluids. In the Monte Rosa and P-L Oceanic Units, the constant 47

  12. Formation of the arc of the Western Alps and Alps-Apennines transition in the light of new geophysical data on the lithospheric architecture around the Ligurian knot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissling, E.; Bousquet, R.; Ford, M.; Schmid, S.

    2012-04-01

    This study integrates new geophysical data on the lithospheric structure of the Western Alps with a wealth of geologic and tectonic data. Geological evidence suggests an evolution of the Western Alps in 3 stages: Stage 1 (85-35 Ma) is dominated by NW- to NNW-directed convergence of Adria with respect to Europe, leading to subduction in the Central Alps and sinistral transpression in the Western Alps; collisional stage 2 (35-23Ma) results in top WNW out of sequence thrusting along the Penninic front associated with some 240km of WNW-directed indentation of the Ivrea zone at the tip of the Adria plate into the Western Alpine orogen, substantially modifying its geometry in terms of post-nappe folding; stage 3 (23 Ma to recent) involves a change in subduction polarity in the Ligurian Alps and Apennines, linked to the modification of the southern part of the Western Alps in terms of oroclinal bending during rotational roll-back of the Adria plate around a pole of rotation ("Ligurian knot"). Initiated in Oligocene times this rotation created the the young Ligurian plate . New geophysical data (controlled source seismology, local earthquake tomography and receiver functions) tightly constrain the geometry of the Moho around the triple junction area between Europe, Adria and the new Ligurian plate that came into existence at the expense of the European plate near its suture with Adria. Moreover, these new data constrain the 3D geometry of the geophysical Ivrea body associated with a wedge of subcontinental mantle belonging to the Adria plate that rose to the surface of the earth in parts of the Western Alps during Alpine convergence. The internal (eastern) top of the Ivrea mantle wedge is identical with the Adriatic Moho rising up to shallow crustal depth. Local earthquake tomography constrains the external (western) limit of the Ivrea mantle wedge for the first time. The Ivrea wedge's subvertical-to-steeply west-dipping interface with the Penninic nappes and the Alpine

  13. Chemiluminescence-based pesticide biosensor utilizing the intelligent evolved properties of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, M.; Kamtekar, S.; Pande, R.; Marx, K.; Kumar, J.

    1994-12-31

    A methodology is described for immobilizing the enzyme alkaline phosphatase onto a glass surface using a novel biotinylated copolymer, poly(3-undecylthiophene-co-3- methanoithiophene). A streptavidin conjugate of alkaline phosphatase is used in this study. The biotinylated polymer is attached to the silanized glass surface via hydrophobic interactions and the enzyme is interfaced with the polymer through the classical biotin- streptavidin interaction. Alkaline phosphatase catalyzes the dephosphorylation of a macrocyclic compound, chloro-3-(4-methoxy spiro) (1,2 dioxetane-3-2`-tricyclo-) (3.3.1.1 )-(decani-4-yl) phenyl phosphate, to a species which emits energy by chemiluminescence. This chemiluminescence signal can be detected with a photomultiplier tube for enzymatic catalysis with the biocatalyst both in solution and immobilized on a glass surface. The signal generation is inhibited by the organophosphorus based insecticides such as paraoxon as well as nerve agents. We demonstrate in this study that a number of organophosphorus based insecticides inhibit the enzyme-mediated generation of chemiluminescence signal. This is true for the enzyme conjugate both free in solution and immobilized on a glass surface. In solution, the inhibition resembles the case of a partially uncompetitive system. By this type of inhibition we are able to detect pesticides down to about 50 ppb for the enzyme in solution. The pesticide detection limit of immobilized enzyme is currently being investigated. The enzyme is capable of a number of measurement cycles without significant loss of signal level.

  14. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Mike J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2 +, Mg2 +) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al3 +, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  15. Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Charles T.; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments has significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2+, Mg2+) and phosphate and a slow (100s of hours) increase in silica, Al3+, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10s to 100s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  16. Influence of acidic and alkaline waste solution properties on uranium migration in subsurface sediments.

    PubMed

    Szecsody, Jim E; Truex, Mike J; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Wellman, Dawn M; Resch, Tom; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments have significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100 s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH2) resulted in a rapid (<10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) and phosphate and a slow (100 s of hours) increase in silica, Al(3+), and K(+), likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH13) resulted in a rapid (<10h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10 s to 100 s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in not only uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity. PMID:23851265

  17. Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Silvana; Tartarotti, Paola; Meyzen, Chrstine; Benciolini, Luca; Toffolo, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Eclogitic metatrondhjemites from metaophiolites of the Western Alps Martin S.**, Tartarotti P.*, Meyzen C. **, Benciolini L.***, Toffolo L. ** *Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Milano ** Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università di Padova *** Dipartimento di Chimica, Fisica e Ambiente, Università di Udine In the Urtier valley (southern Aosta Valley, Italy), the Piemonte metaophiolites mainly consist of serpentinized peridotites including pods and boudinaged layers of Fe-metagabbro and trondhjemite transposed in the main eclogitic foliation. The contact between serpentinized peridotites and Fe-metagabbro/trondhjemite is locally lined by chloriteschist and rodingite. The high pressure parageneses in the Fe-metagabbro are omphacite-garnet-rutile-glaucophane-phengite, and in the metatrondhjemite plagioclase-quartz-phengite-clinozoisite-epidote-garnet, respectively. Bulk-rock major and trace elements in addition to O isotope analyses were performed in both rock types. Fe-metagabbros are characterized by MgO wt% ranging between 6.11 and 9.63%, ∑REE= 20-101 ppm, (La/Yb)N = 0.22-0.91; trondhjemites have SiO2 43%, Al2O3 ranging between 21 and 24%, CaO ranging between 17 and 20%, ∑REE = 172 - 272 ppm, (La/Yb)N ranging between 7.78 and 13.70. The δ18O is 5.9 ‰ in a Fe-metagabbro sample and 7.4 ‰ in a trondhjemite sample, suggesting that these rocks have been affected by a weak oceanic low temperature alteration. The high CaO content may indicate a metasomatic process which could have occurred during the oceanic stage or at high pressure conditions.

  18. M13 phage peptide ZL4 exerts its targeted binding effect on schistosoma japonicum via alkaline phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Shenghui; Xiao, Jianhua; Yu, Liang; Chen, Li; Zou, Ju; Wang, Kegeng; Tan, Sijie; Yu, Zhengyang; Zeng, Qingren

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to determine the targeting effect of M13 phage peptide ZL4 (MppZL4) on Schistosoma japonicum (S.j). Mice infected with S.j were injected with MppZL4. Real-time PCR was used to detect the distribution and metabolism of MppZL4 in the livers and lungs of mice. In vivo refusion test was performed to detect the targeting of MppZL4. Western blotting was employed to determine the expression of MppZL4. Live imaging was used to detect the distribution of oligopeptide MppZL4. Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine MppZL4 location on adult S.j body surface. Gomori method was employed to detect the influence of oligopeptide MppZL4 on alkaline phosphatase activity. The distribution and metabolism of MppZL4 and M13KE are not significantly different from each other at each time point. The abundance of MppZL4 is changed as S.j migrates in mice. The targeted binding effect of MppZL4 varies at different stages. ZL4 oligopeptide targets S.j in mice. The specific binding sites of MppZL4 on S.j body are mainly located in syncytial cells. The binding sites of MppZL4 on S.j body surface might be ALP or ALP-related proteins. MppZL4 had targeted binding effect on S.j with its binding site being associated with proteins related to S.j alkaline phosphatase. S.j tegument had a specifically binding site with exogenous peptides, offering new means to explore the interactions between hosts and parasites. Additionally, MppZL4 can possibly be used as targeting molecules in worm-resistant drugs or as tracing molecules in imaging diagnosis technologies. PMID:25973009

  19. Reaching and abandoning the furthest ice extent during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Wirsig, Christian; Zasadni, Jerzy; Hippe, Kristina; Christl, Marcus; Akçar, Naki; Schluechter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the European Alps (late Würm) local ice caps and extensive ice fields in the high Alps fed huge outlet glaciers that occupied the main valleys and extended onto the forelands as piedmont lobes. Records from numerous sites suggest advance of glaciers beyond the mountain front by around 30 ka (Ivy-Ochs 2015 and references therein). Reaching of the maximum extent occurred by about 27-26 ka, as exemplified by dates from the Rhein glacier area (Keller and Krayss, 2005). Abandonment of the outermost moraines at sites north and south of the Alps was underway by about 24 ka. In the high Alps, systems of transection glaciers with transfluences over many of the Alpine passes dominated, for example, at Grimsel Pass in the Central Alps (Switzerland). 10Be exposure ages of 23 ± 1 ka for glacially sculpted bedrock located just a few meters below the LGM trimline in the Haslital near Grimsel Pass suggest a pulse of ice surface lowering at about the same time that the foreland moraines were being abandoned (Wirsig et al., 2016). Widespread ice surface lowering in the high Alps was underway by no later than 18 ka. Thereafter, glaciers oscillated at stillstand and minor re-advance positions on the northern forelands for several thousand years forming the LGM stadial moraines. Final recession back within the mountain front took place by 19-18 ka. Recalculation to a common basis of all published 10Be exposure dates for boulders situated on LGM moraines suggests a strong degree of synchrony for the timing of onset of ice decay both north and south of the Alps. Ivy-Ochs, S., 2015, Cuadernos de investigación geográfica 41: 295-315. Keller, O., Krayss, E., 2005, Vierteljahrschr. Naturforsch. Gesell. Zürich 150: 69-85. Wirsig, C. et al., 2016, J. Quat. Sci. 31: 46-59.

  20. Uranium phosphate biomineralization by fungi.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinjin; Hillier, Stephen; Pendlowski, Helen; Gray, Nia; Ceci, Andrea; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2015-06-01

    Geoactive soil fungi were investigated for phosphatase-mediated uranium precipitation during growth on an organic phosphorus source. Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces javanicus were grown on modified Czapek-Dox medium amended with glycerol 2-phosphate (G2P) as sole P source and uranium nitrate. Both organisms showed reduced growth on uranium-containing media but were able to extensively precipitate uranium and phosphorus-containing minerals on hyphal surfaces, and these were identified by X-ray powder diffraction as uranyl phosphate species, including potassium uranyl phosphate hydrate (KPUO6 .3H2 O), meta-ankoleite [(K1.7 Ba0.2 )(UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O], uranyl phosphate hydrate [(UO2 )3 (PO4 )2 .4H2 O], meta-ankoleite (K(UO2 )(PO4 ).3H2 O), uramphite (NH4 UO2 PO4 .3H2 O) and chernikovite [(H3 O)2 (UO2 )2 (PO4 )2 .6H2 O]. Some minerals with a morphology similar to bacterial hydrogen uranyl phosphate were detected on A. niger biomass. Geochemical modelling confirmed the complexity of uranium speciation, and the presence of meta-ankoleite, uramphite and uranyl phosphate hydrate between pH 3 and 8 closely matched the experimental data, with potassium as the dominant cation. We have therefore demonstrated that fungi can precipitate U-containing phosphate biominerals when grown with an organic source of P, with the hyphal matrix serving to localize the resultant uranium minerals. The findings throw further light on potential fungal roles in U and P biogeochemistry as well as the application of these mechanisms for element recovery or bioremediation. PMID:25580878

  1. MERCURIC CHLORIDE CAPTURE BY ALKALINE SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of bench-scale mechanistic studies of mercury/sorbent reactions that showed that mercuric chloride (HgC12) is readily adsorbed by alkaline sorbents, which may offers a less expensive alternative to the use of activated carbons. A laboratory-scale, fixed-b...

  2. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOEpatents

    Coco, Isabelle; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  3. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose.

    PubMed

    Christodoulatos, C; Su, T L; Koutsospyros, A

    2001-01-01

    Cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose) is an explosive solid substance used in large quantities in various formulations of rocket and gun propellants. Safe destruction of nitrocellulose can be achieved by alkaline hydrolysis, which converts it to biodegradable products that can then be treated by conventional biological processes. The kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of munitions-grade nitrocellulose in sodium hydroxide solutions were investigated in completely mixed batch reactors. Experiments were conducted using solutions of alkaline strength ranging from 0.1 to 15% by mass and temperatures in the range of 30 to 90 degrees C. Regression analysis of the kinetic data revealed that alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose is of the order 1.0 and 1.5 with respect to nitrocellulose and hydroxide concentration, respectively. The activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction was found to be 100.9 kJ/mol with a preexponential Arrhenius constant of 4.73 x 10(13). Nitrite and nitrate, in a 3:1 ratio, were the primary nitrogen species present in the posthydrolysis solution. The kinetic information is pertinent to the development and optimization of nitrocellulose chemical-biological treatment systems. PMID:11563378

  4. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management. PMID:27136151

  5. ISSUES WITH ALKALINE TREATMENT OF SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...

  6. Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

  7. Cationized dextran nanoparticle-encapsulated CXCR4-siRNA enhanced correlation between CXCR4 expression and serum alkaline phosphatase in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abedini, Fatemeh; Hosseinkhani, Hossein; Ismail, Maznah; Domb, Abraham J; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Chong, Pei Pei; Hong, Po-Da; Yu, Dah-Shyong; Farber, Ira-Yudovin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The failure of colorectal cancer treatments is partly due to overexpression of CXCR4 by tumor cells, which plays a critical role in cell metastasis. Moreover, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels are frequently elevated in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. A polysaccharide, dextran, was chosen as the vector of siRNA. Spermine was conjugated to oxidized dextran by reductive amination process to obtain cationized dextran, so-called dextran-spermine, in order to prepare CXCR4-siRNAs/dextran-spermine nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were used in order to investigate whether downregulation of CXCR4 expression could affect serum ALP in mouse models of colorectal cancer. Methods: Colorectal cancer was established in BALB/C mice following injection of mouse colon carcinoma cells CT.26WT through the tail vein. CXCR4 siRNA for two sites of the target gene was administered following injection of naked siRNA or siRNA encapsulated into nanoparticles. Results: In vivo animal data revealed that CXCR4 silencing by dextran-spermine nanoparticles significantly downregulated CXCR4 expression compared with naked CXCR4 siRNA. Furthermore, there was correlation between CXCR4 expression and serum ALP. Conclusion: CXCR4 siRNA/dextran-spermine nanoparticles appear to be highly effective, and may be suitable for further in vivo applications. Further research evaluation will be needed to determine the effect of CXCR4 silencing on serum ALP levels, which may be a useful marker to predict liver metastasis in colorectal cancer. PMID:22888250

  8. Cells cultured from the growing tip of red deer antler express alkaline phosphatase and proliferate in response to insulin-like growth factor-I.

    PubMed

    Price, J S; Oyajobi, B O; Oreffo, R O; Russell, R G

    1994-11-01

    Deer antler growth provides a unique natural model of rapid and complete bone regeneration. In this study, the distal antler tips of male red deer (Cervus elaphus) were collected post-mortem during the annual growth period (April-August), and an in vitro system established for the culture of cells from three regions; the inner layer of the perichondrium, the reserve mesenchyme and the cartilage zone. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression by cultured cells, as demonstrated by enzyme histochemistry and biochemical assay, reflected the stage of cellular differentiation. ALP activity was highest in cells cultured from the hypertrophic cartilage region (3.6 +/- 0.2 mumol/micrograms cell protein/minute), and lowest in undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (0.3 +/- 0.01 mumol/microgram cell protein/minute). ALP expression was lost with passage in culture. Levels of ALP activity in cultured cells correlated with the pattern and extent of enzyme expression in tissue sections as demonstrated by histochemical staining. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I (10(-9)M-10(-7)M) was found to be mitogenic for cultured cells from all three zones as shown by increased incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA. These results demonstrate that cells from three different regions of the antler tip can be maintained in culture, and that antler cells share certain phenotypic characteristics of growth plate chondrocytes. These data provide further evidence of a role for IGF-1 in the regulation of antler growth. Antler regrowth is a potentially useful model for the study of the factors that regulate bone formation. PMID:7829985

  9. Effect of water soluble extract of nacre (Pinctada maxima) on alkaline phosphatase activity and Bcl-2 expression in primary cultured osteoblasts from neonatal rat calvaria.

    PubMed

    Moutahir-Belqasmi, F; Balmain, N; Lieberrher, M; Borzeix, S; Berland, S; Barthelemy, M; Peduzzi, J; Milet, C; Lopez, E

    2001-01-01

    The nacre (mother of pearl) layer of the oyster Pinctada maxima shell can initiate bone formation by human osteoblasts in vivo and in vitro and is a new biomaterial that induces osteogenesis. This activity of nacre could be due to its water-soluble matrix. We examined the action of a water-soluble extract of nacre on the osteoblast phenotype of cells isolated from rat neonatal calvaria by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and by localization of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 by immunocytochemistry. ALP activity was increased 7% (p<0.001) by 100 microg proteins/ml extract and 20% (p<0.001) by 50 microg proteins/ml extract, but a low concentration of extract decreased the ALP activity by 8%. Cells treated with a high aspartic acid content fraction of the extract had increased ALP activity (23%, p<0.0001). Nacre extract and the fraction have no effect on the proliferation of mature osteoblasts. Immunoreactive Bcl-2 was overproduced in the cytoplasm and nuclei of osteoblasts at all stages of culture. Bcl-2 was found over the whole chromatin in quiescent and mitotic cells at the end of mitosis in the two nuclei in one cell, before cytodieresis. Bcl-2 was also found over chromosomes. Thus, nacre extract stimulates Bcl-2 production in osteoblasts, that is correlated with the cell cycle. Bcl-2 was also abundant in the nucleoli of extract-treated cells. Thus, the concentration and subcellular distribution of Bcl-2 in osteoblasts in primary cultures is influenced by nacre extract, and related to the cell cycle and the regulation of gene expression. Hence, knowledge of how water-soluble extracts of Pinctada maxima nacre act on osteoblasts in vitro may reveal the mechanisms involved in its action in vivo on bone cells and bone regeneration. PMID:15348370

  10. Nuclear translocation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, upon induction of skeletal muscle differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cambier, Linda; Pomies, Pascal

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} The cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, is expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle. {yields} smALP is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts upon induction of myogenesis. {yields} The differentiation-dependent nuclear translocation of smALP occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. {yields} The LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the protein. {yields} smALP might act in the nucleus to control some critical aspect of the muscle differentiation process. -- Abstract: The skALP isoform has been shown to play a critical role in actin organization and anchorage within the Z-discs of skeletal muscles, but no data is available on the function of the smALP isoform in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that upon induction of differentiation a nuclear translocation of smALP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts, concomitant to an up-regulation of the protein expression, occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear translocation of the protein.

  11. Titanium corrosion in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Been, Jantje

    1998-12-01

    The corrosion of Grade 2 titanium in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments has been studied by weight loss corrosion tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and potentiodynamic polarography. Calcium ions and wood pulp were investigated as corrosion inhibitors. In alkaline peroxide, the titanium corrosion rate increased with increasing pH, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The corrosion controlling mechanism is thought to be the reaction of the oxide with the perhydroxyl ion. No evidence of thermodynamically stable calcium titanate was found in the surface film of test coupons exposed to calcium-inhibited alkaline peroxide solutions. Calcium inhibition is probably the result of low local alkali and peroxide concentrations at the metal surface produced by reaction of adsorbed calcium with hydrogen peroxide. It has been shown that the inhibiting effect of calcium is temporary, possibly through an effect of calcium on the chemical and/or physical stability of the surface oxide. Pulp is an effective and stable corrosion inhibitor. Raising the pulp concentration decreased the corrosion rate. The inhibiting effect of pulp may be related to the adsorption and interaction of the pulp fibers with H 2O2, thereby decreasing the peroxide concentration and rendering the solution less corrosive. The presence of both pulp and calcium led to higher corrosion rates than obtained by either one inhibitor alone. Replacement of hydrofluoric acid with alkaline peroxide for pickling of titanium was investigated. Titanium corrosion rates in alkaline peroxide exceeded those obtained in the conventional hydrofluoric acid bath. General corrosion was observed with extensive roughening of the surface giving a dull gray appearance. Preferred dissolution of certain crystallographic planes was investigated through the corrosion of a titanium single crystal. Whereas the overall effect on the corrosion rate was small

  12. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-04-15

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. PMID:24556272

  13. Younger Dryas equilibrium line altitudes and precipitation patterns in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschner, Hanns; Moran, Andrew; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Moraine systems of the "Egesen Stadial" are widespread and easily identifiable features in the Alps. Absolute dating with terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclides shows that the maximum extent was reached during the early Younger Dryas (YD), probably as a reaction to the intense climatic downturn subsequent to Lateglacial Interstadial. In recent years, several new studies and the availability of high-quality laser-scan hillshades and orthophotos allowed a significant extension of the database of YD glaciers as "palaeoprecipitation gauges" to large hitherto unmapped regions in the Austrian and Swiss Alps. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the glaciers and its lowering relative to the Little Ice Age ELA (dELA) shows a distinct and systematic spatial pattern. Along the northern slope of the Alps, dELAs are usually large (around 400 m and perhaps even more), while dELAs range around 200 m in the well sheltered areas of the central Alps, e.g. in the Engadine and in western Tyrol. Both stochastic glacier-climate models (e.g. Ohmura et al. 1992) and the heat- and mass balance equation (Kuhn 1981) allow the reconstruction of precipitation change under the assumption of a spatially constant summer temperature depression, which in turn can be estimated from biological proxies. This allows to draw the spatial pattern of precipitation change with considerable detail. Precipitation change is clearly controlled by the local relief like high mountain chains, deeply incised and long valleys and mountain passes. Generally the contrast between the northern fringe of the Alps and the interior was more pronounced than today. Climate in the Northern and and Northwestern Alps was rather wet with precipitation totals eventually exceeding modern annual sums. The central Alps received 20 - 30% less precipitation than today, mainly due to reduced winter precipitation. In the southern Alps, still scarce spatial information points to precipitation sums which were approximately similar to

  14. Low temperature thermochronology in the Easter Alps. New data, interpretations and perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wölfler, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate new and published low temperature thermochronological data of the Eastern Alps in terms of its Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution and the possible connection with deep seated lithospheric processes. In the Eastern Alps, the tectonic units that originate from the Penninic domain are buried beneath the Austroalpine nappe stack. Overthrusting of the Austroalpine nappes over the Penninic units occurred throughout the Cretaceous and lasted until the Eocene. During lateral tectonic extrusion in Oligocene to Miocene times the footwall penninic units exposed in the Tauern Window, were tectonically exhumed from below the Austroalpine hanging wall. This is well documented by Miocene to Pliocene zircon- and apatite fission track (ZFT, AFT) and (U-Th)/He data. However, the Austroalpine hanging wall shows a more complex age pattern. Late Cretaceous ZFT data reflect post-metamorphic exhumational cooling after Eo-Alpine metamorphism that goes along with an extensional phase that affected large parts of the Eastern Alps. Paleogene AFT and apatite (U-Th)/He data of the Austroalpine units to the east of the Tauern Window reflect exhumation of this area that supplied clastic material, the so-called Augenstein formation. Exhumation and erosion of the area left a probably hilly surface in Early Miocene times that was only moderately uplifted since then. These areas are well known for paleosurfaces exposed in the Gurktal- Kor- and Seckauer Alps to the east of the Tauern Window and in the central and eastern Northern Calcareous Alps. However, distinct parts of the Austroalpine hanging wall experienced substantial exhumation and surface uplift in the Miocene, contemporaneous to the exhumation of Penninic units and lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps. These areas are restricted to the south and northeast of the Tauern Window and are characterized by steep and rugged reliefs that contrast the hilly and moderately shaped reliefs of the

  15. Release of agronomical nutrient from zeolitite substrate containing phosphatic waste.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, I; Toschi, T; Passaglia, E; Barbieri, L

    2014-12-01

    The principal plant nutrients are phosphorous, nitrogen and potassium. Among these compounds, phosphorous is the most critical: it reacts rapidly, becoming an insoluble compound. The combination of zeolitites with phosphate materials (zeoponic substrate) agrees to a gradual and controlled phosphorous release in soils: phosphorous for plant uptake is released by the combination of dissolution and ion-exchange reactions. Animal bone ashes, rich in phosphorous and leached alone, release little amounts of soluble phosphorous and a great deal of alkaline sodium and potassium. Concerning chabazitic-zeolitite, it encourages a both gradual and growing soluble phosphorous release from animal bone ashes, in accordance with clinoptilolitic- and phillipsitic-zeolitite abilities; in particular, that release increases, thanks to both a higher zeolitite/bone ash ratio and ammonium enrichment of zeolitite. The use of zeolitite is environmentally sustainable in Italy because large amounts of deposits of zeolitite were present in Italy. PMID:25056750

  16. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am - the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting ...

  17. A method for making an alkaline battery electrode plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chida, K.; Ezaki, T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for making an alkaline battery electrode plate where the desired active substances are filled into a nickel foam substrate. In this substrate an electrolytic oxidation reduction occurs in an alkaline solution containing lithium hydroxide.

  18. A multidisciplinary methodology for the characterization of a large rock spread in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzner, Sandra; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Moser, Michael; Motschka, Klaus; Lotter, Michael; Mandl, Gerhard Walter; Rohn, Joachim; Otter, Juergen; Wimmer-Frey, Ingeborg

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Calcareous Alps are characterized by complex lithological and tectonic settings, which are a consequence of the multiphase Alpine orogeny. Several tectonic events caused a varying structural anisotropy with a high susceptibility towards certain types of gravitational mass movement. Mt. Plassen is situated west of the Hallstatt village (Upper Austria). It is composed of Jurassic limestone, which overlies Permotriassic fine-grained clastic rocks and evaporites (mainly part of the so-called Haselgebirge). This geotechnical predisposition causes rock spreading of the more hard and rigid limestone on the weak, mainly clayey rocks. Associated to this large slope instability are secondary rockfall and sliding processes. Further common process chains include rockfall triggering slides and/or earth flows by undrained loading of the ductile clay material. Thus, such fast moving flows/slides may endanger the houses and infrastructures in the Salzberg high valley and Hallstatt village. Recent rockfall activity at Mt. Plassen provide evidences for greater, perhaps accelerating displacement rates of the rock spread. A multidisciplinary assessment strategy was chosen to analyse the ground conditions, to characterize the potential failure mechanisms in more detail and to evaluate the hazard potential of future events. Methods include field mapping (geologic, engineering geologic and geomorphologic), sampling and determination of soil parameters in active process areas, geophysical surveys (airborne geophysics and geoelectric measurements) and kinematic measurements (tape dilatometer and geodetic measurements over a period of 50 years). Results of this multidisciplinary approach form the basis for further decision making such as the installation of a monitoring system or other preventive measures.

  19. Adjacent Lone Pair (ALP) Effect: A Computational Approach for Its Origin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Wu, Wei; Ahmed, Basil M; Mezei, Gellert; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-23

    The adjacent lone pair (ALP) effect is an experimental phenomenon in certain nitrogenous heterocyclic systems exhibiting the preference of the products with lone pairs separated over other isomers with lone pairs adjacent. A theoretical elucidation of the ALP effect requires the decomposition of intramolecular energy terms and the isolation of lone pair-lone pair interactions. Here we used the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method within the ab initio valence bond (VB) theory to derive the strictly localized orbitals which are used to accommodate one-atom centered lone pairs and two-atom centered σ or π bonds. As such, interactions among electron pairs can be directly derived. Two-electron integrals between adjacent lone pairs do not support the view that the lone pair-lone pair repulsion is responsible for the ALP effect. Instead, the disabling of π conjugation greatly diminishes the ALP effect, indicating that the reduction of π conjugation in deprotonated forms with two σ lone pairs adjacent is one of the major causes for the ALP effect. Further electrostatic potential analysis and intramolecular energy decomposition confirm that the other key factor is the favorable electrostatic attraction within the isomers with lone pairs separated. PMID:27139318

  20. Lateral extrusion in the Eastern Alps revisited: Refining the model by thermochronological, sedimentary, and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WöLfler, Andreas; Kurz, Walter; Fritz, Harald; Stüwe, Kurt

    2011-08-01

    This study comprises a reassessment of the classical model of lateral extrusion in the Eastern Alps by using recently published geochronological data, sedimentary ages from intramontane basins, ages and distribution of magmatic rocks, and information from seismic profiles. Extrusion-related faulting continuously propagated from the western toward the central eastern part of the Eastern Alps during Oligocene to Middle Miocene times. This is confined by oblique convergence between the Adriatic and European plates. During Middle Miocene times, extrusion became not only lateral in terms of parallel to the trend of the Eastern Alps, but was characterized by a displacement vector at a high angle to the strike of the orogen. This resulted in the exhumation of the Schladming and Pohorje blocks that were exhumed within extensional bridges at the northern and southern terminations of the Pöls-Lavanttal fault system, respectively. From Middle Miocene to recent times, extrusion was controlled by overall extension between the Dinaric and Carpathian subduction zones. The influence of north directed compression triggered by the northward moving Adriatic plate diminished, and the influence of the retreating Carpathian subduction zone increased. This gave rise to Miocene volcanism that is exclusively found east of the Dinaric subduction zone. We therefore consider that lateral extrusion in the Eastern Alps can be subdivided into distinct tectonic phases, with less pronounced eastward extension-related displacement between Late Oligocene and Middle Miocene times. As soon as the Eastern Alps passed the Dinaric subduction zone, the entire domain became highly extensive.

  1. ALPS: The Age-Layered Population Structure for Reducing the Problem of Premature Convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    To reduce the problem of premature convergence we define a new attribute of an individual, its age, and propose the Age-Layered Population Structure (ALPS), in which age is used to restrict competition and breeding between members of the population. ALPS differs from a typical EA by segregating individuals into different age-layers by their age - a measure of how long the genetic material has been in the population - and by regularly replacing all individuals in the bottom layer with randomly generated ones. The introduction of new, randomly generated individuals at regular intervals results in an EA that is never completely converged and is always looking at new parts of the fitness landscape. By using age to restrict competition and breeding search is able to develop promising young individuals without them being dominated by older ones. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the ALPS algorithm on an antenna design problem in which evolution with ALPS produces antennas more than twice as good as does evolution with two other types of EAs. Further analysis shows that the ALPS model does allow the offspring of newly generated individuals to move the population out of mediocre local-optima to better parts of the fitness landscape.

  2. Dating the onset of LGM ice surface lowering in the High Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirsig, Christian; Zasadni, Jerzy; Christl, Marcus; Akçar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan

    2016-07-01

    The general chronological outline of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Alps is well known after more than two centuries of ice age research in Europe. Current studies focus on resolving the details of the deglaciation process after the LGM. Particularly few data in this context are available from the High Alps. Here we report chronological constraints on the onset of deglaciation in two different study areas from the Western and Eastern Alps: the Mont Blanc (Italy) and Zillertal Alps (Austria). We sampled 32 bedrock and boulder surfaces from high elevation ridges beneath the glacial trimline. The oldest 10Be exposure ages of ∼18.5 ka correspond to the initiation of lowering of the LGM ice surface. Identical ages from both study areas suggest synchronous decay of the LGM glaciers in the accumulation zones of the Western and Eastern Alps. Thus, the High Alpine ice surface lowered roughly synchronously to the downwasting of the glacier tongues in the forelands that was completed 19-18 ka. In both study areas, ages of numerous samples that are consistently 2-3 ka younger than 18.5 ka suggest the persistance of remnant ice patches at high elevations in the Lateglacial accumulation zones approximately until the Bølling-Allerød interstadial.

  3. Late Matuyama climate forcing on sedimentation at the margin of the southern Alps (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardia, Giancarlo; Donegana, Marta; Muttoni, Giovanni; Ravazzi, Cesare; Vezzoli, Giovanni

    2010-04-01

    The Pleistocene history of climate control on sedimentation in the Southern Alps-Po Plain system, northern Italy, was reconstructed using an integrated magnetostratigraphic, palynological, and petrographical approach on a 47-m-deep core. The core mainly consists of lacustrine sediments pertaining to the Bagaggera sequence, deposited at the foothills of the Southern Alps during the late Matuyama subchron (0.99-0.78 Ma). At that time, climate worsened globally and locally it caused the progradation of an alluvial fan unit onto the nearby Po Plain, triggering lake formation by damming of a tributary valley. These new data are used in conjunction with data from the literature to highlight and track the effects of climate forcing on sedimentation during the late Matuyama subchron in different orographic and geodynamic settings of the Southern Alps-Po Plain system as part of the greater Alpine area. We found that the episodes of alluvial fan and braidplain progradation observed in the southern foreland of the Alps during the late Matuyama global cooling seem broadly synchronous with the deposition of most of the so-called Günz and Älterer Deckenschotter deposits in the northern forelands of the Alps as well as with the first major waxing of the Alpine valley glaciers, possibly around the Marine Isotope Stage 22 (˜0.87 Ma).

  4. Quantifying the Eocene to Pleistocene topographic evolution of the southwestern Alps, France and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauquette, Séverine; Bernet, Matthias; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Grosjean, Anne-Sabine; Guillot, Stéphane; van der Beek, Peter; Jourdan, Sébastien; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Bertini, Adele; Pittet, Bernard; Tricart, Pierre; Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Zheng, Zhuo; Roche, Emile; Pavia, Giulio; Gardien, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    We evaluate the topographic evolution of the southwestern Alps using Eocene to Pleistocene pollen data combined with existing sedimentological, petrographic and detrital geo- and thermochronological data. We report 32 new pollen analyses from 10 sites completed by an existing dataset of 83 samples from 14 localities situated across the southwestern Alps, including both the pro- and the retro-foreland basins. The presence of microthermic tree pollen (mainly Abies, Picea) indicates that this part of the mountain belt attained elevations over 1900 m as early as the Oligocene. Inferred rapid surface uplift during the mid-Oligocene coincided with a previously documented brief phase of rapid erosional exhumation, when maximum erosion rates may have reached values of up to 1.5-2 km/Myr. Slower long-term average exhumation rates of ∼0.3 km/Myr since the Late Oligocene helped maintaining the high Alpine topography of the southwestern Alps until today. The relative abundances of meso-microthermic tree pollen (Cathaya, Cedrus and Tsuga) and microthermic tree pollen (Abies, Picea) in the pro- and retro-foreland basin deposits, indicate that the present-day asymmetric topography, with a relatively gentle western flank and steeper eastern flank, was established early in the southwestern Alps, at least since the Early Miocene, and possibly since the Oligocene or Late Eocene. Therefore, the high topography and asymmetric morphology of this part of the Alps has been maintained throughout the past ∼30 Ma.

  5. Comparison of alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on different Ti surfaces: modified sandblasted with large grit and acid-etched (MSLA), laser-treated, and laser and acid-treated Ti surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jie; Kim, So-Nam

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE In this study, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant surface treatment on cell differentiation of osteoblast cells. For this purpose, three surfaces were compared: (1) a modified SLA (MSLA: sand-blasted with large grit, acid-etched, and immersed in 0.9% NaCl), (2) a laser treatment (LT: laser treatment) titanium surface and (3) a laser and acid-treated (LAT: laser treatment, acid-etched) titanium surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS The MSLA surfaces were considered as the control group, and LT and LAT surfaces as test groups. Alkaline phosphatase expression (ALP) was used to quantify osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cell. Surface roughness was evaluated by a contact profilometer (URFPAK-SV; Mitutoyo, Kawasaki, Japan) and characterized by two parameters: mean roughness (Ra) and maximum peak-to-valley height (Rt). RESULTS Scanning electron microscope revealed that MSLA (control group) surface was not as rough as LT, LAT surface (test groups). Alkaline phosphatase expression, the measure of osteoblastic differentiation, and total ALP expression by surface-adherent cells were found to be highest at 21 days for all three surfaces tested (P<.05). Furthermore, ALP expression levels of MSLA and LAT surfaces were significantly higher than expression levels of LT surface-adherent cells at 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively (P<.05). However, ALP expression levels between MSLA and LAT surface were equal at 7, 14, and 21 days (P>.05). CONCLUSION This study suggested that MSLA and LAT surfaces exhibited more favorable environment for osteoblast differentiation when compared with LT surface, the results that are important for implant surface modification studies. PMID:27350860

  6. Electron microscope histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase(s) in Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed Central

    McNicholas, J M; Hulett, F M

    1977-01-01

    Sites of alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity in a facultative thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 have been localized by electron microscope histochemistry, using a lead capture method. The effects of 3% glutaraldehyde and 3.0 mM lead on APase activity were investigated, and these compounds were found to significantly inhibit enzyme activity, 68 and 18%, respectively. A number of parameters were varied in studies to localize APase activity, including: growth temperature (55 and 37 degrees C); substrate concentration in the histochemical mixture (0.06, 0.15, 0.30, 1.00 mM); fixatives; protoplast preparations and whole cells; phosphate-repressed and -derepressed cells; and age of vegetative cells (mid-log and late log). These variations affected the number but not the location of lead phosphate deposits, which appeared at discrete sites along the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane. Control cells incubated in histochemical mixtures lacking substrate, lead, or both exhibited no lead phosphate depositis. The histochemical localization at membrane sites correlated well with biochemical localization data, which indicated that greater than 80% of the APase activity was associated with the membrane fraction in logarithmically growing cells. Images PMID:401501

  7. Electron microscope histochemical localization of alkaline phosphatase(s) in Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, J M; Hulett, F M

    1977-01-01

    Sites of alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity in a facultative thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis MC14 have been localized by electron microscope histochemistry, using a lead capture method. The effects of 3% glutaraldehyde and 3.0 mM lead on APase activity were investigated, and these compounds were found to significantly inhibit enzyme activity, 68 and 18%, respectively. A number of parameters were varied in studies to localize APase activity, including: growth temperature (55 and 37 degrees C); substrate concentration in the histochemical mixture (0.06, 0.15, 0.30, 1.00 mM); fixatives; protoplast preparations and whole cells; phosphate-repressed and -derepressed cells; and age of vegetative cells (mid-log and late log). These variations affected the number but not the location of lead phosphate deposits, which appeared at discrete sites along the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane. Control cells incubated in histochemical mixtures lacking substrate, lead, or both exhibited no lead phosphate depositis. The histochemical localization at membrane sites correlated well with biochemical localization data, which indicated that greater than 80% of the APase activity was associated with the membrane fraction in logarithmically growing cells. PMID:401501

  8. The interaction of phosphate coatings on a carbon steel surface with a sodium nitrite and silicate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanauskas, R.; Girčienė, O.; Gudavičiūtė, L.; Selskis, A.

    2015-02-01

    Mono-cation PZn, bi-cation PZnCa, PZnNi and three-cation PZnNiMn crystalline phosphate coatings were modified with an inhibitor mixture: a sodium nitrite and sodium silicate solution with the aim to establish the reasons of protective ability enhancement of passive films on a carbon steel surface in an alkaline media. The SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS techniques were applied for the structural, phase and composition characterization of the phosphate coatings, voltammetric measurements were carried out to determine the passive layer protective ability, while EIS studies yielded information on the coatings porosity. Compact films of Si compounds were formed on the surface of the phosphate coatings during their modification procedure, which was accompanied by an increase in the protective ability of phosphate layer. A higher porosity and regularly shaped crystallites of the phosphate layer were favourable for accumulation of a greater amount of Si in the modified coatings. The protective ability of the modified coatings remains fairly pronounced, which testifies that the phosphate layer porosity is not the only factor influencing the corrosion behaviour of the coating. The difference in the nature of Si compounds comprising modified phosphate coatings leads to the differences in their protective ability.

  9. Detergent phosphate bans and eutrophication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    The Vollenweider-OECD eutrophication model has been expanded to approximately 400 lakes. It is possible to make a quantitative prediction of the effects of a detergent phosphate ban and thereby to ascertain the potential benefits of such a ban. In order to assess the effect of a detergent phosphate ban on water quality it is necessary to know the percentage of phosphorus in the domestic waste water that enters the water body, either directly or indirectly, and the percentage of the total phosphorus load that is derived from domestic wastewater. Although detergent phosphate bans generally will not result in an overall improvement to water quality, there may be some situations in which eutrophication-related water quality would be improved by a ban. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  10. FINAL REPORT. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing Al(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (III-VII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation (pH 10-14) of actinides in presence of Al(III) formation of alumi...

  11. Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, W.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Mazza, A.

    The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing on a thick sediment bed. Problems with floods, avalanches and debris flows from this ice body have been known for extended time periods. Most recently, however, the evolution of this highly dynamic environ- ment has become more dramatic. An outburst of Lago delle Locce, an ice-dammed lake at the confluenec of the tributary Ghiacciaio delle Locce with Ghiacciaio del Belvedere, caused heavy damage in 1979 and necessitated site investigation and con- struction work to be done for flood protection. The intermittent glacier growth ten- dency in the 1970es induced strong bulging of the glacier surface and, in places, caused the glacier tongue to override historical morains and to destroy newly-grown forest stands. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte- Rosa east face during summer 2000, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Ghiacciaio del Belvedere and extreme bulging of its orographic right margin. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002: the ice now started overriding the LIA moraine near Rifugio Zamboni of the CAI. In addition but rather independently, a most active detachment zone for rock