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Sample records for alkaline potassium permanganate

  1. Optimization and evaluation of alkaline potassium permanganate pretreatment of corncob.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijuan; Cui, Youzhi; Cai, Rui; Liu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-03-01

    Alkaline potassium permanganate solution (APP) was applied to the pretreatment of corncob with a simple and effective optimization of APP concentration, reaction time, temperature and solid to liquid ratio (SLR). The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 2% (w/v) potassium permanganate with SLR of 1:10 treating for 6h at 50°C. This simple one-step treatment resulted in significant 94.56% of the cellulose and 81.47% of the hemicellulose recoveries and 46.79% of the lignin removal of corncob. The reducing sugar in the hydrolysate from APP-pretreated corncob was 8.39g/L after 12h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was 1.44 and 1.29 folds higher than those from raw and acid pretreated corncobs. Physical characteristics, crystallinity and structure of the pretreated corncob were analyzed and assessed by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The APP pretreatment process was novel and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose by affecting composition and structural features. PMID:25585256

  2. Kinetic Determination of Acarbose and Miglitol in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulations Using Alkaline Potassium Permanganate

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, F. A.; Ali, F. A.; Ahmed, S. M.; Tolba, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was established for the determination of acarbose and miglitol in bulk and in their pharmaceutical preparations using alkaline potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent. The method involves determination of acarbose and miglitol by kinetic studies of their oxidation at room temperature for a fixed time of 15 minutes for acarbose and 25 minutes for miglitol. The absorbance of the colored manganate ion was measured at 610 nm. Alternatively, the kinetic decrease in the absorbance of permanganate upon addition of the studied drugs at 525 nm was also used. The absorbance concentration plot was rectilinear over the concentration range of 4-20 and 1-10 μg/ml for acarbose and miglitol, respectively. The detection limits were 0.189 and 0.089 μg/ml at 610 nm and 0.081 and 0.179 μg/ml at 525 nm for acarbose and miglitol respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these drugs in their dosage forms. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained with the reference methods. PMID:23675017

  3. Kinetic determination of acarbose and miglitol in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations using alkaline potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, F A; Ali, F A; Ahmed, S M; Tolba, M M

    2007-03-01

    A simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was established for the determination of acarbose and miglitol in bulk and in their pharmaceutical preparations using alkaline potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent. The method involves determination of acarbose and miglitol by kinetic studies of their oxidation at room temperature for a fixed time of 15 minutes for acarbose and 25 minutes for miglitol. The absorbance of the colored manganate ion was measured at 610 nm. Alternatively, the kinetic decrease in the absorbance of permanganate upon addition of the studied drugs at 525 nm was also used. The absorbance concentration plot was rectilinear over the concentration range of 4-20 and 1-10 μg/ml for acarbose and miglitol, respectively. The detection limits were 0.189 and 0.089 μg/ml at 610 nm and 0.081 and 0.179 μg/ml at 525 nm for acarbose and miglitol respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these drugs in their dosage forms. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained with the reference methods. PMID:23675017

  4. Status of potassium permanganate - 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on catfish/HSB): 1) Human Food Safety - Complete for all fin fish (June 1999). A hazard charac...

  5. Status of potassium permanganate label claim - 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Various aspects of these technical sections will be open for discussion. Potassium Permanganate Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on cat...

  6. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Al-Omari, Ahmad A.; Al-Asaad, Rania A.; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome. PMID:26366264

  7. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome.

    PubMed

    Eteiwi, Suzan M; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K; Al-Omari, Ahmad A; Al-Asaad, Rania A; Haddad, Fares H

    2015-07-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome. PMID:26366264

  8. 75 FR 23298 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... potassium permanganate from China (70 FR 35630). The Commission is now conducting a third review to... 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for... from China (49 FR 3897). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  9. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-02-01

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO{sub 2}, highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO{sub 4}/2.5M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO{sub 2} (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation.

  10. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-02-01

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO[sub 2], highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO[sub 4]/2.5M H[sub 3]PO[sub 4] solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO[sub 2] (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation.

  11. STATUS OF POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE INITIAL LABEL CLAIM - 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Various aspects of these technical sections will be open for discussion. Potassium Permanganate NADA: 1) Human Food Safety - Complete...

  12. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  13. Potassium Permanganate as an Alternative for Gold Mining Wastewater Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordiales, M.; Fernández, D.; Verdeja, L. F.; Sancho, J.

    2015-09-01

    The feasibility of using potassium permanganate as a reagent for cyanide oxidation in wastewater was experimentally studied. Both artificial and production wastewater from two different gold mines were tested. The experiments had three goals: determine the optimum reagent concentration and reaction time required to achieve total cyanide removal, obtain knowledge of the reaction kinetics, and improve the management of the amount of reagent. The results indicate that potassium permanganate is an effective and reliable oxidizing agent for the removal of cyanide from gold mining wastewater.

  14. 75 FR 63856 - Potassium Permanganate From China Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ....2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on May 3, 2010 (75 FR 23298) and determined on August 6, 2010 that it would conduct an expedited review (75 FR 51112, August 18, 2010). The... COMMISSION Potassium Permanganate From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND EFFECTS OF AQUACULTURE THERAPEUTANT POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium permanganate is a widely used freshwater aquaculture drug for the treatment and prevention of waterborne parasitic, bacterial and fungal diseases. However, it is not approved by the USFDA for use as a therapeutant. One of the requirements for approval is an ecological risk assessment. T...

  16. Degradation of progestagens by oxidation with potassium permanganate in wastewater effluents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the oxidation of selected progestagenic steroid hormones by potassium permanganate at pH 6.0 and 8.0 in ultrapure water and wastewater effluents, using bench-scale assays. Second order rate constants for the reaction of potassium permanganate with progestagens (levonorgestrel, medroxyprogesterone, norethindrone and progesterone) was determined as a function of pH, presence of natural organic matter and temperature. This work also illustrates the advantages of using a novel analytical method, the laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD-APCI) interface coupled to tandem mass spectrometry apparatus, allowing for the quick determination of oxidation rate constants and increasing sample throughput. Results The second-order rate constants for progestagens with permanganate determined in bench-scale experiments ranged from 23 to 368 M-1 sec-1 in both wastewater and ultrapure waters with pH values of 6.0 and 8.0. Two pairs of progestagens exhibited similar reaction rate constants, i.e. progesterone and medroxyprogesterone (23 to 80 M-1 sec-1 in ultrapure water and 26 to 149 M-1 sec-1 in wastewaters, at pH 6.0 and 8.0) and levonorgestrel and norethindrone (179 to 224 M-1 sec-1 in ultrapure water and 180 to 368 M-1 sec-1 in wastewaters, at pH 6.0 and 8.0). The presence of dissolved natural organic matter and the pH conditions improved the oxidation rate constants for progestagens with potassium permanganate only at alkaline pH. Reaction rates measured in Milli-Q water could therefore be used to provide conservative estimates for the oxidation rates of the four selected progestagens in wastewaters when exposed to potassium permanganate. The progestagen removal efficiencies was lower for progesterone and medroxyprogesterone (48 to 87 %) than for levonorgestrel and norethindrone (78 to 97%) in Milli-Q and wastewaters at pH 6.0-8.2 using potassium permanganate dosages of 1 to 5 mg L-1 after contact times of 10 to 60

  17. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... women resulting from the misuse of potassium permanganate in an effort to induce abortion. Reports from... potassium permanganate is not effective in producing abortion, but that instead the drug produces serious... that the article would be used in an attempt to induce abortion. (4) Any preparation of...

  18. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... women resulting from the misuse of potassium permanganate in an effort to induce abortion. Reports from... potassium permanganate is not effective in producing abortion, but that instead the drug produces serious... that the article would be used in an attempt to induce abortion. (4) Any preparation of...

  19. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... women resulting from the misuse of potassium permanganate in an effort to induce abortion. Reports from... potassium permanganate is not effective in producing abortion, but that instead the drug produces serious... that the article would be used in an attempt to induce abortion. (4) Any preparation of...

  20. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... women resulting from the misuse of potassium permanganate in an effort to induce abortion. Reports from... potassium permanganate is not effective in producing abortion, but that instead the drug produces serious... that the article would be used in an attempt to induce abortion. (4) Any preparation of...

  1. Effects of Potassium Permanganate Oxidation on Subsurface Microbial Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, Martin A.; Brubaker, Gaylen R.; Westray, Mark; Morris, Damon; Kohler, Keisha; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation has the potential for degrading large quantities of organic contaminants and can be more effective and timely than traditional ex situ treatment methods. However, there is a need to better characterize the potential effects of this treatment on natural processes. This study focuses on potential inhibition to anaerobic dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in soils from a large manufacturing facility as a result of in situ oxidation using potassium permanganate (KMn04)Previous microcosm studies established that natural attenuation occurs on-site and that it is enhanced by the addition of ethanol to the system. A potential remediation scheme for the site involves the use of potassium permanganate to reduce levels of TCE in heavily contaminated areas, then to inject ethanol into the system to "neutralize" excess oxidant and enhance microbial degradation. However, it is currently unknown whether the exposure of indigenous microbial populations to potassium permanganate may adversely affect biological reductive dechlorination by these microorganisms. Consequently, additional microcosm studies were conducted to evaluate this remediation scheme and assess the effect of potassium permanganate addition on biological reductive dechlorination of TCE. Samples of subsurface soil and groundwater were collected from a TCE-impacted area of the site. A portion of the soil was pretreated with nutrients and ethanol to stimulate microbial activity, while the remainder of the soil was left unamended. Soil/groundwater microcosms were prepared in sealed vials using the nutrient-amended and unamended soils, and the effects of potassium permanganate addition were evaluated using two permanganate concentrations (0.8 and 2.4 percent) and two contact times (1 and 3 weeks). TCE was then re-added to each microcosm and TCE and dichloroethene (DCE) concentrations were monitored to determine the degree to which microbial dechlorination occurred following chemical

  2. DETERMINATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE, NITROGEN OXIDES, AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS BY ALKALINE PERMANGANATE SAMPLING AND ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A manual 24-h integrated method for determining SO2, NOx, and CO2 in emissions from electric utility plants was developed and field tested downstream from an SO2 control system. Samples were collected in alkaline potassium permanganate solution contained in restricted-orifice imp...

  3. Comparative acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to nontarget aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Melissa S; Grippo, Richard S; Farris, Jerry L; Griffin, Billy R; Harding, Lora L

    2006-11-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is used worldwide in freshwater pond aquaculture for treatment and prevention of waterborne external parasitic, bacterial, and fungal diseases. Nevertheless, KMnO4 has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and insufficient information exists to allow evaluation of the environmental risk of KMnO4 exposures. Limited data exist concerning KMnO4 toxicity to nontarget species in systems receiving aquaculture effluent from treated ponds. The goal of this research is to generate effects data for use in developing an ecological risk assessment of KMnO4. Toxicity tests were used to compare the relative sensitivities of five standard aquatic test species to KMnO4. Acute toxicity test results using synthetic moderately hard water show static 96-h mean median lethal concentration (LC50) values +/- standard deviation (SD) of 0.058 +/- 0.006 mg/L for Ceriodaphnia dubia, 0.053 +/- 0.009 mg/L for Daphnia magna, 2.13 +/- 0.07 mg/L for Pimephales promelas, 4.74 +/- 1.05 mg/L for Hyalella azteca, and 4.43 +/- 0.79 mg/L for Chironomus tentans. Most of these values are below the recommended KMnO4 treatment rate of at least 2.0 mg/L or 2.5 times the water's potassium permanganate demand (PPD; an estimation of the available reducing agents in the exposure water), suggesting significant environmental risk. However, repeating these laboratory tests using pond water resulted in significantly reduced toxicity, with static 96-h mean LC50 values (+/-SD) of 2.39 +/- 0.36 mg/L for C. dubia, 1.98 +/- 0.12 mg/L for D. magna, 11.22 +/- 1.07 mg/L for P. promelas, 13.55 +/- 2.24 mg/L for H. azteca, and 12.30 +/- 2.83 mg/L for C. tentans. The PPD of synthetic moderately hard water was 0.329 +/- 0.114 mg/L; however, pond water PPD was 5.357 +/- 0.967 mg/L. The effective disease-treating dose based on 2.5 times the PPD would thus be 0.823 and 13.392 mg KMnO4/L, respectively, exceeding the LC50 for most of these nontarget organisms, even in pond water

  4. Oxidation kinetics of antibiotics during water treatment with potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lanhua; Martin, Heather M; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2010-08-15

    The ubiquitous occurrence of antibiotics in aquatic environments raises concerns about potential adverse effects on aquatic ecology and human health, including the promotion of increased antibiotic resistance. This study examined the oxidation of three widely detected antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, lincomycin, and trimethoprim) by potassium permanganate [KMnO(4); Mn(VII)]. Reaction kinetics were described by second-order rate laws, with apparent second-order rate constants (k(2)) at pH 7 and 25 degrees C in the order of 0.61 +/- 0.02 M(-1) s(-1) (ciprofloxacin) < 1.6 +/- 0.1 M(-1) s(-1) (trimethoprim) < 3.6 +/- 0.1 M(-1) s(-1) (lincomycin). Arrhenius temperature dependence was observed with apparent activation energies (E(a)) ranging from 49 kJ mol(-1) (trimethoprim) to 68 kJ mol(-1) (lincomycin). Rates of lincomycin and trimethoprim oxidation exhibited marked pH dependences, whereas pH had only a small effect on rates of ciprofloxacin oxidation. The effects of pH were quantitatively described by considering parallel reactions between KMnO(4) and individual acid-base species of the target antibiotics. Predictions from a kinetic model that included temperature, KMnO(4) dosage, pH, and source water oxidant demand as input parameters agreed reasonably well with measurements of trimethoprim and lincomycin oxidation in six drinking water utility sources. Although Mn(VII) reactivity with the antibiotics was lower than that reported for ozone and free chlorine, its high selectivity and stability suggests a promising oxidant for treating sensitive micropollutants in organic-rich matrices (e.g., wastewater). PMID:20704243

  5. Oxidation kinetics of crystal violet by potassium permanganate in acidic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sameera Razi; Ashfaq, Maria; Mubashir; Masood, Summyia

    2016-05-01

    The oxidation kinetics of crystal violet (a triphenylmethane dye) by potassium permanganate was focused in an acidic medium by the spectrophotometric method at 584 nm. The oxidation reaction of crystal violet by potassium permanganate is carried out in an acidic medium at different temperatures ranging within 298-318 K. The kinetic study was carried out to investigate the effect of the concentration, ionic strength and temperature. The reaction followed first order kinetics with respect to potassium permanganate and crystal violet and the overall rate of the reaction was found to be second order. Thermodynamic activation parameters like the activation energy ( E a), enthalpy change (Δ H*), free energy change (Δ G*), and entropy change (Δ S*) have also been evaluated.

  6. 21 CFR 250.108 - Potassium permanganate preparations as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... crystals of potassium permanganate into the vagina. Experience with these cases shows that such use of... and painful injury to the walls of the vagina, causing ulcers, massive hemorrhage, and infection. Such... membranes or for use in the vagina will be regarded as misbranded under the provisions of section 502(f)...

  7. Treating a natural outbreak of columnaris in channel catfish with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An F. Columnare-exclusive epizootic occurred in fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during normal tank culture practices at SNARC. Fish were transferred to the ultra low-flow system and 2.1 mg/L copper sulfate or 3 mg/L potassium permanganate was administered; an untreated control was ...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE THERAPEUTANT POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE: SUMMARY OF TIER III (MESOCOSM) STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium permanganate is a widely used freshwater aquaculture drug for the treatment and prevention of waterborne parasitic, bacterial and fungal diseases. However, it is not approved by the USFDA for use as a therapeutant. One of the requirements for approval is an ecological risk assessment. T...

  9. XPERT DESIGN AND DIAGNOSTICS' (XDD) IN-SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESS USING POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE (KMNO4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Xpert Design and Diagnostic's (XDD)potassium permanganate in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) process was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the former MEC Building site located in Hudson, New Hampshire. At this site, both soil and ...

  10. 75 FR 65448 - Potassium Permanganate From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... reasonably foreseeable future. See Potassium Permanganate From China Determination, 75 FR 63856 (October 18... Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 23240 (May 3, 2010). As a result of its review, the... People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of Antidumping Duty Order, 75...

  11. 75 FR 52509 - Potassium Permanganate from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 23240 (May 3, 2010). On May 6, 2010, the Department received a notice of intent... International Trade Administration Potassium Permanganate from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... Department of Commerce (``Department'') initiated a sunset review of the antidumping duty order on...

  12. Preparation and Analysis of Solid Solutions in the Potassium Perchlorate-Permanganate System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Garrett K.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an experiment, designed for and tested in an advanced inorganic laboratory methods course for college seniors and graduate students, that prepares and analyzes several samples in the nearly ideal potassium perchlorate-permanganate solid solution series. The results are accounted for by a theoretical treatment based upon aqueous…

  13. Effects of Smallmouth Buffalo and Potassium Permanganate Treatment on Plankton ans Pond Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of intermediate hosts is one option for control of disease in channel catfish production systems. We evaluated use of predaceous fish (smallmouth buffalo) and chemical treatment (potassium permanganate) to remove snails that serve as hosts protecting Dero worms. Both methods of treatment r...

  14. Comparison of tank treatments with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for sunshine bass with ichthyobodosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biflagellated single-cell parasite Ichthyobodo nectator can cause significant losses among fish populations, particularly those cultured in tanks. Potassium permanganate and CuSO4 treatments were evaluated against a naturally-occurring I. nectator infestation on sunshine bass raised in tanks. F...

  15. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  16. Effectiveness of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on channel catfish infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were evaluated for their effectiveness to curtail mortality and decrease bacterial load in fish tissues and water in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus naturally infected with Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris. Fis...

  17. Potassium permanganate is not an effective pond disinfectant to control Dero digitata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proliferative gill disease (PGD) is a major problem in cultured channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. This parasite requires Dero digitata to complete its life cycle. It is believed potassium permanganate disinfects ponds and reduces D. digitata populations, but this practice has not been verified...

  18. Kinetics of the oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Damm, Jochen H; Hardacre, Christopher; Kalin, Robert M; Walsh, Kayleen P

    2002-08-01

    The occurrence of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the environment has received considerable scientific attention. The pollutant is frequently found in the groundwater due to leaking of underground storage tanks or pipelines. Concentrations of more than several mg/L MTBE were detected in groundwater at several places in the US and Germany in the last few years. In situ chemical oxidation is a promising treatment method for MTBE-contaminated plumes. This research investigated the reaction kinetics for the oxidation of MTBE by permanganate. Batch tests demonstrated that the oxidation of MTBE by permanganate is second order overall and first order individually with respect to permanganate and MTBE. The second-order rate constant was 1.426 x 10(-6) L/mg/h. The influence of pH on the reaction rate was demonstrated to have no significant effect. However, the rate of MTBE oxidation by potassium permanganate is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than of other advanced oxidation processes. The slower rates of MTBE oxidation by permanganate limit the applicability of this process for rapid MTBE cleanup strategies. However, permanganate oxidation of MTBE has potential for passive oxidation risk management strategies. PMID:12230210

  19. Phase-transfer catalysis applied to the oxidation of nonaqueous phase trichloroethylene by potassium permanganate

    SciTech Connect

    Seol, Yongkoo; Schwartz, Franklin W.

    1999-01-02

    The use of potassium permanganate to oxidize chlorinated solvents has been demonstrated as an effective process for treating nonaqueous phase liquids in ground-water systems. This study evaluates the effectiveness of phase-transfer catalysts (PTCs) in enhancing the degradation rate. PTCs work by transferring permanganate ion into the nonaqueous phase where it initiates oxidative decomposition. We studied the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by potassium permanganate, conducting kinetic batch experiments in conjunction with three PTCs that varied in terms of their extraction constants and molecular structures. Using the same batch technique, we examined whether PTCs could enhance the aqueous solubility of TCE. Solubilization could also increase oxidation rates in the aqueous phase. Rates of TCE oxidation in solutions containing the PTCs and a blank were estimated separately by measuring chloride concentration and UV-Vis absorbance in the aqueous phase. The enhanced rate of TCE destruction by the PTCs was reflected by an increase in the rate of consumption of permanganate ion and production of chloride ion. There was no tendency for the PTCs, however, to solubilize TCE in the aqueous phase. Therefore, the PTCs increased the rate of TCE decomposition by catalyzing permanganate oxidation in the organic phase. This study suggests that there is significant potential for testing this scheme under field conditions.

  20. Phase-transfer catalysis applied to the oxidation of nonaqueous phase trichloroethylene by potassium permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Schwartz, Franklin W.

    2000-07-01

    The use of potassium permanganate to oxidize chlorinated solvents has been demonstrated as an effective process for treating nonaqueous phase liquids in ground-water systems. This study evaluates the effectiveness of phase-transfer catalysts (PTCs) in enhancing the degradation rate. PTCs work by transferring permanganate ion into the nonaqueous phase where it initiates oxidative decomposition. We studied the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by potassium permanganate, conducting kinetic batch experiments in conjunction with three PTCs that varied in terms of their extraction constants and molecular structures. Using the same batch technique, we examined whether PTCs could enhance the aqueous solubility of TCE. Solubilization could also increase oxidation rates in the aqueous phase. Rates of TCE oxidation in solutions containing the PTCs and a blank were estimated separately by measuring chloride concentration and UV-Vis absorbance in the aqueous phase. The enhanced rate of TCE destruction by the PTCs was reflected by an increase in the rate of consumption of permanganate ion and production of chloride ion. There was no tendency for the PTCs, however, to solubilize TCE in the aqueous phase. Therefore, the PTCs increased the rate of TCE decomposition by catalyzing permanganate oxidation in the organic phase. This study suggests that there is significant potential for testing this scheme under field conditions.

  1. Tested Demonstrations. The Stepwise Reduction of Permanganate in Alkaline Conditions: A Lecture Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruoff, Peter; Riley, Megan

    1987-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment where an alkaline ice-cold permanganate solution is reduced by adding dropwise a cold diluted hydrogen peroxide solution. Outlines the course of the reduction through the various oxidation states of manganese with their characteristic colors. (TW)

  2. Investigation on surface structure of potassium permanganate/nitric acid treated poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Congli; Liu, Shuling; Gong, Tianlong; Gu, Aiqun; Yu, Zili

    2014-10-01

    In the previous articles concerning the treatment of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) with potassium permanganate/nitric acid mixture, the conversion of a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic surface was partially assigned to the defluorination of PTFE and then the introduction of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups into the defluorinated sites. In the present work, PTFE sheets were treated with potassium permanganate/nitric acid, and the surfaces before and after treatment were comparatively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface sediments of the treated PTFE were also determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results indicate that the conversion of the hydrophobicity to the hydrophilicity on the modified PTFE surface is mainly due to the deposition of hydrophilic manganese oxides which covered the fluorocarbon surface, and no detectable chemical reactions of PTFE occur in the treating process.

  3. Screening for antioxidants in complex matrices using high performance liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Geoffrey P; Conlan, Xavier A; Noonan, Laura K; Costin, Jason W; Mnatsakanyan, Mariam; Shalliker, R Andrew; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2011-01-17

    The use of high performance liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection to screen for antioxidants in complex plant-derived samples was evaluated in comparison with two conventional post-column radical scavenging assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(+))). In this approach, acidic potassium permanganate can react with readily oxidisable compounds (potential antioxidants), post-column, to produce chemiluminescence. Using flow injection analysis, experimental parameters that afforded the most suitable permanganate chemiluminescence signal for a range of known antioxidants were studied in a univariate approach. Optimum conditions were found to be: 1×10(-3)M potassium permanganate solution containing 1% (w/v) sodium polyphosphates adjusted to pH 2 with sulphuric acid, delivered at a flow rate of 2.5 mL min(-1) per line. Further investigations showed some differences in detection selectivity between HPLC with the optimised post-column permanganate chemiluminescence detection and DPPH and ABTS(+) assays towards antioxidant standards. However, permanganate chemiluminescence detection was more sensitive. Moreover, screening for antioxidants in green tea, cranberry juice and thyme using potassium permanganate chemiluminescence offers several advantages over the traditional DPPH and ABTS(+) assays, such as faster reagent preparation and superior stability; simpler post-column reaction manifold; and greater compatibility with fast chromatographic separations using monolithic columns. PMID:21167995

  4. Oxidative degradation and kinetics of chlorinated ethylenes by potassium permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y. Eugene; Schwartz, Frank W.

    1999-04-01

    The oxidative treatment of chlorinated ethylenes in ground water using permanganate was investigated in a series of batch kinetic tests. Five chlorinated ethylenes including tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and three isomers of dichloroethylenes (DCEs) were examined. The degradation process was rapid with pseudo-first-order rate constants ranging from 4.5×10 -5 to 0.03 s -1 at MnO 4-=1 mM. The rate increased with a decreasing number of chlorine substituents on the ethylene. The higher reactivity of trans-DCE ( kobs=30×10 -3 s -1 at MnO 4-=1 mM) as compared to cis-DCE ( kobs=0.9×10 -3 s -1 at MnO 4-=1 mM) is thought to be caused by a significant steric effect due to the formation of a large cyclic activated complex. TCE oxidation as a second-order reaction was confirmed and the rate constant, k=0.67±0.03 M -1 s -1, is independent of pH over the range of 4-8. The activity of both Cl - and hydrogen ions was monitored over time and suggests essentially complete dechlorination, making the degradation products less harmful than the parent compounds. Competition for MnO 4- from other organic compounds in ground water or highly contaminated ground water was also evaluated in experiments. A simple and quick approach was demonstrated to estimate permanganate consumption by other organic compounds for field applications and to predict the TCE degradation rate in a system involving multiple contaminants. The modeling results suggest that the effect of autocatalysis by MnO 2 on TCE degradation is significant when the system contains high concentration levels of MnO 4- and TOC.

  5. 1,4-Diketones from Cross-Conjugated Dienones: Potassium Permanganate-Interrupted Nazarov Reaction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yonghoon; Schatz, Devon J; West, Frederick G

    2015-08-17

    A domino potassium permanganate-interrupted Nazarov reaction to yield syn-2,3-disubstituted 1,4-diketones via a decarbonylative cleavage of the Nazarov oxyallyl intermediate, believed to be without precedent, is presented. This process allows syn substituents to be established stereospecifically on the 2-carbon bridge connecting the ketone carbonyl carbons, and the formation of one carbon-carbon and two carbon-oxygen bonds. Two carbon-carbon bonds are cleaved in this process. PMID:26138361

  6. The effect of high concentration potassium permanganate on protein contamination from metallic and synthetic rubber airway equipment.

    PubMed

    Laupu, W; Brimacombe, J

    2007-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that supplementary cleaning using potassium permanganate 8 mg.l(-1) eliminates protein deposits from the reusable metallic and synthetic rubber airway equipment. Twenty Macintosh laryngoscope blades (surgical steel), 20 pairs of Magill's forceps (surgical steel) and 20 Guedel airways (synthetic rubber) were allocated to two groups for supplementary cleaning. In group A, the device was immersed in potassium permanganate 8 mg.l(-1). In group B (controls), the device was immersed in sterile water. The devices were then immersed in a protein staining solution, rinsed and the severity of staining was scored. In addition, the devices were inspected for tissue and then tested for occult blood. Protein contamination was lower in the potassium permanganate group for all devices (each device: p < 0.0001). There was no staining detected in the permanganate group. In the permanganate group, dried tissue was detected in the teeth of one pair of forceps, which was not detected following supplementary cleaning. Additionally, occult blood was detected on two pairs of forceps and a laryngoscope blade, which was not detected following supplementary cleaning. In the control group, no tissue was detected but one pair of forceps and two laryngoscope blades tested positive for occult blood before and after supplementary cleaning. We conclude that supplementary cleaning using potassium permanganate 8 mg.l(-1) eliminates protein deposits from re-usable metallic and synthetic rubber airway equipment. PMID:17635432

  7. Enantioselective Oxidation of Alkenes with Potassium Permanganate Catalyzed by Chiral Dicationic Bisguanidinium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zong, Lili; Tan, Choon-Hong

    2015-08-26

    Chiral anion-controlled ion-pairing catalysis was demonstrated to be a wide-ranging strategy that can utilize a variety of cationic metal species. In a similar manner, we envision a complementary strategy using chiral cation in partnership with inorganic anionic metal salts. Herein, we report a chiral dicationic bisguanidinium-catalyzed asymmetric oxidation reaction of alkenes with potassium permanganate. Chiral induction is attributed to ion-pairing interaction between chiral cation and enolate anion. The success of the current permanganate oxidation reaction together with mechanistic insights should provide inspiration for expansion to other anionic metal salts and would open up new paradigms for asymmetric transition metal catalysis, phase-transfer catalysis, and ion-pairing catalysis. PMID:26237178

  8. Kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of silymarin in pharmaceutical formulations using potassium permanganate as oxidant.

    PubMed

    Rahman, N; Khan, N A; Azmi, S N H

    2004-02-01

    A new simple and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of silymarin in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations is described. The method is based on the oxidation of the drug with potassium permanganate at pH 7.0 +/- 0.2. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance at 530 nm. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 18-50 microg x m(-1). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of silymarin in pharmaceutical formulations. Statistical comparison of the results with the reference method shows excellent agreement and indicates no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:15025178

  9. Histopathological and bacterial study of Persian sturgeon fry, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Moshtaghi, Batol; Khara, Hossein; Pazhan, Zabiyollah; Shenavar, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Persian sturgeon frys were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in order to the evaluation of their impacts on bacterial load of skin, gill and surrounding water and also the histopathological alternations of gill tissue. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in 4 (for copper sulfate: 0.07, 0.14, 026 and 0.5 mg/l) and 5 (for potassium permanganate: 0.07, 0.14, 026, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) treatments with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting drug was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to our results, a range of histopathological alternations were observed in gills tissue including mucus coagulation and secretion, hyperplasia, lamellar necrosis, hyperplasia, lamellar adhesion, haemorrhage, thickening of secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of supporter cartilage, clubbing of gill lamellae and sliming of primary lamellae. The severity of these alternations increased with increasing of the doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. The bacterial load (CFU/g) of gill, skin and surrounding water was lower in 0.07 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 1 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P < 0.05) than in other treatments. In conclusion, our results showed that the certain doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate have disinfecting effects on bacterial load of gill, skin and surrounding water, although this is along with some histopathological alternations. Also, it seems that the copper sulfate has higher disinfecting power than potassium permanganate. PMID:27605784

  10. Emitting species in chemiluminescence reactions with acidic potassium permanganate: a re-evaluation based on new spectroscopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Jacqui L; Francis, Paul S; Barnett, Neil W

    2009-09-01

    The reaction of acidic potassium permanganate with a wide range of compounds is known to produce a broad red emission, and there is strong evidence for an excited manganese(II) emitting species. Nevertheless, numerous researchers have proposed other emitters for reactions with acidic potassium permanganate, particularly for systems where fluorescent compounds were present, either as enhancers or reaction products. We have examined many reactions of this type and found that, in most cases, the same red emission was produced. There were, however, some exceptions, including the oxidation of dihydralazine, certain thiols and sulphite (each in the presence of an enhancer). PMID:19353245

  11. Chemiluminescence accompanied by the reaction of gold nanoparticles with potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Cui, Hua; Shi, Ming-Juan

    2006-02-28

    It was found that potassium permanganate (KMnO(4)) could react with gold nanoparticles in a strong acid medium to generate particle size-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). For gold nanoparticles with the size of 2.6 or 6.0 nm, the reaction was fast and could produce the excited state Mn(II) with light emission around 640 nm. For gold nanoparticles larger than 6.0 nm, no light emission was observed due to a much slower reaction rate. The CL intensity was found to increase linearly with the concentration of 2.6 nm gold nanoparticles. The effects of the acid medium, concentration of KMnO(4) and presence of N(2) and O(2) were investigated. UV-Vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) measured before and after the CL reaction were analyzed. A CL mechanism has been proposed suggesting that the potassium permanganate was reduced by gold nanoparticles in the strong acid medium to the excited state Mn(II), yielding light emission. The results bestow new light on the size-dependent chemical reactivities of the gold nanoparticles and on nanoparticle-induced chemiluminescence. The CL reaction was considered to be of potential use for bioanalysis applications. PMID:16482345

  12. The characteristic red chemiluminescence from reactions with acidic potassium permanganate: further spectroscopic evidence for a manganese(II) emitter.

    PubMed

    Adcock, Jacqui L; Francis, Paul S; Smith, Trevor A; Barnett, Neil W

    2008-01-01

    A direct comparison of the laser-induced photoluminescence of manganese(ii) with the chemiluminescence from the reaction between acidic potassium permanganate and sodium borohydride was used to confirm that the characteristic red emission from this widely used chemiluminescence reagent emanates from an electronically excited manganese(ii) species. PMID:18087612

  13. A Neat Trick Using Oxalic Acid Dihydrate and Potassium Permanganate and Other Experiments with Small Organic Amine or Oxygenated Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelland, Malcolm A.

    2011-01-01

    Solid potassium permanganate (KMnO[subscript 4]) is shown to react in a variety of ways with small organic amines or oxygenated compounds depending on whether they are liquids or solids and whether water is present. In particular, its reaction with solid oxalic acid dihydrate can be initiated by the moisture in one's breath, making an intriguing…

  14. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment for subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare was demonstrated in experimentally infected channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Catfish experimentally infected with F. columnare to mimic a subacute infec...

  15. Evaluation of potassium permanganate against an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Icatlurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was performed to evaluate the efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as a prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of an experimental subacute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Fish were cutaneously abraded and divided into five treatment...

  16. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Serum Determined Using the Potassium Permanganate Agar Method Based on Serum Diffusion in Agar.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Meijuan; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a new method for determining total antioxidants in serum and to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of organisms. Design and Methods. Sodium hyposulfite (Na2S2O3) and serum were used to evaluate the linearity and precision of the potassium permanganate agar method. The area of serum diffusion in samples from 30 intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with 44 healthy subjects was determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. Results. The linearity (R (2) in the linear experiment of Na2S2O3 was 0.994; R (2) in the linear experiment of serum was 0.987) and precision (coefficient of variation of area of high level serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day and coefficient of variation of area of low serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day were all less than 10%) were acceptable using the potassium permanganate agar method. Total antioxidants of serum between the ICU group and the healthy group were different (p = 0.002, two tailed). Conclusions. Total antioxidants in serum can be determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. The total antioxidant capacity of an organism can be evaluated by the amount of total antioxidants in serum. PMID:26347595

  17. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Serum Determined Using the Potassium Permanganate Agar Method Based on Serum Diffusion in Agar

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Meijuan; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a new method for determining total antioxidants in serum and to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of organisms. Design and Methods. Sodium hyposulfite (Na2S2O3) and serum were used to evaluate the linearity and precision of the potassium permanganate agar method. The area of serum diffusion in samples from 30 intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with 44 healthy subjects was determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. Results. The linearity (R2 in the linear experiment of Na2S2O3 was 0.994; R2 in the linear experiment of serum was 0.987) and precision (coefficient of variation of area of high level serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day and coefficient of variation of area of low serum diffusion within-run, between-run, and between-day were all less than 10%) were acceptable using the potassium permanganate agar method. Total antioxidants of serum between the ICU group and the healthy group were different (p = 0.002, two tailed). Conclusions. Total antioxidants in serum can be determined by the potassium permanganate agar method. The total antioxidant capacity of an organism can be evaluated by the amount of total antioxidants in serum. PMID:26347595

  18. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  19. Spectrophotometric Determination of Pipazethate HCl and Dextromethorphan HBr using Potassium Permanganate

    PubMed Central

    Gouda, Ayman Abou El-Fetouh; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; El Shafey, Zeineb.; Hossny, Nagda.; El-Azzazy, Rham

    2008-01-01

    Rapid, simple and sensitive validated spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of pipazethate HCl (PiCl) and dextromethorphan HBr (DEX) either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods were based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in acidic medium and estimating the unreacted permanganate with amaranth dye (method A), acid orange II (method B), indigocarmine (method C) and methylene blue (method D), in the same acid medium at a suitable λmax=521, 485, 610 and 664 nm, respectively. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration range of 2.0-16 and 2.0-15 μg mL-1 for PiCl and DEX, respectively with correlation coefficient (n=6) ≥ 0.9993. The apparent molar absorptivity and sandell sensitivity values are in the range 1.062-1.484 × 104, 3.35-4.51 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 and 29.36-41.03, 8.21-11.06 ng cm-2 for PiCl and DEX, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of the examined drugs either in a pure or pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. No interferences were observed from excipients and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the official methods. PMID:23675101

  20. Spectrophotometric Determination of Pipazethate HCl and Dextromethorphan HBr using Potassium Permanganate.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Ayman Abou El-Fetouh; El-Sheikh, Ragaa; El Shafey, Zeineb; Hossny, Nagda; El-Azzazy, Rham

    2008-12-01

    Rapid, simple and sensitive validated spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of pipazethate HCl (PiCl) and dextromethorphan HBr (DEX) either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods were based on the oxidation of the studied drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in acidic medium and estimating the unreacted permanganate with amaranth dye (method A), acid orange II (method B), indigocarmine (method C) and methylene blue (method D), in the same acid medium at a suitable λmax=521, 485, 610 and 664 nm, respectively. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range of 2.0-16 and 2.0-15 μg mL(-1) for PiCl and DEX, respectively with correlation coefficient (n=6) ≥ 0.9993. The apparent molar absorptivity and sandell sensitivity values are in the range 1.062-1.484 × 10(4), 3.35-4.51 × 10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 29.36-41.03, 8.21-11.06 ng cm(-2) for PiCl and DEX, respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of the examined drugs either in a pure or pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. No interferences were observed from excipients and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained using the official methods. PMID:23675101

  1. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  2. Flow injection-chemiluminescence determination of phenol using potassium permanganate and formaldehyde system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; Mu, Xuemin; Yang, Jinghe; Shi, Wenbo; Zheng, Yongcun

    2007-01-01

    It is found that phenol can react with potassium permanganate in the acidic medium and produce chemiluminescence, which is greatly enhanced by formaldehyde. The optimum conditions for this chemiluminescent reaction are in detail studied using a flow injection system. The experiments indicate that under optimum conditions, the chemiluminescence intensity is linearly related to the concentration of phenol in the range 5.0 × 10 -9 to 1.0 × 10 -6 g mL -1 with a detection limit (3 σ) of 3 × 10 -9 g mL -1. The relative standard deviation is 1.2% for 4.0 × 10 -7 g mL -1 phenol solution in 11 repeated measurements. This method has the advantages of simple operation, fast response and high sensitivity. The method is successfully applied to the determination of phenol in the waste water.

  3. Baltimore City adopts a proactive approach to zebra mussel control using potassium permanganate

    SciTech Connect

    Balog, G.G.; Neimery, T.F.; Davis, L.S.

    1995-06-01

    In 1992, The Baltimore City Department of Public Works initiated aggressive, proactive measures to guard against the infiltration of zebra mussels into local reservoirs and river supplies, which provide raw and finished water to more than 1.6 million people in the City and five neighboring counties. After months of detailed study and planning, Baltimore City appropriated $3.66 million in July 1994 to construct zebra mussel control facilities. Three of the structures will house units that inject controlled doses of potassium permanganate into water intake pipes located in the Liberty and Loch Raven reservoirs and the Susquehanna River. In the event the zebra mussel makes its way into Maryland waters, the chemical would create a hostile environment for the mollusk preventing the mussels` colonization in the more than 20 miles of water tunnels that lead to area filtration plants. Though chlorine is preferred chemical for control in other municipalities, studies indicate that chlorine by-products, known as trihalomethanes, would near or exceed future Environmental Protection Agency standards (a maximum of 80 parts per billion) for drinking water. Consequently, it was decided to use potassium permanganate as the primary control chemical, with chlorine as an emergency backup. In addition, the City plans to construct a thermal control system as the Prettyboy reservoir intake to control the mussel threat without harming the thriving trout population found downstream from the dam. Baltimore City officials have also spearheaded a program using innovative posters to heighten public awareness to the potential harm that can result from the careless transportation of zebra mussels from infested to uninhabited waters. The City`s actions have helped ensure protected waters for Maryland residents and reduced the need for additional public spending to defend against the stealthy intruder.

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of potassium permanganate treatment efficacy for the control of acute experimental infection of flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy of potassium permanganate against an acute and systemic experimental infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The infection was produced by waterborne exposure to the bacteria after mechanical cutaneo...

  5. Novel application of vacuum sealing drainage with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate for managing infective wounds of gas gangrene.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Wu, Xing-Huo; Liu, Rong; Yang, Shu-Hua; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Dian-Ming; Wu, Qiang; Xia, Tian; Shao, Zeng-Wu; Ye, Zhe-Wei

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic gas gangrene is a fatal infection mainly caused by Clostridium perfringens. It is a challenge to manage gas gangrene in open wounds and control infection after debridement or amputation. The aim of the present study was to use vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate to manage infective wounds of gas gangrene and observe its clinical efficacy. A total of 48 patients with open traumatic gas gangrene infection were included in this study. Amputations were done for 27 patients, and limb salvage procedures were performed for the others. After amputation or aggressive debridement, the VSD system, including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) foam dressing and polyurethane (PU) film, with continuous irrigation of 1:5000 potassium permanganate solutions, was applied to the wounds. During the follow-up, all the patients healed without recurrence within 8-18 months. There were four complications. Cardiac arrest during amputation surgery occurred in one patient who suffered from severe septic shock. Emergent resuscitation was performed and the patient returned to stable condition. One patient suffered from mixed infection of Staphylococcal aureus, and a second-stage debridement was performed. One patient suffered from severe pain of the limb after the debridement. Exploratory operation was done and the possible reason was trauma of a local peripheral nerve. Three cases of crush syndrome had dialysis treatment for concomitant renal failure. In conclusion, VSD can convert open wound to closed wound, and evacuate necrotic tissues. Furthermore, potassium permanganate solutions help eliminate anaerobic microenvironment and achieve good therapeutic effect on gas gangrene and mixed infection. VSD with continuous irrigation of potassium permanganate is a novel, simple and feasible alternative for severe traumatic open wounds with gas gangrene infection. PMID:26223928

  6. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts. PMID:26803763

  7. A comparison of iodinated trihalomethane formation from chlorine, chlorine dioxide and potassium permanganate oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Xu, Bin; Hu, Chen-Yan; Lin, Yi-Li; Lin, Lin; Ye, Tao; Tian, Fu-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) from iodide-containing raw waters oxidized by chlorine, chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) and potassium permanganate (KMnO₄) at different oxidant concentrations, reaction times, pHs, initial iodide concentrations and bromide to iodide mass ratios. Among the six investigated I-THMs, iodoform was the major species formed during the oxidation using chlorine, ClO₂ and KMnO₄. When oxidant concentration increased from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, the formation of I-THMs increased and then decreased for chlorine and ClO₂, but kept increasing for KMnO₄. As the reaction time went by, I-THM concentration increased to a plateau within 10 h (ClO₂ within only 1 h, especially) for all the three oxidants. I-THM formation gradually increased from pH 3.0 to 9.0 and remained stable at pH values higher than 7.5 for chlorine; however, for ClO₂ and KMnO₄ the highest I-THM formation showed at pH 7.0 and 7.5, respectively. As initial iodide concentration increased from 20 to 800 μg/L, the total amount and species of I-THMs increased for the three oxidants. Iodide contributed to I-THM formation much more significantly than bromide. PMID:25462746

  8. Flow injection-chemiluminescence determination of dopamine using potassium permanganate and formaldehyde system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Alam, Seikh Mafiz; Lee, Sang Hak

    2012-10-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection-chemiluminescence method for the determination of dopamine has been proposed. The method is based on the enhancing effect of dopamine on the chemiluminescence emission generated by the reaction of potassium permanganate with formaldehyde in an acidic medium. The proposed procedure allows the determination of dopamine over the concentration range of 3.1 × 10-8-1.7 × 10-5 mol/L and with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10-8 mol/L. The linear regression equation was F = 44.4912 + 1.07 × 109 ∗ C (correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.9998). The relative standard deviation is 2.1% for the determination of 1.0 × 10-8 mol/L dopamine (n = 11). The method was successfully applied to the determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical preparation with satisfactory results. The recoveries were found in the range of 96.5-101.3%.

  9. Application of potassium permanganate to spectrophotometric assay of metoclopramide hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, O. Zenita; Basavaiah, K.; Vinay, K. B.

    2012-01-01

    Two simple, sensitive, and cost-effective spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MCP) in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The methods are based on a redox reaction between MCP and KMnO4 in alkaline and acid media. Direct spectrophotometry (method A) involves treating MCP with permanganate in an NaOH medium and measuring a bluish green product at 610 nm. In indirect spectrophotometry (method B), MCP is treated with a fixed concentration of KMnO4 in an H2SO4 medium, and after a specified time, the unreacted KMnO4 is measured at 545 nm. Under optimum assay conditions, Beer's law is obeyed over the ranges of 0.75-12.0 and 2.5-30.0 g/ml for methods A and B, respectively. Molar absorptivity values are calculated to be 2.33•104 and 2.66•104 l/mol cm for methods A and B, respectively, and corresponding Sandell's sensitivity values are 0.015 and 0.013 g/cm2. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) are also reported. The applicability of the developed methods was demonstrated by the determination of MCP in tablet and injection forms. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed methods were further ascertained by recovery studies via standard addition technique.

  10. Oxidative degradation of triclosan by potassium permanganate: Kinetics, degradation products, reaction mechanism, and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Qu, Ruijuan; Pan, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-10-15

    In this study, we systematically investigated the potential applicability of potassium permanganate for removal of triclosan (TCS) in water treatment. A series of kinetic experiments were carried out to study the influence of various factors, including the pH, oxidant doses, temperature, and presence of typical anions (Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-)), humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA) on triclosan removal. The optimal reaction conditions were: pH = 8.0, [TCS]0:[KMnO4]0 = 1:2.5, and T = 25 °C, where 20 mg/L of TCS could be completely degraded in 120 s. However, the rate of TCS (20 μg/L) oxidation by KMnO4 ([TCS]0:[KMnO4]0 = 1:2.5) was 1.64 × 10(-3) mg L(-1)·h(-1), lower than that at an initial concentration of 20 mg/L (2.24 × 10(3) mg L(-1)·h(-1)). A total of eleven products were detected by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) analysis, including phenol and its derivatives, benzoquinone, an organic acid, and aldehyde. Two main reaction pathways involving CO bond cleavage (-C(8)O(7)-) and benzene ring opening (in the less chlorinated benzene ring) were proposed, and were further confirmed based on frontier electron density calculations and point charges. Furthermore, the changes in the toxicity of the reaction solution during TCS oxidation by KMnO4 were evaluated by using both the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum and the water flea Daphnia magna. The toxicity of 20 mg/L triclosan to D. magna and P. phosphoreum after 60 min was reduced by 95.2% and 43.0%, respectively. Phenol and 1,4-benzoquinone, the two representative degradation products formed during permanganate oxidation, would yield low concentrations of DBPs (STHMFP, 20.99-278.97 μg/mg; SHAAFP, 7.86 × 10(-4)-45.77 μg/mg) after chlorination and chloramination. Overall, KMnO4 can be used as an effective oxidizing agent for TCS removal in water and wastewater treatment. PMID:27459151

  11. The influence of precipitate formation on the chemical oxidation of TCE DNAPL with potassium permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Michael R.; Grant, Gavin P.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Kueper, Bernard H.

    2008-02-01

    A three-dimensional two-phase flow model is coupled to a non-linear reactive transport model to study the efficacy of potassium permanganate treatment on dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source removal in porous media. A linear relationship between the soil permeability ( k) and concentration of manganese dioxide precipitate ([MnO 2(s)]), k = ko + Srind [MnO 2(s)], is utilized to simulate nodal permeability reductions due to precipitate formation. Using published experimental column studies, an Srind = -5.5 × 10 -16 m 2 L/mg was determined for trichloroethylene (TCE) DNAPL. This Srind was then applied to treatment simulations on three-dimensional TCE DNAPL source zones comprising either DNAPL at residual saturations, or DNAPL at pooled saturations. DNAPL dissolution without oxidation treatment, simulated using equilibrium and the Nambi and Powers [Nambi I, Powers S. Mass transfer correlations for non-aqueous phase liquid dissolution from regions with high initial saturations. Water Resour Res 2003;39(2):1-11, SBH 4] mass transfer expression, required 31 and 36 years, respectively, to eliminate the residual source zone. For equilibrium dissolution with continuous treatment and no precipitate influence ( Srind = 0 m 2 L/mg), the residual source zone was removed after 11 years. However, when considering the precipitate influence (i.e., Srind = -5.5 × 10 -16 m 2 L/mg), 21 years of treatment were necessary to remove the DNAPL. When considering pulse treatments of 1 and 2 years duration followed by only dissolution, approximately 36 and 38 years, respectively, were required before the source zone was depleted, suggesting that there is no benefit to pulse treatment. Similar trends were observed when allowing 10 years of dissolution prior to treatment initiation. The treatment behaviour of the pooled TCE source, while slightly more efficient than the residual saturation source, was similar. Based on simulation findings, the precipitate (rind) formation

  12. Histopathological and bacterial study of skin and gill of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Valenciennes 1844) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Jooyandeh, Fatemeh; Sadeghpour, Ali; Khara, Hossein; Pajand, Zabihollah

    2016-09-01

    The gill histology and bacterial load of skin of the grass carp juveniles were investigated in relation to various concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in five treatments (for copper sulfate: 1, 1.94, 3.71, 7.07 and 15 mg/l and for potassium permanganate: 0.25, 0.52, 1.91, 2.27 and 5 mg/l) with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting product was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to results, the lowest bacterial load (CFU/g) of skin was observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 0.25 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P < 0.05). Also, the histological investigation showed a range of histopathological alternations in gills tissue including lamellar necrosis, hyperplasia, lamellar adhesion, haemorrhage, clubbing of gill lamellae. The severity of these alternations increased with increasing of the doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. In this regard, the highest histological damages were observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate and 5 mg/l potassium permanganate respectively. Our results showed that low dosage of potassium permanganate has best effect on reducing of bacterial load of skin with lowest adverse effects on gill tissue. PMID:27605829

  13. Effectiveness of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid to reduce mortality and infestation of Ichthyobodo nector in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque 1818)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled bi-flagellate parasite, and in high density can causes significant mortality in young fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against ichthyobodosis. Treatments were: untreated con...

  14. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of potassium permanganate at early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against early stages of an experimental acute infection of Flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) was evaluated. Fish were experimentally challenged, by waterborne exposure for 2 h to F. columnare after cutaneous abrasion, an...

  15. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of potassium permanganate treatment efficacy for the control of acute experimental infection of flavobacterium columnare in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was performed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) against Flavobacterium columnare. In vitro, F. columnare treated with KMnO4 at 2 mg/L for 8 h had a 70 % colony forming unit count (CFU) reduction. A minimum concentration of 10 mg/L of KMnO...

  16. OXIDATION OF DNAPL MIXTURES USING POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE WITH A PHASE-TRANSFER-CATALYST:KINETIC RESULTS FROM A DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHIC MONITORING METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been considerable interest in the use of potassium permanganate for the in-situ destruction of chlorinated solvernt.At the present stage of development, significant opportunities remain in increasing the overall efficiency of flooding schemes and in speeding up the oxi...

  17. Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and multicomponent reactive transport modeling of chlorinated solvent oxidation by potassium permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Thomas H.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Parker, Beth L.; Al, Tom A.

    2009-05-01

    A popular method for the treatment of aquifers contaminated with chlorinated solvents is chemical oxidation based on the injection of potassium permanganate (KMnO 4). Both the high density (1025 gL - 1 ) and reactivity of the treatment solution influence the fate of permanganate (MnO 4) in the subsurface and affect the degree of contaminant treatment. The MIN3P multicomponent reactive transport code was enhanced to simulate permanganate-based remediation, to evaluate the pathways of MnO 4 utilization, and to assess the role of density contrasts for the delivery of the treatment solution. The modified code (MIN3P-D) provides a direct coupling between density-dependent fluid flow, solute transport, contaminant treatment, and geochemical reactions. The model is used to simulate a field trial of TCE oxidation in a sandy aquifer that is underlain by an aquitard. Three-dimensional simulations are conducted for a coupled reactive system comprised of ten aqueous components, two mineral phases, TCE (dissolved, adsorbed, and NAPL), reactive organic matter, and including ion exchange reactions. Model parameters are constrained by literature data and a detailed data set from the field site under investigation. The general spatial and transient evolution in observed concentrations of the oxidant, dissolved TCE, and reaction products are adequately reproduced by the simulations. The model elucidates the important role of density-induced flow and transport on the distribution of the treatment solution into NAPL containing regions located at the aquifer-aquitard interface. Model results further suggest that reactions that do not directly affect the stability of MnO 4 have a negligible effect on solution density and MnO 4 delivery.

  18. Potassium permanganate-acridine yellow chemiluminescence system for the determination of fluvoxamine, isoniazid and ceftriaxone.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad

    2014-12-01

    Based on the oxidation of acridine yellow by permanganate in basic medium, a new chemiluminescence system was developed for the sensitive determination of some important drugs. The remarkable inhibiting effect of fluvoxamine, ceftriaxone and isoniazid on this reaction was applied to their detection. A possible mechanism was proposed for this system based on chemiluminescence emission wavelengths and experimental observations. Under optimum conditions, calibration graphs were obtained for 1 × 10(-9) to 1 × 10(-6) mol/L of fluvoxamine; 2 × 10(-8) to 8 × 10(-6) mol/L of ceftriaxone and 5 × 10(-8) to 4 × 10(-5) mol/L of isoniazid. This proposed method was satisfactorily used in the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical samples and human urine and serum. PMID:24753178

  19. Potassium permanganate-glutaraldehyde chemiluminescence system catalyzed by gold nanoprisms toward selective determination of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim

    2016-02-01

    Gold and silver nanoparticles (NPs) are shown to exert a positive effect on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of permanganate aldehydes. Interestingly, between various shapes examined, Au nanoprisms have the highest beneficial effect. This effect is even more notable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the NP shapes and sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that iron(III) ions can slightly increase CL emission of this system. This intensification is very effective in the presence of fluoride ions (F(-)). These observations form the basis of the method for the high sensitive determination of F(-) in the 6-1200 nmol L(-1) concentration range, with a detection limit of 2.1 nmol L(-1). The proposed method has good precision and was satisfactorily used in the selective determination of low concentrations of fluoride ion in real samples. PMID:26110514

  20. Oxidation of cefazolin by potassium permanganate: Transformation products and plausible pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Wei, Dongbin; Wei, Guohua; Du, Yuguo

    2016-04-01

    Cefazolin was demonstrated to exert high reactivity toward permanganate (Mn(VII)), a common oxidant in water pre-oxidation treatment. In this study, five transformation products were found to be classified into three categories according to the contained characteristic functional groups: three (di-)sulfoxide products, one sulfone product and one di-ketone product. Products analyses showed that two kinds of reactions including oxidation of thioether and the cleavage of unsaturated CC double bond occurred during transformation of cefazolin by Mn(VII). Subsequently, the plausible transformation pathways under different pH conditions were proposed based on the identified products and chemical reaction principles. More importantly, the simulation with real surface water matrix indicated that the proposed transformation pathways of cefazolin could be replayed in real water treatment practices. PMID:26872071

  1. EFFICIENCY PROBLEMS RELATED TO PERMANGANATE OXIDATION SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation schemes for the in-situ destruction of chlorinated solvents, using potassium permanganate, are receiving considerable attention. Indication from field studies and from our own work are that permanganate oxidation schemes have inherent problems that could severely limit...

  2. A novel system of galangin-potassium permanganate-polyphosphoric acid for the determination of tryptophan and its chemiluminescence mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Guo, Ruibin; Zhang, Dongxia; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-08-01

    A novel galangin-potassium permanganate (KMnO4)-polyphosphoric acid (PPA) system was found to have an outstanding response to tryptophan (Trp). Trp determination using this KMnO4 -PPA system was enhanced significantly in the presence of galangin. A highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) method to determine Trp was developed based on the CL reaction of galangin-KMnO4 -Trp in PPA media. The presence of galangin, a member of the flavonol class of flavonoid complexes, greatly increased the luminous intensity of Trp in KMnO4 -PPA systems. Under optimized conditions, Trp was determined in the 0.05-10 µg/mL range, with a detection limit (3σ) of 5.0 × 10(-3)  µg/mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.0% for 11 replicate determinations of 1.0 µg/mL Trp. Two synthetic samples were determined selectively with recoveries of 98.4-100.1% in the presence of other amino acids. The possible mechanism is summarized as follows: excited states of Mn(II)(*) and Mn(III(*) types are the main means of generating chemical luminescent species, and Trp concentration and luminescence intensity have a linear relationship, which enables quantitative analysis. PMID:25271024

  3. Quantification of potassium permanganate consumption and PCE oxidation in subsurface materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hønning, J.; Broholm, M. M.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2007-03-01

    A series of laboratory scale batch slurry experiments were conducted in order to establish a data set for oxidant demand by sandy and clayey subsurface materials as well as to identify the reaction kinetic rates of permanganate (MnO 4-) consumption and PCE oxidation as a function of the MnO 4- concentration. The laboratory experiments were carried out with 31 sandy and clayey subsurface sediments from 12 Danish sites. The results show that the consumption of MnO 4- by reaction with the sediment, termed the natural oxidant demand (NOD), is the primary reaction with regards to quantification of MnO 4- consumption. Dissolved PCE in concentrations up to 100 mg/l in the sediments investigated is not a significant factor in the total MnO 4- consumption. Consumption of MnO 4- increases with an increasing initial MnO 4- concentration. The sediment type is also important as NOD is (generally) higher in clayey than in sandy sediments for a given MnO 4- concentration. For the different sediment types the typical NOD values are 0.5-2 g MnO 4-/kg dry weight (dw) for glacial meltwater sand, 1-8 g MnO 4-/kg dw for sandy till and 5-20 g MnO 4-/kg dw for clayey till. The long term consumption of MnO 4- and oxidation of PCE can not be described with a single rate constant, as the total MnO 4- reduction is comprised of several different reactions with individual rates. During the initial hours of reaction, first order kinetics can be applied, where the short term first order rate constants for consumption of MnO 4- and oxidation of PCE are 0.05-0.5 h - 1 and 0.5-4.5 h - 1 , respectively. The sediment does not act as an instantaneous sink for MnO 4-. The consumption of MnO 4- by reaction with the reactive species in the sediment is the result of several parallel reactions, during which the reaction between the contaminant and MnO 4- also takes place. Hence, application of low MnO 4- concentrations can cause partly oxidation of PCE, as the oxidant demand of the sediment does not need

  4. Oxidation of bromophenols and formation of brominated polymeric products of concern during water treatment with potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin; Gao, Yuan; Pang, Su-Yan; Wang, Qiang; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Liu, Yongze; Ma, Jun

    2014-09-16

    The extensive use of bromophenols (BrPs) in industrial products leads to their occurrence in freshwater environments. This study explored the oxidation kinetics of several BrPs (i.e., 2-BrP, 3-BrP, 4-BrP, 2,4-diBrP, and 2,6-diBrP) and potential formation of brominated polymeric products of concern during water treatment with potassium permanganate [Mn(VII)]. These BrPs exhibited appreciable reactivity toward Mn(VII) with the maxima of second-order rate constants (kMn(VII)) at pH near their pKa values, producing bell-shaped pH-rate profiles. The unusual pH-dependency of kMn(VII) was reasonably explained by a tentative reaction model, where the formation of an intermediate between Mn(VII) and dissociated BrP was likely involved. A novel and powerful precursor ion scan (PIS) approach was used for selective detection of brominated oxidation products by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Results showed that brominated dimeric products such as hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs) were readily produced. For instance, 2'-OH-BDE-68, one of the most naturally abundant OH-PBDEs, could be formed at a relatively high yield possibly via the coupling between bromophenoxyl radicals generated from the one-electron oxidation of 2,4-diBrP by Mn(VII). Given the altered or enhanced toxicological effects of these brominated polymeric products compared to the BrP precursors, it is important to better understand their reactivity and fate before Mn(VII) is applied by water utilities for the oxidative treatment of BrP-containing waters. PMID:25136744

  5. Novel sequential process for enhanced dye synergistic degradation based on nano zero-valent iron and potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Peng; Fu, Minglai; Ma, Jun; Ning, Ping

    2016-07-01

    A novel synergistic technology based on nano zero-valent iron (NZVI) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was developed for treatment of dye wastewater. The synergistic technology was significantly superior, where above 99% of methylene blue (MB) was removed, comparatively, removal efficiencies of MB with the sole technology of NZVI and KMnO4 at pH 6.39 being 52.9% and 63.1%, respectively. The advantages of this technology include (1) the in situ formed materials (manganese (hydr)oxides, iron hydroxides and MnFe oxide), resulting in the stable and high removal efficiency of MB and (2) high removal capacity in a wide range of pH value. Compared with simultaneous addition system of NZVI and KMnO4, MB removal was remarkably improved by sequential addition system, especially when KMnO4 addition time was optimized at 20 min. Analyses of crystal structure (XRD), morphological difference (FE-SEM), element valence and chemical groups (XPS) of NZVI before and after reaction had confirmed the formation of in situ materials, which obviously enhanced removal of MB by oxidation and adsorption. More importantly, the roles of in situ formed materials and degradation mechanism were innovatively investigated, and the results suggested that NCH3 bond of MB molecule was attacked by oxidants (KMnO4 and in situ manganese (hydr)oxides) at position C1 and C9, resulting in cleavage of chromophore. This study provides new insights about an applicable technology for treatment of dye wastewater. PMID:27105151

  6. Potassium permanganate elicits a shift of the external fish microbiome and increases host susceptibility to columnaris disease.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Haitham H; Arias, Covadonga R

    2015-01-01

    The external microbiome of fish is thought to benefit the host by hindering the invasion of opportunistic pathogens and/or stimulating the immune system. Disruption of those microbial communities could increase susceptibility to diseases. Traditional aquaculture practices include the use of potent surface-acting disinfectants such as potassium permanganate (PP, KMnO4) to treat external infections. This study evaluated the effect of PP on the external microbiome of channel catfish and investigated if dysbiosis leads to an increase in disease susceptibility. Columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare, was used as disease model. Four treatments were compared in the study: (I) negative control (not treated with PP nor challenged with F. columnare), (II) treated but not challenged, (III) not treated but challenged, and (IV) treated and challenged. Ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) and pyrosequencing were used to analyze changes in the external microbiome during the experiment. Exposure to PP significantly disturbed the external microbiomes and increased catfish mortality following the experimental challenge. Analysis of similarities of RISA profiles showed statistically significant changes in the skin and gill microbiomes based on treatment and sampling time. Characterization of the microbiomes using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing confirmed the disruption of the skin microbiome by PP at different phylogenetic levels. Loss of diversity occurred during the study, even in the control group, but was more noticeable in fish subjected to PP than in those challenged with F. columnare. Fish treated with PP and challenged with the pathogen exhibited the least diverse microbiome at the end of the study. PMID:26170019

  7. Flow injection determination of diclofenac sodium based on its sensitizing effect on the chemiluminescent reaction of acidic potassium permanganate-formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Sun, Pulv; Ji, Zhongling; Li, Jianguo

    2015-02-01

    A sensitive and simple chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of diclofenac sodium has been developed by combining the flow injection technique and its sensitizing effect on the weak CL reaction between formaldehyde and acidic potassium permanganate. A calibration curve is constructed for diclofenac sodium under optimized experimental parameters over the range 0.040-5.0 µg/mL and the limit of detection is 0.020 µg/mL (3σ). The inter-assay relative standard deviation for 0.040 µg/mL diclofenac sodium (n = 11) is 2.0%. This method is rapid, sensitive, simple, and shows good selectivity and reproducibility. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of the studied diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the possible mechanism for the CL reaction has been discussed in detail on the basis of UV and CL spectra. PMID:24802238

  8. Oxidative degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) by potassium permanganate: reaction pathways, kinetics, and mechanisms assisted by density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiaqi; Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Liansheng; Yang, Shaogui; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-04-01

    This study found that decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) could be oxidized effectively by potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in sulfuric acid medium. A total of 15 intermediate oxidative products were detected. The reaction pathways were proposed, which primarily included cleavage of the ether bond to form pentabromophenol. Direct oxidation on the benzene ring also played an important role because hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were produced during the oxidation process. The degradation occurred dramatically in the first few minutes and fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics. Increasing the water content decelerated the reaction rate, whereas increasing the temperature facilitated the reaction. In addition, density functional theory (DFT) was employed to determine the frontier molecular orbital (FMO) and frontier electron density (FED) of BDE 209 and the oxidative products. The theoretical calculation results confirmed the proposed reaction pathways. PMID:25751737

  9. Effect of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride and vitamin B complex on the haematological parameters of cadmium treated common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Kaviraj, A; Das, B K

    1995-01-01

    Effect of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride and vitamin B complex on the haematological parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio were markedly influenced by a treatment of 2.5 mg/l Cd in the laboratory for 96 hours. Hb% and ESR values were increased but the RBC and PCV values were reduced. Treatment of KMnO4 (1 mg/l) or CoCl2 (2 mg/l) induced a further reduction of RBC of the Cd treated fish. But parameters like PCV, MCV and MCH of Cd treated fish were not affected by the treatment of KMnO4 and CoCl2. Intramuscular injection of vitamin B complex did not produce any impact on ESR and MCV values of the Cd treated exposed fish but most of the other parameters of such fish were found comparable to control indicating that vitamin B complex could counteract Cd to reduce its ill effect. PMID:8580524

  10. Sensitive and selective determination of fluvoxamine maleate using a sensitive chemiluminescence system based on the alkaline permanganate-Rhodamine B-gold nanoparticles reaction.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Javad; Amjadi, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    A high-yield chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the alkaline permanganate-Rhodamine B reaction was developed for the sensitive determination of fluvoxamine maleate (Flu). Rhodamine B is oxidized by alkaline KMnO4 and a weak CL emission is produced. It was demonstrated that gold nanoparticles greatly enhance this CL emission due to their interaction with Rhodamine B molecules. It is also observed that sodium dodecyl sulfate, an anionic surfactant, can strongly increase this enhancement. In addition, it was demonstrated that a notable decrease in the CL intensity is observed in the presence of Flu. This may be related to Flu oxidation with KMnO4 . There is a linear relationship between the decrease in CL intensity and the Flu concentration over a range of 2-300 µg/L. A new simple, rapid and sensitive CL method was developed for the determination of Flu with a detection limit (3s) of 1.35 µg/L. The proposed method was used for the determination of Flu in pharmaceutical and urine samples. PMID:25214010

  11. Effect of natural Bayah zeolite particle size reduction to physico-chemical properties and absortion against potassium permanganate (KMnO4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayanti, Siti Mariana; Syamsu, Khaswar; Warsiki, Endang; Yuliani, Sri

    2016-02-01

    Recently, researches on nanotechnology have been developed very rapid, as well as the utilization of nano-zeolites. Nano-sized material has several advantages which are expanding absorptive surfaces so it will enhance the material absorption and shorten the absorption time. Zeolite as a KMnO4 binder, has been widely recognized for its ability to extend the shelf life of vegetables and fruits. This study was conducted to determine zeolites physico-chemical characters from different particle size and the effect on KMnO4 absorption. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is a strong oxidizer for reducing the quantity of ethylene in storage process of fresh horticultural products. The treatment consisted of (1) different length of milling time (10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes) and (2) the duration of chemical activation with 1 N KOH solution. Physical and chemical characters of zeolite were analyzed using BET, PSA, XRD and SEM. The research design was randomized design. The result implied that milling time was significantly affecting the zeolite particle size, material surface area, and the size of pore diameter and volume. Milling treatment for 40 minutes produced higher zeolite surface area and pore volume than other treatments. While the duration of chemical activation using 1 N KOH solution gives different effect on zeolite absorption to KMnO4 solution. Milling time for 60 minutes and activated for 48 hours has higher initial adsorption than other treatments.

  12. A novel technique using potassium permanganate and reflectance confocal microscopy to image biofilm extracellular polymeric matrix reveals non-eDNA networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Swearingen, Matthew C; Mehta, Ajeet; Mehta, Amar; Nistico, Laura; Hill, Preston J; Falzarano, Anthony R; Wozniak, Daniel J; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Stoodley, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Biofilms are etiologically important in the development of chronic medical and dental infections. The biofilm extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) determines biofilm structure and allows bacteria in biofilms to adapt to changes in mechanical loads such as fluid shear. However, EPS components are difficult to visualize microscopically because of their low density and molecular complexity. Here, we tested potassium permanganate, KMnO4, for use as a non-specific EPS contrast-enhancing stain using confocal laser scanning microscopy in reflectance mode. We demonstrate that KMnO4 reacted with EPS components of various strains of Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus, yielding brown MnO2 precipitate deposition on the EPS, which was quantifiable using data from the laser reflection detector. Furthermore, the MnO2 signal could be quantified in combination with fluorescent nucleic acid staining. COMSTAT image analysis indicated that KMnO4 staining increased the estimated biovolume over that determined by nucleic acid staining alone for all strains tested, and revealed non-eDNA EPS networks in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. In vitro and in vivo testing indicated that KMnO4 reacted with poly-N-acetylglucosamine and Pseudomonas Pel polysaccharide, but did not react strongly with DNA or alginate. KMnO4 staining may have application as a research tool and for diagnostic potential for biofilms in clinical samples. PMID:26536894

  13. Screening of cannabinoids in industrial-grade hemp using two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Pandohee, Jessica; Holland, Brendan J; Li, Bingshan; Tsuzuki, Takuya; Stevenson, Paul G; Barnett, Neil W; Pearson, James R; Jones, Oliver A H; Conlan, Xavier A

    2015-06-01

    Widely known for its recreational use, the cannabis plant also has the potential to act as an antibacterial agent in the medicinal field. The analysis of cannabis plants/products in both pharmacological and forensic studies often requires the separation of compounds of interest and/or accurate identification of the whole cannabinoid profile. In order to provide a complete separation and detection of cannabinoids, a new two-dimensional liquid chromatography method has been developed using acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection, which has been shown to be selective for cannabinoids. This was carried out using a Luna 100 Å CN column and a Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column in the first and second dimensions, respectively. The method has utilized a large amount of the available separation space with a spreading angle of 48.4° and a correlation of 0.66 allowing the determination of more than 120 constituents and mass spectral identification of ten cannabinoids in a single analytical run. The method has the potential to improve research involved in the characterization of sensitive, complex matrices. PMID:25845561

  14. A Spectrophotometric Study of the Permanganate-Oxalate Reaction: An Analytical Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbus, Gene E.; Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    2004-01-01

    The spectrophotometric method assists in the study of potassium permanganate-oxalate reaction. Basic analytical techniques and rules are implemented in the experiment, which can also include the examination of other compounds oxidized by permanganate.

  15. Intermediate-scale 2D experimental investigation of in situ chemical oxidation using potassium permanganate for remediation of complex DNAPL source zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiderscheidt, J. L.; Siegrist, R. L.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2008-11-01

    In situ chemical oxidation is a technology that has been applied to speed up remediation of a contaminant source zone by inducing increased mass transfer from DNAPL sources into the aqueous phase for subsequent destruction. The DNAPL source zone can consist of one or more individual sources that may be present as an interconnected pool of high saturation, as a region of disconnected ganglia at residual saturation, or as combinations of these two morphologies. Potassium permanganate (KMnO 4) is a commonly employed oxidant that has been shown to rapidly destroy DNAPL compounds like PCE and TCE following second-order kinetics in an aqueous system. During the oxidation of a target DNAPL compound, or naturally occurring reduced species in the subsurface, manganese oxide (MnO 2) solids are produced. Research has shown that these manganese oxide solids may result in permeability reductions in the porous media thus reducing the ability for oxidant to be transported to individual DNAPL sources. It can also occur at the DNAPL-water interface, decreasing contact of the oxidant with the DNAPL. Additionally, MnO 2 formation at the DNAPL-water interface, and/or flow-bypassing as a result of permeability reductions around the source, may alter the mass transfer from the DNAPL into the aqueous phase, potentially diminishing the magnitude of any DNAPL mass depletion rate increase induced by oxidation. An experiment was performed in a two-dimensional (2D) sand-filled tank that included several discrete DNAPL source zones. Spatial and temporal monitoring of aqueous PCE, chloride, and permanganate concentrations was used to relate changes in mass depletion of, and mass flux, from DNAPL residual and pool source zones to chemical oxidation performance and MnO 2 formation. During the experiment, permeability changes were monitored throughout the 2D tank and these were related to MnO 2 deposition as measured through post-oxidation soil coring. Under the conditions of this experiment, Mn

  16. [Simultaneous removal of algae and its odorous metabolite dimethyl trisulfide in water by potassium ferrate].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Ze-hua; Wang, Hong-yu; Hu, Shi-fei; Li, Qing-song

    2013-05-01

    Co-removal of oscillatoria algae and its potential odorous metabolite dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) in simulated algae-laden alkaline source water by potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) was investigated in contrast to potassium permanganate (KMnO4) pre-oxidation followed by polyferric chloride (PFC) under varying conditions, including pH, initial oxidant dosage and turbidity. Based on the pre-comparison with PFC, the optimal dosage of PFC in the combined KMnO4 pre-oxidation-PFC treatment was determined. Potassium ferrate resulted in 92.4% removal of algae, higher than PFC when the dosage was equivalent as measured by Fe and KMnO4 showed obviously positive effect as a coagulation aid. Degradation of dimethyl trisufide (92.5%) by potassium ferrate was better than the pre-oxidation of potassium permanganate (74.6%), and the treatment time was decreased from 10 min to 1 min. PMID:23914526

  17. Substrate inhibition: Oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    In the oxidation of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol by potassium periodate in alkaline media, substrate inhibition was observed with both substrates, i.e., a decrease in the rate of the reaction was observed with an increase in the concentration of substrate. The substrate inhibition was attributed to the formation of stable complex between the substrate and periodate. The reactions were found to be first order in case of periodate and a positive fractional order with hydroxide ions. Arrhenius parameters were calculated for the oxidation of sorbitol and mannitol by potassium periodate in alkali media.

  18. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium is a mineral that the body needs to work normally. It helps nerves and muscles communicate. ... products out of cells. A diet rich in potassium helps to offset some of sodium's harmful effects ...

  19. Separation and characterization of ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin oxidation products under potassium permanganate treatment in acidic medium by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hubicka, Urszula; Zmudzki, Paweł; Zuromska-Witek, Barbara; Zajdel, Paweł; Pawłowski, Maciej; Krzek, Jan

    2013-05-15

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible ultra-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin oxidation stability under permanganate treatment in acidic conditions at pH from 3.0 to 6.0, was developed. Chromatographic separations were carried out using the Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column; (2.1×100 mm, 1.7 μm particle size). The column was maintained at 40°C, and eluted under isocratic conditions using 83% of eluent A and 17% of eluent B over 6.5 min, at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1). Eluent A: water/formic acid (0.1 v/v%); eluent B: acetonitrile/formic acid (0.1 v/v%). An oxidation process followed kinetic of the second order reaction and depended upon solution acidity. Oxidation of fluoroquinolones proceeded at piperazine moiety yielding respective hydroxy and oxo analogs, and remaining the quinolone fragment intact. Structures of products formed were assigned on a basis of UPLC/MS/MS fragmentation pathways. PMID:23618144

  20. Evaluation of potassium titanate as a component of alkaline fuel cell matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Various forms of potassium titanate were found to have almost complete resistance to chemical attack in 45 wt % KOH at 150 C (423 K) for up to 9600 hours. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction disclosed important differences with respect to fibricity and stability. The octatitanate appeared to possess the best combination of properties. It was concluded that potassium titanate could be produced in a more asbestos-like form. Fiber dispersion is important in matrix manufacture.

  1. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sources of potassium in the diet include Leafy greens, such as spinach and collards Fruit from vines, such as grapes and blackberries Root vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruit

  2. Individual Reactions of Permanganate & Various Reductants

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, Amber M.; Hallen, Richard T. )

    2000-11-01

    Tank waste on the Hanford Site contains radioactive elements that need to be removed from solution prior to disposal. One effective way to do this is to precipitate the radioactive elements with manganese solids, produced by permanganate oxidation. When added to tank waste, the permanganate, Mn(VII), reacts quickly producing manganese (IV) dioxide precipitate. Because of the speed of reaction it is difficult to tell what exactly is happening. Individual reactions using non-radioactive reductants found in the tanks were done to determine reaction kinetics, what permanganate was reduced to, and what oxidation products were formed. In this project sodium formate, sodium nitrite, glycolic acid, glycine, and sodium oxalate were studied using various concentrations of reductant in alkaline sodium hydroxide solutions. It was determined that formate reacted the quickest, followed by glycine and glycolic acid. Oxalate and nitrite did not appear to react with the permanganate solutions. The formate reactions quickly reduced permanganate, Mn(VII), to manganate, Mn(VI), and then to manganese (IV) dioxide. These reactions oxidized formate to carbonate and water. The glycolic acid was oxidized slower producing oxalate, water, and manganate, which would disproportionate to permanganate and manganese (IV) dioxide solids. The rate at which Mn(VI) disproportionates is usually slower than the rate at which Mn(VII) is reduced to Mn(VI), however in this case the rates were about equal. The glycine reactions formed some ammonia in solution, oxalate, and water. They reacted similar to the glycolic acid reactions, producing manganese dioxide precipitate before the solution turned totally green from Mn(VI). The formate reactions consumed one mole of hydroxide for every 3 moles of formate, while the glycolic acid and glycine reactions consumed 7 moles of hydroxide for every 3 moles of reductant. These reactions should help to determine the majority of products found in mixtures of solutions.

  3. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    Klor-Con® Powder ... Klor-Con®/25 Powder ... Potassium comes in oral liquid, powder, granules, effervescent tablets, regular tablets, extended-release (long-acting) tablets, and extended-release capsules. It usually is taken two to four ...

  4. Aluminum permanganate battery

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.

    1993-11-30

    A battery is provided comprising an aluminum anode, an aqueous solution of permanganate as the cathodic species and a second electrode capable of reducing permanganate. Such a battery system is characterized by its high energy density and low polarization losses when operating at high temperatures in a strong caustic electrolyte, i.e., high concentration of hydroxyl ions. A variety of anode and electrocatalyst materials are suitable for the efficient oxidation-reduction process and are elucidated.

  5. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-23

    Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

  6. Two new frameworks of potassium saccharate obtained from acidic and alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Yao-Kang; Feng, Yun-Long; Liu, Ji-Wei; Jiang, Zhan-Guo

    2011-05-15

    Two chiral K(I) complexes based on D-saccharic acid (H{sub 2}sac), [K(Hsac)]{sub n} (1) and [K{sub 2}(sac)]{sub n} (2) were obtained from acidic and alkaline solution. The 3D framework of 1 includes K(I) polyhedral rods and typical pairwise coaxial right- and left-handed helical chains, and displays binodal 6-connected pcu topology. 2 contains 2D polyhedral sheets consisting of left-handed helical chains, and generates 3D network with an unprecedented (7,11)-connected net. Cyclic voltammetry tests and charge-discharge tests indicate that the addition of complex 2 to the electrolyte could improve the electrochemical properties of the nickel hydroxide electrode. -- Graphical abstract: Two K(I) complexes based on D-saccharic acid (H{sub 2}sac), [K(Hsac)]{sub n} (1) and [K{sub 2}(sac)]{sub n} (2) were obtained and characterized. Electrochemical studies indicate the potential use of 2 in Ni-MH battery. Display Omitted highlights: > Two novel chiral K(I) frameworks based on D-saccharic acid were obtained. > The structure of 1 includes K(I) polyhedral rods and typical helical chains. > 2 contains 2D polyhedral sheets and generates an unprecedented (7,11)-connected net. > Addition of 2 to electrolyte could improve the nickel hydroxide electrode's property.

  7. 75 FR 51112 - Potassium Permanganate From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... of institution (75 FR 23298, May 3, 2010) of the subject five-year review was adequate and that the... the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a... Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). \\2\\...

  8. PERMANGANATE TREATMENT OF DNAPLS IN REACTIVE BARRIERS AND SOURCE ZONE FLOODING SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of this study are (1) to elucidate the basic mechanisms by which potassium permanganate oxidizes common chlorinated solvents, various constituents in aqueous solution, and porous-medium solids, and (2) to assess the potential for chemical oxidation by potassium permanga...

  9. Process Development for Permanganate Addition During Oxidative Leaching of Hanford Tanks Sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Deschane, Jaquetta R.; Peterson, Reid A.; Blanchard, David L.

    2007-10-30

    Previous Bechtel National, Incorporated (BNI)-sponsored studies have targeted optimizing sodium permanganate for the selective oxidation of chromium from washed Hanford tank sludges (Rapko et al. 2004; Rapko et al. 2005). The recommendation from previous work was that contact with sodium permanganate in a minimally caustic solution, i.e., 0.1 to 0.25 M [OH-] initially, provided maximum Cr dissolution while minimizing concomitant Pu dissolution. At the request of BNI, further work on oxidative alkaline leaching was performed.

  10. Quantitation of Pyrantel Pamoate in Pharmaceuticals Using Permanganate by Visible Spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendraprasad, N.; Basavaiah, K.

    2014-03-01

    Two simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods are developed and validated for the assay of pyrantel pamoate (PP) in pharmaceuticals. The methods employ the oxidative property of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in acidic and alkaline conditions. In the first method (method A), PP is converted into its free base, pyrantel (PR), and treated with known excess of KMnO4 in acidic condition followed by the measurement of unreacted KMnO4 at 550 nm. Method B is based on the registration of absorbance of green colored chromogen formed due to the reduction of KMnO4 by PP in alkaline condition. The methods obeyed Beer's law over a range of 1-20 μg/ml in inverse manner, and 0.75-15 μg/ml for method A and method B, respectively, with apparent molar absorptivity values of 1.05ṡ104 and 2.85ṡ104 lṡmol-1ṡcm-1. The optical parameters such as limits of detection (LOD), quantification (LOQ), and the Sandell sensitivity values are also reported. The accuracy and precision of the methods are assessed on intra- and inter-day basis. A recovery study by standard addition procedure is also carried out for further assurance of accuracy. The developed methods are successfully applied to determine PP in tablets. The results are more satisfactory as per current ICH guidelines.

  11. Beware of the Permanganate Volcano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Ellie

    1980-01-01

    Discusses hazards associated with the permanganate demonstration of volcanic eruptions. Alternate demonstrations are described, including the ammonium dichromate reaction, lava flow demonstration with baking soda and vinegar, and punk to illustrate air pollution from volcanic ash and cinders. (CS)

  12. Emissions of alkaline elements calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium from open sources in the contiguous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gillette, D.A. ); Stensland, G.J.; Williams, A.L.; Barnard, W.; Gatz, D. ); Sinclair, P.C. ); Johnson, T.C. )

    1992-12-01

    Models of dust emissions by wind erosion (including winds associated with regional activity as well as dust devils) and vehicular disturbances of unpaved roads were developed, calibrated, and used to estimate alkaline dust emissions from elemental soil and road composition data. Emissions from tillage of soils were estimated form the work of previous researchers. The area of maximum dust production by all of those sources is the area of the old Dust Bowl' of the 1930s (the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma, eastern New Mexico and Colorado, and western Kansas). The areas of maximum alkaline dust production are the arid southwest, the Dust Bowl,' and the midwestern-mideastern states from Iowa to Pennsylvania. Our calculations show that calcium is the dominant alkaline element produced by open sources' (sources too great in extent to be controlled by enclosure or ducting). Although the largest dust mass source is wind erosion (by winds associated with regional activity and convective activity), the largest producer of the alkaline component is road dust because the abundance of alkaline materials in road coverings (which include crushed limestone) is significantly higher than for soils. Comparing the above estimated sources of alkaline material with inventories of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions by previous investigators gives the rough approximation that alkaline emission rates are of the order of the SO[sub 2] + NO[sub x] emissions in the western United States and that they are much smaller than SO[sub 2] + NO[sub x] in the eastern United States. This approximation is substantiated by data on Ca/(SO[sub 4] + NO[sub 3]) for wet deposition for National Atmospheric Deposition Program sites. 53 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Emissions of alkaline elements calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium from open sources in the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Dale A.; Stensland, Gary J.; Williams, Allen L.; Barnard, William; Gatz, Donald; Sinclair, Peter C.; Johnson, Tezz C.

    1992-12-01

    Models of dust emissions by wind erosion (including winds associated with regional activity as well as dust devils) and vehicular disturbances of unpaved roads were developed, calibrated,and used to estimate alkaline dust emissions from elemental soil and road composition data. Emissions from tillage of soils were estimated from the work of previous researchers. The area of maximum dust production by all of those sources is the area of the old "Dust Bowl" of the 1930s (the panhandles of Texas and Oklahoma, eastern New Mexico and Colorado, and western Kansas). The areas of maximum alkaline dust production are the arid southwest, the "Dust Bowl," and the midwestern-mideastern states from Iowa to Pennsylvania. Our calculations show that calcium is the dominant alkaline element produced by "open sources" (sources too great in extent to be controlled by enclosure or ducting). Although the largest dust mass source is wind erosion (by winds associated with regional activity and convective activity), the largest producer of the alkaline component is road dust because the abundance of alkaline materials in road coverings (which include crushed limestone) is significantly higher than for soils. Comparing the above estimated sources of alkaline material with inventories of SO2 and NOx emissions by previous investigators gives the rough approximation that alkaline emission rates are of the order of the SO2 + NOx emissions in the western United States and that they are much smaller than SO2 + NOx in the eastern United States. This approximation is substantiated by data on Ca/(SO4 + NO3) for wet deposition for National Atmospheric Deposition Program sites.

  14. [Influence of pH on Kinetics of Anilines Oxidation by Permanganate].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Sun, Bo; Guan, Xiao-hong

    2016-02-15

    To investigate the effect of pH on the oxidation of anilines by potassium permanganate, aniline and p-Chloroaniline were taken as the target contaminants, and the experiments were conducted under the condition with potassium permanganate in excess over a wide pH range. The reaction displayed remarkable autocatalysis, which was presumably ascribed to the formation of complexes by the in situ generated MnOx and the target contaminants on its surface, and thereby improved the oxidation rate of the target contaminants by permanganate. The reaction kinetics was fitted with the pseudo-first-order kinetics at different pH to obtain the pseudo-first-order reaction constants (k(obs)). The second-order rate constants calculated from permanganate concentration and k,b, increased with the increase of pH and reached the maximum near their respective pKa, after which they decreased gradually. This tendency is called parabola-like shaped pH-rate profile. The second-order rate constants between permanganate and anilines were well fitted by the proton transfer model proposed by us in previous work. PMID:27363148

  15. Permanganate Degradation of Reillex HPQ Ion Exchange Resin for Use in HB-Line

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-06-02

    This study evaluated the use of Reillex TM HPQ resin as a replacement for the Ionac A-641 resin currently authorized for use in H B-Line. The study concentrated on the ability of the existing alkaline permanganate digestion process to convert spent resin for disposal.

  16. Permanganate Treatment of DNAPLs in Reactive Barriers and Source Zone Flooding Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Franklin Schwartz; Dr. Hubao Zhang

    2003-12-23

    Permanganate is a simple and common chemical, which has proven useful in oxidizing common chlorinated solvents. Due to the nature of oxidation, the byproducts and products are much less harmful than those from reduction-type remedial schemes, and the degradation process is rapid. The main goal of this project is to understand oxidative destruction of chlorinated solvents using potassium permanganate. The study has provided a theoretical basis for evaluating the feasibility of in-situ applications, to couple kinetic reaction with transport models, and to develop an appropriate field test for further assessing the approach.

  17. Preparation of anionic clay-birnessite manganese oxide composites by interlayer oxidation of oxalate ions by permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulraj, James; Rajamathi, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Oxalate intercalated anionic clay-like nickel zinc hydroxysalt was obtained starting from nickel zinc hydroxyacetate, Ni3Zn2(OH)8(OAc)2·2H2O, by anion exchange. The intercalated oxalate species was reacted with potassium permanganate in such a way that the layered manganese oxide formed was within the interlayer region of the anionic clay resulting in a layered composite in which the negative charges on the birnessite type manganese oxide layers compensate the positive charges on the anionic clay layers. Birnessite to anionic clay ratio could be varied by varying the reaction time or the amount of potassium permanganate used.

  18. A unique alkaline pH-regulated and fatty acid-activated tandem pore domain potassium channel (K₂P) from a marine sponge.

    PubMed

    Wells, Gregory D; Tang, Qiong-Yao; Heler, Robert; Tompkins-MacDonald, Gabrielle J; Pritchard, Erica N; Leys, Sally P; Logothetis, Diomedes E; Boland, Linda M

    2012-07-15

    A cDNA encoding a potassium channel of the two-pore domain family (K(2P), KCNK) of leak channels was cloned from the marine sponge Amphimedon queenslandica. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AquK(2P) cannot be placed into any of the established functional groups of mammalian K(2P) channels. We used the Xenopus oocyte expression system, a two-electrode voltage clamp and inside-out patch clamp electrophysiology to determine the physiological properties of AquK(2P). In whole cells, non-inactivating, voltage-independent, outwardly rectifying K(+) currents were generated by external application of micromolar concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA; EC(50) ∼30 μmol l(-1)), when applied in an alkaline solution (≥pH 8.0). Prior activation of channels facilitated the pH-regulated, AA-dependent activation of AquK(2P) but external pH changes alone did not activate the channels. Unlike certain mammalian fatty-acid-activated K(2P) channels, the sponge K(2P) channel was not activated by temperature and was insensitive to osmotically induced membrane distortion. In inside-out patch recordings, alkalinization of the internal pH (pK(a) 8.18) activated the AquK(2P) channels independently of AA and also facilitated activation by internally applied AA. The gating of the sponge K(2P) channel suggests that voltage-independent outward rectification and sensitivity to pH and AA are ancient and fundamental properties of animal K(2P) channels. In addition, the membrane potential of some poriferan cells may be dynamically regulated by pH and AA. PMID:22723483

  19. VALIDATION FOR THE PERMANGANATE DIGESTION OF REILLEX HPQ ANION RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.

    2009-09-23

    The flowsheet for the digestion of Reillex{trademark} HPQ was validated both under the traditional alkaline conditions and under strongly acidic conditions. Due to difficulty in performing a pH adjustment in the large tank where this flowsheet must be performed, the recommended digestion conditions were changed from pH 8-10 to 8 M HNO{sub 3}. Thus, no pH adjustment of the solution is required prior to performing the permanganate addition and digestion and the need to sample the digestion tank to confirm appropriate pH range for digestion may be avoided. Neutralization of the acidic digestion solution will be performed after completion of the resin digestion cycle. The amount of permanganate required for this type of resin (Reillex{trademark} HPQ) was increased from 1 kg/L resin to 4 kg/L resin to reduce the amount of residual resin solids to a minimal amount (<5%). The length of digestion time at 70 C remains unchanged at 15 hours. These parameters are not optimized but are expected to be adequate for the conditions. The flowsheet generates a significant amount of fine manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) solids (1.71 kg/L resin) and involves the generation of a significant liquid volume due to the low solubility of permanganate. However, since only two batches of resin (40 L each) are expected to be digested, the total waste generated is limited.

  20. Permanganate oxidation of DNAPL in a large 3-D flow tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Seol, Y.; Fang, Y. C.; Schwartz, F. W.

    2002-05-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4), as a metal-oxo reagent, can attack a double carbon-carbon bond and therefore oxidize common chlorinated ethylenes, such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE). This feature of metal-oxo reagents facilitates the use of permanganate to remediation of chlorinated solvents in soil and groundwater. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of TCE removal by permanganate oxidation in large three-dimensional flooding schemes. We constructed a large 3-D flow tank (L x W x D = 180 cm x 60 cm x 90 cm) where TCE source zone was installed in a saturated porous sandy medium. The tank was flushed at a flow rate of 51 L/day with permanganate solution (1,250 mg/L) for 63 days. Using chemical, electrical, and optical monitoring techniques we estimated temporal and areal variations in TCE, permanganate, MnO2 precipitates, conductivity, and chloride concentrations. TCE emplaced as DNAPL in a upstream source zone gradually moved downstream forming a TCE plume of about 120 cm long, 30 cm wide, and 55 cm deep. This TCE plume diminished considerably over time due to the in situ oxidation of the DNAPL. However, TCE was not completely destroyed and TCE concentration remained high (63 to 228 mg/L) in the shrunken TCE plume downstream after 63 days of permanganate flushing. Mass balance calculation indicated about 28% of TCE still remained in the system. This was attributed to the precipitation of low-permeability reaction by-product, i.e., MnO2, which caused flushing to become less efficient with time. Findings of this study are useful for developing a practical technique for enhancing the efficacy of the oxidative treatment of TCE using permanganate in the field conditions.

  1. Investigation of mechanisms of oxidation of EDTA and NTA by permanganate at high pH.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Shik; Korshin, Gregory V; Ferguson, John F

    2006-08-15

    Permanganate has been used for oxidation of nuclear wastes containing chelating agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic and nitrilotriacetic acids (EDTA and NTA) to improve separation of radionuclides and heavy metals from the wastes, butthe mechanisms of degradation of these and related organic ligands at high pHs have not been studied. EDTA, NTA, and the model compound ethylenediamine (EN) were found to be readily oxidized by permanganate at pH 12-14. The reduction of permangante was accompanied by formation of unstable manganate and dispersed MnO2 particles, which constituted the final product of permanganate reduction. The yields and speciation of EDTA, NTA, and EN breakdown products were affected by the pH and permanganate dose. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA), oxalate, formate, and ammonia were the predominant EDTA and NTA oxidation products. Mineralization of EDTA, NTA, and EN to CO2 was more significant at pH 12. At pH 14 formation of oxalate and deamination to NH3 were the most important reactions. IDA was released upon the oxidation of both EDTA and NTA, but EDTA oxidation yielded no ethylenediaminediacetic acid (EDDA). The speciation of the reaction products indicated that the ethylene group in EDTA was the preferred attack site in oxidations by alkaline permanganate. PMID:16955912

  2. Continuous postcolumn detection of underivatized polysaccharides in high-performance liquid chromatography by reaction with permanganate.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; Mort, A J

    1994-11-15

    We describe a continuous postcolumn reaction system for colorimetric detection of carbohydrates suitable for use with both preparative and analytical HPLC separations. A fraction of the effluent from the column is mixed via a T-junction with a 0.02% solution of potassium permanganate in 3 M sulfuric acid. The mixture then passes through a reaction coil heated to 100 degrees C, and its absorbance at 525 nm is continuously monitored. Bleaching of the permanganate is proportional to the sugar concentration. The major advantages of the detection system are its mass rather than molar sensitivity and insensitivity to changes in nonoxidizable buffer concentrations. As little as 0.1 micrograms of sugar can be detected. These features make the system suitable for detection, with high sensitivity, of polysaccharides using gradient elution from ion-exchange columns. PMID:7695109

  3. Oxidation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with aqueous permanganate.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Triñanes, Sara; Cela, Rafael

    2013-06-01

    Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidant widely used in drinking water treatment, that can react with organic micropollutants. Thus, the oxidation kinetics and transformation route of seven non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) upon reaction with potassium permanganate was investigated. A liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) system was used to follow the time course of pharmaceuticals concentrations and for the identification of their by-products. Under strong oxidation conditions (2 mg L(-1) KMnO4, 24 h), only two NSAIDs were significantly degraded: indomethacine and diclofenac. The degradation kinetics of these two drugs was investigated at different concentrations of permanganate, chlorides, phosphates and sample pH by means of a full factorial experimental design. Depending on these factors, half-lives were in the range: 2-270 h for indomethacine and 3-558 h for diclofenac, equivalent to apparent second order constants between 0.65 and 9.5 M(-1) s(-1) and 0.27 and 7.4 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Permanganate concentration was the most significant factor on NSAIDs oxidation kinetics, but the pH also played a significant role in diclofenac reaction, being faster at acidic pH. In the case of indomethacine, the dose of permanganate seemed also to play an autocatalytic effect. The use of an accurate-mass high resolution LC-Q-TOF-MS system permitted the identification of a total of 13 by-products. The transformation path of these drugs consisted mainly of hydroxylations, decarboxylations and oxidation of aromatic double bonds, with ring opening. The software predicted toxicity of these products indicates that they are expected not to be more toxic than the NSAIDs, with the exception of two indomethacine by-products. Reaction in real samples was slower and/or incomplete for both pharmaceuticals, depending on the organic matter content of the sample. However, still all transformation products could be detected for

  4. Coupling Surfactants with Permanganate for PCE DNAPL Removal: Coinjection or Sequential Application as Delivery Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, P. J.; Siegrist, R. L.; Crimi, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    Batch experiments and two-dimensional (2-D) flow-through cell experiments were conducted to investigate coupling surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of tetrachloroethene (PCE) dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) for PCE mass destruction. Previous batch screening tests were performed on surfactants and cosolvents in the presence of the oxidant potassium permanganate, to assess compatibility for coupling with permanganate. The anionic surfactants sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT), and sodium hexadecyl diphenyl oxide disulfonate (Dowfax 8390) were compatible and selected for use. Two delivery methods were investigated: (1) coinjection of 0.66 pore volumes (PVs) of 1.0-wt% Aerosol-OT, 0.5-wt% Dowfax 8390, 0.35-wt% CaBr2, and 0.75-wt% NaBr, (for enhanced PCE solubilization) with 0.5-wt% permanganate(for DNAPL mass destruction), and (2) sequential application of 0.66 PVs of the same surfactant solution followed by 0.66 PVs of 0.5-wt% permanganate flush. The 2-D cell packing configuration consisted of a fine-grained silica sand matrix with an embedded medium- grained sand lens, which allowed for the development of a high saturation PCE DNAPL source zone (~9-11% v/v) within the lens of each cell. For both experiments the flushing solutions were delivered at a linear velocity of 52 cm/day. Water quality samples were collected from eight point sampling ports, as well as the cell effluent. Samples were analyzed for PCE, chloride, and permanganate. At the conclusion of the experiments, the mass of PCE removed was quantified by destructively analyzing the cell. Results indicate complete mass removal using sequential application as a delivery method. In the coinjection experiment, cores extracted at the conclusion revealed that 99.8% of PCE DNAPL mass was removed. However, it was not possible to close a mass balance between the initial PCE added and the PCE removed. It is hypothesized this result was due to incomplete

  5. Permanganate diffusion and reaction in sedimentary rocks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Dong, Hailiang; Towne, Rachael M; Fischer, Timothy B; Schaefer, Charles E

    2014-04-01

    In situ chemical oxidation using permanganate has frequently been used to treat chlorinated solvents in fractured bedrock aquifers. However, in systems where matrix back-diffusion is an important process, the ability of the oxidant to migrate and treat target contaminants within the rock matrix will likely determine the overall effectiveness of this remedial approach. In this study, a series of diffusion experiments were performed to measure the permanganate diffusion and reaction in four different types of sedimentary rocks (dark gray mudstone, light gray mudstone, red sandstone, and tan sandstone). Results showed that, within the experimental time frame (~2 months), oxidant migration into the rock was limited to distances less than 500 μm. The observed diffusivities for permanganate into the rock matrices ranged from 5.3 × 10(-13) to 1.3 × 10(-11) cm(2)/s. These values were reasonably predicted by accounting for both the rock oxidant demand and the effective diffusivity of the rock. Various Mn minerals formed as surface coatings from reduction of permanganate coupled with oxidation of total organic carbon (TOC), and the nature of the formed Mn minerals was dependent upon the rock type. Post-treatment tracer testing showed that these Mn mineral coatings had a negligible impact on diffusion through the rock. Overall, our results showed that the extent of permanganate diffusion and reaction depended on rock properties, including porosity, mineralogy, and organic carbon. These results have important implications for our understanding of long-term organic contaminant remediation in sedimentary rocks using permanganate. PMID:24566296

  6. Preparation of anionic clay-birnessite manganese oxide composites by interlayer oxidation of oxalate ions by permanganate

    SciTech Connect

    Arulraj, James; Rajamathi, Michael

    2013-02-15

    Oxalate intercalated anionic clay-like nickel zinc hydroxysalt was obtained starting from nickel zinc hydroxyacetate, Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 2}(OH){sub 8}(OAc){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, by anion exchange. The intercalated oxalate species was reacted with potassium permanganate in such a way that the layered manganese oxide formed was within the interlayer region of the anionic clay resulting in a layered composite in which the negative charges on the birnessite type manganese oxide layers compensate the positive charges on the anionic clay layers. Birnessite to anionic clay ratio could be varied by varying the reaction time or the amount of potassium permanganate used. - Graphical abstract: Nickel zinc hydroxyoxalate was reacted with potassium permanganate to get nickel zinc hydroxide birnessite composites in which the positive charges on the hydroxide layers are neutralized by the negative charges on birnessite layers. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anionic and cationic layered solid composites prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Zn hydroxyoxalate reacted with KMnO{sub 4} to deposit MnO{sub 2} in the interlayer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite layers coexist with anionic clay layers in the composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Birnessite/anionic clay ratio controlled by amount of KMnO{sub 4} used and reaction time.

  7. Sustained-Release Permanganate: Passive Reactive Barriers for Green and Sustainable Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Reactive materials in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have proven very useful for transforming or destroying organic waste in situ. Once emplaced they typically do not require a continued supply of electrical power and have the added benefit of creating a reactive zone for the destruction of contaminants in place. Controlled-release techniques have been utilized extensively in diverse fields such as pharmaceutical and agrochemical technologies. However, controlled- and sustained release of an oxidant during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is an emerging concept that is extremely relevant to the field of environmental remediation, yet to-date has received little attention. ISCO using the oxidants permanganate, persulfate, and catalyzed hydrogen peroxide has shown great promise for remediation of many recalcitrant organic contaminants of concern (COC). Because the oxidant also reacts with natural organic matter, inorganic soil constituents, and other reduced compounds, the presence of a protective barrier that controls oxidant release may enhance the efficiency of ISCO and allow for long-term low-cost treatment of chlorinated solvents. To this end, sustained-release permanganate (SRP) was developed. Paraffin wax was used as the environmentally benign and biodegradable matrix material for encapsulating the solid potassium permanganate (KMnO4) particles. The paraffin matrix protects the solid KMnO4 particles from fast dissolution and potentially undesirable nonproductive reactions. The SRP material contains between 60%-80% permanganate and can be formed as candles for direct push applications in reactive barriers, or chipped material for hydro-fracturing into low permeability media. One-dimensional (1-D) SRP column experiments were conducted to evaluate permanganate release behavior using deionized (DI) water as the influent or COC removal efficiency using dissolved trichloroethene (TCE) as the influent. The influent dissolved TCE concentrations were 1 mg/L and

  8. Potassium test

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity of nerves and muscles, especially the heart. Low levels of potassium can lead to an irregular heartbeat or other ... cell destruction Too much potassium in your diet Low levels of potassium ( hypokalemia ) may be due to: Chronic diarrhea Cushing ...

  9. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  10. Flow-injection chemiluminescent determination of estrogen benzoate using the tris(1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II)-permanganate system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Cao, Wei; Qiao, Shuang; Liu, Wenwen; Yang, Jinghe

    2011-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) detection for the determination of estrogen benzoate, using the reaction of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II)-Na(2)SO(3)-permanganate, is described. This method is based on the CL reaction of estrogen benzoate (EB) with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II). The CL intensity is greatly enhanced when Na(2)SO(3) is added. After optimization of the different experimental parameters, a calibration graph for estrogen benzoate is linear in the range 0.05-10 µg/mL. The 3 s limit of detection is 0.024 µg/mL and the relative standard deviation was 1.3% for 1.0 µg/mL estrogen benzoate (n = 11). This proposed method was successfully applied to commercial injection samples and emulsion cosmetics. The mechanism of CL reaction was also studied. PMID:21268228

  11. Resonance Raman Studies of Azulene and the Permanganate Ion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadoost, Baback

    This dissertation will present resonance Raman studies of the azulene molecule and the permanganate ion. Experimental measurements of the optical absorption spectra and the resonance Raman excitation profiles will be used along with the recently developed transform analysis. In the first part we have extended the frequency range of the previously measured resonance Raman profiles of azulene in solution. We have also measured, for the first time, profiles of two new Raman lines. Using transform techniques, we have calculated resonance Raman profile line shapes directly from our measured optical absorption spectra and the excited state vibrational frequencies. Our overall good profile line shape fits suggest that our model assumptions are basically correct for all the modes studied. Stokes loss analysis based on the good line shape fits indicates that possible deviations from these assumptions may be different for different modes. In the second part we have measured the visible absorption spectra of the permanganate ion with potassium perchlorate used as the host material as a function of pressure. These measurements indicate a blue shift of the absorption. The frequency of the breathing mode in the excited state increases with the pressure. From our absorption measurements we have also inferred a decrease in the Stokes loss parameter for this mode. We have also measured room temperature resonance Raman excitation profiles for the fundamental and the first two harmonics of the breathing mode, both at atmospheric and high pressures. Our Raman measurements indicate a linear increase in the ground state frequency of the breathing mode as a function of pressure. The use of the transform technique which relates absorption to resonance Raman profile line shape produces good agreements with our experimental data in all cases. As previously observed in the low pressure case we show that at high pressures it also is essential to use the excited state frequency in the

  12. A scanning tunneling microscopy investigation of the phases formed by the sulfur adsorption on Au(100) from an alkaline solution of 1,4-piperazine(bis)-dithiocarbamate of potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Javier A.; Valenzuela B., José; Cao Milán, R.; Herrera, José; Farías, Mario H.; Hernández, Mayra P.

    2014-11-01

    Piperazine-dithiocarbamate of potassium (K2DTC2pz) was used as a new precursor for the spontaneous deposition of sulfur on the Au(100) surface in alkaline solution. Two new sulfur phases were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). These phases were formed by six sulfur atoms (S6 phase, hexamer) and by four sulfur atoms (S4 phase, tetramer with (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) structure), and they were observed in coexistence with the well-known quasi-square patterns formed by eight sulfur atoms (S8 phase, octomer). A model was proposed where sulfur multilayers were formed by a (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) phase adsorbed directly on the gold surface while one of the other structures: hexamers or octomers were deposited on top. Sulfur layers were formed on gold terraces, vacancies and islands produced by lifting reconstructed surface. Sequential high-resolution STM images allowed the direct observation of the dynamic of the octomers, while the (√{ 2} ×√{ 2}) structure remained static. Images also showed the reversible association/dissociation of the octomer.

  13. Potassium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Potassium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: K Formal name: Potassium, blood or urine Related tests: Chloride , Sodium , Bicarbonate , ...

  14. Molybdate and molybdate/permanganate conversion coatings on Mg-8.5Li alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guixiang; Zhang, Milin; Wu, Ruizhi

    2012-01-01

    A novel environment-friendly conversion coating for Mg-8.5Li alloy was obtained by immersing in a solution of molybdate. The concentration of ammonium molybdate and the addition of potassium permanganate were discussed in this experiment. The surface morphology of the conversion coatings was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the chemical composition was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of Mg-8.5Li alloy and conversion coatings were investigated by means of potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and weight loss measurement. The results showed that the coatings with cracked morphology were homogeneous and uniform. The conversion coatings were mainly composed of metal-oxide as detected by XPS. The results of electrochemical measurement and weight loss measurement revealed that the molybdate conversion coating had better corrosion resistance than bare alloy and chromate conversion coating, and the molybdate/permanganate conversion coating had lower corrosion current density and higher coating resistance than the molybdate conversion coating.

  15. Individual Reactions of Permanganate and Various Reductants - Student Report to the DOE ERULF Program for Work Conducted May to July 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, Amber M.; Hallen, Richard T.

    2012-09-15

    Tank waste on the Hanford Site contains radioactive elements that need to be removed from solution prior to disposal. One effective way to do this is to precipitate the radioactive elements with manganese solids, produced by permanganate oxidation. When added to tank waste, the permanganate reacts quickly producing manganese (IV) dioxide precipitate. Because of the speed of the reaction it is difficult to tell what exactly is happening. Individual reactions using non-radioactive reductants found in the tanks were done to determine reaction kinetics, what permanganate was reduced to, and what oxidation products were formed. In this project sodium formate, sodium nitrite, glycolic acid, glycine, and sodium oxalate were studied using various concentrations of reductant in alkaline sodium hydroxide solutions. It was determined that formate reacted the quickest, followed by glycine and glycolic acid. Oxalate and nitrite did not appear to react with the permanganate solutions. The products of the oxidation reaction were examined. Formate was oxidized to carbonate and water. Glycolic acid was oxidized slower producing oxalate and water. Glycine reactions formed some ammonia in solution, oxalate, and water. The research reported by Amber Gauger in this report was part of a DOE ERULF student intern program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the direction of Richard Hallen in the summer of 2000.

  16. Kinetics of contaminant degradation by permanganate.

    PubMed

    Waldemer, Rachel H; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2006-02-01

    To provide a more complete understanding of the kinetics of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate (MnO4-), we measured the kinetics of oxidation of 24 contaminants-many for which data were not previously available. The new data reported here were determined using an efficient method based on continuous measurement of the MnO4- concentration by absorbance spectrometry. Under these conditions, the kinetics were found to be first-order with respect to both contaminant and MnO4- concentrations, from which second-order rate constants (k") were readily obtained. Emerging contaminants forwhich k" was determined (at 25 degrees C and pH 7) include 1,4-dioxane (4.2 x 10(-5) M(-1) s(-1)), methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) (1.0 x 10(-4) M(-1) s(-1)), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) (9.1 x 10(-5) M(-1) s(-1)). Contaminants such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), the pesticides aldicarb and dichlorvos, and many substituted phenols are oxidized with rate constants comparable to tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) (i.e., 0.03-1 M(-1) s(-1)) and therefore are good candidates for remediation with MnO4- in the field. There are several--sometimes competing--mechanisms by which MnO4- oxidizes contaminants, including addition to double bonds, abstraction of hydrogen or hydride, and electron transfer. PMID:16509357

  17. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    ... radioactive iodine that may be released during a nuclear radiation emergency. Radioactive iodine can damage the thyroid gland. ... only take potassium iodide if there is a nuclear radiation emergency and public officials tell you that you ...

  18. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be released during a nuclear radiation emergency. Radioactive iodine can damage the thyroid gland. You ...

  19. Potassium test

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be done if your provider suspects metabolic acidosis (for example, caused by uncontrolled diabetes) or alkalosis ( ... Hypoaldosteronism (very rare) Kidney failure Metabolic or respiratory acidosis Red blood cell destruction Too much potassium in ...

  20. Permanganate treatment of DnAPLs in reactive barriers and source zone flooding schemes. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, F.W.; Zhang, Hubao

    1998-06-01

    'The goals of this study are: (1) to elucidate the basic mechanisms by which potassium permanganate oxidizes common chlorinated solvents, various constituents in aqueous solution, and porous-medium solids, and (2) to assess the potential for chemical oxidation by potassium permanganate to serve as a remedial scheme involving either source zone flooding or reactive barriers. The combined theoretical and experimental study is designed to contribute fundamental knowledge about reaction pathways, reaction rates, specific intermediates formed, and controls on reaction processes. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to describe through batch experiments the kinetics and mechanisms by which potassium permanganate oxidizes dissolved tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and dichloroethene (DCE), (2) to examine using column studies the nature and kinetics of reactions between potassium permanganate, residual DNAPLs (PCE, TCE, and DCE) and porous medium solids, (3) to represent the process understanding in flow and transport models that demonstrate the potential applicability of the approach, and (4) to apply the resulting computer code in the development of appropriate field tests for assessing the approach. Approaching the end of Year 2 of this 3-Year project, the authors can report significant progress in meeting the objectives of the study. Through a series of batch experiments, it has been shown that permanganate oxidation is effective in degrading various chlorinated ethylenes in aqueous solution. The disappearance of chlorinated ethylenes can be simply characterized by a pseudo-first-order model. Degradation half-lives for TCE, cis-1,2-DCE, trans-1,2-DCE and 1,1-DCE reacting with 1mM MnO{sub 4}{sup -} range from about 24 s to 18 min. Degradation of PCE is much slower with a half-life of about 257 min. Overall, the degradation rate is inversely proportional to the number of chlorines present as substituents on ethylenes. These rates of degradation

  1. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  2. KINETICS AND MECHANISMS FOR TCE OXIDATION BY PERMANGANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) by permanganate was studied via a series of kinetic experiments. The goal in product identificationa dn parameterization of the oxidation kinetics was to assess the utility of this reaction as the basis for the in-situ remediation of grou...

  3. Bench-scale visualization of DNAPL remediation processes in analog heterogeneous aquifers: surfactant floods and in situ oxidation using permanganate.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Stephen H; Glass, Robert J; Peplinski, William J

    2002-09-01

    We have conducted well-controlled DNAPL remediation experiments within a 2-D, glass-walled, sand-filled chamber using surfactants (Aerosol MA and Tween 80) to increase solubility and an oxidant (permanganate) to chemically degrade the DNAPL. Initial conditions for each remediation experiment were created by injecting DNAPL as a point source at the top of the chamber and allowing the DNAPL to migrate downward through a water-filled, heterogeneous, sand-pack designed to be evocative of a fluvial depositional environment. This migration process resulted in the DNAPL residing as a series of descending pools. Lateral advection across the chamber was used to introduce the remedial fluids. Photographs and digital image analysis illustrate interactions between the introduced fluids and the DNAPL. In the surfactant experiments, we found that DNAPL configured in a series of pools was easily mobilized. Extreme reductions in DNAPL/water interfacial tension occurred when using the Aerosol MA surfactant, resulting in mobilization into low permeability regions and thus confounding the remediation process. More modest reductions in interfacial tension occurred when using the Tween 80 surfactant resulting in modest mobilization. In this experiment, capillary forces remained sufficient to exclude DNAPL migration into low permeability regions allowing the excellent solubilizing properties of the surfactant to recover almost 90% of the DNAPL within 8.6 pore volumes. Injection of a potassium permanganate solution resulted in precipitation of MnO2, a reaction product, creating a low-permeability rind surrounding the DNAPL pools. Formation of this rind hindered contact between the permanganate and the DNAPL, limiting the effectiveness of the remediation. From these experiments, we see the value of performing visualization experiments to evaluate the performance of proposed techniques for DNAPL remediation. PMID:12236553

  4. Potassium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium cyanide is included in

  5. Flow-injection chemiluminescent determination of cefprozil using Tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-permanganate system.

    PubMed

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; Abd El-Razeq, Sawsan A

    2006-06-16

    A rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method using flow-injection (FI) has been developed for the determination of a second generation cephalosporin, cefprozil. The method is based on the CL reaction of cefprozil with acidic potassium permanganate and tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II), Ru (bipy)3(2+). The CL intensity is greatly enhanced when quinine sulfate is used as a sensitizer. After optimization of the different experimental parameters, a calibration graph was obtained over a concentration range of 0.1-3.0 microg ml(-1) with minimum detectability of 0.005 microgml(-1) (S/N=3). The correlation coefficient was 0.9998 (n=6) with a relative standard deviation (%R.S.D.) of 1.63% for 2.0 microgml(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to commercial tablets. The average percentage recovery (n=6) was 99.9+/-1.40. PMID:16682164

  6. Rapid flow injection method for the determination of sulfite in wine using the permanganate-luminol luminescence system.

    PubMed

    Navarrro, Mercedes Villar; Payán, María Ramos; López, Miguel Angel Bello; Fernández-Torres, Rut; Mochón, Manuel Callejón

    2010-10-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence method for the determination of sulfite has been developed by combining flow-injection analysis and its sensitizing effect on the known chemiluminescence emission produced by the oxidation of luminol in alkaline medium; in this work permanganate has been proposed as oxidizing reactive. The optimum conditions for the chemiluminescence emission were established. The chemiluminescence was proportional to the sulfite concentration over the range 1.6 × 10(-5) and 4.0 × 10(-4)mol L(-1). The detection limit was 4.7 × 10(-6)mol L(-1) of sulfite. The method has been satisfactorily used for the determination of free and bound sulfite in wines. PMID:20875609

  7. Treatability assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated marine sediments using permanganate, persulfate and Fenton oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-05-01

    Various chemical oxidation techniques, such as potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8), Fenton (H2O2/Fe(2+)), and the modified persulfate and Fenton reagents (activated by ferrous complexes), were carried out to treat marine sediments that were contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dredged from Kaohsiung Harbor in Taiwan. Experimental results revealed that KMnO4 was the most effective of the tested oxidants in PAH degradation. Owing to the high organic matter content in the sediment that reduced the efficiencies of Na2S2O8 and regular Fenton reactions, a large excess of oxidant was required. Nevertheless, KH2PO4, Na4P2O7 and four chelating agents (EDTA, sodium citrate, oxalic acid, and sodium oxalate) were utilized to stabilize Fe(II) in activating the Na2S2O8 and Fenton oxidations, while Fe(II)-citrate remarkably promoted the PAH degradation. Increasing the molecular weight and number of rings of PAH did not affect the overall removal efficiencies. The correlation between the effectiveness of the oxidation processes and the physicochemical properties of individual PAH was statistically analyzed. The data implied that the reactivity of PAH (electron affinity and ionization potential) affected its treatability more than did its hydrophobicity (Kow, Koc and Sw), particularly using experimental conditions under which PAHs could be effectively oxidized. PMID:26915591

  8. Simulating the in situ oxidative treatment of chlorinated ethylenes by potassium permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hubao; Schwartz, Franklin W.

    2000-10-01

    Several laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the potential viability of oxidation schemes using MnO4- for the in situ treatment of source areas, which are contaminated by chlorinated ethylenes (PCE, TCE, and DCE). Chemically, the chlorinated ethylenes are oxidized to CO2, Cl-, and MnO2. The goal of this study was to develop a theoretical framework for the chemical and physical processes involved. To this end, a computer model was created to simulate the coupled processes of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution, chemical reactions, and solute mass transport in the in situ chemical oxidization scheme. The model incorporates a kinetic description of reactions between the MnO4- and the chlorinated ethylenes and the rate of dissolution of the NAPL. A Strang operator-splitting method, which coupled the different physical and chemical processes and an exponentially expressed solution of the kinetic equations, led to a significant speed up in the solution process. The products were calculated based on the stoichiometry of the reaction. We demonstrated the capabilities of this code using already published results of column, test cell, and field experiments. Generally, the simulated results matched well with experimental measurements. The computer model provides a useful tool for assisting in the design and the prediction of the oxidization processes under field conditions.

  9. Competitive Degradation of Steroid Estrogens by Potassium Permanganate Combined with Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jing; Tang, Kai; Zhu, Shijun; Ma, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kejia; Song, Yali; Li, Xueyan; Li, Qingsong; Liu, Zhenhua; Zhou, Kejin

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of natural estrogens including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), which can be excreted by both humans and animals, and can enter the aqueous environment along with the discharge of domestic sewage, is a major concern since this may represent a serious health risk to humans even at extremely trace levels (ng·L−1). Simultaneous degradation of three coexisting steroid estrogens (SEs) in aqueous solutions by coupled ultrasound and KMnO4 systems (KMnO4/ultrasound) were investigated to find out whether there is a competitive degradation of multiple contaminants or not. Results indicate that the degradation ratios of target SEs were all more than 50% after 120 min reaction contact, greatly enhanced when compared with the single KMnO4 (2 mg·L−1) oxidation of E2 (37.0%), EE2 (34.4%), and E1 (34.0%), and the single sonochemical oxidation of E2 (37.1%), EE2 (31.1%), and E1 (29.7%). In the adopted processes, the degradations of SEs fit the first-order kinetic reaction, with different reaction rates. Kinetic parameters revealed there was little difference between coexisting SEs, which means there was almost no competitive degradation. The removal efficiency and degradation rate of SEs in natural water was higher than those in pure water, which suggested that the coupled KMnO4/ultrasound technology had prospective applications in the removal of complex contaminants in actual drinking water treatment. PMID:26690185

  10. The effect of potassium permanganate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate on metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    el-Zawawy, Lobna A; Ali, Safeya M; Allam, Sonia R

    2003-04-01

    Batches of encysted metacercariae of F. gigantica, adhered to transparent polyethylene sheets, were treated with KMnO4, while others were treated with NaDCC at specific concentrations and exposure times. Assessment of the effects was carried out by the detached percentage and viable metacercariae and by scanning electron microscope (SEM) ultrastructure changes. In addition, their effects on leaves of green vegetables were reported. The results showed that all metacercariae were detached and were dead by exposure to KMnO4 (96%) and NaDCC (100%) were detached from the polyethylene sheets. SEM showed that the deformities in the metacercariae soaked in NaDCC were more severe than those dipped in KMnO4. However, neither KMnO4 nor NaDCC affected the consistency, color, taste or flavor of the vegetables' leaves. The two disinfectants particularly NaDCC, proved to be safe, effective against the encysted metacercariae with no side-effects. PMID:12739819

  11. Competitive Degradation of Steroid Estrogens by Potassium Permanganate Combined with Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jing; Tang, Kai; Zhu, Shijun; Ma, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kejia; Song, Yali; Li, Xueyan; Li, Qingsong; Liu, Zhenhua; Zhou, Kejin

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of natural estrogens including estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), which can be excreted by both humans and animals, and can enter the aqueous environment along with the discharge of domestic sewage, is a major concern since this may represent a serious health risk to humans even at extremely trace levels (ng·L(-1)). Simultaneous degradation of three coexisting steroid estrogens (SEs) in aqueous solutions by coupled ultrasound and KMnO₄ systems (KMnO₄/ultrasound) were investigated to find out whether there is a competitive degradation of multiple contaminants or not. Results indicate that the degradation ratios of target SEs were all more than 50% after 120 min reaction contact, greatly enhanced when compared with the single KMnO₄ (2 mg·L(-1)) oxidation of E2 (37.0%), EE2 (34.4%), and E1 (34.0%), and the single sonochemical oxidation of E2 (37.1%), EE2 (31.1%), and E1 (29.7%). In the adopted processes, the degradations of SEs fit the first-order kinetic reaction, with different reaction rates. Kinetic parameters revealed there was little difference between coexisting SEs, which means there was almost no competitive degradation. The removal efficiency and degradation rate of SEs in natural water was higher than those in pure water, which suggested that the coupled KMnO₄/ultrasound technology had prospective applications in the removal of complex contaminants in actual drinking water treatment. PMID:26690185

  12. PHASE-TRANSFER-CATALYST APPLIED TO THE OXIDATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorinated ethylenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) are common contaminants (Plumb 1991; Westrick et al., 1984). They opccur in the subsurface as zones of residual saturation or occasionally as free products. Because of their inherently low solubil...

  13. SIMULATING THE IN-SITU OXIDATIVE TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ETHYLENES BY POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, MnO{sub}4 oxidation of chlorinated ethylenes (PCE, TCE, and DCE) has emerged as a potentially useful approach for destroying these componds in water. Recently, more applied studies have looked at whether KMnO{sub}4 could be used in remediating sites contaminated ...

  14. Synthesis and characterisation of manganese oxides from potassium permanganate and citric acid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burhanuddin, Syazwani; Yarmo, Ambar; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2013-11-01

    Reaction of KMnO4 and citric acid at different stoichiometric ratio found to give black precipitate after calcined at 500 %C. The black precipitate are classified as two type of manganese oxides mineral namely as bixbyite and hollandite. IR and XRD data were in agreement with the literature report.

  15. Kinetic modelling for the assay of nortriptyline hydrochloride using potassium permanganate as oxidant.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Nafisur; Khan, Sumaiya

    2015-06-01

    Kinetic methods for accurate determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride have been described. The methods are based on the oxidation of nortriptyline hydrochloride with KMnO4 in acidic and basic media. In acidic medium, the decrease in absorbance at 525.5 nm and in basic medium, the increase in absorbance at 608.5 nm were measured as a function of time. The variables affecting the reactions were carefully investigated and optimised. Kinetic models such as initial rate, rate constant, variable time and fixed time were employed to construct the calibration curves. The initial rate and fixed time methods were selected for quantification of nortriptyline hydrochloride. In acidic medium, the calibration curves showed a linear response over the concentration range 10-50 μg mL(-1) for initial rate and 10-60 μg mL(-1) for fixed time method (2 min). In basic medium, the calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range 10-100 μg mL(-1) for initial rate and fixed time methods (4 min). In acidic medium, the limits of detection for initial rate and fixed time methods (2 min) were 1.02 and 3.26 μg mL(-1), respectively. In basic medium, the limits of detection were found to be 1.67 and 1.55 μg mL(-1) for initial rate and fixed time methods (4 min), respectively. The initial rate and fixed time methods have been successfully applied to the determination of nortriptyline hydrochloride in commercial dosage form. Statistical comparison of the results of the proposed methods with those of reference method exhibited excellent agreement and there is no significant difference between the compared methods in terms of accuracy and precision. PMID:25380790

  16. Potassium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... good sources of potassium. Soy products and veggie burgers are also good sources of potassium. Vegetables including ... these dietary intakes for potassium, based on age: Infants 0 - 6 months: 0.4 grams a day ( ...

  17. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    High potassium level is a problem in which the amount of potassium in the blood is higher than normal. The medical ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may ...

  18. Low potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low potassium level is a condition in which the amount of potassium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... in the body. Common causes of low potassium level include: Antibiotics Diarrhea or vomiting Using too much ...

  19. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Mark D; Kambhu, Ann; Comfort, Steve D

    2012-10-01

    Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600 μg L(-1)) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (K(h)=0.5 md(-1)) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4 cm long and either 5. cm or 7.6 cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15 months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85%) and between 10% and 66% decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers. PMID:22784864

  20. The state of permanganate with relation to in situ chemical oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Veronda, Brenda; Dingens, Matthew

    2007-07-01

    In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate had its beginnings over 10 years ago. Since that time, many sites have been successfully treated for organic compounds including chlorinated ethenes (perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc.) phenols, explosives such as RDX, and many other organics. The successful application of ISCO with permanganate requires the integration of many site-specific factors into the remedial design. ISCO with permanganate is an effective technology, not only for its oxidative properties and persistence, but also for its application flexibility to remediate soil and groundwater. The merits of any type of treatment technology can be assessed in terms of effectiveness, ease of use, reaction rate, and cost. The use of permanganate for in situ chemical oxidation results in the complete mineralization of TCE and PCE and can result in treatment levels below detection limits. Permanganate is a single component oxidizer, which is easily handled, mixed and distributed to the subsurface. Permanganate is also inexpensive to design and implement as compared to other technologies. This presentation will provide a general overview of the application and safety aspects of ISCO with permanganate. This paper will discuss the advantages and limitations of this technology, typical cost ranges, site evaluation and application technologies. (authors)

  1. Removal of emerging pollutants by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Xiong, Xinmei; Gao, Naiyun; Song, Weihua; Du, Erdeng; Guan, Xiaohong; Zhou, Gongming

    2014-10-15

    TiO2 supported ruthenium nanoparticles, Ru/TiO2 (0.94‰ as Ru), was synthesized to catalyze permanganate oxidation for degrading emerging pollutants (EPs) with diverse organic moieties. The presence of 1.0 g L(-1) Ru/TiO2 increased the second order reaction rate constants of bisphenol A, diclofenac, acetaminophen, sulfamethoxazole, benzotriazole, carbamazepine, butylparaben, diclofenac, ciprofloxacin and aniline at mg L(-1) level (5.0 μM) by permanganate oxidation at pH 7.0 by 0.3-119 times. The second order reaction rate constants of EPs with permanganate or Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation obtained at EPs concentration of mg L(-1) level (5.0 μM) underestimated those obtained at EPs concentration of μg L(-1) level (0.050 μM). Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate could decompose a mixture of nine EPs at μg L(-1) level efficiently and the second order rate constant for each EP was not decreased due to the competition of other EPs. The toxicity tests revealed that Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was effective not only for elimination of EPs but also for detoxification. The removal rates of sulfamethoxazole by Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation in ten successive cycles remained almost constant in ultrapure water and slightly decreased in Songhua river water since the sixth run, indicating the satisfactory stability of Ru/TiO2. Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation was selective and could remove selected EPs spiked in real waters more efficiently than chlorination. Therefore, Ru/TiO2-catalyzed permanganate oxidation is promising for removing EPs with electron-rich moieties. PMID:25016299

  2. Reactivity of β-blockers/agonists with aqueous permanganate. Kinetics and transformation products of salbutamol.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2015-08-01

    The possible oxidation of two β-blockers, atenolol and propranolol, and one β-agonist, salbutamol, with aqueous potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was investigated by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). Under strong oxidation conditions (2 mg L(-1) KMnO4, 24 h), only salbutamol did significantly react. In this way, the oxidation kinetics of salbutamol was further investigated at different concentrations of KMnO4, chloride, phosphate and sample pH by means of a full factorial experimental design. Depending on these factors, half-lives were in the range 1-144 min for drug and it was observed that KMnO4 concentration was the most significant factor, resulting in increased reaction rate as it is increased. Moreover, the reaction of salbutamol is also enhanced at basic pH and to a minor extent by the presence of phosphates, being both factors more relevant at low KMnO4 concentrations. The use of an accurate-mass LC-QTOF-MS system permitted the identification of a total of seven transformation products (TPs). The transformation path of the drug begins by the attack of KMnO4 on two double bonds of the aromatic ring of salbutamol via 3 + 2 and 2 + 2 addition reactions, which resulted in the ring opening and that continues with oxidative reactions to finally produce smaller size TPs, ending with tert-butyl-formamide, as the smallest TP identified. Reaction in real samples showed a slower and partial oxidation of the pharmaceutical, due to other competing water organic constituents, but still exceeding 60%. Moreover, the software predicted toxicity of TPs indicates that they are expected not to be more toxic than salbutamol, in contrast to the results obtained for the predicted toxicity of chlorination TPs, excepting predicted developmental toxicity. PMID:25965887

  3. ABTS as an Electron Shuttle to Enhance the Oxidation Kinetics of Substituted Phenols by Aqueous Permanganate.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun; Pang, Su-Yan; Liu, Yong-Ze; Yang, Yi; Luo, Cong-Wei; Zhang, Jian-Qiao; Gu, Jia; Qin, Wen

    2015-10-01

    In this study, it was, interestingly, found that 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonate (ABTS), a widely used electron shuttle, could greatly accelerate the oxidation of substituted phenols by potassium permanganate (Mn(VII)) in aqueous solutions at pH 5-9. This was attributed to the fact that these substituted phenols could be readily oxidized by the stable radical cation (ABTS(•+)), which was quickly produced from the oxidation of ABTS by Mn(VII). The reaction of Mn(VII) with ABTS exhibited second-order kinetics, with stoichiometries of ∼5:1 at pH 5-6 and ∼3:1 at pH 7-9, and the rate constants varied negligibly from pH 5 to 9 (k = (9.44 ± 0.21) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)). Comparatively, the reaction of ABTS(•+) with phenol showed biphasic kinetics. The second-order rate constants for the reactions of ABTS(•+) with substituted phenols obtained in the initial phase were strongly affected by pH, and they were several orders of magnitude higher than those for the reactions of Mn(VII) with substituted phenols at each pH. Good Hammett-type correlations were found for the reactions of ABTS(•+) with undissociated (log(k) = 2.82-4.31σ) and dissociated phenols (log(k) = 7.29-5.90σ). The stoichiometries of (2.2 ± 0.06):1 (ABTS(•+) in excess) and (1.38 ± 0.18):1 (phenol in excess) were achieved in the reaction of ABTS(•+) with phenol, but they exhibited no pH dependency. PMID:26378975

  4. Understanding the role of manganese dioxide in the oxidation of phenolic compounds by aqueous permanganate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin; Gao, Yuan; Pang, Su-Yan; Lu, Xue-Ting; Zhou, Yang; Ma, Jun; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that manganese dioxide (MnO2) can significantly accelerate the oxidation kinetics of phenolic compounds such as triclosan and chlorophenols by potassium permanganate (Mn(VII)) in slightly acidic solutions. However, the role of MnO2 (i.e., as an oxidant vs catalyst) is still unclear. In this work, it was demonstrated that Mn(VII) oxidized triclosan (i.e., trichloro-2-phenoxyphenol) and its analogue 2-phenoxyphenol, mainly generating ether bond cleavage products (i.e., 2,4-dichlorophenol and phenol, respectively), while MnO2 reacted with them producing appreciable dimers as well as hydroxylated and quinone-like products. Using these two phenoxyphenols as mechanistic probes, it was interestingly found that MnO2 formed in situ or prepared ex situ greatly accelerated the kinetics but negligibly affected the pathways of their oxidation by Mn(VII) at acidic pH 5. The yields (R) of indicative products 2,4-dichlorophenol and phenol from their respective probes (i.e., molar ratios of product formed to probe lost) under various experimental conditions were quantified. Comparable R values were obtained during the treatment by Mn(VII) in the absence vs presence of MnO2. Meanwhile, it was confirmed that MnO2 could accelerate the kinetics of Mn(VII) oxidation of refractory nitrophenols (i.e., 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol), which otherwise showed negligible reactivity toward Mn(VII) and MnO2 individually, and the effect of MnO2 was strongly dependent upon its concentration as well as solution pH. These results clearly rule out the role of MnO2 as a mild co-oxidant and suggest a potential catalytic effect on Mn(VII) oxidation of phenolic compounds regardless of their susceptibility to oxidation by MnO2. PMID:25437924

  5. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  6. Potassium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... of electrolyte . Function Potassium is a very important mineral for the human body. Your body needs potassium to: Build proteins Break down and use carbohydrates Build muscle Maintain normal body growth Control ...

  7. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  8. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    MedlinePlus

    Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken ...

  9. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  10. Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Potassium is the most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid, and maintaining the proper distribution of potassium across the cell membrane is critical for normal cell function. Long-term maintenance of potassium homeostasis is achieved by alterations in renal excretion of potassium in response to variations in intake. Understanding the mechanism and regulatory influences governing the internal distribution and renal clearance of potassium under normal circumstances can provide a framework for approaching disorders of potassium commonly encountered in clinical practice. This paper reviews key aspects of the normal regulation of potassium metabolism and is designed to serve as a readily accessible review for the well informed clinician as well as a resource for teaching trainees and medical students. PMID:24721891

  11. Survival and stress responses of E. coli exposed to alkaline cleaners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of alkaline cleaners commonly used in food processing environments on survival and stress responses of the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Alkaline cleaners containing either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide and hypochlorite had gre...

  12. Catalyzing the oxidation of sulfamethoxazole by permanganate using molecular sieves supported ruthenium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Huang, Yuying; Guan, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    This study developed a heterogeneous catalytic permanganate oxidation system with three molecular sieves, i.e., nanosized ZSM-5 (ZSM-5A), microsized ZSM-5 (ZSM-5B) and MCM-41, supported ruthenium nanoparticles as catalyst, denoted as Ru/ZSM-5A, Ru/ZSM-5B and Ru/MCM-41, respectively. The presence of 0.5gL(-1) Ru/ZSM-5A, Ru/ZSM-5B and Ru/MCM-41 increased the oxidation rate of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by permanganate at pH 7.0 by 27-1144 times. The catalytic performance of Ru catalysts toward SMX oxidation by permanganate was strongly dependent on Ru loading on the catalysts. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analyses confirmed that Ru catalyst acted as an electron shuttle in catalytic permanganate oxidation process. Ru(III) deposited on the surface of catalysts was oxidized by permanganate to its higher oxidation state Ru(VII), which could work as a co-oxidant with permanganate to decompose SMX and was then reduced to its initial tri-valence. During the successive runs, Ru/ZSM-5A could not maintain its catalytic activity due to the deposition of MnO2, which was the reductive product of permanganate, onto the surface of Ru/ZSM-5A. Thus, the regeneration of partially deactivated Ru catalysts by reductant NH2OH⋅HCl or ascorbic acid was proposed. Ru/ZSM-5A regenerated by NH2OH⋅HCl displayed comparable catalytic ability to its virgin counterpart, while ascorbic acid could not completely remove the deposited MnO2. A trace amount of leaching of Ru into the reaction solution was also observed, which would be ameliorated by improving the preparation conditions in the future study. PMID:26196405

  13. Hg0 absorption in potassium persulfate solution*

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qun-feng; Wang, Cheng-yun; Wang, Da-hui; Sun, Guan; Xu, Xin-hua

    2006-01-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag+ was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg0 concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg0 were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg0 increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg0 was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO3. High Hg0 concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed. PMID:16615172

  14. Hg(0) absorption in potassium persulfate solution.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qun-feng; Wang, Cheng-yun; Wang, Da-hui; Sun, Guan; Xu, Xin-hua

    2006-05-01

    The aqueous phase oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(0)) by potassium persulfate (KPS) catalyzed by Ag(+) was investigated using a glass bubble column reactor. Concentration of gaseous mercury and potassium persulfate were measured by cold vapor atom absorption (CVAA) and ion chromatograph (IC), respectively. The effects of pH value, concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate (SN), temperature, Hg(0) concentration in the reactor inlet and tertiary butanol (TBA), free radical scavenger, on the removal efficiency of Hg(0) were studied. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Hg(0) increased with increasing concentration of potassium persulfate and silver nitrate, while temperature and TBA were negatively effective. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of Hg(0) was much better in neutral solution than in both acidic and alkaline solution. But the influence of pH was almost eliminated by adding AgNO(3). High Hg(0) concentration has positive effect. The possible reaction mechanism of gaseous mercury was also discussed. PMID:16615172

  15. Microbial Community Response of an Organohalide Respiring Enrichment Culture to Permanganate Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Nora B.; Atashgahi, Siavash; Saccenti, Edoardo; Grotenhuis, Tim; Smidt, Hauke; Rijnaarts, Huub H. M.

    2015-01-01

    While in situ chemical oxidation is often used to remediate tetrachloroethene (PCE) contaminated locations, very little is known about its influence on microbial composition and organohalide respiration (OHR) activity. Here, we investigate the impact of oxidation with permanganate on OHR rates, the abundance of organohalide respiring bacteria (OHRB) and reductive dehalogenase (rdh) genes using quantitative PCR, and microbial community composition through sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. A PCE degrading enrichment was repeatedly treated with low (25 μmol), medium (50 μmol), or high (100 μmol) permanganate doses, or no oxidant treatment (biotic control). Low and medium treatments led to higher OHR rates and enrichment of several OHRB and rdh genes, as compared to the biotic control. Improved degradation rates can be attributed to enrichment of (1) OHRB able to also utilize Mn oxides as a terminal electron acceptor and (2) non-dechlorinating community members of the Clostridiales and Deltaproteobacteria possibly supporting OHRB by providing essential co-factors. In contrast, high permanganate treatment disrupted dechlorination beyond cis-dichloroethene and caused at least a 2–4 orders of magnitude reduction in the abundance of all measured OHRB and rdh genes, as compared to the biotic control. High permanganate treatments resulted in a notably divergent microbial community, with increased abundances of organisms affiliated with Campylobacterales and Oceanospirillales capable of dissimilatory Mn reduction, and decreased abundance of presumed supporters of OHRB. Although OTUs classified within the OHR-supportive order Clostridiales and OHRB increased in abundance over the course of 213 days following the final 100 μmol permanganate treatment, only limited regeneration of PCE dechlorination was observed in one of three microcosms, suggesting strong chemical oxidation treatments can irreversibly disrupt OHR. Overall, this detailed investigation into dose

  16. Potassium food supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    Potassium gluconate is considered best supplementary source for potassium. Gluconate consistently received highest taste rating and was indistinguishable from nonsupplemented samples. No unfavorable side effects were found during use, and none are reported in literature. Gluconate is normal intermediary metabolite that is readily adsorbed and produces no evidence of gastrointestinal ulcerations.

  17. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    MedlinePlus

    V-Cillin K® ... Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, scarlet fever, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 ...

  18. Potassium and health.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M

    2013-05-01

    Potassium was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Advisory Committee. The committee concluded that there was a moderate body of evidence of the association between potassium intake and blood pressure reduction in adults, which in turn influences the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Evidence is also accumulating of the protective effect of adequate dietary potassium on age-related bone loss and reduction of kidney stones. These benefits depend on organic anions associated with potassium as occurs in foods such as fruits and vegetables, in contrast to similar blood pressure-lowering benefits of potassium chloride. Benefits to blood pressure and bone health may occur at levels below current recommendations for potassium intake, especially from diet, but dose-response trials are needed to confirm this. Nevertheless, intakes considerably above current levels are needed for optimal health, and studies evaluating small increases in fruit and vegetable intake on bone and heart outcomes for short periods have had disappointing results. In modern societies, Western diets have led to a decrease in potassium intake with reduced consumption of fruits and vegetables with a concomitant increase in sodium consumption through increased consumption of processed foods. Consumption of white vegetables is associated with decreased risk of stroke, possibly related to their high potassium content. Potatoes are the highest source of dietary potassium, but the addition of salt should be limited. Low potassium-to-sodium intake ratios are more strongly related to cardiovascular disease risk than either nutrient alone. This relationship deserves further attention for multiple target tissue endpoints. PMID:23674806

  19. Potassium and Health123

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Connie M.

    2013-01-01

    Potassium was identified as a shortfall nutrient by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 Advisory Committee. The committee concluded that there was a moderate body of evidence of the association between potassium intake and blood pressure reduction in adults, which in turn influences the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Evidence is also accumulating of the protective effect of adequate dietary potassium on age-related bone loss and reduction of kidney stones. These benefits depend on organic anions associated with potassium as occurs in foods such as fruits and vegetables, in contrast to similar blood pressure-lowering benefits of potassium chloride. Benefits to blood pressure and bone health may occur at levels below current recommendations for potassium intake, especially from diet, but dose-response trials are needed to confirm this. Nevertheless, intakes considerably above current levels are needed for optimal health, and studies evaluating small increases in fruit and vegetable intake on bone and heart outcomes for short periods have had disappointing results. In modern societies, Western diets have led to a decrease in potassium intake with reduced consumption of fruits and vegetables with a concomitant increase in sodium consumption through increased consumption of processed foods. Consumption of white vegetables is associated with decreased risk of stroke, possibly related to their high potassium content. Potatoes are the highest source of dietary potassium, but the addition of salt should be limited. Low potassium-to-sodium intake ratios are more strongly related to cardiovascular disease risk than either nutrient alone. This relationship deserves further attention for multiple target tissue endpoints. PMID:23674806

  20. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  1. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  2. A five-year performance review of field-scale, slow-release permanganate candles with recommendations for second-generation improvements.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Mark; Kambhu, Ann; Reece, James; Comfort, Steve; Brunner, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    In 2009, we identified a TCE plume at an abandoned landfill that was located in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate cylinders (oxidant candles) that had diameters of either 5.1 or 7.6 cm and were 91.4 cm long. In 2010, we compared two methods of candle installation by inserting equal masses of the oxidant candles (7.6-cm vs 5.1-cm dia). The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted with direct-push rods while the 7.6-cm candles were housed in screens and lowered into 10 permanent wells. Since installation, the 7.6-cm oxidant candles have been refurbished approximately once per year by gently scraping off surface oxides. In 2012, we reported initial results; in this paper, we provide a 5-yr performance review since installation. Temporal sampling shows oxidant candles placed in wells have steadily reduced migrating TCE concentrations. Moreover, these candles still maintain an inner core of oxidant that has yet to contribute to the dissolution front and should provide several more years of service. Oxidant candles inserted by direct-push have stopped reducing TCE concentrations because a MnO2 scale developed on the outside of the candles. To counteract oxide scaling, we fabricated a second generation of oxidant candles that contain sodium hexametaphosphate. Laboratory experiments (batch and flow-through) show that these second-generation permanganate candles have better release characteristics and are less prone to oxide scaling. This improvement should reduce the need to perform maintenance on candles placed in wells and provide greater longevity for candles inserted by direct-push. PMID:26901481

  3. Alkaline igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitton, J.G.; Upton, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this volume, an international team of scientists provides an up-to-date overview of the nature, origin, and evolution of alkaline magmas. Particular attention is paid to carbonatites, lamprophyres, and lamproites which are rock suites of current interest not recently reviewed elsewhere. Recent work on the classical alkaline provinces of East Africa, South Greenland, and the Kola Peninsula is included together with reviews of other areas of alkaline magmatism in North and South America, East Greenland, Europe, West Africa, and the ocean basins. Other papers discuss the impact of experimental isotopic and geochemical studies of the petrogenesis of alkaline rocks. This book will be of interest to petrologists and geochemists studying alkaline igneous rocks, and to other earth scientists as a reference on the rapidly expanding field of igneous petrology.

  4. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation lowers bone turnover and calcium excretion in older men and women a randomized dose-finding trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acid load accompanying modern diets may have adverse effects on bone and muscle metabolism. Treatment with alkaline salts of potassium can neutralize the acid load, but the optimal amount of alkali is not established. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of two doses of potassium bic...

  5. Corrosion-resistant coating prepared by the thermal decomposition of lithium permanganate

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrando, W.A.

    1999-09-01

    A ceramic, metal, or metal alloy surface is covered with lithium permanganate which is then thermally decomposed to produce a corrosion resistant coating on the surface. This coating serves as a primer coating which is preferably covered with an overcoat of a sealing paint.

  6. Permanganate oxidizable carbon reflects a processed soil fraction that is sensitive to management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Permanganate oxidizable C (POXC; i.e., active C) is a relatively new method that can quantify labile soil C rapidly and inexpensively. Despite limited reports of positive correlations with particulate organic carbon (POC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and other soil carbon (C) fractions, little i...

  7. Chemiluminescence evidence supporting the selective role of ligands in the permanganate oxidation of micropollutants.

    PubMed

    Roderick, Mark S; Adcock, Jacqui L; Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Parry, Samuel; Linton, Stuart M; Thornton, Megan T; Barrow, Colin J; Francis, Paul S

    2013-10-10

    The selective increase in the oxidation rate of certain organic compounds with permanganate in the presence of environmental "ligands" and reduced species has been ascribed to the different reactivity of the target compounds toward Mn(III), which bears striking similarities to recent independent investigations into the use of permanganate as a chemiluminescence reagent. In spite of the importance of Mn(III) in the light-producing pathway, the dependence of the oxidation mechanism for any given compound on this intermediate could not be determined solely through the emission intensity. However, target compounds susceptible to single-electron oxidation by Mn(III) (such as bisphenol A and triclosan) can be easily distinguished by the dramatic increase in chemiluminescence intensity when a permanganate reagent containing high, stable concentrations of Mn(III) is used. The differences are accentuated under the low pH conditions that favor the chemiluminescence emission due to the greater reactivity of Mn(III) and the greater influence of complexing agents. This study supports the previously postulated selective role of ligands and reducing agents in permanganate oxidations and demonstrates a new approach to explore the chemistry of environmental manganese redox processes. PMID:24050380

  8. Binary Mixtures of Permanganate and Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds in Groundwater Samples: Sample Preservation and Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground water samples collected at sites where in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has been deployed may contain binary mixtures of ground water contaminants and permanganate (MnO4-), an oxidant injected into the subsurface to destroy the contaminant. Commingling of the oxidant and ...

  9. What is Potassium?

    MedlinePlus

    ... carrots and beans. It's also found in dairy foods, meat, poultry, fish and nuts. Reach your recommended daily intake of potassium by frequently adding these foods to your daily menu: 1 cup cooked spinach: ...

  10. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms from swallowing potassium hydroxide include: Abdominal pain - severe Burns in the mouth and throat Chest pain Collapse Diarrhea Drooling Mouth pain - severe Rapid drop in blood pressure (shock) Throat pain - severe Throat ...

  11. Advanced technology for extended endurance alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Martin, R. A.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced components have been developed for alkaline fuel cells with a view to the satisfaction of NASA Space Station design requirements for extended endurance. The components include a platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode, a potassium titanate-bonded electrolyte matrix, a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate, a gold-plated nickel-perforated foil electrode substrate, a polyphenylene sulfide cell edge frame material, and a nonmagnesium cooler concept. When incorporated into the alkaline fuel cell unit, these components are expected to yield regenerative operation in a low earth orbit Space Station with a design life greater than 5 years.

  12. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  13. Mass removal of chlorinated ethenes from rough-walled fractures using permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnicliffe, B. S.; Thomson, N. R.

    2004-11-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) employing permanganate is an emerging technology that has been successful at enhancing mass removal from DNAPL source zones in unconsolidated media at the pilot-scale. The focus of this study was to evaluate the applicability of flushing a permanganate solution across two single vertical fractures in a laboratory environment to remove free phase DNAPL. The fracture experiments were designed to represent a portion of a larger fractured aquifer system impacted by a near-surface DNAPL spill over a shallow fractured rock aquifer. Each fracture was characterized by hydraulic and tracer tests, and the aperture field for one of the fractures was mapped using a co-ordinate measurement machine. Following DNAPL emplacement, a series of water and permanganate flushes were performed. To support observations from the fracture experiments, a set of batch experiments was conducted. The data from both fracture experiments showed that the post-oxidation effluent concentration was not impacted by the oxidant flush; however, changes in the aperture distribution, flow field, and flow rate were observed. These changes resulted in a significant decrease to the mass loading from the fractures, and were attributed to the build-up of oxidation by-products (manganese oxides and carbon dioxide) within the fracture which was corroborated by the batch experiment data and visual examination of the walls of one fracture. These results provide insight into the potential impact that a permanganate solution and oxidation by-products can have on the aperture distribution within a fracture and on DNAPL mass transfer rates. A permanganate flush or injection completed within a fractured rock aquifer may lead to the development of an insoluble product adjacent to the DNAPL which results in the reduction or complete elimination of advective regions near the DNAPL and reduces mass transfer rates. This outcome would have significant implications on the plume generating

  14. Improving the treatment of non-aqueous phase TCE in low permeability zones with permanganate.

    PubMed

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Comfort, Steve; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Dvorak, Bruce

    2014-03-15

    Treating dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) embedded in low permeability zones (LPZs) is a particularly challenging issue for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to improve the sweeping efficiency of permanganate (MnO4(-)) into LPZs to treat high concentrations of TCE. This was accomplished by conducting transport experiments that quantified the penetration of various permanganate flooding solutions into a LPZ that was spiked with non-aqueous phase (14)C-TCE. The treatments we evaluated included permanganate paired with: (i) a shear-thinning polymer (xanthan); (ii) stabilization aids that minimized MnO2 rind formation and (iii) a phase-transfer catalyst. In addition, we quantified the ability of these flooding solutions to improve TCE destruction under batch conditions by developing miniature LPZ cylinders that were spiked with (14)C-TCE. Transport experiments showed that MnO4(-) alone was inefficient in penetrating the LPZ and reacting with non-aqueous phase TCE, due to a distinct and large MnO2 rind that inhibited the TCE from further oxidant contact. By including xanthan with MnO4(-), the sweeping efficiency increased (90%) but rind formation was still evident. By including the stabilization aid, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) with xanthan, permanganate penetrated 100% of the LPZ, no rind was observed, and the percentage of TCE oxidized increased. Batch experiments using LPZ cylinders allowed longer contact times between the flooding solutions and the DNAPL and results showed that SHMP+MnO4(-) improved TCE destruction by ∼16% over MnO4(-) alone (56.5% vs. 40.1%). These results support combining permanganate with SHMP or SHMP and xanthan as a means of treating high concentrations of TCE in low permeable zones. PMID:24491441

  15. Degradation of aromatic amines in textile-dyeing sludge by combining the ultrasound technique with potassium permanganate treatment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jieying; Ning, Xun-An; An, Taicheng; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Yujie

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports, for the first time, a combined technique of ultrasound (US) with KMnO4 degradation of aromatic amines in a textile-dyeing sludge. The reaction mechanisms and the degradation kinetics of aromatic amines at various operating parameters (KMnO4 dosage, US power density and pH) were systematically examined by the combined system of US-KMnO4. The results indicated that there was a synergistic effect between US and KMnO4, as US greatly enhanced KMnO4 in the degradation of aromatic amines and exhibited apparent sludge disintegration and separated pollutants from the sludge. In addition to accelerating the Mn(VII) reaction with pollutants in the filtrate, US also caused Mn(VII) to enter the porous sludge and sufficiently facilitated the reaction of the strongly absorbed aromatic amines. The combined treatment of US-KMnO4 was effective in the degradation of aromatic amines in textile-dyeing sludge. On average, 58.7% of monocyclic anilines, 88.3% of other forms of aromatic amines, and 24.0% of TOC were removed under the optimal operating conditions of a KMnO4 dosage of 12mM, an US power density of 1.80W/cm(3) and pH 5. The present study proposed US-KMnO4 treatment as a practical method for the disposal of aromatic amines in textile-dyeing sludge. PMID:27107230

  16. Comparison of tank treatments of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate on sunshine bass infested with ichthyobodosis (costiosis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyobodo necator, more commonly known as Costia, causes large losses among fish populations, particularly those cultured in tanks. Ichthyobodosis usually occurs in groups of crowded fish that have been poorly fed and held in waters with low flow, but its occurrence is not limited to these condit...

  17. In vitro comparisons of the inhibitory activity of florfenicol copper sulfate and potassium permanganate towards Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare, the etiological agents of motile aeromonas septicemia (MAS) and columnaris disease, respectively, have been recently causing crippling moralities to the sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male (Percichthyidae), industry in the ...

  18. POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE AND CLINOPTILOLITE ZEOLITE FOR IN SITU TREATMENT OF GROUND WATER CONTAMINATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE: LABORATORY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are tens of thousands of closed landfills in the United States, many of whicih are unlined and sited on alluvial deposits. Landfills are of concern because leachate contains a variety of pollutants that can contaminate ground and surface water. Data from chemical analysis...

  19. Comparing the effectiveness of two applications of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate against Ichthyobodosis (Costiosis) on sunshine bass in tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biflagellated single-cell parasite Ichthyobodo nectator, more commonly known as Costia, can cause significant fish losses among fish populations, particularly those cultured in tanks. It is often associated with young fish that have been crowded, underfed, and held in waters with low flow, but ...

  20. In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Ground Water: Permanganate Reactive Barrier Systems for the Long-Term Treatment of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. David; Schwartz, Frank W.

    2004-03-31

    Oxidation of chlorinated solvents by permanganate has proven to be effective in destroying these compounds in the aqueous phase. A semi-passive, well-based permanganate reactive barrier system (PRBS) was designed in order for the long-term treatment of dissolved contaminant in the ground water. Results from laboratory experiments indicate the PRBS could deliver permanganate at a stable, constant and controllable rate. In this paper, different field designs of the PRBS are discussed. Numerical simulation was conducted to elucidate the parameters that will influence the field implementation of a PRBS. We investigated issues such as permanganate consumption by aquifer materials, variable density flow effect, as well as lateral spreading under different geological settings. Results from this study continue to point to the promise of an in situ chemical oxidation scheme. PRBS provides a potential treatment of the contaminated ground water at relatively low management cost as compared with other alternatives.

  1. BENCH-SCALE VISUALIZATION OF DNAPL REMEDIATION PROCESSES IN ANALOG HETEROGENEOUS AQUIFERS: SURFACTANT FLOODS, AND IN SITU OXIDATION USING PERMANGANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have conducted well-controlled DNAPL remediation experiments using surfactants (Aerosol MA and Tween 80) to increase solubility and an oxidant (permanganate) to chemically degrade the DNAPL. Photographs and digital image analysis illustrate previously unobserved interactions b...

  2. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  3. Recipe for potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Izutani, Natsuko

    2012-11-12

    I investigate favorable conditions for producing potassium (K). Observations show [K/Fe] > 0 at low metallicities, while zero-metal supernova models show low [K/Fe] (< 0). Theoretically, it is natural that the odd-Z element, potassium decreases with lower metallicity, and thus, the observation should imply new and unknown sites for potassium. In this proceedings, I calculate proton-rich nucleosynthesis with three parameters, the initial Y{sub e} (from 0.51 to 0.60), the initial density {rho}{sub max} (10{sup 7}, 10{sup 8}, and 10{sup 9} [g/cm{sup 3}]), and the e-fold time {tau} for the density (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 [sec]). Among 90 models I have calculated, only 26 models show [K/Fe] > 0, and they all have {rho}{sub max} = 10{sup 9}[g/cm{sup 3}]. I discuss parameter dependence of [K/Fe].

  4. Potassium Beta-Alumina/Molybdenum/Potassium Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M.; Nakamura, B.; Kikert, S.; O'Connor, D.

    1994-01-01

    potassium alkali metal thermal-to-electric converter (K-AMTEC) cells utilizing potassium beta alumina solid electrolyte (K-BASE) are predicted to have improved properties for thermal to electric conversion at somewhat lower temperatures than sodium AMTEC's.

  5. Errors in potassium balance

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.B.; Lantigua, R.; Amatruda, J.M.; Lockwood, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Six overweight adult subjects given a low calorie diet containing adequate amounts of nitrogen but subnormal amounts of potassium (K) were observed on the Clinical Research Center for periods of 29 to 40 days. Metabolic balance of potassium was measured together with frequent assays of total body K by /sup 40/K counting. Metabolic K balance underestimated body K losses by 11 to 87% (average 43%): the intersubject variability is such as to preclude the use of a single correction value for unmeasured losses in K balance studies.

  6. Potassium and High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... in blood pressure to certain patterns of food consumption. For example, the D.A.S.H. (Dietary Approaches ... are good natural sources of potassium. Potassium-rich foods include: Sweet ... Levels Mean * ...

  7. Transformation of potassium Lindquist hexaniobate to various potassium niobates: solvothermal synthesis and structural evolution mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xingang; Hu, Dengwei; Wen, Puhong; Ishii, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Feng, Qi

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the formation reactions and reaction mechanisms of a series of potassium niobates from a potassium salt of the Lindquist hexaniobate [Nb6O19](8-) ion under solvothermal conditions. The structure and particle morphology of the potassium niobate product can be controlled easily with the reaction solution alkalinity using this solvothermal process. KNb3O8 with a plate-like morphology, K4Nb6O17·4.5H2O with a plate-like morphology, a new phase of K2Nb2O6·H2O with fibrous morphology, KNbO3 perovskites with cubic morphology are obtained at pH = 5.5, and in 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 mol L(-1) KOH solutions at 230 °C, respectively. The reaction conditions are much milder than those in the normal hydrothermal process. Furthermore, the K2Nb2O6·H2O fibers can be topotactically transformed into KNbO3 fibers, Nb2O5 fibers after H(+)-exchange-treatment, and LiNbO3 fibers after Li(+)-exchange-treatment by heat-treatments at 730, 560, and 520 °C, respectively. The formation reaction and structure of these potassium niobates were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectra and TG-DTA. The formation mechanism of this series of potassium niobates from the [Nb6O19](8-) precursor is systematically explained via the correlation between the octahedrons [NbO6] sharing forms in the precursor structure and in the product structures. PMID:23545951

  8. The Potential of Soft Soil Improvement Through a Coupled Technique Between Electro Kinetic and Alkaline Activation of Soft Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, G. E.; Ismail, H. B.; Huat, B. K.; Afshin, A.; Azhar, A. T. S.

    2016-07-01

    Soil stabilization techniques have been in development for decades with different rates of success. Alkaline activation of soft soil is one of those techniques that has proved to deliver some of the best shear strength values with minor drawbacks in comparison with conventional soil stabilization methods. However, environmental considerations have not been taken into account, as major mineral glassy phase activators are poisoning alkaline solutions, such as sodium-, potassium-hydroxide, and sodium-, potassium-silicate, which poses serious hazards to man and environment. This paper addresses the ways of discarding the involvement of the aforementioned alkaline solutions in soft soil stabilization by investigating the potential of a coupled electro kinetic alkaline activation technique for soft soil strengthening, through which the provision of alkaline pH is governed by electro kinetic potential. Uncertainties in regard to the dissolution of aluminosilicate as well as the dominance of acidic front are challenges that need to be overcome.

  9. Potassium silver cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for potassium silver cyanide is inclu

  10. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... J. Martin, MD, MPH, ABIM Board Certified in Internal Medicine and Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Kidney Diseases Potassium Browse the Encyclopedia A. ...

  11. Data on electrical properties of nickel modified potassium polytitanates compacted powders.

    PubMed

    Goffman, V G; Gorokhovsky, A V; Gorshkov, N V; Fedorov, F S; Tretychenko, E V; Sevrugin, A V

    2015-09-01

    Potassium polytitanates are new promising type of ferroelectric ceramic materials with high ionic conductivity, highly polarizable structure and extremely high permittivity. Its structure is formed by [TiO6] octahedral units to layers with mobile potassium and hydroxonium ions in-between. The treatment in solutions containing nickel ions allows forming heterostructured materials which consist of potassium polytitanate particles intercalated by Ni(2+) ions and/or decorated by nickel oxides NiO x . This modification route is fully dependant on solution pH, i.e. in acidic solutions the intercalation process prevails, in alkaline solutions potassium polytitanate is mostly decorated by the oxides. Therefore, electronic structure and electrical properties can be regulated depending on modification conditions, pH and ions concentration. Here we report the data on electric properties of potassium titanate modified in nickel sulfate solutions at different pH. PMID:26217788

  12. Data on electrical properties of nickel modified potassium polytitanates compacted powders

    PubMed Central

    Goffman, V.G.; Gorokhovsky, A.V.; Gorshkov, N.V.; Fedorov, F.S.; Tretychenko, E.V.; Sevrugin, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Potassium polytitanates are new promising type of ferroelectric ceramic materials with high ionic conductivity, highly polarizable structure and extremely high permittivity. Its structure is formed by [TiO6] octahedral units to layers with mobile potassium and hydroxonium ions in-between. The treatment in solutions containing nickel ions allows forming heterostructured materials which consist of potassium polytitanate particles intercalated by Ni2+ ions and/or decorated by nickel oxides NiOx. This modification route is fully dependant on solution pH, i.e. in acidic solutions the intercalation process prevails, in alkaline solutions potassium polytitanate is mostly decorated by the oxides. Therefore, electronic structure and electrical properties can be regulated depending on modification conditions, pH and ions concentration. Here we report the data on electric properties of potassium titanate modified in nickel sulfate solutions at different pH. PMID:26217788

  13. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  14. Permanganate Treatment of DNAPLs in Reactive Barriers and Source Zone Flooding Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Franklin W.

    2003-09-14

    This research involves a combined experimental modeling study that builds on our previous DOE-sponsored work in understanding how KMnO4 can be used with in situ cleanups of contaminated sites. The specific objectives of this study are (1) to describe how solid forms of KMnO4 behave in saturated media, (2) to undertake flow tank studies that examine the hydraulic impact of reaction products (especially MnO2) on the flux of water through the zone of contamination, and (3) to represent process understanding in flow and transport models. We have made excellent progress in addressing these issues through a variety of different laboratory and theoretical investigations, as well as work that summarizes the state of the science. In the space available for this report, we can only summarize the key findings of the study. Readers interested in additional details can refer to the papers that are listed at end of this report. There has been significant industrial interest in the use of KMnO4 schemes for the in situ destruction of various chlorinated solvents. Given our previous work that emphasized some of the problems associated with field applications of the method, we were invited to contribute to a special edition of Environmental & Engineering Geoscience that examined the effects of heterogeneity on in situ remediation schemes. Our review targeted the most common implementation namely the use of an injection/withdrawal system to circulate oxidants (e.g., potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, and Fenton's Reagent) through a source zone containing a dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). The review demonstrated with various examples (1) how the efficiency of chemical oxidation is highly dependent on physical and chemical heterogeneities, and (2) how effective delivery is essential for successful remediation. A summary of this work is provided here in Section 1 of the Chapter Methods and Results. We investigated the mineralogy of Mn oxides, and the possibilities of

  15. Kinetic and Mechanistic Aspects of the Reactions of Iodide and Hypoiodous Acid with Permanganate: Oxidation and Disproportionation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaodan; Salhi, Elisabeth; Liu, Huiling; Ma, Jun; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-04-19

    Oxidation kinetics of iodide and HOI/OI(-) by permanganate were studied in the pH range of 5.0-10.0. Iodide oxidation and iodate formation were faster at lower pH. The apparent second-order rate constants (kobs) for iodide oxidation by permanganate decrease with increasing pH from 29 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 5.0 and 6.9 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.0 to 2.7 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 10.0. kobs for HOI abatement are 56 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 5.0, 2.5 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.0, and 173 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 10.0. Iodate yields over HOI abatement decrease from 98% at pH 6.0 to 33% for pH ≥ 9.5, demonstrating that HOI disproportionation dominates HOI transformation by permanganate at pH ≥ 8.0. MnO2 formed as a product from permanganate reduction, oxidizes HOI to iodate for pH < 8.0, and promotes HOI disproportionation for pH ≥ 8.0. The rate of HOI oxidation or disproportionation induced by MnO2 is much lower than for permanganate. During treatment of iodide-containing waters, the potential for iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) formation is highest at pH 7.0-8.0 due to the long lifetime of HOI. For pH < 6.0, HOI/I2 is quickly oxidized by permanganate to iodate, whereas for pH ≥ 8.0, HOI/OI(-) undergoes a fast permanganate-mediated disproportionation. PMID:27003721

  16. Slow Release of Permanganate from Injectable Fumed Silica Gel: Rheological Properties and Release Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Li, G.

    2014-12-01

    ISCO (In Situ Chemical Oxidation) has been proved to be a useful remediation technology in destroying most prevalent aqueous organic contaminants. For permanganate (MnO4-) in particular, the chemistry of degradative oxidation is well established for cleaning up groundwater containing trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). However the long-term effectiveness of the application of this oxidant has been questioned due to the observed post remediation rebound of contaminant concentrations. To improve the efficiency of ISCO using MnO4-under specific site conditions, the technology of emplacing slow-releasing permanganate in an aquifer has been studied. We have developed an injectable slow-release permanganate slurry/gel (ISRPG) by mixing KMnO4 with fumed silica in water. Ideally, the slurry/gel forms would release low concentration of MnO4- by diffusion to maintain a desired concentration level of the agent within the chemically active zone. We have investigated the properties and tested the application of this ISRPG in laboratory studies. Rheological study indicated ISRPG has high viscosity and shear thinning property. The viscosity of silica gel could be lowered by mechanical mixing thus making it easy for subsurface injection. Batch tests revealed that MnO4- was diffused from ISRPG and the gel did not disperse but maintained its initial shape. In column experiments we showed that permanganate release covered 6 times more effluent pore volumes when ISRPG was injected compared to MnO4- solution injection. We also observed TCE degradation by released MnO4-, and the remedial performance occurred over a much longer timeframe with ISRPG compared to MnO4- solution injection. In 2-D flow cell tests we demonstrated that water flows around the injected gel, carrying MnO4- diffused out from the gel and forming a downstream oxidant plume, while the gel was stationary. ISRPG slowly released low concentrations of permanganate to maintain a predetermined level of the

  17. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  18. Detecting potassium on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A critical comment on the work of A.L. Sprague et al. (1990) is presented. It is argued that, in attributing an enhanced emission in the potassium D lines on Oct. 14, 1987 in the equatorial region of Mercury to a diffusion source centered on Caloris Basin, Sprague et al. misinterpreted the data. Sprague et al. present a reply, taking issue with the commenters.

  19. Potassium Channels in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Köhling, Rüdiger; Wolfart, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This review attempts to give a concise and up-to-date overview on the role of potassium channels in epilepsies. Their role can be defined from a genetic perspective, focusing on variants and de novo mutations identified in genetic studies or animal models with targeted, specific mutations in genes coding for a member of the large potassium channel family. In these genetic studies, a demonstrated functional link to hyperexcitability often remains elusive. However, their role can also be defined from a functional perspective, based on dynamic, aggravating, or adaptive transcriptional and posttranslational alterations. In these cases, it often remains elusive whether the alteration is causal or merely incidental. With ∼80 potassium channel types, of which ∼10% are known to be associated with epilepsies (in humans) or a seizure phenotype (in animals), if genetically mutated, a comprehensive review is a challenging endeavor. This goal may seem all the more ambitious once the data on posttranslational alterations, found both in human tissue from epilepsy patients and in chronic or acute animal models, are included. We therefore summarize the literature, and expand only on key findings, particularly regarding functional alterations found in patient brain tissue and chronic animal models. PMID:27141079

  20. Alkaline Leaching of Key, Non-Radioactive Components from Simulants and Hanford Tank Sludge 241-S-110: Results of FY01 Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Kim, Jinseong; Cisar, Alan J.

    2002-09-10

    This study addressed three aspects in selected alkaline leaching: first, the use of oxidants persulfate, permanganate, and ferrate as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed Hanford Tank S-110 solids under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time was investigated. Second, the selective dissolution of solids containing mercury(II) oxide under alkaline conditions was examined. Various compounds were studied for their effectiveness in dissolving mercury under varying conditions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration in the leachate. Three compounds were studied: cysteine, iodide, and diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA). Finally, the possibility of whether an oxidant bound to an anion-exchange resin can be used to effectively oxidize chromium(III) in alkaline solutions was addressed. The experimental results remain ambiguous to date; further work is required to reach any definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach.

  1. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  2. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  3. Oscillations in the reduction of permanganate by hydrogen peroxide or by ninhydrin in a batch reactor and mixed-mode oscillations in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóthová, Mária; Nagy, Arpád; Treindl, Ľudovít.

    1999-01-01

    The periodical reduction of permanganate by hydrogen peroxide or by ninhydrin with transient oscillations in a closed system has been observed and discussed in relation to the first two permanganate oscillators described earlier. The mixed-mode oscillations of the permanganate-H 2O 2 oscillating system in a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor have been described.

  4. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement. PMID:25456880

  5. Targeting potassium channels in cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are pore-forming transmembrane proteins that regulate a multitude of biological processes by controlling potassium flow across cell membranes. Aberrant potassium channel functions contribute to diseases such as epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, and neuromuscular symptoms collectively known as channelopathies. Increasing evidence suggests that cancer constitutes another category of channelopathies associated with dysregulated channel expression. Indeed, potassium channel–modulating agents have demonstrated antitumor efficacy. Potassium channels regulate cancer cell behaviors such as proliferation and migration through both canonical ion permeation–dependent and noncanonical ion permeation–independent functions. Given their cell surface localization and well-known pharmacology, pharmacological strategies to target potassium channel could prove to be promising cancer therapeutics. PMID:25049269

  6. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  9. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS... potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By treating...

  12. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate... of potassium chloride followed by exposing the resultant potassium to carbon dioxide; (2) By...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium... reacting hydriodic acid (HI) with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3). (b) The ingredient meets...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  16. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  18. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.800 Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also... not preclude such use, under the following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Potassium alginate...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-58-3) is also... powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from the electrolysis of potassium chloride...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7778-80-5) occurs.... It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with potassium hydroxide or potassium...

  2. Electrodialysis recovery of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from eluates of SWC facilities at NPP with VVER

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnik, S.N.; Virich, P.M.; Kramskikh, E.Y.; Masanov, O.L.; Turovsky, I.P.

    1993-12-31

    To extract boric acid and potassium hydroxide from regenerates of SWC-2-46 facilities, an electrodialysis-sorption process has been devised consisting of the following operations: separation of boron-alkaline regenerate solution into desorbate and wash water; filling of desalination and concentration chambers, respectively, with desorbate and was water of electrodialysis equipment; production of boric acid and potassium hydroxide from desorbate by electrodialysis; removal of chloride-ion from boric acid solution on ion-exchange filter AB-17-18. The flow-sheet was tested and boron containing alkaline regeneration solutions were recovered from Novovoronezh NPP.

  3. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Štefková, Kateřina; Procházková, Jiřina; Pacherník, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells. PMID:25767512

  4. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  5. Impact of injection system design on ISCO performance with permanganate — mathematical modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Ki Young; Borden, Robert C.

    2012-02-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using permanganate (MnO 4-) can be a very effective technique for remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. However, many ISCO projects are less effective than desired because of poor delivery of the chemical reagents to the treatment zone. In this work, the numerical model RT3D was modified and applied to evaluate the effect of aquifer characteristics and injection system design on contact and treatment efficiency. MnO 4- consumption was simulated assuming the natural oxidant demand (NOD) is composed of a fraction that reacts instantaneously and a fraction that slowly reacts following a 2nd order relationship where NOD consumption rate increases with increasing MnO 4- concentration. MnO 4- consumption by the contaminant was simulated as an instantaneous reaction. Simulation results indicate that the mass of permanganate and volume of water injected has the greatest impact on aquifer contact efficiency and contaminant treatment efficiency. Several small injection events are not expected to increase contact efficiency compared to a single large injection event, and can increase the amount of un-reacted MnO 4- released down-gradient. High groundwater flow velocities can increase the fraction of aquifer contacted. Initial contaminant concentration and contaminant retardation factor have only a minor impact on volume contact efficiency. Aquifer heterogeneity can have both positive and negative impacts on remediation system performance, depending on the injection system design.

  6. Gold nanorods-enhanced rhodamine B-permanganate chemiluminescence and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Javad; Amjadi, Mohammad; Manzoori, Jamshid L.; Sorouraddin, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-04-01

    A novel enhanced chemiluminescence system was developed by applying gold nanorods (Au NRs) as catalysts in rhodamine B-permanganate reaction. Au NRs with three different aspect ratios were synthesized by seed mediated growth method and characterized by UV-Vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that Au NRs have much higher catalytic effect than spherical nanoparticles on rhodamine B-permanganate chemiluminescence reaction. Among various sizes of Au NRs, those with average aspect ratio of 3.0 were found to have the most remarkable catalytic activity. As an analytical application of the new chemiluminescence system, albumin as a model protein was quantified based on its interaction with NRs. Albumin binds to Au NRs active surfaces and inhibits their catalytic action and therefore decreases the intensity of chemiluminescence. This diminution effect is linearly related to the concentration of the human and bovine serum albumin over the ranges of 0.45-90 and 0.75-123 nmol L-1, respectively with the corresponding limits of detection of 0.18 and 0.30 nmol L-1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of albumin in human and bovine serum samples.

  7. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? What potassium iodide (KI) products are currently ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? The FDA guidance prioritizes groups based on ...

  8. Structural studies of several solvated potassium salts of tenatoprazole crystallizing as conglomerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauvel, G.; Sanselme, M.; Coste-Leconte, S.; Petit, S.; Coquerel, G.

    2009-11-01

    Despite the weak acidic character of tenatoprazole it is possible to crystallize, in strong alkaline media, different solvated salts of this active pharmaceutical ingredient. Among these solid phases, some potassium salts exhibiting non congruent solubilities, form stable conglomerates in equilibrium with their mother liquors without detectable partial solid solutions between the enantiomers. The crystal structures of the ethanol and the ethylene glycol stoichiometric solvates of potassium salts have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing that the solvent molecules play an important role in the crystal cohesion. They participate to the coordination polyhedra of the potassium cations and also contribute to strong periodic bond chains. Moreover, there is no direct link between the tenatoprazole anions and the potassium cations, so the solvent molecules act as electrostatic relays between ions of opposite charges.

  9. Potassium hydroxide clay stabilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Sydansk, R.

    1981-07-28

    An aqueous solution having potassium hydroxide dissolved therein is injected into a subterranean sandstone formation containing water-sensitive fine particles, including clays. Potassium hydroxide stabilizes the fine particles for a substantial period of time thereby substantially preventing formation permeability damage caused by encroachment of aqueous solutions having a distinct ionic makeup into the treated formation.

  10. The Oxidation of Terminal Alkenes by Permanganate: A Practical Demonstration of the Use of Phase Transfer Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Keith C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Use of phase transfer agents to facilitate/accelerate chemical reactions has become an established practice, particularly in organic chemistry. Describes an undergraduate laboratory procedure demonstrating the principles involved in the use of said agents. Includes student results from phase transfer assisted permanganate oxidations. (Author/JN)

  11. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  12. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  13. Analysis of sources of bulk conductivity change in saturated silica sand after unbuffered TCE oxidation by permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hort, Ryan D.; Revil, André; Munakata-Marr, Junko

    2014-09-01

    Time lapse resistivity surveys could potentially improve monitoring of permanganate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants such as trichloroethene (TCE) by tracking changes in subsurface conductivity that result from injection of permanganate and oxidation of the contaminant. Bulk conductivity and pore fluid conductivity changes during unbuffered TCE oxidation using permanganate are examined through laboratory measurements and conductivity modeling using PHREEQC in fluid samples and porous media samples containing silica sand. In fluid samples, oxidation of one TCE molecule produces three chloride ions and one proton, resulting in an increase in fluid electrical conductivity despite the loss of two permanganate ions in the reaction. However, in saturated sand samples in which up to 8 mM TCE was oxidized, at least 94% of the fluid conductivity associated with the presence of protons was removed within 3 h of sand contact, most likely through protonation of silanol groups found on the surface of the sand grains. Minor conductivity effects most likely associated with pH-dependent reductive dissolution of manganese dioxide were also observed but not accounted for in pore-fluid conductivity modeling. Unaccounted conductivity effects resulted in an under-calculation of post-reaction pore fluid conductivity of 2.1% to 5.5%. Although small increases in the porous media formation factor resulting from precipitation of manganese dioxide were detected (about 3%), these increases could not be confirmed to be statistically significant. Both injection of permanganate and oxidation of TCE cause increases in bulk conductivity that would be detectable through time-lapse resistivity surveys in field conditions.

  14. Bound potassium in muscle II.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Z

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to decide between the alternatives a) the ionized K+ is in a dissolved state in the muscle water, or b) a part of the muscle potassium is in a "bound' state. Sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta were put into glicerol for about one hour at 0-2 degrees C. Most of muscle water came out, but most of muscle potassium remained in the muscles. In contrast to this: from muscle in heat rigor more potassium was released due to glicerol treating than from the intact ones. 1. Supposition a) is experimentally refuted. 2. Supposition b) corresponds to the experimental results. PMID:6969511

  15. Test Report for Permanganate and Cold Strontium Strike for Tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, James B.; Huber, Heinz J.; Smalley, Colleen S.

    2013-11-27

    Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 supernatants contain soluble Sr-90 and transuranic elements that require removal prior to vitrification to comply with the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant immobilized low-activity waste specification (WTP Contract, DE-AC27-01RV 14136, Specification 2.2.2.8, "Radionuclide Concentration Limitations") and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission provisional agreement on waste incidental to reprocessing (letter, Paperiello, C. J., "Classification of Hanford Low-Activity Tank Waste Fraction"). These two tanks have high concentrations of organics and organic complexants and are referred to as complexant concentrate tanks. A precipitation process using sodium permanganate (NaMnO{sub 4}) and strontium nitrate (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) was developed and tested with tank waste samples to precipitate Sr-90 and transuranic elements from the supernate (PNWD-3141, Optimization of Sr/TRU Removal Conditions with Samples of AN-102 Tank Waste). Testing documented in this report was conducted to further evaluate the use of the strontium nitrate/sodium permanganate process in tank farms with a retention time of up to 12 months. Previous testing was focused on developing a process for deployment in the ultrafiltration vessels in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. This environment is different from tank farms in two important ways: the waste is diluted in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant to ~5.5 M sodium, whereas the supernate in the tank farms is ~9 M Na. Secondly, while the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant allows for a maximum treatment time of hours to days, the in-tank farms treatment of tanks 241-AN102 and 241-AN-107 will result in a retention time of months (perhaps up to12 months) before processing. A comparative compilation of separation processes for Sr/transuranics has been published as RPP-RPT-48340, Evaluation of Alternative Strontium and Transuranic Separation Processes. This report also listed the testing

  16. Remediating RDX-contaminated ground water with permanganate: laboratory investigations for the Pantex perched aquifer.

    PubMed

    Adam, M L; Comfort, S D; Morley, M C; Snow, D D

    2004-01-01

    Ground water beneath the U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant is contaminated with the high explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine). The USDOE Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) program identified in situ oxidation by permanganate as a technology fit for further investigation. We evaluated the efficacy of KMnO(4) to transform and mineralize RDX by determining degradation kinetics and carbon mass balances using (14)C-RDX. Aqueous RDX solutions (2-5 mg L(-1)) and RDX-contaminated slurries (50% solids, w/v) were treated with KMnO(4) at 1000, 2000, 4000, and 20000 mg L(-1). Treating an aqueous RDX solution of 2.8 mg L(-1) with 20000 mg KMnO(4) L(-1) decreased RDX to 0.1 mg L(-1) within 11 d while cumulative mineralization proceeded for 14 d until 87% of the labeled carbon was trapped as (14)CO(2). Similar cumulative mineralization was obtained when Pantex aquifer material was included in the solution matrix. Other experiments using 4000 mg KMnO(4) L(-1) showed that initial RDX concentrations (1.3-10.4 mg L(-1)) or initial pH (4-11) had little effect on reaction rates. Attempts to identify RDX degradates and reaction products showed that N(2)O was a product of permanganate oxidation and constituted 20 to 30% of the N balance. Time-course measurements of a (14)C-RDX solution treated with KMnO(4) revealed few (14)C-labeled degradates but through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, we present evidence that 4-nitro-2,4-diaza-butanol is formed. Aquifer microcosm studies confirmed that the transformation products not mineralized by KMnO(4) were much more biodegradable than parent RDX. These results indicate permanganate can effectively transform and mineralize RDX in the presence of aquifer material and support its use as an in situ chemical oxidation treatment for the Pantex perched aquifer. PMID:15537939

  17. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gries, Casey M; Sadykov, Marat R; Bulock, Logan L; Chaudhari, Sujata S; Thomas, Vinai C; Bose, Jeffrey L; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K(+)) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K(+) uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K(+) deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K(+) uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K(+) uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K(+) transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K(+) uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K(+) uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K(+) uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  18. Potassium Uptake Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gries, Casey M.; Sadykov, Marat R.; Bulock, Logan L.; Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Thomas, Vinai C.; Bose, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As a leading cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections, Staphylococcus aureus requires sophisticated mechanisms that function to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to its exposure to changing environmental conditions. The adaptation to stress and maintenance of homeostasis depend largely on membrane activity, including supporting electrochemical gradients and synthesis of ATP. This is largely achieved through potassium (K+) transport, which plays an essential role in maintaining chemiosmotic homeostasis, affects antimicrobial resistance, and contributes to fitness in vivo. Here, we report that S. aureus Ktr-mediated K+ uptake is necessary for maintaining cytoplasmic pH and the establishment of a proton motive force. Metabolite analyses revealed that K+ deficiency affects both metabolic and energy states of S. aureus by impairing oxidative phosphorylation and directing carbon flux toward substrate-level phosphorylation. Taken together, these results underline the importance of K+ uptake in maintaining essential components of S. aureus metabolism. IMPORTANCE Previous studies describing mechanisms for K+ uptake in S. aureus revealed that the Ktr-mediated K+ transport system was required for normal growth under alkaline conditions but not under neutral or acidic conditions. This work focuses on the effect of K+ uptake on S. aureus metabolism, including intracellular pH and carbon flux, and is the first to utilize a pH-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) to measure S. aureus cytoplasmic pH. These studies highlight the role of K+ uptake in supporting proton efflux under alkaline conditions and uncover a critical role for K+ uptake in establishing efficient carbon utilization. PMID:27340697

  19. Comparative analysis of cesium and potassium uptake in onion Allium cepa L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, P. Ł.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.

    2003-01-01

    Cesium uptake in onion (from 0.3 mM CsCl solution traced with 137CsCl) has been examined. The highest uptake occurred at pH 4-5 and it decreased with increasing pH. The intensity of Cs translocation depended on acidity of the solution. For acidic solutions, translocation of cesium into bulbs and leaves was greater than in case of alkaline solutions, where most of the cesium remained in the roots. Addition of potassium into the solutions (millimolar K concentrations) inhibits Cs uptake. The potassium pH-influx/efflux characteristic does not coincide with the Cs uptake.

  20. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  1. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 298-14-6) is made by the following processes: (1) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide;...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  13. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 184.1619 Section 184.1619... GRAS § 184.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Potassium carbonate (K2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 584-08-7) is produced by the following methods of manufacture: (1) By electrolysis of potassium chloride followed...

  15. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg. No. 7447-40-7) is a white... manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant formula in accordance with section 412(g)...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  18. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1635 - Potassium iodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodate. 184.1635 Section 184.1635 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1635 Potassium iodate. (a) Potassium iodate (KIO3, CAS Reg. No. 7758-05-6) does not occur naturally but can be prepared by reacting iodine with potassium hydroxide....

  20. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  1. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and....375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be safely added to a food as a source of...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  6. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in...

  10. Evaporative cooling of potassium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inouye, Shin; Kishimoto, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Jun; Aikawa, Kiyotaka; Noda, Kai; Arae, Takuto; Ueda, Masahito

    2007-06-01

    Recent advances in manipulating interactions between ultracold atoms opened up various new possibilities. One of the major goal of the field is to produce ultracold polar molecules. By utilizing a magnetic field induced Feshbach resonance, it is possible to produce heteronuclear molecules from a degenerate gas mixture. We are setting up an experiment to produce a degenerate gas mixture of fermionic alkali atoms, lithium-6 and potassium-40. Fermionic atoms are good candidate for minimizing the expected inelastic loss at the Feshbach resonance. For keeping the system as simple as possible, we decided to use bosonic potassium (potassium-41) as a coolant, and sympathetically cool the fermionic species. We will present our experimental setup and initial results for evaporatively cooling bosonic potassium atoms.

  11. A DFT study of permanganate oxidation of toluene and its ortho-nitroderivatives.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Paweł; Wijker, Reto S; Hofstetter, Thomas B; Paneth, Piotr

    2014-02-01

    Calculations of alternative oxidation pathways of toluene and its ortho-substituted nitro derivatives by permanganate anion have been performed. The competition between methyl group and ring oxidation has been addressed. Acceptable results have been obtained using IEFPCM/B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations with zero-point (ZPC) and thermal corrections, as validated by comparison with the experimental data. It has been shown that ring oxidation reactions proceed via relatively early transition states that become quite unsymmetrical for reactions involving ortho-nitrosubstituted derivatives. Transition states for the hydrogen atom abstraction reactions, on the other hand, are late. All favored reactions are characterized by the Gibbs free energy of activation, ΔG(≠), of about 25 kcal mol(-1). Methyl group oxidations are exothermic by about 20 kcal mol(-1) while ring oxidations are around thermoneutrality. PMID:24526379

  12. Rebound of a coal tar creosote plume following partial source zone treatment with permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, N. R.; Fraser, M. J.; Lamarche, C.; Barker, J. F.; Forsey, S. P.

    2008-11-01

    The long-term management of dissolved plumes originating from a coal tar creosote source is a technical challenge. For some sites stabilization of the source may be the best practical solution to decrease the contaminant mass loading to the plume and associated off-site migration. At the bench-scale, the deposition of manganese oxides, a permanganate reaction byproduct, has been shown to cause pore plugging and the formation of a manganese oxide layer adjacent to the non-aqueous phase liquid creosote which reduces post-treatment mass transfer and hence mass loading from the source. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years) at a site where there is > 10 years of comprehensive synoptic plume baseline data available. A series of preliminary bench-scale experiments were conducted to support this pilot-scale investigation. The results from the bench-scale experiments indicated that if sufficient mass removal of the reactive compounds is achieved then the effective solubility, aqueous concentration and rate of mass removal of the more abundant non-reactive coal tar creosote compounds such as biphenyl and dibenzofuran can be increased. Manganese oxide formation and deposition caused an order-of-magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Approximately 125 kg of permanganate were delivered into the pilot-scale source zone over 35 days, and based on mass balance estimates < 10% of the initial reactive coal tar creosote mass in the source zone was oxidized. Mass discharge estimated at a down-gradient fence line indicated > 35% reduction for all monitored compounds except for biphenyl, dibenzofuran and fluoranthene 150 days after treatment, which is consistent with the bench-scale experimental results. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data

  13. DNAPL mass transfer and permeability reduction during in situ chemical oxidation with permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. David; Schwartz, Franklin W.

    2004-03-01

    This study utilized a series of laboratory experiments to examine the DNAPL mass removal rate and permeability reduction during ISCO using permanganate (MnO4-). Results show that MnO4- oxidation is effective in removing residual DNAPL from a porous medium. The DNAPL mass removal rate correlated positively with both the hydraulic stress and the oxidant load. A power relationship model of DNAPL mass removal under ISCO was proposed. Results also show that oxidation by-products CO2(g) and Mn oxide can cause pore plugging and flow by-passing. The reduction in hydraulic conductivity due to the Mn oxide precipitates was quantified. Hydraulic conductivity reduction as high as 80% was observed for oxidizing a small quantity of TCE.

  14. Determination of ethanol using permanganate-CdS quantum dot chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad

    2015-08-01

    A novel and highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of ethanol was developed based on the CdS quantum dots (QDs)-permanganate system. It was found that KMnO4 could directly oxidize CdS QDs in acidic media resulting in relatively high CL emission. A possible mechanism was proposed for this reaction based on UV/Vis absorption, fluorescence and the generated CL emission spectra. However, it was observed that ethanol had a remarkable inhibition effect on this system. This effect was exploited in the determination of ethanol within the concentration range 12-300 µg/L, with detection at 4.3 µg/L. In order to evaluate the capability of presented method, it was satisfactorily utilized in the determination of alcohol in real samples. PMID:25345928

  15. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  16. Experimental Cardiac Necrosis and Potassium

    PubMed Central

    Prioreschi, P.

    1967-01-01

    In recent years evidence has been brought forward supporting the hypothesis that myocardial infarction is not due to thrombotic occlusion of a coronary artery but to a metabolic derangement in a myocardium “conditioned” by coronary atherosclerosis. The author briefly reviews metabolic necroses experimentally induced in the animal and discusses the action of potassium in preventing their development. The basis for the clinical use of potassium and magnesium salts for the prevention of myocardial infarction is also discussed. PMID:5336956

  17. Potassium bicarbonate attenuates the urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanies an increase in dietary protein and may promote calcium absorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein is an essential component of muscle and bone. However, the acidic byproducts of protein metabolism may have a negative impact on the musculoskeletal system particularly in older individuals with declining renal function. We sought to determine whether adding an alkaline salt, potassium bicar...

  18. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  19. [Potassium channelopathies and Morvan's syndromes].

    PubMed

    Serratrice, Georges; Pellissier, Jean-François; Serra-Trice, Jacques; Weiller, Pierre-Jean

    2010-02-01

    Interest in Morvan's disease or syndrome has grown, owing to its close links with various potassium channelopathies. Potassium is crucial for gating mechanisms (channel opening and closing), and especially for repolarization. Defective potassium regulation can lead to neuronal hyperexcitability. There are three families of potassium channels: voltage-gated potassium channels or VGKC (Kv1.1-Kv1.8), inward rectifier K+ channels (Kir), and two-pore channels (K2p). VGK channels are the commonest, and especially those belonging to the Shaker group (neuromyotonia and Morvan's syndrome, limbic encephalitis, and type 1 episodic ataxia). Brain and heart K+ channelopathies are a separate group due to KCNQ1 mutation (severe type 2 long QT syndrome). Kv7 channel mutations (in KNQ2 and KCNQ3) are responsible for benign familial neonatal seizures. Mutation of the Ca+ activated K+ channel gene causes epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesia. Inward rectifier K+ channels regulate intracellular potassium levels. The DEND syndrome, a treatable channelopathy of the brain and pancreas, is due to KCNJ1 mutation. Andersen's syndrome, due to KCNJ2 mutation, is characterized by periodic paralysis, cardiac arrythmia, and dysmorphia. Voltage-insensitive K2p channelopathies form a final group. PMID:21166127

  20. UV-visible spectral identification of the solution-phase and solid-phase permanganate oxidation reactions of thymine acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Bui, Chinh T; Sam, Lien A; Cotton, Richard G H

    2004-03-01

    Solution-phase and solid-phase permanganate oxidation reactions of thymine acetic acid were investigated by spectroscopy. The spectral data showed the formation of a stable organomanganese intermediate, which was responsible for the rise in the absorbance at 420 nm. This result enables unambiguous interpretation of the absorbance change at 420 nm, as the intermediate permanganate ions could be isolated on the solid supports. PMID:14980689

  1. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA.

    PubMed

    Harte, Philip T; Smith, Thor E; Williams, John H; Degnan, James R

    2012-05-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment. PMID:22459605

  2. Time series geophysical monitoring of permanganate injections and in situ chemical oxidation of PCE, OU1 area, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, NH, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Smith, Thor E.; Williams, John H.; Degnan, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) treatment with sodium permanganate, an electrically conductive oxidant, provides a strong electrical signal for tracking of injectate transport using time series geophysical surveys including direct current (DC) resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) methods. Effective remediation is dependent upon placing the oxidant in close contact with the contaminated aquifer. Therefore, monitoring tools that provide enhanced tracking capability of the injectate offer considerable benefit to guide subsequent ISCO injections. Time-series geophysical surveys were performed at a superfund site in New Hampshire, USA over a one-year period to identify temporal changes in the bulk electrical conductivity of a tetrachloroethylene (PCE; also called tetrachloroethene) contaminated, glacially deposited aquifer due to the injection of sodium permanganate. The ISCO treatment involved a series of pulse injections of sodium permanganate from multiple injection wells within a contained area of the aquifer. After the initial injection, the permanganate was allowed to disperse under ambient groundwater velocities. Time series geophysical surveys identified the downward sinking and pooling of the sodium permanganate atop of the underlying till or bedrock surface caused by density-driven flow, and the limited horizontal spread of the sodium permanganate in the shallow parts of the aquifer during this injection period. When coupled with conventional monitoring, the surveys allowed for an assessment of ISCO treatment effectiveness in targeting the PCE plume and helped target areas for subsequent treatment.

  3. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  4. Exploring the potential of the permanganate oxidation method as a tool to monitor soil quality in agricultural upland systems of Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, Catherine M.; Bruun, Thilde Bech; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The transition to more intensified upland systems is having an impact on the soil quality, defined as the ability of a soil to both provide and maintain essential services to an ecosystem. As many tropical upland soils are inherently low in quality, it is essential that impacts be monitored. Soil quality is assessed by using a combination of parameters that serve as indicators and cover the soil chemical, biological and physical properties. An ideal indicator should be sensitive to changes in the environment and management practices and should be widely accessible, meaning low resource requirement (i.e. time and equipment). Total organic carbon (TOC) content is a commonly used indicator of soil quality as it is linked to many soil functions and processes; however analysis is costly and requires access to advanced instrumental facilities, rendering it unsuited for many developing countries. An alternative indicator is the soil fraction dominated by easily decomposable carbon; this may be measured by treating soil samples with 0.2M potassium permanganate (KMnO4), an oxidizing agent which is thought to mimic the enzymes released by the soil microbial community. The advantage of this method is that it is accessible: it is fast, requires little resource input and is field appropriate. There is no consensus however as to which soil carbon fraction the method targets. Furthermore Skjemstad et al. (2006) has indicated that KMnO4 may oxidise charcoal, a component of the non-labile carbon pool; this has implications for the suitability of the method when used for soils of shifting cultivation systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of permanganate oxidizable carbon (Pox C) as a reliable indicator of soil quality in agricultural upland systems in Northern Lao PDR. Focus was placed on the relations between Pox C and other soil quality parameters (bulk density, pH, CEC, TOC, total N, exchangeable K, plant available P) and upland rice yields. The

  5. UV-Vis spectrophotometric studies of self-oxidation/dissociation of quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAP) - impact of solvent polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Suraj Prakash; Guru, Partha Sarathi; Dash, Sukalyan

    2015-05-01

    Self-oxidation/dissociation of some quaternary ammonium permanganates (QAPs), such as cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP) and tetrabutylammonium permanganate (TBAP), have been studied spectrophotometrically in six different organic solvent media of different polarities wherein the compounds show good solubility and stability. The optical densities of the substrates at zero time (ODo) and first-order rate constants of dissociation (k1) have been determined from their successive scanning for 40 min. At comparable experimental conditions, absorption capabilities of the substrates are compared from the ODo values in various organic media; the stability of the solutions is compared from the successive scan spectra in those media. The ODo values and the k1 values have been plotted against some solvent parameters to understand their effects on the absorbance and reactivity of the QAPs. These data are also subjected to multiple regression analysis to explain the influence of various solvent parameters on the ion-pairing properties of the substrates, thus elucidating their effects on the process of self-oxidation/dissociation of the substrates.

  6. 1990: Annus Mirabilis of Potassium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher

    1991-05-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels make up a large mo- lecular family of integral membrane proteins that are fundamentally involved in the generation of bioelectric signals such as nerve impulses. These proteins span the cell membrane, forming potassium-selective pores that are rapidly switched open or closed by changes in mem- brane voltage. After the cloning of the first potassium channel over 3 years ago, recombinant DNA manipula- tion of potassium channel genes is now leading to a molecular understanding of potassium channel behavior. During the past year, functional domains responsible for channel gating and potassium selectivity have been iden- tiffed, and detailed structural pictures underlying these functions are beginning to emerge.

  7. Equatorial potassium currents in lenses.

    PubMed

    Wind, B E; Walsh, S; Patterson, J W

    1988-02-01

    Earlier work with the vibrating probe demonstrated the existence of outward potassium currents at the equator and inward sodium currents at the optical poles of the lens. By adding microelectrodes to the system, it is possible to relate steady currents (J) to the potential difference (PD) measured with a microelectrode. By injecting an outward current (I), it is possible to determine resistances and also the PD at which the steady outward potassium current becomes zero (PDJ = 0). At this PD the concentration gradient for potassium efflux and the electrical gradient for potassium influx are balanced so that there is no net flow of potassium across the membranes associated with the production of J. The PDJ = 0 for 18 rat lenses was 86 mV and that for 12 frogs lenses was -95 mV. This agrees with the potassium equilibrium potential and provides strong evidence to support the view that the outward equatorial current, J, is a potassium current. With the injection of outward current, I, the PD becomes more negative, the outward equatorial current, J, decreases, and the inward current at the optical poles increases. This suggests that there are separate electrical loops for K+ and Na+ that are partially linked by the Na, K-pump. Using Ohm's law, it is possible to calculate the input resistance (R = delta PD/I), the resistance related to the production of J (RJ = delta PD/delta J), and the effect of the combined resistances (delta J/I). The driving force for J can be estimated (PDJ = 0-PD). The relationships among currents, voltages and resistance can be used to determine the characteristics of the membranes that are associated with the outward potassium current observed at the equator. The effects of graded deformation of the lens were determined. The effects were reversible. The sites of inward and outward currents were not altered. Following deformation, the equatorial current, J, increased, and the PD became less negative. The PDJ = 0 remains the same so the ratio of K

  8. Effect of various alkaline metal ions on electrochemical behavior of lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Nobumitsu; Yamamoto, Yui

    2015-10-01

    The effect of various alkaline metal ions on electrochemical behavior of lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution has been investigated. It was found that "the specific anodic oxidation peak" appears at the cathodic scan in cyclic voltammogram of lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution containing Li2SO4, K2SO4, Na2SO4, Rb2SO4, or Cs2SO4. The height of the specific anodic oxidation peak varies with the alkaline sulfate in the solution; K2SO4 >> Na2SO4 > Cs2SO4 > Rb2SO4 > Li2SO4. It should be note that alkaline ions exist in lead sulfate formed on lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution containing potassium sulfate when the electrode was immersed in the solution at the rest potential for more than 1 h.

  9. Space Shuttle Upgrades: Long Life Alkaline Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurdy, Kerri

    2004-01-01

    NASA has utilized the alkaline fuel cell technology to provide electrical power for manned launch vehicles such as Gemini, Apollo, and the Space Shuttle. The current Shuttle alkaline fuel cells are procured from UTC Fuel Cells, a United Technologies Company. The alkaline fuel cells are very reliable but the operating life is limited to 2600 hours due to voltage degradation of the individual cells. The main limiting factor in the life of the cells is corrosion of the cell's fiberglass/epoxy frame by the aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte. To reduce operating costs, the orbiter program office approved the Long Life Alkaline Fuel Cell (LLAFC) program as a shuttle upgrade in 1999 to increase the operating life of the fuel cell powerplant to 5000 hours. The LLAFC program incorporates improving the cell by extending the length of the corrosion path, which reduces the cell frame corrosion. UTCFC performed analysis to understand the fundamental mechanisms that drive the cell frame corrosion. The analysis indicated that the corrosion path started along the bond line between the cathode and the cell frame. Analysis also showed that the oxygen available at the cathode, the catalyst on the electrode, and the electrode substrate all supported or intensified the corrosion. The new cell design essentially doubled the corrosion path to mitigate the problem. A 10-cell stack was tested for 5000 hours during the development phase of this program to verify improved cell performance. A complete 96-cell stack was then tested for 5000 hours during the full manned-space qualification phase of this program. Additional upgrades to the powerplant under this program are: replacing the aluminum body in the pressure regulator with stainless steel to reduce corrosion, improving stack insulator plate with improved resistance to stress failure and improved temperature capability, and replacing separator plate elastomer seals with a more durable material and improved seal retention.

  10. The heart and potassium: a banana republic.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ehsan; Spiers, Christine; Khan, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The importance of potassium in maintaining stable cardiac function is a clinically understood phenomenon. Physiologically the importance of potassium in cardiac function is described by the large number of different kinds of potassium ions channels found in the heart compared to channels and membrane transport mechanisms for other ions such as sodium and calcium. Potassium is important in physiological homeostatic control of cardiac function, but is also of relevance to the diseased state, as potassium-related effects may stabilize or destabilize cardiac function. This article aims to provide a detailed understanding of potassium-mediated cardiac function. This will help the clinical practitioner evaluate how modulation of potassium ion channels by disease and pharmacological manipulation affect the cardiac patient, thus aiding in decision making when faced with clinical problems related to potassium. PMID:23425010

  11. Role of Circadian Rhythms in Potassium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gumz, Michelle L.; Rabinowitz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    It has been known for decades that urinary potassium excretion varies with a circadian pattern. In this review, we consider the historical evidence for this phenomenon and present an overview of recent developments in the field. Extensive evidence from the latter part of the last century clearly demonstrates that circadian potassium excretion does not depend on endogenous aldosterone. Of note is the recent discovery that the expression of several renal potassium transporters varies with a circadian pattern that appears to be consistent with substantial clinical data regarding daily fluctuations in urinary potassium levels. We propose the circadian clock mechanism as a key regulator of renal potassium transporters, and consequently renal potassium excretion. Further investigation into the mechanism of regulation of renal potassium transport by the circadian clock is warranted in order to increase our understanding of the clinical relevance of circadian rhythms to potassium homeostasis. PMID:23953800

  12. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  17. Managing potassium in pecan orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mineral nutrition management of pecan orchards is especially difficult for potassium (K). This work provides insight into factors affecting tree K health and orchard profitability, and targets a K concentration of at least 1.5% dry weight as favoring high nutmeat yield and quality, and avoidance of...

  18. Impacts of Priming with Silicon on the Growth and Tolerance of Maize Plants to Alkaline Stress

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has been known to augment plant defense against biotic and abiotic pressures. Maize (Zea maize L.) is classified as a Si accumulator and is relatively susceptible to alkaline stress. In this study, seeds of maize were grown in pots and exposed to various concentrations of Na2CO3 (0, 25, 50, and 75 mM) with or without 1.5 mM Si in the form of sodium metasilicate Na2O3Si.5H2O for 25 days. Alkaline-stressed plants showed a decrease in growth parameters, leaf relative water content (LRWC), and the contents of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, total phenols and potassium ion (K+), as well as potassium/sodium ion (K+/Na+) ratio. By contrast, alkaline stress increased the contents of soluble proteins, total free amino acids, proline, Na+ and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) in stressed plants. On the other hand, application of Si by seed-priming improved growth of stressed plants, which was accompanied by the enhancement in LRWC, and levels of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, soluble proteins, total free amino acids and K+, as well as activities of SOD, CAT, and POD enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplement resulted in a decrease in the contents of proline, MDA and Na+, which together with enhanced K+ level led to a favorable adjustment of K+/Na+ ratio, in stressed plants relative to plants treated with alkaline stress alone. Taken together, these results indicate that Si plays a pivotal role in alleviating the negative effects of alkaline stress on maize growth by improving water status, enhancing photosynthetic pigments, accumulating osmoprotectants rather than proline, activating the antioxidant machinery, and maintaining the balance of K+/Na+ ratio. Thus, our findings demonstrate that seed-priming with Si is an efficient strategy that can be used to boost tolerance of maize plants to alkaline stress. PMID:27014283

  19. Impacts of Priming with Silicon on the Growth and Tolerance of Maize Plants to Alkaline Stress.

    PubMed

    Abdel Latef, Arafat A; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2016-01-01

    Silicon (Si) has been known to augment plant defense against biotic and abiotic pressures. Maize (Zea maize L.) is classified as a Si accumulator and is relatively susceptible to alkaline stress. In this study, seeds of maize were grown in pots and exposed to various concentrations of Na2CO3 (0, 25, 50, and 75 mM) with or without 1.5 mM Si in the form of sodium metasilicate Na2O3Si.5H2O for 25 days. Alkaline-stressed plants showed a decrease in growth parameters, leaf relative water content (LRWC), and the contents of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, total phenols and potassium ion (K(+)), as well as potassium/sodium ion (K(+)/Na(+)) ratio. By contrast, alkaline stress increased the contents of soluble proteins, total free amino acids, proline, Na(+) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) in stressed plants. On the other hand, application of Si by seed-priming improved growth of stressed plants, which was accompanied by the enhancement in LRWC, and levels of photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, soluble proteins, total free amino acids and K(+), as well as activities of SOD, CAT, and POD enzymes. Furthermore, Si supplement resulted in a decrease in the contents of proline, MDA and Na(+), which together with enhanced K(+) level led to a favorable adjustment of K(+)/Na(+) ratio, in stressed plants relative to plants treated with alkaline stress alone. Taken together, these results indicate that Si plays a pivotal role in alleviating the negative effects of alkaline stress on maize growth by improving water status, enhancing photosynthetic pigments, accumulating osmoprotectants rather than proline, activating the antioxidant machinery, and maintaining the balance of K(+)/Na(+) ratio. Thus, our findings demonstrate that seed-priming with Si is an efficient strategy that can be used to boost tolerance of maize plants to alkaline stress. PMID:27014283

  20. Highly Sensitive Determination of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Using a Permanganate Chemiluminescence System Catalyzed by Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Jafar; Hassanzadeh, Javad; Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and selective chemiluminescence method was developed to determine ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in water samples. It was observed that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) catalyzed chemiluminescence (CL) reactions of permanganate-aldehydes which underwent an enhancement effect in the presence of iron(III) ions (Fe(3+)). This effect is more remarkable in the presence of EDTA, and a highly intensive CL emission is created in proportion to the EDTA concentration. These observations form the basis of the method for the high sensitive determination of EDTA in the 0.83 - 167 nmol L(-1) concentration range, with a detection limit of 0.25 nmol L(-1). The relative standard deviations for five repeated measurements of 5, 40 and 140 nmol L(-1) EDTA were 1.14, 2.48 and 0.65%, respectively. The method has good selectivity toward EDTA, and there are no interferences from other ions. The offered method has good precision, and was satisfactorily used for the sensitive determination of EDTA in water samples. PMID:26256596

  1. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be safely used in the malting of...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  7. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely used as a curing agent in the processing of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  1. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  2. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  7. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may be...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may...

  13. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  17. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  18. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  2. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5628 - Potassium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium glycerophosphate. 582.5628 Section 582.5628 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5628 Potassium glycerophosphate. (a) Product. Potassium glycerophosphate....

  14. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  1. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  6. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 582.3640 Section 582.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product. Potassium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  12. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  14. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 172.730 - Potassium bromate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bromate. 172.730 Section 172.730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.730 Potassium bromate. The food additive potassium bromate may...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  17. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  18. 21 CFR 182.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bisulfite. 182.3616 Section 182.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.1625 Section 582.1625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 582.6625 Section 582.6625 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium citrate. (a) Product. Potassium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  5. 21 CFR 582.3616 - Potassium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bisulfite. 582.3616 Section 582.3616 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3616 Potassium bisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  6. 21 CFR 172.160 - Potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium nitrate. 172.160 Section 172.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Food Preservatives § 172.160 Potassium nitrate. The food additive potassium nitrate may be safely...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1619 - Potassium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium carbonate. 582.1619 Section 582.1619 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1619 Potassium carbonate. (a) Product. Potassium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 201.72 - Potassium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium labeling. 201.72 Section 201.72 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.72 Potassium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the potassium...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 582.3637 Section 582.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  14. 21 CFR 182.3637 - Potassium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium metabisulfite. 182.3637 Section 182.3637 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3637 Potassium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Potassium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations,...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  16. 21 CFR 582.7610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 582.7610 Section 582.7610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Potassium alginate. (a) Product. Potassium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. A review of the fate of potassium in the soil-plant system after land application of wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Arienzo, M; Christen, E W; Quayle, W; Kumar, A

    2009-05-30

    Irrigation with wastewaters from agri-industry processes such as milk factories, piggeries, wineries and abattoirs is commonplace. These wastewaters all have high levels of potassium (K). Potassium concentration in effluents from domestic wastewater sources are relatively low, reported to vary between 10 and 30 mg L(-1). Higher levels of potassium are reported for effluents from olive oil mills, 10,000-20,000 mg KL(-1), wool scouring, 4200-13,000 mg KL(-1), cheese and lactic whey and potato processing, approximately 1800 mg KL(-1), piggery effluent, 500-1000 mg KL(-1) and winery wastewaters, up to 1000 mg KL(-1). Application of wastewaters with these high potassium levels has been found to increase the overall level of soil fertility, with the exception of alkaline effluents which can dissolve soil organic carbon. Long-term application of such wastewater may cause the build-up of soil potassium and decrease the hydraulic conductivity of the receiving soils. These potential impacts are uncertain and have been inadequately researched. Regulatory limits for potassium in drinking water have been set only by the European Union with no toxicological or physiological justification. The literature shows that grasses and legume herbages accumulate high levels of potassium, up to 5% dry weight, and some grasses, such as turfgrass are particularly tolerant to high levels of potassium, even under saline conditions. This adaptation is considered useful for increasing potassium immobilization and sustainable practices of land wastewater disposal. Potassium availability is significantly affected by the cation ratios of the wastewater, the existing soil water solution and of soil exchange sites. PMID:18842339

  20. RECLAMATION OF ALKALINE ASH PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to develop methods for reclaiming ash disposal piles for the ultimate use as agricultural or forest lands. The ashes studied were strongly alkaline and contained considerable amounts of salts and toxic boron. The ashes were produced from burning bit...

  1. Economical synthesis of potassium superoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, A. T.; Sadhukhan, P.

    1979-01-01

    High-frequency discharge in oxygen can be used to prepare superoxides of alkali and alkaline-earth metals. Since no direct-current discharge at the electrodes is present, no sputtering can contaminate the product, hence a high conversion efficiency.

  2. Does Hemodialysis Dialysate Potassium Composition Matter?.

    PubMed

    Haras, Mary S

    2015-01-01

    Dyskalemia is known to cause cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. In persons undergoing hemodialysis, potassium dialysate composition has been identified as a contributingfactor in addition to co-morbidities, medications, dietary potassium intake, and stage of kidney disease. Current evidence recommends a thorough evaluation of all factors affecting potassium balance, and lower potassium concentration should be used cautiously in patients who are likely to develop cardiac arrhythmias. Nephrology nurses play a key role inpatient assessment and edu- cation related to potassium balance. PMID:26875233

  3. Isolation of alkaline mutagens from complex mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.; Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.

    1981-05-01

    A method for the preparative-scale enrichment of alkaline mutagens from complex natural and anthropogenic mixtures is described. Mutagenic alkaline fractions were isolated from cigarette smoke, crude petroleum, and petroleum substitutes derived from coal and shale.

  4. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of traces of molybdenum(VI) by its inhibitory effect on the oxidation of 4-hydroxycoumarine by potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Micic, Ruzica J; Simonovic, Ranko M; Petkovic, Branka B

    2006-05-01

    The present paper describes a simple, selective and sensitive kinetic method for the determination of trace amounts of molybdenum(VI) based on its inhibitory effect on the reaction oxidation of 4-hydroxycoumarine by KMnO(4) in the presence of hydrochloric acid, at pH 1.75 at 25 degrees C. The rate of the indicator reaction was followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of KMnO(4) at 525 nm. The development method includes optimization of the reagent concentration and temperature. The calibration graph was linear in the range of concentrations from 20 to 200 ng/cm(3) of molybdenum(VI). The probable relative error was in the interval 3.10 - 10.52% for the concentration range of 200 - 20 ng/cm(3) molybdenum(VI), respectively. The interference effects of the foreign ions were determined to assess the selectivity of the method. The developed method was found to have relatively good selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity and rapidity. The proposed method was applied to the determination of molybdenum(VI) in a particular type of steel and alloy (hastelloy). PMID:16770065

  5. Assessment of Aquaflor (c), copper sulfate and potassium permanganate for control of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare infection in sunshine bass, Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to assess different therapeutants against a mixed infection of Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium columnare in sunshine bass (SB) (Morone chrysops female x Morone saxatilis male). Experiment 1 assessed the efficacy of copper sulfate (CuSO4), florfenicol-medicated...

  6. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  7. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  8. Potassium Balances in Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon Young

    2013-01-01

    Potassium is abundant in the ICF compartment in the body and its excretion primarily depends on renal (about 90%), and to a lesser extent (about 10%) on colonic excretion. Total body potassium approximated to 50mmol/kg body weight and 2% of total body potassium is in the ECF compartment and 98% of it in the intracellular compartment.Dyskalemia is a frequent electrolyte imbalance observed among the maintenance hemodialysis patients. In case of hyperkalemia, it is frequently "a silent and a potential life threatening electrolyte imbalance" among patients with ESRD under maintenance hemodialysis. The prevalence of hyperkalemia in maintenance HD patients was reported to be about 8.7-10%. Mortality related to the hyperkalemia has been shown to be about 3.1/1,000 patient-years and about 24% of patients with HD required emergency hemodialysis due to severe hyperkalemia. In contrast to the hyperkalemia, much less attention has been paid to the hypokalemia in hemodialysis patients because of the low prevalence under maintenance hemodialysis patients. Severe hypokalemia in the hemodialysis patients usually was resulted from low potassium intake (malnutrition), chronic diarrhea, mineralocorticoid use, and imprudent use of K-exchange resins. Recently, the numbers of the new patients with advanced chronic kidney disease undergoing maintenance hemodialysis are tremendously increasing worldwide. However, the life expectancy of these patients is still much lower than that of the general population. The causes of excess mortality in these patients seem to various, but dyskalemia is a common cause among the patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis. PMID:23946760

  9. Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

  10. Use of agar diffusion assay to evaluate bactericidal activity of formulations of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

  11. Graphite oxides: effects of permanganate and chlorate oxidants on the oxygen composition.

    PubMed

    Chua, Chun Kiang; Sofer, Zdeněk; Pumera, Martin

    2012-10-15

    Research on graphene materials has refocused on graphite oxides (GOs) in recent years. The fabrication of GO is commonly accomplished by using concentrated sulfuric acid in conjunction with: a) fuming nitric acid and KClO(3) oxidant (Staudenmaier); b) concentrated nitric acid and KClO(3) oxidant (Hofmann); c) sodium nitrate for in situ production of nitric acid in the presence of KMnO(4) (Hummers); or d) concentrated phosphoric acid with KMnO(4) (Tour). These methods have been used interchangeably in the graphene community, since the properties of GOs produced by these different methods were assumed as almost similar. In light of the wide applicability of GOs in nanotechnology applications, in which presence of certain oxygen functional groups are specifically important, the qualities and functionalities of the GOs produced by using these four different methods, side-by-side, was investigated. The structural characterizations of the GOs would be probed by using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Further electrochemical applicability would be evaluated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Our analyses highlighted that the oxidation methods based on permanganate oxidant (Hummers and Tour methods) gave GOs with lower heterogeneous electron-transfer rates and a higher amount of carbonyl and carboxyl functionalities compared with when using chlorate oxidant (Staudenmaier and Hofmann methods). These observations indicated large disparities between the GOs obtained from different oxidation methods. Such insights would provide fundamental knowledge for fine tuning GO for future applications. PMID:22961662

  12. Transport with Bimolecular Reactions: Applications to In-Situ Chemical Oxidation of DNAPLs by Permanganate in Fractured Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshadi, Masoud

    Chemical oxidation of dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) by permanganate has emerged as an effective remediation strategy in fractured rock. Our objectives in this research were to carry out a sequence of experimental, computational and theoretical tasks aimed at improving current understanding of permanganate oxidation in fractured rock systems, and also develop modeling tools that can be used for preliminary design of oxidation schemes at field sites. Our research focused on both free-phase entrapped DNAPL in variable-aperture fractures and dissolved DNAPL in the rock matrix. In the first section of our research, we present high-resolution experimental investigations in transparent analog variable-aperture fractures to improve understanding of chemical oxidation of residual entrapped trichloroethylene (TCE) in fractures. Four experiments were performed with different permanganate concentrations, flow rates, and initial TCE phase geometry. The initial aperture field and evolving entrapped-phase geometry were measured quantitatively. We present results on the time-evolution of fracture-scale TCE consumption and DNAPL removal rates for all the experiments. In the next part of this work, we developed theoretical understanding of the reaction front dynamics in the case of chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase DNAPL within fracture-matrix system, backed up by numerical simulations. We also consider the influence of NOD consumption and contaminant sorption to solid aquifer materials in our models. Based on the results from this task we are able to propose simple strategies for remediation design (e.g. the time needed to degrade DNAPL inside the fracture-matrix system and the permanganate injection pattern) for a given set of conditions. Our numerical simulations of diffusion with bimolecular reaction in the rock matrix demonstrated a transition in the spatially integrated reaction rate - increasing with time initially, and transitioning to a decrease with time. We

  13. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. PMID:26773513

  14. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  15. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  16. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael S; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60-100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  17. Potassium citrate decreases urine calcium excretion in patients with hypocitraturic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Hernandez, Natalia; Shoag, Jonathan; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2016-04-01

    Two previous studies (<10 patients each) have demonstrated that alkali therapy may reduce urine calcium excretion in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The hypothesized mechanisms are (1) a decrease in bone turnover due to systemic alkalinization by the medications; (2) binding of calcium by citrate in the gastrointestinal tract; (3) direct effects on TRPV5 activity in the distal tubule. We performed a retrospective review of patients on potassium citrate therapy to evaluate the effects of this medication on urinary calcium excretion. A retrospective review was performed of a metabolic stone database at a tertiary care academic hospital. Patients were identified with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and hypocitraturia who were on potassium citrate therapy for a minimum of 3 months. 24-h urine composition was assessed prior to the initiation of potassium citrate therapy and after 3 months of therapy. Patients received 30-60 mEq potassium citrate by mouth daily. Inclusion criterion was a change in urine potassium of 20 mEq/day or greater, which suggests compliance with potassium citrate therapy. Paired t test was used to compare therapeutic effect. Twenty-two patients were evaluated. Mean age was 58.8 years (SD 14.0), mean BMI was 29.6 kg/m(2) (SD 5.9), and gender prevalence was 36.4% female:63.6% male. Mean pre-treatment 24-h urine values were as follows: citrate 280.0 mg/day, potassium 58.7 mEq/day, calcium 216.0 mg/day, pH 5.87. Potassium citrate therapy was associated with statistically significant changes in each of these parameters-citrate increased to 548.4 mg/day (p < 0.0001), potassium increased to 94.1 mEq/day (p < 0.0001), calcium decreased to 156.5 mg/day (p = 0.04), pH increased to 6.47 (p = 0.001). Urine sodium excretion was not different pre- and post-therapy (175 mEq/day pre-therapy versus 201 mEq/day post-therapy, p = NS). Urinary calcium excretion decreased by a mean of 60 mg/day on potassium citrate therapy-a nearly 30

  18. ALKALINE CARBONATE LEACHING PROCESS FOR URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbitts, A.T.

    1957-11-12

    A process for the leaching of uranium from high carbonate ores is presented. According to the process, the ore is leached at a temperature of about 200 deg C and a pressure of about 200 p.s.i.g. with a solution containing alkali carbonate, alkali permanganate, and bicarbonate ion, the bicarbonate ion functionlng to prevent premature formation of alkali hydroxide and consequent precipitation of a diuranate. After the leaching is complete, the uranium present is recovered by precipitation with NaOH.

  19. Novel inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte and alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

    2012-06-01

    Inorganic materials with high ionic conductivity must have big advantages for the thermal and long term stability when the materials are used as the electrolyte of fuel cells. In the present paper, novel ionic conductive inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) and all solid state alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) that have been developed by our group have been reviewed. PEFCs which can operate in temperature range from 100 to 200 °C are intensively studied because of some advantages such as reduction of CO poisoning of Pt catalyst and acceleration of electrode reactions. We showed that the fuel cells using the composite membranes prepared from phosphosilicate gel powder and polyimide precursor can operate in the temperature range from 30 to 180 °C. We also found that the inorganic-organic hybrid membranes with acid-base pairs from 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane and H2SO4 or H3PO4 show high proton conductivity under dry atmosphere, and the membranes are thermally stable at intermediate temperatures. On the other hand, because the use of noble platinum is the serious problem for the commercialization of PEFCs and because oxidation reactions are usually faster than those of acid-type fuel cells, alkaline type fuel cells, in which a nonplatinum catalyst can be used, are attractive. Recently, we have proposed an alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO32- (Mg-Al CO32- LDH), has been proved to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkalinetype DEFC using Mg-Al CO32- LDH as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibited excellent electrochemical performance.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  5. Biochemical characterization of the soluble alkaline phosphatase isolated from the venomous snake W. aegyptia.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Saad S M

    2002-12-01

    A soluble form of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been identified and purified from Walterinnesia aegyptia venom using an HPLC system Gold 126/1667 equipped with Protein PAK 125 and Protein PAK 60 columns. The enzyme was purified 3.4 fold over crude venom with a yield of 37.3%. On SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions the purified enzyme showed three bands of 212 kD, 80 kD, and 55 kD. However, under reducing conditions, the enzyme showed two bands of 80 kD and 55 kD. The specific activity of ALP was 24 U/mg with p-nitrophenylephosphate as the substrate. During isoelectric focusing experiments the ALP exhibited two bands focused at pH 6.2 and 6.8, which suggests that either the enzyme exists as two different isoforms or the two bands in IEF may be two subunits of 80 kD and 55 kD. The kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and IC50 of ALP inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, imidazole, caffeine, orthophosphate and permanganate were also investigated in the present study. Zinc and cyanide ions at a concentration of 15 mM and 10 mM, respectively, completely inhibited the activity of W. aegyptia ALP. PMID:12503880

  6. Coherent dynamics of molten potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, S. P.; Silotia, P.; Dhingra, G.; Tandon, P.; Sood, J.

    2016-05-01

    The observed coherent dynamical structure factor S(k,ω) of molten Potassium at 343K as measured by high resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) particularly in the low wave - vector, k range 1.75nm-1 ≤ k ≤ 10.0nm-1 has been explained using the modified microscopic theory of collective dynamics of a simple liquid. The detailed line shape of S(k,ω) for liquid K, agree quite well with the corresponding reported experimental results.

  7. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  8. Potassium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in your community. See the FDA's Safe Disposal of Medicines website (http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p) for ...

  9. Anode conductor for alkaline cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schrenk, D.J.; Murphy, P.E.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell comprised of an anode comprised of zinc; a cathode; and alkaline electrolyte; and a current collector comprised of a silicon bronze alloy that is comprised of 85-98% by weight copper and 1-5% by weight silicon with the remainder being comprised of at least one of manganese, iron, zinc, aluminum, tin, lead, or mixtures thereof; and a strip of metal tab stock welded to the current collector, the tab stock being a metal other than silicon bronze alloy.

  10. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more than two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  11. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  12. Determination of the zincate diffusion coefficient and its application to alkaline battery problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.; Kautz, Harold E.

    1978-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient for the zincate ion at 24 C was found to be 9.9 X 10 to the minus 7th power squared cm per sec + or - 30 percent in 45 percent potassium hydroxide and 1.4 x 10 to the minus 7 squared cm per sec + or - 25 percent in 40 percent sodium hydroxide. Comparison of these values with literature values at different potassium hydroxide concentrations show that the Stokes-Einstein equation is obeyed. The diffusion coefficient is characteristic of the zincate ion (not the cation) and independent of its concentration. Calculations with the measured value of the diffusion coefficient show that the zinc concentration in an alkaline zincate half cell becomes uniform throughout in tens of hours by diffusion alone. Diffusion equations are derived which are applicable to finite size chambers. Details and discussion of the experimental method are also given.

  13. Determination of the zincate diffusion coefficient and its application to alkaline battery problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.; Kautz, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient for the zincate ion at 24 C was found to be 9.9 x 10 to the -7th power sq cm/sec + or - 30% in 45% potassium hydroxide and 1.4 x 10 to the -7th power sq cm/sec + or - 25% in 40% sodium hydroxide. Comparison of these values with literature values at different potassium hydroxide concentrations show that the Stokes-Einstein equation is obeyed. The diffusion coefficient is characteristic of the zincate ion (not the cation) and independent of its concentration. Calculations with the measured value of the diffusion coefficient show that the zinc concentration in an alkaline zincate half-cell becomes uniform throughout in tens of hours by diffusion alone. Diffusion equations are derived which are applicable to finite-size chambers. Details and discussion of the experimental method are also given.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of sodium and potassium oxides: evaluation of precursors and deposition of thin films.

    PubMed

    Østreng, E; Sønsteby, H H; Øien, S; Nilsen, O; Fjellvåg, H

    2014-11-28

    Thin films of sodium and potassium oxides have for the first time been deposited using atomic layer deposition. Sodium and potassium complexes of tert-butanol, trimethylsilanol and hexamethyldisilazide have been evaluated as precursors by characterising their thermal properties as well as tested in applications for thin film depositions. Out of these, sodium and potassium tert-butoxide and sodium trimethylsilanolate and hexamethyldisilazide were further tested as precursors together with the Al(CH3)3 + H2O/O3 process to form aluminates and together with ozone to form silicates. Sodium and potassium tert-butoxide and sodium trimethylsilanolate showed self-limiting growth and proved useable at deposition temperatures from 225 to 375 or 300 °C, respectively. The crystal structures of NaO(t)Bu and KO(t)Bu were determined by single crystal diffraction revealing hexamer- and tetramer structures, respectively. The current work demonstrates the suitability of the ALD technique to deposit thin films containing alkaline elements even at 8'' wafer scale. PMID:25265332

  15. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  16. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  17. The Potassium Binding Protein Kbp Is a Cytoplasmic Potassium Sensor.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Khuram U; Josts, Inokentijs; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Kelly, Sharon M; Byron, Olwyn; Smith, Brian O; Walker, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Escherichia coli possesses a number of specific K(+) influx and efflux systems that maintain an appropriate intracellular K(+) concentration. Although regulatory mechanisms have been identified for a number of these transport systems, the exact mechanism through which K(+) concentration is sensed in the cell remains unknown. In this work we show that Kbp (K(+) binding protein, formerly YgaU), a soluble 16-kDa cytoplasmic protein from Escherichia coli, is a highly specific K(+) binding protein and is required for normal growth in the presence of high levels of external K(+). Kbp binds a single potassium ion with high specificity over Na(+) and other metal ions found in biological systems, although, in common with K(+) transporters, it also binds Rb(+) and Cs(+). Dissection of the K(+) binding determinants of Kbp suggests a mechanism through which Kbp is able to sense changes in K(+) concentration over the relevant range of intracellular K(+) concentrations. PMID:27112601

  18. Process for preparation of potassium-38

    DOEpatents

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1981-01-01

    A solution of potassium-38 suitable for use as a radiopharmaceutical and a method for its production. Argon is irradiated with protons having energies above the threshold for the .sup.40 Ar(p,3n).sup.38 K reaction. The resulting potassium-38 is dissolved in a sterile water and any contaminating chlorine-38 is removed.

  19. 21 CFR 182.3640 - Potassium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium sorbate. 182.3640 Section 182.3640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3640 Potassium sorbate. (a) Product....

  20. Radiolysis of Potassium Picrate in 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakubik, D. G.; Pak, V. Kh; Anan'ev, V. A.; Ghyngazov, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The formation of paramagnetic centers in potassium picrate under irradiation at low temperature was investigated. The heating irradiated at 77 K potassium picrate crystal to room temperature results in paramagnetic centers - 2,6-dinitro-para-quinone radicals, ortho- and para-iminoxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. These products are formed under irradiation at room temperature.

  1. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  2. Extracellular potassium inhibits Kv7.1 potassium channels by stabilizing an inactivated state.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Steffensen, Annette Buur; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2011-08-17

    Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) channels are regulators of several physiological processes including vasodilatation, repolarization of cardiomyocytes, and control of secretory processes. A number of Kv7.1 pore mutants are sensitive to extracellular potassium. We hypothesized that extracellular potassium also modulates wild-type Kv7.1 channels. The Kv7.1 currents were measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes at different concentrations of extracellular potassium (1-50 mM). As extracellular potassium was elevated, Kv7.1 currents were reduced significantly more than expected from theoretical calculations based on the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz flux equation. Potassium inhibited the steady-state current with an IC(50) of 6.0 ± 0.2 mM. Analysis of tail-currents showed that potassium increased the fraction of channels in the inactivated state. Similarly, the recovery from inactivation was slowed by potassium, suggesting that extracellular potassium stabilizes an inactivated state in Kv7.1 channels. The effect of extracellular potassium was absent in noninactivating Kv7.1/KCNE1 and Kv7.1/KCNE3 channels, further supporting a stabilized inactivated state as the underlying mechanism. Interestingly, coexpression of Kv7.1 with KCNE2 did not attenuate the inhibition by potassium. In a number of other Kv channels, including Kv1.5, Kv4.3, and Kv7.2-5 channels, currents were only minimally reduced by an increase in extracellular potassium as expected. These results show that extracellular potassium modulates Kv7.1 channels and suggests that physiological changes in potassium concentrations may directly control the function of Kv7.1 channels. This may represent a novel regulatory mechanism of excitability and of potassium transport in tissues expressing Kv7.1 channels. PMID:21843472

  3. Solvent free hydroxylation of the methyl esters of Blighia unijugata seed oil in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of oil from the seed of Blighia unijugata gave a yield of 50.82 ± 1.20% using hexane in a soxhlet extractor. The iodine and saponification values were 67.60 ± 0.80 g iodine/100 g and 239.20 ± 1.00 mg KOH/g respectively with C18:1 being the dominant fatty acid. Unsaturated methyl esters of Blighia unijugata which had been previously subjected to urea adduct complexation was used to synthesize methyl 9, 10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate via hydroxylation in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP). The reaction was monitored and confirmed using FTIR and GC-MS. This study has revealed that oxidation reaction of mono unsaturated bonds using CTAP could be achieved under solvent free condition. PMID:22145711

  4. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    This invention relates generally to a process for extracting technetium from nuclear wastes and more particularly to a process for extracting technetium from alkaline waste solutions containing technetium and high concentrations of alkali metal nitrates. A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate comprises the steps of: contacting the aqueous alkaline solution with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent, the diluent being a water-immiscible organic liquid in which the crown ether is soluble, for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution into the solvent; separating the solvent containing the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution; and stripping the technetium values from the solvent by contacting the solvent with water.

  5. Active Sodium and Potassium Transport in High Potassium and Low Potassium Sheep Red Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, P. G.; Tosteson, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    The kinetic characteristics of the ouabain-sensitive (Na + K) transport system (pump) of high potassium (HK) and low potassium (LK) sheep red cells have been investigated. In sodium medium, the curve relating pump rate to external K is sigmoid with half maximal stimulation (K1/2) occurring at 3 mM for both cell types, the maximum pump rate in HK cells being about four times that in LK cells. In sodium-free media, both HK and LK pumps are adequately described by the Michaelis-Menten equation, but the K1/2 for HK cells is 0.6 ± 0.1 mM K, while that for LK is 0.2 ± 0.05 mM K. When the internal Na and K content of the cells was varied by the PCMBS method, it was found that the pump rate of HK cells showed a gradual increase from zero at very low internal Na to a maximum when internal K was reduced to nearly zero (100% Na). In LK cells, on the other hand, no pump activity was detected if Na constituted less than 70% of the total (Na + K) in the cell. Increasing Na from 70 to nearly 100% of the internal cation composition, however, resulted in an exponential increase in pump rate in these cells to about ⅙ the maximum rate observed in HK cells. While changes in internal composition altered the pump rate at saturating concentrations of external K, it had no effect on the apparent affinity of the pumps for external K. These results lead us to conclude that the individual pump sites in the HK and LK sheep red cell membranes must be different. Moreover, we believe that these data contribute significantly to defining the types of mechanism which can account for the kinetic characteristics of (Na + K) transport in sheep red cells and perhaps in other systems. PMID:5112660

  6. Alkaline-resistance model of subtilisin ALP I, a novel alkaline subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Mizutani, O; Yamagata, Y; Ichishima, E; Nakajima, T

    2001-05-01

    The alkaline-resistance mechanism of the alkaline-stable enzymes is not yet known. To clarify the mechanism of alkaline-resistance of alkaline subtilisin, structural changes of two typical subtilisins, subtilisin ALP I (ALP I) and subtilisin Sendai (Sendai), were studied by means of physicochemical methods. Subtilisin NAT (NAT), which exhibits no alkaline resistance, was examined as a control. ALP I gradually lost its activity, accompanied by protein degradation, but, on the contrary, Sendai was stable under alkaline conditions. CD spectral measurements at neutral and alkaline pH indicated no apparent differences between ALP I and Sendai. A significant difference was observed on measurement of fluorescence emission spectra of the tryptophan residues of ALP I that were exposed on the enzyme surface. The fluorescence intensity of ALP I was greatly reduced under alkaline conditions; moreover, the reduction was reversed when alkaline-treated ALP I was neutralized. The fluorescence spectrum of Sendai remained unchanged. The enzymatic and optical activities of NAT were lost at high pH, indicating a lack of functional and structural stability in an alkaline environment. Judging from these results, the alkaline resistance is closely related to the surface structure of the enzyme molecule. PMID:11328588

  7. Potassium bromide method of infrared sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milkey, R.G.

    1958-01-01

    In the preparation of potassium bromide pressed windows for use in the infrared analysis of solids, severe grinding of the potassium bromide powder may produce strong absorption bands that could interfere seriously with the spectra of the sample. These absorption bands appear to be due to some crystal alteration of the potassium bromide as a result of the grinding process. They were less apt to occur when the coarser powder, which had received a relatively gentle grinding, was used. Window blanks prepared from the coarser powders showed smaller adsorbed water peaks and generally higher over-all transmittance readings than windows pressed from the very fine powders.

  8. Potassium in the atmosphere of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral data are reported from a search for potassium in the Mercury atmosphere. The data were collected with instrumentation at Kitt Peak (7699 A) and at McDonald Observatory (7698.98 and 7664.86 A). The equivalent mean widths of the potassium emission lines observed are tabulated, along with the estimated abundances, which are compared with sodium abundances as determined by resonance lines. The average column abundance of potassium is projected to be 1 billion atoms/sq cm, about 1 percent the column abundance of sodium.

  9. Singlet-Oxygen Generation in Alkaline Periodate Solution.

    PubMed

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2015-12-15

    A nonphotochemical generation of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) using potassium periodate (KIO4) in alkaline condition (pH > 8) was investigated for selective oxidation of aqueous organic pollutants. The generation of (1)O2 was initiated by the spontaneous reaction between IO4(-) and hydroxyl ions, along with a stoichiometric conversion of IO4(-) to iodate (IO3(-)). The reactivity of in-situ-generated (1)O2 was monitored by using furfuryl alcohol (FFA) as a model substrate. The formation of (1)O2 in the KIO4/KOH system was experimentally confirmed using electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements in corroboration with quenching studies using azide as a selective (1)O2 scavenger. The reaction in the KIO4/KOH solution in both oxic and anoxic conditions initiated the generation of superoxide ion as a precursor of the singlet oxygen (confirmed by using superoxide scavengers), and the presence of molecular oxygen was not required as a precursor of (1)O2. Although hydrogen peroxide had no direct influence on the FFA oxidation process, the presence of natural organic matter, such as humic and fulvic acids, enhanced the oxidation efficiency. Using the oxidation of simple organic diols as model compounds, the enhanced (1)O2 formation is attributed to periodate-mediated oxidation of vicinal hydroxyl groups present in humic and fulvic constituent moieties. The efficient and simple generation of (1)O2 using the KIO4/KOH system without any light irradiation can be employed for the selective oxidation of aqueous organic compounds under neutral and near-alkaline conditions. PMID:26594871

  10. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to... susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations. Administer orally 1 to 2 hours prior to feeding...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  14. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to... susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations. Administer orally 1 to 2 hours prior to feeding...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  17. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  18. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products...

  19. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  20. 21 CFR 520.1696d - Penicillin V potassium tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penicillin V potassium tablets. 520.1696d Section... Penicillin V potassium tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains penicillin V potassium equivalent to... susceptible to penicillin V potassium. (3) Limitations. Administer orally 1 to 2 hours prior to feeding...

  1. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1600 - Potassium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium test system. 862.1600 Section 862.1600....1600 Potassium test system. (a) Identification. A potassium test system is a device intended to measure potassium in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements obtained by this device are used to monitor...

  3. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products...

  4. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34... nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior sanctions issued... without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products....

  5. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33... nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions issued... potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products and cured poultry products....

  6. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium... nitrite, with or without sodium or potassium nitrite, in the production of cured red meat products...

  7. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  8. Low Potassium Diet (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 120 mL/min) . A registered dietitian or nutritionist can help to create a low-potassium meal ... volumes. You agree to comply with all applicable laws, including all US export laws and regulations, in ...

  9. Capillary electrophoresis of alkali and alkaline-earth cations with imidazole or benzylamine buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, P.; Francois, C.; Dreux, M. . Lab. de Chimie Bioorganique et Analytique)

    1994-01-01

    The separation of alkali, alkaline earth, and ammonium cations in several samples of water was achieved by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. A solution of imidazole (10[sup [minus]2] M, pH 4.5) was used as a buffer to resolve a mixture of six cations (K[sup +], Na[sup +], Ca[sup 2+], Ba[sup 2+], Li[sup +] and Mg[sup 2+]) by capillary electrophoresis at 214 nm in less than 10 min. The addition of potassium cation to the running buffer has an influence on the resolution of Ca[sup 2+]/Na[sup +] and Na[sup +]/Mg[sup 2+] peaks. A linear relationship between the corrected peak area and concentration was obtained in the 1--10 ppm range for these cations using a hydrodynamic injector. This electrophoretic system permitted the separation of these inorganic cations at a 50 ppb-level concentration with a hydrodynamic injection, thus making it possible to quantitatively determine their presence in mineral waters by capillary electrophoresis. At pH 4.5, potassium and ammonium unfortunately have identical ionic mobilities causing them to comigrate in an imidazole buffer. Using an alkaline solution of benzylamine as carrier electrolyte, their separation can be successfully achieved with excellent resolution at 204 nm. The analyses of tap water and several mineral waters have been achieved by capillary electrophoresis.

  10. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  11. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  12. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  13. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  14. Strategies for Improving Potassium Use Efficiency in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    Potassium is a macronutrient that is crucial for healthy plant growth. Potassium availability, however, is often limited in agricultural fields and thus crop yields and quality are reduced. Therefore, improving the efficiency of potassium uptake and transport, as well as its utilization, in plants is important for agricultural sustainability. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in potassium uptake and transport in plants, and the molecular response of plants to different levels of potassium availability. Based on this information, four strategies for improving potassium use efficiency in plants are proposed; 1) increased root volume, 2) increasing efficiency of potassium uptake from the soil and translocation in planta, 3) increasing mobility of potassium in soil, and 4) molecular breeding new varieties with greater potassium efficiency through marker assisted selection which will require identification and utilization of potassium associated quantitative trait loci. PMID:24938230

  15. Strategies for improving potassium use efficiency in plants.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ryoung

    2014-08-01

    Potassium is a macronutrient that is crucial for healthy plant growth. Potassium availability, however, is often limited in agricultural fields and thus crop yields and quality are reduced. Therefore, improving the efficiency of potassium uptake and transport, as well as its utilization, in plants is important for agricultural sustainability. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in potassium uptake and transport in plants, and the molecular response of plants to different levels of potassium availability. Based on this information, four strategies for improving potassium use efficiency in plants are proposed; 1) increased root volume, 2) increasing efficiency of potassium uptake from the soil and translocation in planta, 3) increasing mobility of potassium in soil, and 4) molecular breeding new varieties with greater potassium efficiency through marker assisted selection which will require identification and utilization of potassium associated quantitative trait loci. PMID:24938230

  16. Circadian variation of intercompartmental potassium fluxes in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore Ede, M. C.; Brennan, M. F.; Ball, M. R.

    1975-01-01

    Circadian rhythms of plasma potassium concentration and urinary potassium excretion persisted in three normal volunteers when diurnal variations in activity, posture, and dietary intake were eliminated for 3-10 days. Measurements of the arteriovenous difference in plasma potassium concentration across the resting forearm and of erythrocyte potassium concentration suggested that there is a net flux of potassium from ICF to ECF in the early morning and a reverse net flux later in the day. The total net ICF-ECF fluxes were estimated from the diurnal variations in extracellular potassium content corrected for dietary intake and urinary potassium loss. The net fluxes between ICF and ECF were found to be counterbalanced by the circadian rhythm in urinary potassium excretion. Desynchronization of these rhythms would result in marked fluctuations in extracellular potassium content. These findings suggest that some revision is required of the concept of basal state in potassium homeostasis.

  17. Block copolymers for alkaline fuel cell membrane materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifan

    Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) using anion exchange membranes (AEMs) as electrolyte have recently received considerable attention. AFCs offer some advantages over proton exchange membrane fuel cells, including the potential of non-noble metal (e.g. nickel, silver) catalyst on the cathode, which can dramatically lower the fuel cell cost. The main drawback of traditional AFCs is the use of liquid electrolyte (e.g. aqueous potassium hydroxide), which can result in the formation of carbonate precipitates by reaction with carbon dioxide. AEMs with tethered cations can overcome the precipitates formed in traditional AFCs. Our current research focuses on developing different polymer systems (blend, block, grafted, and crosslinked polymers) in order to understand alkaline fuel cell membrane in many aspects and design optimized anion exchange membranes with better alkaline stability, mechanical integrity and ionic conductivity. A number of distinct materials have been produced and characterized. A polymer blend system comprised of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride)-b-polystyrene (PVBC-b-PS) diblock copolymer, prepared by nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), with poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) or brominated PPO was studied for conversion into a blend membrane for AEM. The formation of a miscible blend matrix improved mechanical properties while maintaining high ionic conductivity through formation of phase separated ionic domains. Using anionic polymerization, a polyethylene based block copolymer was designed where the polyethylene-based block copolymer formed bicontinuous morphological structures to enhance the hydroxide conductivity (up to 94 mS/cm at 80 °C) while excellent mechanical properties (strain up to 205%) of the polyethylene block copolymer membrane was observed. A polymer system was designed and characterized with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) as a hydrophilic polymer grafted through substitution of pendent benzyl chloride groups of a PVBC

  18. Estimated Potassium Content in Hanford Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Timothy P.; Rivard, James; Garcia, Silvia

    2004-10-15

    Potassium content in male and female workers at the Department of Energy Hanford Site was estimated based on measurements made in 2002 of 40K activity in the body. A coaxial germanium detection system was used for the measurements. The activity in female workers ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 kBq with an average of 3.1 ± 0.02 kBq. Total body potassium (TBK) content in female workers averaged 96 ± 0.3 g. The activity in male workers ranged from 2.8 to 6.6 kBq with an average of 4.3 ± 0.01 kBq and the average TBK was 136 ± 0.3 g. The average potassium concentration decreased with age in both males and females. The average potassium content and potassium concentrations for both males and females were less than the corresponding reference values. Potassium concentrations were inversely correlated with body-build index, body-mass index, and body weight for both males and females.

  19. The Role of Alkalinity Inputs in the Composition of Sediments in AN Acid Mine Drainage Remediated Stream: Hewett Fork, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, D. L.; Korenowsky, R. K.; Kruse, N.; Bowman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Hewett Fork, a tributary of Raccoon Creek in SE Ohio, is severely impacted by acid mine drainage. This stream is being actively treated using a calcium oxide doser. In this work, we report the results of our investigations into the chemical effect of remediation in the stream throughout an evaluation of the chemical composition of its sediments. Results show that the grain size of the sediments is finer in the areas where high alkalinity loads enter the stream, at the output from the doser and downstream of the confluence with alkaline tributaries. The composition of heavy metals (magnesium, aluminum, calcium, nickel, zinc, manganese, potassium, lead, chromium, copper, cobalt and arsenic) is higher in concentration in the fine-grained sediments where alkalinity enters the stream, forming two peaks of high sediment concentration along the stream, one at the doser and the second after the confluence with alkaline tributaries. Iron has a different behavior with a higher sediment concentration downstream from the doser at the areas where the grain size is larger, due to the kinetics of the oxidation process for the formation of iron (III) minerals. These results suggest that in remediation of acid-mine-drainage impacted streams, alkalinity inputs along and oxidation processes are important for the storage of heavy metals in the sediments.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also called potassium bitartrate or cream...